Sample records for cenozoic back-arc magmatism

  1. Cenozoic back-arc magmatism of the southern extra-Andean Patagonia (44° 30' - 52° S: A review of geochemical data and geodynamic interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D'Orazio


    Full Text Available Huge amounts of basaltic s.l. lavas were persistently erupted along the eastern side of the Andean Cordillera, throughout Cenozoic time, forming extensive plateaus, hundreds of monogenetic scoria cones and other volcanic structures in a continental back-arc setting. The igneous products exposed in the southern sector of the extra-Andean Patagonia (44° 30' - 52° S are dominantly mafic with minor slightly evolved compositions and rare highly differentiated products. The many published chemical analyses of these rocks, indicate that the mafic lavas range from strongly silica - undersaturated basanites to oversaturated basaltic andesites, and that most of the lavas have a typical within-plate geochemical signature. However, a number of lavas, generally erupted in the western-central sectors of Patagonia, are characterized by different distributions of the incompatible elements with high LILE/HFSE and LREE/HFSE ratios. The REE distribution modelling suggests a low degree of melting of a deep (> 70 km garnet-bearing source for the alkaline magmas, and a higher degree of melting of the same source, or an even higher degree of melting of an enriched source, for the subalkaline magmas. The available Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions clearly attest to a major geographic variation: the southernmost lavas have lower 87Sr/86Sr and higher 143Nd/144Nd and 206Pb/204Pb ratios with respect to those erupted to the north. On the whole, the Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of the southern Patagonia lavas fall within the typical range of within-plate continental magmas; in addition the Pb isotope ratios fall in the range of the Southern Hemisphere Dupal Pb isotope anomaly. The geochemical variations of the southern Patagonia lavas are discussed in terms of different geochemical components: depleted and enriched sub-slab asthenosphere, enriched continental lithospheric mantle, continental crust and subducted materials. The geodynamic significance is interpreted with in the

  2. Cenozoic back-arc magmatism of the southern extra-Andean Patagonia (44° 30' - 52° S: A review of geochemical data and geodynamic interpretations Magmatismo de retroarco cenozoico de la Patagonia extra-andina austral (44° 30' - 52° S: Una revisión de los datos geoquímicos e interpretaciones geodinámicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D'Orazio


    Full Text Available Huge amounts of basaltic s.l. lavas were persistently erupted along the eastern side of the Andean Cordillera, throughout Cenozoic time, forming extensive plateaus, hundreds of monogenetic scoria cones and other volcanic structures in a continental back-arc setting. The igneous products exposed in the southern sector of the extra-Andean Patagonia (44° 30' - 52° S are dominantly mafic with minor slightly evolved compositions and rare highly differentiated products. The many published chemical analyses of these rocks, indicate that the mafic lavas range from strongly silica - undersaturated basanites to oversaturated basaltic andesites, and that most of the lavas have a typical within-plate geochemical signature. However, a number of lavas, generally erupted in the western-central sectors of Patagonia, are characterized by different distributions of the incompatible elements with high LILE/HFSE and LREE/HFSE ratios. The REE distribution modelling suggests a low degree of melting of a deep (> 70 km garnet-bearing source for the alkaline magmas, and a higher degree of melting of the same source, or an even higher degree of melting of an enriched source, for the subalkaline magmas. The available Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions clearly attest to a major geographic variation: the southernmost lavas have lower 87Sr/86Sr and higher 143Nd/144Nd and 206Pb/204Pb ratios with respect to those erupted to the north. On the whole, the Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of the southern Patagonia lavas fall within the typical range of within-plate continental magmas; in addition the Pb isotope ratios fall in the range of the Southern Hemisphere Dupal Pb isotope anomaly. The geochemical variations of the southern Patagonia lavas are discussed in terms of different geochemical components: depleted and enriched sub-slab asthenosphere, enriched continental lithospheric mantle, continental crust and subducted materials. The geodynamic significance is interpreted with in the

  3. Off-axis magmatism along a subaerial back-arc rift: Observations from the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. (United States)

    Hamling, Ian J; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrun; Bannister, Stephen; Palmer, Neville


    Continental rifting and seafloor spreading play a fundamental role in the generation of new crust. However, the distribution of magma and its relationship with tectonics and volcanism remain poorly understood, particularly in back-arc settings. We show evidence for a large, long-lived, off-axis magmatic intrusion located on the margin of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Geodetic data acquired since the 1950s show evidence for uplift outside of the region of active extension, consistent with the inflation of a magmatic body at a depth of ~9.5 km. Satellite radar interferometry and Global Positioning System data suggest that there was an increase in the inflation rate from 2003 to 2011, which correlates with intense earthquake activity in the region. Our results suggest that the continued growth of a large magmatic body may represent the birth of a new magma chamber on the margins of a back-arc rift system.

  4. Extensional vs contractional Cenozoic deformation in Ibiza (Balearic Promontory, Spain): Integration in the West Mediterranean back-arc setting (United States)

    Etheve, Nathalie; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Mohn, Geoffroy; Martos, Raquel; Roca, Eduard; Blanpied, Christian


    Based on field work and seismic reflection data, we investigate the Cenozoic tectono-sedimentary evolution offshore and onshore Ibiza allowing the proposal of a new tectonic agenda for the region and its integration in the geodynamic history of the West Mediterranean. The late Oligocene-early Miocene rifting event, which characterizes the Valencia Trough and the Algerian Basin, located north and south of the study area respectively, is also present in Ibiza and particularly well-expressed in the northern part of the island. Among these two rifted basins initiated in the frame of the European Cenozoic Rift System, the Valencia Trough failed rapidly while the Algerian Basin evolved after as a back-arc basin related to the subduction of the Alpine-Maghrebian Tethys. The subsequent middle Miocene compressional deformation was localized by the previous extensional faults, which were either inverted or passively translated depending on their initial orientation. Despite the lateral continuity between the External Betics and the Balearic Promontory, it appears from restored maps that this tectonic event cannot be directly related to the Betic orogen, but results from compressive stresses transmitted through the Algerian Basin. A still active back-arc asthenospheric rise likely explains the stiff behavior of this basin, which has remained poorly deformed up to recent time. During the late Miocene a new extensional episode reworked the southern part of the Balearic Promontory. It is suggested that this extensional deformation developed in a trans-tensional context related to the westward translation of the Alboran Domain and the coeval right-lateral strike-slip movement along the Emile Baudot Escarpment bounding the Algerian Basin to the north.

  5. The belt of metagabbros of La Pampa: Lower Paleozoic back-arc magmatism in south-central Argentina (United States)

    Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hernández, Laura


    Combined geological, geochronological, geochemical and geophysical studies have led to identification of a large (˜300 km long, ˜5 km wide) N-S trending belt of metagabbros in the province of La Pampa, south-central Argentina. This belt, though only poorly exposed in the localities of Valle Daza and Sierra de Lonco Vaca, stands out in the geophysical data (aeromagnetics and gravity). Modeling of the aeromagnetic data permits estimation of the geometry of the belt of metagabbros and surrounding rocks. The main rock type exposed is metagabbros with relict magmatic nucleii where layering is preserved. A counterclockwise P-T evolution affected these rocks, i.e., during the Middle Ordovician the protolith reached an initial granulite facies of metamorphism (M1), evolving to amphibolite facies (M2). During the Upper Devonian, a retrograde, greenschist facies metamorphism (M3) partially affected the metagabbros. The whole-rock Sm-Nd data suggest a juvenile source from a depleted mantle, with model ages ranging from 552 to 574 Ma, and positive Epsilon values of 6.51-6.82. A crystallization age of 480 Ma is based on geological considerations, i.e. geochronological data of the host rocks as well as comparisons with the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic belt of Sierra de San Luis (central Argentina). The geochemical studies indicate an enriched MORB and back-arc signature. The La Pampa metagabbros are interpreted to be originated as a result of the extension that took place in a back-arc setting coevally with the Famatinian magmatic arc (very poorly exposed in the western part of the study area). The extensional event was 'aborted' by the collision of the Cuyania terrane with Pampia-Gondwana in the Middle Ordovician, causing deformation and metamorphism throughout the arc-back-arc region. The similarities between the La Pampa metagabbros and the mafic-ultramafic Las Aguilas belt of the Sierra de San Luis are very conspicuous, for example, the age (Lower Paleozoic), geochemical

  6. Localised magmatic constraints on continental back-arc volcanism in southern Mendoza, Argentina: the Santa Maria Volcano (United States)

    Espanon, Venera R.; Chivas, Allan R.; Turner, Simon P.; Kinsley, Leslie P. J.; Dosseto, Anthony


    The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field constitutes part of the continental back-arc in Argentina. This volcanic field has been the focus of several regional investigations; however, geochemical analysis of recent volcanoes (<8 ka) at the scale of an individual volcano has not been conducted. We present a morphological description for the Santa Maria Volcano in addition to results from major and trace element analysis and 238U-230Th-226Ra disequilibria. The trace element evidence suggests that the Santa Maria magmatic source has a composition similar to that of the local intraplate end member (resembling an ocean island basalt-like source), with a slight contribution from subduction-related material. The U-series analyses suggest a high 226Ra excess over 230Th for this volcano, which is not derived from a shallow process such as hydrothermal alteration or upper crustal contamination. Furthermore, intermediate-depth processes such as fractional crystallisation have been inferred for the Santa Maria Volcano, but they are not capable of producing the 226Ra excess measured. The 226Ra excess is explained by deep processes like partial melting of mantle lithologies with some influence from subducted Chilean trench sediments. Due to the short half-life of 226Ra (1600 years), we infer that fast magma ascent rates are required to preserve the high 226Ra excess.

  7. Deep geodynamics of far field intercontinental back-arc extension:Formation of Cenozoic volcanoes in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石耀霖; 张健


    There are three cases of variation of trench location possible to occur during subduction: trench fixed, trench advancing, and trench retreating. Retreat of trench may lead to back-arc extension. The Pacific plate subducts at low angle beneath the Eurasia plate, tomographic results indicate that the subducted Pacific slab does not penetrate the 670 km discontinuity, instead, it is lying flat above the interface. The flattening occurred about 28 Ma ago. Geodynamic computation suggests: when the frontier of the subducted slab reaches the phase boundary of lower and upper mantle, it may be hindered and turn flat lying above the boundary, facilitates the retreat of trench and back-arc extension. Volcanism in northeastern China is likely a product of such retreat of subduction, far field back-arc extension, and melting due to reduce of pressure while mantle upwelling.

  8. Spatial and temporal evolution of a back-arc Plio-pleistocene magmatic series: an example of Auca Mahuida and El Tromen volcanoes from Payenia Basaltic Province, Argentina (United States)

    Pallares, C.; Quidelleur, X.; Debreil, J. A.; Gillot, P. Y.; Tchilinguirian, P.


    The Auca Mahuida and El Tromen volcanoes are located in southern Payenia Basaltic Province (PBP), within a back-arc zone. New K-Ar ages and geochemistry analysis confirm that during the Plio-pleistocene epoch they erupted mainly basaltic and andesitic lavas. Normative minerals (Ol: 17.61, Ne: 3.86 and Ab: 23.57) of shield Auca Mahuida lavas characterize these rocks in the boundary between alkali basalts and basanites. Compatible elements (Ni: 227.30 ppm, Co: 50.75 ppm) and MgO values (9.70 %) reveal their primitive origin (OIB type). On the contrary, major and trace elements data from El Tromen volcano expose typical characteristics of more evolved laves. The Auca Mahuida magmas plotted in incompatible multi-element diagram [normalised to the primitive mantle (MP) of Sun & Mcdonough,1989] show moderately fractioned patterns (50 to 100 times the MP), a slight depletion in heavy REE and Y and a very slight depletion in Nb (signature of subduction?). However, the lavas of El Tromen show spidergrams similar to calc-alkaline or Low Silica Adakites patters: moderate enrichment in the most incompatible elements, negative anomaly in Nb, positive anomalies in K, Pb, Sr and depletion in heavy REE and Y. Furthermore, the Ba/La and La/Ta ratios of El Tromen lavas confirm an arc signature (20 and 29 respectively). The geochemical affinity of El Tromen volcano could be due to geographical proximity of the Andes arc. The very slight arc signature exposed by the shield Auca Mahuida volcano could be due to this volcano location (130 km SE of El Tromen) within a intersection between the PBP and Tromen-Domuyo belt, thus the alkaline source was only slightly modified. Finally, we think that in this region magmatic mantle sources were probably modified by subduction-related fluids; this metasomatism would generate the lavas of El Tromen volcano, while magmatic mantle sources of the shield Auca Mahuida were not considerably influenced by this metasomatism. Finally, our new K-Ar ages

  9. Latest Cretaceous and Cenozoic magmatic rocks of Alaska: polygon data (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map is a statewide summary of magmatic (igneous) rocks grouped into geologic units that can be portrayed cartographically at 1:2,500,000. This dataset consists...

  10. Cenozoic magmatism in the northern continental margin of the South China Sea: evidence from seismic profiles (United States)

    Zhang, Qiao; Wu, Shiguo; Dong, Dongdong


    Igneous rocks in the northern margin of the South China Sea (SCS) have been identified via high resolution multi-channel seismic data in addition to other geophysical and drilling well data. This study identified intrusive and extrusive structures including seamounts and buried volcanoes, and their seismic characteristics. Intrusive features consist of piercement and implicit-piercement type structures, indicating different energy input associated with diapir formation. Extrusive structures are divided into flat-topped and conical-topped seamounts. Three main criteria (the overlying strata, the contact relationship and sills) were used to distinguish between intrusive rocks and buried volcanos. Three criteria are also used to estimate the timing of igneous rock formation: the contact relationship, the overlying sedimentary thickness and seismic reflection characteristics. These criteria are applied to recognize and distinguish between three periods of Cenozoic magmatism in the northern margin of the SCS: before seafloor spreading (Paleocene and Eocene), during seafloor spreading (Early Oligocene-Mid Miocene) and after cessation of seafloor spreading (Mid Miocene-Recent). Among them, greater attention is given to the extensive magmatism since 5.5 Ma, which is present throughout nearly all of the study area, making it a significant event in the SCS. Almost all of the Cenozoic igneous rocks were located below the 1500 m bathymetric contour. In contrast with the wide distribution of igneous rocks in the volcanic rifted margin, igneous rocks in the syn-rift stage of the northern margin of the SCS are extremely sporadic, and they could only be found in the southern Pearl River Mouth basin and NW sub-sea basin. The ocean-continent transition of the northern SCS exhibits high-angle listric faults, concentrated on the seaward side of the magmatic zone, and a sharply decreased crust, with little influence from a mantle plume. These observations provide further evidence to

  11. Dynamics of diachronous back-arc extension: insights from 3D thermo-mechanical analogue experiments (United States)

    Boutelier, D. A.; Cruden, A. R.


    Subduction of an old, dense oceanic lithosphere can lead to rifting and extension of the magmatic arc. Such subduction systems are inherently three-dimensional with significant along-strike variations in the timing and style of deformation and magmatism. Geodynamic models used to explain such variations and associated trench curvature generally ignore the role of the overriding plate and its deformation. 3D thermo-mechanical analogue experiments are used to investigate the kinematics and dynamics of diachronous arc rifting and back-arc basin opening. In the models, horizontal tension increases in the upper plate until the magmatic arc lithosphere fails and back-arc opening occurs via slab rollback. This result corresponds well to previous 2D models of arc rifting and subsequent back-arc opening via trench rollback and the mechanics of retreating slabs in fluid dynamic experiments. However, in our experiments arc failure occurs diachronously, initiating near the model edge due to locally higher temperatures and lower strength and then propagating along strike, producing an arcuate plate boundary. The experiments demonstrate that trench rollback rate is limited by the propagation rate of arc failure. Conversely, slab rollback generates additional horizontal tension in the adjacent magmatic arc lithosphere, which drives along-strike propagation of arc failure. Feedback between the rates of trench rollback and arc failure propagation dictates the geometry of the back-arc basin in plan-view. The shape of the back-arc basin obtained in models fits remarkably well with that of the Mariana basin in the western Pacific. Experiments where the strength of the magmatic arc, or forearc varies along strike or where the negative buoyancy of the subducting plate varies along strike explore further the role of the slab edge and the trench-parallel tensile strength of the retreating forearc block.

  12. The Curious Decoupling of Magmatism and Plate Tectonics During the Cenozoic in Western North America: Insight From the NAVDAT Database (United States)

    Glazner, A. F.; Walker, J. D.; Farmer, G. L.; Bowers, T. D.


    Since the widespread acceptance of plate tectonics, magmatism in the western U.S. has been explained by subduction along the west coast of North America and destruction of the subduction system by development of the San Andreas transform fault system. However, re-analysis of space-time patterns of magmatism in western North America calls many of these inferred patterns of magmatism into question. Animation of space-time patterns found in the developing NAVDAT dataset (which currently hosts about 10,000 Cenozoic age and/or geochemical analyses;, demonstrates that: (1) subduction-type (e.g., intermediate) volcanism is poorly linked to the subduction system; (2) there is little evidence that slab windows controlled magmatism; (3) magmatism was clearly migratory, but not in ways that can be explained by plate-tectonic processes; and (4) magmatism was migratory at length scales ranging from 1000s of km (continental) to 10s of km (county). Several space-time patterns are evident in the NAVDAT animations, including: (1) a sweep from Montana into Nevada from 50 to about 20 Ma; (2) a clockwise sweep around the Colorado Plateau from New Mexico to southern Nevada, from about 30 to 15 Ma; (3) a burst of magmatism at about 16 Ma in northern Nevada, followed by outward sweeps to Yellowstone, central Oregon, and the Sierra Nevada; (4) a burst of magmatism in the Sierra Nevada at 3.5 Ma; and (5) several local migrations, including from Phoenix north onto the Colorado Plateau and from the San Francisco Bay area north to the Geysers geothermal field. Some of these patterns have been tied to specific events (e.g., impingement of the Yellowstone plume and Pliocene delamination), but the others are difficult to relate to plate-tectonic events. They may be caused by local tectonic events (propagating rifts?), minor convective rolls in the asthenosphere, lithospheric delamination, or delamination of a flat Laramide slab. Whatever their origin, database animation

  13. The role of eclogite in the metasomatism and Cenozoic magmatism of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica (United States)

    Coltorti, M.; Bonadiman, C.; Faccini, B.; Griffin, W.; Melchiorre, M.; O'Reilly, S.; Pearson, N.


    abundance lower than PUM. These data support the few, variably old depletion events described above. Sector III is represented by Os values less radiogenic and Re/Os contents higher than PUM. These data resulted from recent Re addition, most probably caused by metasomatism and/or host lava interaction. Sectors I and II are composed of those samples having more radiogenic Os and lower or higher Re contents than PUM. Very radiogenic Os values can be obtained by i) ancient Re addition or ii) recent addition of a material with high Os/Os ratio, which in turn has to derive from Re-rich lithologies. Notwithstanding the Re/Os behaviour during subduction is still largely unknown, a large dataset for Re/Os systematics was gathered: eclogites are the only lithotypes contemporaneously presenting high values of radiogenic Os and Re content. The most radiogenic samples from BR plot along a mixed line, suggesting an involvement of eclogitic material. Eclogite material may have been introduced in the sublithospheric NVL mantle during the Ross Orogeny, reactivated during the opening of the West Antarctic Rift System and contributing to both metasomatism and Cenozoic NVL magmatism.

  14. A Laurentian margin back-arc: the Ordovician Wedowee-Emuckfaw-Dahlonega basin (United States)

    Barineau, Clinton I.; Tull, James F.; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.


    Independent researchers working in the Talladega belt, Ashland-Wedowee-Emuckfaw belt, and Opelika Complex of Alabama, as well as the Dahlonega gold belt and western Inner Piedmont of Alabama, Georgia, and the Carolinas, have mapped stratigraphic sequences unique to each region. Although historically considered distinct terranes of disparate origin, a synthesis of data suggests that each includes lithologic units that formed in an Ordovician back-arc basin (Wedowee-Emuckfaw-Dahlonega basin—WEDB). Rocks in these terranes include varying proportions of metamorphosed mafic and bimodal volcanic rock suites interlayered with deep-water metasedimentary rock sequences. Metavolcanic rocks yield ages that are Early–Middle Ordovician (480–460 Ma) and interlayered metasedimentary units are populated with both Grenville and Early–Middle Ordovician detrital zircons. Metamafic rocks display geochemical trends ranging from mid-oceanic-ridge basalt to arc affinity, similar to modern back-arc basalts. The collective data set limits formation of the WEDB to a suprasubduction system built on and adjacent to upper Neoproterozoic–lower Paleozoic rocks of the passive Laurentian margin at the trailing edge of Iapetus, specifically in a continental margin back-arc setting. Overwhelmingly, the geologic history of the southern Appalachians, including rocks of the WEDB described here, indicates that the Ordovician Taconic orogeny in the southern Appalachians developed in an accretionary orogenic setting instead of the traditional collisional orogenic setting attributed to subduction of the Laurentian margin beneath an exotic or peri-Laurentian arc. Well-studied Cenozoic accretionary orogens provide excellent analogs for Taconic orogenesis, and an accretionary orogenic model for the southern Appalachian Taconic orogeny can account for aspects of Ordovician tectonics not easily explained through collisional orogenesis.

  15. Strain Localization Within a Syn-Tectonic Pluton in a Back-Arc Extensional Context: the Naxos granodiorite (Cyclades, Greece) (United States)

    Bessiere, Eloïse; Rabillard, Aurélien; Arbaret, Laurent; Jolivet, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Menant, Armel


    Naxos Island is part of the central Cyclades (Aegean Sea, Greece) where a series of migmatite-cored metamorphic domes were exhumed below large-scale detachment systems during a Cenozoic back-arc extension. On Naxos, the Miocene exhumation history of the high-temperature metamorphic dome was notably achieved through two anastomosing and closely spaced top-to-the-north detachments belonging to the Naxos-Paros detachment system. According to previous contributions, the late exhumation stages were accompanied by the emplacement of a syn-kinematic I-type granodiorite that intruded a ductile-then-brittle detachment. Later the detachment migrated at the interface between the pluton and the metamorphic unit under ductile-to-brittle conditions. To clarify how extensional deformation was precisely distributed within the pluton, a multi-scale approach from field observations to laboratory investigations was undertaken. Through macro- to micro-structural observations, we show a continuous deformation history from magmatic to solid-state ductile/brittle conditions under an overall north-directed shearing deformation. The early magmatic or sub-solidus deformation is evidenced in a large part of the granodiorite, notably in its southern part where the original intrusive contact is still preserved. Solid-state deformation is recorded further north when approaching the detachment zone, highlighted by a thicker cataclastic zone and numerous pseudotachylite veins. From these field observations, we defined six strain facies, leading us to propose a qualitative strain map of the Naxos granodiorite. Based on field pictures and X-ray tomography of oriented samples collected along the strain gradient, we quantified the intensity of mineralogical fabrics in 2D and 3D. This step required the treatment of 600 rocks samples and pictures using SPO2003 (Shape Preferred Orientation) and Intercepts2003. Measured shape variations of the strain ellipsoid thus corroborate the large-scale strain

  16. The Cenozoic mantle magmatism and motion of lithosphere on the north margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗照华; 肖序常; 曹永清; 莫宣学; 苏尚国; 邓晋福; 张文会


    Geodynamic properties and evolution of the lithosphere on the north margin of the Tibetan Plateau are recently hot topics to geoscientists in the world. Have the northern plates been subducting underneath the Plateau? It is still an unsolved problem. One of the keys to solving this problem is to understand the genetic processes of Cenozoic magmas on the north margin of the Tibetan Plateau. However, there is no enough evidence supporting the subduction model. In contrast, a series of evidence indicates that collision-induced huge shearing faults and large-scale crust shortening played a main role in lithosphere motion on the north margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The mantle-derived igneous rocks strictly distribute at the intersections of large strike-slip faults on the north margin of the Plateau. Generation of magmas may be related to local exten-sional condition induced by strike-slipping faults, which lead to lithosphere gravitational instability and collapse, as well as upwelling of the deep hot materi

  17. Regional Venting in the Manus Basin, New Britain Back Arc (United States)

    Massoth, G. J.; Puzic, J.; Crowhurst, P.; White, M.; Nakamura, K.; Walker, S. L.; Baker, E. T.


    During June 2008 we conducted a systematic reconnaissance for hydrothermal venting along 1540 km of back-arc features located throughout the Manus back-arc basin. Our search was guided by high-resolution bathymetric and side scan back scatter data obtained during historical and immediately preceding geophysical surveys. Using real-time plume mapping protocols to discern anomalies in light scattering, temperature, and oxidation-reduction potential, we detected ~45 venting sites, ~34 of which are believed new. On average, the venting site density was about 3 sites per 100 km of back-arc feature, comparable to that for surveyed fast-spreading MORs in the eastern Pacific (3.2, Baker and German, AGU Geophysical Monograph 148, 2004) and about twice the global mean for MORs (1.6, Baker et al., JGR 2008). By virtue of being basin-scale, our assessment of venting into the Bismarck Sea revealed several mid-depth plumes that are widespread within the region. In the eastern Manus basin (Southeast Ridges, Djaul Transform, Southern Rifts, and Manus Spreading Center regions) the mean plume depth was 1825 m (range: 1080-2625 m), compared to generally more shallow discharge (mean plume depth 1155 m, range: 725-2080 m) in the western basin (Manus Extensional Transform and the Willaumez Transform and Ridge regions). While extreme anomaly intensities were observed in both the eastern and western portions of the Manus basin, most plumes were more characteristic of MOR and back arc plumes displaying a range of weak-to-moderate plume signals. Subsequent seafloor reconnaissance by ROV has located massive sulfides coincident to several plumes.

  18. Tectonomagmatic characteristics of the back-arc portion of the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro Fault Zone, Central Andes (United States)

    Acocella, V.; Gioncada, A.; Omarini, R.; Riller, U.; Mazzuoli, R.; Vezzoli, L.


    Post-20 Ma magmatism in the Central Andes is either localized in the magmatic arc or distributed east of it, on the Altiplano-Puna Plateau. Here there is a distinct concentration of magmatic centers on NW-SE trending lineaments, such as the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro (COT), that extends into the Eastern Cordillera to the east of the Puna. Understanding the possible genetic relationship between prominent structures and magmatic centers on these lineaments is important to elucidate the tectonomagmatic evolution of the Central Andes. We investigated the back-arc area of the COT using remote sensing, geological, structural, and petrochemical data. Our study demonstrates that this portion of the COT consists of NW-SE striking faults, formed under overall left-lateral transtension that decreases in activity toward the COT termini. Deformation on the COT occurred during and after activity of prominent N-S striking transpressive fault systems and is coeval with magmatism, which is focused on the central COT. The most evolved magmatic rocks, with an upper crustal imprint, are exposed on the central COT, whereas more primitive, mantle-derived mafic to moderately evolved magmatic rocks, are found toward the COT termini. This points to a genetic relationship between upper crustal deformation and magmatic activity that led to enhanced magma storage in the central COT. COT magmas may result either from slab steepening or episodic delamination of the asthenospheric mantle.

  19. Wave-planation surfaces in the East Sea back-arc basin: an indicator of back-arc subsidence history (United States)

    Kim, G.; Yoon, S.; Kwon, Y.; Chough, S.


    This study focuses on delineating seismic characteristics and geomorphic features of wave-planation surfaces recognized in the southwestern East Sea, an extended back-arc area, based on the multi-channel seismic reflection data. The wave-planation surfaces are regarded to have originated from the co-occurrence of shallow-marine wave-induced abrasion on the bed rock and constructive sedimentation in forms of prograding clinoform and infilling of topographic depressions. The restricted shallow-marine wave-induced erosional and depositional processes are necessarily associated with regional-scale crustal subsidence caused by tectonic extension, thermal contraction, or sedimentary loading, in order to form such extensive and continuous wave-planation surfaces. The surfaces are classified into three types based on their present depths, possible initiation timings of subsidence, and the origins of underlain substrates, and each type of which reflects specific tectonic, volcanic, and sedimentary evolution histories. The WPS-1 occurs on the top of acoustic basement of rifted continental fragments in the SKP and continental margin terraces along the EKCM, which might have formed on the rifted continental crust undergoing subsequent thermal subsidence. The WPS-2 occurs on the top of flat-topped volcanic seamounts such as Kiminu Seamount (KS), Dok Is. (DI), Shimheungtaek Tablemount (ST), and Isabu Tablemount (IT), which most likely originated from initial subaerial volcanic eruption and following subsidence by loading effect of the volcanic edifices and minor thermal subsidence. The WPS-3 occurs on the top of the shelf-margin bank comprising the uplifted Tertiary sedimentary units. These surfaces might have originated from the subaerial exposure of existing syn-rift sedimentary units by tectonic inversion of the East Sea. In the Early Miocene (ca. 23 Ma) initial continental rifting occurred in subaerial environment, which resulted in rapid tectonic subsidence of SKP and EKCM

  20. Aeromagnetic signatures reveal a back-arc basin imposed upon the inherited rifted margin of the East Antarctic craton (United States)

    Armadillo, E.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.; Bozzo, E.


    The Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WSB) represents a largely unexplored, approximately 1400 km-long and up to 600 km-wide subglacial depression, buried beneath the over 3 km-thick East Antarctic Ice Sheet. During the 2005-06 austral summer an extensive aerogeophysical survey was flown to investigate the WSB adjacent to northern Victoria Land (NVL), and included the acquisition of new airborne radar, aeromagnetic and aerogravity data. Several contrasting models for the origin of the basin have been previously proposed, and are based primarily on relatively sparse gravity data. These range from Cenozoic flexure, to distributed crustal extension of unknown age (possibly Mesozoic to Cenozoic), and even compression along the margin of craton. Our recent aeromagnetic data reveal that the basin is structurally controlled and has a tectonic origin, at least adjacent to NVL. The eastern margin of the basin is imposed upon an Early Paleozoic thrust fault belt, which can be traced under the ice using aeromagnetic signatures from exposures in Oates Land and the Ross Sea coast. Aeromagnetic patterns reveal that the western margin of the basin is imposed upon a Proterozoic-age shear zone mapped in the Mertz Glacier, and that is interpreted from geological studies to represent the continuation of a coeval shear zone in Australia. The broad aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic low over the WSB contrasts with the high over the un-reworked Proterozoic craton to the west of the basin, and is interpreted to reflect Neoproterozoic-age sediments deposited along the rifted margin of the craton. Magnetic intrusions within the WSB are interpreted as back-arc plutons that formed later in response to Cambrian-Ordovician age subduction along the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana. The aeromagnetic interpretation for a former broad back-arc basin in the WSB is supported by the occurrence of low-grade metasedimentary rocks of back-arc affinity in Oates Land, and also by the similarity in long

  1. Provenance of the Walash-Naopurdan back-arc-arc clastic sequences in the Iraqi Zagros Suture Zone (United States)

    Ali, Sarmad A.; Sleabi, Rajaa S.; Talabani, Mohammad J. A.; Jones, Brian G.


    Marine clastic rocks occurring in the Walash and Naopurdan Groups in the Hasanbag and Qalander areas, Kurdistan region, Iraqi Zagros Suture Zone, are lithic arenites with high proportions of volcanic rock fragments. Geochemical classification of the Eocene Walash and Oligocene Naopurdan clastic rocks indicates that they were mainly derived from associated sub-alkaline basalt and andesitic basalt in back-arc and island arc tectonic settings. Major and trace element geochemical data reveal that the Naopurdan samples are chemically less mature than the Walash samples and both were subjected to moderate weathering. The seaway in the southern Neotethys Ocean was shallow during both Eocene and Oligocene permitting mixing of sediment from the volcanic arcs with sediment derived from the Arabian continental margin. The Walash and Naopurdan clastic rocks enhance an earlier tectonic model of the Zagros Suture Zone with their deposition occurring during the Eocene Walash calc-alkaline back-arc magmatism and Early Oligocene Naopurdan island arc magmatism in the final stages of intra-oceanic subduction before the Miocene closure and obduction of the Neotethys basin.

  2. Geophysical mapping of Vercelli Seamount:Implications for Miocene evolution of the Tyrrhenian back arc basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca Cocchi; Giuseppe Masetti; Filippo Muccini; Cosmo Carmisciano


    Since the Tortonian, the geodynamic evolution of the Tyrrhenian Sea has been driven by an eastward roll-back of the entire Apennine subduction system, triggering distinct episodes of back-arc basin for-mation with spots of oceanic crust. Major structural differences are observed between northern and southern portions of the Tyrrhenian Sea, reflecting two distinct evolution stages of the Ionian slab retreat. In the central portion of the Tyrrhenian Sea, the seafloor morphology is characterized by a set of magmatic intrusions and structural highs associated to an EeW magnetic lineament along the 41st geographical parallel. The Vercelli seamount represents one example of structural highs correlated to Miocene magmatic episodes along the 41st parallel zone. In this study, we discuss the results of new high resolution magnetic data and morphological mapping of the Vercelli seamount acquired during the VER2010 cruise. The seamount represents the relict part of a granitic intrusion emplaced during the Tortonian phase of Tyrrhenian rifting. Tectonic and deep-sea erosive processes have jointly modified the seamount structure that can be observed nowadays. Cumulative gradient analysis highlights an asym-metric morphology of the flanks as a result of erosive action of opposite water mass gyres which modelled the southern portion of the seamount. The joint interpretation of magnetic and bathymetric datasets identifies a high magnetized source laying close to the base of the seamount and located in correspondence to a small basin. This structure has been modelled as a post-Tortonian lava sequence emplaced between structural highs in correspondence of NeS elongated flat sedimentary basin. Modelling of new geophysical data highlights the relationship between crustal setting and magnetic evidences of the central Tyrrhenian Sea, providing a new interpretation of the 41st magnetic lineament.

  3. Geophysical mapping of Vercelli Seamount: Implications for Miocene evolution of the Tyrrhenian back arc basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cocchi


    Full Text Available Since the Tortonian, the geodynamic evolution of the Tyrrhenian Sea has been driven by an eastward roll-back of the entire Apennine subduction system, triggering distinct episodes of back-arc basin formation with spots of oceanic crust. Major structural differences are observed between northern and southern portions of the Tyrrhenian Sea, reflecting two distinct evolution stages of the Ionian slab retreat. In the central portion of the Tyrrhenian Sea, the seafloor morphology is characterized by a set of magmatic intrusions and structural highs associated to an E–W magnetic lineament along the 41st geographical parallel. The Vercelli seamount represents one example of structural highs correlated to Miocene magmatic episodes along the 41st parallel zone. In this study, we discuss the results of new high resolution magnetic data and morphological mapping of the Vercelli seamount acquired during the VER2010 cruise. The seamount represents the relict part of a granitic intrusion emplaced during the Tortonian phase of Tyrrhenian rifting. Tectonic and deep-sea erosive processes have jointly modified the seamount structure that can be observed nowadays. Cumulative gradient analysis highlights an asymmetric morphology of the flanks as a result of erosive action of opposite water mass gyres which modelled the southern portion of the seamount. The joint interpretation of magnetic and bathymetric datasets identifies a high magnetized source laying close to the base of the seamount and located in correspondence to a small basin. This structure has been modelled as a post-Tortonian lava sequence emplaced between structural highs in correspondence of N–S elongated flat sedimentary basin. Modelling of new geophysical data highlights the relationship between crustal setting and magnetic evidences of the central Tyrrhenian Sea, providing a new interpretation of the 41st magnetic lineament.

  4. Geochemical variations in the Quaternary Andean back-arc volcanism, southern Mendoza, Argentina (United States)

    Espanon, Venera R.; Chivas, Allan R.; Kinsley, Leslie P. J.; Dosseto, Anthony


    The Payenia Basaltic Province (PBP) is located 450 km east of the Chile-Peru trench in central west Argentina, behind the Andean arc front, constituting the back-arc. In order to evaluate the influence of the subducting slab as well as the magmatic source of this region, two volcanic fields located at comparable distance to the trench, having abundant basaltic products and similar eruptive timeframes were chosen. The Llancanelo (LLVF) and the Payún Matrú (PMVF) volcanic fields are part of the PBP and exhibit abundant basaltic activity during the Pleistocene. The geochemical data suggest that the LLVF has some arc signatures which have been described as weak as they are not as pronounced as in the Andean arc. The weak arc signature is not derived from slab dehydration as high Th enrichment relative to U cannot be explained by this process. We relate the Th enrichment as well as the lack of large residual garnet signatures, to slab sediments in the source. In the case of the PMVF, no arc signature has been inferred despite being only 30 km south of the LLVF. However the PMVF has a composition similar to that of the local intraplate end member, represented by the Rio Colorado volcanic field. The two volcanic fields, LLVF and PMVF, show indications of lower crustal assimilation as they trend towards the lower continental crust end member in Nb/U vs Ce/Pb and Nb/Yb vs Th/Yb diagrams. The geochemical differences between the LLVF and the PMVF as well as between several volcanic fields are illustrated using spatial distribution maps of geochemical ratios. Using this new approach, the decrease in arc signature can be traced in the back-arc and the higher enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE) relative to large ion lithophile elements (LILE) in the PMVF compared to the LLVF is explicitly shown. These geospatial maps provide a graphical manner to illustrate the presence of two distinct types of volcanism (OIB-like and arc-like) occurring in the same Quaternary

  5. Petrogenesis of Oceanic Crust at Back-Arc Spreading Centers: Modeling the Effects of Slab-Derived Water on Crustal Accretion in the Lau Basin (United States)

    Eason, D. E.; Dunn, R. A.


    Oceanic crust formed along spreading centers in the Lau back-arc basin exhibits a dramatic change in crustal structure and composition with proximity to the nearby Tofua Arc. Results from seismic studies indicate that crust formed near the arc is abnormally thick (~8-9 km) and compositionally stratified, with a thick low-velocity upper crust and an abnormally high-velocity (7.2-7.4+ km/s) lower crust. Lava samples from this area show arc-like compositional enrichments and tend to be more evolved than typical mid-ocean ridge basalts (MgO contents as low as ~1 wt%). We propose that slab-derived water entrained in the near-arc ridge system not only enhances mantle melting, as commonly proposed to explain high crustal production in back-arc environments, but also affects magmatic differentiation and crustal accretion processes. Phase equilibria modeling of the observed compositional trends suggests that the high water contents found in near-arc parental melts can lead to crystallization of an unusually mafic cumulate layer by suppressing plagioclase crystallization relative to olivine and clinopyroxene. Model runs with ~1-2 wt% H2O in the parental melts successfully reproduce the geochemical trends of the erupted lavas while crystallizing a cumulate assemblage with calculated seismic velocities consistent with those observed in the near-arc lower crust. The resulting residual melts are also water-rich, which lowers their density and aids in the extraction and eventual eruption of unusually evolved magmas. We present preliminary results of this petrological model for the formation of back-arc oceanic crust, which successfully predicts the unusual crustal stratification observed in the near-arc regions of the Lau basin, and helps explain the highly fractionated andesites and dacites that erupt there. We also comment on alternative proposed hypotheses for back-arc crustal accretion and discuss some of the challenges facing them in this particular region.

  6. An overview of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic magmatism and tectonics in Eastern Paraguay and central Andes (Western Gondwana): Implications for the composition of mantle sources (United States)

    Omarini, Ricardo H.; Gasparon, Massimo; De Min, Angelo; Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero


    The amalgamation of the Western Gondwana (including the Greater Gondwana supercraton) occurred at 600 Ma during the Brazilian - Pan African orogeny. A plate junction related to this event is marked by the Transbrazilian lineament which separates the South American continent into two sectors: the Eastern Paraguay-Brazilian and Central Andean domains. An overview of the geodynamic data from these two sectors indicates that the two domains were subjected to distinct evolutions from the Proterozoic to the present. The Andean domain is characterized by long-lived subduction processes linked to the convergence and consequent collision of microplates since the Middle Proterozoic (western Amazonian Craton) with a peak at about 600-580 Ma. The Paraguay-Brazilian domain remained relatively stable but was affected by extension episodes that reactivated ancient (Early and Middle Proterozoic) suture zones. These different geodynamic evolutions seem to reflect broadly distinct mantle compositions. In the subduction zones of the Andean domain the mantle was deeply modified by metasomatic processes following the subduction of oceanic plates. Consequently, the Andean type magma sources show a clear HIMU imprint inherited from the MORB, whereas the Paraguay-Brazilian sector shows a prevalent EMI and subordinate EMII character. The petrological data mainly from Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatic events in the two sectors are reviewed to investigate the current mantle plume and mantle dome models for the uprising of the asthenospheric (or sub-lithospheric) material.

  7. Crustal structure of Northern Latium (central Italy) from receiver functions analysis: New evidences of a post-collisional back-arc margin evolution (United States)

    Buttinelli, Mauro; Chiarabba, Claudio; Anselmi, Mario; Bianchi, Irene; De Rita, Donatella; Quattrocchi, Fedora


    The crustal velocity structure in a region of central Apennines of Italy at the hinge between the highly stretched portion of the Monte Argentario promontory and the magmatic province of the Tolfa Domes Complex (Northern Latium) is discussed in this study. S-wave velocities at depth have been constrained by the modeling of P-wave receiver functions (RF) from both temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations. The computer 3D Vs models show a thin crust (19-25 km) made of a shallow and thin sedimentary cover, a very high velocity and anisotropic layer related to a metamorphic basement, and a low Vs anisotropic layer in the middle-lower crust above a shallow Moho discontinuity modeled at about 20 km depth. The volcano-tectonic evolution of this portion of Tyrrhenian back-arc margin has been strongly influenced by its peculiar crustal architecture. The low-Vs layer acted as a shear zone in the middle-lower crust during the Tyrrhenian extension, also helping the development of Plio-Quaternary magmatism. Our findings potentially give new constraints on the evolution of the area and to the general comprehension of back-arc development in collisional regions.

  8. Geophysical imaging of buried volcanic structures within a continental back-arc basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Stern, T.A.


    Hidden beneath the ~2 km thick low-velocity volcaniclastics on the western margin of the Central Volcanic Region, North Island, New Zealand, are two structures that represent the early history of volcanic activity in a continental back-arc. These ~20×20 km structures, at Tokoroa and Mangakino, fo...

  9. The interaction between Aegean back-arc extension and Anatolia escape since Middle Miocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippon, M.; Brun, J.-P.; Gueydan, F.; Sokoutis, D.


    The Aegean domain is a key area for understanding the processes of back-arc extension. Observed deformation pattern and present day kinematics result from the interaction between the southward retreat of the Hellenic trench and the westward escape of Anatolia. Lithosphere-scale analogue models were

  10. Evolution of the basalts from three back-arc basins of southwest Pacific

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mudholkar, A.V.; Paropkari, A.L.

    London: Blackie, pp 63}93 Parson LM, Pearce JA, Murton BJ, Hodkinson RA, and RRS Charles Darwin Scienti"c Party (1990) Role of ridge jumps and ridge propagation in the tectonic evolution of the Lau back-arc basin, southwest Paci"c. Geology, 18:470}473 Per...

  11. The temporal evolution of back-arc magmas from the Auca Mahuida shield volcano (Payenia Volcanic Province, Argentina) (United States)

    Pallares, Carlos; Quidelleur, Xavier; Gillot, Pierre-Yves; Kluska, Jean-Michel; Tchilinguirian, Paul; Sarda, Philippe


    In order to better constrain the temporal volcanic activity of the back-arc context in Payenia Volcanic Province (PVP, Argentina), we present new K-Ar dating, petrographic data, major and trace elements from 23 samples collected on the Auca Mahuida shield volcano. Our new data, coupled with published data, show that this volcano was built from about 1.8 to 1.0 Ma during five volcanic phases, and that Auca Mahuida magmas were extracted from, at least, two slightly different OIB-type mantle sources with a low partial melting rate. The first one, containing more garnet, was located deeper in the mantle, while the second contains more spinel and was thus shallower. The high-MgO basalts (or primitive basalts) and the low-MgO basalts (or evolved basalts), produced from the deeper and shallower lherzolite mantle sources, respectively, are found within each volcanic phase, suggesting that both magmatic reservoirs were sampled during the 1 Myr lifetime of the Auca Mahuida volcano. However, a slight increase of the proportion of low-MgO basalts, as well as of magmas sampled from the shallowest source, can be observed through time. Similar overall petrological characteristics found in the Pleistocene-Holocene basaltic rocks from Los Volcanes and Auca Mahuida volcano suggest that they originated from the same magmatic source. Consequently, it can be proposed that the thermal asthenospheric anomaly is probably still present beneath the PVP. Finally, our data further support the hypothesis that the injection of hot asthenosphere with an OIB mantle source signature, which was triggered by the steepening of the Nazca subducting plate, induced the production of a large volume of lavas within the PVP since 2 Ma.

  12. Palaeoproterozoic Volcanic Massive Sulphides (VMS) in the Lithuanian crystalline basement: evidences for a back-arc tectonic setting (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Siliauskas, Laurynas


    which there are amphibolites with layers or lenses of skarns formed in marbles. Some amphibolites resemble porphyritic basalts. These might be dikes of basalts, which are common for back arc VMS surroundings. The volcano-clastic rock from the Lz13 yielded c. 1.83 Ga and c. 1.80 Ga ages. The whole rock Sm-Nd isotopic composition points towards juvenile origin of the rock (TDM=2.08 Ga, ɛNd (1.9) +1.8). After the comparison of the obtained data set with VMS deposits formed in different environments, it is most likely that the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Lz13 was formed in a back arc tectonic setting. The volcano-sedimentary sequence can be correlated with the 1.83 Ga Oskarshamn-Jönköping Belt (Mansfeld et al., 2005) and the volcano-sedimentary Vetlanda formation (Makowsky and Mansfeld, 2013) in southeastern Sweden. The c. 1.83-1.80 Ga volcanic arc and back-arc system continues from southeastern Sweden through the Baltic Sea to Lithuania. This is a contribution to the Open Access Centre activities Mansfeld, J., Beunk, F.F. and Barling, J., 2005. GFF, 127: 149-157 Makowsky, F., Mansfeld, J., 2013. 31st Nordic Geological Winter Meeting, Lund, Sweden, 89-90.

  13. Crustal extension and magmatism during the mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up in the Guazapares Mining District and Cerocahui basin regions, northern Sierra Madre Occidental, western Chihuahua, Mexico (United States)

    Murray, Bryan Patrick

    formation, composed of silicic vent to proximal facies ignimbrites, lavas, plugs, and reworked equivalents that record the initiation of explosive and effusive silicic fissure magmatism in the study area during the Early Miocene pulse of the mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up. The Guazapares Mining District and Cerocahui basin regions share this stratigraphy, but the rocks in the Cerocahui basin consist of a much higher proportion of alluvial deposits. The main geologic structures in the Guazapares Mining District and Cerocahui basin regions are NNW-trending normal faults, with an estimated minimum of 20% total horizontal extension. Many normal faults bound half-graben basins that show evidence of syndepositional extension. Normal faulting began by ca. 27.5 Ma during deposition of the youngest ignimbrites of the Parajes formation, concurrent with the end of the Early Oligocene silicic ignimbrite pulse of the ignimbrite flare-up to the east and before magmatism began in the study area. Preexisting normal faults localized mafic-intermediate volcanic vents of the Temoris formation and silicic vents of the Sierra Guazapares formation, and were active during deposition of these formations. In addition, the localization and timing of epithermal mineralization in the Guazapares Mining District appears to be favored where pre-to-synvolcanic extensional structures are in close association with Sierra Guazapares formation rhyolite plugs. The timing of extensional faulting and magmatism in the Guazapares Mining District and Cerocahui regions is consistent with regional-scale Middle Eocene to Early Miocene southwestward migration of active volcanism and extension in the northern Sierra Madre Occidental. Extension accompanied mafic-intermediate and silicic volcanism in the study area, and overlapped with the peak of mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up in the Sierra Madre Occidental; this supports the interpretation that there is likely a relationship between lithospheric extension and

  14. A multi-isotope approach to understanding the evolution of Cenozoic magmatism in the northeastern Basin and Range: Results from igneous rocks in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex (United States)

    Konstantinou, A.; Strickland, A.; Miller, E. L.


    Deep crustal rocks exposed by extensional processes in metamorphic core complexes provide a unique opportunity to address the magmatic and isotopic evolution of the crust and assess the relative crust versus mantle contributions in Cenozoic igneous rocks exposed in the complexes. The Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex exposes mid-crustal rocks that resided at depths of ~15-20 km before the onset of Cenozoic extension. Three major Cenozoic magmatic events are represented in the complex and have been studied using multiple isotopic systems (whole rock Sr and Nd coupled with the Oxygen isotopes in zircon). These three major events are: (1) 42-31 Ma intrusion of a composite plutonic complex of calc-alkaline composition that intrudes both upper crustal rocks (~5-10 km depth) and deeper rocks. (2) A 32-25 Ma plutonic complex, with evolved calc-alkaline composition that intruded in the middle crust (~12-15 km depth), and (3) A 10-8 Ma bimodal (basalt-rhyolite) suite of volcanic rocks that contain high-T anhydrous mineral assemblages erupted across the complex. The pre-extensional crust consisted of an upper crust composed primarily of Neoproterozoic through Triassic metasedimentary rocks (schist and quartzite at its base and limestone at its top). The middle crust consists of late Archean orthogneiss with evolved composition (metamorphosed peraluminous granite) with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.800, ɛNd40~ -43.4 and δ18Ozirc ~5.7‰. The lower crust is inferred to have been composed of Precambrian intermediate composition igneous rocks with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.750, ɛNd40~ -37.5 and δ18Ozirc ~5.9‰, and Precambrian mafic rocks with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.717, ɛNd40~ -25 and δ18Ozirc ~7.0‰. Existing and new data indicate that the 42-31 Ma upper crustal plutonic complex ranges in isotopic composition from 87Sr/86Sri=0.709-0.712, ɛNdi=-15 to -25 and δ18Ozirc 4.7-6.5‰. The composition of the 32-25 Ma middle crustal plutonic complex ranges from 87Sr

  15. H_2O and CO_2 in magmas from the Mariana arc and back arc systems


    Newman, Sally; Stolper, Edward; STERN, Robert


    We examined the H2O and CO2 contents of glasses from lavas and xenoliths from the Mariana arc system, an intraoceanic convergent margin in the western Pacific, which contains an active volcanic arc, an actively spreading back arc basin, and active behind-the-arc cross-chain volcanoes. Samples include (1) glass rims from Mariana arc, Mariana trough, and cross-chain submarine lavas; (2) glass inclusions in arc and trough phenocrysts; and (3) glass inclusions from a gabbro + anorthosite xenolith...

  16. Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy of a Back-Arc Basin: A Case Study of the Qom Formation in the Kashan Area, Central Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guoqiang; ZHANG Shaonan; LI Zhongdong; SONG Lailiang; LIU Huimin


    The Qom Formation comprises Oligo-Miocene deposits from a marine succession distributed in the Central Basin of Iran. It is composed of five members designated as A-F. Little previous work exists on the sequence stratigraphy. Based on an integrated study of sequence stratigraphy with outcrop data, wells and regional seismic profiles, the Qom Formation is interpreted as a carbonate succession deposited in a mid-Tertiary back-arc basin. There are two second-order sequences (designated as SS1 and SS2) and five third-order sequences (designated as S1-S5). Five distinct systems tracts including transgressive, highstand, forced regressive, slope margin and lowstand have been recognized. The relationship between the sequences and lithologic sub-units has been collated and defined (S1 to S5 individually corresponding to A-C1, C2-C4, D-E, the lower and upper portions of F); a relative sea level change curve and the sequence stratigraphic framework have been established and described in detail. The coincidence of relative sea level change between that of the determined back-arc basin and the world indicates that the sedimentary cycles of the Qom Formation are mainly controlled by eustatic cycles. The variable combination of the systems tracts and special tectonic-depositional setting causally underpin multiple sequence stratigraphic framework styles seen in the carbonates of the back-arc basin revealing: (1) a continental margin basin that developed some form of barrier, characterized by the development of multiple cycles of carbonate-evaporites; (2) a flat carbonate ramp, which occurred on the southern shelf formed by the lack of clastic supply from nearby magmatic islands plus mixed siliciclastics and carbonates that occurred on the northern shelf due to a sufficient clastics supply from the land; and (3) a forced regressive stratigraphic stacking pattern that occured on the southern shelf and in basin lows due to the uplifting of the southern shelf. Thick and widespread

  17. Community Structure Comparisons of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Mats Along the Mariana Arc and Back-arc (United States)

    Hager, K. W.; Fullerton, H.; Moyer, C. L.


    Hydrothermal vents along the Mariana Arc and back-arc represent a hotspot of microbial diversity that has not yet been fully recognized. The Mariana Arc and back-arc contain hydrothermal vents with varied vent effluent chemistry and temperature, which translates to diverse community composition. We have focused on iron-rich sites where the dominant primary producers are iron oxidizing bacteria. Because microbes from these environments have proven elusive in culturing efforts, we performed culture independent analysis among different microbial communities found at these hydrothermal vents. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Illumina sequencing of small subunit ribosomal gene amplicons were used to characterize community members and identify samples for shotgun metagenomics. Used in combination, these methods will better elucidate the composition and characteristics of the bacterial communities at these hydrothermal vent systems. The overarching goal of this study is to evaluate and compare taxonomic and metabolic diversity among different communities of microbial mats. We compared communities collected on a fine scale to analyze the bacterial community based on gross mat morphology, geography, and nearby vent effluent chemistry. Taxa richness and evenness are compared with rarefaction curves to visualize diversity. As well as providing a survey of diversity this study also presents a juxtaposition of three methods in which ribosomal small subunit diversity is compared with T-RFLP, next generation amplicon sequencing, and metagenomic shotgun sequencing.

  18. Nannofossils in upper quaternary bottom sediments of back-arc basins in the southwestern Pacific (United States)

    Dmitrenko, O. B.


    The analysis of calcareous nannoplankton assemblages in bottom sediments sampled during Cruise 21 of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in three areas located in back-arc basins of the southwestern Pacific (western Woodlark in the Solomon Sea, Manus in the Bismarck Sea, Central Lau) reveal that they belong to the Emiliania huxleyi Acme Zone, the most detailed one in the Gartner's scale of 1977. The content of coccoliths and their taxonomic composition indicate warm subtropical-tropical conditions. Long cores demonstrate a decrease in species diversity reflecting the transition from the cold late Pleistocene to the Holocene. The changes in species diversity and presence/absence of thermophilic representatives indicate transformation of depositional environments with unstable conditions in the water column and bottom layer, seismic activity, and widely developed processes of sediment redistribution and reworking.

  19. Impingement of Deep Mantle-Derived Upwelling Beneath Northern, Subducted Extension of the East Pacific Rise and Palinspastically Restored Cenozoic Mafic Magmatism in Western North America (United States)

    Rowley, D. B.; Moucha, R.; Forte, A. M.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.


    Reconstruction of the retrodicted whole mantle flow, based on presently imaged distribution of variations in seismic velocity and its correlation to density (Simmons et al. 2009), over the past 30 Ma, in the North American fixed frame of reference, reveals that the northern, now subducted, extension of the East Pacific Rise is coincident with mantle buoyancy arising from near the core-mantle boundary and extending to the base of the lithosphere (Moucha et al. 2009 GRL, in press). Divergence of the reconstructed flow near the surface is independent of the surface plate(s) and results in predicted geological manifestations distinct from those predicted by traditional plate driven models of flow. Most particularly the retrodicted flow-related dynamic topography results in progressive west to east sweep of surface uplift, that is now centered on the Colorado Plateau (Moucha et al. 2008, 2009 GRL, in press). In addition, and the primary focus of the current study is the relationship between this retrodicted mantle-wide flow and the history of magmatism within the western U.S. and adjacent Mexico. There is a close spatial correlation between the impingement of upwelling with palinspastic restored western North America (McQuarrie and Wernicke, 2005) and onset and distribution of magmatism, particularly of mafic compositions as revealed in the Navdat ( database. Although often attributed to effects of opening of a slab window (Snyder and Dickinson, 1979, McQuarrie and Oskins, 2008) associated with continued plate-driven separation, this model predicts active mantle flow induced upwelling and divergence resulting in mantle melting that sweeps across east-northeast across southern Basin and Range to the Rio Grande Rift with time and as seen in the distribution of magmatism in this region.

  20. Discovery of New Hydrothermal Venting Sites in the Lau Basin, Tonga Back Arc (United States)

    Crowhurst, P. V.; Arculus, R. J.; Massoth, G. J.; Baptista, L.; Stevenson, I.; Angus, R.; Baker, E. T.; Walker, S. L.; Nakamura, K.


    Between 22 April and 25 June 2009, a systematic search for hydrothermal venting along 1340 km of back-arc features was conducted throughout the Lau Basin aboard the CSIRO owned RV Southern Surveyor. The selection of survey areas was based on bathymetry, sidescan and water column anomaly datasets collected during previous marine science research and commercial exploration voyages. During 54 operational days, 76 CTD tows were completed using real-time plume mapping protocols, augmented with mini autonomous plume recorders, to discern anomalies in light scattering, and oxidation-reduction potential with water samples collected within the peak anomalies. Coincident with CTD towing at an average speed of 1.1 knots high resolution EM300 bathymetry and backscatter data was collected which significantly enhanced geological interpretation of possible source sites for follow up cross tows. 32 venting sites were detected, 24 of which are believed to be new discoveries. 13 dredge operations were conducted on 7 of these sites. Sulfides were recovered from 2 sites, one being a new discovery on the NE Lau spreading centre, ~14 km north of the commercial discovery by Teck and ~7km north of the eruption site discovery during a RV Thompson NOAA survey, both during 2008. The new venting field discoveries at North Mata, northern extent of the CLSC and far southern Valu Fa ridge are beyond any previously known areas of hydrothermal activity and further enhances the reputation of the Lau Basin as one of the most productive back arc regions for hydrothermally active spreading centers. A significant number of filter residue samples collected from the vent sites yielded greater than background values for metals including Cu and Zn, which is interpreted to imply they were sourced from active seafloor massive sulfide systems rather than volcanic activity.

  1. Formation of hydrothermal deposits at Kings Triple Junction, northern Lau back-arc basin, SW Pacific: The geochemical perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Ray, D.; Balaram, V.; Prakash, L.S.; Mirza, I.H.; Satyanarayana, M.; Rao, T.G.; Kaisary, S.

    An inactive hydrothermal field was discovered near Kings Triple Junction (KTJ) in northern Lau back-arc basin during 19th cruise of R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 1990. The field consisted of a large elongated basal platform ‘the pedestal...

  2. Transfer of deformation in back-arc basins with a laterally variable rheology: Constraints from analogue modelling of the Balkanides-Western Black sea inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munteanu, I.; Willingshofer, E.; Sokoutis, D.; Matenco, L.C.; Dinu, C.; Cloetingh, S.


    The balance between extension and contraction in back-arc basins is very sensitive to a number of parameters related to on-going subduction and collision processes. This leads to complex back-arc geometries, where a lateral transition between crustal blocks with contrasting rheologies is often recor

  3. Modes of stepwise eastward migration of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea back-arc extension: Evidences from the northern Latium offshore (Italy) (United States)

    Buttinelli, M.; Scrocca, D.; De Rita, D.; Quattrocchi, F.


    The structural architecture of a portion of the eastern side of the Tyrrhenian Sea back-arc basin has been defined reinterpreting a public data set made up by seismic reflection profiles. A detailed reconstruction of the extensional front migration trough time across the area has been achieved. Migration has been defined by identifying the generation of unconformities in the graben-like basins developed in the area, as due to the activation and deactivation of normal faults. Such phenomena are part of a tectonic process that also involved blocks rotation, crustal thinning, and stretching. Syn-rift extension affected the area since the early to middle Miocene (our estimate), principally interesting the north-westernmost sectors. During late Miocene and throughout the Plio-Quaternary the extensional front moved stepwise toward the southeastern and eastern sectors. Widespread postrift conditions established over the whole area since the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. Since the Quaternary, the locus of active extension further migrated toward the present onshore area, where a pronounced volcanic phase developed. In this evolutionary framework the rates of observed migration could be correlated with the acceleration of Calabrian slab rollback since Pliocene. Furthermore, direct evidences of magmatism were not recognized in the offshore. Although the observed crustal thinning, the absence of volcanic bodies in the study area could be related to normal faults which were unable to sufficiently extend the crust, in association with lower crust and mantle processes unable to produce melts.

  4. Hydrothermal activity in the Lau back-arc basin: Sulfides and water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Y.; Charlou, J.L.; Donval, J.P.; Foucher, J.P. (Institut Francais de Recherche et d' Exploitation de la Mer, Plouzane (France)); von Stackelberg, U.; Wiedicke, M. (Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)); Erzinger, J. (Justus-Liebig-Universitat, Giessen (Germany)); Herzig, P. (Rheinish-Westfalische Technische Hochschule, Aachen (Germany)); Muhe, R. (Universitat Kiel (Germany)); Soakai, S. (Ministry of Lands Survey and Natural Resources, Nuku' Alofa (Tonga)); Whitechurch, H. (Ecole et Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg (France))


    The submersible Nautile completed 22 dives during the Nautilau cruise (R/V Nadir, April 17-May 10, 1989) for a detailed investigation of the southern Lau basin near Tonga. The objective of the scientific team from France, Germany, and Tonga was to understand the process of sea-floor ore formation associated with hydrothermal circulation along the Valu Fa back-arc ridge behind the Tonga-Kermadec trench. The four diving areas, between lat21{degree}25'S and 22{degree}40'S in water{approximately}2000 m deep, were selected on the basis of results from cruises of the R/V Jean Charcot and R/V Sonne. The Nadir cruise provided proof of hydrothermal activity-in all for areas, over more than 100 km-as indicated by the widespread occurence of hydrothermal deposits and by heat flow, conductivity, and temperature measurements near the sea bottom. The most spectacular findings were high-temperature white and black smokers and associated fauna and ore deposits. Hydrothermal water chemistry and sulfide composition data presented here indicate that this hydrothermal field is very different from the hydrothermal fields in oceanic ridges. This difference is seen in water chemistry of the hydrothermal fluid (pH=2 and high metal content) and the chemical composition of sulfides (enrichment in Ba, As, and Pb).

  5. Hydrothermal circulation in an anisotropic sedimentary basin: Application to the Okinawa back arc basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genthon, P.; Rabinowicz, M. (Groupe de Recherches de Geodesie, Spatiale (France)); Foucher, J.P.; Sibuet, J.C. (Inst. Francais de Recherches pour l' Exploitation de la Mer, Plouzane (France))


    The authors explore the pattern of two-dimensional convection in an highly anisotropical porous medium. This physical situation is relevant to passive margin sedimentary basins consisting of interbedded coarse-grained pervious and shale matrix. They show that permeability anisotropies of the order of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} allow for long convective cells, of aspect ratio greater than 10, but that a combination of this parameter with a slight slope of the order of a few percent of the sedimentary layers is required to stabilize these long cells. As an example, they present the Okinawa basin, an active submarine back arc basin, with a sedimentary thickness of about 2 km and a heat flow profile across this basin, varying from 32 to 232 mWm{sup {minus}2} over a distance of 30 km. It is shown that this heat flow variation is difficult to explain with conductive mechanisms only but is well reproduced by different convective models relying on permeability anisotropy plus slope. Although the insufficient thermal and structural constraints did not allow them to build a unique model, the whole set of possible fits to the heat flow data may restrict the mean hydraulic parameters of the basin. A vertical permeability of a few tens of milidarcy and an anisotropy greater than 100 are required to produce the expected stable and active large-scale circulation. It is suggested in conclusion that this type of circulation might be active in oil- or oil-forming element migration.

  6. New insights into crustal structure, Cenozoic magmatism, CO2 degassing, and seismogenesis in the southern Apennines and Irpinia region from local earthquake tomography (United States)

    Improta, Luigi; De Gori, Pasquale; Chiarabba, Claudio


    We present high-resolution Vp and Vp/Vs models of the southern Apennines (Italy) computed using local earthquakes recorded from 2006 to 2011 with a graded inversion scheme that progressively resolves the crustal structure, from the large scale of the Apennines belt to the local scale of the normal fault system. High-Vp bodies defined in the upper crust and midcrust under the external Apennines are interpreted as extensive mafic intrusions revealing anorogenic magmatism episodes that broadened on the Adriatic domain during Paleogene. Under the mountain belt, a low-Vp region, annular to the Neapolitan volcanic district, indicates the existence of a thermal/fluid anomaly in the midcrust, coinciding with a shallow Moho and diffuse degassing of deeply derived CO2. In the belt axial zone, low-Vp/Vs gas-pressurized rock volumes under the Apulian carbonates correlate to high heat flow, strong CO2-dominated gas emissions of mantle origin, and shallow carbonate reservoirs with pressurized CO2 gas caps. We hypothesize that the pressurized fluid volumes located at the base of the active fault system influence the rupture process of large normal faulting earthquakes, like the 1980 Mw6.9 Irpinia event, and that major asperities are confined within the high-Vp Apulian carbonates. This study confirms once more that preexisting structures of the Pliocene Apulian belt controlled the rupture propagation during the Irpinia earthquake. The main shock broke a ~30 km long, NE dipping seismogenic structure, whereas delayed ruptures (both the 20 s and the 40 s subevents) developed on antithetic faults, reactivating thrust faults located at the eastern edge of the Apulian belt.

  7. Intraplate volcanism controlled by back-arc and continental structures in NE Asia inferred from transdimensional Bayesian ambient noise tomography (United States)

    Kim, Seongryong; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Rhie, Junkee; Chen, Youlin


    Intraplate volcanism adjacent to active continental margins is not simply explained by plate tectonics or plume interaction. Recent volcanoes in northeast (NE) Asia, including NE China and the Korean Peninsula, are characterized by heterogeneous tectonic structures and geochemical compositions. Here we apply a transdimensional Bayesian tomography to estimate high-resolution images of group and phase velocity variations (with periods between 8 and 70 s). The method provides robust estimations of velocity maps, and the reliability of results is tested through carefully designed synthetic recovery experiments. Our maps reveal two sublithospheric low-velocity anomalies that connect back-arc regions (in Japan and Ryukyu Trench) with current margins of continental lithosphere where the volcanoes are distributed. Combined with evidences from previous geochemical and geophysical studies, we argue that the volcanoes are related to the low-velocity structures associated with back-arc processes and preexisting continental lithosphere.

  8. Modeling the role of back-arc spreading in controlling 3-D circulation and temperature patterns in subduction zones (United States)

    Kincaid, C.


    Subduction of oceanic lithosphere provides a dominant driving force for mantle dynamics and plate tectonics, and strongly modulates the thermal evolution of the mantle. Magma generation in arc environments is related to slab temperatures, slab dehydration/wedge hydration processes and circulation patterns in the mantle wedge. A series of laboratory experiments is used to model three-dimensional aspects of flow in subduction zones, and the consequent temperature variations in the slab and overlying mantle wedge. The experiments utilize a tank of glucose syrup to simulate the mantle and a Phenolic plate to represent subducting oceanic lithosphere. Different modes of plate sinking are produced using hydraulic pistons. The effects of longitudinal, rollback and slab-steepening components of slab motions are considered, along with different thicknesses of the over-riding lithosphere. Models look specifically at how distinct modes of back-arc spreading alter subduction zone temperatures and flow in the mantle wedge. Results show remarkably different temperature and circulation patterns when spreading is produced by rollback of the trench-slab-arc relative to a stationary overriding back-arc plate versus spreading due to motion of the overriding plate away from a fixed trench location. For rollback-induced spreading, flow trajectories in the wedge are shallow (e.g., limited upwelling), both the sub-arc and back-arc regions are supplied by material flowing around the receding slab. Flow lines in the sub-arc wedge are strongly trench-parallel. In these cases, strong lateral variations in slab surface temperature (SST) are recorded (hot at plate center, cool at plate edge). When the trench is fixed in space and spreading is produced by motion of the overriding plate, strong vertical flow velocities are recorded in the wedge, both the shallow sub-arc and back-arc regions are supplied by flow from under the overriding plate producing strong vertical shear. In these cases SSTs

  9. The link between tectonics and sedimentation in back-arc basins : New genetic constraints from the analysis of the Pannonian Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balázs, A.; Matenco, L.; Magyar, I.; Horváth, F.; Cloetingh, S.


    The architecture of sedimentary basins reflects the relationship between accommodation space and sediment supply, their rates and localization being variable during basin evolution. The mechanisms driving the interplay between tectonics and sedimentation in extensional back-arc basins overlying rheo

  10. Slab-derived water and the petrogenesis of distinct zones of oceanic crust along spreading centers in the Lau back-arc basin (United States)

    Eason, Deborah; Dunn, Robert


    Back-arc basin crust formed along the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC) exhibits dramatic and abrupt changes in magmatic processes and crustal formation with proximity to the nearby Tofua Arc. Systematic variations in seafloor morphology, crustal thickness, seismic properties, and lava composition reflect a decreasing 'subduction influence' with increasing distance from the arc. Results from seismic tomography indicate that the crust that forms near the arc is abnormally thick and compositionally stratified, with a thick low-velocity upper crust and an abnormally high-velocity lower crust. As the ridge moves away from the arc, there is a step-like transition in crustal properties towards crustal velocities and thicknesses more typical of oceanic crust produced at mid-ocean ridges. Likewise, lava compositions exhibit abrupt changes in slab-derived volatiles and trace element enrichments, with silicic, arc-like compositions at the Valu Fa Ridge and southern half of the ELSC, located near the arc, and relatively depleted basalts along the northern ELSC, which is located further from the arc. We attribute the observed changes in the physical and chemical makeup of the crust to excess mantle melting coupled with higher degrees of crustal differentiation near the arc due to higher mantle water contents. We propose a model for the formation of the arc-proximal layered crust whereby water-rich basaltic melts stall and differentiate in the lower crust. High-pressure crystallization concentrates water in the residual melts, decreasing their viscosity and density. Eventually the lighter, more felsic residual melts are extracted from the lower crust, leaving behind a dense, mafic cumulate layer, and go on to produce a silica-rich, porous volcanic layer. We present results of thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibria and develop a petrological model for the formation of this unusual "hydrous" form of oceanic crust.

  11. The epilog of the western paleo-Pacific subduction: Inferred from spatial and temporal variations and geochemistry of the Late Cretaceous to Early Cenozoic silicic magmatism in coastal South China (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Hong; Lee, Chi-Yu; Shinjo, Ryuichi


    The Late Cretaceous to Early Cenozoic magmatism in the South China coastal area produced some amounts of rhyolitic rocks in two phases, which may be used to unravel the geohistory of the epilog of the paleo-Pacific plate subduction system. Essence of the Phase I rocks is the high temperature rhyolite (A-type)-trachydacite association in north Fujian (95-91 Ma) that was coeval with regional A-type granites. They succeeded the vast rhyolite-dacite-andesite (RDA) associations and I-type granitoids (113.5-96 Ma) and preceded the silicic-dominating rhyolite/basalt bimodal suites or monolithologic rhyolite in Zhejiang (89-86 Ma). Phase II rocks include (a) the RDA association or rhyolite alone in some drifted continental fragments nearby (83-56 Ma) and (b) the following rift-basin related rhyolite-trachyte/basalt bimodal suites in Guangdong and west Taiwan (56-38 Ma). The silicic volcanism, spatially changed from a NE-SW to the nearly E-W direction after 83 Ma, may reflect tectonic-driven eruptions occurred in the post-orogenic extensional (Phase I), resumed plate subducting (Phase IIa) and continental margin rifting (Phase IIb) stages. Rhyolitic rocks basically are shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline affinities while the Phase IIa RDA associations are mostly concentrated in the high-K to medium-K calc-alkaline series. All these rocks generally possess a continental arc character in tectonic discrimination diagrams, except shoshonitic rocks that have within-plate signatures. Based on the trace element and Nd-Pb isotope data, A-type rocks are suggested to have derived from mixing between trachydacitic (or syenitic) magmas and crustal melts of various sources under the high temperature condition (±metasomatism), and the succeeding silicic rocks are derivatives of the contaminated lithospheric mantle melts through crystal fractionation. On the other hand, Phase II silicic rocks are mainly the fractionation products of mafic magmas originated either from the lithospheric or

  12. Early to Middle Ordovician back-arc basin in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge: characteristics, extent, and tectonic significance (United States)

    Tull, James; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; Barineau, Clinton I.


    Fault-dismembered segments of a distinctive, extensive, highly allochthonous, and tectonically significant Ordovician (ca. 480–460 Ma) basin, which contains suites of bimodal metavolcanic rocks, associated base metal deposits, and thick immature deep-water (turbiditic) metasediments, occur in parts of the southern Appalachian Talladega belt, eastern Blue Ridge, and Inner Piedmont of Alabama, Georgia, and North and South Carolina. The basin's predominantly metasedimentary strata display geochemical and isotopic evidence of a mixed provenance, including an adjacent active volcanic arc and a provenance of mica (clay)-rich sedimentary and felsic plutonic rocks consistent with Laurentian (Grenvillian) upper-crustal continental rocks and their passive-margin cover sequences. Geochemical characteristics of the subordinate intercalated bimodal metavolcanic rocks indicate formation in a suprasubduction environment, most likely a back-arc basin, whereas characteristics of metasedimentary units suggest deposition above Neoproterozoic rift and outer-margin lower Paleozoic slope and rise sediments within a marginal basin along Ordovician Laurentia's Iapetus margin. This tectonic setting indicates that southernmost Appalachian Ordovician orogenesis (Taconic orogeny) began as an extensional accretionary orogen along the outer margin of Laurentia, rather than in an exotic (non-Laurentian) arc collisional setting. B-type subduction polarity requires that the associated arc-trench system formed southeast of the palinspastic position of the back-arc basin. This scenario can explain several unique features of the southern Appalachian Taconic orogen, including: the palinspastic geographic ordering of key tectonic elements (i.e., back-arc, arc, etc.), and a lack of (1) an obducted arc sensu stricto on the Laurentian margin, (2) widespread Ordovician regional metamorphism, and (3) Taconic klippen to supply detritus to the Taconic foreland basin.

  13. Neogene-Quaternary magmatic activity and its geodynamic implications in the Central Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Serri


    Full Text Available The petrogenesis and time/space distribution of the magmatism associated with the formation of the Northern and Southern Tyrrhenian basins, together with the directions and ages of lithospheric extension and/or spreading north and south of the 410N discontinuity, show that the two arc/back-arc systems have undergone a different structural evolution at least since the middle Miocene (Langhian. The geochemical components involved in the genesis of the heterogeneities of the mantle sources of this magmatism require two separate, compositionally different slabs: 1 an old oceanic (Ionian lithosphere still seismically active below the Calabrian arc and the Southern Tyrrhenian region; 2 an almost seismically inactive continental (Adriatic lithosphere which carried large amounts of upper crustal materials within the upper mantle under the NW Roman Province/Tuscan/Northern Tyrrhenian region. The proposed geodynamic models require: 1 for the Northern Tyrrhenian/Northern Apenninic arc/back-arc system, the delamination and foundering of the Adriatic continental lithosphere as a consequence of the continental collision between the Corsica block and the Adriatic continental margin. This delamination process, which is still ongoing, probably started in the early-middle Miocene, but earlier than 15-14 Ma, as indicated by the age and petrogenesis of the first documented magmatic episode (the Sisco lamproite of the Northern Apennine orogenesis; 2 for the Southern Tyrrhenian/Southern Apenninic-Calabrian arc/back-arc system, the roll-back subduction and back-arc extension driven by gravitational sinking of the Ionian oceanic subducted lithosphere. This process started after the end of the arc volcanism of Sardinia (about 13 Ma but earlier than the first recorded episode of major rifting (about 9 Ma in the Southern Tyrrhenian back-arc basin.

  14. H2O and CO2 in magmas from the Mariana arc and back arc systems (United States)

    Newman, Sally; Stolper, Edward; Stern, Robert


    We examined the H2O and CO2 contents of glasses from lavas and xenoliths from the Mariana arc system, an intraoceanic convergent margin in the western Pacific, which contains an active volcanic arc, an actively spreading back arc basin, and active behind-the-arc cross-chain volcanoes. Samples include (1) glass rims from Mariana arc, Mariana trough, and cross-chain submarine lavas; (2) glass inclusions in arc and trough phenocrysts; and (3) glass inclusions from a gabbro + anorthosite xenolith from Agrigan (Mariana arc). Glass rims of submarine arc lavas contain 0.3-1.9 wt % H2O, and CO2 is below detection limits. Where they could be compared, glass inclusions in arc phenocrysts contain more H2O than their host glasses; most arc glasses and phenocryst inclusions contain no detectable CO2, with the exception of those from a North Hiyoshi shoshonite, which contains 400-600 ppm. The glass inclusions from the Agrigan xenolith contain 4-6% H2O, and CO2 is below the detection limit. Glasses from the cross-chain lavas are similar to those from the arc: H2O contents are 1.4-1.7 wt %, and CO2 is below detection limits. Volatile contents in Mariana trough lava glass rims are variable: 0.2-2.8 wt % H2O and 0-300 ppm CO2. Glass inclusions from trough phenocrysts have water contents similar to the host glass, but they can contain up to 875 ppm CO2. Volatile contents of melt inclusions from trough and arc lavas and from the xenolith imply minimum depths of crystallization of ~1-8 km. H2O and CO2 contents of Mariana trough glasses are negatively correlated, indicating saturation of the erupting magma with a CO2-H2O vapor at the pressure of eruption (~400 bars for these samples), with the vapor ranging from nearly pure CO2 at the CO2-rich end of the glass array to nearly pure H2O at the H2O-rich end. Degassing of these magmas on ascent and eruption leads to significant loss of CO2 (thereby masking preeruptive CO2 contents) but minimal disturbance of preeruptive H2O contents. For

  15. Tectono-magmatic response to major convergence changes in the North Patagonian suprasubduction system; the Paleogene subduction-transcurrent plate margin transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón, E.; D'Eramo, F.; Castro, A.; Pinotti, L.; Brunelli, D.; Rabbia, O.; Rivalenti, G.; Varela, R.; Spakman, W.; Demartis, M.; Cavarozzi, C.E.; Aguilera, Y.E.; Mazzucchelli, M.; Ribot, A.


    The southern and central Andes reflect significant along-strike differences of tectonic activity, including shortening, alternating flat-to-normal subduction styles and magmatism. In northern Patagonia, the subduction/supra-subduction system, fore arc, arc and back arc basins developed in an extensi

  16. Does the Depth to Slab Control Volatile Contents? New Insights from Glasses Erupted at the Fonualei Spreading Center (NE Lau Basin), a Very Arc-like Back-arc (United States)

    Keller, N. S.; Shaw, A. M.


    The role of water and other volatiles in generating arc and back-arc volcanism is fundamental; however, the relationship between physical subduction parameters and volatile recycling remains poorly understood. Here, we present new volatile data from the Fonualei Spreading Centre (FSC), a back-arc environment in the NE Lau Basin where the depth to the slab increases from 125 km in the south (similar to typical arc settings) to 210 km in the north. The southernmost tip of the FSC lies within 20 km of the adjacent Tofua Arc, thus offering an ideal case study of arc-related magmatism. The FSC terminates in the north at the Mangatolu Triple Junction (MTJ), situated ~140 km to the south of the edge of the Australian Plate where a tear in the plate allows the influx from less depleted mantle1. Prior work2 shows that the major and trace element compositions of the FSC are relatively depleted and similar to that of the adjacent Tofua arc, whereas the MTJ samples are derived from a less depleted mantle and trend towards Lau back-arc basin basalt compositions. This geochemical contrast is also found in volatile contents reported here. CO2 and S contents are higher in the northern MTJ samples (up to 110 ppm and 800 ppm, respectively) as compared to the southern FSC samples (less than 10 and 40 ppm). To some extent, this difference can be attributed to enhanced degassing in the FSC samples since they are erupted at shallower depths. Indeed, S contents correlate broadly with CO2 contents; however, degassing cannot solely account for the sharp discrepancy in sulfur contents. The less depleted, more reduced nature of the MTJ mantle has likely influenced the S concentrations. The H2O contents of glasses cover an intermediate back-arc range (1 to 1.5 wt%) and show the characteristic negative correlation with TiO2, indicating that flux melting processes prevail3. A slab signature can be clearly recognized: B/Yb and Ba/Yb both show a positive correlation with H2O/Yb and with each

  17. Temporal and geochemical evolution of Miocene volcanism in the Andean back-arc between 36°S and 38°S and U-series analyses of young volcanic centers in the arc and back-arc, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup

    of the subducting slab at ca. 20 Ma is inferred. The eruption of 24-20 Ma alkali olivine basalt up to 500 km east of the trench marks the beginning of a long-lasting magmatic episode with widespread volcanism north of the Cortaderas lineament following a regional magmatic hiatus lasting from 39 Ma to 26 Ma...

  18. Preliminary Depositional and Provenance Records of Mesozoic Basin Evolution and Cenozoic Shortening in the High Andes, La Ramada Fold-Thrust Belt, Southern-Central Andes (32-33°S) (United States)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Constenius, K. N.; McKenzie, R.; Alvarado, P. M.


    The Argentinian Andes define key examples of retroarc shortening and basin evolution above a zone of active subduction. The La Ramada fold-thrust belt (RFTB) in the High Andes provides insights into the relative influence and temporal records of diverse convergent margin processes (e.g. flat-slab subduction, convergent wedge dynamics, structural inversion). The RFTB contains Mesozoic extensional basin strata deformed by later Andean shortening. New detrital zircon U-Pb analyses of Mesozoic rift sediments reveal: (1) a dominant Permo-Triassic age signature (220-280 Ma) associated with proximal sources of effective basement (Choiyoi Group) during Triassic synrift deposition; (2) upsection younging of maximum depositional ages from Late Triassic through Early Cretaceous (230 to 100 Ma) with the increasing influence of western Andean arc sources; and (3) a significant Late Cretaceous influx of Paleozoic (~350-550 Ma) and Proterozoic (~650-1300 Ma) populations during the earliest shift from back-arc post-extensional subsidence to upper-plate shortening. The Cenozoic detrital record of the Manantiales foreland basin (between the Frontal Cordillera and Precordillera) records RFTB deformation prior to flat-slab subduction. A Permo-Triassic Choiyoi age signature dominates the Miocene succession, consistent with sources in the proximal Espinacito range. Subordinate Mesozoic (~80-250 Ma) to Proterozoic (~850-1800 Ma) U-Pb populations record exhumation of the Andean magmatic arc and recycling of different structural levels in the RFTB during thrusting/inversion of Mesozoic rift basin strata and subjacent Paleozoic units. Whereas maximum depositional ages of sampled Manantiales units cluster at 18-20 Ma, the Estancia Uspallata basin (~50 km to the south) shows consistent upsection younging of Cenozoic populations attributed to proximal volcanic centers. Ongoing work will apply low-temperature thermochronology to pinpoint basin accumulation histories and thrust timing.

  19. Understanding the kinematic evolution and genesis of a back-arc continental “sag” basin: The Neogene evolution of the Transylvanian Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiliță, M.; Matenco, L.C.; Dinu, C.; Ionescu, L.; Cloetingh, S.


    Formation and evolution of back-arc basins is related to the interplay between subduction and convergence velocities during the formation of an orogenic chain. Sedimentary basins lacking fault systems that are genetically associated can be locally observed in the hinterland of the main orogenic belt

  20. Constraints on the origin and evolution of magmas in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Quaternary Andean Back-arc of Western Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernando, I.R.; Aragón, E.; Frei, R.; González, P.D.; Spakman, W.


    The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field (Pleistocene–Holocene) is located in the Andean back-arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone, western Argentina, and is contemporaneous with the Andean volcanic arc at the same latitude. It includes two polygenetic, mostly trachytic volcanoes: Payún Matrú (with a summit cald

  1. Subduction controls on Miocene back-arc lavas from Sierra de Huantraico and La Matancilla and new 40Ar/39Ar dating from the Mendoza Region, Argentina (United States)

    Dyhr, Charlotte T.; Holm, Paul M.; Llambías, Eduardo J.; Scherstén, Anders


    Back-arc volcanism in the western Argentinian provinces of Mendoza and Neuquén has been widespread from the Miocene to historic times. We present a detailed investigation of profiles through two of the major Miocene volcanic areas of the region, the neighboring Huantraico and La Matancilla plateaus, including new 40Ar/39Ar age results of major and trace elements as well as Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic data. Four million years of eruptions from 24.4 ± 0.3 Ma (2σ) of alkali olivine basalts with OIB-type incompatible trace element enrichments at La Matancilla (~ 36.50°S) provide evidence for the presence of back-arc mantle devoid of subduction-related components. In contrast, the lower Huantraico lavas (~ 37.30°S) require an atypical back-arc mantle, almost devoid of arc-like components (e.g. low La/Ta = 15-18 and Ba/La = 12-18), but with a more depleted isotopic signature (e.g. 87Sr/86Sr, 0.7033-0.7037) than observed elsewhere in the Andean back-arc. The Lower to Upper Series development in the Huantraico sequence represents a gradual change from basaltic to trachyandesitic back-arc lavas with a weak but temporally increasing arc geochemical signature (e.g. La/Ta = 15-21; Ba/La = 12-45), which is accompanied by Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions approaching present day values of the Andes arc. The compositional change is accompanied by a gradually decreasing role for garnet in the mantle source, a decreasing degree of melting, but also simultaneously increasing influence from subducted fluids, probably as the slab geometry changes through time. The volcanism at Huantraico ceased when a flat slab was established around 15 Ma.

  2. Back arc extension, tectonic inheritance, and volcanism in the Ligurian Sea, Western Mediterranean (United States)

    Rollet, Nadège; Déverchère, Jacques; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Guennoc, Pol; Réhault, Jean-Pierre; Sosson, Marc; Truffert, Catherine


    The Ligurian basin, western Mediterranean Sea, has opened from late Oligocene to early Miocene times, behind the Apulian subduction zone and partly within the western Alpine belt. We analyze the deep structures of the basin and its conjugate margins in order to describe the tectonic styles of opening and to investigate the possible contributions of forces responsible for the basin formation, especially the pulling force induced by the retreating subduction hinge and the gravitational body force from the Alpine wedge. To undertake this analysis, we combine new multichannel seismic reflection data (Malis cruise, 1995) with other geophysical data (previous multichannel and monochannel seismic sections, magnetic anomalies) and constrain them by geological sampling from two recent cruises (dredges from Marco cruise, 1995, and submersible dives from Cylice cruise, 1997). From an analysis of basement morphology and seismic facies, we refine the extent of the different domains in the Ligurian Sea: (1) the continental thinned margins, with strong changes in width and structure along strike and on both sides of the ocean; (2) the transitional domain to the basin; and (3) a narrow, atypical oceanic domain. Margin structures are characterized by few tilted blocks along the narrow margins, where inherited structures seem to control synrift sedimentation and margin segmentation. On the NW Corsican margin, extension is distributed over more than 120 km, including offshore Alpine Corsica, and several oceanward faults sole on a relatively flat reflector. We interpret them as previous Alpine thrusts reactivated during rifting as normal faults soling on a normal ductile shear zone. Using correlations between magnetic data, seismic facies, and sampling, we propose a new map of the distribution of magmatism. The oceanic domain depicts narrow, isolated magnetic anomalies and is interpreted as tholeitic volcanics settled within an unroofed upper mantle, whereas calcalkaline volcanism

  3. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of Ceuta peninsula (Internal Rif): new interpretation in the framework of arc and back arc evolution (United States)

    Homonnay, Emmanuelle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Corsini, Michel; Cenki-Tok, Bénédicte; Bosch, Delphine; Munch, Philippe; Romagny, Adrien; Ouazzani-Touhami, Mohamed


    In the last twenty years, various geophysical investigations have established that the Western Mediterranean opened in a subduction context as a back arc domain. In the Alboran basin the dip of the subduction plane is eastwards or southeastwards depending of considered models. If the geological records of back-arc opening are well-known, the arc-related tectonic and petrologic evolutions are still poorly documented. In order to decipher these markers, we focalised structural, petrological and thermo-chronological studies on the Ceuta peninsula located in the Rif belt, on the western part of the Gibraltar arc to the North of Morocco. The present-day tectonic pile is constituted by: (1) the upper Ceuta unit, composed of High Pressure and High Temperature metapelites retromorphosed under Amphibolite-facies condition, with Ultra-High Pressure relicts, and pyrigarnite and spinel bearing peridotites boudins at its base, (2) the lower Monte Hacho unit, with orthogneisses metamorphosed under Amphibolite-facies conditions. Structural analysis indicates a polyphase tectonic evolution: (1) an earlier deformation phase only observed in the UHP metapelites and characterized by a steep S1 foliation plane, (2) a main deformation phase associated to a pervasive gently dipping S2 foliation plane bearing a L2 stretching lineation and synschistose folds whose axes are parallel to L2 and (3) a late deformation phase which developed S3 foliation plane and L3 stretching lineation coeval with development of narrow normal ductile shear zones. A zone of increasing deformation, several dozen meters wide, is identified as a major ductile shear zone involving the peridotitic lenses at the base of the metapelites of the Ceuta unit and overlaying this upper unit on top of the orthogneisses of the Monte Hacho lower unit. The attitude of mylonitic foliation and stretching and mineral lineations as well as the numerous shear sense indicators observed in the shear zone are consistent with a

  4. Flow in the uppermost mantle during back-arc spreading revealed by Ichinomegata peridotite xenoliths, NE Japan (United States)

    Satsukawa, Takako; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi


    Spinel peridotite xenoliths from the Ichinomegata Volcano (NE Japan) have distinct foliations defined by compositional layering between olivine-rich and pyroxene-rich layers as well as lineations defined by elongated spinel grains. Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) of olivine are consistent with slip on (010)[100] and {0kl}[100]. The angles between the foliation and the olivine slip planes decrease with increasing values of the J-index (i.e. CPO strength). Such composite planar relationships within the peridotite xenoliths could result from shearing in the uppermost mantle, so that shear strains can be estimated by the angles between the foliation and the olivine slip plane in terms of simple shear strain (0.31-4.26). From these observations, we argue that a suite of the peridotite xenoliths recorded a rare snapshot of uppermost-mantle flow related to back-arc spreading during the opening of the Japan Sea. The peridotite xenoliths with higher J-indices (i.e. higher shear strain) tend to have slightly lower minimum temperatures, possibly defining a vertical strain gradient in the uppermost mantle section at the time of the volcano's eruption. The CPO data have been used to calculate the seismic properties of the xenoliths at PT conditions obtained from geothermobarometry, and are compared to field geophysical data from the literature. Our results are consistent with a roughly EW-oriented fastest P-wave propagation direction in the uppermost mantle beneath the northeast part of the Japan arc. Average samples are calculated based on three different structural reference frames; horizontal plane parallel to 1) foliation, 2) the plane containing the maximum concentration of olivine [100], and 3) P-wave maximum direction. S-wave anisotropy deduced from CPOs requires a reasonable thickness of the anisotropic layer (24.1-26.6 km), and the structural reference frame does not have significant effect on the estimation of thickness. Consequently, Ichinomegata

  5. Variation of Crustal Shear Velocity Structure Along the Eastern Lau Back-Arc Spreading Center Constrained By Seafloor Compliance (United States)

    Zha, Y.; Webb, S. C.; Dunn, R. A.


    Measurements of seafloor compliance, the deformation under long period (typically 30-300 s) ocean wave forcing, are primarily sensitive to crustal shear velocity structure. We analyze seafloor compliance from data collected from a subset of 50 broadband Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBS) deployed at the Eastern Lau spreading center (ELSC) from 2009 to 2010. The ELSC is a 400-km-long back-arc spreading center lying closely to the Tonga subduction trench in the southwestern Pacific. Seafloor morphology, crustal seismic structure and lava composition data show rapid variations along the ridge as the ridge migrates away from the volcanic arc front to the north, indicating a decreasing influence of the subducting slab. We calculate seafloor compliance functions by taking the spectral transfer function between the vertical displacement and pressure signal recorded by the 4-component OBSs, which are equipped with differential pressure gauges (DPGs). In the ridge perpendicular direction, compliance amplitude vary by more than an order of magnitude from the ridge crest to older seafloor covered by sediment. Along the spreading ridge, compliance measured from on-axis sites increases southwards, indicative of a decrease in the upper crustal shear velocity possibly due to increasing porosity and a thickening extrusive layer [Jacobs et al., 2007; Dunn et al., 2013]. We apply a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to invert the compliance functions for crustal shear velocities at various locations along the ELSC.

  6. Compression-extension transition of continental crust in a subduction zone: A parametric numerical modeling study with implications on Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Cathaysia Block (United States)

    Chan, Lung Sang; Gao, Jian-Feng


    The Cathaysia Block is located in southeastern part of South China, which situates in the west Pacific subduction zone. It is thought to have undergone a compression-extension transition of the continental crust during Mesozoic-Cenozoic during the subduction of Pacific Plate beneath Eurasia-Pacific Plate, resulting in extensive magmatism, extensional basins and reactivation of fault systems. Although some mechanisms such as the trench roll-back have been generally proposed for the compression-extension transition, the timing and progress of the transition under a convergence setting remain ambiguous due to lack of suitable geological records and overprinting by later tectonic events. In this study, a numerical thermo-dynamical program was employed to evaluate how variable slab angles, thermal gradients of the lithospheres and convergence velocities would give rise to the change of crustal stress in a convergent subduction zone. Model results show that higher slab dip angle, lower convergence velocity and higher lithospheric thermal gradient facilitate the subduction process. The modeling results reveal the continental crust stress is dominated by horizontal compression during the early stage of the subduction, which could revert to a horizontal extension in the back-arc region, combing with the roll-back of the subducting slab and development of mantle upwelling. The parameters facilitating the subduction process also favor the compression-extension transition in the upper plate of the subduction zone. Such results corroborate the geology of the Cathaysia Block: the initiation of the extensional regime in the Cathaysia Block occurring was probably triggered by roll-back of the slowly subducting slab. PMID:28182640

  7. Eocene to Miocene back-arc basin basalts and associated island arc tholeiites from northern Sulawesi (Indonesia): Implications for the geodynamic evolution of the Celebes basin; Basaltes de bassin arriere-arc de l`Eocene-Miocene et tholeiites d`arc insulaire associees du nord Sulawesi (Indonesie): implications pour l`evolution geodynamique du bassin des Celebes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangin, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Maury, R.C.; Bellon, H.; Cotten, J. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 29 - Brest (France); Polve, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, 31 - Toulouse (France); Priadi, B.; Soeria-Atmadja, R. [Department of Geology, ITB, Bandung (Indonesia); Joron, J.L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Recherche sur l`Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules


    Eocene BABB basalts intruded by tholeiitic and calk-alkalic island arc magmatic rocks are reported from the north arm of Sulawesi (Indonesia). Age and geochemical similarities between these basalts and those drilled in the Celebes Sea indicate this North Sulawesi volcanic arc was built on the same oceanic crust. The 25 deg late Neogene clockwise rotation of the north arm of Sulawesi following its collision with fragments of Australia (Sula, Buton) is not sufficient to explain the asymmetrical magnetic anomalies in the Celebes basin. The North Sulawesi island arc could be interpreted as having progressively retreated northward on its own Celebes sea back arc basin, during an episode of Palaeogene-early Neogene tectonic erosion along the trench. (authors) 37 refs.

  8. Back-arc extension in the Andaman Sea: Tectonic and magmatic processes imaged by high-precision teleseismic double-difference earthquake relocation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diehl, T.; Waldhauser, F.; Cochran, J. R.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Seeber, L.; Schaff, D.; Engdahl, E.R.

    correlation as regions of increased ���� earthquake density where earthquakes appear to rupture the same faults with similar slip ���� orientations. Beneath the Aceh-Basin, for example, such repeated slip occurs on the ���� megathrust and on imbricate faults....3) that ruptured the � �� adjacent transform fault within one hour of each other (S1-2, Figure 4b). The structure � �� �� and kinematics of the seismicity that forms cluster C2 are comparable to C1, suggesting a � �� similar process ~60 km south of C1...

  9. Three-dimensional crustal velocity map of a back-arc basin inversion and tectonic implications for the Alpine-Dinaric-Pannonian-Carpathian system (United States)

    Grenerczy, Gyula; Farkas, Péter; Hevér, Renáta; Gráczer, Zoltán; Tóth, László


    Eurasia-Nubia collisional boundary comprises complex set of various microplates including Adria and Apulia. One of its remarkable features is located north of Adria over the East Alpine and Dinaric collision zone, the Carpathian Arc and the Pannonian Basin. The back-arc basin formation started around the early Miocene driven by slab pull, extrusion, and gravitational sliding. The arc is now enclosed by the European platform, and with the ongoing Adria convergence, the back-arc basin is being inverted. We have been studying present-day crustal kinematics from Adria to the European Platform in a regional collaboration using GPS for two decades. Inside the basin even more, almost a quarter of a century long, systematic GPS measurements are available. This network includes GPS sites exclusively for geodynamics having direct contact with the crust with short, brass, forced centered antenna set-up, established mostly in outcropping solid bedrock where available. The long and precise systematic data -with basically no equipment change, offsets- enabled us to compile the first three-dimensional crustal velocity map for this dryland back-arc basin with a couple of tens of a millimeter per year significance level. Based on these data sets some technical words are given about sites on loose sediments and the effect of monumentation at very low vertical signal level. However, our primary focus will be on constraining kinematics of this back-arc basin inversion investigating all major tectonic units of this system and their boundary zones. We also calculate strain distribution, and provide seismotectonic implications.

  10. The link between tectonics and sedimentation in back-arc basins: New genetic constraints from the analysis of the Pannonian Basin (United States)

    Balázs, A.; Matenco, L.; Magyar, I.; Horváth, F.; Cloetingh, S.


    The architecture of sedimentary basins reflects the relationship between accommodation space and sediment supply, their rates and localization being variable during basin evolution. The mechanisms driving the interplay between tectonics and sedimentation in extensional back-arc basins overlying rheological weak zones inherited from an earlier orogenic evolution are less understood. A typical example is the Pannonian back-arc basin of Central Europe. It is floored by continental lithosphere and was affected by large amounts of extension driven by the subduction rollback that took place in the Carpathians and/or Dinarides. A novel kinematic and seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation calibrated by wells allows the quantification of the link between the formation of half grabens and coeval sedimentation in the Great Hungarian Plain part of the basin. While the lower order tectonic-induced cycles characterize the main phases of extension in various subbasins, the higher-order cyclicity and associated unconformities define individual moments of fault (re)activation. Our novel interpretation of a temporal and spatial migration of extension during Miocene times explains the contrasting present-day strike of various subbasins as a result of their gradual clockwise rotation. Incorporating the observed asymmetry, in particular the associated footwall exhumation, infers that the amount of extension is much larger than previously thought. The quantitative link between tectonics and sedimentation has allowed the definition of a novel model of sedimentation in asymmetric basins that can be ported to other natural scenarios of similarly hyperextended back-arc basins observed elsewhere.

  11. The dynamics of back-arc extension: an experimental approach to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea (United States)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Davy, Philippe; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Funiciello, Renato; Giardini, Domenico; Mattei, Massimo; Nalpas, Thierry


    The E-W-opening Tyrrhenian Sea developed after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene Alpine collision, nearly perpendicular to the motion of the African plate, as a back-arc of the Adria-Ionian westward subduction. Three driving mechanisms have been proposed to explain the dynamic evolution of the Tyrrhenian-Apennine system: (1) the northward indentation of the African plate; (2) the retreating subduction of the Adria-Ionian lithosphere; and (3) the gravitational collapse of the Alpine post-collisional wedge. In order to define the relative contribution of each of these mechanisms in the Neogene dynamic of the Tyrrhenian-Apennine system, we performed 3-D laboratory experiments, in which we simulated a retreating subduction process in a compressional regime oriented perpendicularly to the direction of subduction; in this framework we also tested the influence of the gravitational collapse of the overriding plate. Experiments were constructed using dry sand and silicone putties to simulate brittle upper crust and ductile lower crust/upper mantle, respectively; these layers floated on a high-density, low-viscosity glucose syrup which simulated the asthenosphere. The main conclusion of our experiments is that large-scale continental extension, similar to that observed in the Tyrrhenian area, could be reproduced perpendicular to the shortening direction induced by the indentation of the African plate; in this framework, extensional processes are indeed possible if the trench retreat velocity is higher than the rate of shortening induced by the advancing African plate. Our experimental results indicate that this high trench retreat velocity could be explained by the coexistence of the gravitational collapse of the post-Alpine wedge with a slab-pull process, linked to the retreating subduction of the Adria-Ionian plate. While the first mechanism is predominant in the Northern Tyrrhenian area, the second one seems to be important in the latest stage of extension and oceanic accretion

  12. Peridotite xenoliths from the Shiribeshi Seamount, Japan Sea: insights into mantle processes in a back-arc basin (United States)

    Ichiyama, Yuji; Morishita, Tomoaki; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji


    Orthopyroxene-rich and orthopyroxene-poor peridotite xenoliths were sampled from quaternary basaltic to andesitic lava flows of the Shiribeshi seamount, Japan Sea. These xenoliths were affected by reactions with the host magma during transportation to the surface, which caused partial orthopyroxene dissolution and intergrowth with vermicular spinel. Chromian spinel and clinopyroxene major element compositions in the Shiribeshi peridotite are similar to those in abyssal peridotites. REE modeling indicates that the Opx-rich peridotite experienced decompression partial melting from the garnet to the spinel peridotite stability field. Rare earth element (REE) patterns of clinopyroxene in the Opx-rich peridotite show various degrees of enrichment in light REE, which resulted from melt percolation through the reaction with host magma. Comparison with peridotite xenoliths from two other localities (Seifu and Oshima-Ōshima) in the Japan Sea suggests that the Oshima-Ōshima peridotite record higher degree of partial melting than the Shiribeshi and Seifu peridotites. Oxygen fugacities calculated from chromian spinel in the Japan Sea peridotites are comparable to those of arc peridotites. The high degree of partial melting of the Oshima-Ōshima peridotite was possibly caused by the infiltration of a H2O-bearing flux released from the subducted slab. The Shiribeshi peridotite is interpreted as the residue formed after the extraction of depleted back-arc basalts during a later stage of the Japan Sea opening in the Middle Miocene, whereas the Oshima-Ōshima peridotite is residual after the extraction of enriched basalts during an earlier stage of the opening of the Japan Sea.

  13. Introduction to Special Section: Magmatism and Extension (United States)

    Metcalf, Rodney V.; Smith, Eugene I.


    The relationship between magmatism and the formation of continental rift zones is the subject of much controversy. In particular, the cause and effect relationships between magmatism and extension and the mode of generation of magma during the process of extension are still hotly debated. This controversy served as the theme of a symposium on "Cenozoic Magmatism in the Colorado River Extensional Corridor and Adjacent Areas" and a field trip held as part of the Geological Society of America Cordilleran/Rocky Mountain Section meeting in Reno, Nevada [Metcalf et al., 1993]. It was clear from data presented at the symposium that a considerable amount of new information has become available regarding magmatism and extension since the last special section on this topic published by the Journal of Geophysical Research (June 1989).

  14. Regional patterns of Mesozoic-Cenozoic magmatism in western Alaska revealed by new U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages: Chapter D in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, vol. 15 (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Miller, Marti L.; Friedman, Richard M.; Layer, Paul W.; Bleick, Heather A.; Jones, III, James V.; Box, Steven E.; Karl, Susan M.; Shew, Nora B.; White, Timothy S.; Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Ullrich, Thomas D.


    In support of regional geologic framework studies, we obtained 50 new argon-40/argon-39 (40Ar/39Ar) ages and 33 new uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages from igneous rocks of southwestern Alaska. Most of the samples are from the Sleetmute and Taylor Mountains quadrangles; smaller collections or individual samples are from the Bethel, Candle, Dillingham, Goodnews Bay, Holy Cross, Iditarod, Kantishna River, Lake Clark, Lime Hills, McGrath, Medfra, Talkeetna, and Tanana quadrangles.A U-Pb zircon age of 317.7±0.6 million years (Ma) reveals the presence of Pennsylvanian intermediate igneous (probably volcanic) rocks in the Tikchik terrane, Bethel quadrangle. A U-Pb zircon age of 229.5±0.2 Ma from gabbro intruding the Rampart Group of the Angayucham-Tozitna terrane, Tanana quadrangle, confirms and tightens a previously cited Triassic age for this intrusive suite. A fresh mafic dike in Goodnews Bay quadrangle yielded a 40Ar/39Ar whole rock age of 155.0±1.9 Ma; this establishes a Jurassic or older age for the previously unconstrained (Paleozoic? to Mesozoic?) sandstone unit that it intrudes. A thick felsic tuff in the Gemuk Group in Taylor Mountains quadrangle yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 153.0±2.0 Ma, extending the age of magmatism in this part of the Togiak terrane back into the Late Jurassic. We report three new U-Pb zircon ages between 120 and 110 Ma—112.0±0.9 Ma from syenite in the Candle quadrangle, 114.9±0.3 Ma from orthogneiss assigned to the Ruby terrane in Iditarod quadrangle, and 116.6±0.1 Ma from a gabbro of the Dishna River mafic-ultramafic complex in Iditarod quadrangle. The latter result requires a substantial age revision, from Triassic to Cretaceous, for at least some rocks that have been mapped as the Dishna River mafic-ultramafic complex. A tuff in the Upper Cretaceous Kuskokwim Group yielded a U-Pb zircon (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe, SHRIMP) age of 88.3±1.0 Ma; we speculate that the eruptive source was an arc along the trend of the Pebble

  15. The Ordovician Sierras Pampeanas-Puna basin connection: Basement thinning and basin formation in the Proto-Andean back-arc (United States)

    Büttner, Steffen H.


    The Ordovician Sierras Pampeanas, located in a continental back-arc position at the Proto-Andean margin of southwest Gondwana, experienced substantial mantle heat transfer during the Ordovician Famatina orogeny, converting Neoproterozoic and Early Cambrian metasediments to migmatites and granites. The high-grade metamorphic basement underwent intense extensional shearing during the Early and Middle Ordovician. Contemporaneously, up to 7000 m marine sediments were deposited in extensional back-arc basins covering the pre-Ordovician basement. Extensional Ordovician tectonics were more effective in mid- and lower crustal migmatites than in higher levels of the crust. At a depth of about 13 km the separating boundary between low-strain solid upper and high-strain lower migmatitic crust evolved to an intra-crustal detachment. The detachment zone varies in thickness but does not exceed about 500 m. The formation of anatectic melt at the metamorphic peak, and the resulting drop in shear strength, initiated extensional tectonics which continued along localized ductile shear zones until the migmatitic crust cooled to amphibolite facies P-T conditions. P-T-d-t data in combination with field evidence suggest significant (ca. 52%) crustal thinning below the detachment corresponding to a thinning factor of 2.1. Ductile thinning of the upper crust is estimated to be less than that of the lower crust and might range between 25% and 44%, constituting total crustal thinning factors of 1.7-2.0. While the migmatites experienced retrograde decompression during the Ordovician, rocks along and above the detachment show isobaric cooling. This suggests that the magnitude of upper crustal extension controls the amount of space created for sediments deposited at the surface. Upper crustal extension and thinning is compensated by newly deposited sediments, maintaining constant pressure at detachment level. Thinning of the migmatitic lower crust is compensated by elevation of the crust

  16. Normal faulting in a back arc basin: Seismological characteristics of the March 2, 1987, Edgecumbe, New Zealand, Earthquake (United States)

    Anderson, Helen; Smith, Euan; Robinson, Russell


    The Edgecumbe earthquake (March 2, 1987, 0142 UT, 37.92°S, 176.76°E) occurred beneath a coastal river plain a the southeastern margin of the Central Volcanic Region (CVR) of the North Island of New Zealand, a back arc basin that is widening at a geodetically determined rate of about 12 mm/yr. Its situation enabled a wide range of geological and geophysical measurements to be made of the preseismic, coseismic and postseismic processes. The estimated hypocenter and fault plane solution are consistent with the observed surface faulting. Various estimates of the seismic moment of the mainshock range from 4.3×1018 N m (from long-period P wave modelling of the first 5 s) to 10×1018 N m (from dislocation modelling of geodetic data). The variation in the values can be reasonably explained in terms of the methods used to determine them. Focal mechanisms of both mainshock and aftershocks were similar to focal mechanisms previously determined for events in the CVR and its offshore extension. Normal faulting mechanisms make up 75% of the events with the remainder strike slip (dextral assuming a northeast striking fault). The distribution of mechanisms is consistent with the regional strain field as previously determined from geodetic observations. The mainshock has been modelled as a complex event with a second subevent about 3 s after the first, with both episodes of moment release initiating at a depth of about 8 km. The Edgecumbe earthquake was preceded by a large number of foreshocks, some near the mainshock, but most in a tight cluster 35 km away to the northwest (i.e., off-strike). After the first half hour following the mainshock, swarms of aftershocks began occurring up to 50 km from the mainshock rupture, mostly along the strike of the faulting. Main rupture aftershocks were mostly located in the footwall of the main fault. A notable gap in the aftershock distribution is coincident with a geothermal field along strike of the main rupture. Swarms are common in the

  17. Magmatic tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); McMurtry, G.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shevenell, L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Pettit, D.R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (United States); Stimac, J.A. [Union Geothermal Company (United States); Werner, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ({sup 3}H) of deep origin (<0.1 T.U. or <0.32 pCi/kg H{sub 2}O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable {sup 3}H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics.

  18. New geochemical and geochronological data of early Cambrian of (SW Iberia): Calc-alkaline magmatism in the transition from active to passive continental margin in North Gondwana


    Sanchez-Garcia, Teresa; Pereira, M. Francisco; Bellido, Felix; Chichorro, Martim; Silva, J. Brandao; Valverde-Vaquero, Pablo; Pin, Christian; Solá, Rita


    The Ossa-Morena Zone (SW Iberia) displays a well-preserved record of the history of the northern Gondwana margin in Late Ediacaran-Early Cambrian times. This period of time is marked by the late-stage evolution of the Cadomian magmatic arc and related back-arc basins (c. 590-545 Ma), and the onset of rifting and widespread magmatism (c. 530-500 Ma) that led to the opening of the Rheic Ocean. Here we present new geochemical and geochronological data on some Cambrian granitoids of Ossa-Morena ...

  19. Constraints on the origin and evolution of magmas in the Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Quaternary Andean back-arc of western Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernadno, I R; Aragón, E; Frei, Robert


    The Payún Matrú Volcanic Field (Pleistocene–Holocene) is located in the Andean back-arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone, western Argentina, and is contemporaneous with the Andean volcanic arc at the same latitude. It includes two polygenetic, mostly trachytic volcanoes: Payún Matrú (with a summit...... and Sr–Nd isotopic compositions of the basaltic lavas and Payún Matrú rocks indicate that the trachytes of Payún Matrú are the result of fractional crystallization of basaltic parent magmas without significant upper crustal contamination, and that the basalts have a geochemical similarity to ocean island......, and an assimilation–fractional crystallization model indicates a low degree of upper crustal contamination in the youngest trachytes. Magnesium numbers (45–55) and contents of Ni (

  20. Petrogenesis of Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in Tengchong Region of Western Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    从柏林; 陈秋媛; 张儒瑷; 吴根耀; 徐平


    The Tengchong Cenozoic volcanic rocks belong to the high-K calc-alkaline rock series.They are strongly depleted in high field strength (HFS) elements and enriched in large-ion lithophile(LIL) elements and LREE.The generation of Tengchong volcanic rocks has been considered to be relatedto the evolution of the Neo-Tethys.The Indian Plate was subducted beneath the southeastern Asia conti-nent,which resulted in the formation of Indo-Burman Arc in the Late Cretaeeous-Palaeocene time.Thecollision between the Indian continent and Indo-Burman Arc started in Eocene and lasted to the present.The Andaman Sea and the Inner Burman Tertiary Basin are a back-arc basin that has been extended sincethe Late Miocene.A distinct characteristic of Tengchong volcanics is that they show a chemical affinityrelated to island arc but their generation postdated the subduetion of the ocean plate.

  1. The time-space distribution of Eocene to Miocene magmatism in the central Peruvian polymetallic province and its metallogenetic implications (United States)

    Bissig, Thomas; Ullrich, Thomas D.; Tosdal, Richard M.; Friedman, Richard; Ebert, Shane


    rocks west of Tarma (21-20 Ma). A relationship between the Oligocene intrusions and polymetallic mineralization at Uchucchacua is possible, but evidence remains inconclusive. Widespread magmatism resumed in the middle Miocene and includes large igneous complexes in the Cordillera Occidental to the south of Domo de Yauli, and smaller scattered intrusive centers to the north thereof. Ore deposits of modest size are widely associated with middle Miocene intrusions along the Cordillera Occidental, north of Domo de Yauli. However, small volcanic centers were also active up to 50 km east of the continental divide and include dacitic dikes and domes, spatially associated with major base and precious metal mineralization at Cerro de Pasco and Colquijirca. Basaltic volcanism (14.54 ± 0.49 Ma) is locally observed in the back-arc domain south of Domo de Yauli approximately 30 km east of the Cordillera Occidental. After about 10 Ma intrusive activity decreased throughout Central Perú and ceased between 6 and 5 Ma. Late Miocene magmatism was locally related to important mineralization including San Cristobal (Domo de Yauli), Huarón and Yauricocha. Overall, there is no evidence for a systematic eastward migration of the magmatic arc through time. The arc broadened in the late Eocene to early Oligocene, and thereafter ceased over wide areas until the early Miocene, when magmatism resumed in a narrow arc. A renewed widening and subsequent cessation of the arc occurred in the late middle and late Miocene. The pattern of magmatism probably reflects two cycles of flattening of the subduction in the Oligocene and late Miocene. Contrasting crustal architecture between areas south and north of Domo de Yauli probably account for the differences in the temporal and aerial distribution of magmatism in these areas. Ore deposits are most abundant between Domo de Yauli and Cerro de Pasco and were generally emplaced in the middle and late Miocene during the transition to flat subduction and

  2. Subduction controls on Miocene back-arc lavas from Sierra de Huantraico and La Matancilla, Argentina and new 40Ar/39Ar dating from the Mendoza Region, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo J.


    , including new 40Ar/39Ar age results of major and trace elements as well as Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic data. Four million years of eruptions from 24.4 ± 0.3 Ma (2σ) of alkali olivine basalts with OIB-type incompatible trace element enrichments at La Matancilla (~36.50°S) provide evidence for the presence of back......-arc mantle devoid of subduction-related components. In contrast, the lower Huantraico lavas (~37.30°S) require an atypical back-arc mantle, almost devoid of arc-like components (e.g. low La/Ta = 15–18 and Ba/La = 12–18), but with a more depleted isotopic signature (e.g. 87Sr/86Sr, 0.7033–0.7037) than...... observed elsewhere in the Andean back-arc. The Lower to Upper Series development in the Huantraico sequence represents a gradual change from basaltic to trachyandesitic back-arc lavas with a weak but temporally increasing arc geochemical signature (e.g. La/Ta = 15–21; Ba/La = 12–45), which is accompanied...

  3. Holocene volcanic rocks in Jingbo Lake region--Diversity of magmatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Qicheng; SUN Qian; LI Ni; WANG Tuanhua


    During the time from 5500 a to 5200 a BP more than 10 Holocene volcanoes in Jingbo Lake region erupted and the volcanic rocks covered an area of about 500 km2. Holocene volcanic rocksin Jingbo Lake region belong to the potassium-rich rocks and contain three rock types: trachybasalts, basanites and phonotephrites. Various types of magmatism formed in a small area and in a short period of time came from partial melting of potassically-metasomatised lithospheric mantle. The diversity of magmatism can be explained by that Jingbo Lake is situated in the back-arc extensional region of East Asian continent subducted by the Pacific Ocean, and potassic fluid derived from mantle wedge or dehydration of subducted slab can result in a high heterogeneity of the mantle beneath this region. Based on the pressure estimation of clinopyroxene megacrysts, we estimate that phonotephrite magma fractionally crystallize at ca. 52-54 km down the earth.

  4. Middle Triassic back-arc basalts from the blocks in the Mersin Mélange, southern Turkey: Implications for the geodynamic evolution of the Northern Neotethys (United States)

    Sayit, Kaan; Bedi, Yavuz; Tekin, U. Kagan; Göncüoglu, M. Cemal; Okuyucu, Cengiz


    The Mersin Mélange is a tectonostratigraphic unit within the allochthonous Mersin Ophiolitic Complex in the Taurides, southern Turkey. This chaotic structure consists of blocks and tectonic slices of diverse origins and ages set in a clastic matrix of Upper Cretaceous age. In this study, we examine two blocks at two different sections characterized by basaltic lava flows alternating with radiolarian-bearing pelagic sediments. The radiolarian assemblage extracted from the mudstone-chert alternation overlying the lavas yields an upper Anisian age (Middle Triassic). The immobile element geochemistry suggests that the lava flows are predominantly characterized by sub-alkaline basalts. All lavas display pronounced negative Nb anomalies largely coupled with normal mid-ocean basalt (N-MORB)-like high field strength element (HFSE) patterns. On the basis of geochemical modelling, the basalts appear to have dominantly derived from spinel-peridotite and pre-depleted spinel-peridotite sources, while some enriched compositions can be explained by contribution of garnet-facies melts from enriched domains. The overall geochemical characteristics suggest generation of these Middle Triassic lavas at an intra-oceanic back-arc basin within the northern branch of Neotethys. This finding is of significant importance, since these rocks may represent the presence of the oldest subduction zone found thus far from the Neotethyan branches. This, in turn, suggests that the rupturing of the Gondwanan lithosphere responsible for the opening of the northern branch of Neotethys should have occurred during the Lower Triassic or earlier.

  5. 1.90–1.88 Ga arc and back-arc basin in the Orijärvi area, SW Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Väisänen


    tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams the Orijärvi and Kisko formations plot in the island arc field and the Salittu formation plots in the E-MORB field. High LILE/HFSE ratios, typical of subduction-related volcanic rocks, characterize the Orijärvi and Kisko formations, whereas such a subduction component is less prominent in the Toija formation and is missing in the Salittu formation. Geochemistry and age relationships suggest that the Orijärvi formation was formed during the initial stages of volcanic arc evolution in an extensional tectonic regime, and the Kisko formation represents a mature stage of arc evolution. Subsequent extension of the island arc is manifested by the ultramafic/mafic Salittu formation with E-MORB-like chemistry, interpreted to indicate a back-arc basin. The Toija formation might represent an initial stage of back-arc rifting.

  6. New constraints on the formation and evolution of the Andaman Sea, a sedimented back arc spreading center in the South East Asia, from seismic reflection studies. (United States)

    Jourdain, A.; Singh, S. C.; Klinger, Y.


    The Andaman Sea is an enigmatic feature in the Indian Ocean region. To the west, it is bounded by a near arc parallel Andaman subduction system and to the east by the Malaya Peninsula. It hosts volcanic provinces like Alcock and Sewell Rises and the Andaman Sea Spreading Center (ASSC) that connects the sliver strike-slip Sagaing Fault in the north with the Andaman Nicobar and Great Sumatra Faults in the south. The actual spreading center follows a succession of basins, starting by the spreading of the Mergui basin in the south-east, 32 Ma ago, that shifted to the actual position of the spreading closer to the subduction trench. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the formation of the Andaman Sea basins: (a) Pull-apart basin along the Sagaing-Sumatra fault system, driven by the collision-extrusion mechanism and/or by the slip-partitioning induced by the oblique subduction, (b) Back-arc spreading due to the subduction. There is a debate about the orientation of the present spreading/extension between the North-South motion along the strike-slip faults and the NW-SE opening of the ASSC. We have access to 7000 km of high-resolution deep seismic reflection data, and high-resolution bathymetry data, which we combine with relocated earthquake data to shed light upon the formation and evolution of the Andaman Sea Basin. The central basin contains up to 4 km thick sediments. The crustal thickness is about 5-8 km in the central basin and increases to 13-15 km beneath the Alcock and Sewell Rises, which are devoid of sediments. Here we show how both the collision and the subduction play a role in the position and orientation of the extension in the Andaman Sea Basin, and how they influence the accretion at the spreading center.

  7. Ordovician magmatism in the Lévézou massif (French Massif Central): tectonic and geodynamic implications (United States)

    Lotout, Caroline; Pitra, Pavel; Poujol, Marc; Van Den Driessche, Jean


    New U-Pb dating on zircon yielded ca. 470 Ma ages for the granitoids from the Lévézou massif in the southern French Massif Central. These new ages do not support the previous interpretation of these granitoids as syn-tectonic intrusions emplaced during the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous thrusting. The geochemical and isotopic nature of this magmatism is linked to a major magmatic Ordovician event recorded throughout the European Variscan belt and related to extreme thinning of continental margins during a rifting event or a back-arc extension. The comparable isotopic signatures of these granitoids on each side of the eclogite-bearing leptyno-amphibolitic complex in the Lévézou massif, together with the fact that they were emplaced at the same time, strongly suggest that these granitoids were originally part of a single unit, tectonically duplicated by either isoclinal folding or thrusting during the Variscan tectonics.

  8. Foraminifera in Cenozoic Paleoenvironments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian McGowran


    Paleontologists search the fossil record for evidence of age, ancient environments, phylogenetic reconstructions and ancient communities. Cenozoic foraminifera preserve evidence for all of these simultaneously from the water column and from at, above and below the sediment/water interface. As our understanding of foraminiferal assemblages and their place in the strata (biofacies) becomes more sophisticated, so are foraminiferal biofacies challenged to contribute to more subtle problems in Cenozoic earth and life history. Progress is described as a series of five "integrations". (Ⅰ) The quantification of foraminiferal biofacies was an advance on simple presences and absences of species meeting such questions as marine or nonmarine, or shallow or deep. (Ⅱ) Foraminiferal shells carry geochemical signals especially isotopes of oxygen (temperature, ice volume), carbon (nutrition and the carbon cycle), and strontium (seawater ratios through time). (Ⅲ) From modern foraminiferal biology we have lifestyle insights leading to a model of oceans and paleo-oceans called the trophic resource continuum, a valuable way into greenhouse-icehouse comparisons and contrasts. (Ⅳ) Biofacies changes in space and time are sometimes abrupt with little evidence of diachrony, and sometimes gradual. These patterns are clarified in the context of sequence stratigraphy (which they enrich in turn). (Ⅴ) The paleobiological counterpart of sequence stratigraphy is evolutionary paleoecology, reconstructing communities in deep time. The foraminifera are perfectly suited to investigate the possibility (or likelihood) that global environmental shifts have controlled community turnover in the pelagic, neritic and terrestrial realms.

  9. European Cenozoic rift system (United States)

    Ziegler, Peter A.


    The European Cenozoic rift system extends from the coast of the North Sea to the Mediterranean over a distance of some 1100 km; it finds its southern prolongation in the Valencia Trough and a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic chain crossing the Atlas ranges. Development of this mega-rift was paralleled by orogenic activity in the Alps and Pyrenees. Major rift domes, accompanied by subsidence reversal of their axial grabens, developed 20-40 Ma after beginning of rifting. Uplift of the Rhenish Shield is related to progressive thermal lithospheric thinning; the Vosges-Black Forest and the Massif Central domes are probably underlain by asthenoliths emplaced at the crust/mantle boundary. Evolution of this rift system, is thought to be governed by the interaction of the Eurasian and African plates and by early phases of a plate-boundary reorganization that may lead to the break-up of the present continent assembly.

  10. Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin Features and Evolution of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Late Triassic to Paleogene (T3-E) basin occupies an area of 143100 km2, being the sixth area of the whole of SE China; the total area of synchronous granitoid is about 127300 km2; it provides a key for understanding the tectonic evolution of South China. From a new 1:1500000 geological map of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins of SE China, combined with analysis of geometrical and petrological features, some new insights of basin tectonics are obtained. Advances include petrotectonic assemblages,basin classification of geodynamics, geometric features, relations of basin and range. According to basin-forming geodynamical mechanisms, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin of SE China can be divided into three types, namely: 1) para-foreland basin formed from Late Triassic to Early Jurassic (T3-J1)under compressional conditions; 2) rift basins formed during the Middle Jurassic (J2) under a strongly extensional setting; and 3) a faulted depression formed during Early Cretaceous to Paleogene (K1-E)under back-arc extension action. From the rock assemblages of the basin, the faulted depression can be subdivided into a volcanic-sedimentary type formed mainly during the Early Cretaceous (K1) and a red-bed type formed from Late Cretaceous to Paleogene (K2-E). Statistical data suggest that the area of all para-foreland basins (T3-J1) is 15120 km2, one of rift basins (J2) occupies 4640 km2, and all faulted depressions equal to 124330 km2 including the K2-E red-bed basins of 37850 km2. The Early Mesozoic(T3-J1) basin and granite were mostly co-generated under a post-collision compression background,while the basins from Middle Jurassic to Paleogene (J2-E) were mainly constrained by regional extensional tectonics. Three geological and geographical zones were surveyed, namely: 1) the Wuyishan separating zone of paleogeography and climate from Middle Jurassic to Tertiary; 2) the Middle Jurassic rift zone; and 3) the Ganjiang separating zone of Late Mesozoic volcanism. Three types of basin

  11. The Eastern Sardinian Margin (Tyrrhenian Sea, Western Mediterranean) : a key area to study the rifting and post-breakup evolution of a back-arc passive continental margin (United States)

    Gaullier, Virginie; Chanier, Frank; Vendeville, Bruno; Maillard, Agnès; Thinon, Isabelle; Graveleau, Fabien; Lofi, Johanna; Sage, Françoise


    The Eastern Sardinian passive continental margin formed during the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is a back-arc basin created by continental rifting and oceanic spreading related to the eastward migrating Apennine subduction system (middle Miocene to Pliocene). Up to now, rifting in this key area was considered to be pro parte coeval with the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.96-5.32 Ma). We use the MSC seismic markers and the deformation of viscous salt and its brittle overburden as proxies to better delineate the timing of rifting and post-rift reactivation, and especially to quantify vertical and horizontal movements. On this young, highly-segmented margin, the Messinian Erosion Surface and the Upper and Mobile Units are systematically associated, respectively, to basement highs and deeper basins, showing that a rifted deep-sea domain already existed by Messinian times, therefore a major pre-MSC rifting episode occurred across the entire domain. Data show that there are no signs of Messinian syn-rift sediments, hence no evidence for rifting after Late Tortonian times. Moreover, because salt tectonics creates fan-shaped geometries in sediments, syn-rift deposits have to be carefully re-examined to distinguish the effects of crustal tectonics (rifting) and salt tectonics. We also precise that rifting is clearly diachronous from the upper margin (East-Sardinia Basin) to the lower margin (Cornaglia Terrace) with two unconformities, attributed respectively to the necking and to the lithospheric breakup unconformities. The onshore part of the upper margin has been recently investigated in order to characterize the large crustal faults affecting the Mesozoic series (geometry, kinematics and chronology) and to decipher the role of the structural inheritance and of the early rifting. Seaward, we also try to constrain the architecture and timing of the continent-ocean transition, between the hyper-extended continental crust and the first oceanic crust. Widespread

  12. From Mesoproterozoic magmatism to collisional Cretaceous anatexis: Tectonomagmatic history of the Pelagonian Zone, Greece (United States)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Moulas, Evangelos; Larionov, Alexander; Quadt, Albrecht


    The magmatic history of the Pelagonian Zone, in northern Greece, is constrained with secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) U-Pb dating on zircons of various granitoids whose structural positions were defined with respect to the regional main foliation. Ages pertain to four groups: (i) Mesoproterozoic (circa 1430 Ma) crystallization of granites inferred from inherited magmatic zircon cores that have been partially molten during the (ii) Neoproterozoic at circa 685 Ma (metamorphic zircon rims) and subsequently intruded by a Neoproterozoic leucogranite (circa 600 Ma). (iii) Late- or post-Variscan calc-alkaline granitoids (315-301 Ma) were in turn intruded by a subvolcanic dike at about 280 Ma. In the Early Permian the ɛNd(t) in magmas decreased from -7.3 to -1.3, hinting to mantle-derived melts produced during extension. Rifting is further heralded by two acidic and one mafic dike containing Lower-Middle Triassic zircons (246-242 Ma). (iv) Early Cretaceous anatectic melts at 117 ± 8 Ma formed during regional metamorphism. This age is the first report of in situ anatexis in the Pelagonian Zone. Cretaceous anatexis developed during the Mesozoic collision of Pelagonia with the Eurasian margin. Major- and trace-element geochemistry of amphibolites further attests for the complex pre-Alpine tectonic history with Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline and back-arc geochemical signature and Triassic alkali-magmatism.

  13. Cretaceous Arctic magmatism: Slab vs. plume? Or slab and plume? (United States)

    Gottlieb, E. S.; Miller, E. L.; Andronikov, A. V.; Brumley, K.; Mayer, L. A.; Mukasa, S. B.


    radial dikes that emanate from the proposed locus of the HALIP on the Alpha Ridge (Buchan and Ernst, 2006). 112, 100, and 83 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) basaltic lavas dredged in 2008 from the northwestern edge of the Canada Basin bear geochemical similarity to HALIP magmatism on Ellesmere Island and Franz Josef Land. Geochemical data on terrestrial HALIP and dredged basalts is indicative of an evolving plume-related origin for basaltic magmatism by 112 Ma. No matter how the AB is reconstructed, its pre-mid-Cretaceous configuration requires that terrestrial exposures of the HALIP were much closer to the actively subducting and extending Russian-Alaskan margin. Likewise, the temporal overlap of the onset of extension along the Russian-Alaskan segment of the Arctic margin (~135-120 Ma) with eruption of Barremian-Aptian HALIP lavas needs to be considered in models for the opening of the AB. This geochronologic compilation and summary highlights the facts that before the opening of the AB, the HALIP originated in a back arc position with respect to slab-related magmatism along the Pacific margin of the Arctic and that the two types of magmatism overlap in age and were once closer in space.

  14. Subduction of the South Chile active spreading ridge: A 17 Ma to 3 Ma magmatic record in central Patagonia (western edge of Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires, Argentina) (United States)

    Boutonnet, E.; Arnaud, N.; Guivel, C.; Lagabrielle, Y.; Scalabrino, B.; Espinoza, F.


    The Chile Triple Junction is a natural laboratory to study the interactions between magmatism and tectonics during the subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath a continent. The MLBA plateau (Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires) is one of the Neogene alkali basaltic plateaus located in the back-arc region of the Andean Cordillera at the latitude of the current Chile Triple Junction. The genesis of MLBA can be related with successive opening of slabs windows beneath Patagonia: within the subducting Nazca Plate itself and between the Nazca and Antarctic plates. Detailed 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and geochemical analysis of bimodal magmatism from the western flank of the MLBA show major changes in the back-arc magmatism which occurred between 14.5 Ma and 12.5 Ma with the transition from calc-alkaline lavas (Cerro Plomo) to alkaline lavas (MLBA) in relation with slab window opening. In a second step, at 4-3 Ma, alkaline felsic intrusions were emplaced in the western flank of the MLBA coevally with the MLBA basalts with which they are genetically related. These late OIB-like alkaline to transitional basalts were generated by partial melting of the subslab asthenosphere of the subducting Nazca plate during the opening of the South Chile spreading ridge-related slab window. These basalts differentiated with small amounts of assimilation in shallow magma chambers emplaced along transtensional to extensional zones. The close association of bimodal magmatism with extensional tectonic features in the western MLBA is a strong support to the model of Patagonian collapse event proposed to have taken place between 5 and 3 Ma as a consequence of the presence of the asthenospheric window (SCR-1 segment of South Chile Ridge) below the MLBA area.

  15. From Back-arc Drifting to Arc Accretion: the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Evolution of the Guerrero Terrane Recorded by a Major Provenance Change in Sandstones from the Sierra de los Cuarzos, Central Mexico (United States)

    Palacios Garcia, N. B.; Martini, M.


    The Guerrero terrane composed of Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous arc assemblages, were drifted from the North American continental mainland during lower Early Cretaceous spreading in the Arperos back arc basin, and subsequently accreted back to the continental margin in the late Aptian. Although the accretion of the Guerrero terrane represents one of the major tectonic processes that shaped the southern North American Pacific margin, the stratigraphic record related to such a regional event was not yet recognized in central Mexico. Due to the Sierra de los Cuarzos is located just 50 km east of the Guerrero terrane suture belt, its stratigraphic record should be highly sensitive to first order tectonic changes and would record a syn-tectonic deposits related to this major event. In that study area, were identified two main Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clastic units. The Sierra de los Cuarzos formation represents the lowermost exposed stratigraphic record. Sedimentary structures, sandstones composition, and U-Pb detrital zircon ages document that the Sierra de los Cuarzos formation reflects a vigorous mass wasting along the margin of the North American continental mainland, representing the eastern side of the Arperos back arc basin. Sandstones of the Sierra de los Cuarzos formation are free from detrital contributions related to the Guerrero terrane juvenile sources, indicating that the Arperos Basin acted like an efficient sedimentological barrier that inhibited the influence of the arc massifs on the continental mainland deposits. The Sierra de los Cuarzos formation is overlain by submarine slope deposits of the Pelones formation, which mark a sudden change in the depositional conditions. Provenance analysis documents that sandstones from the Pelones formation were fed by the mafic to intermediate arc assemblages of the Guerrero terrane, as well as by quartz-rich sources of the continental mainland, suggesting that, by the time of deposition of the Pelones

  16. Volcanic rock-hosted gold and base-metal mineralization associated with neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic back-arc extension in the Carolina terrane, southern Appalachian Piedmont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiss, P.G. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Vance, R.K. (Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro (United States)); Wesolowski, D.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    Volcanogenic mineral deposits in the Carolina terrane, southern Appalachian Piedmont, include Kuroko-type polymetallic massive sulfide deposits and disseminated gold-pyrite deposits associated with propylitic, silicic, argillic, and advanced argillic alteration. Host rocks are metavolcaniclastic and metaepiclastic rocks of a Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian magmatic arc. The favorable gold horizon is the transition from a lower succession of andesitic and rhyolitic pyroelastic rocks with basal mafic lavas to an upper sequence of epiclastic sedimentary units and minor lava and ash flows. Kuroko-type deposits are associated with mafic to bimodal volcanic rocks in the upper sequence. Whole-rock oxygen isotope analyses indicate that gold mineralization is associated with a transition from hydrothermal systems dominated by isotopically relatively light ([delta][sup 18]O = -6% to -10%) waters, typical of high-latitude subaerial systems, to seawater ([delta][sup 18]O = 0%). Plots of [delta][sup 18]O vs. SiO[sub 2] of the host rocks show a compositional gap associated with mineralization at the subaerial to submarine transition. Values of [delta][sup 18]O for the hydrothermal waters, lithostratigraphic analyses, and tectonic models of the Carolina terrane demonstrate that mineralization coincided with extension in a rifted arc. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Reconstruction of Late Cretaceous Magmatic Arcs in the Northern Andes: Single Versus Multiple Arc Systems (United States)

    Cardona, A.; Jaramillo, J. S.; Leon, S.; Hincapie, S.; Mejia, D.; Patino, A. M.; Vanegas, J.; Zapata, S.; Valencia, V.; Jimenez, G.; Monsalve, G.


    Although magmatic rocks are major tracers of the geological evolution of convergent margins, pre-collisional events such as subduction erosion, collisional thrusting or late collisional strike slip segmentation may difficult the recognizing of multiple arc systems and therefore the existence of paleogeographic scenarios with multiple subduction systems. New field, U-Pb geochronology and whole rock geochemistry constraints from the northwestern segment of the Central Cordillera in the states of Antioquia and Caldas (Colombia) are used to understand the nature of the Late Cretaceous arc magmatism and evaluate the existence of single or multiple Pacific and Caribbean arc systems in the growth of the Northwestern Andes. The new results integrated with additional field and published information is used to suggest the existence of at least three different magmatic arcs. (1) An Eastern Continental arc built within a well defined Permian to Triassic continental crust that record a protracted 90-70 Ma magmatic evolution, (2) a 90-80 arc formed within attenuated continental crust and associated oceanic crust, (3) 90-88 Ma arc formed over a Late Cretaceous plateau crust. The eastern arcs were formed as part of double eastern vergent subduction system, where the most outboard arc represent a fringing arc formed over detached fragments of continental crust, whereas the easternmost continental arc growth by the closure an subduction of and older and broad Triassic to Early Jurassic back-arc ocean. Its closure also end up in ophiolite emplacement. The third allochtonous oceanic arc was formed over the Caribbean plateau crust and was accreted to the continental margin in the Late Cretaceous. Ongoing paleomagnetic, deformational, gravimetric and basin analysis will be integrate to test this model and understand the complex Late Cretaceous tectonic evolution of the Northern Andes.

  18. A historical overview of Moroccan magmatic events along northwest edge of the West African Craton (United States)

    Ikenne, Moha; Souhassou, Mustapha; Arai, Shoji; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane


    the Internal Maghrebian flysch nappes as well as in the external Mesorif. This event consists of Middle-Upper Jurassic MORB tholeiites emplaced during opening of the Alpine Tethys ocean. The Central High Atlas also records Early Cretaceous alpine Tethys magmatism associated with the aborted Atlas rift, or perhaps linked to plume activity on the edge of the WAC. Cenozoic magmatism is associated with Tertiary and Quaternary circum-Mediterranean alkaline provinces, and is characterized by an intermittent activity over 50 Ma from the Anti-Atlas to the Rif Mountain along a SW-NE volcanic lineament which underlines a thinned continental lithosphere.

  19. Cenozoic Mineralization in China, as a Key to Past Mineralization and a Clue to Future Prospecting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Many Cenozoic metal deposits have been found during the past decade. Among them, the Fuwan Ag deposit in Guangdong is the largest Ag deposit in China. Besides, the largest Cu deposit of China in Yulong, Tibet, the largest Pb-Zn deposit of China in Jinding, Yunnan, and the largest Au deposit of China in Jinguashi,Taiwan, were also formed in the Cenozoic. Why so many important "present" deposits formed during such a short period of geological history is the key problem. The major reason is that different tectonic settings control different kinds of magmatic activity and mineralization at the same time. In southwestern China, porphyry-type Cu deposits such as Yulong were formed during the early stage of the Himalayan orogeny, sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits such as Jinding were formed within intermontane basins related to deep faults, and carbonatite-related deposits such as the Maoniuping REE deposit and alkalic magmatic rock-related deposits such as the Beiya Au deposit originated from the mantle source. In southeastern China, the Fuwan Ag deposit was related to continental rifting which was triggered by the mantle plume. In Taiwan, the Jinguashi Au deposit was formed during the subduction process of an oceanic plate beneath a continental plate. Besides, the features such as the diversification, inheritance, large size, deep source of metals and fluids of the Cenozoic (Present or Recent ) mineralization can be used as a key to the search for past deposits.

  20. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere. (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel


    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  1. The Research of Cenozoic Migrant Worker Satisfaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The phenomenon of Cenozoic migrant worker shortage is a realism problem of China's enterprise,and Cenozoic migrant worker has become an important force occupied the social structure.So the study of Cenozoic migrant worker's status and the demand is imperative.Understand employees"both psychological and physiological satisfaction of enterprises'environmental factors,and make some corresponding changes is of great help to reduce the employee turnover rate.This paper commenced to research from the Cenozoic migrant worker's characteristics,analyzed conditions and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures.

  2. K-Ar ages of igneous activity in the Amakusa area, Kumamoto prefecture: an investigation of Miocene magmatic activity in the Inner and Outer Zone of Kyushu, southwestern Japan; Kumamotoken Amakusa chiiki no kasei katsudo no K-Ar nendai to Kyushu naitai gaitai ni okeru chushinsei magma katsudo no renji no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamasaki, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    The timing of igneous activity in the Amakusa area, the most southern part of the Inner Zone of Kyushu, was determined on two samples by K-Ar age dating (quartz porphyry: 16.7{+-}0.3 Ma, granodiorite: 14.6{+-}0.3 Ma). These and previous ages indicate that Miocene felsic igneous activity and continuous mafic igneous activity, composed of high Mg andesite, occurred between 19 and 14 Ms. Basalt activity took place at 10 and 7 Ma. The felsic and mafic igneous activity occurred intermittently at 1-3 m.y. intervals in the Amakusa area. Miocene igneous activity was protracted more than 5 m.y. in the Amakusa area and also elsewhere in the Inner Zone of Kyushu, for example, Tsushima (19-14 Ma), Goto (20-7 Ma) and Koshikijima (15-7 Ma). In contrast the ages of Miocene igneous activity in the Outer Zone of Kyushu extend for only about 2 m.y., around 15-13 Ma, which indicates that the range of Miocene magmatic activity in the Inner Zone of Kyushu was longer than that in the Outer Zone. It is possible that different styles of magmatic activity occurred during the Miocene in the Inner and Outer Zone of Kyushu, i.e. back-arc and fore-arc tectonic settings, respectively. In the back-arc area the upper lithosphere expanded, became thin and fractured as a result of being pulled by the subducted lithosphere. After that magma front the asthenosphere ascended intermittently along the cracks in the fractured upper lithosphere, which caused extensive and intermittent magmatic activity. This is one possible explanation why Miocene magmatic activity is protracted in the Inner Zone which was a back-arc area. The Miocene magmatic activity in the Tsushima and Goto area started at 20-18 Ma, which is almost the same time when the Sea of Japan opened. It maybe that a large amount of magmatic activity was associated with the opening of the Sea of Japan at about 20 Ma in the region of the Sea of Japan, Oki, Tsushima and Goto. Magmatic activity in the Goto and Koshikijima

  3. Diverse magmatic effects of subducting a hot slab in SW Japan: Results from forward modeling (United States)

    Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Gill, James B.; Kunikiyo, Tomoyuki; Osaka, Isaku; Shimoshioiri, Yusuke; Katakuse, Maiko; Kakubuchi, Susumu; Nagao, Takashi; Furuyama, Katsuhiko; Kamei, Atsushi; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Junichi; van Keken, Peter E.; Stern, Robert J.


    response to the subduction of the young Shikoku Basin of the Philippine Sea Plate, arc magmas erupted in SW Japan throughout the late Cenozoic. Many magma types are present including ocean island basalt (OIB), shoshonite (SHO), arc-type alkali basalt (AB), typical subalkalic arc basalt (SAB), high-Mg andesite (HMA), and adakite (ADK). OIB erupted since the Japan Sea back-arc basin opened, whereas subsequent arc magmas accompanied subduction of the Shikoku Basin. However, there the origin of the magmas in relation to hot subduction is debated. Using new major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope analyses of 324 lava samples from seven Quaternary volcanoes, we investigated the genetic conditions of the magma suites using a geochemical mass balance model, Arc Basalt Simulator version 4 (ABS4), that uses these data to solve for the parameters such as pressure/temperature of slab dehydration/melting and slab flux fraction, pressure, and temperature of mantle melting. The calculations suggest that those magmas originated from slab melts that induced flux melting of mantle peridotite. The suites differ mostly in the mass fraction of slab-melt flux, increasing from SHO through AB, SAB, HMA, to ADK. The pressure and temperature of mantle melting decreases in the same order. The suites differ secondarily in the ratio of altered oceanic crust to sediment in the source of the slab melt. The atypical suites associated with hot subduction result from unusually large mass fractions of slab melt and unusually cool mantle temperatures.

  4. Subduction of the South-Chile active spreading ridge: a 17 Ma to 3 Ma magmatic record in central Patagonia (western edge of Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires, Argentina) (United States)

    Boutonnet, Emmanuelle; Arnaud, Nicolas; Guivel, Christèle; Lagabrielle, Yves; Scalabrino, Bruno; Espinoza, Felipe


    The Chile Triple Junction is a natural laboratory to study the interactions between magmatism and tectonics during the subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath a continent. The MLBA plateau (Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires) is one of the Neogene alkali basaltic plateaus located in the back-arc region of the Andean Cordillera at the latitude of the current Chile Triple Junction. The genesis of MLBA can be related with successive opening of slabs windows beneath Patagonia: within the subducting Nazca Plate itself and between the Nazca and Antarctic plates. Detailed 40Ar/39Ar dating and geochemical analysis of bimodal magmatism from the western flank of the MLBA show major changes in the back-arc magmatism which occurred between 14.5 Ma and 12.5 Ma with the transition from calc-alkaline lavas (Cerro Plomo) to alkaline lavas (MLBA) in relation with slab window opening. In a second step, at 4- 3 Ma, alkaline felsic intrusions were emplaced in the western flank of the MLBA coevally with the MLBA basalts with which they are genetically related. These late OIB-like alkaline to transitional basalts were generated by partial melting of the subslab asthenosphere of the subducting Nazca plate during the opening of the South Chile spreading ridge-related slab window. These basalts differentiated with small amounts of assimilation in shallow magma chambers emplaced along transtensional to extensional zones. The close association of bimodal magmatism with extensional tectonic features in the western MLBA is a strong support to the model of Patagonian collapse event proposed to have taken place between 5 and 3 Ma as a consequence of the presence of the asthenospheric window (SCR-1 segment of South Chile Ridge) below the MLBA area.

  5. Analysing the Cenozoic depositional record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.

    It is well known that sediment deposition in the North Sea and on the Norwegian Shelf varied significantly during the Cenozoic as a consequence of varying erosion rate mainly in Western Scandinavia, in Scotland and in the Alps. Recent results have demonstrated that a causal relationship exists...... of variations in erosion rates. Here we present the rationale behind the project, the data available and some preliminary results. The dense seismic and well coverage in the area makes it possible to estimate the rate of deposition of matrix mass. Assuming that sediment storage is not important, this provides...

  6. Geological and geochemical studies of the Sierra del Morro-Oeste (San Luis Province, Argentina): Meta-sediments and meta-volcanics from a probable back-arc setting (United States)

    Delakowitz, B.; Höll, R.; Hack, M.; de Brodtkorb, M. K.; Stärk, H.

    The Sierra del Morro-Oeste covers an area of some 40 km 2 in the northeastern part of San Luis Province, Argentina. This area is an integral part of the scheelite- and wolframite-bearing crystalline basement of the Sierras Pampeanas. A "characteristic rock sequence"—several tens of meters thick—is concordantly embedded between uniform country rocks (quartz-oligoclase/andesine micaschists and gneises); it includes layered alternations of banded amphibolites, hornblende-epidote schists, scheelite-bearing calc-silicate rocks, lenses of barren marble, and, locally, tourmaline-bearing micaschists. Chemical analyses of amphibolite samples allow these metamorphic rocks to be interpreted as derivatives of a tholeiite-basaltic volcanism. The amphibolites are subdivided into two groups (A and B) because of significant differences in their chemical composition. These differences are related to hydrothermal seafloor alteration. This sea-water alteration has been most effective in the youngest tholeiite-basaltic lava extrusions. The derivatives of the submarine altered tholeiite-basaltic lavas (amphibolites of Group B) can therefore be interpreted as younger in comparison with the primary lavas of the non-altered amphibolites of Group A. The extrusion of the tholeiite-basaltic lavas obviously took place during an initial stage of back-arc basin rifting on continental crust.

  7. Late Cenozoic evolution of the East China continental margin: Insights from seismic, gravity, and magnetic analyses (United States)

    Shang, Lu-Ning; Zhang, Xun-Hua; Jia, Yong-Gang; Han, Bo; Yang, Chuan-Sheng; Geng, Wei; Pang, Yu-Mao


    Seismic reflection profiles reveal the structural characteristics beneath the East China Sea shelf margin and the Okinawa Trough, and provide new constraints on the Late Cenozoic evolution of the East China continental margin. The Frontal Shelf Basin between the Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift and the trough axis occupies the western half of the Northern-Middle Okinawa Trough. In this basin, the Middle-Late Miocene sediments are confined to grabens or half-grabens dominated by listric faults, whereas the overlying Pliocene-Quaternary sequence is characterized by a uniform thickness and dense planar-type faults, suggesting that rifting of the Northern-Middle Okinawa Trough initiated during the Middle Miocene but slowed down during the earliest Pliocene. Since that time, the opening of the Okinawa Trough has been dominated by diffuse rifting. The Southern Okinawa Trough is predominately filled by Quaternary sediments, indicating that its back-arc rifting began during the earliest Pleistocene. Contractional structures identified in the pre-Quaternary sequence beneath the continental slope, along with an erosional Pleistocene-pre-Pleistocene unconformity in the Southern Okinawa Trough, demonstrate the existence of pre-rifting compression and uplifting in this region. We use this evidence and previously published results, to propose an evolutionary model of the East China continental margin during the Late Cenozoic. The Northern-Middle Okinawa Trough began rifting during the Middle Miocene on a paleo-uplift. The Luzon Arc initially impinged upon the Eurasian continental margin during the Late Miocene near the southeastern end of the Miyako Fault Belt and activated the proto-Taiwan Orogeny in today's Southern Okinawa Trough and adjacent regions. During the Late Miocene-Pliocene, the orogeny quickly propagated southwestward along with the west-northwest-moving Philippine Sea Plate. Subsequently, the rifting of the Southern Okinawa Trough was initiated during the earliest Pleistocene

  8. Copahue volcano and its regional magmatic setting (United States)

    Varekamp, J C; Zareski, J E; Camfield, L M; Todd, Erin


    Copahue volcano (Province of Neuquen, Argentina) has produced lavas and strombolian deposits over several 100,000s of years, building a rounded volcano with a 3 km elevation. The products are mainly basaltic andesites, with the 2000–2012 eruptive products the most mafic. The geochemistry of Copahue products is compared with those of the main Andes arc (Llaima, Callaqui, Tolhuaca), the older Caviahue volcano directly east of Copahue, and the back arc volcanics of the Loncopue graben. The Caviahue rocks resemble the main Andes arc suite, whereas the Copahue rocks are characterized by lower Fe and Ti contents and higher incompatible element concentrations. The rocks have negative Nb-Ta anomalies, modest enrichments in radiogenic Sr and Pb isotope ratios and slightly depleted Nd isotope ratios. The combined trace element and isotopic data indicate that Copahue magmas formed in a relatively dry mantle environment, with melting of a subducted sediment residue. The back arc basalts show a wide variation in isotopic composition, have similar water contents as the Copahue magmas and show evidence for a subducted sedimentary component in their source regions. The low 206Pb/204Pb of some backarc lava flows suggests the presence of a second endmember with an EM1 flavor in its source. The overall magma genesis is explained within the context of a subducted slab with sediment that gradually looses water, water-mobile elements, and then switches to sediment melt extracts deeper down in the subduction zone. With the change in element extraction mechanism with depth comes a depletion and fractionation of the subducted complex that is reflected in the isotope and trace element signatures of the products from the main arc to Copahue to the back arc basalts.

  9. Palinspastic restoration of NAVDat and implications for the origin of magmatism in southwestern North America (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Oskin, Michael


    Simultaneous palinspastic restoration of deformation and volcanism illuminates relationships between magmatism and tectonics in western North America. Using ArcGIS, we retrodeformed the NAVDat (North American Volcanic Database, using the western North America reconstruction of McQuarrie and Wernicke (2005). From these data sets we quantitatively compare rates of magmatism and deformation and evaluate the age, composition, and migration of Cenozoic volcanism from 36 Ma to present. These relationships are shown in a series of palinspastic maps as well as animations that highlight migrating extension and volcanism with time. Western North America is grouped into eight different regions with distinct relationships between strain and volcanism to evaluate competing hypotheses regarding the relationship of extension to continental magmatism. A first-order observation from this study is that magmatism throughout the Basin and Range appears to be primarily driven by plate boundary effects, notably subducting and foundering slabs as well as slab windows. Exceptions include the Yellowstone hotspot system along the northern border of our study area and late-stage (<8 Ma) passive, extension-related asthenospheric upwelling along the eastern and western margins of the Basin and Range. The palinspastic reconstructions presented here highlight that the classic, high-angle, Basin and Range faulting that comprises most of the physiographic Basin and Range Province commenced during a magmatic lull. More broadly, with the exception of the Rio Grande rift we find that pulses of magmatism lag the onset of extension. These observations largely contradict the active rifting model where magmatism triggers Basin and Range extension.

  10. Late-Paleozoic emplacement and Meso-Cenozoic reactivation of the southern Kazakhstan granitoid basement (United States)

    De Pelsmaeker, Elien; Glorie, Stijn; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhimulev, Fedor I.; Poujol, Marc; Korobkin, Valeriy V.; Vanhaecke, Frank; Vetrov, Evgeny V.; De Grave, Johan


    The Ili-Balkhash Basin in southeastern Kazakhstan is located at the junction of the actively deforming mountain ranges of western Junggar and the Tien Shan, and is therefore part of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The basement of the Ili-Balkhash area consists of an assemblage of mainly Precambrian microcontinental fragments, magmatic arcs and accretionary complexes. Eight magmatic basement samples (granitoids and tuffs) from the Ili-Balkhash area were dated with zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS and yield Carboniferous to late Permian (~ 350-260 Ma) crystallization ages. These ages are interpreted as reflecting the transition from subduction to (post-) collisional magmatism, related to the closure of the Junggar-Balkhash Ocean during the Carboniferous-early Permian and hence, to the final late Paleozoic accretion history of the ancestral Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Apatite fission track (AFT) dating of 14 basement samples (gneiss, granitoids and volcanic tuffs) mainly provides Cretaceous cooling ages. Thermal history modeling based on the AFT data reveals that several intracontinental tectonic reactivation episodes affected the studied basement during the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Late Mesozoic reactivation and associated basement exhumation is interpreted as distant effects of the Cimmerian collisions at the southern Eurasian margin and possibly of the Mongol-Okhotsk Orogeny in SE Siberia during the Jurassic-Cretaceous. Following tectonic stability during the Paleogene, inherited basement structures were reactivated during the Neogene (constrained by Miocene AFT ages of ~ 17-10 Ma). This late Cenozoic reactivation is interpreted as the far-field response of the India-Eurasia collision and reflects the onset of modern mountain building and denudation in southeast Kazakhstan, which seems to be at least partially controlled by the inherited basement architecture.

  11. Petrology, geochemistry and Sm-Nd analyses on the Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria): Remnants of a Devonian back-arc basin in the easternmost part of the Variscan domain (United States)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Diot, Hervé; Mărunţiu, Marcel; Berger, Julien; Triantafyllou, Antoine


    The pre-Alpine basement of the Southern Carpathians/Western Balkans contains four ophiolitic massifs dismembered by Alpine tectonics, which define the ;Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite; (BCO) for which the tectonic setting and age of formation are still debated (Precambrian or Early Devonian). In this contribution, we demonstrate that, in light of a Pre-Alpine restoration, the four massifs belonged to a unique slice of very complete, obducted oceanic lithosphere and we re-evaluate its tectonic setting. Large chromitite volumes with Al-rich spinel compositions (Cr# = 0.39-0.48), as well as major and trace geochemical results on basalts (slightly enriched N-MORBs with low negative Nb anomaly associated with calk-alkaline BABBs), point to a formation in a back-arc basin. Mantle spinel composition (Cr# = 0.49-0.51) and melting modeling indicate mean melting extents of 8.5-11% favouring intermediate spreading rate. New Sm-Nd dating on lower gabbroic rocks give a whole rock isochron, interpreted as the age of formation of the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, thus confirming an Early Devonian oceanic crust. The previous ∼563 Ma U-Pb zircon age can be interpreted as casual inheritance indicating the proximity of an old continental lithosphere. Taking into account the lithological evidences and paleocontinental affinities of the two recognized terranes separated by the BC oceanic basin (Balkans and Sredna Gora) and by analogy with other Variscan ophiolites in Western/Central Europe, we suggest that the BC ophiolite belong to the ∼400 Ma ophiolites group obducted between West and East Galatia and belonging to the southern Variscan suture. However, the BC ophiolite is the only one of this group obducted to the north and not involved in the Lower Allochthon/ophiolite/Upper Allochthon thrust pile, likely explaining its exceptional preservation. Finally, we tentatively propose a new unifying tectonic model where different terrane drift rates and highly oblique displacements create two

  12. Magmatism on the Moon (United States)

    Michaut, Chloé; Thorey, Clément; Pinel, Virginie


    Volcanism on the Moon is dominated by large fissure eruptions of mare basalt and seems to lack large, central vent, shield volcanoes as observed on all the other terrestrial planets. Large shield volcanoes are constructed over millions to several hundreds of millions of years. On the Moon, magmas might not have been buoyant enough to allow for a prolonged activity at the same place over such lengths of time. The lunar crust was indeed formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean, resulting in a particularly light and relatively thick crust. This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the denser primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basins where at least part of the crust was removed by the impact process. Thus, the ascent of lunar magmas might have been limited by their reduced buoyancy, leading to storage zone formation deep in the lunar crust. Further magma ascent to shallower depths might have required local or regional tensional stresses. Here, we first review evidences of shallow magmatic intrusions within the lunar crust of the Moon that consist in surface deformations presenting morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. We then study the preferential zones of magma storage in the lunar crust as a function of the local and regional state of stress. Evidences of shallow intrusions are often contained within complex impact craters suggesting that the local depression caused by the impact exerted a strong control on magma ascent. The depression is felt over a depth equivalent to the crater radius. Because many of these craters have a radius less than 30km, the minimum crust thickness, this suggests that the magma was already stored in deeper intrusions before ascending at shallower depth. All the evidences for intrusions are also preferentially located in the internal

  13. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.


    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  14. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous episodic development of the Bangong Meso-Tethyan subduction: Evidence from elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of arc magmatic rocks, Gaize region, central Tibet, China (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Zhi-Wu; Yang, Wen-Guang; Zhu, Li-Dong; Jin, Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Yao; Tao, Gang; Zhang, Kai-Jun


    The Bangong Meso-Tethys plays a critical role in the development of the Tethyan realm and the initial elevation of the Tibetan Plateau. However, its precise subduction polarity, and history still remain unclear. In this study, we synthesize a report for the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous two-phase magmatic rocks in the Gaize region at the southern margin of the Qiangtang block located in central Tibet. These rocks formed during the Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous (161-142 Ma) and Early Cretaceous (128-106 Ma), peaking at 146 Ma and 118 Ma, respectively. The presence of inherited zircons indicates that an Archean component exists in sediments in the shallow Qiangtang crust, and has a complex tectonomagmatic history. Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data show that the two-phase magmatic rocks exhibit characteristics of arc magmatism, which are rich in large-ion incompatible elements (LIIEs), but are strongly depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs). The Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous magmatic rocks mixed and mingled among mantle-derived mafic magmas, subduction-related sediments, or crustally-derived felsic melts and fluids, formed by a northward and steep subduction of the Bangong Meso-Tethys ocean crust. The magmatic gap at 142-128 Ma marks a flat subduction of the Meso-Tethys. The Early Cretaceous magmatism experienced a magma MASH (melting, assimilation, storage, and homogenization) process among mantle-derived mafic magmas, or crustally-derived felsic melts and fluids, as a result of the Meso-Tethys oceanic slab roll-back, which triggered simultaneous back-arc rifting along the southern Qiangtang block margin.

  15. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza


    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or

  16. Cenozoic seawater Sr/Ca evolution (United States)

    Sosdian, Sindia M.; Lear, Caroline H.; Tao, Kai; Grossman, Ethan L.; O'Dea, Aaron; Rosenthal, Yair


    Records of seawater chemistry help constrain temporal variations in geochemical processes that impact the global carbon cycle and climate through Earth's history. Here we reconstruct Cenozoic seawater Sr/Ca (Sr/Casw) using fossil Conus and turritellid gastropod Sr/Ca. Combined with an oxygen isotope paleotemperature record from the same samples, the gastropod record suggests that Sr/Caswwas slightly higher in the Eocene (˜11.4 ± 3 mmol/mol) than today (˜8.54 mmol/mol) and remained relatively stable from the mid- to late Cenozoic. We compare our gastropod Cenozoic Sr/Casw record with a published turritellid gastropod Sr/Casw record and other published biogenic (benthic foraminifera, fossil fish teeth) and inorganic precipitate (calcite veins) Sr/Caswrecords. Once the uncertainties with our gastropod-derived Sr/Casw are taken into account the Sr/Casw record agrees reasonably well with biogenic Sr/Caswrecords. Assuming a seawater [Ca] history derived from marine evaporite inclusions, all biogenic-based Sr/Casw reconstructions imply decreasing seawater [Sr] through the Cenozoic, whereas the calcite vein Sr/Casw reconstruction implies increasing [Sr] through the Cenozoic. We apply a simple geochemical model to examine the implications of divergence among these seawater [Sr] reconstructions and suggest that the interpretation and uncertainties associated with the gastropod and calcite vein proxies need to be revisited. Used in conjunction with records of carbonate depositional fluxes, our favored seawater Sr/Ca scenarios point to a significant increase in the proportion of aragonite versus calcite deposition in shelf sediments from the Middle Miocene, coincident with the proliferation of coral reefs. We propose that this occurred at least 10 million years after the seawater Mg/Ca threshold was passed, and was instead aided by declining levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  17. Tonian granitic magmatism of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil: A review (United States)

    Guimarães, Ignez P.; de Fatima L. de Brito, Maria; de A. Lages, Geysson; da Silva Filho, Adejardo F.; Santos, Lucilene; Brasilino, Roberta G.


    Tonian granitoids, today augen-gneisses and migmatites, showing crystallization ages ranging from 870 Ma to 1000 Ma occur in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. The majority of them have ages within the 925-970 Ma interval. Few intrusions with ages of ∼1.0 Ga and successions and metasedimentary sequences in the Transversal and South subprovinces. Tonian granitoids are unknown in the North subprovince. The CVG comprise mainly coarse-grained augen-gneisses of granite to granodiorite composition. Fe-rich biotite (annite) is the main mafic mineral phase, constituting up to 15% of the modal composition. Garnet, muscovite and tourmaline occur as accessory phases in many plutons. The CVG augen-gneisses have high SiO2 (>71%) and alkali contents, they vary from slightly peraluminous to slightly metaluminous, and from slightly magnesian to typical ferrroan rocks. In the migmatized orthogneisses the SiO2 contents are usually 40 ppm). The chondrite normalized REE patterns are characterized by strong to moderate negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.23-0.70). In general, the spidergram patterns show deep troughs at Ti, P, Ba and Sr and less pronounced Nb-Ta troughs. These patterns are similar to those reported for anorogenic granites evolved from mixtures of magmas from both crustal and mantle sources. The CVG exhibit TDM model ages ranging from 1.9 to 1.1Ga, with slightly negative to slightly positive ƐNd(t) values, suggesting the involvement of distinct proportions of mantle and crustal components in the source of their protoliths. There is no consensus in the literature about the tectonic setting of the CVG ie they have been related to either continental margin magmatic arc, with possible back-arc association, or extention-related setting, with generation of A-type granites. However, all the available geochemical data suggest that the CVG represent extension related magmatism. The geochemical signature associated to bimodal volcanism, including pyroclastic rocks, with similar

  18. What Controls Space-Time Patterns of Magmatism in Western North America: Plate Tectonics, Delamination, or Convection? (United States)

    Glazner, A. F.


    Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatism in western North America is commonly explained by shallowing and steepening of subduction along the west coast of North America, and progressive destruction of the subduction system by development of the San Andreas transform fault system. This hypothesis makes several specific predictions about space-time patterns of magmatism, including eastward and westward sweeps, development of slab-window magmatism, and progressive northward extinction of an ancestral Cascade arc. However, analysis of space-time patterns using the NAVDAT database indicates that these predicted patterns are curiously obscure in the magmatic record, although other unexplained patterns are strong. Animation of about 29,000 Cenozoic U.S. points from NAVDAT ( demonstrates that: (1) calc- alkaline, intermediate volcanism is poorly linked to the subduction system; (2) there is little evidence for slab- window magmatism; (3) there was no ancestral Cascade arc south of Oregon until ca. 10 Ma; (4) magmatism shifted from primarily silicic to dominantly basaltic throughout the Miocene; and (5) magmatism was clearly migratory in several directions in ways that cannot be explained by plate-tectonic processes, at length scales ranging from 1000s to 10s of km. Space-time patterns that cannot be readily linked to plate-tectonic control include: (1) a silicic sweep from Montana into Nevada from 50 to 20 Ma; (2) a clockwise sweep around the Colorado Plateau from New Mexico to southern Nevada from about 30 to 15 Ma; (3) a burst of magmatism at about 16 Ma in northern Nevada, followed by outward sweeps to Yellowstone, Oregon, and the Sierra Nevada; (4) progressive encroachment of basaltic magmatism onto the Colorado Plateau, and (5) several local migrations, including from Phoenix north onto the Colorado Plateau and from the San Francisco Bay area north to the Geysers geothermal field. These migrations typically occurred at 20-50 mm/yr. Possible origins include

  19. Constraining the vertical surface motions of the Hampshire Basin, south England During the Cenozoic (United States)

    Smith, Philip; England, Richard; Zalasiewicz, Jan


    mechanism for the observed return to a long wavelength tilting of the UK superimposed on short wavelength variations in surface topography caused by an existing state of tectonic stress, possibly inherited in the early to mid Cenozoic. Considering the tectonic and structural evidence available, the Cenozoic topography could be explained by magmatic underplating associated with north Atlantic opening and/or crustal buckling as a result of the Alpine collisional sequences. Additional deep boreholes from the London basin and East Anglia provide a comprehensive 3D tectonic map of vertical surface motions during the early to mid Cenozoic. From this we may be able to understand more about the major tectonic controls influencing southern England at this time and what is modifying the current surface elevation change on short wavelengths.

  20. Upper cretaceous magmatic suites of the Timok magmatic complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banješević Miodrag


    Full Text Available The Upper Cretaceous Timok Magmatic Complex (TMC developed on a continental crust composed of different types of Proterozoic to Lower Cretaceous rocks. The TMC consists of the magmatic suites: Timok andesite (AT - Turonian-Santonian, Metovnica epiclastite (EM - Coniacian-Campanian, Osnić basaltic andesite (AO and Ježevica andesite (AJ - Santonian-Campanian, Valja Strž plutonite (PVS - Campanian and Boljevac latite (LB. The sedimentary processes and volcanic activity of the TMC lasted nearly continuously throughout nearly the whole Late Cretaceous. The sedimentation lasted from the Albian to the Maastrichtian and the magmatism lasted for 10 million years, from the Upper Turonian to the Upper Campanian. The volcanic front migrated from East to West. The volcanic processes were characterized by the domination of extrusive volcanic facies, a great amount of volcanic material, a change in the depositional environment during the volcanic cycle, sharp facial transitions and a huge deposition of syn- and post-eruptive resedimented volcaniclastics.

  1. Marine ecosystem responses to Cenozoic global change. (United States)

    Norris, R D; Turner, S Kirtland; Hull, P M; Ridgwell, A


    The future impacts of anthropogenic global change on marine ecosystems are highly uncertain, but insights can be gained from past intervals of high atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure. The long-term geological record reveals an early Cenozoic warm climate that supported smaller polar ecosystems, few coral-algal reefs, expanded shallow-water platforms, longer food chains with less energy for top predators, and a less oxygenated ocean than today. The closest analogs for our likely future are climate transients, 10,000 to 200,000 years in duration, that occurred during the long early Cenozoic interval of elevated warmth. Although the future ocean will begin to resemble the past greenhouse world, it will retain elements of the present "icehouse" world long into the future. Changing temperatures and ocean acidification, together with rising sea level and shifts in ocean productivity, will keep marine ecosystems in a state of continuous change for 100,000 years.

  2. Cenozoic vertical motions in the Moray Firth Basin associated with initiation of the Iceland Plume (United States)

    Mackay, L. M.; Turner, J.; Jones, S. M.; White, N. J.


    It is likely that the Iceland mantle plume generated transient uplift across the North Atlantic region when it initiated in earliest Cenozoic time. However, transient uplift recorded in sedimentary basins fringing the region can be overprinted by the effects of permanent uplift. Identifying and quantifying transient uplift can only be achieved in areas which have a well-constrained stratigraphic record and across which the relative importance of permanent and transient uplift varies (e.g., the Moray Firth Basin, North Sea). By analyzing the subsidence of 50 boreholes from the Moray Firth Basin (MFB), residual vertical motions unrelated to rifting have been isolated. Transient uplift of 180-425 m occurred during Paleocene times. The western MFB has also been affected by permanent Cenozoic uplift, with denudation decreasing from 1.3 ± 0.1 km in the west of the basin to zero denudation east of 1°W. Dynamic support above the Iceland Plume led to transient uplift of the entire MFB in early Paleocene times, peaking in latest Paleocene times. In early Eocene times the effect of the plume waned, and subsidence occurred. Paleocene permanent uplift of the NW British Isles is generally accepted to have been due to magmatic underplating of the crust emplaced during the British Tertiary Igneous Province (61-58.5 Ma). The cause of Neogene uplift events is poorly understood, but it could also be associated with the Iceland Plume.

  3. Rapakivi granites in the geological history of the earth. Part 1, magmatic associations with rapakivi granites: Age, geochemistry, and tectonic setting (United States)

    Larin, A. M.


    Rapakivi granites characteristic practically of all old platforms are greatly variable in age and irregularly distributed over the globe. Four types of magmatic associations, which include rapakivi granites, are represented by anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite, anorthosite-mangerite-rapakivi-peralkaline granite, gabbro-rapakivi granite-foidite, and rapakivi granite-shoshonite rock series. Granitoids of these associations used to be divided into the following three groups: (1) classical rapakivi granites from magmatic associations of the first three types, which correspond to subalkaline high-K and high-Fe reduced A2-type granites exemplifying the plumasitic trend of evolution; (2) peralkaline granites of the second magmatic association representing the highly differentiated A1-type reduced granites of Na-series, which are extremely enriched in incompatible elements and show the agpaitic trend of evolution; and (3) subalkaline oxidized granites of the fourth magmatic association ranging in composition from potassic A2-type granites to S-granites. Magmatic complexes including rapakivi granites originated during the geochronological interval that spanned three supercontinental cycles 2.7-1.8, 1.8-1.0 and 1.0-0.55 Ga ago. The onset and end of each cycle constrained the assembly periods of supercontinents and the formation epochs of predominantly anorthosite-charnockite complexes of the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite magmatic association. Peak of the respective magmatism at the time of Grenvillian Orogeny signified the transition from the tectonics of small lithospheric plates to the subsequent plate tectonics of the current type. The outburst of rapakivi granite magmatism was typical of the second cycle exclusively. The anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite magmatic series associated with this magmatism originated in back-arc settings, if we consider the latter in a broad sense as corresponding to the rear parts of

  4. Numerical simulation of rifting controlled by magmatic underplating in the South China Sea (United States)

    Xu, Hehua


    South China Sea is one of the largest basins in the western Pacific marginal sea, which is located in the intersection area of the Eurasia, the India-Australian and the Pacific-Philippines plate. Although the duration of seafloor spreading and the extension mechanism are still controversial.It is widely accepted that the South China Sea was opened by seafloor spreading in the Cenozoic. From the point of its structural development history, South China Sea has its own unique development model, which is formed by the continent rifting and expansion, while the tectonic evolution has close relationship with geological peripheral units. According to the seismic detection and magnetic integrated geophysics, the studies found that high-speed lower crust layers are widespread in the northern South China Sea and the northeast of continental margin, these layers are mainly located in continental slopes and some high-degree tensional continental shelves. Researches suggested that materials of high-speed in lower crustal layers are formed by the bottom magmatic underplating rather than serpentinized mantle peridotite. These layers are formed in Cenozoic and has close relationship with extension. However, in most kinematic and dynamic models of rift formation and evolution, the effects of magmatism have been neglected. This study established a two-dimensional thermal - mechanical coupled finite element model to simulate the role of underplated magmatic bodies in the localization of deformation. We examine the response of the lithosphere to an applied constant boundary velocity at the edge of the model. The mamatic underplating is introduced as a material with an anomalous high temperture and a magic upper mantle composition. The mechanical problem is coupled with the thermal problem through temperature-dependent viscosity. Since extension of lithosphere and underlying mantle is associated with intense and simultaneous viscous and brittle/plastic(faulting) deformations, we use

  5. A 17 Ma onset for the post-collisional K-rich calc-alkaline magmatism in the Maghrebides: Evidence from Bougaroun (northeastern Algeria) and geodynamic implications (United States)

    Abbassene, Fatiha; Chazot, Gilles; Bellon, Hervé; Bruguier, Olivier; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Maury, René C.; Déverchére, Jacques; Bosch, Delphine; Monié, Patrick


    Bougaroun is the largest pluton (~ 200 km2) in the 1200 km-long Neogene magmatic belt located along the Mediterranean coast of Maghreb. New U-Pb dating on zircons and K-Ar ages on whole rocks and separated minerals document its emplacement at 17 Ma within the Lesser Kabylian basement, a continental block that collided with the African margin during the Neogene. This Upper Burdigalian intrusion is therefore the oldest presently identified K-rich calc-alkaline massif in the whole Maghrebides magmatic lineament and marks the onset of its activity. The Bougaroun peraluminous felsic rocks display a very strong crustal imprint. Associated mafic rocks (LREE-enriched gabbros) have preserved the "orogenic" (subduction-related) geochemical signature of their mantle source. Older depleted gabbros cropping out at Cap Bougaroun are devoid of clear subduction-related imprint and yielded Ar-Ar hornblende ages of 27.0 ± 3.0 Ma and 23.3 ± 3.2 Ma. We suggest that they are related to the Upper Oligocene back-arc rifted margin and Early Miocene oceanic crust formation of the nearby Jijel basin, an extension of the Algerian basin developed during the African (Tethyan) slab rollback. The fact that the Bougaroun pluton intrudes exhumed Kabylian lower crustal units, mantle slices and flysch nappes indicates that the Kabylian margin was already stretched and in a post-collisional setting at 17 Ma. We propose a tectono-magmatic model involving an Early Miocene Tethyan slab breakoff combined with delamination of the edges of the African and Kabylian continental lithospheres. At 17 Ma, the asthenospheric thermal flux upwelling through the slab tear induced the thermal erosion of the Kabylian lithospheric mantle metasomatized during the previous subduction event and triggered its partial melting. We attribute the strong trace element and isotopic crustal signature of Bougaroun felsic rocks to extensive interactions between ascending mafic melts and the African crust underthrust beneath the

  6. Cenozoic geodynamics of the Ross Sea region, Antarctica: Crustal extension, intraplate strike-slip faulting, and tectonic inheritance (United States)

    Salvini, Francesco; Brancolini, Giuliano; Busetti, Martina; Storti, Fabrizio; Mazzarini, Francesco; Coren, Franco


    An integrated study of onshore and offshore geology of the Ross Sea region (namely, Victoria Land, north of Ross Island, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica) has revealed a complex, post-Eocene tectonic framework. Regional NW-SE right-lateral, strike-slip faults are the outstanding feature of this framework and overprint an older Mesozoic extensional event, responsible for formation of N-S basins in the Ross Sea. The Cenozoic framework includes kinematic deformation and reactivation along the NW-SE faults, including formation of pull-apart basins, both positive and negative flower structures, and push-up ridges. N-S extensional faults are well developed between NW-SE faults and indicate E-W extension during the Cenozoic, produced by the NW-SE right-lateral strike-slip motion together with regional crustal extension. NNW-SSE compression, induced by the right-lateral, strike-slip kinematics, is indicated by locally inverted NE-SW faults and basins. The evolution, geometry, and location of the Rennick Graben and the Lanterman Range fit well into this model. Variations in the deformational style across the region can be linked to corresponding variations in the bulk crustal rheology, from brittle behavior in the west, to ductile deformation (at subseismic-scale resolution) near the Eastern Basin. A semibrittle region that favors N-S clustering of Cenozoic magmatic activity lies in between. In this region, Cenozoic volcanoes develop at the intersections of the NW-SE and the major N-S faults. The NW-SE faults cut almost continually from the Ross Sea to East Antarctica through lithospheric sectors with different rheology and thickness. At least two of the NW-SE faults correspond to older Paleozoic terrane boundaries in northern Victoria Land. The NW-SE faults link in the Southern Ocean with major transform faults related to the plate motions of Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica.

  7. Late Mesozoic basin and range tectonics and related magmatism in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezi Wang


    Full Text Available During the Late Mesozoic Middle Jurassic–Late Cretaceous, basin and range tectonics and associated magmatism representative of an extensional tectonic setting was widespread in southeastern China as a result of Pacific Plate subduction. Basin tectonics consists of post-orogenic (Type I and intra-continental extensional basins (Type II. Type I basins developed in the piedmont and intraland during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, in which coarse-grained terrestrial clastic sediments were deposited. Type II basins formed during intra-continental crustal thinning and were characterized by the development of grabens and half-grabens. Graben basins were mainly generated during the Middle Jurassic and were associated with bimodal volcanism. Sediments in half-grabens are intercalated with rhyolitic tuffs and lavas and are Early Cretaceous in age with a dominance of Late Cretaceous–Paleogene red beds. Ranges are composed of granitoids and bimodal volcanic rocks, A-type granites and dome-type metamorphic core complexes. The authors analyzed lithological, geochemical and geochronological features of the Late Mesozoic igneous rock assemblages and proposed some geodynamical constraints on forming the basin and range tectonics of South China. A comparison of the similarities and differences of basin and range tectonics between the eastern and western shores of the Pacific is made, and the geodynamical evolution model of the Southeast China Block during Late Mesozoic is discussed. Studied results suggest that the basin and range terrane within South China developed on a pre-Mesozoic folded belt was derived from a polyphase tectonic evolution mainly constrained by subduction of the western Pacific Plate since the Late Mesozoic, leading to formation of various magmatism in a back-arc extensional setting. Its geodynamic mechanism can compare with that of basin and range tectonics in the eastern shore of the Pacific. Differences of basin and range

  8. Magmatic evolution of the Sarapiqui Miocene Arc, Costa Rica, Central America (United States)

    Gazel, E.; Alvarado, G. E.; Carr, M. J.; Obando, J.; Alfaro, A.


    The Sarapiqui Miocene Arc (22.2-11.4 Ma) is located in the modern back-arc region of northern Costa Rica, Central America. The arc basement is represented by serpentinized peridotites, Albian silicic pelagites, and Paleocene to Middle Eocene turbidites. Magmatic units vary from basalts to rhyolites and include lavas, pyroclastic deposits, and a few subvolcanic bodies. The magmatic evolution of the Sarapiqui Miocene Arc consists of three distinct stages: 1) Jardin Basalts (22.2 Ma) showing a primary tendency with high MgO, Ni, Cr, and Nb, high initial La/Yb ratios, and low Ba/La which increase with the slab fluids addition; 2) Arrepentidos Basaltic-andesites, Chaparron Pyroclasts, Hito Sar Basalts, Boca Tapada Gabro, and Chamorro Andesites, that represent the island arc evolution from 17.2 to 11.4 Ma; and 3) Crucitas Rhyolites (14.3 Ma) characterizated by low TiO2 and very high Ba/La ratios represent non-cogenetic, but contemporaneous felsic magmas produced by remelting of pre-existing intrusives. The REE patterns indicate a plagioclase rich, amphibole bearing source for this last unit. The Zr/Nb ratios (7-36) are evidence of the coalescing of a minor OIB source with a dominant MORB source, both modified by subduction. 87Sr/86Sr correlate positively with Ba/La; however, they are still within the OIB field. An inverse model using the REEs of the mafic units is consistent with a source mantle composition of garnet peridotite. All but one of the units show LILE enrichments and HFSE depletions typical of the island arc environment. The exception is a suite of near primary magmas, included in the Jardin Basalts, which probably originated by decompression melting. The Ba/La and La/Yb ratios of the Sarapiqui Miocene Arc are very similar to those of the modern Northern Costa Rican Arc, suggesting that the subduction fluid composition and the degree of partial melting have not changed significantly in the last 20 Ma.

  9. Crustal structure of Tolfa domes complex (northern Latium - Italy) inferred from receiver functions analysis: an interplay between tectonics and magmatism (United States)

    Buttinelli, M.; Bianchi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Chiarabba, C.; de Rita, D.; Quattrocchi, F.


    The Tolfa-Cerite volcanic district developed along the Tyrrhenian passive margin of central Italy, as part of magmatic processes started during the middle Pliocene. In this area the uncertainties on the deep crustal structures and the definition of the intrusive bodies geometry are focal issues that still need to be addressed. After the onset of the spreading of the Tyrrhenian sea during the Late Miocene, the emplacement of the intrusive bodies of the Tolfa complex (TDC), in a general back-arc geodynamical regime, generally occurred in a low stretching rate, in correspondence of the junctions between major lithospheric discontinuities. Normal faults, located at the edge of Mio-Pliocene basins, were used as preferential pathways for the rising of magmatic masses from the mantle to the surface. We used teleseismic recordings at the TOLF and MAON broad band station of the INGV seismic network (located between the Argentario promontory and Tolfa-Ceriti dome complexes -TDC-) to image the principal seismic velocity discontinuities by receiver function analysis (RF's). Together with RF’s velocity models of the area computed using the teleseismic events recorded by a temporary network of eight stations deployed around the TDC, we achieve a general crustal model of this area. The geometry of the seismic network has been defined to focus on the crustal structure beneath the TDC, trying to define the main velocity changes attributable to the intrusive bodies, the calcareous basal complex, the deep metamorphic basement, the lower crust and the Moho. The analysis of these data show the Moho at a depth of 23 km in the TDC area and 20 km in the Argentario area. Crustal models also show an unexpected velocity decrease between 12 and 18 km, consistent with a slight dropdown of the Vp/Vs ratio, imputable to a regional mid-crustal shear zone inherited from the previous alpine orogenesis, re-activated in extensional tectonic by the early opening phases of the Tyrrhenian sea. Above

  10. Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Sahara, Northern Africa (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.


    This paper presents an overview of the Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Sahara, and shows that the strata display some remarkably similar characteristics across much of the region. In fact, some lithologies of certain ages are exceptionally widespread and persistent, and many of the changes from one lithology to another appear to have been relatively synchronous across the Sahara. The general stratigraphic succession is that of a transition from early Cenozoic carbonate strata to late Cenozoic siliciclastic strata. This transition in lithology coincides with a long-term eustatic fall in sea level since the middle Cretaceous and with a global climate transition from a Late Cretaceous–Early Eocene “warm mode” to a Late Eocene–Quaternary “cool mode”. Much of the shorter-term stratigraphic variability in the Sahara (and even the regional unconformities) also can be correlated with specific changes in sea level, climate, and tectonic activity during the Cenozoic. Specifically, Paleocene and Eocene carbonate strata and phosphate are suggestive of a warm and humid climate, whereas latest Eocene evaporitic strata (and an end-Eocene regional unconformity) are correlated with a eustatic fall in sea level, the build-up of ice in Antarctica, and the appearance of relatively arid climates in the Sahara. The absence of Oligocene strata throughout much of the Sahara is attributed to the effects of generally low eustatic sea level during the Oligocene and tectonic uplift in certain areas during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. Miocene sandstone and conglomerate are attributed to the effects of continued tectonic uplift around the Sahara, generally low eustatic sea level, and enough rainfall to support the development of extensive fluvial systems. Middle–Upper Miocene carbonate strata accumulated in northern Libya in response to a eustatic rise in sea level, whereas Upper Miocene mudstone accumulated along the south side of the Atlas Mountains because uplift of the

  11. Early Cenozoic "dome like" exhumation around the Irish Sea (United States)

    Doepke, Daniel; Cogné, Nathan; Chew, David; Stuart, Fin


    Despite decades of research the Early Cenozoic exhumation history of Ireland and Britain is still poorly understood and subject to contentious debate (see Davis et al., 2012 and subsequent comments). Previous studies have attributed the Cenozoic exhumation history of Ireland and Britain mainly to: (a) Paleogene - Neogene far-field stress between the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean and the Alpine collision (Ziegler et al., 1995; Hillis et al., 2008) or (b) early Paleogene mantle driven magmatic underplating associated with the development of the proto-Iceland mantle plume beneath the Irish Sea (Brodie and White, 1994; Al-Kindi et al., 2003). The major differences between the two hypotheses are the pattern and timing of spatial exhumation. This project thus seeks to investigate the timing and mechanisms of late Mesozoic - early Cenozoic exhumation on the onshore part of the British Isles by using a combination of apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) data, which we then model using the QTQt program of Gallagher (2012) to better constrain the modelled thermal histories. Our studied area centres on the margins of the Irish Sea, but includes all Ireland and western Britain. Overall we analysed 74 samples for AFT and 66 samples for AHe dating. In particular, our results include ten pseudo-vertical profiles. The AFT ages display a wide range of ages from early Carboniferous in Scotland to early Eocene in central Ireland. Our AHe ages range from mid Permian on Shetland to Eocene Ft-corrected. The AFT data do not show any specific spatial distribution, however, the Ft-corrected AHe ages around the Irish Sea only focus around late Cretaceous to Eocene suggesting an important thermal event around this time. The modelled thermal histories of samples located around the Irish Sea and western Scotland show a clear late Cretaceous to early Paleogene cooling event which is not present elsewhere. The distribution of this cooling event is broadly consistent

  12. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue? (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher


    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  13. Detrital geochronology of unroofing magmatic complexes (United States)

    Malusà, Marco Giovanni; Villa, Igor Maria; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo


    Tectonic reconstructions performed in recent years are increasingly based on petrographic (Dickinson & Suczek, 1979; Garzanti et al., 2007) and geochronological (Brandon et al., 1998; DeCelles et al., 2004) analyses of detrital systems. Detrital age patterns are traditionally interpreted as a result of cooling induced by exhumation (Jäger, 1967; Dodson, 1973). Such an approach can lead to infer extremely high erosion rates (Giger & Hurford 1989) that conflict with compelling geological evidence (Garzanti & Malusà, 2008). This indicates that interpretations solely based on exhumational cooling may not have general validity (Villa, 2006). Here we propose a new detrital geochronology model that takes into account the effects of both crystallization and exhumational cooling on geochronometers, from U-Pb on zircon to fission tracks on apatite. This model, specifically designed for unroofing magmatic complexes, predicts both stationary and moving mineral-age peaks. Because its base is the ordinary interaction between endogenic and exogenic processes, it is applicable to any geological setting. It was tested on the extremely well-studied Bregaglia-Bergell pluton in the Alps, and on the sedimentary succession derived from its erosion. The consistency between predicted and observed age patterns validates the model. Our results demonstrate that volcanoes were active on top of the growing Oligocene Alps, and resolve a long-standing paradox in quantitative erosion-sedimentation modelling, the scarcity of sediment during apparently fast erosion. Dickinson, W. R. & Suczek, C. A. Plate tectonics and sandstone composition. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull. 63, 2164-2172 (1979). Garzanti, E., Doglioni, C., Vezzoli. G. & Andò, S. Orogenic belts and orogenic sediment provenance. J. Geol. 115, 315-334 (2007). Brandon, M. T., Roden-Tice, M. K. & Garver, J. I. Cenozoic exhumation of the Cascadia accretionary wedge in the Olympic Mountains, northwest Washington State. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull

  14. Cenozoic geology of the Yolomécatl-Tlaxiaco area, Northwestern Oaxaca, Southeastern Mexico: Stratigraphy, structure and regional significance (United States)

    Ferrusquía-Villafranca, Ismael; Ruiz-González, José E.; Torres-Hernández, José Ramón; Anderson, Thomas H.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Martínez-Hernández, Enrique; García-Villegas, Felipe


    The Yolomécatl-Tlaxiaco Area, lies in the rugged Sierra Madre del Sur (SMS) of northwestern Oaxaca (YOTLA), southeastern Mexico. Within the area Cenozoic units unconformably overlie metamorphic, clastic and carbonate rock units of Late Paleozoic to Cretaceous ages as well as the Mixteco/Oaxaca Terrane boundary. The Cenozoic sequence, emphasized herein, includes from botton to top: (1) basal, calcilithitic Early Tertiary Tamazulapam Conglomerate, (2) andesitic lava flows of Nduayaco "Group," (3-4) Epiclastic/pyroclastic strata composing Yolomécatl Formation (∼40.3 ± 1.0 Ma), and Tayata Pyroepiclastics (5) Early Oligocene (∼32.9 Ma), felsic, pyroclastic Nundichi "Group," (6) Late Oligocene (∼27.7 ± 0.7 Ma) andesitic lava flows of Nicananduta "Group" containing intercalations of unit (7) ?Chilapa Formation (largely lacustrine). Quaternary deposits unconformably overlie the sequence. The structural record includes NNW-SSE folds in the Mesozoic units, and one in Tayata Pyroepiclastics, as well as numerous fractures/faults of diverse types, whose pattern seems to roughly define four geographic/structural domains, NW, SW, S, and E. The Tertiary sequence records four magmatic and six deformational events: Pre-Late Eocene Extension accommodated by the Tamazulapam fault, along which magma of the Nduayaco "Group" moved upward. The next episode is the earliest Late Eocene extension recorded by the Yucuxaco-Santa Cruz Tayata fault was followed by accumulation of Yolomécatl Formation, Tayata Pyroepiclastics, and synsedimentary emplacement of tuff sheets at ∼40.3 ± 1.0 Ma. After this date, left lateral transpression emplaced a Teposcolula Limestone block over Nduayaco "Group" and ?Yolomécatl Formation, whereas the Tayata Pyroepiclastics was folded into an open anticline. Movement along the Yucuxaco-Santa Cruz Tayayata fault suite influenced accumulation of the Nundichi "Group" strata ca. ∼32.9 Ma. Subsequent ENE-WSW extension affected the Nundichi "Group," partly

  15. The Pali Aike Volcanic Field, Patagonia: slab-window magmatism near the tip of South America (United States)

    D'Orazio, Massimo; Agostini, Samuele; Mazzarini, Francesco; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Manetti, Piero; Haller, Miguel J.; Lahsen, Alfredo


    The Pali Aike Volcanic Field (PAVF) represents the southernmost occurrence of the Cenozoic back-arc Patagonian Plateau Lavas. Its activity (Pliocene-Recent) started forming tabular lavas followed by the growth of about 470 essentially monogenetic volcanic centers (tuff-rings, maars, spatter and scoria cones). Azimuths of cone alignment, cone elongation and morphologic lineations show prevailing ENE-WSW and NW-SE trends. Erupted products consist mainly of alkaline basalt and basanite, with minor olivine basalt. PAVF rocks are quite primitive in composition (average Mg#=66, Ni=220 ppm and Cr=313 ppm) with relatively high TiO 2 (average 3.0 wt.%). Ultramafic garnet- and/or spinel-bearing xenoliths are found within PAVF volcanics. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are significantly LREE-enriched and almost rectilinear [(La/Yb) N=10.9-21.0]. Primordial mantle-normalized distributions of incompatible trace elements, as well as Sr and Nd isotope ratios ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.70317-0.70339, 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.51290-0.51294), show values typical of intra-plate basalts, despite the fact that these rocks occur only 200 km east of the Andean Cordillera. Primary magmas were generated from a fertile garnet-bearing asthenospheric source at P=1.9-2.9 GPa and T=1420-1470°C. The data suggest a geodynamic model that implies sub-slab asthenosphere flow through a slab window, which started opening below this sector of South America 14 m.y. ago as a consequence of the collision of the Chile Ridge with the Chile Trench. The trailing edge of the Nazca Plate crossed below the Pali Aike area at 9-10 Ma, that is 6-5 m.y. before the onset of the volcanic activity. We hypothesize that this time delay resulted from changes in the kinematics of the South America-Scotia transform plate boundary which only allowed the Pali Aike magmas to rise after about 4 m.y.

  16. 3-D electrical resistivity structure based on geomagnetic transfer functions exploring the features of arc magmatism beneath Kyushu, Southwest Japan Arc (United States)

    Hata, Maki; Uyeshima, Makoto; Handa, Shun; Shimoizumi, Masashi; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi; Utada, Hisashi; Munekane, Hiroshi; Ichiki, Masahiro; Fuji-ta, Kiyoshi


    Our 3-D electrical resistivity model clearly detects particular subsurface features for magmatism associated with subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) in three regions: a southern and a northern volcanic region, and a nonvolcanic region on the island of Kyushu. We apply 3-D inversion analyses for geomagnetic transfer function data of a short-period band, in combination with results of a previous 3-D model that was determined by using Network-Magnetotelluric response function data of a longer-period band as an initial model in the present inversion to improve resolution at shallow depths; specifically, a two-stage inversion is used instead of a joint inversion. In contrast to the previous model, the presented model clearly reveals a conductive block on the back-arc side of Kirishima volcano at shallow depths of 50 km; the block is associated with hydrothermal fluids and hydrothermal alteration zones related to the formation of epithermal gold deposits. A second feature revealed by the model is another conductive block regarded as upwelling fluids, extending from the upper surface of the PSP in the mantle under Kirishima volcano in the southern volcanic region. Third, a resistive crustal layer, which confines the conductive block in the mantle, is distributed beneath the nonvolcanic region. Fourth, our model reveals a significant resistive block, which extends below the continental Moho at the fore-arc side of the volcanic front and extends into the nonvolcanic region in central Kyushu.

  17. Late Cretaceous ARC to MORB compositional switch in the Quebradagrande Complex, Colombian Andes: understanding the long term tectonic evolution of a magmatic arc. (United States)

    Jaramillo, J. S.; Cardona, A.; Zapata, S.; Valencia, V.


    The spatial and compositional characters of arc rocks are sensible markers of the tectonic changes experienced by convergent margins and therefore provide a fundamental view to the continuous tectonic evolution of active margins. The Early to Late Cretaceous tectonic evolution of the Northern Andes have been related to the growth and accretion of different continental and oceanic arc systems that were juxtaposed at the beginning of the Andean Orogeny in the Late Cretaceous. The Quebradagrande Complex is a tectonostratigraphic unit made of mafic to intermediate plutonic rocks, basic to intermediate volcanic flows and associated marine sedimentary rocks that have been related to a single Albian arc or back-arc environment that discontinuously outcrops along the western margin of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. New field, geochronological and geochemical data from the plutonic and volcanic rocks of the Quebradagrande complex shows that the pre-90-80 Ma volcanic arc rocks are intruded by ca. 90 Ma pyroxene gabbroic and hornblende dioritic plutons with medium to pegmatitic grain size characterized by a contrasting MORB-type signature. We related the compositional change to a transient modification of the convergent margin system, where and extensional roll-back related configuration or the subduction of an oceanic ridge allows the flux of the astenospheric mantle. This continental magmatic arc was subsequently deformed due to the collision and accretion of an allocthonous oceanic arc that migrate from the southeast Pacific at the beginning of the Andean orogeny.

  18. Cenozoic rift formation in the northern Caribbean (United States)

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.


    Rifts form in many different tectonic environments where the lithosphere is put into extension. An outline is provided of the distribution, orientation, and relative ages of 16 Cenozoic rifts along the northern edge of the Caribbean plate and it is suggested that these structures formed successively by localized extension as the Caribbean plate moved eastward past a continental promontory of North America. Evidence leading to this conclusion includes (1) recognition that the rifts become progressively younger westward; (2) a two-phase subsidence history in a rift exposed by upthrusting in Jamaica; (3) the absence of rifts east of Jamaica; and (4) the observation that removal of 1400 km of strike-slip displacement on the Cayman Trough fault system places the Paleogene rifts of Jamaica in an active area of extension south of Yucatan where the rifts of Honduras and Guatemala are forming today.

  19. The Cenozoic Volcanoes in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiaqi; HAN Jingtai; GUO Zhengfu


    There are more than 600 Cenozoic volcanic cones and craters with abeut 50 000 km2of lava flows in northeast China, which formed many volcanic clusters and shown the features of the continental rift - type volcanoes. Most volcanic activities in this area, especially in the east part of Songliao graben, were usually controlled by rifts and faults with the main direction of NE / NNE in parallel and become younger from the central graben towards its both sides, especially to the east continental margin. It is revealed that the volcanism occurred in northeast China was as strong as that occurred in Japan during the Miocene and the Quaternary. The Quaternary basalt that is usually distributed along river valley is called "valley basalt"while Neogene basalt usually distributed in the top of mounts is called "high position basalt". These volcanoes and volcanic rocks are usually composed of alkaline basalts with ultramafic inclusions, except Changbaishan volcano that is built by trachyte and pantellerite.

  20. Continental extension, magmatism and elevation; formal relations and rules of thumb (United States)

    Lachenbruch, A.H.; Morgan, P.


    To investigate simplified relations between elevation and the extensional, magmatic and thermal processes that influence lithosphere buoyancy, we assume that the lithosphere floats on an asthenosphere of uniform density and has no flexural strength. A simple graph relating elevation to lithosphere density and thickness provides an overview of expectable conditions around the earth and a simple test for consistancy of continental and oceanic lithosphere models. The mass-balance relations yield simple general rules for estimating elevation changes caused by various tectonic, magmatic and thermal processes without referring to detailed models. The rules are general because they depend principally on buoyancy, which under our assumptions is specified by elevation, a known quantity; they do not generally require a knowledge of lithosphere thickness and density. The elevation of an extended terrain contains important information on its tectonic and magmatic history. In the Great Basin where Cenozoic extension is estimated to be 100%, the present high mean elevation ( ~ 1.75 km) probably requires substantial low-density magmatic contributions to the extending lithosphere. The elevation cannot be reasonably explained solely as the buoyant residue of a very high initial terrane, or of a lithosphere that was initially very thick and subsequently delaminated and heated. Even models with a high initial elevation typically call for 10 km or so of accumulated magmatic material of near-crustal density. To understand the evolution of the Great Basin, it is important to determine whether such intruded material is present; some could replenish the stretching crust by underplating and crustal intrusion and some might reside in the upper mantle. The elevation maintained or approached by an intruded extending lithosphere depends on the ratio B of how fast magma is supplied from the asthenosphere ( b km/Ma) to how fast the lithosphere spreads the magma out by extension (?? Ma-1). For a

  1. The rise and fall of continental arcs: Interplays between magmatism, uplift, weathering, and climate (United States)

    Lee, Cin-Ty A.; Thurner, Sally; Paterson, Scott; Cao, Wenrong


    Continental arcs, such as the modern Andes or the Cretaceous Sierra Nevada batholith, are some of the highest topographic features on Earth. Continental arc volcanoes may produce more CO2 than most other types of volcanoes due to the interaction of magmas with sedimentary carbonates stored in the continental upper plate. As such, global flare-ups in continental arc magmatism may amplify atmospheric CO2 concentrations, leading to climatic warming. However, the high elevations of continental arcs may also enhance orographic precipitation and change global atmospheric circulation patterns, possibly increasing the efficiency of chemical weathering and drawdown of atmospheric CO2, which may subdue the climatic warming response to volcanic activity. To better evaluate the climatic response, we develop models that integrate magmatic crustal thickening, topographic uplift, isostasy and erosion. The topographic response is used to predict how soil formation rates, soil residence times, and chemical weathering rates vary during and after a magmatic episode. Although magmatism leads to crustal thickening, which requires topographic uplift, highest elevations peak ∼10 My after magmatism ends. Relatively high elevations, which enhance erosion and chemical weathering of the continental arc, persist for tens of million years after magmatism ends, depending on erosion kinetics. It has recently been suggested that the Cretaceous-Paleogene greenhouse (high atmospheric CO2 and warm climate) coincided with a global chain of continental arcs, whereas mid- to late Cenozoic icehouse conditions (low atmospheric CO2 and cold climate) coincided with a lull in continental arc activity after 50 Ma. Application of our models to the Sierra Nevada (California, USA) continental arc, which represents a segment of this global Cretaceous-Paleogene continental arc, reproduces the observed topographic and erosional response. Our models require that the newly formed continental arc crust remained

  2. Novel Concept of the Magmatic Heat Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Labinov, Mark


    Enhanced Geothermal Systems are the primary sources of interest nowadays. The paper presents a novel concept for the extraction of the magmatic heat directly from the magma chamber by utilizing the thermodynamic Retrograde Condensation curve.

  3. Charnockite microstructures: From magmatic to metamorphic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques L.R. Touret


    Full Text Available Charnockites sensu lato (charnockite-enderbite series are lower crustal felsic rocks typically characterised by the presence of anhydrous minerals including orthopyroxene and garnet. They either represent dry (H2O-poor felsic magmas that are emplaced in the lower crust or granitic intrusions that have been dehydrated during a subsequent granulite facies metamorphic event. In the first case, post-magmatic high-temperature recrystallisation may result in widespread metamorphic granulite microstructures, superimposed or replacing the magmatic microstructures. Despite recrystallisation, magmatic remnants may still be found, notably in the form of melt-related microstructures such as melt inclusions. For both magmatic charnockites and dehydrated granites, subsequent fluid-mineral interaction at intergrain boundaries during retrogradation are documented by microstructures including K-feldspar microveins and myrmekites. They indicate that a large quantity of low-H2O activity salt-rich brines, were present (together with CO2 under immiscible conditions in the lower crust.

  4. A mass balance and isostasy model: Exploring the interplay between magmatism, deformation and surface erosion in continental arcs using central Sierra Nevada as a case study (United States)

    Cao, Wenrong; Paterson, Scott


    A one-dimensional mass balance and isostasy model is used to explore the feedbacks between magmatism, deformation and surface erosion and how they together affect crustal thickness, elevation, and exhumation in a continental arc. The model is applied to central Sierra Nevada in California by parameterizing magma volume and deformational strain. The simulations capture the first-order Mesozoic-Cenozoic histories of crustal thickness, elevation and erosion including moderate Triassic crustal thickening and Jurassic crustal thinning followed by a strong Cretaceous crustal thickening, the latter resulting in a 60-70 km-thick crust plus a 20 km-thick arc eclogitic root, and a ˜5 km elevation in the Late Cretaceous. The contribution of contractional deformation to the crustal thickening is twice that of the magmatism. The contribution to elevation from magmatism is dampened by the formation of an eclogitic root. Erosion rate increases with the magnitude of crustal thickening (by magmatism and deformation) but its peak rate always lags behind the peak rate of thickening. We propose that thickened crust initially promotes magma generation by downward transport of materials to the magma source region, which may eventually jam the mantle wedge affecting the retro-arc underthrusting process and reducing arc magmatism.

  5. Measuring plume-related exhumation of the British Isles in Early Cenozoic times (United States)

    Cogné, Nathan; Doepke, Daniel; Chew, David; Stuart, Finlay M.; Mark, Chris


    Mantle plumes have been proposed to exert a first-order control on the morphology of Earth's surface. However, there is little consensus on the lifespan of the convectively supported topography. Here, we focus on the Cenozoic uplift and exhumation history of the British Isles. While uplift in the absence of major regional tectonic activity has long been documented, the causative mechanism is highly controversial, and direct exhumation estimates are hindered by the near-complete absence of onshore post-Cretaceous sediments (outside Northern Ireland) and the truncated stratigraphic record of many offshore basins. Two main hypotheses have been developed by previous studies: epeirogenic exhumation driven by the proto-Iceland plume, or multiple phases of Cenozoic compression driven by far-field stresses. Here, we present a new thermochronological dataset comprising 43 apatite fission track (AFT) and 102 (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) dates from the onshore British Isles. Inverse modelling of vertical sample profiles allows us to define well-constrained regional cooling histories. Crucially, during the Paleocene, the thermal history models show that a rapid exhumation pulse (1-2.5 km) occurred, focused on the Irish Sea. Exhumation is greatest in the north of the Irish Sea region, and decreases in intensity to the south and west. The spatial pattern of Paleocene exhumation is in agreement with the extent of magmatic underplating inferred from geophysical studies, and the timing of uplift and exhumation is synchronous with emplacement of the plume-related British and Irish Paleogene Igneous Province (BIPIP). Prior to the Paleocene exhumation pulse, the Mesozoic onshore exhumation pulse is mainly linked to the uplift and erosion of the hinterland during the complex and long-lived rifting history of the neighbouring offshore basins. The extent of Neogene exhumation is difficult to constrain due to the poor sensitivity of the AHe and AFT systems at low temperatures. We conclude that the

  6. Cenozoic planktonic marine diatom diversity and correlation to climate change. (United States)

    Lazarus, David; Barron, John; Renaudie, Johan; Diver, Patrick; Türke, Andreas


    Marine planktonic diatoms export carbon to the deep ocean, playing a key role in the global carbon cycle. Although commonly thought to have diversified over the Cenozoic as global oceans cooled, only two conflicting quantitative reconstructions exist, both from the Neptune deep-sea microfossil occurrences database. Total diversity shows Cenozoic increase but is sample size biased; conventional subsampling shows little net change. We calculate diversity from a separately compiled new diatom species range catalog, and recalculate Neptune subsampled-in-bin diversity using new methods to correct for increasing Cenozoic geographic endemism and decreasing Cenozoic evenness. We find coherent, substantial Cenozoic diversification in both datasets. Many living cold water species, including species important for export productivity, originate only in the latest Miocene or younger. We make a first quantitative comparison of diatom diversity to the global Cenozoic benthic ∂(18)O (climate) and carbon cycle records (∂(13)C, and 20-0 Ma pCO2). Warmer climates are strongly correlated with lower diatom diversity (raw: rho = .92, p.9, detrended r>.6, all pplanktonic diatom species may be at risk of extinction in future warm oceans, with an unknown but potentially substantial negative impact on the ocean biologic pump and oceanic carbon sequestration. We cannot however extrapolate our my-scale correlations with generic climate proxies to anthropogenic time-scales of warming without additional species-specific information on proximate ecologic controls.

  7. Magmatism in rifting and basin formation (United States)

    Thybo, H.


    Whether heating and magmatism cause rifting or rifting processes cause magmatic activity is highly debated. The stretching factor in rift zones can be estimated as the relation between the initial and the final crustal thickness provided that the magmatic addition to the crust is insignificant. Recent research demonstrates substantial magmatic intrusion into the crust in the form of sill like structures in the lowest crust in the presently active Kenya and Baikal rift zones and the DonBas palaeo-rift zone in Ukraine. This result may be surprising as the Kenya Rift is associated with large amounts of volcanic products, whereas the Baikal Rift shows very little volcanism. Identification of large amounts of magmatic intrusion into the crust has strong implications for estimation of stretching factor, which in the case of Baikal Rift Zone is around 1.7 but direct estimation gives a value of 1.3-1.4 if the magmatic addition is not taken into account. This may indicate that much more stretching has taken place on rift systems than hitherto believed. Wide sedimentary basins may form around aborted rifts due to loading of the lithosphere by sedimentary and volcanic in-fill of the rift. This type of subsidence will create wide basins without faulting. The Norwegian- Danish basin in the North Sea area also has subsided gradually during the Triassic without faulting, but only few rift structures have been identified below the Triassic sequences. We have identified several mafic intrusions in the form of large batholiths, typically more than 100 km long, 20-40 km wide and 20 km thick. The associated heating would have lifted the surface by about 2 km, which may have been eroded before cooling. The subsequent contraction due to solidification and cooling would create subsidence in a geometry similar to basins that developed by loading. These new aspects of magmatism will be discussed with regard to rifting and basin formation.

  8. Evolución tectónica, paleogeográfica y metalogénica durante el Cenozoico en los Andes de Chile norte y central e implicaciones para las regiones adyacentes de Bolivia y Argentina Tectonic, paleogeographic, and metallogenic evolution during the Cenozoic in the Andes of Central and Northern Chile and implication for the adjacent regions of Bolivia and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier


    southern Peru to central Chile and formed the boundary between two paleogeographical domains with dissimilar geological evolutions during the rest of the Cenozoic. The western domain was characterized by erosion and sedimentation processes. The eastern domain also included significant erosional episodes, but was characterized by different evolutions north and south of ~27°S. Northward of this latitude, within the Altiplano-Puna realm, the magmatic arc remained in a fixed position, coinciding with the current active arc, and was bordered by a back-arc foreland basin; whereas southward of ~27°S a succession of magmatic arcs developed with a prominent eastward migration. The Late Eocene to Late Oligocene- Early Miocene was characterized by the development of an extensive intra-arc extensional basin, the Abanico Basin. A succession of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, with minor sedimentary intercalations, up to 3,000 m thick were deposited within this basin. At about the boundary between the Oligocene and the Miocene a compressive tectonism affected the whole orogen rejuvenating the core of the Incaic Cordillera and resulted in the tectonic inversion of the Abanico Basin; leading to the syntectonic sedimentation on both sides of the new elevated terrain. The beginning of this tectonism is coincident with the Pehuenche orogeny, but the compression extended until the Early Pliocene. During the Early to Middle Miocene the deformation extended to the east with the development of foreland fold and thrust belts and basins. Within the western domain in northern Chile, area of the current Central Depression and Precordillera, the accumulation of thick sedimentary deposits from the western slope of the Incaic Cordillera originated the Tarapacá and Atacama pediments; whereas an extensive peneplanation developed in central Chile. In Late Miocene the prolonged development of the east-verging fold and thrust belts and the generation of overthrusts deep under the Cordillera, which

  9. Repeated magmatism at 34 Ma and 23-20 Ma producing high magnesian adakitic andesites and transitional basalts on southern Okushiri Island, NE Japan arc (United States)

    Sato, Makoto; Shuto, Kenji; Nohara-Imanaka, Rikako; Takazawa, Eiichi; Osanai, Yasuhito; Nakano, Nobuhiko


    chemical composition modified due to interaction with the surrounding mantle peridotite. Type I HMAA then segregated at about 50 km. The most attractive tectono-magmatic model to account for production of adakitic magma at two different periods in the same cool subduction zone region involves upwelling of depleted hot asthenosphere into the subcontinental lithosphere beneath the back-arc margin of the NE Japan arc, coincident with back-arc rifting which took place at the initiation of the Japan Sea opening. The unusually high temperature conditions established in the mantle wedge due to upwelling of depleted hot asthenosphere caused partial melting of a limited part of the cool oceanic crust subducting beneath the NE Japan arc, resulting in the generation of adakitic magma.

  10. New KAr age determinations of intrusive rocks from the Cordillera Occidental and Altiplano of central Peru: Identification of magmatic pulses and episodes of mineralization (United States)

    Soler, P.; Bonhomme, M. G.

    The post-Albian evolution of the Andes of central Peru is characterized by igneous activity, both effusive and intrusive, and by at least six distinct episodes of compressional tectonics. New KAr age determinations have been made of intrusive rocks from the Cajatambo-Oyón-Cerro de Pasco area. In conjunction with already published information, these new data permit a better estimate of the ages and the lateral extent of successive Cenozoic magmatic arcs. Metallogenetic implications of the 26.3-29.3 Ma age of mineralized Milpo-Atacocha intrusions are also discussed.

  11. Cenozoic planktonic marine diatom diversity and correlation to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lazarus

    Full Text Available Marine planktonic diatoms export carbon to the deep ocean, playing a key role in the global carbon cycle. Although commonly thought to have diversified over the Cenozoic as global oceans cooled, only two conflicting quantitative reconstructions exist, both from the Neptune deep-sea microfossil occurrences database. Total diversity shows Cenozoic increase but is sample size biased; conventional subsampling shows little net change. We calculate diversity from a separately compiled new diatom species range catalog, and recalculate Neptune subsampled-in-bin diversity using new methods to correct for increasing Cenozoic geographic endemism and decreasing Cenozoic evenness. We find coherent, substantial Cenozoic diversification in both datasets. Many living cold water species, including species important for export productivity, originate only in the latest Miocene or younger. We make a first quantitative comparison of diatom diversity to the global Cenozoic benthic ∂(18O (climate and carbon cycle records (∂(13C, and 20-0 Ma pCO2. Warmer climates are strongly correlated with lower diatom diversity (raw: rho = .92, p.9, detrended r>.6, all p<.001, but only weakly over the earlier Cenozoic, suggesting increasingly strong linkage of diatom and climate evolution in the Neogene. Our results suggest that many living marine planktonic diatom species may be at risk of extinction in future warm oceans, with an unknown but potentially substantial negative impact on the ocean biologic pump and oceanic carbon sequestration. We cannot however extrapolate our my-scale correlations with generic climate proxies to anthropogenic time-scales of warming without additional species-specific information on proximate ecologic controls.

  12. Neoproterozoic magmatic activity and global change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yongfei


    Neoproterozoic is a very important time in the history of the Earth, during which occurred supercontinent breakup, low-latitude glaciation, and biotic diversification. These concern a series of interdisciplinary studies involving ancient plate motion, climate change and life evolution, resulting in many forefront topics of general interest in the earth sciences. These include exact ages bracketing the Cryogenian System and glaciations, initial age and lasted duration of supercontinent breakup, dynamic reconstruction of China continents in supercontinental configurations, the nature of rift magmatism and extent of hydrothermal alteration, paleoclimatic implication of water-rock interaction and low-18O magmatism, and relationship between supercontinental evolution and global change. A number of outstanding advances in the above aspects have being made by Chinese scientists, leaving many important issues to be resolved: (1) did the Cryogenian start at either 800 to 820 Ma or 760 to 780 Ma? (2) was South China in the supercontinental configuration located in either southeast to Australia or north to India? (3) are Paleoproterozoic to Archean ages of crustal rocks a valid parameter in distinguishing North China from South China? Available observations suggest that Neoproterozoic mantle superwelling occurred as conspicuous magmatism in South China but as cryptical magmatism in North China. Mid-Neoproterozoic mantle superplume event and its derived rift-magmatism would not only result in the supercontinental demise, but also play a very important role in the generation and evolution of the snowball Earth event by initiating the global glaciation, causing the local deglaciation and terminating the snowball Earth event.

  13. Field relationships and geochemistry of pre-collisional (India-Asia) granitoid magmatism in the central Karakoram, northern Pakistan (United States)

    Crawford, M. B.; Searle, M. P.


    In the central Karakoram Range, northern Pakistan, seven major granitic units which were emplaced prior to the Eocene (ca. 50 Ma) India-Asia collision have been mapped and analysed geochemically. The mid-Cretaceous Hunza plutonic complex dominates the Karakoram batholith in the west and is composed of quartz diorite-granodiorite plutons which have been deformed in the south by later collision-related thrusting. The Sost and Khunjerab plutons intrude the Palaeozoic-early Mesozoic sediments north of the batholith. In the east pre-collision magmatic units occur both north of (K2 gneiss, Broad Peak quartz diorite, Muztagh Tower unit) and south of (Hushe gneiss) the batholith which is dominated by a Miocene monzogranite-leucogranite pluton (Baltoro unit). The plutonic units to the north of the batholith are mid- to late Cretaceous with an age range of ca. 115-80 Ma whereas the Hushe gneiss to the south is dominantly Jurassic spanning the age range 200-145 Ma. All the pre-collision magmatic units display similar chemical and isotopic characteristics. Major, trace and REE variations in the Hunza plutonic complex are controlled by high-level fractionation of clinopyroxene, hornblende, plagioclase, biotite, ilmenite and allanite. High LILE/HFSE and LREE/HREE ratios, together with negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies suggest an ultimate source in the mantle wedge above the subducting slab. 87Sr/ 86Sr initial ratios (0.7055-0.7157) in the Hunza plutonic complex can best be explained by contamination of a mantle-derived magma by a crustal component with highly radiogenic Sr. All the units except the Hushe gneiss are probably related to subduction during closure of a back-arc basin between the Karakoram to the north and the Kohistan-Dras arc to the south during the mid- to late Cretaceous, and correlate with widespread plutonism from the same period in Kohistan, Ladakh and southern Tibet along the southern margin of Asia. The Hushe gneiss is probably related to an earlier northward

  14. Mongolian plateau: Evidence for a late Cenozoic mantle plume under central Asia (United States)

    Windley, Brian F.; Allen, Mark B.


    The 2500 x 700 km Mongolian plateau (average elevation 2000 m) is situated between the Altai orogen and the Siberian craton and occupies much of Mongolia and Transbaikalia in Russia. The plateau is characterized by (1) basin and range topography and two major domes(Hentai, 600 x 300 km, and Hangai, 800 x 550 km), where altitudes reach 3905 m; (2) lithosphere that is thinner than adjacent areas (minimum ˜50 km); (3) elevated heat flow (up to 120 mW/m2); (4) dominantly alkaline basaltic volcanism in the form of cones, lava fields, and volcanic plateaus mostly of Miocene-Quaternary age, and (5) rifts, including Baikal (main evolution in the Pliocene-Quaternary), Tunka (Oligocene-early Miocene), and Hobsogol (Pliocene-Quaternary). Existing models explain these features in terms of diapiric upwelling of a mantle asthenolith below the main rifts and/or as a long-distance effect of the India-Asia collision. We propose that the late Cenozoic uplift of the whole Mongolian plateau and associated rifting, magmatism, high heat flow, and lithospherec thinning are not externally driven by the India-Asia collision, but are the expression of the interaction of a mantle plume with overlying lithosphere. Some rifts link and interact with major strike-slip faults, such as the Bolnai. Such faults may be the major expression of the India-Asia collision in this region.

  15. Progress in Understanding the Cenozoic Tectonic Evolution of the Western United States (United States)

    Wernicke, B.


    During Cenozoic time the North American plate underwent two fundamental changes in its mode of interaction with oceanic plates to its west. The first was decoupling of the relatively cold Laramide slab from its base beginning near 45 Ma. The pattern of foundering is inferred primarily by intense intraplate magmatism that migrated more-or-less symmetrically northward from Mexico and southward from the Pacific Northwest through Oligocene and early Miocene time, eventually reaching the latitude of Las Vegas near 15 Ma. The magmatism was accompanied by lithospheric extension, expressed as a system of highly localized core complexes within much broader magmatic belts that were oriented at a high angle to the plate boundary at any given time. The deep crust was clearly weak enough to flow in complementary fashion to upper crustal strain. The second change was the gradual transition from a convergent margin with the Farallon plate to a transtensional one with the Pacific plate. The extensional component of Pacific-North America relative motion was especially strong from 20 to 10 Ma, giving rise to more broadly distributed intraplate extension, tearing the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block off of North America at 15 Ma. As relative plate motion became more parallel to the margin, extension in the Basin and Range slowed and intraplate deformation became concentrated in the eastern California shear zone and Walker Lane fault system along the western side of the province. To the south, at 6 Ma North America ceded the Baja Peninsula to the Pacific plate opening up the Gulf of California. Two areas of recent observational progress in understanding the relationship between these two major changes and the evolution of the North American lithosphere include paleoaltimetry studies and large-scale continuous GPS studies, both of which powerfully limit the range of physical models applicable to the plate boundary deformation zone. For example, paleoaltimetry studies suggest that the

  16. Cenozoic foreland basin evolution during Andean shortening in the Malargüe region of western Argentina (35°S) (United States)

    Ramirez, S. G.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.


    Cenozoic clastic deposits in western Argentina provide key opportunities to evaluate the timing and duration of Andean deformation and uplift. We studied the Malargüe segment of the Andean foreland basin at 35°S to better understand latest Cretaceous to Pliocene deformation and eastward propagation of Andean retroarc shortening. Our multi-technique approach included logging of a well-exposed ~1500m Paleocene-Miocene stratigraphic succession, paleocurrent measurements, conglomerate clast counts, and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological analyses of basin fill exposed in the Sosneado region along the Rio Atuel. The Pircala and Coihueco Formations define the lowermost ~180 m of the section and are represented by fine to medium sandstones, siltstones, claystones and marls interpreted as distal fluvial floodplain and localized lacustrine deposits. Pircala paleocurrents show a major reversal from west- to east-directed flow. These finer deposits of the lower succession are separated from the overlying coarser-grained ~800 m thick Agua de la Piedra Formation by a conspicuous unconformity that spans up to roughly 20 Myr. The Agua de la Piedra Formation is composed of upward-coarsening amalgamated beds of massive medium to coarse sandstones and lenticular conglomerates interpreted as a prograding proximal fluvial to alluvial fan system. Conglomerate clast counts show initial dominance by Mesozoic detritus from the pre-Andean Neuquen basin system, with a progressive upsection increase in Cenozoic volcanic detritus from the Andean magmatic arc. Collectively, the paleocurrents, clast compositions, sedimentary facies associations, and emerging U-Pb results suggest a long-term shift, commencing in the Paleocene, from eastern cratonic sources to magmatic-arc and thrust-belt sources during a systematic eastward propagation of deformation, with a pronounced phase of Miocene magmatism and shortening that incorporated the proximal foreland basin into the advancing thrust belt.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper is concentrated on Cenozoic volcanism and geothermal resources in Northeast China. There are a lot of Cenozoic volcanoes, a large area of volcanic rocks, a large number of active faults and rich geothermal resources in Northeast China. The time and space characteristics of Cenozoic volcanism and the space distribution characters of hot springs and high geothermal flux regions in Northeast China are described and discussed on the basis of geological, geothermal, drilling and volcanological data. It is revealed that the hot springs and high geothermal flux regions are re lated to the Cenozoic volcanism, rifting and faulting in Northeast China. It is especially emphasized that the hot springs and high geothermal anomaly areas are controlled by active deep faults. It is proposed that the Cenozoic volcanism re gions, rift basins, active fault belts, activated plate suture zones and large earthquake occurrence points are the best areas for prospecting geothermal resources. The geothermal resources in younger volcanic zones are richer than those in older volcanic belts. The hot springs and active or activated faults might be a very good clue for looking for geothermal resources.

  18. A synthesis of Cenozoic sedimentation in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Rasmussen, E.S.


    margins have undergone. While the North Sea has been mapped locally, we present the first regional mapping of the Cenozoic sedimentary strata. Our study provides a new regional sub-division of the main seismic units in the North Sea together with maps of depocentres, influx direction and source areas. Our......The North Sea Basin contains an almost complete record of Cenozoic sedimentation, separated by clear regional unconformities. The changes in sediment characteristics, rate and source, and expression of the unconformities reflect the tectonic, eustatic and climatic changes that the North Sea and its...... characteristics of many unconformities indicate that they were generated by eustatic sea-level fall, often in conjunction with other processes. Early Cenozoic unconformities, however, relate to tectonism associated with the opening of the North Atlantic. From observation on a regional scale, we infer...

  19. Cenozoic planktonic marine diatom diversity and correlation to climate change (United States)

    Lazarus, David; Barron, John; Renaudie, Johan; Diver, Patrick; Türke, Andreas


    Marine planktonic diatoms export carbon to the deep ocean, playing a key role in the global carbon cycle. Although commonly thought to have diversified over the Cenozoic as global oceans cooled, only two conflicting quantitative reconstructions exist, both from the Neptune deep-sea microfossil occurrences database. Total diversity shows Cenozoic increase but is sample size biased; conventional subsampling shows little net change. We calculate diversity from a separately compiled new diatom species range catalog, and recalculate Neptune subsampled-in-bin diversity using new methods to correct for increasing Cenozoic geographic endemism and decreasing Cenozoic evenness. We find coherent, substantial Cenozoic diversification in both datasets. Many living cold water species, including species important for export productivity, originate only in the latest Miocene or younger. We make a first quantitative comparison of diatom diversity to the global Cenozoic benthic ∂18O (climate) and carbon cycle records (∂13C, and 20-0 Ma pCO2). Warmer climates are strongly correlated with lower diatom diversity (raw: rho = .92, p2 were only moderately higher than today. Diversity is strongly correlated to both ∂13C and pCO2 over the last 15 my (for both: r>.9, detrended r>.6, all pclimate evolution in the Neogene. Our results suggest that many living marine planktonic diatom species may be at risk of extinction in future warm oceans, with an unknown but potentially substantial negative impact on the ocean biologic pump and oceanic carbon sequestration. We cannot however extrapolate our my-scale correlations with generic climate proxies to anthropogenic time-scales of warming without additional species-specific information on proximate ecologic controls.

  20. Evidence for a long-lived accommodation/transfer zone beneath the Snake River Plain: A possible influence on Neogene magmatism? (United States)

    Konstantinou, Alexandros; Miller, Elizabeth


    Geochronologic data compiled from 12 metamorphic core complexes and their flanking regions outline important differences in tectonic and magmatic histories north and south of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Province (SRP-Y). Magmatism, crustal flow, metamorphism, and extensional exhumation of core complexes north of the SRP occurred mostly between 55 and 42 Ma as compared to 42-25 Ma south of the SRP, with final exhumation of the southern complexes occurring only during younger Miocene (20-0 Ma) Basin and Range faulting. These significant differences in the timing of events suggest that the now lava-covered SRP, which is at a high angle to Cordilleran trends, may have at times operated as a steep shear or transfer zone accommodating difference in strain to the north and south. Following previous suggestions, we infer that this proposed accommodation or transfer zone developed above an important lithospheric boundary localized above a tear in the subducting slab (shallower slab angle to the south) used to explain both the locus of Late Cretaceous-Paleocene magmatism and the different ages and mechanisms of slab reconfiguration and removal north and south of the SRP during the Cenozoic. The details of these different histories help outline the complex evolution of this zone and also suggest that this zone of lithospheric weakness may have subsequently focused Miocene SRP-Y hot spot magmatism.

  1. Moho and magmatic underplating in continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina M.


    interacts with the surrounding crustal rocks which leads to smearing of geophysical signals from the underplated material. In terms of processes, there is no direct discriminator between the traditional concept of underplated material and lower crustal magmatic intrusions in the form of batholiths and sill...

  2. Simulating the Thermochemical Magmatic and Tectonic Evolution of Venus's Mantle and Lithosphere: Intrusive vs. Extrusive Magmatism (United States)

    Tackley, Paul; Armann, Marina


    Here we extend the models of [1]. Numerical convection models of the thermochemical evolution of Venus are compared to present-day topography and geoid, recent resurfacing history and surface deformation. The models include melting, magmatism, decaying heat-producing elements, core cooling, realistic temperature-dependent viscosity and either stagnant lid or episodic lithospheric overturn. In [1] it was found that in stagnant lid convection the dominant mode of heat loss is magmatic heat pipe, which requires massive magmatism and produces very thick crust, inconsistent with observations. Partitioning of heat-producing elements into the crust helps but does not help enough. Episodic lid overturn interspersed by periods of quiescence effectively loses Venus's heat while giving lower rates of volcanism and a thinner crust. Calculations predict 5-8 overturn events over Venus's history, each lasting ~150 Myr, initiating in one place and then spreading globally. During quiescent periods convection keeps the lithosphere thin. Magmatism keeps the mantle temperature constant over Venus's history. Crustal recycling occurs by entrainment in stagnant lid convection, and by lid overturn in episodic mode. Venus-like amplitudes of topography and geoid can be produced in either stagnant or episodic modes, with a viscosity profile that is Earth-like but shifted to higher values. The basalt density inversion below the olivine-perovskite transition causes compositional stratification around 730 km; breakdown of this layering increases episodicity but far less than episodic lid overturn. The classical stagnant lid mode with interior temperature rheological temperature scale lower than TCMB is not reached because mantle temperature is controlled by magmatism while the core cools slowly from a superheated start. Core heat flow decreases with time, possibly shutting off the dynamo, particularly in episodic cases. Here we extend [1] by considering intrusive magmatism as an alternative to

  3. Cenozoic uplift and subsidence in the North Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina


    , time and amplitude (where possible) of topographic changes in the North Atlantic region during the Cenozoic (65-0 Ma). Our compilation is based on published results from reflection seismic studies, AFT (apatite fission track) studies, VR (vitrinite reflectance) trends, maximum burial, sediment supply...

  4. Quaternary continetal back-arc evolution from southern Mendoza, Argentina (United States)

    Espanon, Venera; Chivas, Allan; Dosseto, Anthony; Honda, Masahiko; Phillips, David; Matchan, Erin; Price, David


    The Quaternary evolution of the Payenia Basaltic Province (PBP) in southern Mendoza, Argentina has been investigated using a multi-dating approach in combination with pre-exiting geochemical data. This basaltic province covers an area of approximately 40000 km2 and is mainly characterised by backarc volcanism. In the current investigation nine new radiometric ages obtained using surface exposure, 40Ar/39Ar and thermoluminescence dating are presented. Six ages correspond to the late Pleistocene and three to the Holocene. The surface exposure ages obtained using cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne are in good agreement with previous publications and confidently suggest that part of this basaltic province was active at least 4000 years ago (taking a conservative approach). In addition, we combined the available geochronological and geochemical data to reconstruct the Quaternary evolution of this basaltic province. This approach was used to create maps of geospatial distribution of trace-element ratios to determine geochemical changes during the Pleistocene. Employing this method it is evident that two geochemical distinct types of magma were erupting at the same time interval within the PBP. In the north eastern part (Nevado volcanic field) of the PBP an arc-like signature is evident, while in the southern part (Río Colorado volcanic field) of the same basaltic province an Ocean Island Basalt (OIB) signature is evident. The arc-like signature in the north eastern part of the PBP, decreased during the Pleistocene in a north-west direction indicated by a reduction in Ba/La and La/Ta in the Nevado and Llancanelo volcanic field. The Holocene volcanism is restricted to the western side of the Payún Matrú volcanic field and is dominated by OIB-like signatures such as high Ta/Hf and low Ba/La and La/Ta. This contribution presents new geochronology for the PBP and confirms that two different types of volcanism occurred simultaneously during the Pleistocene, while the Holocene volcanism is intraplate and restricted to a small area.

  5. Cenozoic Molluscan types from Java (Indonesia) in the Martin Collection (Division of Cenozoic Mollusca), National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Winkler Prins, C.F.


    An inventory of type material in the ‘Martin Collection’ at the Division of Cenozoic Mollusca of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands has been made. In total 1842 lots containing over 5700 type specimens of 912 species were encountered. The status of the types is outlined.

  6. Provenance Constraints on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Tectonic Evolution of the Queen Charlotte Islands Region (United States)

    Mahoney, J.; Haggart, J. W.; Kimbrough, D.; Grove, M.


    The medial Cretaceous magmatic arc system of western North America was flanked by a series of forearc basins extending from Mexico to Alaska. Cretaceous strata in the Queen Charlotte Islands of northwest British Columbia are unique in this series of basins, as these strata have been displaced from the arc system by formation of the extensional Queen Charlotte basin in Cenozoic time. This displacement complicates reconstruction of the forearc basin, and makes it difficult to evaluate the controls on basin evolution. Sedimentologic, paleontologic, and detrital zircon analyses of forearc strata represented by the Valanginian- Campanian Queen Charlotte Group (QCG) constrain basin evolution and provide a framework for an interpretation of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Queen Charlotte Islands region. Basin subsidence initiated in Valanginian time with a marine transgression over irregular topography consisting of extensional fault blocks of pre-Cretaceous strata. Locally derived conglomerates at the base of the Longarm Formation are overlain by shallow marine shelf deposits that represent a westward-deepening, fining-upward transgressive succession with an eastern depositional edge that migrated eastward during Valanginian to Aptian time. West-directed paleocurrents and a unimodal detrital zircon population of 120-175 Ma grains provide the first linkage between the Cretaceous QCG and unroofed Jura-Cretaceous plutons of the Coast Plutonic Complex to the east. This initial transgressive sequence is superseded by a second pulse of clastic detritus in early Albian time, characterized by an easterly-derived, fossiliferous shallow-shelf sandstone (Haida Formation), fine-grained, outer shelf to upper slope strata (Bearskin Bay Formation), and mass-sediment gravity flows (Skidegate Formation). The unimodal zircon population (ca 140-175 Ma) in the lower Haida Formation is interpreted to reflect renewed uplift of Jura-Cretaceous arc plutons by contractional

  7. K-Ar geochronology of the late cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Cordillera Occidental, southernmost Peru (United States)

    Tosdal, Richard M.; Farrar, Edward; Clark, Alan H.


    Twenty-four K-Ar radiometric ages are presented for late Cenozoic continental volcanic rocks of the Cordillera Occidental of southernmost Perú (lat. 16° 57'-17° 36'S). Rhyodacitic ignimbrite eruptions began in this transect during the Late Oligocene and continued episodically through the Miocene. The development of andesitic-dacitic strato volcanoes was initiated in the Pliocene and continues to the present. The earliest ignimbrite flows (25.3-22.7 Ma) are intercalated in the upper, coarsely-elastic member of the Moquegua Formation and demonstrate that this sedimentary unit accumulated in a trough, parallel to Andean tectonic trends, largely in the Oligocene. More voluminous ash-flow eruptions prevailed in the Early Miocene (22.8-17.6 Ma) and formed the extensively preserved Huaylillas Formation. This episode was coeval with a major phase of Andean uplift, and the pyroclastics overlie an erosional surface of regional extent incised into a Paleogene volcano-plutonic arc terrain. An age span of 14.2-8.9 Ma (mid-Late Miocene) is indicated for the younger Chuntacala Formation, which again comprises felsic ignimbrite flows, largely restricted to valleys incised into the pre-Huaylillas Formation lithologies, and, at lower altitudes, an extensive aggradational elastic facies. The youngest areally extensive ignimbrites, constituting the Sencca Formation, were extruded during the Late Miocene. In the earliest Pliocene, the ignimbrites were succeeded by more voluminous calcalkaline, intermediate flows which generated numerous large and small stratovolcanoes; these range in age from 5.3 to 1.6 Ma. Present-day, or Holocene, volcanism is restricted to several large stratovolcanoes which had begun their development during the Pleistocene (by 0.7 Ma). The late Oligocene/Early Miocene (ca. 22-23 Ma) reactivation of the volcanic arc coincided with a comparable increase in magmatic activity throughout much of the Cordilleras Occidental and Oriental of the Central Andes.

  8. Origin and geodynamic setting of Late Cenozoic granitoids in Sulawesi, Indonesia (United States)

    Maulana, Adi; Imai, Akira; Van Leeuwen, Theo; Watanabe, Koichiro; Yonezu, Kotaro; Nakano, Takanori; Boyce, Adrian; Page, Laurence; Schersten, Anders


    Late Cenozoic granitoids are widespread in a 1600 km long belt forming the Western and Northern Sulawesi tectono-magmatic provinces. They can be divided into three rock series: shoshonitic (HK), high-K felsic calc-alkaline (CAK), and normal calc-alkaline to tholeiitic (CA-TH). Representative samples collected from eleven plutons, which were subjected to petrography, major element, trace element, Sr, Nd, Pb isotope and whole-rock δ18O analyses, are all I-type and metaluminous to weakly peraluminous. The occurrence of the two K-rich series is restricted to Western Sulawesi, where they formed in an extensional, post-subduction tectonic setting with astenospheric upwelling providing thermal perturbation and adiabatic decompression. Two parental magma sources are proposed: enriched mantle or lower crustal equivalent for HK magmas, and Triassic igneous rocks in a Gondwana-derived fragment thrust beneath the cental and northern parts of Western Sulawesi for CAK magmas. The latter interpretation is based on striking similarities in radiogenic isotope and trace element signatures. CA-TH granitoids are found mostly in Northern Sulawesi. Partial melting of lower-middle crust amphibolites in an active subduction environment is the proposed origin of these rocks. Fractional crystallization and crustal contamination have played a significant role in magma petrogenesis, particularly in the case of the HK and CAK series. Contamination by organic carbon-bearing sedimentary rocks of the HK and CAK granitoids in the central part of Western Sulawesi is suggested by their ilmenite-series (reduced) character. The CAK granitoids further to the north and CA-TH granitoids in Northern Sulawesi are typical magnetite-series (oxidized). This may explain differences in mineralization styles in the two regions.

  9. I. Cenozoic geology of Iran: An integrated study of extensional tectonics and related volcanism. II. Ediacaran stratigraphy of the North American Cordillera: New observations from eastern California and northern Utah (United States)

    Verdel, Charles


    I. The late Oligocene to Miocene collision of Arabia and Eurasia was preceded by ~175 My of subduction of Neotethyan oceanic crust. Associated magmatic activity includes late Triassic(?) to Jurassic plutons in the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone of southern Iran, limited Cretaceous magmatism in the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran, and widespread Eocene volcanism across central Iran. Metamorphic core complexes of Eocene age have recently been recognized in widely separated parts of Iran, suggesting that Tertiary volcanism was related to extension. Geochemical data indicate that Eocene volcanism was typical of continental arcs and was followed by less voluminous Oligocene basaltic volcanism of the type often associated with back-arc basins. This set of observations suggests that mid-Mesozoic plutons in southern Iran are the remnants of an original volcanic arc that was only weakly developed because of slow subduction rate. Magmatic activity largely ceased in southern and central Iran during the Cretaceous and shifted to the north, suggesting a period of flat slab subduction. Subsequent slab-rollback during the Eocene extended the overriding plate, forming metamorphic core complexes and inducing pressure-release melting of partially hydrated lithospheric mantle and upwelling of asthenosphere. II. The Ediacaran Period spans from the base of cap carbonates overlying glacial deposits of the Marinoan "Snowball Earth" event to the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary, ~635 to 542 Ma. Sediments deposited during the rifting of southwest Laurentia, which are now exposed in a relatively narrow belt in the western US, are one of the best records on earth of the geological, geochemical, and geobiological events that occurred during this period. Evidence for one of the most significant of these, the final oxygenation of the oceans, is found within the upper Johnnie Formation in the southern Great Basin. C isotope data from thick, basinal facies of the Johnnie Fm. in the Panamint Range provide a

  10. Cenozoic Uplift, Erosion and Dynamic Support of Madagascar (United States)

    Stephenson, Simon; White, Nicky


    The physiography of Madagascar is characterised by high-elevation but low-relief topography; 42% of the landscape is above 500 m in elevation. Eocene (marine) nummulitic (marine) limestones at elevations of ˜400 m above sea level and newly dated, emergent 125 ka coral reefs suggest that Madagascar has experienced differential vertical motions during Cenozoic times. Malagasy rivers are often deeply incised and contain steepened reaches, implying that they have responded to changes in regional uplift rate. However, low temperature thermochronology and 10Be derived erosion rates suggest that both Cenozoic and Recent average denudation rates have been low. Extensive laterite-capped, low-relief surfaces also suggest that there have been long periods of tectonic quiescence. In contrast, the modern landscape is characterised by erosional gullies (i.e. lavaka), with very high local erosion rates. To bridge the gap between this disparate evidence, we inverted 2566 longitudinal river profiles using a damped non-negative, least-squares linear inversion to determine the history of regional uplift. We used a simplified version of the stream power erosional law. River profiles were extracted from the 3 arc-second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model. Calibration of the stream power erosional law is based upon Cenozoic limestones and new radiometrically dated marine terraces. The residual misfit between observed and calculated river profiles is small. Results suggest that Malagasy topography grew diachronously by 1-2 km over the last 15-20 Ma. Calculated uplift and denudation are consistent with independent observations. Thus drainage networks contain coherent signals that record regional uplift. The resultant waves of incision are the principal trigger for modern erosional processes. Admittance calculations, the history of basaltic volcanism and nearby oceanic residual age-depth measurements all suggest that as much as 0.8 - 1.1 km of Cenozoic uplift

  11. Report on ICDP workshop CONOSC (COring the NOrth Sea Cenozoic) (United States)

    Westerhoff, Wim; Donders, Timme; Luthi, Stefan


    ICDP workshop COring the NOrth Sea Cenozoic focused on the scientific objectives and the technical aspects of drilling and sampling. Some 55 participants attended the meeting, ranging from climate scientists, drilling engineers, and geophysicists to stratigraphers and public outreach experts. Discussion on the proposed research sharpened the main research lines and led to working groups and the necessary technical details to compile a full proposal that was submitted in January 2016.

  12. The dynamics of Cenozoic and Mesozoic plate motions


    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Richards, M. A.


    Our understanding of the dynamics of plate motions is based almost entirely upon modeling of present-day plate motions. A fuller understanding, however, can be derived from consideration of the history of plate motions. Here we investigate the kinematics of the last 120 Myr of plate motions and the dynamics of Cenozoic motions, paying special attention to changes in the character of plate motions and plate-driving forces. We analyze the partitioning of the observed surface velocity field into...

  13. Cenozoic uplift of the Central Andes in northern Chile and Bolivia - reconciling paleoaltimetry with the geological evolution. (United States)

    Lamb, S. H.


    The Cenozoic geological evolution of the Central Andes, along two transects between ~17.5°S and 21°S, is compared with paleo-topography, determined from published paleo-altimetry studies. Surface and rock uplift are quantified using simple 2-D models of crustal shortening and thickening, together with estimates of sedimentation, erosion and magmatic addition. Prior to ~25 Ma, during a phase of amagmatic flat-slab subduction, thick skinned crustal shortening and thickening was focused in the Eastern and Western Cordilleras, separated by a broad basin up to 300 km wide and close to sea level, which today comprises the high Altiplano. Surface topography in the Eastern Cordillera appears to be ~1 km lower than anticipated from crustal thickening, which may be due to the pull-down effect of the subducted slab, coupled to the overlying lithosphere by a cold mantle wedge. Oligocene steepening of the subducted slab is indicated by the initiation of the volcanic arc at ~27 - 25 Ma, and widespread mafic volcanism in the Altiplano between 25 and 20 Ma. This may have resulted in detachment of mantle lithosphere and possibly dense lower crust, triggering 1 - 1.5 km of rapid uplift (over << 5 Myrs) of the Altiplano and western margin of the Eastern Cordillera and establishing the present day lithospheric structure beneath the high Andes. Since ~25 Ma, surface uplift has been the direct result of crustal shortening and thickening, locally modified by the effects of erosion, sedimentation and magmatic addition from the mantle. The rate of crustal shortening and thickening varies with location and time, with two episodes of rapid shortening in the Altiplano, lasting < 5 Myrs, that are superimposed on a long term history of ductile shortening in the lower crust, driven by underthrusting of the Brazilian Shield on the eastern margin.

  14. Silicon isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation (United States)

    Savage, Paul S.; Georg, R. Bastian; Williams, Helen M.; Burton, Kevin W.; Halliday, Alex N.


    The Si isotopic composition of Earth's mantle is thought to be homogeneous (δ 30Si = -0.29 ± 0.08‰, 2 s.d.) and not greatly affected by partial melting and recycling. Previous analyses of evolved igneous material indicate that such rocks are isotopically heavy relative to the mantle. To understand this variation, it is necessary to investigate the degree of Si isotopic fractionation that takes place during magmatic differentiation. Here we report Si isotopic compositions of lavas from Hekla volcano, Iceland, which has formed in a region devoid of old, geochemically diverse crust. We show that Si isotopic composition varies linearly as a function of silica content, with more differentiated rocks possessing heavier isotopic compositions. Data for samples from the Afar Rift Zone, as well as various igneous USGS standards are collinear with the Hekla trend, providing evidence of a fundamental relationship between magmatic differentiation and Si isotopes. The effect of fractionation has been tested by studying cumulates from the Skaergaard Complex, which show that olivine and pyroxene are isotopically light, and plagioclase heavy, relative to the Si isotopic composition of the Earth's mantle. Therefore, Si isotopes can be utilised to model the competing effects of mafic and felsic mineral fractionation in evolving silicate liquids and cumulates. At an average SiO 2 content of ˜60 wt.%, the predicted δ 30Si value of the continental crust that should result from magmatic fractionation alone is -0.23 ± 0.05‰ (2 s.e.), barely heavier than the mantle. This is, at most, a maximum estimate, as this does not take into account weathered material whose formation drives the products toward lighter δ 30Si values. Mass balance calculations suggest that removal of continental crust of this composition from the upper mantle will not affect the Si isotopic composition of the mantle.

  15. Age and Geochemistry of the Early Paleozoic Back-arc Type Ophiolite in Dadaoerji Area, South Qilian, China%南祁连大道尔吉早古生代弧后盆地型蛇绿岩的年代学、地球化学特征及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄增保; 郑建平; 李葆华; 漆玮; 魏志军; 陈旭


    The Dadaoerji ophiolite is an important part of the ophiolitic mélange situated inbetween the Central Qilian block and the South Qilian fold belt. This ophiolite mainly consists of metaperidotite, mafic-ultramafic cumulate complexes and basaltic andesite. The mafic-ultramafic cumulate complex includes three cyclic cumulate. The bottom of each cyclic cumulate is chromium spinel-bearing dunite, and overlain by mafic and ultramafic laminated complex composed of pyroxene-peridotites, diopsidite, and gabbro. The Sm-Nd isochron age of the pyroxene-peridotites in the cumulate complex is 441±58 Ma, which indicates that the ophiolite was formed in Caledonian. Geochemical data show that the metamorphic peridotites have relatively higher MgO contents of 40.41%~40.96%, Cr contents of 3590×10−6~ 7340×10−6, and Ni contents of 1480×10−6~1710×10−6, and lower Al2O3contents of 0.35%~0.59%, TiO2contents of 0.03%~0.04%, and REEcontents of 0.81×10−6~1.84×10−6, typical of depleted mantle rocks. The major elements of mafic-ultramafic cumulate complex show a wide range of variation, relatively enriched in HREE with positive Eu anomaly. The basaltic andesites have SiO2contents of 54.90%~57.76%, MgO contents of 3.50%~5.45%, TiO2contents of 0.72%~1.12%, Na2O/K2O>1; The total REE contents of the basaltic andesites are 24.9×10−6~53.4×10−6, LaN/YbN ratios are 1.0~1.7 with flat REE patterns similar to that of E-MORB. The volcanic rocks are enriched in LILE (Ba, Rb, Th) and depleted in HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Ti), and are interpreted to be formed in a back-arc basin setting. Combined with the tectonic locations of the ophiolite and field observation, the authors propose that the Dadaoerji ophiolite is a relic slice of oceanic crust derived from depleted mantle, similar to the SSZ type ophiolite, and was formed in a back-arc basin setting. The North Qaidam oceanic plate was subducted northward under the Central Qilian blocks in the Early-Middle Ordovician.%大道尔吉蛇绿

  16. Cenozoic evolution of the eastern Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Michelsen, O.


    This paper provides a review of recent high-resolution and conventional seismic investigations in the eastern Danish North Sea and destribes their implications for the development of the eastern North Sea Basin. The results tomprise detailed timestructure maps of four major unconformities in the eastern Danish North Sea: the Top Chalk surface (mid-Paleogene), near top Oligocene, the mid-Miocene unconformity, and base Quatemary. The maps show that the eastem Danish North Sea has been affected by fauldng and salt diapirism throughout the Cenozoic. Carbonate mounds, erosional valleys and pockmark- or karstlike struttures were identitied at the top of the Upper Cretaceous-Danian Chalk Group. Strike-parallel erosional features and depositional geometries observed at near top Oligocene and at the mid-Miocene unconformity indicate that these major sequence boundarics tan be attributed to large-scale lateral changes in sediment supply directions. Increases in sediment flux to the southeastern North Sea at the Eocene/Oligocene transition and in the post-Middle Miocene appear to correlate with similar events world wide and with long term {delta} {sup 18} O increases, indicating forting by global factors, i.e. eustasy and climate. Stratal geometries observed on the seismic data indicate that the socalled `Neogene uplift' of the Bastern Danish North Sea may have been hundreds of metres less than previously suggested. lt is argued that late Cenozoic uplift of the basin margin and of mountain peaks in southern Norway may have been caused entirely by isostatic uplift of the trust in response to accelerated late Cenozoic denudation and dissection of topography created in the Paleogene. The late Cenozoic periods of accelerated denudation and incision rates were most likely driven by climatic deterioration and long term eustatic lowering rather than active late Cenozoic tectonics, the cause of which is conjectural. A series of shallow thrust struttures and an associated system

  17. Cenozoic carbon cycle imbalances and a variable weathering feedback (United States)

    Caves, Jeremy K.; Jost, Adam B.; Lau, Kimberly V.; Maher, Kate


    The long-term stability of Earth's climate and the recovery of the ocean-atmosphere system after carbon cycle perturbations are often attributed to a stabilizing negative feedback between silicate weathering and climate. However, evidence for the operation of this feedback over million-year timescales and in response to tectonic and long-term climatic change remains scarce. For example, the past 50 million years of the Cenozoic Era are characterized by long-term cooling and declining atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). During this interval, constant or decreasing carbon fluxes from the solid Earth to the atmosphere suggest that stable or decreasing weathering fluxes are needed to balance the carbon cycle. In contrast, marine isotopic proxies of weathering (i.e., 87Sr/86Sr, δ7 Li , and 187Os/188Os) are interpreted to reflect increasing weathering fluxes. Here, we evaluate the existence of a negative feedback by reconstructing the imbalance in the carbon cycle during the Cenozoic using the surface inventories of carbon and alkalinity. Only a sustained 0.25-0.5% increase in silicate weathering is necessary to explain the long-term decline in pCO2 over the Cenozoic. We propose that the long-term decrease in pCO2 is due to an increase in the strength of the silicate weathering feedback (i.e., the constant of proportionality between the silicate weathering flux and climate), rather than an increase in the weathering flux. This increase in the feedback strength, which mirrors the marine isotope proxies, occurs as transient, 1 million year timescales remains invariant to match the long-term inputs of carbon. Over the Cenozoic, this results in stable long-term weathering fluxes even as pCO2 decreases. We attribute increasing feedback strength to a change in the type and reactivity of rock in the weathering zone, which collectively has increased the reactivity of the surface of the Earth. Increasing feedback strength through the Cenozoic reconciles mass balance in the carbon cycle with

  18. Cretaceous-Cenozoic Geological Evolution of Tibet: Tectonic Interpretations and Outstanding Questions (Invited) (United States)

    Kapp, P. A.; Decelles, P. G.; Ding, L.; van Hinsbergen, D. J.


    The India-Asia collision, although profound, is only the most recent in a series of orogenic events that has modified the architecture of the Asian lithosphere. For instance, large parts of central Tibet (Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes) underwent >50% upper-crustal shortening, and likely substantial elevation gain, between Cretaceous and Eocene time in response to Lhasa - Qiangtang continental collision and Andean-style orogenesis along the southern margin of Asia. Findings by independent groups of Gangdese-arc-age detrital zircons in 52-50 Ma Tethyan Himalaya (TH) strata indicate that TH-Asia collision was ongoing by this time. This collision timing is consistent with multiple other, albeit less direct lines of evidence and suggests that a magmatic flare-up within the Gangdese arc (culminated at 52-51 Ma) occurred during subduction of TH lithosphere. Low-temperature thermochronologic data indicate that very low erosion rates, and likely plateau-like conditions considering the shortening history, were established in large parts of central Tibet at or by 50-45 Ma. The temporal-spatial distribution of subsequent shortening and exhumation is consistent with plateau growth northward and southward from central Tibet since the Eocene. The Cenozoic magmatic record of Tibet shows intriguing temporal-spatial patterns. Between 45 Ma and 30 Ma, volcanism swept >600 km northward from the Indus-Yarlung suture (IYS) and then back southward between 30 Ma and 25 Ma. These magmatic sweeps may have been produced by underthrusting and subsequent rollback of subducting TH lithosphere. Recent stratigraphic and structural studies suggest localized extension and elevation loss along the IYS at ~25 Ma, which is explainable in a slab rollback scenario, followed within a few million years by uplift back to near-modern elevations, perhaps in response to breakoff of TH lithosphere and northward underthrusting of Indian lithosphere. This hypothesis of TH - Indian lithosphere subduction can

  19. Geochemical modeling of magmatic gas scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gambardella


    Full Text Available The EQ3/6 software package, version 7.2 was successfully used to model scrubbing of magmatic gas by pure water at 0.1 MPa, in the liquid and liquid-plus-gas regions. Some post-calculations were necessary to account for gas separation effects. In these post-calculations, redox potential was considered to be fixed by precipitation of crystalline a-sulfur, a ubiquitous and precocious process. As geochemical modeling is constrained by conservation of enthalpy upon water-gas mixing, the enthalpies of the gas species of interest were reviewed, adopting as reference state the liquid phase at the triple point. Our results confirm that significant emissions of highly acidic gas species (SO2(g, HCl(g, and HF(g are prevented by scrubbing, until dry conditions are established, at least locally. Nevertheless important outgassing of HCl(g can take place from acid, HCl-rich brines. Moreover, these findings support the rule of thumb which is generally used to distinguish SO2-, HCl-, and HF-bearing magmatic gases from SO2-, HCl-, and HF-free hydrothermal gases.

  20. Arc-oblique fault systems: their role in the Cenozoic structural evolution and metallogenesis of the Andes of central Chile (United States)

    Piquer, Jose; Berry, Ron F.; Scott, Robert J.; Cooke, David R.


    The evolution of the Main Cordillera of Central Chile is characterized by the formation and subsequent inversion of an intra-arc volcano-tectonic basin. The world's largest porphyry Cu-Mo deposits were emplaced during basin inversion. Statistically, the area is dominated by NE- and NW-striking faults, oblique to the N-striking inverted basin-margin faults and to the axis of Cenozoic magmatism. This structural pattern is interpreted to reflect the architecture of the pre-Andean basement. Stratigraphic correlations, syn-extensional deposits and kinematic criteria on fault surfaces show several arc-oblique structures were active as normal faults at different stages of basin evolution. The geometry of syn-tectonic hydrothermal mineral fibers, in turn, demonstrates that most of these structures were reactivated as strike-slip ± reverse faults during the middle Miocene - early Pliocene. Fault reactivation age is constrained by 40Ar/39Ar dating of hydrothermal minerals deposited during fault slip. The abundance and distribution of these minerals indicates fault-controlled hydrothermal fluid flow was widespread during basin inversion. Fault reactivation occurred under a transpressive regime with E- to ENE-directed shortening, and was concentrated around major plutons and hydrothermal centers. At the margins of the former intra-arc basin, deformation was largely accommodated by reverse faulting, whereas in its central part strike-slip faulting was predominant.

  1. Late Mesozoic crust-mantle interaction and lower crust components in South China: A geochemical study of mafic granulite xenoliths from Cenozoic basalts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Jinhai; (于津海); XU; Xisheng; (徐夕生); ZHOU; Xinmin; (周新民)


    Mafic granulite xenoliths collected from Cenozoic basalts in SE China can be classified as magmatic granulite and cumulate granulite. Magmatic granulites are characterized by highly concentrated Al2O3, K2O, P2O5, Ba, Sr, Pb and REE, and low contents of Nb, Zr, Hf and Th, and have an incompatible element abundance pattern similar to that of continental arc basalts. Cumulate granulites aredepleted in K2O, P2O5, Rb, Cs and Ba. These granulite xenoliths were the products of crystallization and recrystallization of the basaltic magma underplating into crust-mantle boundary in Late Mesozoic. Sr and Nd isotopic compositions and variation trend of these mafic rocks are the result of crust-mantle mixing and controlled by assimilation and fractional crystallization process (AFC). However,trace element and major element variations were mainly controlled by fractionalcrystallization. The granulites are similar in geochemistry to surface Late Mesozoic gabbro and basalt in the study area, suggesting a close petrogenetic link between them. Late Mesozoic basaltic magma activities are the most important cause for the formation of extensive contemporaneous granite and rhyolite in the study area. This study and previous data indicate that the lower crust beneath South China is composed of a variety of Paleo- to Meso-proterozoic metamorphic rocks and Late Mesozoic mafic granulites.

  2. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region. (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Hansen, Bent T


    We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema). In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large lucinids because they

  3. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema. In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large

  4. Dynamic topography and the Cenozoic carbonate compensation depth (United States)

    Campbell, S. M.; Moucha, R.; Raymo, M. E.; Derry, L. A.


    The carbonate compensation depth (CCD), the ocean depth at which the calcium carbonate accumulation rate goes to zero, can provide valuable insight into climatic and weathering conditions over the Cenozoic. The paleoposition of the CCD can be inferred from sediment core data. As the carbonate accumulation rate decreases linearly with depth between the lysocline and CCD, the CCD can be calculated using a linear regression on multiple sediment cores with known carbonate accumulation rates and paleodepths. It is therefore vital to have well-constrained estimates of paleodepths. Paleodepths are typically calculated using models of thermal subsidence and sediment loading and compaction. However, viscous convection-related stresses in the mantle can warp the ocean floor by hundreds of meters over broad regions and can also vary significantly over millions of years. This contribution to paleobathymetry, termed dynamic topography, can be calculated by modeling mantle flow backwards in time. Herein, we demonstrate the effect dynamic topography has on the inference of the late Cenozoic CCD with an example from the equatorial Pacific, considering sites from IODP Expeditions 320/321. The equatorial Pacific, given its large size and high productivity, is closely tied to the global carbon cycle. Accordingly, long-term changes in the equatorial Pacific CCD can be considered to reflect global changes in weathering fluxes and the carbon cycle, in addition to more regional changes in productivity and thermohaline circulation. We find that, when the dynamic topography contribution to bathymetry is accounted for, the equatorial Pacific CCD is calculated to be appreciably shallower at 30 Ma than previous estimates would suggest, implying a greater deepening of the Pacific CCD over the late Cenozoic.

  5. Moho and magmatic underplating in continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina M.


    fractionation during cooling and solidification in the lower crust. Separation of the low density material from the high-density residue may be a main process of formation of continental crust with its characteristic low average density, also during the early evolution of the Earth. Despite the assumed...... importance of underplating processes and associated fractionation, the available geophysical images of underplated material remain relatively sparse and confined to specific tectonic environments. Direct ponding of magma at the Moho is only observed in very few locations, probably because magma usually...... interacts with the surrounding crustal rocks which leads to smearing of geophysical signals from the underplated material. In terms of processes, there is no direct discriminator between the traditional concept of underplated material and lower crustal magmatic intrusions in the form of batholiths and sill...

  6. Did high Neo-Tethys subduction rates contribute to early Cenozoic warming?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoareau, G.; Bomou, B.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J J; Carry, N.; Marquer, D.; Donnadieu, Y.; Le Hir, G.; Vrielynck, B.; Walter-Simonnet, A. V.


    The 58-51 Ma interval was characterized by a long-term increase of global temperatures (+4 to +6°C) up to the Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO, 52.9-50.7 Ma), the warmest interval of the Cenozoic. It was recently suggested that sustained high atmospheric pCO2, controlling warm early Cenozoic clima

  7. Soft-sediment ichnotaxa from the Cenozoic White Limestone Group, Jamaica, West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blissett, D.J.; Pickerill, R.K.


    Jamaica, the third largest of the Greater Antillean islands, exposes various lithological units that are dominated by Cenozoic carbonate rocks including those of the mid-Cenozoic White Limestone Group. This Group is comprised of six formations, the Troy, Swanswick, Somerset, Moneague, Montpelier and

  8. Cenozoic Fault Distribution Characteristics and Evolution in Qikou Sag of Bohai Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongdong Zhang; Chiyang Liu; Yijian Huang; Siqian Chen; Yi Lu; Zhipan Zhang


    Qikou sag, located in north-center of Huanghua depression in Bohai Basin, is a Cenozoic sag with rich hydrocarbon. As a microcosm of Bohai Basin, the fault characteristics of Cenozoic struc-tural layers in Qikou sag could indicate and record the evolution of Cenozoic stress field in Bohai Basin. Based on the latest 3-D seismic data, the study takes statistics on the fault system of Cenozoic structural layers and analyzes the fault throws of major large faults along the strikes in different periods in Qikou sag, then the fault distribution regularities and the fault direction characteristics in each structural layer are summarized. The result shows that during Cenozoic, the fault activity strength migrates from southwest to northeast and the strikes of faults changes from northwestward in Sha-3 period to nearly east-westward since Sha-1 period.

  9. Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: a review (United States)

    Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Valla, Pierre; Herman, Fred


    The present review is an attempt to summarize quantitative evidence of Late Cenozoic changes in topographic relief on Earth. We first define different meanings of the word "relief", as it is commonly used, and detail the metrics used to quantify it. We then specify methodological tools used to quantify relief change (primarily lowtemperature thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides), and analyze published evidence for different regions. Our review first show that relief changes and rates of changes are more important at mid-, than high- or low-latitudes, and appear to be insensitive to mean precipitation rates. We also show that relief change is positive (relief increases) in most of the reported cases (~80%). We subsequently define two functional relationships between relief and erosion, depending on the chosen definition of relief, and propose a conceptual model of landscape memory. We conclude, following others, that erosion rates depends non-linearly on relief evolution, itself being a function of the spatial distribution and rates of erosion. The relief increases documented in this review may be related led to erosion rate increases during the same timescales. Lastly, we discuss the importance of glacial and periglacial processes on Late Cenozoic relief and erosion rate changes, and stress the importance of frost shattering and glacial erosion at mid- and high-latitudes.

  10. Algal constraints on the Cenozoic history of atmospheric CO2?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. M. Rickaby


    Full Text Available An urgent question for future climate, in light of increased burning of fossil fuels, is the temperature sensitivity of the climate system to atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2. To date, no direct proxy for past levels of pCO2 exists beyond the reach of the polar ice core records. We propose a new methodology for placing an upper constraint on pCO2 over the Cenozoic based on the living geological record. Specifically, our premise is that the contrasting calcification tolerance of various extant species of coccolithophore to raised pCO2 reflects an "evolutionary memory" of past atmospheric composition. The different times of first emergence of each morphospecies allows an upper constraint of past pCO2 to be placed on Cenozoic timeslices. Further, our hypothesis has implications for the response of marine calcifiers to ocean acidification. Geologically "ancient" species, which have survived large changes in ocean chemistry, are likely more resilient to predicted acidification.

  11. Late Cenozoic Paleoceanography of the Central Arctic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Regan, Matt, E-mail: [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, Wales (United Kingdom)


    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and perhaps least accessible of the worlds oceans. It occupies only 26% of the global ocean area, and less than 10% of its volume. However, it exerts a disproportionately large influence on the global climate system through a complex set of positive and negative feedback mechanisms directly or indirectly related to terrestrial ice and snow cover and sea ice. Increasingly, the northern high latitude cryosphere is seen as an exceptionally fragile part of the global climate system, a fact exemplified by observed reductions in sea ice extent during the past decades [2]. The paleoceanographic evolution of the Arctic Ocean can provide important insights into the physical forcing mechanisms that affect the form, intensity and permanence of ice in the high Arctic, and its sensitivity to these mechanisms in vastly different climate states of the past. However, marine records capturing the late Cenozoic paleoceanography of the Arctic are limited - most notably because only a single deep borehole exists from the central parts of this Ocean. This paper reviews the principal late Cenozoic (Neogene/Quaternary) results from the Arctic Coring Expedition to the Lomonosov Ridge and in light of recent data and observations on modern sea ice, outlines emerging questions related to three main themes: 1) the establishment of the 'modern' Arctic Ocean and the opening of the Fram Strait 2) the inception of perennial sea ice 3) The Quaternary intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations.

  12. Quaternary volcanism in Deception Island (Antarctica): South Shetland Trench subduction-related signature in the Bransfield Basin back arc domain; Vulcanismo cuaternario de la Isla Decepcion (Antartida): una signatura relacionada con la subduccion de la Fosa de las Shetland del Sur en el dominio de tras-arco de la Cuenca de Bransfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, C.; Ubide, T.; Lago, M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Rey, J.; Maestro, A.; Lopez-Martinez, J.


    Deception Island shows a volcanism related to the Phoenix Plate subduction and roll-back under South Shetland Block in the present times. The development of the island is related to the evolution and collapse of a volcanic caldera, and this study is focused on the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the post-caldera rocks. We have made a study of the lava flows, dikes and the youngest historic eruption in 1970. These rocks range from dacite to rhyolite and have a microporphyritic texture with olivine and minor clinopyroxene. A pre-caldera basaltic andesite has also been studied. It has a microporphyritic texture with clinopyroxene. The intermediate and acid compositions alternating in the volcanostratigraphic sequence suggest either mafic recharge events or melt extraction from different levels in the deep magmatic system. All the studied compositions share a subduction-related signature similar to other magmatics from the Bransfield Basin. However, compositional differences between pre-caldera and post-caldera rocks indicate a different magma source and depth of crystallisation. According to the geothermobarometric calculations the pre-caldera magmas started to crystallise at deeper levels (13.5-15 km) than the post-caldera magmas (6.2-7.8 km). Specifically, the postcaldera magmas indicate a smaller influence of the subducting slab in the southwestern part of the Bransfield Basin in respect to the available data from other sectors as well as the involvement of crustal contamination in the genesis of the magmas. (Author)

  13. Geochemical study on magmatic water. Part 1. Jitsuzai no magumasui (1); Magumasui no chikyu kagakuteki kenkyu (1). Actual magmatic water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, I. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)


    Magmatic waters are the water contained in magma and the water originated directly from magma, and the latter originated directly from magma is generally called magmatic water. All the magmatic water produced from magma is not necessarily primordial water. Magma emanation is separated from magma, and gradually provided with various characteristics by such phenomena as reaction and mixing with materials in the passage until it erupts to the ground surface as volcanic emanation. In regard to studies on actual magmatic water, descriptions are made on magmatic water, residual magmatic water, as well as magmatic water and the quantity of emanation of Miharayama, a volcano in Izu Oshima. Various kinds of volcanic emanation and magma water are produced from the same lava which is the ground surface magma, even in the same place due to difference in the passage of time since the emission of volcanic emanation and physical and chemical environmental changes (atmospheric phenomena, weather, temperature, and wind velocity). An instance of the presence of various types of magma water is introduced. 37 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Volatile Exsolution Experiments: Sampling Exsolved Magmatic Fluids (United States)

    Tattitch, B.; Blundy, J. D.


    In magmatic arcs the conditions of volatile exsolution exert a direct control on the composition of exsolved magmatic volatiles phases (MVPs), as well as on their parental magmas. The ability to accurately assess the exchange of major and trace elements between MVPs and magmas is key to understanding the evolution of arc magmas. The trace element signatures measured in arc volcanoes, fumaroles, and hydrothermal ore deposits are greatly influenced by the role of MVPs. In order to investigate the interplay and evolution of melts and MVPs we need experimental methods to simulate MVP exsolution that impose minimal external constraints on their equilibration. Previous experiments have focused on evaluating the exchange of elements between aqueous fluids and silicate melts under equilibrium conditions[1,2]. However, the large mass proportion of fluid to melt in these experiment designs is unrealistic. As a result, the idealized compositions of the aqueous fluids may exert a strong control on melt compositions for which they are out of equilibrium, especially at low melt fractions. In contrast, other experiments have focused on the melt during crystallization but must calculate MVP compositions by mass balance[3]. In order to investigate MVPs and magmas during this critical period of MVP exsolution, we present a new two-stage fluid-melt experimental design. Stage one experiments generate super-liquidus hydrous melts using Laguna del Maule rhyolites and dactites, as analogues for ascending arc magmas. Stage two experiments allow aliquots of stage one melt/glass to crystallize and exsolve MVPs. The design then uses pressure cycling to promote infiltration of in-situ fractured quartz[4] and traps the MVPs as synthetic fluid inclusions. We present results from trial stage 2 experiments, which produced synthetic fluid inclusions consistent with literature values of fluid-melt Cl partitioning[5] and of sufficient size for LA-ICPMS analysis. Trace element partitioning for Li, Na

  15. The Tectonic Event of the Cenozoic in the Tasman Area, Western Pacific, and Its Role in Eocene Global Change (United States)

    Collot, J.; Sutherland, R.; Rouillard, P.; Patriat, M.; Roest, W. R.; Bache, F.


    The geometry and age progression of Emperor and Hawaii seamounts provide compelling evidence for a major change in Pacific plate motion over a short period of geological time at c. 50 Ma. This time approximately coincides with significant changes in plate boundary configuration and rate in the Indian Ocean, Antarctica, and with the onset of subduction zones in the western Pacific from Japan to New Zealand. This new subduction system that initiated during Eocene time can be divided into two sectors: The northern sector formed at the eastern boundary of the Philippine Sea plate and evolved into the Izu-Bonin-Mariana system. It has and is being extensively studied (2014 IODP expedition 351) to determine the magmatic products, but is limited in the record that is preserved because it is entirely intra-oceanic in character. The southern sector, the Tasman Area sector, borders continental fragments of Gondwana from Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia and New Zealand. This subduction zone evolved into the Tonga-Kemadec system. Because most of the southwest Pacific remained in marine conditions throughout Paleogene time and because rapid seawards roll-back of the subduction is inferred to have happened, it presents extensive well-preserved stratigraphic records to study the Eocene-Oligocene plate boundary evolution. The recent compilation of c. 100.000 km of 2D seismic data in the Tasman Frontier database has allowed us to describe, in the overriding plate of the proto subduction, stratigraphic evidence for large Cenozoic vertical movements (2-4 km) over a lateral extension of 2000 km (from New Caledonia to New Zealand), long-wavelength (~500 km) warping and large amounts of reverse faulting and folding near the proto-trench. These recent observations from the Lord Howe Rise, New Caledonia Trough and South Norfolk Ridge system reveal clear evidence for convergent deformation (uplift and erosion) and subsequent subsidence recorded in Eocene and Oligocene stratal relationships

  16. A Preliminary Research on Skarns of Magmatic Origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Skarns of magmatic origin, or magmatic skarns as called, are formed by crystallization of skarnic magma injecting into structural fissures. They occur in various rocks (rock formations), mainly in form of veins. Usually, they possess massive structure and cumulative texture. They mainly consist of calc-silicate, without or with minor water-bearing silicates. The typical minerals in it include alkali-feldspar, calcite and anhydrite. Some silicate melt inclusions and high temperature, high salinity poly-phase inclusions can be seen in the crystals of their host minerals. The particular members of the magmatic skarns are transitional skarn and skarnic pegmatite. The magmatic skarn and the congenetic alkali-rich diorite usually collaborate in a conjugating and complementary manner. They probably are the products of calcic contamination, degassing, desilicification and separation in melt state of deep-seated (high-level magma chamber) alkali-rich intermediate-acid magma.

  17. Palinspastic restoration of NAVDat and its implications for the origins of magmatism in western North America (United States)

    McQuarrie, N.; Oskin, M.


    Simultaneous palinspastic restoration of deformation and volcanism illuminates relationships between magmatism and tectonics in western North America. Using ArcGIS and custom software, we retrodeformed the NAVDat (North American Volcanic Database, using the western North America reconstruction of McQuarrie and Wernicke (2005). We compare this data to strain rates calculated over a 50 km-grid forward-deformed from 36 Ma to present. With the deformed grid and palinspastically restored volcanic dataset we quantitatively compare rates of magmatism and deformation and evaluate the age, location, and migration of Cenozoic volcanic arcs. These relationships are shown in a series of palinspastic maps as well as an animation highlighting migrating extension and volcanism with time. We group western North America into 8 different regions with distinct relationships between strain and volcanism. In the northern Basin and Range, southern Arizona and Rio Grande rift areas, a peak in andesitic compositions reflects arc volcanism that preceded significant extension by 5-10 m.y. In the northern Basin and Range, southwestward migration of volcanism in conjunction with westward expansion of the continental margin strongly supports the contention that extension was driven by slab rollback. Southern Arizona and the Colorado River extensional corridor (CEC) have a remarkably similar migration of extension and volcanism that occurred ~10 m.y. later than in the northern Basin and Range. The migration of volcanism from southern Arizona to the CEC and Mojave Desert has been argued to reflect northwestward migration of the volcanic arc from 30 to 15 Ma. However, we note that by 20 Ma both the CEC and the Mojave region directly overlie the slab window in the Farallon plate. In this region extension peaks with or immediately after volcanism and suggests thermal failure of the lithosphere above a growing slab window. At the latitude of Death Valley there is a strong

  18. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of the lassen volcanic center, California: Resolving crustal and mantle contributions to continental Arc magmatism (United States)

    Feeley, T.C.; Clynne, M.A.; Winer, G.S.; Grice, W.C.


    This study reports oxygen isotope ratios determined by laser fluorination of mineral separates (mainly plagioclase) from basaltic andesitic to rhyolitic composition volcanic rocks erupted from the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC), northern California. Plagioclase separates from nearly all rocks have ??18O values (6.1-8.4%) higher than expected for production of the magmas by partial melting of little evolved basaltic lavas erupted in the arc front and back-arc regions of the southernmost Cascades during the late Cenozoic. Most LVC magmas must therefore contain high 18O crustal material. In this regard, the ??18O values of the volcanic rocks show strong spatial patterns, particularly for young rhyodacitic rocks that best represent unmodified partial melts of the continental crust. Rhyodacitic magmas erupted from vents located within 3.5 km of the inferred center of the LVC have consistently lower ??18 O values (average 6.3% ?? 0.1%) at given SiO2 contents relative to rocks erupted from distal vents (>7.0 km; average 7.1% ?? 0.1%). Further, magmas erupted from vents situated at transitional distances have intermediate values and span a larger range (average 6.8% ?? 0.2%). Basaltic andesitic to andesitic composition rocks show similar spatial variations, although as a group the ??18O values of these rocks are more variable and extend to higher values than the rhyodacitic rocks. These features are interpreted to reflect assimilation of heterogeneous lower continental crust by mafic magmas, followed by mixing or mingling with silicic magmas formed by partial melting of initially high 18O continental crust (??? 9.0%) increasingly hybridized by lower ??18O (???6.0%) mantle-derived basaltic magmas toward the center of the system. Mixing calculations using estimated endmember source ??18O values imply that LVC magmas contain on a molar oxygen basis approximately 42 to 4% isotopically heavy continental crust, with proportions declining in a broadly regular fashion toward the

  19. Nominally hydrous magmatism on the Moon. (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis M; Steele, Andrew; Hauri, Erik H; Nekvasil, Hanna; Yamashita, Shigeru; Hemley, Russell J


    For the past 40 years, the Moon has been described as nearly devoid of indigenous water; however, evidence for water both on the lunar surface and within the lunar interior have recently emerged, calling into question this long-standing lunar dogma. In the present study, hydroxyl (as well as fluoride and chloride) was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry in apatite [Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)(F,Cl,OH)] from three different lunar samples in order to obtain quantitative constraints on the abundance of water in the lunar interior. This work confirms that hundreds to thousands of ppm water (of the structural form hydroxyl) is present in apatite from the Moon. Moreover, two of the studied samples likely had water preserved from magmatic processes, which would qualify the water as being indigenous to the Moon. The presence of hydroxyl in apatite from a number of different types of lunar rocks indicates that water may be ubiquitous within the lunar interior, potentially as early as the time of lunar formation. The water contents analyzed for the lunar apatite indicate minimum water contents of their lunar source region to range from 64 ppb to 5 ppm H(2)O. This lower limit range of water contents is at least two orders of magnitude greater than the previously reported value for the bulk Moon, and the actual source region water contents could be significantly higher.

  20. Numerical simulation of magmatic hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Geiger, S.; Hurwitz, S.; Driesner, T.


    The dynamic behavior of magmatic hydrothermal systems entails coupled and nonlinear multiphase flow, heat and solute transport, and deformation in highly heterogeneous media. Thus, quantitative analysis of these systems depends mainly on numerical solution of coupled partial differential equations and complementary equations of state (EOS). The past 2 decades have seen steady growth of computational power and the development of numerical models that have eliminated or minimized the need for various simplifying assumptions. Considerable heuristic insight has been gained from process-oriented numerical modeling. Recent modeling efforts employing relatively complete EOS and accurate transport calculations have revealed dynamic behavior that was damped by linearized, less accurate models, including fluid property control of hydrothermal plume temperatures and three-dimensional geometries. Other recent modeling results have further elucidated the controlling role of permeability structure and revealed the potential for significant hydrothermally driven deformation. Key areas for future reSearch include incorporation of accurate EOS for the complete H2O-NaCl-CO2 system, more realistic treatment of material heterogeneity in space and time, realistic description of large-scale relative permeability behavior, and intercode benchmarking comparisons. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Platinum metals in magmatic sulfide ores (United States)

    Naldrett, A.J.; Duke, J.M.


    Platinum-group elements (PGE) are mined predominantly from deposits that have formed by the segregation of molten iron-nickel-copper sulfides from silicate magmas. The absolute concentrations of PGE in sulfides from different deposits vary over a range of five orders of magnitude, whereas those of other chalcophile elements vary by factors of only 2 to 100. However, the relative proportions of the different PGE in a given deposit are systematically related to the nature of the parent magma. The absolute and relative concentrations of PGE in magmatic sulfides are explained in terms of the degree of partial melting of mantle peridotite required to produce the parent magma and the processes of batch equilibration and fractional segregation of sulfides. The Republic of South Africa and the U.S.S.R. together possess more than 97 percent of the world PGE reserves, but significant undeveloped resources occur in North America. The Stillwater complex in Montana is perhaps the most important example. Copyright ?? 1980 AAAS.

  2. Magmatic evidence for Neogene lithospheric evolution of the central Andean ``flat-slab'' between 30°S and 32°S (United States)

    Kay, S. M.; Abbruzzi, J. M.


    Geochemical data from Andean Miocene magmas erupted through the now volcanically-inactive "flat-slab" between 30°S to 32°S, coupled with geological and geophysical data, illuminate details on magmatic and continental lithospheric evolution over a progressively shallowing subduction zone. Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic and trace-element data show that Main Cordilleran, Precordilleran and Pampean magmas were contaminated in both the mantle and crust, and that the nature of the contaminants varied in time and space, reflecting tectonic events. Contaminants included both "enriched" (high LIL-element, high Sr and Pb, and low Nd isotopic ratios) and "depleted" (low LILE-element, low Sr and Pb, and high Nd isotopic ratios) types. In the western region, Main Cordilleran earlier Miocene lavas had contaminants with less "enriched" signatures than later Miocene lavas. Progressive "enrichment" is attributed to: (a) increasing amounts of sediment and tectonically eroded crust being subducted into the mantle wedge; and (b) contamination in a thickening Main Cordilleran lower crust whose composition was progressively "enriched". This "enrichment" occurred through addition of upper crust by an intracrustal mixing process driven by a propagating wedge tip associated with westward wedging, heating and deformation of crust from beneath the shortening Precordillera thrust belt to the east. Further east, magmas erupted through back-arc crust have more "depleted" signatures. Those erupted in the central part through the evolving Precordilleran thrust belt were contaminated by an older, thinner Grenville (˜ 1100 Ma) basement whose "depleted" signature is unique among Central Andean terranes. Late Miocene Pocho lavas erupted further east in conjunction with uplift of the Sierras Pampeanas show "enrichment" through time. Arguably, these magmas could contain a component mechanically removed from the base of the thinning continental lithosphere to the west, and progressively incorporated into the

  3. Petrogenetic significance of high Fe/Mn ratios of the Cenozoic basalts from Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Cenozoic basalts from eastern China show commonly high Fe/Mn ratios (average = 68.6 ± 11.5) coupled with OIB-type trace element signature. The Cenozoic basalts form the northern margin and the southern margin of the North China Craton are studied in detail. Model calculations point out that the coupling feature of high Fe/Mn ratio with OIB-type trace element signature of these basalts cannot be produced by neither pyroxene/olivine crystallization nor remelting of previously melted mantle, but require partial melting of a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source. Combining these features of the Cenozoic basalts with the Phanerozoic lithospheric evolution of the eastern China, we suggest that the Cenozoic basalts were derived from a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source associated with continental crust delamination or oceanic crust subduction.

  4. Petrogenetic significance of high Fe/Mn ratios of the Cenozoic basalts from Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG BinHui; LIU YongSheng; GAO Shan


    The Cenozoic basalts from eastern China show commonly high Fe/Mn ratios (average = 68.6 卤 11.5) coupled with OIB-type trace element signature. The Cenozoic basalts form the northern margin and the southern margin of the North China Craton are studied in detail. Model calculations point out that the coupling feature of high Fe/Mn ratio with OIB-type trace element signature of these basalts cannot be produced by neither pyroxene/olivine crystallization nor remelting of previously melted mantle, but require partial melting of a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source. Combining these features of the Cenozoic basalts with the Phanerozoic lithospheric evolution of the eastern China, we suggest that the Cenozoic basalts were derived from a garnet pyroxenite-rich mantle source associated with continental crust delamination or oceanic crust subduction.

  5. Types of Cenozoic Mollusca from Java in the Martin Collection of Naturalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.


    An updated type catalogue of the Martin Collection (fossil Mollusca, predominantly from the Cenozoic of Java, Indonesia) is presented. Type specimen data, updated locality data, and illustrations are given.

  6. Cenozoic burial and exhumation history of the Kangerlussuaq area, East Greenland, revealed by new apatite fission-track data (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Green, Paul F.; Bonow, Johan M.; Nielsen, Troels F.


    The Kangerlussuaq area in East Greenland (c. 68°N) has witnessed a complex geological development during the Cenozoic. The Skaergaard intrusion and the up to 5 km thick flood basalts formed during a short period around 55 Ma, and subsequently numerous intrusive bodies were emplaced, primarily during the Eocene. Relatively little is known about the geological history over the last 35 Myr, other than that an outlier of Middle Miocene lavas is located in the area at an elevation of c. 2.7 km. At the present-day, the area is deeply eroded and magmatic bodies that were emplaced deeply in the crust, are now exposed at the surface, but at the same time, the area has a significant elevation and even hosts the highest peak in Greenland, Gunbjørn Fjeld, 3.7 km above sea level. To unravel the history of burial and exhumation in the Kangerlussuaq area, new apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) data has been acquired for 75 rock samples. Preliminary results show that the area has been subject to several phases of cooling since burial under the Palaeogene flood basalts. Phases of regional cooling along the coast that occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene transition and in the late Neogene are interpreted to be due to uplift and exhumation. Cooling events of local extent that occurred in the Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene are interpreted to be related to both exhumation and to circulating hot fluids. Results from samples along vertical transects reveal details of the protracted exhumation history, and that the present topography was formed during the late Neogene.

  7. Geochronological and geochemical assessment of Cenozoic volcanism from the Terror Rift region of the West Antarctic Rift System (United States)

    Rilling, Sarah E.

    The work presented in this dissertation explains results from three different methods to determine the relation between tectonism and rift-related volcanism in the Terror Rift region of the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). Alkaline lavas from seven submarine features, Beaufort Island and Franklin Islands, and several locations near Mt Melbourne were dated by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and analyzed for elemental and isotopic chemical signatures. Each chapter addresses a different aspect of the hypothesis that the presence of volatiles, primarily H2O or CO2, in the magma source has led to anomalously high volumes of magmatism after rift-related decompressional melting rather than requiring an active mantle plume source. Chapter 2 provides the temporal framework, illustrating that the sampled features range in age from 6.7 Ma to 89 ka, post-dating the main Miocene age phase of Terror Rift extension. Chapter 3 illustrates the traditional enriched elemental and isotopic chemical signatures to support the overall homogeneity of these lavas and previously analyzed areas of the WARS. This chapter also provides a new model for the generation of the Pb isotopic signatures consistent with a history of metasomatism in the magma source. Chapter 4 provides an entirely new chemical dataset for the WARS. The first platinum group element (PGE) abundances and extremely unradiogenic Os isotopic signatures of Cenozoic lavas from Antarctica provide the strongest evidence of melting contributions from a lithospheric mantle source. The combined results from these three studies consistently support the original hypothesis of this dissertation. New evidence suggests that WARS related lavas are not related to a mantle plume(s) as previously proposed. Instead, they are generated by passive, decompressional melting of a source, likely a combination of the asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle, which has undergone previous melting events and metasomatism.

  8. Potassium-argon/argon-40-argon-39 geochronology of Cenozoic alkali basalts from the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa; YANG Yaomin; WANG Kunshan


    Based on the isotopic chronologic results of Cenozoic alkali basalts from the South China Sea,the characteristics of volcanic activi-ty of the South China Sea after spreading were studied.The potassium - argon ages of eight alkali basalt samples from the South China Sea,and the argon - argon ages of two samples among them are reported.Apparent ages of the whole rock are 3.80 to 7.91 Ma with an average value of 5.43 Ma (potassium- argon,whole rock),and there is little difference among samples at the same location,e.g.,4.76~5.78 Ma for location S04-12.The argon - argon ages for the two samples are 6.06 and 4.71 Ma,which lie within the age scope of potassium - argon method.The dating results indicate that rock-forming age is from late Miocene to Pli-ocene,which is consistent with erupting event for alkali basalts from adjacent regions of the South China Sea.Volcanic activities occur after the cessation of spreading of the South China Sea,which are controlled by lithospheric fault and the spreading center formed during the spreading period of the South China Sea.These dating results,combined with geochemical characteristics of these basalts,the published chronological data for the South China Sea and its adjacent regions,and the updated geophysical data near Hainan Island,suggest that after the cessation of spreading of the South China Sea,there occur widely distributing magmatic activities which primarily is alkali basalt,and the volcanic activity continues to Quaternary.The activity may be relative to Hainan mantle plume originated from core/mantle boundary.

  9. Mass Flux of Continental Material at Cenozoic Subduction Zones--New Global and Trench-sector Calculations Using New Geological and Geophysical Observations (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.; von Huene, R.


    INTRODUCTION: A decade ago, then available geophysical and geological data implied that more than 65 percent of ocean floor sediment entering most subduction zones (SZ) accompanied the oceanic crust to the mantle (= sediment subduction or SS). The underthrusting slab also eroded the margin's crustal framework and conveyed this material to the mantle (= subduction erosion or SE). Globally, the mass of continental material recycled to the mantle was estimated at 1.3-1.8 km3 / yr (SS. = 0.7 km3 + SE = 0.6-1.1 km3). SEDIMENT SUBDUCTION: New and enhanced seismic reflection data, new drilling observations, and reevaluation of older information stress that the efficacy of SS is higher than earlier assessed. In detail, it appears that 100 percent SS occurs at non-accreting margins (19,000 km), at least 80 percent at accreting margins (16,000 km) where small to moderate size accretionary prisms (width=5-40 km) are forming, and 40-45 percent where larger prisms are accumulating (8,000 km). At Cenozoic SZs (~43,000 km), it is now estimated that the long-term (i.e., >10 Myr) rate of SS is at least 1.0 km3 / yr (solid volume). SUBDUCTION EROSION: New and reassessed seismic, drilling, submersible, coastal mapping and arc-retreat observations suggest a higher long-term rate of SE than formerly estimated at 30 km3 / Myr / km of trench. We now estimate that, except perhaps where large accretionary bodies are forming, the long-term rate of forearc erosion averages at least 40 km3 / Myr (range = 28-62), which corresponds to a global recycling rate of 1.4 km3 / yr. The matching average rate of landward truncation of the submerged forearc is 2.5 km / Myr (range = 1.8-4.2). SUMMARY: The late Cenozoic rate at which continental crust is recycled at SZs is currently estimated at 2.4 km3 / yr (ss=1+ se=1.4) +/- 25 percent, which is basically that now approximated for arc magmatic additions. It can thus be inferred that at Cenozoic SZs rates of crustal addition and recycling have been in

  10. The Cenozoic evolution of the San Joaquin Valley, California (United States)

    Bartow, J. Alan


    The San Joaquin Valley, which is the southern part of the 700-km-long Great Valley of California, is an asymmetric structural trough that is filled with a prism of upper Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments up to 9 km thick; these sediments rest on crystalline basement rocks of the southwestward-tilted Sierran block. The San Joaquin sedimentary basin is separated from the Sacramento basin to the north by the buried Stockton arch and associated Stockton fault. The buried Bakersfield arch near the south end of the valley separates the small Maricopa-Tejon subbasin at the south end of the San Joaquin basin from the remainder of the basin. Cenozoic strata in the San Joaquin basin thicken southeastward from about 800 m in the north to over 9,000 m in the south. The San Joaquin Valley can be subdivided into five regions on the basis of differing structural style. They are the northern Sierran block, the southern Sierran block, the northern Diablo homocline, the westside fold belt, and the combined Maricopa-Tejon subbasin and southmargin deformed belt. Considerable facies variation existed within the sedimentary basin, particularly in the Neogene when a thick section of marine sediment accumulated in the southern part of the basin, while a relatively thin and entirely nonmarine section was deposited in the northern part. The northern Sierran block, the stable east limb of the valley syncline between the Stockton fault and the San Joaquin River, is the least deformed region of the valley. Deformation consists mostly of a southwest tilt and only minor late Cenozoic normal faulting. The southern Sierran block, the stable east limb of the valley syncline between the San Joaquin River and the Bakersfield arch, is similar in style to the northern part of the block, but it has a higher degree of deformation. Miocene or older normal faults trend mostly north to northwest and have a net down-to-the-west displacement with individual offsets of as much as 600 m. The northern Diablo

  11. Linking magmatism with collision in an accretionary orogen. (United States)

    Li, Shan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Wilde, Simon A; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Guo, Qian-Qian


    A compilation of U-Pb age, geochemical and isotopic data for granitoid plutons in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), enables evaluation of the interaction between magmatism and orogenesis in the context of Paleo-Asian oceanic closure and continental amalgamation. These constraints, in conjunction with other geological evidence, indicate that following consumption of the ocean, collision-related calc-alkaline granitoid and mafic magmatism occurred from 255 ± 2 Ma to 251 ± 2 Ma along the Solonker-Xar Moron suture zone. The linear or belt distribution of end-Permian magmatism is interpreted to have taken place in a setting of final orogenic contraction and weak crustal thickening, probably as a result of slab break-off. Crustal anatexis slightly post-dated the early phase of collision, producing adakite-like granitoids with some S-type granites during the Early-Middle Triassic (ca. 251-245 Ma). Between 235 and 220 Ma, the local tectonic regime switched from compression to extension, most likely caused by regional lithospheric extension and orogenic collapse. Collision-related magmatism from the southern CAOB is thus a prime example of the minor, yet tell-tale linking of magmatism with orogenic contraction and collision in an archipelago-type accretionary orogen.

  12. Post-collisional magmatism and ore-forming systems in the Menderes massif: new constraints from the Miocene porphyry Mo-Cu Pınarbaşı system, Gediz-Kütahya, western Turkey (United States)

    Delibaş, Okan; Moritz, Robert; Chiaradia, Massimo; Selby, David; Ulianov, Alexey; Revan, Mustafa Kemal


    The Pınarbaşı Mo-Cu prospect is hosted within the Pınarbaşı intrusion, which is exposed together with the NW-SE-trending Koyunoba, Eğrigöz, and Baklan plutons along the northeastern border of the Menderes massif. The Pınarbaşı intrusion predominantly comprises monzonite, porphyritic granite, and monzodiorite. All units of the Pınarbaşı intrusion have sharp intrusive contacts with each other. The principal mineralization style at the Pınarbaşı prospect is a porphyry-type Mo-Cu mineralization hosted predominantly by monzonite and porphyritic granite. The porphyry type Mo-Cu mineralization consists mostly of stockwork and NE- and EW-striking sub-vertical quartz veins. Stockwork-type quartz veins hosted by the upper parts of the porphyritic granite within the monzonite, are typically enriched in chalcopyrite, molybdenite, pyrite, and limonite. The late NE- and EW-striking normal faults cut the stockwork vein system and control the quartz-molybdenite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-fahlore-galena veins, as well as molybdenite-hematite-bearing silicified zones. Lithogeochemical and whole-rock radiogenic isotope data (Sr, Nd and Pb) of the host rocks, together with Re-Os molybdenite ages (18.3 ± 0.1 Ma - 18.2 ± 0.1 Ma) reveal that the monzonitic and granitic rocks of the Pınarbaşı intrusion were derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle-lower crust during Oligo-Miocene post-collisional magmatism. The lithospheric mantle was metasomatised by fluids and subducted sediments, and the mantle-derived melts interacted with lower crust at 35-40 km depth. This mechanism explains the Mo and Cu enrichments of the Pınarbaşı intrusion during back-arc magmatism. We conclude that the melt of the Pınarbaşı intrusion could have rapidly ascended to mid-crustal levels, with only limited crustal assimilation along major trans-lithospheric faults as a result of thinning of the middle to upper crust during regional extension, and resulted in the development of porphyry

  13. Subduction-related Late Carboniferous to Early Permian Magmatism in the Eastern Pontides, the Camlik and Casurluk plutons: Insights from geochemistry, whole-rock Sr-Nd and in situ zircon Lu-Hf isotopes, and U-Pb geochronology (United States)

    Karsli, Orhan; Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Kandemir, Raif


    involved the partial melting of a phlogopite- and spinel-bearing lherzolite under an extensional regime in a subduction-related setting. Such an extension event would have caused hot asthenospheric upwelling and was likely triggered by back-arc rifting during subduction of the Paleo-Tethyan oceanic slab. Thus, the magmas are likely subduction-related products, implying that southward subduction of Paleo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere in the region began during the late Carboniferous to early Permian.

  14. Cenozoic forearc basin sediments in Southern Peru (15-18°S): Stratigraphic and heavy mineral constraints for Eocene to Miocene evolution of the Central Andes (United States)

    Decou, A.; von Eynatten, H.; Mamani, M.; Sempere, T.; Wörner, G.


    A large sedimentary forearc basin developed in Cenozoic times between the present-day Coastal Cordillera and the Western Cordillera of the Central Andes, called Moquegua basin in southern Peru. The basin is filled by Moquegua Group deposits (~ 50 to 4 Ma) comprising mostly siliciclastic mudstones, sandstones and conglomerates as well as volcanic intercalations. Several facies changes both, along orogenic strike and through time, are described and have led to subdivision into four sedimentary units (Moquegua A, B, C and D). In this paper we present a refined stratigraphic scheme of the Moquegua Group combined with the first provenance analysis of the Moquegua basin based on (i) semi-quantitative analysis of heavy mineral abundance, (ii) electron microprobe (EMP) and laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS analyses of single detrital amphibole and Fe-Ti oxide grains, and (iii) comparative analysis of the different potential source rocks to clearly identify the most likely sources. Results allow us to reconstruct sediment provenance and to relate changes of the erosion-sedimentation system in the Moquegua basin to the evolution of the Andean orogen. At ~ 50 to ~ 40 Ma the Moquegua basin was close to sea level and fed by low energy rivers transporting mainly metamorphic basement and Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary detritus from local and distal sources. The latter might be as far as the present Eastern Cordillera. From ~ 35 Ma on the distal sediment sources were cut off by the uplift of the Altiplano and Eastern Cordillera leading to higher energy fluvial systems and increasing importance of local sources, especially the relevant volcanic arcs. From 25 Ma on volcanic arc rocks became the predominant sources for Moquegua Group sediments. The 10 Ma time lag observed between the onset of uplift-induced facies and provenance changes (at ~ 35 Ma) and the onset of intense magmatic activity (at ~ 25 Ma) suggests that magmatic addition was not the main driver for crustal thickening and

  15. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Longmenshan fault belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; ErChie


    The giant earthquake(Ms=8.0) in Wenchuan on May 12,2008 was triggered by oblique convergence between the Tibetan Plateau and the South China along the Longmenshan fault belt.The Longmenshan fault belt marks an important component of the tectonic and geomorphological boundary between the eastern and western part of China and has a protracted tectonic history.It was first formed as an intracontinental transfer fault,patitioning the differential deformation between the Pacific and Tethys tectonic domains,initiated in late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic time,then served as the eastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau to accommodate the growth of the plateau in Cenozoic.Its current geological and geomorphological frameworks are the result of superimposition of these two tectonic events.In Late Triassic,the Longmenshan underwent left-slip oblique NW-SE shortening due to the clockwise rotation of the Yangtze Block,which led to the flexural subsidence of the Sichuan foreland basin,but after that,the subsidence of the Sichuan Basin seems no longer controlled by the tectonic activity of the Longmenshan fault belt.The Meosozoic tectonic evolution of the Songpan-Ganzi fold belt differs significantly compared with that of the Yangtze Platform,featured by intensive northeast and southwest shortening and resulted in the close of the Paleo-Tethys.Aerial photos taken immediately after main shock of the giant May 12,2008 earthquake have documented extensive rock fall and landslides that represent one of the most destructive aspects of the earthquake.Both rock avalanches and landslides delivered a huge volume of debris into the middle part of the Minjiang River,and formed many dammed lakes.Breaching of these natural dams can be catastrophic,as occurred in the Diexi area along the upstream of the Minjiang River in the year of 1933 that led to devastating floodings.The resultant flood following the breaching of these dams flowed through and out of the Longmenshan belt into the Chengdu Plain

  16. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Longmenshan fault belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ErChie; MENG QingRen


    The giant earthquake (MS=8.0) in Wenchuan on May 12, 2008 was triggered by oblique convergence between the Tibetan Plateau and the South China along the Longmenshan fault belt. The Longmenshan fault belt marks an important component of the tectonic and geomorphological boundary between the eastern and western part of China and has a protracted tectonic history. It was first formed as an intracontinental transfer fault, patitioning the differential deformation between the Pacific and Tethys tectonic domains, initiated in late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic time, then served as the eastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau to accommodate the growth of the plateau in Cenozoic. Its current geological and geomorphological frameworks are the result of superimposition of these two tectonic events. In Late Triassic, the Longmenshan underwent left-slip oblique NW-SE shortening due to the clockwise rotation of the Yangtze Block, which led to the flexural subsidence of the Sichuan foreland basin, but after that, the subsidence of the Sichuan Basin seems no longer controlled by the tectonic activity of the Longmenshan fault belt. The Meosozoic tectonic evolution of the Songpan-Ganzi fold belt differs significantly compared with that of the Yangtze Platform, featured by intensive northeast and southwest shortening and resulted in the close of the Paleo-Tethys. Aerial photos taken immediately after main shock of the giant May 12, 2008 earthquake have documented extensive rock fall and landslides that represent one of the most destructive aspects of the earthquake. Both rock avalanches and landslides delivered a huge volume of debris into the middle part of the Minjiang River, and formed many dammed lakes. Breaching of these natural dams can be catastrophic, as occurred in the Diexi area along the upstream of the Minjiang River in the year of 1933 that led to devastating floodings. The resultant flood following the breaching of these dams flowed through and out of the Longmenshan belt

  17. ACEX: A First Look at Arctic Ocean Cenozoic History (United States)

    Moran, K.; Backman, J.


    The first Integrated Ocean Drilling Program mission specificplatform expedition (ACEX - Arctic Coring Expedition) drilled and recovered core from five holes at four sites through Cenozoic sediments draping the crest of the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean. Coring continued into the underlying Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. Sites are located only a few nautical miles apart along a single seismic line (AWI-91090), showing an identical and coherent Cenozoic seismostratigraphy. Preliminary results from shipboard investigations of core-catcher-based bio- and lithostratigraphy, pore water analyses and core logger data describe a thick (~160 m) middle Miocene through Pleistocene sequence that shows large amplitude, cyclic variability in the density, magnetic susceptibility and acoustic velocity of the sediments. Sediments are largely carbonate free. Pleistocene sedimentation rates are close to 3 cm/ka, whereas Pliocene sediments are by-and-large missing. A sharp change in physical properties at ~200 m defines the transition into a 200+ m thick Paleogene sequence that is initially dominated by large numbers of dinoflagellate cysts. The early Miocene, Oligocene and late Eocene appear to be largely missing in a hiatus. However, a 32 m thick interval separates the overlying middle Miocene from the underlying middle Eocene and presumably preserves some of the early Neogene and late Paleogene sections. Dinoflagellate cysts, diatoms, ebridians and silicoflagellates are common to abundant in the middle Eocene section, which bottoms in a spectacular layer showing massive occurrences of glochidia and massulae (megaspores) of the freshwater hydropterid fern Azolla (duckweed) at the early/middle Eocene boundary (~306 m), suggesting strongly reduced surface water salinity or perhaps even a brief episode of fresh water conditions at the surface. Biosilica is not present prior to the late early Eocene (~320 m). The (sub-) tropical dinoflagellate species Apectodinium augustum

  18. Arsenogoyazite in Cenozoic volcanic tuff at Tabalaopa Basin, Chihuahua, Mexico (United States)

    Ren, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Goodell, P.


    Arsenogoyazite has been identified in Cenozoic volcanic tuff at Tabalaopa Basin, Chihuahua, Mexico. Tabalaopa Basin contains volcanic strata and the unconsolidated Quaternary deposit. Cenozoic volcanic tuff forms the low hill terrene in this area. It is a major reservoir for the City of Chihuahua groundwater. Arsenic anomaly (more than 20 ppb) has been observed at El Mimbre, northeast of the city. The exposed reddish color volcanic rocks are felsic welded tuff and rhyolite. Sanidine, quartz, and biotite phenocrysts show linear distribution within the fine grain matrix. The rocks contain large amount of vesicles which are lineated with the welding bends. White and colorless microsize crystals formed on the well of the cavities and the majority of them are K-feldspar. Quartz, Ti-magnetite, and arsenogoyazite are coexisting with feldspars. The sizes of the crystals in the cavities are 10 to several 10s of micrometers. The arsenic x-ray maps have been collected for the rock sections to locate the arsenic minerals. The crystals in cavities show euhedral shape. Most arsenic containing crystals have a near cubic form with triangle surfaces at some corners. The high resolution field-emission SEM images have been collected to study the symmetry of the crystals. EDS spectra for the high arsenic phases show three major elements As-Al-Sr and also minor amount of P-S-REE-Ca-Fe-Si. Since the arsenic minerals are growing on the wall of the vesicle, it is difficult to perform good electron microprobe analysis. Some primary microprobe data give following results in weight percent: SrO 11.8-13.1, CaO 0.2-0.3, FeO 0.3-0.5, Al2O3 28.6-30.9, La2O3 2.4-2.5, Ce2O3 2.3-.24, SiO2 1.1-3.6, As2O5 32.4-35.2, P2O5 1.7-1.9, SO3 0.8-1.4. This chemistry is similar to the reported arsenogoyazite chemical data. So this high arsenic phase is identified as arsenogoyazite. The arsenic anomaly in groundwater at El Mimbre, Chihuahua should be contributed from this arsenic mineral phase in the strata.

  19. Atmospheric PCO₂ perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. (United States)

    Schaller, Morgan F; Wright, James D; Kent, Dennis V


    The effects of a large igneous province on the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (PCO₂) are mostly unknown. In this study, we estimate PCO₂ from stable isotopic values of pedogenic carbonates interbedded with volcanics of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Newark Basin, eastern North America. We find pre-CAMP PCO₂ values of ~2000 parts per million (ppm), increasing to ~4400 ppm immediately after the first volcanic unit, followed by a steady decrease toward pre-eruptive levels over the subsequent 300 thousand years, a pattern that is repeated after the second and third flow units. We interpret each PCO₂ increase as a direct response to magmatic activity (primary outgassing or contact metamorphism). The systematic decreases in PCO₂ after each magmatic episode probably reflect consumption of atmospheric CO₂ by weathering of silicates, stimulated by fresh CAMP volcanics.

  20. Fluid-magmatic systems and volcanic centers in Northern Caucasus (United States)

    Sobisevich, Alexey L.; Masurenkov, Yuri P.; Pouzich, Irina N.; Laverova, Ninel I.


    The central segment of Alpine mobile folded system and the Greater Caucasus is considered with respect to fluid-magmatic activity within modern and Holocene volcanic centers. A volcanic center is a combination of volcanoes, intrusions, and hydrothermal features supported by endogenous flow of matter and energy localised in space and steady in time; responsible for magma generation and characterized by structural representation in the form of circular dome and caldera associations. Results of complimentary geological and geophysical studies carried out in the Elbrus volcanic area and the Pyatogorsk volcanic center are presented. The deep magmatic source and the peripheral magmatic chamber of the Elbrus volcano are outlined via comparative analysis of geological and experimental geophysical data (microgravity studies, magneto-telluric profiling, temperature of carbonaceous mineral waters). It has been determined that the peripheral magmatic chamber and the deep magmatic source of the volcano are located at depths of 0-7 and 20-30 km below sea level, respectively, and the geothermal gradient beneath the volcano is 100°C/km. In this study, analysis of processes of modern heat outflux produced by carbonaceous springs in the Elbrus volcanic center is carried out with respect to updated information about spatial configuration of deep fluid-magmatic structures of the Elbrus volcano. It has been shown, that degradation of the Elbrus glaciers throughout the historical time is related both to climatic variations and endogenic heat. The stable fast rate of melting for the glaciers on the volcano's eastern slope is of theoretical and practical interest as factors of eruption prognosis. The system approach to studying volcanism implies that events that seem to be outside the studied process should not be ignored. This concerns glaciers located in the vicinity of volcanoes. The crustal rocks contacting with the volcanism products exchange matter and energy between each other

  1. Mesoarchean Gabbroanorthosite Magmatism of the Kola Region (United States)

    Kudryashov, N.; Mokrushin, A.


    The Kola peninsula is the region marked with development of anorthosite magmatism in the NE Baltic Shield. The Archaean gabbroanorthosites intrusions - Tsaginsky, Achinsky and Medvezhe-Schucheozersky - have the age of 2.7-2.6 Ga (Bayanova, 2004). The Patchemvarek and Severny gabbroanorthosites intrusions are located in the junction zone of the Kolmozero-Voronja greenstone belt and the Murmansk domain. Age data for sedimentaryvolcanogenic rocks of the Kolmozero-Voronja belt and Murmansk domain granitoids are 2.8-2.7 Ga. The gabbroanorthosites intrusions have more calcic composition (70-85% An) of normative plagioclase, and low contents of TiO2, FeO, and Fe2O3. In terms of chemical composition, the gabbroanorthosites of the studied massifs are close to the rocks of the Fiskenesset Complex (Greenland) and to the anorthosites of the Vermillion Lake Complex (Canada). U-Pb zircon dating established Mesoarchean ages of 29257 and 29358 Ma for the gabbroanorthosites of the Patchemvarek and Severny massifs, respectively. It was shown that the gabbroanorthosites of the studied massifs have fairly low REE contents (Cen = 2.2-4.2, Ybn = 1.6-2.6) and distinct positive Eu anomaly. Comagmatic ultrabasic differentiates have practically unfractionated REE pattern, low total REE contents (Cen = 1.2, Ybn = 1.1, La/Ybn = 1.32), and no Eu anomaly. The studied samples of the Archean gabbroanorthosites are characterized by positive "Nd= + 2.68 for the gabbroanorthosites of the Severny Massif and from + 2.77 to + 1.66 for the Patchemvarek Massif. The rocks of the Severny and Patchemvarek massifs has 87Sr/86Sri = 0.702048 and 87Sr/86Sri = 0.70258_8, respectively. The oldest U-Pb zircon ages for the gabbroanorthosites of the Patchemvarek and Severny massifs marking the Mesoarchean stage in the evolution of region. The differences in the initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios between the Neoarchean and the Mesoarchean gabbroanorthosites suggest the existence of two mantle sources. One of them produced

  2. Early Yellowstone hotspot magmatism and gold metallogeny (United States)

    Hames, Willis; Unger, Derick; Saunders, James; Kamenov, George


    compatible with regional crustal units that host the gold ores, or the silicic igneous lithologies of the region, but have the same lead isotopic composition as basalts of the earliest Yellowstone plume (represented by the earliest lavas of the Columbia River basalt province, the Steens basalts, and Stonyford Volcanic Complex; Hanan et al., 2008). We propose that the gold studied and its traces of alloyed lead were derived together from the mantle, released from basaltic magma chambers of the province, and carried by low-density fluids into shallow geothermal systems during the earliest stages of Yellowstone hotspot magmatism.

  3. Quaternary Magmatism in the Cascades - Geologic Perspectives (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes


    Foreward The Cascade magmatic arc is a belt of Quaternary volcanoes that extends 1,250 km from Lassen Peak in northern California to Meager Mountain in Canada, above the subduction zone where the Juan de Fuca Plate plunges beneath the North American Plate. This Professional Paper presents a synthesis of the entire volcanic arc, addressing all 2,300 known Quaternary volcanoes, not just the 30 or so visually prominent peaks that comprise the volcanic skyline. Study of Cascade volcanoes goes back to the geological explorers of the late 19th century and the seminal investigations of Howel Williams in the 1920s and 1930s. However, major progress and application of modern scientific methods and instrumentation began only in the 1970s with the advent of systematic geological, geophysical, and geochemical studies of the entire arc. Initial stimulus from the USGS Geothermal Research Program was enhanced by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Together, these two USGS Programs have provided more than three decades of stable funding, staffing, and analytical support. This Professional Paper summarizes the resultant USGS data sets and integrates them with the parallel contributions of other investigators. The product is based upon an all-encompassing and definitive geological database, including chemical and isotopic analyses to characterize the rocks and geochronology to provide the critical time constraints. Until now, this massive amount of data has not been summarized, and a systematic and uniform interpretation firmly grounded in geological fact has been lacking. Herein lies the primary utility of this Cascade volume. It not only will be the mandatory starting point for new workers, but also will provide essential geological context to broaden the perspectives of current investigators of specific Cascade volcanoes. Wes Hildreth's insightful understanding of volcanic processes and his uncompromising scientific integrity make him

  4. Magmatism and Epithermal Gold-Silver Deposits of the Southern Ancestral Cascade Arc, Western Nevada and Eastern California (United States)

    John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Vikre, Peter


    Many epithermal gold-silver deposits are temporally and spatially associated with late Oligocene to Pliocene magmatism of the southern ancestral Cascade arc in western Nevada and eastern California. These deposits, which include both quartz-adularia (low- and intermediate-sulfidation; Comstock Lode, Tonopah, Bodie) and quartz-alunite (high-sulfidation; Goldfield, Paradise Peak) types, were major producers of gold and silver. Ancestral Cascade arc magmatism preceded that of the modern High Cascades arc and reflects subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Ancestral arc magmatism began about 45 Ma, continued until about 3 Ma, and extended from near the Canada-United States border in Washington southward to about 250 km southeast of Reno, Nevada. The ancestral arc was split into northern and southern segments across an inferred tear in the subducting slab between Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak in northern California. The southern segment extends between 42°N in northern California and 37°N in western Nevada and was active from about 30 to 3 Ma. It is bounded on the east by the northeast edge of the Walker Lane. Ancestral arc volcanism represents an abrupt change in composition and style of magmatism relative to that in central Nevada. Large volume, caldera-forming, silicic ignimbrites associated with the 37 to 19 Ma ignimbrite flareup are dominant in central Nevada, whereas volcanic centers of the ancestral arc in western Nevada consist of andesitic stratovolcanoes and dacitic to rhyolitic lava domes that mostly formed between 25 and 4 Ma. Both ancestral arc and ignimbrite flareup magmatism resulted from rollback of the shallowly dipping slab that began about 45 Ma in northeast Nevada and migrated south-southwest with time. Most southern segment ancestral arc rocks have oxidized, high potassium, calc-alkaline compositions with silica contents ranging continuously from about 55 to 77 wt%. Most lavas are porphyritic and contain coarse plagioclase

  5. Trace Element Geochemistry of Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道公; 李彬贤; 等


    The Cenozoic volcanic rock of Shandong Province are mainly alkalic and strongly alkalic basaltic rocks.The Contents of major and trace elements including transitional,incompatible and rare-earth elements were determined.The chemical characterisitics of major and trace elements indicate that these basaltic rocks were derived from a mantle source and probably represent a primary magma,I,e.,unmodifiecd partical melts of mantle peridotite in terms of Mg values,correlatione between P2O5 and Ce,Sr,Ni and Rb concentrations,mantle xenoliths,etc.The abundances of trace elements vary systematically from west to east.The compatible transition elements such as Co,Ni,and Cr show a remarkable depletion,whereas the incompatible and rare-earth elements are abundant as viewed from the chondrite-nor-malized patterns.The chemical composition and correlation are consistent with the tectonic setting.According to the batch and fractional partial melting theory,the trace element contents of Shandong volcanic rocks can be calculated from the two-component mixing model.

  6. Late Cenozoic sedimentary and tectonic history of south Buton, Indonesia (United States)

    Fortuin, A. R.; De Smet, M. E. M.; Hadiwasastra, S.; Van Marle, L. J.; Troelstra, S. R.; Tjokrosapoetro, S.

    A description and interpretation are given of the Upper Cenozoic sedimentary record of south Buton. Various sections and outcrops were studied and sampled for their microfossil content, to provide age and paleobathymetrical data. Together with information from the literature, these data from the base for a geohistory analysis to evaluate the vertical motions. Deposition started some 11 Ma ago, after the main deformation of the island, which was related to the collision of a microplate carrying Buton, with the southeast arm of Sulawesi. Coarse and fine terrigenous debris accumulated in a rapidly subsiding foreland basin; subsidence may have exceeded 100 cm/ka. When the rate of subsidence decreased a late Miocene-early Pliocene period of quiet pelagic sedimentation followed. From the late Pliocene onwards (around 3.5 Ma BP) an overall uplift took place, with rates between 30-120 cm/ka. This drastic change is explained by the collision of Buton with a submerged microcontinent that presently forms the Tukang Besi platform, situated southeast of Buton, which interaction resulted in wrench type tectonics and a clockwise rotation of over 60° for south Buton.

  7. A stable Cenozoic geologic time scale is indispensable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amos Salvador


    @@ A stable, standard geologic time scale is indispensable for the clear and precise communication among geologists; it is a basic tool of geologic work. Considerable progress has been made to achieve such a stable time scale. However, during the last few years several proposals have been made to modify the Cenozoic section of the geologic time scale that threaten to destabilize it.Seven articles published in Episodes since 2000 that could contribute to this destabilization are discussed.They provide excellent examples of the profusion of different terminologies, hierarchies, and stratigraphic relationships that have been proposed: to eliminate the Tertiary and the Quaternary or to raise their rank to suberathems; to extend the Neogene to the present; to make the Quaternary a formal subsystem of the Neogene, or consider it an informal stratigraphic unit; to eliminate the Holocene, and to decouple the base of the Pleistocene from the base of the Quaternary. If adopted,these proposals would cause nothing but great confusion and controversy. They disregard the clear preferences of geologists the world over as reflected by the terminology they have been using for many decades. Common sense would dictate the continued use of this terminology in its current, widely accepted form.

  8. Cenozoic sea level and the rise of modern rimmed atolls (United States)

    Toomey, Michael; Ashton, Andrew; Raymo, Maureen E.; Perron, J. Taylor


    Sea-level records from atolls, potentially spanning the Cenozoic, have been largely overlooked, in part because the processes that control atoll form (reef accretion, carbonate dissolution, sediment transport, vertical motion) are complex and, for many islands, unconstrained on million-year timescales. Here we combine existing observations of atoll morphology and corelog stratigraphy from Enewetak Atoll with a numerical model to (1) constrain the relative rates of subsidence, dissolution and sedimentation that have shaped modern Pacific atolls and (2) construct a record of sea level over the past 8.5 million years. Both the stratigraphy from Enewetak Atoll (constrained by a subsidence rate of ~ 20 m/Myr) and our numerical modeling results suggest that low sea levels (50–125 m below present), and presumably bi-polar glaciations, occurred throughout much of the late Miocene, preceding the warmer climate of the Pliocene, when sea level was higher than present. Carbonate dissolution through the subsequent sea-level fall that accompanied the onset of large glacial cycles in the late Pliocene, along with rapid highstand constructional reef growth, likely drove development of the rimmed atoll morphology we see today.

  9. The tectonic uplift of the Hua Shan in the Cenozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Six granite samples were collected from sixdifference elevation locations at the Hua Shah in a mainridge of the Qinling Mountain. Apatite and zircon separatedfrom these six samples were dated by the fission track tech-nique. An assessment of the Cenozoic uplift or exhumationrate was obtained from the altitude difference of samplingsamples dated by fission track, and from the difference offission track dates of both apatite and zircon for a sample.The preliminary results suggest that the beginning of upliftof the Hua Shan was as early as 68.2 MaBP and the upliftrates for different periods are 0.02-0.19 mm/a (from theelevation difference) or 0.12-0.16 mm/a (from two mineralfission track dates). The average uplift rate is 0.12 mm/a(from the elevation difference) or 0.14 mm/a (from two min-eral fission track dates). The uplift of the Hua Shan mightaccelerate since (17.8+2.0) MaBP, and the average uplift rateis about 0.19 mm/a.

  10. Successor Characteristics of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Songliao Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongquan; Timothy KUSKY; YING Danlin; GUO Xiaoyu; LI Hongkui


    The Songliao basin is a complex successor basin that was initiated in the Mesozoic and experienced multiple periods of reactivation. Based on seismic and drilling data, as well as regional geologic research, we suggest that the Songliao basin contains several different successor basins resting on top of Carboniferous-Permian folded strata forming the basement to the Songliao basin. These basins include the Triassic-Mid Jurassic Paleo-foreland basin, the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous downfaulted basin, and an early Cretaceous depressed basin (since the Denglouku Group). This paper presents a systematic study of the basin-mountain interactions, and reveals that there are different types of prototype basin at different geologic times. These prototype basins sequentially superimposed and formed the large Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin fills a Triassic-early Middle Jurassic gap in the geologic history of the Songliao basin. The paleoforeland basin, downfaulted basin, and depressed thermal subsidence basin all together represent the whole Mesozoic-Cenozoic geologic history and deformation of the Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin plays an important role both for deep natural gas exploration and the study of basin-mountain coupling in north China and eastern China in general. This example gives dramatic evidence that we should give much more attention to the polyphase tectonic evolution of related basins for the next phase of exploration and study.

  11. Pre-Cenozoic tectonic framework of Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, G.S.


    Central America (C.A.) lies along the junctions of five crustal plates at the western edge of the Caribbean. Major fault zones divide it into at least three blocks, each of which has experienced a distinct tectonic history. Although the region has been dominated by plate interactions during the Cenozoic, paleogeographic and palinspastic relations among the various blocks is increasingly obscure and conjectural back through the Phanerozoic. Pre-Mesozoic rocks are unknown in southern C.A., but are widespread as metamorphic basement complexes in northern C.A. The Maya basement consists of Precambrian igneous massifs and Lower Paleozoic metasedimentary sequences cut by mid-Paleozoic plutons, unconformably overlain locally by Upper Paleozoic terrestrial-to-marine strata. The Chorotega-Choco basement is a Late Mesozoic ophiolite sequence accreted with Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary deep marine volcanic and sedimentary strata into a forearc subduction complex along the Pacific margin. By contrast, Mesozoic successions on the Maya and Chortis blocks are cratonic and grossly similar, consisting of basal transgressive clastics, one or more thick Lower Cretaceous rudistid limestone units, and fluvial-deltaic terrigenous redbed sequences; sections vary in detail locally, and evaporites are common on the Maya block. The Late Cretaceous along the Maya-Chortis boundary was characterized by plate collision, ophiolite obduction, and sinistral block translation.

  12. Are Cenozoic topaz rhyolites the erupted equivalents of Proterozoic rapakivi granites? Examples from the western United States and Finland (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric H.; Haapala, Ilmari; Hart, Garret L.


    Eruptions of topaz rhyolites are a distinctive part of the late Cenozoic magmatic history of western North America. As many as 30 different eruptive centers have been identified in the western United States that range in age from 50 to 0.06 Ma. These rhyolite lavas are characteristically enriched in fluorine (0.2 to 2 wt.% in glass) and lithophile trace elements, such as Be, Li, Rb, Cs, Ga, Y, Nb, and Ta. REE patterns are typically flat with large negative Eu anomalies; negative Nb-Ta anomalies are small or nonexistent; and F/Cl ratios in glasses are high (> 3). These features, together with high Fe/Mg ratios and usually low fO 2, set them apart from subduction-related (I-type) silicic rocks. The rhyolites are metaluminous to only slightly peraluminous, lack indicator minerals of strongly peraluminous magmas, and have low P and B contents; these features set them apart from S-type silicic magmas. Instead, topaz rhyolites have the major and trace element, mineralogic, and isotopic characteristics of aluminous A-type or within-plate granites. Topaz rhyolites were formed during regional extension, lithospheric thinning, and high heat flow. Topaz rhyolites of the western United States crystallized under subsolvus conditions, and have quartz, sanidine, and Na-plagioclase as the principal phenocrysts. Fluorite is a common magmatic accessory, but magmatic topaz occurs only in a few complexes; both are mineralogical indicators of F-enrichment. Many also crystallized at relatively low fO 2 (near QFM) and contain mafic silicate minerals with high Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios. Some crystallized at higher oxygen fugacities and are dominated by magnetite and have titanite as an accessory mineral. Post-eruption vapor-phase minerals include topaz, garnet, red Fe-Mn-rich beryl, bixbyite, pseudobrookite, and hematite. They are genetically related to deposits of Be, Mo, F, U, and Sn. Topaz rhyolites erupted contemporaneously with a variety of other igneous rocks, but most typically they form

  13. Tectonic and climate driven fluctuations in the stratigraphic base level of a Cenozoic continental coal basin, northwestern Andes (United States)

    Silva Tamayo, J. C.; Sierra, G. M.; Correa, L. G.


    Changes in the sedimentologic and stratigraphic characteristics of the coal-bearing middle Oligocene-late Miocene siliciclastic Amagá Formation, northwestern Colombia, reflect major fluctuations in the stratigraphic base level within the Amagá Basin, which paralleled three major stages of evolution of the middle Cenozoic Andean Orogeny. These stages, which are also traceable by the changes in the compositional modes of sandstones, controlled the occurrence of important coal deposits. The initial stage of evolution of the Amagá Basin was related to the initial uplift of the Central Cordillera of Colombia around 25 Ma, which promoted moderate subsidence rates and high rates of sediment supply into the basin. This allowed the development of aggradational braided rivers and widespread channel amalgamation resulting in poor preservation of both, low energy facies and geomorphic elements. The presence of poorly preserved Alfisols within the scarce flood plains and the absence of swamp deposits suggest arid climate during this stage. The compositional modes of sandstones suggest sediment supply from uplifted basement-cored blocks. The second stage of evolution was related to the late Oligocene eastward migration of the Pre-Andean tholeitic magmatic arc from the Western Cordillera towards the Cauca depression. This generated extensional movements along the Amagá Basin, enhancing the subsidence and increasing the accommodation space along the basin. As a result of the enhanced subsidence rates, meandering rivers developed, allowing the formation of extensive swamps deposits (currently coal beds). The excellent preservation of Entisols and Alfisols within the flood plain deposits suggests rapid channels migration and a humid climate during deposition. Moderate to highly mature channel sandstones support this contention, and point out the Central Cordillera of Colombia as the main source of sediment. Enhanced subsidence during this stage also prevented channels

  14. Lithospheric deformation and mantle/crust coupling related to slab roll-back and tearing processes: the role of magma-related rheological weakening highlighted by 3D numerical modeling (United States)

    Menant, Armel; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Sternai, Pietro; Gerya, Taras


    at the base of the stretched crust (particularly true in hot regions such as in back-arc domain) induces a significant decrease of the depth-integrated lithospheric strength, thus favoring the transmission of shear stresses from the flowing mantle to the crust. Similarities between our modeling results and the late Cenozoic tectonic and magmatic evolution across the eastern Mediterranean region confirm the role of magmatism on the distribution of lithospheric deformation via weakening effects along this subduction zone. Moreover, these results suggest an efficient control of mantle flow on the magmatic and tectonic activity in this region, then promoting lithospheric deformation by mantle drag, which is consistent with field observations.

  15. Monazite age spectra in the Late Cenozoic strata of the Changjiang delta and its implication on the Changjiang run-through time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Daidu; LI Congxian; Yokoyama Kazumi; ZHOU Baochun; LI Baohua; WANG Qiang; YANG Shouye; DENG Bing; WU Guoxuan


    The Late Cenozoic strata are 313 m thick, revealed by the drilling core PD-99 in the south Changjiang delta. Monazite chemical dating shows that 350-500-Ma monazites predominate in the Pliocene and 100-275-Ma monazites in the Quaternary, indicating a great change of their provenance. The first presence horizon of monazites younger than 25 Ma is just above the Matruyama/Gauss boundary (~2.58 Ma), whch is exactly when uplift of the Tibetan Plateau began to influence deposition in the East China Sea. Variations in contents of monazites younger than 25 Ma can be divided into two sections. The Early-Middle Pleistocene with less <25 Ma monazites corresponds with rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, and the Late Pleistocene with more <25 Ma monazites parallels the peak uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. This study demonstrates that chemical dating of monazites in the river-mouth strata is a useful method to explore changes of river drainage basins, and deconvolute multistage tectonic and magmatic activity histories in the provenance areas.

  16. Domains and enrichment mechanism of the lithospheric mantle in western Yunnan: A comparative study on two types of Cenozoic ultrapotassic rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Ping; XU; Yigang


    Geochemical comparison of two suites of Cenozoic potassic volcanic rocks in western Yunnan reveals the existence of two mantle domains beneath this region, which correspond to their respective tectonic affinity. The Erhai ultrapotassic rocks (42-24Ma) in western Yangtze Craton are characterized by LILE enrichment, HFSE depletion, low TiO2 content (<1%),high initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7064-0.7094) and negative εNd (-3.84--4.64). Geochemically similar to K-rich volcanism in subduction setting, they were probably originated from a refractory spinel harzburgitic source metasomatized by subduction-related fluids. In contrast, the Maguan potassic magmas (<16Ma) in the South China Block show an OIB-type trace elemental signature, high TiO2 content (>2%), low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7041-0.7060) and positive εNd (5.46-7.03). These features resemble the typical intraplate potassic rocks around the world. These rocks are thus interpreted as melting products of a fertile garnet Iherzolitic source which has been infiltrated by small-volume, asthenosphere-derived silicate melts. The temporal and spatial distribution of these two types of K-rich rocks cannot be explained by any unified tectonic model. It is proposed that the Oligocene magmatism in the Erhai area may have resulted from convective thinning of the thickened lithosphere, whereas the post-Miocene volcanism in the Maguan area was related to the opening of South China Sea.

  17. Magmatic differentiation and uranium concentration: Latium volcanism (central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villemant, B.; Palacin, P.

    The study of magmatic differentiation of the Vulsini and Vico series (Latium) shows that fractional crystallization is the dominant mechanism of U concentration. Selective fluid/magma enrichments have a minor influence. The geodynamic context of the Latium area allows generation and intensive differentiation of large volumes of primary magma which are the melting products of a U-enriched mantle source.

  18. Apatite as a Tool for Tracking Magmatic CO2 Contents (United States)

    Riker, J.; Humphreys, M.; Brooker, R. A.


    CO2 plays a fundamental role in the evolution of magmatic and volcanic systems, but its low solubility in silicate melts means that direct records of magmatic CO2 concentrations remain elusive. The phosphate mineral apatite is unique among igneous minerals in its capacity to accommodate all major magmatic volatiles (H2O, F, Cl, CO2 and S). Although interest in apatite as a tool for tracking magmatic volatile contents (namely H2O, F, and Cl) has increased in recent years, its potential as a record of magmatic CO2contents remains untapped. We present the results of high-temperature, high-pressure experiments investigating the partitioning behaviour of CO2 between apatite and basaltic melt. Experiments were run in piston cylinder apparatus at 1 GPa and 1250 °C, with a slow initial cooling ramp employed to facilitate crystal growth. Each charge contained the starting basaltic powder doped with Ca-phosphate and variable proportions of H2O, CO2, and F. Run products are glass-rich charges containing 15-25 vol% large, euhedral apatite crystals (± cpx and minor biotite). Experimental apatites and glasses have been characterised by BSE imaging, electron microprobe, and ion microprobe. Apatites range in composition from near-endmember fluorapatite (3.0 wt% F), to near-endmember hydroxyapatite (1.7 wt% H2O), to carbon-rich apatite containing up to 1.6 wt% CO2. Apatite compositions are stoichiometric if all anions (F-, OH-, and CO32—) lie in the channel site, suggesting an "A-type" substitution under these conditions (i.e. CO32— + [] = 2X—, where X is another channel anion and [] is a vacancy; e.g. Fleet et al. 2004). Importantly, CO2 partitions readily into apatite at all fluid compositions considered here. CO2 is also more compatible in apatite than water at our run conditions, with calculated H2O-CO2 exchange coefficients close to or greater than 1. Our results indicate that when channel ions are primarily occupied by H2O and CO2 (i.e. F- and Cl-poor magmatic systems

  19. Magmatic Sulfide Ni-Cu Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Deep-seated magmatic liquation-injection deposits form a major type of magmatic sulfide deposit in China. The reserves of nickel and copper in this type of deposit may attain several hundred thousand tons (e.g.Hongqi 7 and Karatunggu) to nearly ten million tons (e.g.Jinchuan). Those deposits can be classified as large or superlarge deposits. The ore grade is relatively high, commonly with w(Ni)>1 %.The mineralized intrusions are small in size, generally only 0.0n km2 to 0.n km2, with the largest one not exceeding a few km2. Before intruding, the primary magmas have undergone liquation and partial crystallization at depth; as a result, the magmas have partitioned into barren magma, ore-bearing magma, ore-rich magma and ore magma, which then ascended and injected into the present locations once or multiple times, to form ore deposits. The above-mentioned mineralizing process is known as deep-seated magmatic liquation-injection mineralization. The volume of the barren magma is generally much larger than those of the ore-bearing magma, ore-rich magma and ore magma. In the ascending process, most of the barren magma intruded into different locations or outpoured onto the ground surface, forming intrusions or lava flows. The rest barren magma, ore-bearing magma, ore-rich magmaand ore magma may either multiple times inject into the same place in which rocks and ores are formed or separately inject into different spaces to form rocks and ores. Such deep-seated magmatic liquation-injection deposits have a much smaller volume, greater ore potential and higher ore grade than those of in-situ magmatic liquation deposits. Consequently, this mineralizing process leads to the formation of large deposits in small intrusions.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xi-kui


    Ke-qin, 1997. Paleoclimatic and environmental change since 2000a B. P. recorded in ice Core[J]. The Front of Ceo-science, 4(1): 95-100.(in Chiniese)[13]ZHANG Zhen-ke, WU Rui-jin, WANG Su-min, 1998. Paleoenvironmeal evolution during historic time reflected by frequency susceptibility of the lacustrine sediment in Daihai[J]. Geography Reaserch. 17(3) :297-300. (in Chinese)[14]ZHANG Pi-yuan, 1996. Climatic Changes During Historic Time in China[J]. Jinan: Shandong Science and Technology Press, 434-435. (in Chinese)[15]ZHANG Pi-yuan, GE Quan-sheng, 1997. The stage and abrupt ness of climatic evolution[J]. The Front of Geo-science, 4(1):122-126. (in Chinese)[16]ZHONG Wei, XIONG Hei-gang, Tashplati etal., 1998a. The preliminary study on the Spore-pollen combination of the Tagele section in Cele oasis[J]. Arid Zone Research, 15 (3):14-17. (in Chinese)[17]ZHONG Wei, XIONG Hei-gang, 1998b. Preliminary study on paleoclimatic evolution since about 12ka B.P. in Bosten Lake, southern Xinjiang, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Enviorment, 12(3) :28-35. (in Chinese)[18]ZHU Ke-zhen. 1973, Preliminary study of climatic changes since about 5000 years in China[J]. Science in China, (2):291-296. (in Chinese)[19]CHEN Mo-xiang, WANG Ji-yang, DENG Xiao, 1994. Geothermal Resources in China[M] . Beijing: Science Press, 139 -159. (in Chinese)[20]CHEN Wen-ji, LI Da-ming, LI Qi et al. , 1992. Chronology and geochemistry of basalts in Lower Liaohe Basin[A] . In: LIU Ruo-xin. Chronology and Geochemistry of Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in China [C] . Beijing: Seismological Press, 44-80. (in Chinese)[21]E Mo-lan, ZHAO Da-sheng, 1987. Cenozoic Basalts and Deep Source Rock Inclusions[M] . Beijing: Science Press, 86-132. (in Chinese)[22]LIU Jia-qi, 1987. Research on chronology of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in Northeast China[J]. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 3(4):21-31. (in Chinese)[23]MACHIDA H, ARAI F, 1983. Extensive ash falls in and around the Sea of Japan

  1. Cenozoic structures and the tectonic evolution of the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.; Egholm, D.L.


    . These structures have in the last decades been an integrated part of the discussions about subsidence and uplift of not only the interior of the basin but also of the basin margin. Abundant 2D and 3D seismic data and new depositional models enable detailed analysis and reinterpretation of where and when basement......Abundant seismic sections and well data from the Cenozoic succession in the eastern North Sea area generally reveal normal faulting, salt tectonics and localized tectonic inversion. However, inferences on the Cenozoic dynamic evolution of the region require thorough analysis of interactions between......). Furthermore, prograding Oligocene and Miocene units in combination with thermal and loading induced differential subsidence between the basins and the Ringkøbing-Fyn High controlled the Cenozoic reactivations of the main coverfaults. The detaching cover faults generated additional accommodation space, which...

  2. Petrogenesis of gold-mineralized magmatic rocks of the Taerbieke area, northwestern Tianshan (western China): Constraints from geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions (United States)

    Tang, Gong-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Sun, Min; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Jiang, Zi-Qi


    Many Late Paleozoic Cu-Au-Mo deposits occur in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). However, their tectonic settings and associated geodynamic processes have been disputed. This study provides age, petrologic and geochemical data for andesites and granitic porphyries of the Taerbieke gold deposit from the Tulasu Basin, in the northwestern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (western China). LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granitic porphyries have an Early Carboniferous crystallization age (349 ± 2 Ma) that is broadly contemporaneous with the eruption age (347 ± 2 Ma) of the andesites. The andesites have a restricted range of SiO2 (58.94-63.85 wt.%) contents, but relatively high Al2O3 (15.39-16.65 wt.%) and MgO (2.51-6.59 wt.%) contents, coupled with high Mg# (57-69) values. Geochemically, they are comparable to Cenozoic sanukites in the Setouchi Volcanic Belt, SW Japan. Compared with the andesites, the granitic porphyries have relatively high SiO2 (72.68-75.32 wt.%) contents, but lower Al2O3 (12.94-13.84 wt.%) and MgO (0.10-0.33 wt.%) contents, coupled with lower Mg# (9-21) values. The andesites and granitic porphyries are enriched in both large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements, but depleted in high field strength elements, similar to those of typical arc magmatic rocks. They also have similar Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions: ɛNd(t) (+0.48 to +4.06 and -0.27 to +2.97) and zircons ɛHf(t) (+3.4 to +8.0 and -1.7 to +8.2) values and high (206Pb/204Pb)i (18.066-18.158 and 17.998-18.055). We suggest that the Taerbieke high-Mg andesitic magmas were generated by the interaction between mantle wedge peridotites and subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts with minor basaltic oceanic crust-derived melts, and that the magmas then fractionated to produce the more felsic members (i.e., the Taerbieke granitic porphyries) during late-stage evolution. Taking into account the Carboniferous magmatic record from the western Tianshan Orogenic Belt, we suggest that

  3. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin


    magmas suggest that evolved calc-alkaline arc magmatism may extend to the late Eocene, at least ~ 10 million years earlier than previously estimated. The crystallisation ages for intrusive rocks associated with mineralisation at Cobre Panama imply that the deposit formed in the early Oligocene, between a period of late Cretaceous to Eocene magmatism (ca. 66-42 Ma; Chagres-Bayano arc) and Cordilleran arc magmatism (22-7 Ma). Similarities in the timing of intrusive suite emplacement and the fingerprinting of magmatic fractionation processes between the Cobre Panama porphyry deposit and the Cerro Colorado porphyry deposit in western Panama (ca. 5.3 Ma) suggest that these features provide favourable geodynamic and geochemical prerequisites for the formation of porphyry deposits along the Panamanian magmatic arc during the Cenozoic.

  4. Characteristic Time Scales of Characteristic Magmatic Processes and Systems (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.


    Every specific magmatic process, regardless of spatial scale, has an associated characteristic time scale. Time scales associated with crystals alone are rates of growth, dissolution, settling, aggregation, annealing, and nucleation, among others. At the other extreme are the time scales associated with the dynamics of the entire magmatic system. These can be separated into two groups: those associated with system genetics (e.g., the production and transport of magma, establishment of the magmatic system) and those due to physical characteristics of the established system (e.g., wall rock failure, solidification front propagation and instability, porous flow). The detailed geometry of a specific magmatic system is particularly important to appreciate; although generic systems are useful, care must be taken to make model systems as absolutely realistic as possible. Fuzzy models produce fuzzy science. Knowledge of specific time scales is not necessarily useful or meaningful unless the hierarchical context of the time scales for a realistic magmatic system is appreciated. The age of a specific phenocryst or ensemble of phenocrysts, as determined from isotopic or CSD studies, is not meaningful unless something can be ascertained of the provenance of the crystals. For example, crystal size multiplied by growth rate gives a meaningful crystal age only if it is from a part of the system that has experienced semi-monotonic cooling prior to chilling; crystals entrained from a long-standing cumulate bed that were mechanically sorted in ascending magma may not reveal this history. Ragged old crystals rolling about in the system for untold numbers of flushing times record specious process times, telling more about the noise in the system than the life of typical, first generation crystallization processes. The most helpful process-related time scales are those that are known well and that bound or define the temporal style of the system. Perhaps the most valuable of these

  5. The Morphology of the Tasmantid Seamounts: Interactions between Tectonic Inheritance and Magmatic Evolution (United States)

    Richards, Fred; Kalnins, Lara; Watts, Anthony; Cohen, Benjamin; Beaman, Robin


    The Tasmantid seamounts extend for over 2000 km off the east coast of Australia and constitute one of three contemporaneous, sub-parallel Cenozoic hotspot tracks that traverse the region (the Tasmantid, Lord Howe, and East Australian volcanic chains), locally separated by as little as 500 km. Where dated, the three chains young from north to south, spanning ca. 34-6 Ma. At multiple locations, the Tasmantid chain intersects the extinct Tasman Sea spreading centre, which was active from 84 Ma to 53 Ma. Detailed morphological analysis reveals a strong correlation between tectonic setting, seamount orientation, and volcanic structure. Seamounts at inside corners of the spreading segment-transform intersections are more rugged and constructed via numerous intersecting fissure-fed volcanic ridges, whereas off-axis seamounts tend to be conical with summit craters and isolated dyke-fed flank cones. In addition, the orientation of the Bouguer gravity anomaly highs, interpreted as magmatic conduits, and the long axes of the seamounts align closely with the principal stress directions expected for a ridge system in which strong mechanical coupling occurs across transform faults. Such a strong connection between the long-lived mantle upwelling, ridge structure, and subsequent dyke emplacement ' despite the ≥ 20 Ma offset between spreading cessation and initial seamount emplacement ' suggests deep faulting of the Tasman Sea oceanic lithosphere in order to channel melts along pre-existing structural trends. Despite the large size of the edifices, up to ~ 4000 m high, slope gradient and backscatter analysis along the chain point to sluggish mass wasting rates with few or no large sector collapse structures. In addition, most seamounts are associated with Bouguer gravity highs. Together, these features suggest that the seamounts have dense, coherent cores with high intrusive to extrusive volume ratios. This indicates low rates of melt generation and intra-lithospheric transport

  6. The Cenozoic geological evolution of the Central and Northern North Sea based on seismic sequence stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordt, Henrik


    This thesis represents scientific results from seismic sequence stratigraphic investigations. These investigations and results are integrated into an ongoing mineralogical study of the Cenozoic deposits. the main results from this mineralogical study are presented and discussed. The seismic investigations have provided boundary conditions for a forward modelling study of the Cenozoic depositional history. Results from the forward modelling are presented as they emphasise the influence of tectonics on sequence development. The tectonic motions described were important for the formation of the large oil and gas fields in the North Sea.

  7. Magmatic arc construction: Constraints from the structure of the Coast plutonic complex (United States)

    Andronicos, C. L.


    The Coast plutonic complex of British Columbia exposes the middle crust of a vigorous magmatic arc formed in the late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. The arc is divided into two parts by the crustal scale Coast shear zone. West of the Coast shear zone between Prince Rupert and Douglas Channel plutons were emplaced at pressures between 500 and 850 MPa, are elongate with steeply dipping contacts and have tadpole shaped terminations. The steeply dipping sides of the plutons are concordant with country rock foliations that grade into mylonitic foliations in the cores of transpressive shear zones which strike NW parallel to the arc axis. Field relationships demonstrate that pluton emplacement occurred during displacement on the shear zones, folding of adjacent country rocks and pluton enhanced anatexis of host rocks. Pressure differences in single plutons and across shear zones attests to major vertical displacements during pluton construction. The data indicate that the plutons record emplacement during major transpressive deformation and crustal thickening. The tabular shape of the plutons, their steep dips and concordance with country rock fabric show that pluton emplacement and plate scale deformation were synchronous between ~120 and 85 Ma. East of plutons that intrude the Coast shear zone a sequence of upper amphibolite to granulite facies gneiss and migmatite (central gneiss complex) occurs that host gently dipping tonalite and granodiorite sills. Mineral assemblages in country rocks of the sills track uplift and exhumation from pressures of ~800 MPa to 200 MPa during sill emplacement between ~75 and 50 Ma. The gently to moderately dipping fabrics that host the sills are the result of transposition of an earlier steeply dipping foliation. Sill emplacement occurred during both contractional and extensional deformation as indicated by a reversal in shear from reverse to normal sense observed at a regional scale. The sills are concordant with host rock foliations and

  8. The ancestral cascades arc: Cenozoic evolution of the central Sierra Nevada (California) and the birth of the new plate boundary (United States)

    Busby, C.J.; Hagan, J.C.; Putirka, K.; Pluhar, C.J.; Gans, P.B.; Wagner, D.L.; Rood, D.; DeOreo, S.B.; Skilling, I.


    We integrate new stratigraphic, structural, geochemical, geochronological, and magnetostratigraphic data on Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the central Sierra Nevada to arrive at closely inter-related new models for: (1) the paleogeography of the ancestral Cascades arc, (2) the stratigraphic record of uplift events in the Sierra Nevada, (3) the tectonic controls on volcanic styles and compositions in the arc, and (4) the birth of a new plate margin. Previous workers have assumed that the ancestral Cascades arc consisted of stratovolcanoes, similar to the modern Cascades arc, but we suggest that the arc was composed largely of numerous, very small centers, where magmas frequently leaked up strands of the Sierran frontal fault zone. These small centers erupted to produce andesite lava domes that collapsed to produce block-and-ash flows, which were reworked into paleocanyons as volcanic debris flows and streamflow deposits. Where intrusions rose up through water-saturated paleocanyon fill, they formed peperite complexes that were commonly destabilized to form debris flows. Paleocanyons that were cut into Cretaceous bedrock and filled with Oligocene to late Miocene strata not only provide a stratigraphic record of the ancestral Cascades arc volcanism, but also deep unconformities within them record tectonic events. Preliminary correlation of newly mapped unconformities and new geochronological, magnetostratigraphic, and structural data allow us to propose three episodes of Cenozoic uplift that may correspond to (1) early Miocene onset of arc magmatism (ca. 15 Ma), (2) middle Miocene onset of Basin and Range faulting (ca. 10 Ma), and (3) late Miocene arrival of the triple junction (ca. 6 Ma), perhaps coinciding with a second episode of rapid extension on the range front. Oligocene ignimbrites, which erupted from calderas in central Nevada and filled Sierran paleocanyons, were deeply eroded during the early Miocene uplift event. The middle Miocene event is recorded by growth

  9. Shallow gas in Cenozoic sediments of the Southern North Sea (United States)

    Trampe, Anna F.; Lutz, Rüdiger; Franke, Dieter; Thöle, Hauke; Arfai, Jashar


    Shallow petroleum systems in the southern North Sea are known for several decades but they were not actively explored for a long time. In recent years these unconventional shallow petroleum systems are studied in greater detail and one shallow gas field (A-12) is in production in the Netherlands. Additionally, oil was encountered in Miocene sandstones in the southern Danish North Sea (Lille John well) just north of the Danish-German border. Seismic amplitude anomalies are an indication for hydrocarbons in sediments. Therefore we have mapped the occurrence of seismic amplitude anomalies in the German North Sea based on more than 25.000 km of 2D seismic data and around 4.000 km2 of 3D seismic data. Amplitude anomalies are ubiquitous phenomena in the study area. These anomalies are not only caused by hydrocarbons but also by changing lithologies e.g. peat or fluid migration. Therefore several classes of seismic anomalies, e.g. bright spots, chimneys, blanking areas and velocity pull-down were mapped. Examples for these classes were studied with AVO (amplitude variation with offset) analyses to verify the existence or non-existence of gas in the sediments. Shallow gas can be produced and transported through the dense pipeline grid of the southern and central North Sea or it could be burned offshore close to wind parks in small power plants and the electric energy then transported through the existing power connections of the wind parks. Thus enabling a continuous energy supply during calm wind periods. This study is carried out within the framework of the project "Geoscientific Potential of the German North Sea (GPDN)" in which the Cenozoic sedimentary system was mapped in great detail. A detailed model of delta evolution (Baltic river system) was developed which serves as a structural framework. The studied interval is time equivalent to the Utsira formation which is used offshore Norway for sequestration of CO2. These different possibilities of using or exploiting

  10. Reconstructing geographical boundary conditions for palaeoclimate modelling during the Cenozoic (United States)

    Baatsen, Michiel; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; von der Heydt, Anna S.; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Sluijs, Appy; Abels, Hemmo A.; Bijl, Peter K.


    Studies on the palaeoclimate and palaeoceanography using numerical model simulations may be considerably dependent on the implemented geographical reconstruction. Because building the palaeogeographic datasets for these models is often a time-consuming and elaborate exercise, palaeoclimate models frequently use reconstructions in which the latest state-of-the-art plate tectonic reconstructions, palaeotopography and -bathymetry, or vegetation have not yet been incorporated. In this paper, we therefore provide a new method to efficiently generate a global geographical reconstruction for the middle-late Eocene. The generalised procedure is also reusable to create reconstructions for other time slices within the Cenozoic, suitable for palaeoclimate modelling. We use a plate-tectonic model to make global masks containing the distribution of land, continental shelves, shallow basins and deep ocean. The use of depth-age relationships for oceanic crust together with adjusted present-day topography gives a first estimate of the global geography at a chosen time frame. This estimate subsequently needs manual editing of areas where existing geological data indicate that the altimetry has changed significantly over time. Certain generic changes (e.g. lowering mountain ranges) can be made relatively easily by defining a set of masks while other features may require a more specific treatment. Since the discussion regarding many of these regions is still ongoing, it is crucial to make it easy for changes to be incorporated without having to redo the entire procedure. In this manner, a complete reconstruction can be made that suffices as a boundary condition for numerical models with a limited effort. This facilitates the interaction between experts in geology and palaeoclimate modelling, keeping reconstructions up to date and improving the consistency between different studies. Moreover, it facilitates model inter-comparison studies and sensitivity tests regarding certain

  11. Petrogenesis of Late Cenozoic basaltic rocks from southern Vietnam (United States)

    An, A.-Rim; Choi, Sung Hi; Yu, Yongjae; Lee, Der-Chuen


    Major and trace element concentrations, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic compositions of Late Cenozoic (4.1 to 13.8 Ma) basaltic rocks from southern Vietnam have been determined to understand the nature of their mantle source. The volcanic rocks are composed of tholeiite basalt, alkaline basanite, trachybasalt, basaltic trachyandesite, and trachyandesite. The alkaline rocks show light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment, with (La/Yb)N = 10.3-29.8. The tholeiite basalts are distinguished by much lower values (8.8-9.5) of (La/Yb)N. On a primitive mantle-normalized trace element distribution diagram, they show oceanic island basalt (OIB)-like large-ion lithophile element enrichment without high field strength element depletion. However, some samples exhibit positive anomalies in K and Pb and negative anomalies in Sm, suggesting K-rich residual amphibole in the source. The samples contain Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.703794-0.704672), Nd (ɛNd = + 1.7-5.7), Hf (ɛHf = + 4.0-10.9), and Pb (206Pb/204Pb = 18.23-18.75; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.53-15.59; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.32-38.88) isotopes, plotting among OIBs, with depleted mid-ocean ridge basalt mantle-enriched mantle type 2 (DMM-EM2) characteristics. There are no discernible isotopic differences between tholeiite and the alkaline series, reflecting the same source. The Nd and Hf isotopic compositions are coupled, and plot along the mantle-crust array, ruling out the possibility of lithospheric mantle in the source. Plots of NiO against the Fo numbers of olivines from the basaltic rocks are within the range of Hainan and Hawaiian basalt olivines, implying that hybrid pyroxenite is present in the source. Also note that the estimated primary melt compositions fall within the experimental field defined by partial melting of silica-poor eclogite and peridotite. The effective melting pressure (Pf) and melting temperature (T) of the primary melts are Pf = 29.6-32.8 kbar and T = 1470-1480 °C. We suggest that Vietnamese basaltic rocks may be produced by

  12. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the late Cenozoic Qaidam Basin, China (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Wang, Y.; Li, Q.; Wang, X.; Deng, T.; Tseng, Z. J.; Takeuchi, G.; Xie, G.; Xu, Y.


    Reconstruction of paleoenvironments in the Tibetan region is important to understanding the linkage between tectonic force and climate change. Here we report new isotope data from the Qaidam Basin, China, which is located on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, including stable C and O isotope analyses of a wide variety of late Cenozoic mammalian tooth enamel samples (including deer, giraffe, horse, rhino, and elephant), and O isotope compositions of phosphate (δ18Op) in fish bone samples. Mammalian tooth enamel δ13C values, when combined with fossil assemblage and other geological evidence, indicate that the Qaidam Basin was warmer and more humid during the late Miocene and early Pliocene, and that there was lush C3 vegetation with significant C4 components at that time, although the C4 plants were not consistently utilized. In contrast, the modern Qaidam Basin is dominated by C3 plants. Fish bone δ18Op values showed statistically significant enrichment from the Tuxi-Shengou-Naoge interval (late Miocene) to the Yahu interval (early Pliocene) and from the Yahu interval to the present day. This most likely reflects increases in the δ18O of lake water over time, as a result of increased aridification of the Qaidam Basin. Assuming that mammals drank exclusively from the lake, temperatures were calculated from average δ18Op values and average δ18Ow derived from large mammal tooth enamel δ18O. Temperatures were also estimated from δ18Op and δ18Ow estimated from co-ocurring large mammal tooth enamel δ18O. The temperature estimates were all lower than the average temperature of the modern Qinghai Lake surface water during the summer, and mostly too low to be reasonable, indicating that the fish and the large mammals were not in equilibrium with the same water. Assuming the relationship between salinity and δ18Ow observed for the modern Qinghai Lake and its surrounding lakes and ponds applied in the past, we calculated the paleosalinities of lake waters to be ~0 to

  13. Complex magmatic processes on Mars - Inferences from the SNC meteorites (United States)

    Longhi, J.


    Published data on the elemental and isotopic abundances in the shergottites-nakhlites-Chassigny (SNC) meteorites, considered to be of Martian origin, are compared with those for eucritic, lunar, and terrestrial basalt samples, with a focus on their implications for magmatic processes in the parent bodies. The major elements, the REEs and isotopes, and the other lithophile incompatible elements (such as high-field-strength elements, HFSEs) are discussed separately, and it is concluded that Mars had a magmatic history significantly different from that of the other bodies. The Martian pattern of HFSE and REE anomalies suggests extraction of carbonatic melts and remelting of the depleted source material, while the Nd isotopic constraints on the melting of Nakhla indicate very high fractionation of REEs, requiring exceedingly efficient porous flow down to depths of over 350 km.

  14. Tertiary magmatism within the Republic of Macedonia: a review


    Boev, Blazo; Yanev, Yotzo


    Widespread Tertiary magmatism of both orogenic and within-plate signatures developed within the Macedonian part of the Dinarides. Orogenic magmatites (predominantly volcanic rocks) are present in 5 areas (from east to west): Osogovo-Besna Kobila, Kratovo-Zletovo, Bucim-Borov Dol, Dojran and Kozuf. The age of the igneous rocks decreases in the same direction: from Priabonian-Early Oligocene at Os ogovo-Besna Kobila area, Early Oligocene-Miocene in Kratovo-Zletovo and Bucim-Borov Do...

  15. The youngest magmatic event in Eastern North America: A window in the post rift evolution of continents (United States)

    Mazza, S. E.; Gazel, E.; Johnson, E. A.; Schmandt, B.


    The rifted Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) provides important clues to the long-term evolution of continental margins. An Eocene (ca. 47-48 Ma) volcanic swarm exposed in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province of Virginia and West Virginia, contains the youngest known igneous rocks in the ENAM. These magmas are bimodal in composition, and provide the only window into the most recent deep processes contributing to the post-rift evolution of this margin. We expand on the data presented in Mazza et al., 2014, with new geochemical data that further constrains the magmatic evolution of the ENAM. Using integrated radiogenic isotopic data, petrologic modeling, and regional geomorphology, we determine source domains, melting conditions, and regional implications. Modeling of the melting conditions on primitive basalts yielded an average temperature and pressure of 1412±25°C and 2.32±0.31 GPa, corresponding to a mantle potential temperature of ~1410°C, suggesting melting conditions slightly higher than ambient mantle but not as high as expected from plume activity. When compared with magmas from Atlantic hotspots, the Eocene ENAM samples share isotopic signatures with the Azores and Cape Verde. This similarity suggests the possibility of a large-scale dissemination of similar sources in the upper mantle left over from the opening of the Atlantic. Asthenosphere upwelling related to localized lithospheric delamination is a possible process that can explain the intraplate signature of these magmas that lack evidence of a thermal anomaly. This process can also explain the Cenozoic dynamic topography and rejuvenation of the Central Appalachians. New P- and S-wave tomography using data from EarthScope's USArray shows that a low-velocity anomaly persists in the upper mantle beneath the Eocene volcanic swarm, indicating that the magmatic event substantially modified regional lithospheric structure. Our geochemical and petrologic constraints will be vital for a

  16. Mode of rifting in magmatic-rich setting: Tectono-magmatic evolution of the Central Afar rift system (United States)

    Stab, Martin; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Pik, Raphaël; Leroy, Sylvie; Ayalew, Dereje


    Observation of deep structures related to break-up processes at volcanic passive margins (VPM) is often a troublesome exercise: thick pre- to syn-breakup seaward-dipping reflectors (SDR) usually mask the continent-ocean boundary and hide the syn-rift tectonic structures that accommodate crustal stretching and thinning. Some of the current challenges are about clarifying 1) if tectonic stretching fits the observed thinning and 2) what is the effect of continuous magma supply and re-thickening of the crust during extension from a rheological point of view? The Afar region in Ethiopia is an ideal natural laboratory to address those questions, as it is a highly magmatic rift that is probably close enough to breakup to present some characteristics of VPM. Moreover, the structures related to rifting since Oligocene are out-cropping, onshore and well preserved. In this contribution, we present new structural field data and lavas (U-Th/He) datings along a cross-section from the Ethiopian Plateau, through the marginal graben down to the Manda-Hararo active rift axis. We mapped continent-ward normal fault array affecting highly tilted trapp series unconformably overlain by tilted Miocene (25-7 Ma) acid series. The main extensional and necking/thinning event took place during the end of this Miocene magmatic episode. It is itself overlain by flat lying Pliocene series, including the Stratoid. Balanced cross-sections of those areas allow us to constrain a surface stretching factor of about 2.1-2.9. Those findings have the following implications: - High beta factor constrained from field observations is at odd with thinning factor of ~1.3 predicted by seismic and gravimetric studies. We propose that the continental crust in Central Afar has been re-thickened by the emplacement of underplated magma and SDR. - The deformation in Central Afar appears to be largely distributed through space and time. It has been accommodated in a 200-300 km wide strip being a diffuse incipient

  17. Correcting the Cenozoic δ18O deep-sea temperature record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.


    The oxygen isotope signal in benthic foraminifera from deep-sea cores is mainly determined by deep-ocean temperature and land ice volume. Separating the temperature and ice volume signals is a key step in understanding the evolution of Cenozoic climate. Except for the last few million years, fluctua

  18. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinsbergen, D.J.J. van; Lippert, P.C.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; McQuarrie, N.; Doubrovine, P.V.; Spakman, W.; Torsvik, T.H.


    Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Asian plates produced the archetypical continental collision zone comprising the Himalaya mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau. How and where India–Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or before 52 Ma remains a long-standing controversy. S

  19. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.; Lippert, P.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; McQuarrie, N.; Doubrovine, P.V.; Spakman, W.; Torsvik, T.H.


    Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Asian plates produced the archetypical continental collision zone comprising the Himalaya mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau. How and where India–Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or before 52 Ma remains a long-standing controversy. S

  20. Mount Kenya volcanic activity and the Late Cenozoic landscape reorganisation in the upper Tana fluvial system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A.; Schoorl, J.M.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Claessens, L.F.G.


    Volcanic–fluvial landscape interaction of the late Cenozoic Mt Kenya region in the upper Tana catchment has been reconstructed. The oldest newly dated phonolite flow is 5.78 Ma (40Ar/39Ar), placing the initiation of Mt Kenya volcanic activity within the Late Miocene, much earlier than reported befor

  1. Cretaceous and Cenozoic vegetation of Antarctica integrating the fossil wood record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poole, I.J.; Cantrill, David J.


    A compilation of data for Cretaceous and Cenozoic Antarctic fossil wood floras, predominantly from the James Ross Island Basin, provides a different perspective on floristic and vegetation change when compared with previous studies that have focused on leaf macrofossils or palynology. The wood recor

  2. Quantifying the Cenozoic marine diatom deposition history: links to the C and Si cycles (United States)

    Renaudie, Johan


    Marine planktonic diatoms are, today, among the world's main primary producers as well as the main organic carbon exporter to the deep sea despite the fact that they were a very minor component of the plankton at the beginning of the Cenozoic. They are also the main silica exporter to the deep sea, thus balancing global chemical weathering. This study reviews their global Cenozoic depositional pattern in order to understand the modality and the context of their rise to dominance, but also to understand how diatom evolution affected the Cenozoic functioning of the ocean's biological pump. After two short-lived major abundance peaks near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and in the late Oligocene, diatom abundance in sediments shifted in the middle Miocene to globally higher values which have largely persisted to the modern day. These quantitative findings provide support for the hypothesis according to which diatoms, through their ecological role in the ocean's biological carbon pump, have contributed to the Cenozoic changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide pressure and consequently to changes in the global climate state. Additionally, correlations between diatom abundance peaks and shifts in seawater strontium and osmium isotopic composition hint at a strong control of the silicate weathering on diatom deposition.

  3. Synchronous alkaline and subalkaline magmatism during the late Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic Ross orogeny, Antarctica: Insights into magmatic sources and processes within a continental arc (United States)

    Hagen-Peter, Graham; Cottle, John M.


    Extensive exposure of intrusive igneous rocks along the Ross orogen of Antarctica-an ancient accretionary orogen on the margin of East Gondwana-provides an exceptional opportunity to study continental arc magmatism. There is significant petrologic and geochemical variability in igneous rocks within a 500-km-long segment of the arc in southern Victoria Land. The conspicuous occurrence of carbonatite and alkaline silicate rocks (nepheline syenite, A-type granite, and alkaline mafic rocks) adjacent to large complexes of subalkaline granitoids is not adequately explained by traditional models for continental arc magmatism. Extensive geochemical analysis (> 100 samples) and zircon U-Pb geochronology (n = 70) confirms that alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism was partially contemporaneous with the emplacement of large subduction-related igneous complexes in adjacent areas. Major pulses of subalkaline magmatism were compositionally distinct and occurred at different times along the arc. Large bodies of subalkaline orthogneiss and granite (sensu lato) were emplaced over similar time intervals (ca. 25 Myr) to the north (ca. 515-492 Ma) and south (ca. 550-525 Ma) of the alkaline magmatic province, although the initiation of these major pulses of magmatism was offset by ca. 35 Myr. Alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism spanned at least ca. 550-509 Ma, overlapping with voluminous subalkaline magmatism in adjacent areas. The most primitive rocks from each area have similarly enriched trace element compositions, indicating some common characteristics of the magma sources along the arc. The samples from the older subalkaline complex have invariably low Sr/Y ratios (< 40), consistent with relatively shallow magma generation and differentiation. The younger subalkaline complex and subalkaline rocks within the area of the alkaline province extend to higher Sr/Y ratios (up to 300), indicative of generation and differentiation at deeper levels. The significant spatial and temporal

  4. Magmatic and post-magmatic phenomena in the Karkonosze granite and its metamorphic envelope (West Sudetes, SW Poland) (United States)

    Kozłowski, Andrzej; Ilnicki, Sławomir; Matyszczak, Witold; Marcinowska, Agnieszka


    Mineralogical studies of the Karkonosze granite (ca. 322-312 Ma) and its surroundings in West Sudetes (SW Poland) have provided data on Nb-Ta-REE minerals from pegmatites in the NE part of the pluton and several new finds of Ag minerals and 15 oxygenic Bi phases, hitherto not reported from the massif. The Karkonosze pegmatites are enriched in HREE as fergusonite-(Y) or xenotime-(Y) appear in almost every studied pegmatite, together with a subordinate assemblage of the aeschynite, euxenite or columbite group. The abundance of LREE minerals such as allanite-( Ce) and the monazite group, correlates inversely with the Nb-Ta-Ti minerals, whilst an early generation of monazite-(Ce) revealed an exceptionally high amount of Nd (up to 22 wt.% of Nd2O3 ). The physical and chemical conditions during the magmatic and post-magmatic processes were reconstructed and the effects of contact metamorphism in amphibolites from hornfelsed zones examined. Changes in solution composition and concentration at the early magmatic stage (825-920°C), pegmatitic stage overlapping with hydrothermal (560°C which ended at 160-90°C) and clearly hydrothermal stage (400 to 110°C) were studied in detail by means of melt and fluid inclusions in quartz. Furthermore, post-magmatic fluids, including some enriched in Li and B, were identified in rock-forming quartz from the whole pluton. In turn, study of the amphibolites indicates that the pair cummingtonite + anorthite or the presence of Ca-rich plagioclase with actinolite seem to be reliable mineral proxies of the thermal impact of the granitoid body on amphibolites in its envelope. The inferred conditions of the contact processes (450-550°C, 2.5- 4.8 kbar) point to an elevated geothermal gradient (ca. 32-45°C/km) probably reflecting the heat flow induced by the Karkonosze intrusion. Moreover, despite the textural and mineral changes imposed by regional and contact metamorphism, the amphibolites have their pre-metamorphic (magmatic) geochemical

  5. Effect of volatiles erupted from Mesozoic and Cenozoic volcanic activities on paleo-environmental changes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the determination of composition of volcanic volatiles and petrologic estimation of the total mass of volatiles erupted,we showed important advances in the study of the impact of Mesozoic and Cenozoic volcanic activities on paleo-environmental changes in China.The volcanic activities include western Liaoning and Zhangjiakou Mesozoic intermediate-acidic explosive eruptions,southern Tibet and Shanwang Cenozoic volcanism,and Mt.Changbai volcanic eruption around one thousand years ago.The paper predominantly discusses the earth's surface temperature changes,ozone depletion,acidic rain formation and mass mortalities of vertebrate induced by the Mesozoic and Cenozoic volcanism in China.

  6. Second look at suspect terranes in southern Mexico (United States)

    Ratschbacher, Lothar; Riller, Ulrich; Meschede, Martin; Herrmann, Uwe; Frisch, Wolfgang


    The boundary between the Xolapa and the Guerrero, Mixteca, and Juarez (or Oaxaca) terranes is a zone of normal faulting indicating north-south subhorizontal extension. Stratigraphic and geochronometric evidence dates tectonic uplift of the Xolapa terrane as Late Cretaceous and Tertiary. We propose that the Xolapa terrane represents a late Mesozoic-early Tertiary magmatic arc built near or on North American continental crust, and we discuss, as possible tectonic uplift mechanisms, (1) extension associated with back-arc rifting, (2) extension during gravitational spreading of the upper and middle crust, and (3) transtension within a strike-slip regime established during formation of the Caribbean. Both far- and near-field deformations indicate distributed transtension. Therefore, a single regional tectonic framework can account for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic geologic history of these terranes.

  7. Recent advances on the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Greater Tibetan Plateau: A special issue in honor of Prof. Guitang Pan (United States)

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Chung, Sun-Lin; Niu, Yaoling


    The Greater Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau or the Qingzang Plateau, is a tectonic amalgamation of numbers of continental collision events from the northwest in the early Paleozoic to the southwest in the Cenozoic (cf. Dewey et al., 1988; Pan et al., 2012; Yin and Harrison, 2000). These collision events resulted in orogenic belts that record the prolonged albeit complex histories of opening and closing of Tethyan ocean basins and associated tectonic and magmatic responses (cf. Chung et al., 2005; Pan et al., 2012; Song et al., 2014; Yin and Harrison, 2000; Zhu et al., 2013, 2015). Although many aspects related to these events have been recently synthesized with elegance by Pan et al. (2012) and Zhu et al. (2013) using data and observations made available since 2000, many scientific questions, such as the duration of oceanic basins, the collisional and accretionary processes of different terranes, the processes responsible for crustal growth, and the mechanisms for economic mineralization, remain underdeveloped and require further investigations with additional data.

  8. Magmatic carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Neil, John M.; Howle, James F.


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) of magmatic origin is seeping out of the ground in unusual quantities at several locations around the flanks of Mammoth Mountain, a dormant volcano in Eastern California. The most recent volcanic activity on Mammoth Mountain was steam eruptions about 600 years ago, but seismic swarms and long-period earthquakes over the past decade are evidence of an active magmatic system at depth. The CO2 emission probably began in 1990 but was not recognized until 1994. Seismic swarms and minor ground deformation during 1989, believed to be results of a shallow intrusion of magma beneath Mammoth Mountain, probably triggered the release of CO2, which persists in 1998. The CO2 gas is at ambient temperatures and emanates diffusely from the soil surface rather than flowing from distinct vents. The CO2 has collected in the soil by displacing air in the pore spaces and reaches concentrations of greater than 95 percent by volume in places. The total area affected by high CO2 concentrations and high CO2 flux from the soil surface was estimated at 60 hectares in 1997. Coniferous forest covering about 40 hectares has been killed by high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. In more than 300 soil-gas samples collected from depths of 0.5 to 2 m in 1995, CO2 concentrations ranged from background levels (less than 1 percent) to greater than 95 percent by volume. At 250 locations, CO2 flux was measured using a closed chamber in 1996; values, in grams per square meter per day, ranged from background (less than 25) to more than 30,000. On the basis of these data, the total emission of magmatic CO2 in 1996 is estimated to be about 530 megagrams per day. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards have been measured in pits dug in soil and snow, in poorly ventilated buildings, and in below-ground valve-boxes around Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent in poorly ventilated spaces are not uncommon on some parts

  9. Sr-Nd-Os-S isotope and PGE geochemistry of the Xiarihamu magmatic sulfide deposit in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Tang, Qingyan; Li, Chusi; Wang, Yalei; Ripley, Edward M.


    The newly discovered Xiarihamu Ni-Cu deposit is located in the Eastern Kunlun orogenic belt in the northern part of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, western China. It is the largest magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit found thus far in an arc setting worldwide and ranks second in China in terms of total Ni resources. Fe-Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization occurs in a small ultramafic body that is part of a larger mafic-ultramafic complex formed by protracted Silurian-Early Devonian basaltic magmatism. The mineralized ultramafic body is composed predominantly of lherzolite and olivine websterite, with minor dunite, websterite and orthopyroxenite. Here we report new PGE (platinum group element) data and the results of a new, integrated Sr-Nd-Os-S isotope study. The initial concentrations of Rh and Pd in the parental magma are estimated to be 0.014 ppb and 0.24 ppb, respectively, which are more than one order of magnitude lower than those in undepleted mantle-derived magmas such as many continental picrites. The observed PGE depletions in the Xiarihamu parental magma are attributed to sulfide retention in the source mantle, because the degree of partial melting required to generate the Xiarihamu primary magma was not high enough for a magma of that composition to dissolve all sulfides in the source. The (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios and ɛNd (t) of the Xiarihamu host rocks range from 0.7062 to 0.7105 and from -1.97 to -5.74, respectively, indicating 5-30 wt% crustal contamination in the Xiarihamu magma. These data also reveal that the source mantle for the Xiarihamu magma is isotopically (Sr-Nd) more enriched than that for the average Cenozoic arc basalt. The γOs(t) and δ34S values of sulfide ores from the Xiarihamu deposit range from 78 to 1393 and from 2 to 6‰, respectively. These values clearly indicate addition of crustal Os and S to the Xiarihamu parental magma. Metal tenors such as Ni and Rh are inversely correlated with γOs(t) and δ34S values. This indicates that mixing between

  10. Episodes of Cenozoic Gold Mineralization on the Eastern Margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: 40Ar/39Ar Dating and Implication for Geodynamic Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Denghong; MAO Jingwen; YAN Shenghao; YANG Jianmin; XU Jue; CHEN Yuchuan; XUE Chunji


    A lot of new gold deposits have been found on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during the past two decades. Among them, three main types of gold deposits have been recognized, including quartz-vein-type, shearzone-type and porphyry-type. The former two types of gold deposits are mainly hosted within metamorphic rocks, while the latter is related to Cenozoic magmatism. Although all of these gold deposits are believed to have been formed during the uplift process of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the Cenozoic era (Wang et al., 2002b), precise isotopic age constraints have still been lacking until quite recently. This paper presents new 40Ar/39Ar data of some gold deposits on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which indicate that gold mineralization in the region occurred in response to the episodic stages of the orogenies.Recently obtained 40Ar/39Ar data on quartz and feldspars from several gold deposits, such as the Sandiao deposit, the Baijintaizi deposit, the Pusagang deposits, provide new constraints on gold mineralization on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Geochronological studies of gold deposits along the Daduhe River indicate that there are three stages of gold mineralization. The early two stages occurred as early as 65.1 Ma in the Shuibaiyang deposit and 58.95 Ma in the Ruoji deposit, while the latter stage occurred as late as 25.35 Ma in Baijintaizi and 24.70 Ma in Sandiao. Isotopic dating of three plagioclases from the Beiya deposit, Zhifanggou deposit and Luobodi deposit and a K-feldspar from the Jinchangqing deposit in Yunnan Province indicates that these deposits were formed at two stages. The Zhifanggou and Jinchangqing deposits have early stage records as old as 58.82 Ma in Zhifanggou and 55.49 Ma in Jinchangqing, but all of the above four deposits in Yunnan have late stage records of 23.18 Ma in Jinchangqing, 24.54 Ma in Zhifanggou, 24.60 Ma in Luobodi and 24.56 Ma in Hongnitang. The above results suggest

  11. Apatite fission-track thermochronological constraints on the pattern of late Mesozoic-Cenozoic uplift and exhumation of the Qinling Orogen, central China (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Hu, Jianmin; Wu, Guoli; Shi, Wei; Geng, Yingying; Qu, Hongjie


    The Qinling Orogen of central China was formed by intracontinental collision between the North and South China Blocks. The orogen comprises several micro-blocks bounded by sutures and faults, and has undergone long-term intracontinental deformation since the Late Triassic. The micro-blocks include the southern margin of the North China Block (S-NCB), the Northern Qinling Belt (NQB), the Southern Qinling Belt (SQB), and the northern margin of the South China Block (N-SCB). Under a uniform tectonic setting in late Mesozoic-Cenozoic, these micro-blocks have been subjected to a range of deformation styles, as demonstrated by their structural deformation, history of magmatism, and the development of sedimentary basins. To investigate the differences among the micro-blocks and to quantify their uplift and exhumation, we obtained 45 rock samples from eight Mesozoic granites in these micro-blocks, and conducted apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronological modeling. The results reveal that the Qinling Orogen underwent four distinct stages of rapid cooling histories during the late Mesozoic-Cenozoic, and showed variation in uplift and exhumation whereby the intracontinental deformation started in the south (the N-SCB) and propagated to the north (S-NCB). In the first stage, during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (ca. 160-120 Ma), rock cooling occurred mainly in the N-SCB, attributed to the clockwise rotation and northward subduction of the South China Block beneath the Qinling Orogen. In the second stage, compression- and extension-related uplift was initiated during the late Early Cretaceous-early Late Cretaceous (ca. 120-90 Ma) in the SQB, consistent with the southward subduction of the North China Block and broadly extensional deformation in the eastern China continent. In the third stage, a gentle regional-scale cooling event that occurred during the latest Cretaceous-Paleocene (ca. 90-50 Ma) started in the NQB and became widespread in the Qinling Orogen. This

  12. Meso-Cenozoic tectonics of the Central Kyrgyz Tien Shan (Central Asia), based on apatite fission track thermochronology.


    Glorie, Stijn


    Apatite fission track thermochronology on the Kyrgyz Tien Shan basement revealed a polyphased thermal history of the study-area. We interpret the Mesozoic and Cenozoic cooling-events as periods of tectonic reactivation.

  13. Late Eocene to Early Miocene Andean uplift inferred from detrital zircon fission track and U-Pb dating of Cenozoic forearc sediments (15-18°S) (United States)

    Decou, A.; von Eynatten, H.; Dunkl, I.; Frei, D.; Wörner, G.


    Timing, amount, and mechanisms of uplift in the Central Andes have been a matter of debate in the last decade. Our study is based on the Cenozoic Moquegua Group deposited in the forearc basin between the Western Cordillera and the Coastal Cordillera in southern Peru from ˜50 to ˜4 Ma. The Moquegua Group consists mainly of mud-flat to fluvial siliciclastic sediments with upsection increasing grain size and volcanic intercalations. Detrital zircon U-Pb dating and fission track thermochronology allow us to refine previous sediment provenance models and to constrain the timing of Late Eocene to Early Miocene Andean uplift. Uplift-related provenance and facies changes started around 35 Ma and thus predate major voluminous ignimbrite eruptions that started at ˜25 by up to 10 Ma. Therefore magmatic addition to the crust cannot be an important driving factor for crustal thickening and uplift at Late Eocene to Early Oligocene time. Changes in subduction regime and the subducting plate geometry are suggested to control the formation of significant relief in the area of the future Western Cordillera which acts as an efficient large-scale drainage divide between Altiplano and forearc from at least 15.5 to 19°S already at ˜35 Ma. The model integrates the coincidence of (i) onset of provenance change no later than 35 Ma, (ii) drastic decrease in convergence rates at ˜40, (iii) a flat-subduction period at around ˜40 to ˜30 Ma leading to strong interplate coupling, and (iv) strong decrease in volcanic activity between 45 and 30 Ma.

  14. Decoupled taxonomic radiation and ecological expansion of open-habitat grasses in the Cenozoic of North America


    Caroline A. E. Strömberg


    Because of a dearth of Cenozoic grass fossils, the timing of the taxonomic diversification of modern subclades within the grass family (Poaceae) and the rise to ecological dominance of open-habitat grasses remain obscure. Here, I present data from 99 Eocene to Miocene phytolith assemblages from the North American continental interior (Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Montana/Idaho), constituting the only high-resolution mid-Cenozoic record of grasses. Analyses of these assemblages show that o...

  15. The origin of Cenozoic basalts from central Inner Mongolia, East China: The consequence of recent mantle metasomatism genetically associated with seismically observed paleo-Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone (United States)

    Guo, Pengyuan; Niu, Yaoling; Sun, Pu; Ye, Lei; Liu, Jinju; Zhang, Yu; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin


    We present new major element, trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data on Cenozoic basalts from central Inner Mongolia (CIM) in eastern China to study the origin of the incompatible-element enriched component in these basalts by testing whether or not the paleo-Pacific plate lying in the mantle transition zone beneath eastern China is the immediate cause. The Cenozoic CIM basalts have a large variation in major element, trace element and isotope compositions. Fractional crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene can readily explain much of the major element compositional variation, while trace element and isotope ratio variation largely reflect source heterogeneities and source histories. The variably low 87Sr/86Sr, high εNd, high εHf and elevated ratios of high field strength element over large ion lithophile element (HFSE/LILE, e.g., Nb/U, Nb/La) indicate that the CIM basalts are of asthenospheric origin, which is characterized by mixing between DMM and EM1. However, the CIM basalts are enriched in incompatible elements and enriched in the progressively more incompatible elements (e.g., variably high [La/Sm]N = 1.66-3.38), suggesting that the magma source(s) must have been enriched prior to the major episode of the magmatism. Participation of subducted ocean crust in the mantle source region of these basalts is recognized, but cannot be the major source material because the subducted ocean crust is expectedly too depleted in incompatible elements (e.g., [La/Sm]N ≪ 1) to produce magmas highly enriched in incompatible elements with [La/Sm]N ≫ 1. With the new data, we consider that low mass fraction (low-F) melt metasomatism in the seismic low velocity zone (LVZ) beneath eastern China as the most likely process to generate incompatible-element enriched source(s) for mantle melts parental to the Cenozoic CIM basalts. The low-F metasomatic agent most likely resulted from dehydration melting of the transition-zone paleo-Pacific slab, which has been taking place

  16. Magmatism of the troughs behind the New Hebrides island arc (RV Jean Charcot SEAPSO 2 cruise): K-Ar geochronology and petrology (United States)

    Monjaret, M. C.; Bellon, H.; Maillet, P.


    The chronological, petrological and geochemical studies of lavas dredged from the New Hebrides back-arc troughs allow a new interpretation of the origin of these troughs. In every area, volcanism from the troughs precedes that of the adjacent islands. Four main periods of volcanic activity have been defined: 6.5 to 4.8, 4.1 to 2, 2 to 1 and 1 to 0 Ma. The volcanic affinity is generally orogenic. But some variation exists and two geochemical types (Mg-IAT basalts and hyper-K acid lavas) seem to mark the trough structuration. The succession of the different geochemical types reveals a polyphased and diachronous formation of the troughs from south to north on an arc substratum. Only the Vanikoro area (the most northern one) shows basalts with geochemical characteristics intermediate between MORB and island-arc tholeiites and acid lavas near primitive island-arc lavas, which illustrate the initiation of the arc in this area. So, the New Hebrides back-arc troughs must be considered as intra-arc troughs and are back-arc structures only because of their location at the rear of the active emerging arc.

  17. Geodynamic Background of the Mesozoic Intracontinental Magmatism in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建仁; 陶奎元; 等


    The authors have proposed a dynamic model in this paper based on the ages,rock series and associations,Sr-Nd isotopic signatures of the Mesozoic intracontinental magmatism overlying the Cathaysian and Yangtze blocks.The model describes the relation of intracontinental collision and subduction in the Tethyan tectonic regie with Paleo-Pacific oceanic plate sudbuction-strike slip-extension in the Pacific tectonic regime.During 220-150Ma,the horizontal collision between the North China block and the Yangtze block,as well as the intracontinental subduction of some divergent microcontinental terranes in the southwestern part of South China are ascribed to the influence of the Tethyan tectonic regime,giving rise to a volume of high-Isr and low-εNd(t) S-type granites only in the Cathaysian Block.During 145-90Ma,under the geodynamic backgound of subduction-strike slip-extension of the Paleo-Pacific oceanic plate on the basis of the deep tectonic process in the Tethyan tectonic regime,high-K,alkalirich calc-alkaline and shoshonitic volcano-plutonic complexes were generated in the Yangtze block,and high-K calc-alkalic and bimodal volcano-plutonic complexes were generated in the Cathaysian block.The occurrence of A-type peralkaline granites in the coastal areas of South east China indicates the end of Mesozoic intracontinental magmatism.

  18. Hot subduction: Magmatism along the Hunter Ridge, SW Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, A.J.; Verbeeten, A.; Danyushevsky, L.V.; Sigurdsson, I.A. [SRC for Ore Deposit Research, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Maillet, P. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Geology; Maillet, P. [ORSTOM Centre de Brest, France, (France); Monzier, M. [ORSTOM Centre, Ecuador, (Ecuador)


    The Hunter `fracture zone` is generally regarded as a transform plate boundary linking the oppositely dipping Tongan and Vanuatu subduction systems. Dredging along the Hunter Ridge and sampling of its northernmost extent, exposed as the island of Kadavu in Fiji, has yielded a diversity of magmatic suites, including arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites, high-Mg lavas with some affinities to boninites and some affinities to adakites, and true adakitic lavas associated with remarkable low-Fe, high-Na basalts with 8-16 ppm Nb (herein high-Nb basalts). Lavas which show clear evidence of slab melt involvement in their petrogenesis occur at either end of the Hunter Ridge, whereas the arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites appear to be restricted to the south central part of the ridge. Mineralogical and whole rock geochemical data for each of these suites are summarized, and a tectono-magmatic model for their genesis and distribution is suggested. Trace element features and radiogenic isotope data for the Hunter Ridge lavas indicate compositions analogue to Pacific MORB-like mantle. Extended abstract. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Magmatic Evolution in the Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field, Veracruz, Mexico (United States)

    Koster, A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.


    Magma evolution within the Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field (LTVF) is poorly understood. The LTVF is a basaltic, monogenetic field in Veracruz, Mexico, that contains approximately 400 vents and has been active for the last 7 Ma, including a sub-Plinian eruption in 1793. The field is structurally controlled, with cones forming NW-SE lines consistent with local extension. By understanding magmatic evolution through ascent, storage, and mixing, it is possible to more accurately predict future trends in the system. Samples from two alignments of cinder cones located between San Martin Tuxtlas volcano and Laguna Catemaco were analyzed petrographically and geochemically. Geochemical data were plotted in Fenner and Harker diagrams to identify trends, including fractional crystallization and magma recharge. Mineral modes were calculated via point counting in thin sections, and micro-textural variations were noted. Cone morphometry was used as a rough proxy for age along with field relationships to develop an approximate order of events along the alignments. Preliminary data suggest that the aligned vents are part of a linked magmatic plumbing system undergoing periodic recharge.

  20. Bidirectional feedback observed between a magmatic intrusion and shallow earthquake (United States)

    Ebmeier, Susanna; Elliott, John; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Biggs, Juliet; Mothes, Patricia; Jarrín, Paúl; Yépez, Marco; Aguaiza, Santiago; Lundgren, Paul; Samsonov, Sergey


    Moderate volcano-tectonic earthquakes (M 5-6) during volcanic unrest are unusual, and tend to be associated with major stress perturbations to the crust, occurring during episodes of rifting or the onset of volcanic eruptions. The feedback from such events may be positive, easing magma ascent and eruption, or, as we demonstrate here, negative, hindering any further magma movement. We present measurements of deformation at Chiles-Cerro Negro volcanoes on the Ecuador-Colombian border. There was previously no record of historical activity at either volcano, but between 2013 and early 2015 there were three episodes of unrest characterised by swarms of volcano-tectonic earthquakes of increasing energy and duration and thought to be associated with the hydrothermal system. In October 2014, magmatic processes not only caused many thousands of small earthquakes per day, but culminated in a Mw 5.6 earthquake located on a system of active tectonic faults that last ruptured in 1868. We find that inflation of a mid-crustal magmatic source ~10 km south of the volcanoes ceased abruptly at the time of the earthquake, after which time the rate of seismicity also began a gradual decline. The Chiles-Cerro Negro unrest is therefore an interesting example of magma ascent triggering a moderate earthquake on a tectonic fault and subsequently being inhibited by co-seismic stress changes. This is an important observation for the interpretation of moderate earthquakes during volcanic unrest in terms of evolving hazard.

  1. Anatomy of the Colima volcano magmatic system, Mexico (United States)

    Spica, Zack; Perton, Mathieu; Legrand, Denis


    Colima volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in continental north America. It is located within the Colima graben on the western part of the Colima rift zone. Although extensively studied, the internal structure and deep magmatic system remains unknown. This research gives new clues to understand how and where magmas are produced and stored at depth. Using ambient seismic noise, we jointly invert for Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves for both phase and group velocity, which is applied for the first time in a volcanic environment. We invert for both the shear wave velocity and radial anisotropy. The 3D high resolution shear wave velocity model shows a deep, large and well-delineated elliptic-shape magmatic reservoir below the Colima volcano complex at a depth of about 15 km. On the other hand, the radial anisotropy model shows a significant negative feature (i.e., VSV >VSH) revealed from ≥35 km depth until the top of the magma reservoir at about 12 km depth. The latter suggests the presence of numerous vertical fractures where fluids, rooting from a well-known mantle window, can easily migrate upward and then accumulate in the magma reservoir. Furthermore, the convergence of both a low velocity zone and a negative anisotropy suggests that the magma is mainly stored in conduits or inter-fingered dykes as opposed to horizontally stratified magma reservoir.

  2. Late Cenozoic sedimentary process and its response to the slip history of the central Altyn Tagh fault, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正乐; 张岳桥; 陈宣华; 王小凤; A.S.Ramon; W.B.Zack


    The ENE-striking Altyn Tagh fault (ATF), extending along the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the major important strike-slip faults, and has been known as one of the key areas to debate the eastward extrusion and crustral shortening models of the Tibetan Plateau during and after India-Asia collision. This paper mainly presents new evidence of Late Cenozoic sedimentary process to reconstruct the slip history of the ATF during the Late Cenozoic. Field measurements and laboratory analyses of the sedimentary characteristics in the Late Cenozoic basins in the central Altyn Tagh fault suggest that Late Cenozoic sedimentary sequence should be divided into three units according to facies changes. The paleo-topography reconstruction shows that the sedimentation in these basins was tightly related with the fault, indicating that the ATF has experienced at least three stages of strike slipping in the Late Cenozoic. New geological data from the Late Cenozoic sedimentary basins and the formation of th

  3. Recent advances in the study of Mesozoic-Cenozoic petrified wood from Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yongdong; ZHANG Wu; ZHENG Shaolin; Pratueng JINTASAKUL; Paul J. GROTE; Nareerat BOONCHAI


    Mesozoic to Cenozoic petrified woods are very rich and well preserved in the Khorat Plateau, Northeast Thailand, serving as remarkable material for investigations of tropical vegetation history, paleoclimatic evolution, and paleoenvironmental changes. Our recent field survey and investigations have defined about 50 species of fossil wood assigned to 19 genera and 11 families from Mesozoic to Cenozoic deposits in this region. These woods are ascribed to two groups, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Among them, about 20 species assigned to 7 genera and 5 families are the first reports of the taxa in Thailand. The fossil wood floras indicate that during the late Mesozoic period, the tropical conifer vegetation in Northeast Thailand was dominated by the family Araucariaceae. From the Miocene to Pleistocene, a tropical climate prevailed in this region with perhaps both deciduous and evergreen broadleaf forests comprising the vegetation.

  4. Characteristics and geological significance of olivine xenocrysts in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from western Qinling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Benxun; ZHANG Hongfu; XIAO Yan; ZHAO Xinmiao


    Cenozoic volcanic rocks from the Haoti, Dangchang County of the western Qinling Mountains, contain a few clearlyzoned olivines. These olivines are relatively big in grain sizes and usually have cracks or broken features. Their cores have similar compositions (Mg# = 90.4- 91.0) to those for the peridotitic xenoliths entrained in host volcanic rocks and their rims are close to the compositions of olivine phenocrysts (Mg# = 85.5 81.9). The CaO contents in these zoned olivines are lower than 0.1%. These features demonstrate that the clearly zoned olivines are xenocrysts and disaggregated from mantle peridotites. The zoned texture was the result of the interaction between the olivine and host magma. Available data show that the volcanic rocks would have been derived from the mantle source metasomatized by subducted hydrathermally-altered oceanic crust. The formation of these Cenozoic volcanic rocks was perhaps related to the rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.

  5. Cenozoic Volcanism and Intraplate Subduction at the Northern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Developed in the Mt.Kunlun orogenic belt at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is an active Cenozoic volcanic zone which is more than 1000km in length and some ten to hundred kilometers in width.It extends east-westwards and is roughly parallet to the strike of Mt.Kunlun.The Cenozoic volcanic rocks are divided into the northern(N-)and southern(S-)subzones.Eruptions of volcanic lavas in the S-subzone are related to an initial rift zone within the north Qiangtang terrane,but the volcanic rocks in the N-subzone are relatively close to the contact zone between the Mt.Kunlun and the Tarim terrane.The space-time distribution,petrological and geochemical features can be explained by a model of southward intraplate subduction of the Tarim terrane.

  6. Late Cenozoic onset of the latitudinal diversity gradient of North American mammals (United States)

    Marcot, Jonathan D.; Fox, David L.; Niebuhr, Spencer R.


    The decline of species richness from equator to pole, or latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is nearly universal among clades of living organisms, yet whether it was such a pervasive pattern in the geologic past remains uncertain. Here, we calculate the strength of the LDG for terrestrial mammals in North America over the past 65 My, using 27,903 fossil occurrences of Cenozoic terrestrial mammals from western North America downloaded from the Paleobiology Database. Accounting for temporal and spatial variation in sampling, the LDG was substantially weaker than it is today for most of the Cenozoic and the robust modern LDG of North American mammals evolved only over the last 4 My. The strength of the LDG correlates negatively with global temperature, suggesting a role of global climate patterns in the establishment and maintenance of the LDG for North American mammals.

  7. Pattern and timing of late Cenozoic rapid exhumation and uplift of the Helan Mountain,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Helan Mountain, an intraplate deformation belt in the North China Craton, is located in the northern portion of the China North-South seismic belt, and at the northwestern margin of the Ordos Block. The Cenozoic deformation history of the Helan Mountain is characterized by extension along the eastern Helan Mountain fault (EHSF), resulting in the exhumation and uplift of the Helan Mountain, relative to the rifting of the adjacent Yinchuan Basin. Here we present new apatite fission track (AFT) data from several transects adjacent to the EHSF in the central and northern Helan Mountain. AFT ages from the northern Helan Mountain (Dawukou and Zhengyiguan transects) range from 10 Ma to 89 Ma, whereas AFT ages from the southern Helan Mountain (Suyukou transect) are greater than 71 Ma. The AFT data analysis reveals initiation of rapid uplift and exhumation of the Helan Mountain at 10–12 Ma. Additionally, a plot of the AFT ages versus their mean track length shows a distinctive "boomerang" pattern indicating that the Helan Mountain experienced a discrete phase of accelerated exhumation beginning at 10-12 Ma. Spatially, AFT samples systematically increase in age away from the EHSF and are consistent with late Cenozoic exhumation that was slow in the southwestern Helan Mountain and rapid in the northeastern Helan Mountain, as well more rapid adjacent to the EHSF and slower away from the EHSF. Obviously, the spatial distribution of late Cenozoic exhumation indicates that normal faulting of the EHSF is related to southwestward tilting and rapid exhumation of the Helan Mountain beginning at 10–12 Ma. The uplift and exhumation of the Helan Mountain was a response to the intensive extension of the northwestern margin of the Ordos Block in the late Cenozoic; this occurred under a regional extensional stress field oriented NW-SE along the Yinchuan-Jilantai-Hetao and the Weihe-Shanxi graben systems adjacent to the Ordos Block.

  8. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States (United States)

    Hosman, R.L.


    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis includes all major aquifer systems in Cenozoic deposits in the Gulf Coastal Plain in the States of Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, and small areas in Alabama and Florida (western panhandle area), an area of about 290,000 square miles. The Gulf Coast geosyncline and the Mississippi embayment were the major depocenters for the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits that form the framework for the aquifer systems.

  9. Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam: An aid for research and teaching (United States)

    Wise, S.W.; Olney, M.; Covington, J.M.; Egerton, V.M.; Jiang, S.; Ramdeen, D.K.; ,; Schrader, H.; Sims, P.A.; Wood, A.S.; Davis, A.; Davenport, D.R.; Doepler, N.; Falcon, W.; Lopez, C.; Pressley, T.; Swedberg, O.L.; Harwood, D.M.


    Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam© is an interactive, icon-driven digital-image database/software package that displays over 500 illustrated Cenozoic Antarctic diatom taxa along with original descriptions (including over 100 generic and 20 family-group descriptions). This digital catalog is designed primarily for use by micropaleontologists working in the field (at sea or on the Antarctic continent) where hard-copy literature resources are limited. This new package will also be useful for classroom/lab teaching as well as for any paleontologists making or refining taxonomic identifications at the microscope. The database (Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare) is displayed via a custom software program (BugCam) written in Visual Basic for use on PCs running Windows 95 or later operating systems. BugCam is a flexible image display program that utilizes an intuitive thumbnail “tree” structure for navigation through the database. The data are stored on Micrsosoft EXCEL spread sheets, hence no separate relational database program is necessary to run the package

  10. Cenozoic imprints on the phylogenetic structure of palm species assemblages worldwide. (United States)

    Kissling, W Daniel; Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Baker, William J; Borchsenius, Finn; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Balslev, Henrik; Svenning, Jens-Christian


    Despite long-standing interest in the origin and maintenance of species diversity, little is known about historical drivers of species assemblage structure at large spatiotemporal scales. Here, we use global species distribution data, a dated genus-level phylogeny, and paleo-reconstructions of biomes and climate to examine Cenozoic imprints on the phylogenetic structure of regional species assemblages of palms (Arecaceae), a species-rich plant family characteristic of tropical ecosystems. We find a strong imprint on phylogenetic clustering due to geographic isolation and in situ diversification, especially in the Neotropics and on islands with spectacular palm radiations (e.g., Madagascar, Hawaii, and Cuba). Phylogenetic overdispersion on mainlands and islands corresponds to biotic interchange areas. Differences in the degree of phylogenetic clustering among biogeographic realms are related to differential losses of tropical rainforests during the Cenozoic, but not to the cumulative area of tropical rainforest over geological time. A largely random phylogenetic assemblage structure in Africa coincides with severe losses of rainforest area, especially after the Miocene. More recent events also appear to be influential: phylogenetic clustering increases with increasing intensity of Quaternary glacial-interglacial climatic oscillations in South America and, to a lesser extent, Africa, indicating that specific clades perform better in climatically unstable regions. Our results suggest that continental isolation (in combination with limited long-distance dispersal) and changing climate and habitat loss throughout the Cenozoic have had strong impacts on the phylogenetic structure of regional species assemblages in the tropics.

  11. Hydrocarbon Potential of Pre-cenozoic Strata in the North Yellow Sea Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Feng; DAI Chunshan; CHEN Jianwen; LI Gang; SUN Ping


    The North Yellow Sea Basin ( NYSB ), which was developed on the basement of North China (Huabei) continental block, is a typical continental Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basin in the sea area. Its Mesozoic basin is a residual basin,below which there is probably a larger Paleozoic sedimentary basin. The North Yellow Sea Basin comprises four sags and three uplifts. Of them, the eastern sag is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary sag in NYSB and has the biggest sediment thickness; the current Korean drilling wells are concentrated in the eastern sag. This sag is comparatively rich in oil and gas resources and thus has a relatively good petroleum prospect in the sea.The central sag has also accommodated thick Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments. The latest research results show that there are three series of hydrocarbon source rocks in the North Yellow Sea Basin, namely, black shales of the Paleogene, Jurassic and Cretaceous. The principal hydrocarbon source rocks in NYSB are the Mesozoic black shale. According to the drilling data of Korea, the black shales of the Paleogene,Jurassic and Cretaceous have all come up to the standards of good and mature source rocks. The NYSB owns an intact system of oil generation, reservoir and capping rocks that can help hydrocarbon to form in the basin and thus it has the great potential of oil and gas. The vertical distribution of the hydrocarbon resources is mainly considered to be in the Cretaceous and then in the Jurassic.

  12. Biogeographical consequences of Cenozoic tectonic events within East Asian margins: a case study of Hynobius biogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping patterns and processes of extant animal distributions within East Asian margins. We select Hynobius salamanders (Amphibia: Hynobiidae as a model to examine biogeographical consequences of Cenozoic tectonic events within East Asian margins. First, we use GenBank molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships of Hynobius by bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. Second, we estimate the divergence time using the bayesian relaxed clock approach and infer dispersal/vicariance histories under the 'dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis' model. Finally, we test whether evolutionary history and biogeographical processes of Hynobius should coincide with the predictions of two major hypotheses (the 'vicariance'/'out of southwestern Japan' hypothesis. The resulting phylogeny confirmed Hynobius as a monophyletic group, which could be divided into nine major clades associated with six geographical areas. Our results show that: (1 the most recent common ancestor of Hynobius was distributed in southwestern Japan and Hokkaido Island, (2 a sister taxon relationship between Hynobius retardatus and all remaining species was the results of a vicariance event between Hokkaido Island and southwestern Japan in the Middle Eocene, (3 ancestral Hynobius in southwestern Japan dispersed into the Taiwan Island, central China, 'Korean Peninsula and northeastern China' as well as northeastern Honshu during the Late Eocene-Late Miocene. Our findings suggest that Cenozoic tectonic evolution plays an important role in shaping disjunctive distributions of extant Hynobius within East Asian margins.

  13. Petrogenesis of the Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks from the Northern Par of Qinghai-Xizang(Tibet) Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on electron probe analyses of the minerals and bulk composition of the Cenozoic volcanic rocks from Yumen and Hoh Xil lithodistricts,Qinghai-Xizang plateau,the forming conditions including the temperature and pressure of those rocks are studied in this paperAccording to the thermodynamic calculation results of mineral-melt equilibrium,the depth of the asthenosphere superface(about 75-130km)for the northern part of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau during the Cenozoic is suggested.Finally,this paper indicates that the Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the northern part of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau mainly consist of shoshonite series.Their forming temperature is 630-1039℃ and forming pressure is between 2.3-4.0GPa .The rocks were formed in the intracontinental orogenic belt,of which the primary magma was originated from a particular enrichment upper mantle and accreted crust-mantle belt of directly from asthenospheric superface as a result of partial of pyrolite.

  14. Geochemical Changes to Arc Magmatism in South Central Tibet During the India-Asia Collision (United States)

    Waldrip, W. R.; Ducea, M. N.; Kapp, P. A.


    To study the changes in arc magmatism of the India-Asia collision, we focused on three geologic units in southern Tibet which span the transition from subduction to collision: (a) The Linzizong Formation, a 3-5 km thick volcanic-bearing succession (69 -40 Ma) within the Gangdese arc, (b) detrital zircons from the Kailas Formation, an alluvial fan-lacustrine unit (20-24 Ma) that was primarily sourced from the Linzizong Formation and the Gangdese plutonic arc and (c) the Lamuka Formation, a potassic calc-alkaline volcanic unit (11-12 Ma), which unconformably overlies the Linzizong Formation. Two sampling transects in the Sangsang area of south central Tibet were systematically described and sampled to produce a chemical, isotopic and chronostratigraphic section that examine the changing arc chemistry over time. New isotopic data from these transects show that the Cenozoic volcanic rocks of southern Tibet can be divided into three trends based on isotopic data. The first trend is from 70 to 55 Ma. 87Sr/86Sri ratios increase from 0.705 to 0.728 and the ɛHf(t) of individual zircons decreases from 6.1 to -6.0 during this period. The ɛNdo value of -6.0 is relatively constant during this the period. From 55 to 50 Ma, 87Sr/86Sri ratios decrease to 0.708 and ɛHf(t) increase to 13.9 at 50 Ma.ɛNdo values increase to -2.8. The third period includes samples <50 Ma. ɛHf(t) values from detrital zircons immediately decrease to ɛHf(t) 2.4 at 47 Ma and continue to decrease down to ɛHf(t) -7.6 at 45 Ma and ɛHf(t) -12.4 at 11 Ma. Lamuka Formation rocks have 87Sr/86Sri ratios as low as 0.7239 and ɛNdo of -14.3, in agreement with the Hf isotopic data from detrital zircons during this period. There is a consensus between Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic systems that there was an increased contribution of juvenile material to the melt from 55 to 50 Ma followed by a increase in crustal contributions to the melt by 48 Ma and that the crustal contributions increase through the through the

  15. Changes in magmatic oxidation state induced by degassing (United States)

    Brounce, M. N.; Stolper, E. M.; Eiler, J. M.


    Temporal variations in the oxygen fugacity (fO2) of the mantle may have been transmitted to Earth's atmosphere and oceans by volcanic degassing. However, it is unclear how redox states of volatiles relate to their source magmas because degassing and assimilation can impact fO2 before or during eruption. To explore this, we present µ-XANES measurements of the oxidation states of Fe and S and laser fluorination measurements of 18O/16O ratios in submarine glasses from two settings where degassing is recorded: 1) submarine glasses from the Reykjanes Ridge as it shoals to Iceland, including subglacial glasses from the Reykjanes Peninsula; and 2) submarine glasses from Mauna Kea recovered by the Hawaii Shield Drilling Program (HSDP). Glasses from both settings are basalts with 5.5-9.9 wt% MgO and 350-1790 ppm S. Submarine Reykjanes glasses are sulfide saturated. Subglacial Reykjanes and HSDP glasses are not sulfide saturated, and S and H2O contents are consistent with S+H2O degassing. Submarine Reykjanes glasses have 18O/16O indistinguishable from MORB and become progressively 18O-depleted as MgO decreases. Subglacial glasses have lower 18O/16O than submarine glasses at a given MgO, but both sample types project to a common 18O/16O near 10 wt% MgO, suggesting that 18O-depletion in these lavas is generated by fractional crystallization and assimilation of an 18O-depleted crustal component. The oxidation state of Fe increases only slightly as 18O/16O decrease, suggesting that the assimilant is not oxidized enough to change magmatic fO2. Fe and S do not oxidize or reduce with decreasing S or H2O, suggesting that relatively reduced magmas at depth degassed S+H2O without changing magmatic fO2, and that the fO2 of these lavas reflect the fO2of their mantle source. The oxidation states of Fe and S in HSDP glasses are broadly correlated and samples with the highest S concentrations are the most oxidized. Both Fe and S reduce with decreasing S and H2O contents. This suggests

  16. Characterization of gas chemistry and noble-gas isotope ratios of inclusion fluids in magmatic-hydrothermal and magmatic-steam alunite (United States)

    Landis, G.P.; Rye, R.O.


    Chemical and isotope data were obtained for the active gas and noble gas of inclusion fluids in coarse-grained samples of magmatic-hydrothermal and magmatic-steam alunite from well-studied deposits (Marysvale, Utah; Tambo, Chile; Tapajo??s, Brazil; Cactus, California; Pierina, Peru), most of which are discussed in this Volume. Primary fluid inclusions in the alunite typically are less than 0.2 ??m but range up to several micrometers. Analyses of the active-gas composition of these alunite-hosted inclusion fluids released in vacuo by both crushing and heating indicate consistent differences in the compositions of magmatic-hydrothermal and magmatic-steam fluids. The compositions of fluids released by crushing were influenced by contributions from significant populations of secondary inclusions that trapped largely postdepositional hydrothermal fluids. Thermally released fluids gave the best representation of the fluids that formed primary alunite. The data are consistent with current models for the evolution of magmatic-hydrothermal and magmatic-steam fluids. Magmatic-steam fluids are vapor-dominant, average about 49 mol% H2O, and contain N2, H2, CH4, CO, Ar, He, HF, and HCl, with SO2 the dominant sulfur gas (average SO2/ H2S=202). In contrast, magmatic-hydrothermal fluids are liquid-dominant, average about 88 mol% H2O, and N2, H2, CO2, and HF, with H2S about as abundant as SO2 (average SO2/H2 S=0.7). The low SO2/H2S and N2/Ar ratios, and the near-absence of He in magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, are consistent with their derivation from degassed condensed magmatic fluids whose evolution from reduced-to-oxidized aqueous sulfur species was governed first by rock and then by fluid buffers. The high SO2/H2S and N2/Ar with significant concentrations of He in magmatic-steam fluids are consistent with derivation directly from a magma. None of the data supports the entrainment of atmospheric gases or mixing of air-saturated gases in meteoric water in either magmatic

  17. Variations in Cenozoic seawater uranium reconstructed from well preserved aragonitic fossil corals (United States)

    Gothmann, A. O.; Higgins, J. A.; Bender, M. L.; Stolarski, J.; Adkins, J. F.; McKeon, R. E.; Farley, K. A.; Wang, X.; Planavsky, N.


    U/Ca ratios were measured in a subset (n ≈ 30) of well preserved scleractinian fossil corals previously described by Gothmann et al. (2015) in order to investigate Cenozoic changes in seawater [U]. He/U dating studies and measurements of 234U/238U and δ238/235U provide constraints on fossil coral U preservation. He/U ages also demonstrate the ability of well preserved coral aragonite to retain most of its radiogenic He over million year timescales. We find that fossil coral U/Ca has increased by a factor of ~4 between the Early Cenozoic and today. This number is calculated from the change in seawater [Ca2+] implied by brine inclusions and other proxies, and the assumption that the U/Ca in shallow water corals equals the seawater ratio. The change cannot be attributed to a dependence of coral U uptake on seawater pH or [CO32-] (e.g., Inoue et al., 2011), which would lead to a decrease in U/Ca going forward in time. Instead, we suggest that seawater [U] has increased since the Early Cenozoic. Possible explanations for the inferred change include: (1) a small decrease in uranium uptake in suboxic and anoxic sediments over the Cenozoic, (2) a decrease in the rate of low-temperature hydrothermal alteration, and associated U uptake, over the Cenozoic, and (3) a decrease in U removal from seawater resulting from an increase in UO2-CO3 complexation, as originally suggested by Broecker (1971). References: Broecker, W. S. (1971) A Kinetic Model for the Chemical Composition of Sea Water. Quaternary Research, 1, 188-207. Gothmann, A.M., Stolarski, J., Adkins, J.F., Dennis, K.J., Schrag, D.P., Schoene, B., Bender, M.L. (2015) Fossil corals as an archive of secular variations in seawater chemistry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 160, 188-208. Inoue, M., Suwa, R., Suzuki, A., Sakai, K., and Kawahata, H., (2011) Effects of seawater pH on growth and skeletal U/Ca ratios of Acropora digitifera coral polyps. Geophysical Research Letters 38, 12801-12804.

  18. Did high Neo-Tethys subduction rates contribute to early Cenozoic warming?

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    G. Hoareau


    Full Text Available The 58–51 Ma interval was characterized by a long-term increase of global temperatures (+4 to +6 °C up to the Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO, 52.9–50.7 Ma, the warmest interval of the Cenozoic. It was recently suggested that sustained high atmospheric pCO2, controlling warm early Cenozoic climate, may have been released during Neo-Tethys closure through the subduction of large amounts of pelagic carbonates and their recycling as CO2 at arc volcanoes ("carbonate subduction factory". To analyze the impact of Neo-Tethys closure on early Cenozoic warming, we have modeled the volume of subducted sediments and the amount of CO2 emitted at active arc volcanoes along the northern Tethys margin. The impact of calculated CO2 fluxes on global temperature during the early Cenozoic have then been tested using a climate carbon cycle model (GEOCLIM. We first show that CO2 production may have reached up to 1.55 × 1018 mol Ma−1 specifically during the EECO, ~ 4 to 37 % higher that the modern global volcanic CO2 output, owing to a dramatic India–Asia plate convergence increase. In addition to the background CO2 degassing, the subduction of thick Greater Indian continental margin carbonate sediments at ~ 55–50 Ma may also have led to additional CO2 production of 3.35 × 1018 mol Ma−1 during the EECO, making a total of 85 % of the global volcanic CO2 outgassed. However, climate modelling demonstrates that timing of maximum CO2 release only partially fit with the EECO, and that corresponding maximum pCO2 values (750 ppm and surface warming (+2 °C do not reach values inferred from geochemical proxies, a result consistent with conclusions arise from modelling based on other published CO2 fluxes. These results demonstrate that CO2 derived from decarbonation of Neo-Tethyan lithosphere may have possibly contributed to, but certainly cannot account alone for early Cenozoic warming, including the EECO. Other commonly cited sources of excess CO2 such as

  19. Paleoproterozoic postcollisional magmatic belt of the southern Siberian craton (United States)

    Salnikova, E. B.; Larin, A. M.; Kotov, A. B.; Levitsky, V. I.; Reznitsky, L. Z.; Kovach, V. P.; Yakovleva, S. Z.


    Paleoproterozoic time is characterized by large-scale collisional and postcollisional magmatic activity evidenced in the most of ancient cratons. This global event is related to the Arctic supercontinent assemblage (Rogers, 1996). The formation of postcollisional magmatic belt at 1.9-1.8 Ga within the south-west flanking of the Siberian craton is a remarkable example of these processes happened during overall lithospheric convergence. This belt is extends for about 3000 km from the southern Enisey ridge at the west to the central Aldan shield at the east. Within the central Aldan shield the latest collisional event occurred 1925+/-5 Ma (Kotov et al, 2003) and post-collisional subalkaline S- and I-type granites emplaced at 1916+/-10 Ma (Bibikova et al., 1989), 1901+/-1 Ma (Frost et al., 1998) and 1899+/-6 Ma (Kotov et al, 2003). However at the southern Olekma terrain (western Aldan shield) the syncollisional granites have formed at 1906+/-4 Ma and postcollisional Kodar granitoids were generated at 1876-1873 Ma (Larin et al., 2000). The is a tendency outlined in timing of postcollision processes to the west (in modern coordinates). Ages of postcollisional Kevakta granitoid plutons (1846+/-8 Ma) and volcanics of North-Baikal volcano-plutonic belt (1869+/-6 Ma 1856+/-3 Ma), Baikal folded area, support this tendency. Emplacement of the Primorsky complex postcollisional rapakivi-type granitoids (southern Baikal lake) occurred at 1859+/-16 Ma (Donskaya et al., 2002). New results of U-Pb single zircon and baddeleyite dating demonstrate that formation of late-synkinematic syenite, charnockite and pegmatitic veins (1856±12 Ma, 1853±20 Ma) and calciphyre (1868±2 Ma) within the eastern part of the Sharyzhalgay block (southern Baikal lake) occurred virtually within the same episode. Postcollisional intrusive charnockite of the Shumikha complex from the western Sharyzhalgay block dated at 1861±1 Ma (Donskaya et al., 2001) and 1871±17 Ma (Levitsky et al., 2002). Subalcaline

  20. Does subduction zone magmatism produce average continental crust (United States)

    Ellam, R. M.; Hawkesworth, C. J.


    The question of whether present day subduction zone magmatism produces material of average continental crust composition, which perhaps most would agree is andesitic, is addressed. It was argued that modern andesitic to dacitic rocks in Andean-type settings are produced by plagioclase fractionation of mantle derived basalts, leaving a complementary residue with low Rb/Sr and a positive Eu anomaly. This residue must be removed, for example by delamination, if the average crust produced in these settings is andesitic. The author argued against this, pointing out the absence of evidence for such a signature in the mantle. Either the average crust is not andesitic, a conclusion the author was not entirely comfortable with, or other crust forming processes must be sought. One possibility is that during the Archean, direct slab melting of basaltic or eclogitic oceanic crust produced felsic melts, which together with about 65 percent mafic material, yielded an average crust of andesitic composition.

  1. Cenozoic lithospheric evolution of the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton: Constraint from tectono-thermal modeling (United States)

    Liu, Qiongying; He, Lijuan; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Linyou


    It is well established that the lithosphere beneath the eastern North China Craton (NCC) had been thinned before the Cenozoic. A 2D multi-phase extension model, in which the initial crustal and lithospheric thicknesses are variable, is presented to reconstruct the initial thicknesses of the crust and lithosphere in the early Cenozoic and to further investigate the lithospheric evolution beneath the eastern NCC through the Cenozoic. We conduct thermal modeling along three profiles from east to west in the Bohai Bay Basin, which is the center of the lithospheric destruction and thinning of the NCC. Using multiple constraints, such as tectonic subsidence, the present-day heat flow and the Moho depth, we determine the initial crustal and lithospheric thicknesses of the Bohai Bay Basin before the Cenozoic rift to be 33-36 km and 80-105 km, respectively. The model results show that the most rapid lithospheric thinning during the Cenozoic occurred in the middle Eocene for most depressions, and the thinning activity ceased at the end of the Oligocene, reaching a minimum lithospheric thickness of 53-74 km, followed by a thermal relaxation phase. Combined with previous studies, we infer that the lithosphere beneath the eastern NCC experienced two stages of alternating thinning and thickening: notable thinning in the Early Cretaceous and Paleogene, and thickening in the Late Cretaceous and late Cenozoic. We believe that thermo-chemical erosion, together with extension, was probably the major mechanism of the significant lithospheric removal during the Mesozoic, whereas the Cenozoic lithospheric thinning was mainly dominated by tectonic extension in the eastern NCC; lithospheric thickening was generally a result of thermal cooling.

  2. A magmatic probe of dynamic topography beneath western North America (United States)

    Klöcking, M.; White, N. J.; Maclennan, J.


    A region centered on the Yellowstone hotspot and encompassing the Colorado Plateau sits at an elevation 2 km higher than the cratonic North America. This difference broadly coincides with tomographically observed variations in lithospheric thickness: ~120 km beneath western North America, ~240 km beneath the craton. Thermochronology of the Grand Canyon area, sedimentary flux to the Gulf of Mexico, and river profile inversion all suggest that regional uplift occurred in at least two separate stages. High resolution seismic tomographic models, using USArray data, have identified a ring of low velocity material beneath the edges of the Colorado Plateau. Magmatism coincides with these low velocity zones and shows distinct phases: an overall increase in volume around 40 Ma and a change from lithospheric to asthenospheric signatures around 5 Ma. Volcanism is also observed to migrate north-east with time. Here, we attempt to integrate these different observations with lithospheric thickness. A dynamic topography model of progressive lithospheric erosion over a hot mantle plume might account for uplift as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism across western North America. Thinning of the lithosphere around the edges of the Colorado Plateau in combination with the hotter mantle potential temperature of a plume could create isostatic and dynamic uplift as well as allowing for melt production. To test this model, we have analysed around 100 samples from volcanic centers across western North America by ICP-MS for rare earth elements (REE). Most of the samples are younger than 5 Ma, and all of them have previously been analysed by XRF. Using trace element ratios such as La/Yb and Nb/Y we assess depth of melting and melt fraction, respectively. In addition, we use REE inversion modelling to estimate melt fractions as a function of depth and temperature of melting. The results are compared to existing constraints on lithospheric thickness and mantle potential

  3. Magmatic Evolution of the Western Azores Islands (Corvo and Flores) (United States)

    Larrea, P.; Galé, C.; Ubide, T.; Widom, E.; Lago, M.; França, Z.; Tierz, P.


    Corvo and Flores islands belong to the western group of the Azores archipelago, to the west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Several studies have proposed a common magmatic evolution for both islands. However, most of these studies focus on other Azorean islands. In order to investigate the processes that control the evolution of Corvo and Flores we have studied representative samples of the whole volcanostratigraphical sequence in both islands, including lava flows and dikes. Similarly to other oceanic islands, Corvo and Flores are made up of an alternation of porphyritic rocks and microlitic rocks. The former are picrobasalts and basalts with 5 to 60 volume fraction of large (2-15 mm), primitive antecrysts of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The latter are Mg-poor hawaites to trachytes. The Mg-rich composition of the porphyritic rocks is due to the accumulation of primitive antecrysts within a more evolved groundmass. In contrast, the composition of the microlitic rocks provides information on the differentiation processes that controlled the evolution of both islands. The microlitic rocks present holocrystalline to hypocrystalline textures with a mineral assemblage mainly composed of microcrysts of plagioclase, olivine, clinopyroxene opaque minerals and accessory amphibole and apatite. Their major element whole rock composition can be best modeled by a polybaric fractional crystallization process (MELTS software) starting at 500 MPa with cooling steps of 5 degrees Celsius and a water content of 1 %, starting from the most primitive analyzed microlitic rock (MgO: 9.04%; Cr: 630 ppm; Ni: 200 ppm). Hence, we confirm that both islands derived from a common primary magma. The crystallization of the antecrysts included in the porphyritic rocks was probably related to the initial stages of the differentiation process. On the other hand, the microlitic rocks and the groundmass of the porphyritic rocks are related to the residual melts of the polybaric fractional

  4. Why are plutons dry? Outgassing mechanisms of crustal magmatic bodies (United States)

    parmigiani, andrea; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Leclaire, Sébastien


    Magma bodies crystallizing to completion within the crust (i.e., forming plutons) typically undergo significant amounts of second boiling (i.e. cooling and crystallization of dominantly anhydrous minerals lead to volatile saturation and bubble nucleation/growth). The low water content ( 6 wt % H2O for evolved compositions in subduction zones), testify that outgassing from crystalline mushy reservoirs must be an efficient and widespread process. Understanding this outgassing mechanism is key to understand how volatiles are transferred from mantle depths to the surface. From the hydrodynamics point of view, the mass balance of exsolved volatiles in these plutonic bodies is controlled by the difference between the rate of degassing (formation of bubbles by 2nd boiling) and outgassing (transport of gas out of the magma body). In this study, we use pore-scale multiphase modeling to constrain these rates as function of the crystal and volatile contents in the magma. Because second boiling is a slow process, one can consider equilibrium degassing as a valid assumption. Outgassing, on the other end, is controlled by the competition between buoyancy, capillary and viscous forces. Our numerical simulations are used to determine the most efficient setting for gas to escape its magmatic trap. The high viscosity of interstitial melts and capillary forces (due to the non-wetting nature of the gas phase with most of the mineral phases in magmatic systems) strongly limits gas transport until vertically extensive gas channels are generated. We show that channels can readily form in volatile-rich coarse-grained mush zones in the upper crust, and allow efficient outgassing at crystallinities around 50-75 vol%, when millimetric bubbles can still win capillary resistive forces.

  5. A geochemical perspective on charnockite magmatism in Peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Rajesh


    Full Text Available Large charnockite massifs occur in the high-grade Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT and Eastern Ghats Belt (EGB crustal provinces of Peninsular India. Available geochronological data indicate that the magmatism is episodic, associated with distinct orogenic cycles in the different crustal domains. The geochemical data also indicate a change in composition from trondhjemitic at ∼3.0–2.9 Ga to dominantly tonalitic at ∼2.6–2.5 Ga to tonalitic-granodiorite-granitic at ∼2.0–1.9 Ga to dominantly tonalitic at 1.7–1.6 Ga to quartz monzonitic or tonalitic at ∼1.0–0.9 Ga to granodiorite-granitic at ∼0.8–0.7 Ga. The trondhjemitic and tonalitic end members are metaluminous, magnesian and calcic to calc-alkalic, characteristic of magnesian group charnockites. The granodioritic to granitic end members are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, ferroan and calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic, characteristic of ferroan group charnockites. The quartz monzonitic end members are metaluminous to peraluminous, magnesian to ferroan and calcic to calc-alkalic, neither characteristic of the magnesian group nor of the ferroan group of charnockites. Based on the occurrence and difference in composition of the charnockite massifs, it is suggested that the charnockite magmatism registers the crustal growth of the Indian plate on its southern (SGT and eastern (EGB sides, along active continental margins by accretion of arcs.

  6. Density and P-wave velocity structure beneath the Paraná Magmatic Province: Refertilization of an ancient lithospheric mantle (United States)

    Chaves, Carlos; Ussami, Naomi; Ritsema, Jeroen


    We estimate density and P-wave velocity perturbations in the mantle beneath the southeastern South America plate from geoid anomalies and P-wave traveltime residuals to constrain the structure of the lithosphere underneath the Paraná Magmatic Province (PMP) and conterminous geological provinces. Our analysis shows a consistent correlation between density and velocity anomalies. The P-wave speed and density are 1% and 15 kg/m3 lower, respectively, in the upper mantle under the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic alkaline provinces, except beneath the Goiás Alkaline Province (GAP), where density (+20 kg/m3) and velocity (+0.5%) are relatively high. Underneath the PMP, the density is higher by about 50 kg/m3 in the north and 25 kg/m3 in the south, to a depth of 250 - 300 km. These values correlate with high-velocity perturbations of +0.5% and +0.3%, respectively. Profiles of density perturbation versus depth in the upper mantle are different for the PMP and the adjacent Archean São Francisco (SFC) and Amazonian (AC) cratons. The Paleoproterozoic PMP basement has a high-density root. The density is relatively low in the SFC and AC lithospheres. A reduction of density is a typical characteristic of chemically depleted Archean cratons. A more fertile Proterozoic and Phanerozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle has a higher density, as deduced from density estimates of mantle xenoliths of different ages and composition. In conjunction with Re-Os isotopic studies of the PMP basalts, chemical and isotopic analyses of peridodite xenoliths from the GAP in the northern PMP, and electromagnetic induction experiments of the PMP lithosphere, our density and P-wave speed models suggest that the densification of the PMP lithosphere and flood basalt generation are related to mantle refertilization. Metasomatic refertilization resulted from the introduction of asthenospheric components from the mantle wedge above Proterozoic subduction zones, which surrounded the Paraná lithosphere

  7. Helium isotope studies of the mantle xenoliths and megac-rysts from the Cenozoic basalts in the eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yanhe


    [1]Molan, E., Zhao Dasheng, The Cenozoic Basalts and Plutonic Xenoliths in the Eastern China (in Chinese), Beijing: Scien-ce Press, 1987.[2]Liu Ruoxin, ed. The Chronology and the Geochemistry of the Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in the Eastern China (in Chinese), Beijing: Seismology Press, 1992.[3]Liu, C. Q., Masuda, A., Xie, G. H., Isotope and trace element geochemistry of alkali basalts and associated megacrysts from the Huangyishan volcano, Kuandian, Liaoning, NE China, Chem. Geol., 1991, 97: 219-231.[4]Liu Congqiang, Masuda, A., Xie Guanghong, REE, Sr and Nd isotope geochemistry of the mantle xenoliths from Huan-gyishan basalt in Kuandian of Liaoning, Geological Sciences (in Chinese), 1994, 28(3): 228-234.[5]Xie Guanghong, Zhang Ming, Liu Congqiang, Mantle enrichment events and hydrated minerals-- The evidence from mantle xenoliths and high-pressure megacrysts, in the Geochemistry of the Mantle Fluids and the Asthenosphere (Asthe-noliths) (in Chinese) (eds. Du Letian et al.), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1996, 272-310.[6]Du Letian, Geochemistry of Mantle Fluids and Asthenosphere (Asthenoliths) (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1996.[7]Xia Qunke, Chen Daogong, Deloule, E. et al., Hydrogen isotope compositions of mantle-derived mica megacrysts from ion microprobe analysis, Science in China, Ser. D, 1999, 42(4): 392-398.[8]Zheng Jianping, Lu Fengxiang, O'Reilly, S. Y. et al., The mantle transformation and replacement in the eastern North China: Laser probe study on clinopyroxenes, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser, D, 2000, 30(4): 373-382.[9]Ozima, M., Podosek, F. A., Noble gas geochemistry, New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1983.[10]Anderson, D. L., Helium-3 from the mantle: Primordial signal or cosmic dust? Science, 1993, 261: 170-176.[11]Kurz, M., Jenkins, W. J., Hart, S. R. et al., Helium isotopic variations in volcanic rocks from Loihi Seamount and the is-land of Hawaii, Earth Planet Sci. Lett

  8. Various depths of origin of clinopyroxene megacrysts from Cenozoic alkaline lavas of occurrences in Lower Silesia (SW Poland) (United States)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Woodland, Alan


    to use the geobarometer of Nimis & Ulmer (1998), which yielded the following pressures of crystallization: Księginki 1.05 - 1.23 GPa, Ostrzyca 0.06 - 0.19 GPa, Lutynia 1.08 - 1.13 GPa. The pressure of crystallization of the Księginki megacrysts fits well the interpretation of Puziewicz et al. (2011) who considered the megacrysts to come from syn-volcanic host magma cumulates formed in lava batches temporarily residing at uppermost mantle depth. By analogy, we are of the opinion that the Lutynia megacrysts are of similar origin, except the "LREE depleted" one. The Ostrzyca megacrysts were interpreted by Lipa et al. (2014) to crystallize from the host lava at mid-crustal depths. The 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios of the Ostrzyca and Lutynia megacrysts are identical to those of the European Asthenospheric Reservoir and are consistent with their proposed syn-volcanic origin, except the "LREE depleted" megacryst, for which isotopic ratios have not been analysed. The 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios of the Księginki megacrysts are slightly enriched in radiogenic Sr. Funding. This study was possible thanks to the project NCN UMO-2014/15/B/ST10/00095 of Polish National Centre for Science. References Badura, J., Pécskay, Z., Koszowska, E., Wolska, A., Zuchiewicz, W., Przybylski, B., 2006. Przegląd Geologiczny 54.2., 145-153. Lipa, D., Puziewicz, J., Ntaflos, T., Matusiak-Małek, M., 2014. Geoscience Notes 2.2. 49-72. Nimis, P., Ulmer, P., 1998. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 133, 122-135. Pécskay, Z., Birkenmajer, K., 2013. In: Büchner, J., Rapprich, V., Tietz, O., (eds.) Basalt 2013 - Cenozoic Magmatism in Central Europe. Abstracts & Excursion Guides, Czech Geological Survey, Prague & Senckenberg Museum of Natural History, Görlitz, 66-67. Puziewicz, J., Koepke, J., Grégoire, M., Ntaflos, T., Matusiak-Małek, M., 2011. J. of Petrology 52, 2107-2145.

  9. Petrologic, tectonic, and metallogenic evolution of the Ancestral Cascades magmatic arc, Washington, Oregon, and northern California (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; John, David A.


    Present-day High Cascades arc magmatism was preceded by ~40 m.y. of nearly cospatial magmatism represented by the ancestral Cascades arc in Washington, Oregon, and northernmost California (United States). Time-space-composition relations for the ancestral Cascades arc have been synthesized from a recent compilation of more than 4000 geochemical analyses and associated age data. Neither the composition nor distribution of ancestral Cascades magmatism was uniform along the length of the ancestral arc through time. Initial (>40 to 36 Ma) ancestral Cascades magmatism (mostly basalt and basaltic andesite) was focused at the north end of the arc between the present-day locations of Mount Rainier and the Columbia River. From 35 to 18 Ma, initial basaltic andesite and andesite magmatism evolved to include dacite and rhyolite; magmatic activity became more voluminous and extended along most of the arc. Between 17 and 8 Ma, magmatism was focused along the part of the arc coincident with the northern two-thirds of Oregon and returned to more mafic compositions. Subsequent ancestral Cascades magmatism was dominated by basaltic andesite to basalt prior to the post–4 Ma onset of High Cascades magmatism. Transitional tholeiitic to calc-alkaline compositions dominated early (before 40 to ca. 25 Ma) ancestral Cascades eruptive products, whereas the majority of the younger arc rocks have a calc-alkaline affinity. Tholeiitic compositions characteristic of the oldest ancestral arc magmas suggest development associated with thin, immature crust and slab window processes, whereas the younger, calc-alkaline magmas suggest interaction with thicker, more evolved crust and more conventional subduction-related magmatic processes. Presumed changes in subducted slab dip through time also correlate with fundamental magma composition variation. The predominance of mafic compositions during latest ancestral arc magmatism and throughout the history of modern High Cascades magmatism probably

  10. The impacts of Cenozoic climate and habitat changes on small mammal diversity of North America (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua X.; Hopkins, Samantha S. B.


    Through the Cenozoic, paleoclimate records show general trends of global cooling and increased aridity, and environments in North America shifted from predominantly forests to more open habitats. Paleobotanical records indicate grasses were present on the continent in the Eocene; however, paleosol and phytolith studies indicate that open habitats did not arise until the late Eocene or even later in the Oligocene. Studies of large mammalian herbivores have documented changes in ecomorphology and community structure through time, revealing that shifts in mammalian morphology occurred millions of years after the environmental changes thought to have triggered them. Smaller mammals, like rodents and lagomorphs, should more closely track climate and habitat changes due to their shorter generation times and smaller ranges, but these animals have received much less study. To examine changes in smaller mammals through time, we have assembled and analyzed an ecomorphological database of all North American rodent and lagomorph species. Analyses of these data found that rodent and lagomorph community structure changed dramatically through the Cenozoic, and shifts in diversity and ecology correspond closely with the timing of habitat changes. Cenozoic rodent and lagomorph species diversity is strongly biased by sampling of localities, but sampling-corrected diversity reveals diversity dynamics that, after an initial density-dependent diversification in the Eocene, track habitat changes and the appearance of new ecological adaptations. As habitats became more open and arid through time, rodent and lagomorph crown heights increased while burrowing, jumping, and cursorial adaptations became more prevalent. Through time, open-habitat specialists were added during periods of diversification, while closed-habitat taxa were disproportionately lost in subsequent diversity declines. While shifts among rodents and lagomorphs parallel changes in ungulate communities, they started

  11. Impact of rock uplift on rates of late Cenozoic Rocky Mountain river incision (United States)

    Riihimaki, Catherine A.; Anderson, Robert S.; Safran, Elizabeth B.


    The high relief of the modern Rocky Mountain landscape formed in the late Cenozoic by downcutting of a fluvial network that links a series of easily eroded sedimentary basins across relatively resistant crystalline cores of adjacent ranges. Using a numerical model of fluvial erosion and the flexural isostatic response to the associated unloading, we first calculate the expected pattern and pace of incision caused by rock uplift related to migration of the Yellowstone hot spot and to growth of the northern portion of the Rio Grande rift. Calculated incision rates are <60 m/Myr, and total depth of erosion of sedimentary basins is <300 m, well below the long-term incision rates and amounts of erosion interpreted from the geologic record. Broad-scale tilting of the region toward the east, accomplished by a gradient in rock uplift of ˜1 km along the north-south axis of the central Rockies, declining to zero 1000 km to the east, can account for the additional erosion needed to match observations. In each modeling scenario, stream incision is nonsteady, with rock uplift outpacing erosion for <1 Myr in perimeter basins and 1-5 Myr in interior basins. Three factors dominate the spatial and temporal pattern of regional landscape evolution: (1) the time since uplift began, (2) the uplift pattern, and (3) the distribution of relatively resistant bedrock within the region. Our results suggest that the spatial variability in late Cenozoic exhumation can be explained by a long-lived transience in the stream network response to these various late Cenozoic geophysical events.

  12. Mechanisms of Cenozoic deformation in the Bohai Basin, Northeast China: Physical modelling and discussions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Jianxun; ZHOU; Jiansheng


    The Bohai Basin is a Cenozoic petroliferous extensional basin in China and has apparent geometrical and kinematic similarities with the other Meso-Cenozoic extensional basins located along the eastern margin of Eurasian Plate. However, the deformation mechanisms of the basin are still in dispute. Physcial modelling referring to the Huanghua Depression, located in the central part of the Bohai Basin was conducted employing four sets of planar sandbox experimental models with different extension directions. Only experimental results of the model with N-S extension show good structural similarity with the depression. The results also indicate that complex variations of fault strike in a rift basin are not necessarily the results of complex kinematic mechanisms or polyphase deformation. Based on comparison of experimental results with the actual structures and the good structural similarity between Huanghua Depression and the whole Bohai Basin, it is concluded that the Bohai Basin was formed by the N-S extension. The strike slip deformation along the NNE-trending border faults of the basin resulted from the N-S extension and played the role of lateral transformation for the N-S extension. In addition, according to the apparent geometrical and kinematic similarities among the Bohai Basin and other Meso-Cenozoic extensional basins located along the eastern margin of the Eurasian Plate, it is proposed that: (1) this "N-S extension" model provides a better kinematic interpretation for the formation of Bohai Basin and the other adjacent basins located along the eastern margin of the Eurasian Plate; and (2) the N-S extension was probably the effect of the "slab window" formed by the subduction of the nearly E-W trending oceanic ridge between the Kula and Pacific Plates. The "slab window" effect can also provide reasonable explanations for the phenomena that initial rifting ages of basins become progressively younger westwards along the eastern margin of the Eurasian Plate

  13. Cenozoic stratigraphy and geologic history of the Tucson Basin, Pima County, Arizona (United States)

    Anderson, S.R.


    This report was prepared as part of a geohydrologic study of the Tucson basin conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Tucson. Geologic data from more than 500 water supply and test wells were analyzed to define characteristics of the basin sediments that may affect the potential for land subsidence induced by groundwater withdrawal. The Tucson basin is a structural depression within the Basin and Range physiographic province. The basin is 1,000 sq mi in units area and trends north to northwest. Three Cenozoic stratigraphic unit--the Pantano Formation of Oligocene age, the Tinaja beds (informal usage) of Miocene and Pliocene age, and the Fort Lowell Formation of Pleistocene age--fill the basin. The Tinaja beds include lower, middle, and upper unconformable units. A thin veneer of stream alluvium of late Quaternary age overlies the Fort Lowell Formation. The Pantano Formation and the lower Tinaja beds accumulated during a time of widespread continental sedimentation, volcanism, plutonism, uplift, and complex faulting and tilting of rock units that began during the Oligocene and continued until the middle Miocene. Overlying sediments of the middle and upper Tinaja beds were deposited in response to two subsequent episodes of post-12-million-year block faulting, the latter of which was accompanied by renewed uplift. The Fort Lowell Formation accumulated during the Quaternary development of modern through-flowing the maturation of the drainage. The composite Cenozoic stratigraphic section of the Tucson basin is at least 20,000 ft thick. The steeply tilted to flat-lying section is composed of indurated to unconsolidated clastic sediments, evaporites, and volcanic rocks that are lithologically and structurally complex. The lithology and structures of the section was greatly affected by the uplift and exhumation of adjacent metamorphic core-complex rocks. Similar Cenozoic geologic relations have been identified in other parts of southern

  14. Implications of estimated magmatic additions and recycling losses at the subduction zones of accretionary (non-collisional) and collisional (suturing) orogens (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.; Von Huene, R.


    Arc magmatism at subduction zones (SZs) most voluminously supplies juvenile igneous material to build rafts of continental and intra-oceanic or island arc (CIA) crust. Return or recycling of accumulated CIA material to the mantle is also most vigorous at SZs. Recycling is effected by the processes of sediment subduction, subduction erosion, and detachment and sinking of deeply underthrust sectors of CIA crust. Long-term (>10-20 Ma) rates of additions and losses can be estimated from observational data gathered where oceanic crust underruns modern, long-running (Cenozoic to mid-Mesozoic) ocean-margin subduction zones (OMSZs, e.g. Aleutian and South America SZs). Long-term rates can also be observationally assessed at Mesozoic and older crust-suturing subduction zone (CSSZs) where thick bodies of CIA crust collided in tectonic contact (e.g. Wopmay and Appalachian orogens, India and SE Asia). At modern OMSZs arc magmatic additions at intra-oceanic arcs and at continental margins are globally estimated at c. 1.5 AU and c. 1.0 AU, respectively (1 AU, or Armstrong Unit,= 1 km3 a-1 of solid material). During collisional suturing at fossil CSSZs, global arc magmatic addition is estimated at 0.2 AU. This assessment presumes that in the past the global length of crustal collision zones averaged c. 6000 km, which is one-half that under way since the early Tertiary. The average long-term rate of arc magmatic additions extracted from modern OMSZs and older CSSZs is thus evaluated at 2.7 AU. Crustal recycling at Mesozoic and younger OMSZs is assessed at c. 60 km3 Ma-1 km-1 (c. 60% by subduction erosion). The corresponding global recycling rate is c. 2.5 AU. At CSSZs of Mesozoic, Palaeozoic and Proterozoic age, the combined upper and lower plate losses of CIA crust via subduction erosion, sediment subduction, and lower plate crustal detachment and sinking are assessed far less securely at c. 115 km3 Ma-1 km-1. At a global length of 6000 km, recycling at CSSZs is accordingly c. 0


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zhongli; DENG Yongfu; LIAO Guangyu


    The Jinping orogenic belt in Sichuan, China consists mainly of the Jinpingshan intracontinental thrust-nappe belt, foreland thrust-nappe belt and foreland uplift belt. Based on analyses about the characteristics of the structural units in this area, the authors propose in this paper that Chapuzi-Bazhe revival fault belt is the regional boundary fault, and points out that after the formation of the Pre-Sinian basement, the western edge of the Yangtze paraplatform was turned into the passive continental margin in Sinian to Triassic, then into the Mesozoic collision orogenic belt, and finally into the Cenozoic orogenic belt through intracontinental orogeny.

  16. Polyphase tectonic events and Cenozoic basin-range coupling in the Tianshan Belt, Northwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, L.S.; Wang, B.; Yang, F.; Lu, H.F.; Charvet, J.; Laurent-Charvet, S. [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China). Dept. of Earth Science


    Studies show that the Tianshan orogenic belt was built in the late stage of the Palaeozoic, as evidenced by the Permian red molasses and foreland basins; which are distributed in parallel with the Tianshan belt, indicating that an intense folding and uplifting event took place. During the Triassic, this orogenic belt was strongly eroded, and basins were further developed. The folding and faulting of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, spontaneous combustion of Jurassic coal layers and formation of sintered rocks, the Cenozoic earthquakes and active faulting, and the unique mosaic pattern of basin-range framework of Xinjiang are all products of tectonism since the Neogene.

  17. Discovery of Enclaves from Cenozoic Pulu Volcanic Rocks in West Kunlun Mountains and Its Geological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, we present the occurrence and mineral components of the enclaves firstly discovered in the Cenozoic Pulu volcanic rocks in west Kunlun Mountains, and propose that the enclave is accumulated by fractional crystallization within high-level magma chamber. In addition, the chemical compositions of its primary magma are calculated. The calculated compositions are similar to those of the Kangxiwa volcanic rocks that belong to the same volcanic belt in the Pulu volcanic region, suggesting their origin from the same source region. However, the temperatures and oxygen fugacity of magmas at high-level magma chamber decreased along with fractional crystallization.

  18. Mesozoic-Cenozoic inversion of the Turpan-Hami Basin, northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, D.; Zhang, P.; Jin, K.; Qian, G.; Mei, M.; Tang, Y.; Shao, L. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School


    The Turpan-Hami basin, rich in coal and petroleum, is a superimposed basin of three types in different tectonic environments. The basin has undergone a complex tectonic-sedimentary evolution, in which two important stages were the negative inversion from a foredeep to an extensional basin during Early Mesozoic and the positive inversion to a thrust foreland basin in Late Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic. The early normal faults residues are recognized with the addition of tectonic-sedimentary analysis to confirm the basin extension during Jurassic time and its subsequent tectonic inversion. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  19. New Eocene damselflies and first Cenozoic damsel-dragonfly of the isophlebiopteran lineage (Insecta: Odonata). (United States)

    Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André


    The study of a new specimen of Petrolestes hendersoni from the Eocene Green Formation allows a more precise description of the enigmatic damselfly and the diagnosis of the Petrolestini. Petrolestes messelensis sp. nov. is described from the Eocene Messel Formation in Germany, extending the distribution of the Petrolestini to the European Eocene. The new damsel-dragonfly family Pseudostenolestidae is described for the new genus and species Pseudostenolestes bechlyi, from the Eocene Messel Formation. It is the first Cenozoic representative of the Mesozoic clade Isophlebioptera.

  20. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism (United States)

    Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.


    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park City, Utah, in May 2013, was attended by 41 investigators from seven countries. Participants were asked to define compelling scientific justifications for examining problems that can be addressed by coordinated programs of continental scientific drilling and related site investigations. They were also asked to evaluate a wide range of proposed drilling projects, based on white papers submitted prior to the workshop. Participants working on faults and fault zone processes highlighted two overarching topics with exciting potential for future scientific drilling research: (1) the seismic cycle and (2) the mechanics and architecture of fault zones. Recommended projects target fundamental mechanical processes and controls on faulting, and range from induced earthquakes and earthquake initiation to investigations of detachment fault mechanics and fluid flow in fault zones. Participants working on active volcanism identified five themes: the volcano eruption cycle; eruption sustainability, near-field stresses, and system recovery; eruption hazards; verification of geophysical models; and interactions with other Earth systems. Recommended projects address problems that are transferrable to other volcanic systems, such as improved methods for identifying eruption history and constraining the rheological structure of shallow caldera regions. Participants working on chemical geodynamics identified four major themes: large igneous provinces (LIPs), ocean islands, continental hotspot tracks and rifts, and

  1. Magmatic and fragmentation controls on volcanic ash surface chemistry (United States)

    Ayris, Paul M.; Diplas, Spyros; Damby, David E.; Hornby, Adrian J.; Cimarelli, Corrado; Delmelle, Pierre; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.


    The chemical effects of silicate ash ejected by explosive volcanic eruptions on environmental systems are fundamentally mediated by ash particle surfaces. Ash surfaces are a composite product of magmatic properties and fragmentation mechanisms, as well as in-plume and atmospheric alteration processes acting upon those surfaces during and after the eruption. Recent attention has focused on the capacity of alteration processes to shape ash surfaces; most notably, several studies have utilised X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a technique probing the elemental composition and coordination state of atoms within the top 10 nm of ash surfaces, to identify patterns of elemental depletions and enrichments relative to bulk ash chemical composition. Under the presumption of surface and bulk equivalence, any disparities have been previously attributed to surface alteration processes, but the ubiquity of some depletions (e.g., Ca, Fe) across multiple ash studies, irrespective of eruptive origin, could suggest these to be features of the surface produced at the instant of magma fragmentation. To investigate this possibility further, we conducted rapid decompression experiments at different pressure conditions and at ambient and magmatic temperature on porous andesitic rocks. These experiments produced fragmented ash material untouched by secondary alteration, which were compared to particles produced by crushing of large clasts from the same experiments. We investigated a restricted size fraction (63-90 μm) from both fragmented and crushed materials, determining bulk chemistry and mineralogy via XRF, SEM-BSE and EPMA, and investigated the chemical composition of the ash surface by XPS. Analyses suggest that fragmentation under experimental conditions partitioned a greater fraction of plagioclase-rich particles into the selected size fraction, relative to particles produced by crushing. Trends in surface chemical composition in fragmented and crushed particles mirror that

  2. Millennia of magmatism recorded in crustal xenoliths from Southwest Greenland (United States)

    Smit, Matthijs; Waight, Tod; Nielsen, Troels


    Eruption of CO2-rich ultramafic magma involves rapid ascent of mantle-derived magmas loaded with mantle xenoliths and xenocrysts (>30 vol%). The dynamics and duration of such eruptions are increasingly well constrained; the causes are nevertheless largely unclear. To address this issue, we performed a petrological and speedometric analysis of well-preserved crustal xenoliths from aillikite dikes at Sisimiut and Sarfartôq alkaline provinces, W Greenland. The xenoliths represent mafic granulites, scavenged from c. 25-36 km depth within the mid-to-lower crust. The rocks are infiltrated by various types of melt in grain boundaries, cracks and veins. Zirconium-in rutile thermometry and Fe-in-rutile speedometry indicate melt temperature of c. 1,015 °C and melt exposure time of a few hours for the host aillikite, implying an average ascent rate of c. 2 m/s. This is slower than average ascent rates of mantle cargo (4-40 m/s [1]), suggesting a slowing-down of transport at shallow levels. Local diffusive zoning in garnet indicates up to several millenia of melt-assisted mass transport. This demonstrates a two-stage magmatic process of rapid melt ascent preceded by a previously unrecognized long magmatic episode. Melt infiltration at Sismiut lasted 10 times longer than at Sarfartôq, and unlike at Sarfartôq was initially associated with carbonate- and sulfide-rich melt. This contrast reflects a fundamental difference in the devolatilization efficiency of parental carbonatite magma. The rapid development of the Sarfartôq system is ascribed to the local lithospheric mantle being highly depleted [2] and rich in the decarbonation reactant orthopyroxene [3]. A link is also proposed between this feature, and the occurrence of REE-carbonatite and diamond-bearing mantle cargo at that particular location. References [1] Sparks, R.S.J. et al., 2006. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 155, 8-48. [2] Bizzarro, M. and Stevenson, R.K., 2003. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 146, 223-240. [3] Russell

  3. Isotopic evidence of magmatism and a sedimentary carbon source at the Endeavour hydrothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T A; Proskurowski, G; Lilley, M D


    Stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements made on CO{sub 2} from high temperature hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicate both magmatic and sedimentary sources of carbon to the hydrothermal system. The Endeavour segment is devoid of overlying sediments and has shown no observable signs of surficial magmatic activity during the {approx}20 years of ongoing studies. The appearance of isotopically heavy, radiocarbon dead CO{sub 2} after a 1999 earthquake swarm requires that this earthquake event was magmatic in origin. Evidence for a sedimentary organic carbon source suggests the presence of buried sediments at the ridge axis. These findings, which represent the first temporally coherent set of radiocarbon measurements from hydrothermal vent fluids, demonstrate the utility of radiocarbon analysis in hydrothermal studies. The existence of a sediment source at Endeavour and the occurrence of magmatic episodes illustrate the extremely complex and evolving nature of the Endeavour hydrothermal system.

  4. Iron isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation in Kilauea Iki lava lake. (United States)

    Teng, Fang-Zhen; Dauphas, Nicolas; Helz, Rosalind T


    Magmatic differentiation helps produce the chemical and petrographic diversity of terrestrial rocks. The extent to which magmatic differentiation fractionates nonradiogenic isotopes is uncertain for some elements. We report analyses of iron isotopes in basalts from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii. The iron isotopic compositions (56Fe/54Fe) of late-stagemeltveins are 0.2 permil (per thousand) greater than values for olivine cumulates. Olivine phenocrysts are up to 1.2 per thousand lighter than those of whole rocks. These results demonstrate that iron isotopes fractionate during magmatic differentiation at both whole-rock and crystal scales. This characteristic of iron relative to the characteristics of magnesium and lithium, for which no fractionation has been found, may be related to its complex redox chemistry in magmatic systems and makes iron a potential tool for studying planetary differentiation.

  5. The Mozambique Ridge: a document of massive multistage magmatism (United States)

    Fischer, Maximilian D.; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Jacques, Guillaume; Werner, Reinhard


    The Mozambique Ridge, a prominent basement high in the southwestern Indian Ocean, consists of four major geomorphological segments associated with numerous phases of volcanic activity in the Lower Cretaceous. The nature and origin of the Mozambique Ridge have been intensely debated with one hypothesis suggesting a Large Igneous Province origin. High-resolution seismic reflection data reveal a large number of extrusion centres with a random distribution throughout the southern Mozambique Ridge and the nearby Transkei Rise. Intrabasement reflections emerge from the extrusion centres and are interpreted to represent massive lava flow sequences. Such lava flow sequences are characteristic of eruptions leading to the formation of continental and oceanic flood basalt provinces, hence supporting a Large Igneous Province origin of the Mozambique Ridge. We observe evidence for widespread post-sedimentary magmatic activity that we correlate with a southward propagation of the East African Rift System. Based on our volumetric analysis of the southern Mozambique Ridge we infer a rapid sequential emplacement between ˜131 and ˜125 Ma, which is similar to the short formation periods of other Large Igneous Provinces like the Agulhas Plateau.

  6. The inception of a Paleotethyan magmatic arc in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Pereira


    Full Text Available This paper presents a compilation of recent U-Pb (zircon ages of late Carboniferous–early Permian (LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths from Iberia, together with a petrogenetic interpretation of magma generation based on comparisons with Mesozoic and Tertiary Cordilleran batholiths and experimental melts. Zircon U-Pb ages distributed over the range ca. 315–280 Ma, indicate a linkage between calc-alkaline magmatism, Iberian orocline generation and Paleotethys subduction. It is also shown that Iberian LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths present unequivocal subduction-related features comparable with typical Cordilleran batholiths of the Pacific Americas active margin, although geochemical features were partially obscured by local modifications of magmas at the level of emplacement by country rock assimilation. When and how LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths formed in Iberia is then discussed, and a new and somewhat controversial interpretation for their sources and tectonic setting (plume-assisted relamination is suggested. The batholiths are proposed to have formed during the subduction of the Paleotethys oceanic plate (Pangaea self-subduction and, consequently, they are unrelated to Variscan collision. The origin of the Iberian batholiths is related to the Eurasian active margin and probably represents the inception of a Paleotethyan arc in the core of Pangaea.

  7. Magmatic sulfides in the porphyritic chondrules of EH enstatite chondrites

    CERN Document Server

    Piani, Laurette; Libourel, Guy; Tissandier, Laurent


    The nature and distribution of sulfides within 17 porphyritic chondrules of the Sahara 97096 EH3 enstatite chondrite have been studied by backscattered electron microscopy and electron microprobe in order to investigate the role of gas-melt interactions in the chondrule sulfide formation. Troilite (FeS) is systematically present and is the most abundant sulfide within the EH3 chondrite chondrules. It is found either poikilitically enclosed in low-Ca pyroxenes or scattered within the glassy mesostasis. Oldhamite (CaS) and niningerite [(Mg,Fe,Mn)S] are present in about 60% of the chondrules studied. While oldhamite is preferentially present in the mesostasis, niningerite associated with silica is generally observed in contact with troilite and low-Ca pyroxene. The chondrule mesostases contain high abundances of alkali and volatile elements as well as silica. Our data suggest that most of the sulfides found in EH3 chondrite chondrules are magmatic minerals that formed after the dissolution of S from a volatile-r...

  8. Numerical model for the evaluation of Earthquake effects on a magmatic system. (United States)

    Garg, Deepak; Longo, Antonella; Papale, Paolo


    A finite element numerical model is presented to compute the effect of an Earthquake on the dynamics of magma in reservoirs with deformable walls. The magmatic system is hit by a Mw 7.2 Earthquake (Petrolia/Capo Mendocina 1992) with hypocenter at 15 km diagonal distance. At subsequent times the seismic wave reaches the nearest side of the magmatic system boundary, travels through the magmatic fluid and arrives to the other side of the boundary. The modelled physical system consists in the magmatic reservoir with a thin surrounding layer of rocks. Magma is considered as an homogeneous multicomponent multiphase Newtonian mixture with exsolution and dissolution of volatiles (H2O+CO2). The magmatic reservoir is made of a small shallow magma chamber filled with degassed phonolite, connected by a vertical dike to a larger deeper chamber filled with gas-rich shoshonite, in condition of gravitational instability. The coupling between the Earthquake and the magmatic system is computed by solving the elastostatic equation for the deformation of the magmatic reservoir walls, along with the conservation equations of mass of components and momentum of the magmatic mixture. The characteristic elastic parameters of rocks are assigned to the computational domain at the boundary of magmatic system. Physically consistent Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are assigned according to the evolution of the seismic signal. Seismic forced displacements and velocities are set on the part of the boundary which is hit by wave. On the other part of boundary motion is governed by the action of fluid pressure and deviatoric stress forces due to fluid dynamics. The constitutive equations for the magma are solved in a monolithic way by space-time discontinuous-in-time finite element method. To attain additional stability least square and discontinuity capturing operators are included in the formulation. A partitioned algorithm is used to couple the magma and thin layer of rocks. The

  9. Characteristic Textures of Recrystallized, Peritectic, and Primary Magmatic Olivine in Experimental Samples and Natural Volcanic Rocks


    Erdmann, Saskia; Scaillet, Bruno; Martel, Caroline; Cadoux, Anita


    International audience; Olivine textures are potentially important recorders of olivine origin and crystallization conditions. Primary magmatic and xenocrystic origins are commonly considered for olivine from ultramafic to intermediate magmas, while secondary olivine origins (i.e. crystals formed by recrystallization or peritectic reaction) are rarely considered in the interpretation of magmatic phenocrysts. The main aim of our study was to determine textures that are characteristic for secon...

  10. Isotopic evidence for quick freshening of magmatic chlorine in the Lesser Antilles arc volcanoes (United States)

    Li, L.; Jendrzejewski, N.; Aubaud, C. P.; Bonifacie, M.; Crispi, O.; Dessert, C.; Agrinier, P.


    Despite numerous geophysical and geochemical monitoring techniques developed over the last 50 years to detect magma activities in volcanoes, it is still challenging to evaluate the state of magmatic activity during its decreasing phase (transitory quiet stage and/or final stage of the magma intrusion which may last for decades) for those infrequent, slow developing, and dangerous explosive eruptive arc volcanoes, attributed to the interaction between the magma and hydrothermal cells at shallow depths to produce complex phreato-magmatic events. Recent studies have implied that chloride in intrusion-induced thermal springs could be a potential sensitive indicator of shallow magma degassing. However, possible contamination from surface chlorine reservoirs, such as seawater, may overprint the magmatic signature and complicate the interpretation of field observation. Here, based on chlorine isotope examination of various water samples from two recently erupted volcanoes in the Lesser Antilles arc (Soufrière in Guadeloupe: phreatic eruption in1976-1977; Montagne Pelée in Martinique: pelean eruption in 1929-1932), we show that magmatic chlorine is isotopically distinct from surface chlorine (seawater, meteoric water, and ground water). A chlorine isotopic survey on thermal springs in Guadeloupe and Martinique indicate that the magmatic chlorine signature is still present in some of the thermal springs in Guadeloupe but completely disappeared in Martinique. This suggests that magmatic chlorine be rapidly flushed from hydrothermal system within < 30 to 80 years after the magmatic eruption. This enables chlorine isotopes to be a sensitive proxy to monitor shallow magmatic activities, particularly practicable at centennial scale.

  11. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel


    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  12. Cenozoic extinctions account for the low diversity of extant gymnosperms compared with angiosperms. (United States)

    Crisp, Michael D; Cook, Lyn G


    We test the widely held notion that living gymnosperms are 'ancient' and 'living fossils' by comparing them with their sister group, the angiosperms. This perception derives partly from the lack of gross morphological differences between some Mesozoic gymnosperm fossils and their living relatives (e.g. Ginkgo, cycads and dawn redwood), suggesting that the rate of evolution of gymnosperms has been slow. We estimated the ages and diversification rates of gymnosperm lineages using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock dating calibrated with 21 fossils, based on the phylogenetic analysis of alignments of matK chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) sequences, and compared these with published estimates for angiosperms. Gymnosperm crown groups of Cenozoic age are significantly younger than their angiosperm counterparts (median age: 32 Ma vs 50 Ma) and have long unbranched stems, indicating major extinctions in the Cenozoic, in contrast with angiosperms. Surviving gymnosperm genera have diversified more slowly than angiosperms during the Neogene as a result of their higher extinction rate. Compared with angiosperms, living gymnosperm groups are not ancient. The fossil record also indicates that gymnosperms suffered major extinctions when climate changed in the Oligocene and Miocene. Extant gymnosperm groups occupy diverse habitats and some probably survived after making adaptive shifts.

  13. On tectonic movement in the South China Sea during the Cenozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Changsong; CHU Fengyou; GAO Jinyao; TAN Yonghua


    The tectonic movement taking place at the end of Cretaceous and the beginning of Cenozoic had opened the Ce-nozoic phase of polycyclic tectonic movements, then the whole crust of the South China Sea had been mainly subjected to the regional stress field of tectonic tension, which was characterized by rifting depression. Seven times of regional tectonic movement and sedimentation had been assembled into a geological development history of polycyclic oscillation. Especially, the tectonic movements were strongly intensified at the end of Cretacious and the beginning of Paleagene, between Late Eocene and Mid-Oligocene, during Mid- and Late Miocene. These three times of tectonic movement had built the most important regional tectonic interfaces in the South China Sea. Crust movements of the South China Sea were the result and epitome of interaction of the Eurasia, Pacific and Indo-Australia plates, that is, they were introduced by polycyclic changes of directions, rates and strengths of lithospheric movements and asthenospheric flows across the Pacific and Indo-Australia plates.

  14. Cenozoic macroevolution in the deep-sea microfossil record: can we let go of species richness? (United States)

    Hannisdal, Bjarte; Liow, Lee Hsiang


    The deep-sea microfossil record is an outstanding resource for the study of macroevolutionary changes in planktonic groups. Studies of plankton evolution and its possible link to climate changes over the Cenozoic have typically targeted apparent trends in species richness. However, most species are rare, and fossil richness is particularly vulnerable to the imperfections (incompleteness, reworking, age and taxonomic errors) of existing microfossil occurrence databases. Here we use an alternative macroevolutionary quantity: Summed Common Species Occurrence Rate (SCOR). By focusing on the most commonly occurring species, SCOR is decoupled from species richness, robust to preservation/sampling variability, yet sensitive to relative changes in the overall abundance of a group. Numerical experiments are used to illustrate the sampling behavior of SCOR and its relationship to (sampling-standardized) species richness. We further show how SCOR estimated from the NEPTUNE database (ODP/DSDP) can provide a new perspective on long-term evolutionary and ecological changes in major planktonic groups (e.g. coccolithophores and forams). Finally, we test possible linkages between planktonic SCOR records and proxy reconstructions of climate changes over the Cenozoic.

  15. The evolution of mammal body sizes: responses to Cenozoic climate change in North American mammals. (United States)

    Lovegrove, B G; Mowoe, M O


    Explanations for the evolution of body size in mammals have remained surprisingly elusive despite the central importance of body size in evolutionary biology. Here, we present a model which argues that the body sizes of Nearctic mammals were moulded by Cenozoic climate and vegetation changes. Following the early Eocene Climate Optimum, forests retreated and gave way to open woodland and savannah landscapes, followed later by grasslands. Many herbivores that radiated in these new landscapes underwent a switch from browsing to grazing associated with increased unguligrade cursoriality and body size, the latter driven by the energetics and constraints of cellulose digestion (fermentation). Carnivores also increased in size and digitigrade, cursorial capacity to occupy a size distribution allowing the capture of prey of the widest range of body sizes. With the emergence of larger, faster carnivores, plantigrade mammals were constrained from evolving to large body sizes and most remained smaller than 1 kg throughout the middle Cenozoic. We find no consistent support for either Cope's Rule or Bergmann's Rule in plantigrade mammals, the largest locomotor guild (n = 1186, 59% of species in the database). Some cold-specialist plantigrade mammals, such as beavers and marmots, showed dramatic increases in body mass following the Miocene Climate Optimum which may, however, be partially explained by Bergmann's rule. This study reemphasizes the necessity of considering the evolutionary history and resultant form and function of mammalian morphotypes when attempting to understand contemporary mammalian body size distributions.

  16. Magnetostratigraphy of Late Cenozoic fossil mammals in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A number of fossil mammals have been found in the very thick Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Guide Basin in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Some of these are of great significance in mammal evolution and stratigraphic correlation on and around the Tibetan Plateau and North China. However, the chronology of these mammals is poorly constrained. Dating of the mammals will not only place precise age constraints on the mammals, but also provide much information on the related stratigraphy that records the uplift process of the Tibetan Plateau. Detailed paleomagnetism of the upper part of the Cenozoic stratigraphy at He'erjia and Lajigai north of Guide County has revealed magnetic chrons that can be correlated to Gauss and 3An chrons, determining the section spanning about 3.1-6.5 Ma and the first, second and third layers of fossil mammals at about 5.25, 5.1 and 4.4 Ma, respectively. Ages of the significant genus Gazella kueitensis and the Chinese elephant Anancus sinensis are firstly constrained at about 5.25 MaBP and 4.4 Ma, respectively. The mammalian evolution and the associated increase in coarse sediments and sedimentation rate may suggest that the northeastern Tibetan Plateau was uplifted rapidly at that time, and the eastern Tibetan Plateau with its neighboring regions was not high enough to stop mammal exchange between the northern and southern sides of the Tibetan Plateau.

  17. The uplifting process of the Bogda Mountain during the Cenozoic and its tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZongXiu; LI Tao; ZHANG Jin; LIU YongQing; MA ZongJin


    Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China The Tianshan Mountains have undergone its initial orogeny, extension adjusting and re-orogeny since the Late Paleozoic. The re-orogeny and uplifting process of the orogeny in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are two of most important events in the geological evolution of Euro-Asian continent, which resulted in the formation of the present range-and-basin pattern in topography of the Tianshan Mountains and its adjacent areas. Thermochronology results by the method of fission-track dating of apatite suggest three obvious uplifting stages of the Bogad Mountain Chain re-orogeny during the Cenozoic, i.e. 5.6-19 Ma, 20-30 Ma, and 42-47 Ma. The strongest uplifting stage of the mountain is the second one at 20-30 Ma, when the mountain uplifted as a whole, and the beginning of re-orogeny was no less than 65Ma. Furthermore, our studies also show that the uplifting types of the mountain are variable in the different time periods, including uplifting of mountain as a whole and differential uplifting. The apparently diversified uplifting processes of the mountain chain are characterized by the migration (or transformation) of the uplifting direction of the mountain from west to east and from north to south, and the main process of mountain extending is from north to south.

  18. Structural deformation pattern within the NW Qaidam Basin in the Cenozoic era and its tectonic implications (United States)

    Mao, Liguang; Xiao, Ancheng; Zhang, Hongwei; Wu, Zhankui; Wang, Liqun; Shen, Ya; Wu, Lei


    The Qaidam Basin is located in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau and provides an excellent field laboratory in understanding the history and mechanism of the plateau growth. It deformed widely over the northwest during the Cenozoic but with little thrust loading along the margins, where no foreland depression is observed. Based on satellite images, seismic and borehole data, we investigated the structural deformation pattern (including the structural style and timing of deformation) and its formation mechanism within the northwestern Qaidam Basin during the Cenozoic era. Mapping of surface geology shows that the modern Qaidam Basin is characterized by five SE-trending anticlinal belts. Each belt consists of several right-step en echelon anticlines with plenty of normal and strike-slip faults crossing the crests. Those anticlines are generally dominated by double fault systems at different depths: an upper thrust fault system, controlling the anticlines identified on the surface and a lower dextral transpressional fault system characterized by typical flower structures. They are separated by weak layers in the upper Xiaganchaigou or the Shangganchaigou formations. The upper system yields shortening strain 2-5 times larger than that of the lower system and the additional strain is interpreted to be accommodated by hinge-parallel elongation in the upper system. Growth strata indicate that deformation within the Qaidam Basin initiated in the middle Miocene ( 15 Ma) and accelerated in the late Miocene ( 8 Ma). A simple Riedel-P-Shear model is used to explain the deformation mechanism within the northwestern Qaidam Basin.

  19. K—Ar Geochronology and Evolution of Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in Eastrn China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧芬; 杨学昌; 等


    Cenozoic volcanic rocks widespread in eastern China constitute an important part of the circum-Pacific volcanic belt.This paper presents more than 150K-Ar dates and a great deal of petrochemical analysis data from the Cenozoic volcanic rocks distributed in Tengchong,China's southeast coast,Shandong,Hebei,Nei Monggol and Northeast China.An integrated study shows that ubiquitous but uneven volcanic activities prevailed from the Eogene to the Holocene,characterized as being multi-eqisodic and multicycled.For example,in the Paleocene(67-58Ma),Eocene(57-37.5Ma),Miocene(22-18,16-19Ma),Pliocene(8-3Ma),and Early Pleistocene-Middle Pleistocene(1.2-0.5Ma) there were upsurges of volcanism,while in the Oligocene there was a repose period.In space,the older Eogene volcanic rocks are distributed within the region or in the central part of the NE-NNE-striking fault depression,while the younger Neogene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are distributed in the eastern and western parts.Petrologically,they belong essentially to tholeiite-series and alkali-series basalts,with alkalinity in the rocks increasing from old to youg.The above regularities are controlled by both global plate movement and regional inherent tectonic pattern.

  20. Mid-Cenozoic tectonic and paleoenvironmental setting of the central Arctic Ocean (United States)

    O'Regan, M.; Moran, K.; Backman, J.; Jakobsson, M.; Sangiorgi, F.; Brinkhuis, Henk; Pockalny, Rob; Skelton, Alasdair; Stickley, Catherine E.; Koc, N.; Brumsack, Hans-Juergen; Willard, Debra A.


    Drilling results from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) to the Lomonosov Ridge (LR) document a 26 million year hiatus that separates freshwater-influenced biosilica-rich deposits of the middle Eocene from fossil-poor glaciomarine silty clays of the early Miocene. Detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological data from sediments surrounding this mid-Cenozoic hiatus describe a shallow water setting for the LR, a finding that conflicts with predrilling seismic predictions and an initial postcruise assessment of its subsidence history that assumed smooth thermally controlled subsidence following rifting. A review of Cenozoic tectonic processes affecting the geodynamic evolution of the central Arctic Ocean highlights a prolonged phase of basin-wide compression that ended in the early Miocene. The coincidence in timing between the end of compression and the start of rapid early Miocene subsidence provides a compelling link between these observations and similarly accounts for the shallow water setting that persisted more than 30 million years after rifting ended. However, for much of the late Paleogene and early Neogene, tectonic reconstructions of the Arctic Ocean describe a landlocked basin, adding additional uncertainty to reconstructions of paleodepth estimates as the magnitude of regional sea level variations remains unknown.

  1. Sequence of the Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Tao; WANG Xiaoming; NI Xijun; LIU Liping


    In the Linxia Basin on the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the Cenozoic strata are very thick and well exposed. Abundant mammalian fossils are discovered in the deposits from the Late Oligocene to the Early Pleistocene.The Dzungariotheriurn fauna comes from the sandstones of the Jiaozigou Formation, including many representative Late Oligocene taxa. The Platybelodon fauna comes from the sandstones of the Dongxiang Formation and the conglomerates of the Laogou Formation, and its fossils are typical Middle Miocene forms, such as Hemicyon, Amphicyon, Platybelodon,Choerolophodon, Anchitherium, and Hispanotherium. The Hipparion fauna comes from the red clay of the Liushu and Hewangjia Formations, and its fossils can be distinctly divided into four levels, including three Late Miocene levels and one Early Pliocene level. In the Linxia Basin, the Hipparion fauna has the richest mammalian fossils. The Equus fauna comes from the Wucheng Loess, and it is slightly older than that of the classical Early Pleistocene Nihewan Fauna. The mammalian faunas from the Linxia Basin provide the reliable evidence to divide the Cenozoic strata of this basin and correlate them with European mammalian sequence.

  2. Biostratigraphy and geochronology of the late Cenozoic of Córdoba Province (central Argentina) (United States)

    Cruz, Laura Edith


    In the last twenty years, several geological and stratigraphical studies have been undertaken in Córdoba Province, and they have provided useful bases for biostratigraphic work in the late Cenozoic. However, paleontological contributions have been limited to preliminary analyses of mammal assemblages, or specific discoveries. The aim of this work is to contribute to biostratigraphic knowledge of Argentina through the study of late Cenozoic mammals from Córdoba Province. Five localities have been analyzed: San Francisco, Miramar, Río Cuarto, Isla Verde, and Valle de Traslasierra. Through biostratigraphic analysis the first records of several taxa were established, and mammal assemblages with the description and correlation of the sedimentary strata were confirmed. Finally, three Assemblage Zones (Biozonas de Asociación) were proposed: 1) Neosclerocalyptus paskoensis-Equus (Amerhippus) assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the San Francisco locality, referred to the Lujanian (late Pleistocene-early Holocene), and comparable to the Equus (Amerhippus) neogeus Biozone of Buenos Aires Province; 2) Neosclerocalyptus ornatus-Catonyx tarijensis assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the San Francisco locality, referred to the Ensenadan (early Pleistocene) and comparable to the Mesotherium cristatum Biozone of Buenos Aires Province, and 3) Nonotherium hennigi-Propanochthus bullifer assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the Los Sauces river, Valle de Traslasierra, referred to the Montehermosan-Chapadmalalan interval (Pliocene), and comparable to the Trigodon gaudryi, Neocavia depressidens and/or Paraglyptodon chapadmalensis Biozones of Buenos Aires Province.

  3. Late Cenozoic continuous aridification in the western Qaidam Basin: evidence from sporopollen records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Miao


    Full Text Available Cenozoic climate changes in inner Asia provide a basis for understanding linkages between global cooling, the Tibetan Plateau uplift, and possibly the development of the East Asian monsoon. Based on the compiled palynological results from the western Qaidam Basin, this study reconstructed an 18 Ma record of changing vegetation and paleoclimates since the middle Miocene. Thermophilic taxa percentages were highest between 18 and 14 Ma and decreased after 14 Ma, corresponding closely with the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO between 18 and 14 Ma and the following global climatic cooling. After 3.6 Ma, the thermophilic taxa percentages further decreased, showing the inevitable relations with the ice-sheets enlargement in the North Hemisphere. During the same period of time, the increase in xerophytic taxa percentages and decrease in conifers percentages imply aridification in both the basin and surrounding mountains since 18 Ma. These results indicate that global cooling mainly controlled the climate change from a relative warm-wet stage to a cold-dry stage during the late Cenozoic at the western Qaidam Basin, and that the Tibetan Plateau uplift also contributed in contrast to the East Asian summer monsoon.

  4. Major element, REE, and Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic geochemistry of Cenozoic volcanic rocks of eastern China: implications for their origin from suboceanic-type mantle reservoirs (United States)

    Basu, A.R.; Wang, Junwen; Huang, Wankang; Xie, Guanghong; Tatsumoto, M.


    Major- and rare-earth-element (REE) concentrations and UThPb, SmNd, and RbSr isotope systematics are reported for Cenozoic volcanic rocks from northeastern and eastern China. These volcanic rocks, characteristically lacking the calc-alkaline suite of orogenic belts, were emplaced in a rift system which formed in response to the subduction of the western Pacific plate beneath the eastern Asiatic continental margin. The rocks sampled range from basanite and alkali olivine basalt, through olivine tholeiite and quartz tholeiite, to potassic basalts, alkali trachytes, pantellerite, and limburgite. These rock suites represent the volcanic centers of Datong, Hanobar, Kuandian, Changbaishan and Wudalianchi in northeastern China, and Mingxi in the Fujian Province of eastern China. The major-element and REE geochemistry is characteristic of each volcanic suite broadly evolving through cogenetic magmatic processes. Some of the outstanding features of the isotopic correlation arrays are as follows: (1) NdSr shows an anticorrelation within the field of ocean island basalts, extending from the MORB end-member to an enriched, time-averaged high Rb Sr and Nd Sr end-member (EM1), (2) SrPb also shows an anticorrelation, similar to that of Hawaiian and walvis Ridge basalts, (3) NdPb shows a positive correlation, and (4) the 207Pb 204Pb vs 206Pb 204Pb plot shows linear arrays parallel to the general trend (NHRL) for MORB on both sides of the geochron, although in the 208Pb 204Pb vs 206Pb 204Pb plot the linear array is significantly displaced above the NHRL in a pattern similar to that of the oceanic island basalts that show the Dupal signatures. In all isotope correlation patterns, the data arrays define two different mantle components-a MORB-like component and an enriched mantle component. The isotopic data presented here clearly demonstrate the existence of Dupal compositions in the sources of the continental volcanic rocks of eastern China. We suggest that the subcontinental mantle

  5. Coupling geodynamic with thermodynamic modelling for reconstructions of magmatic systems (United States)

    Rummel, Lisa; Kaus, Boris J. P.; White, Richard


    Coupling geodynamic with petrological models is fundamental for understanding magmatic systems from the melting source in the mantle to the point of magma crystallisation in the upper crust. Most geodynamic codes use very simplified petrological models consisting of a single, fixed, chemistry. Here, we develop a method to better track the petrological evolution of the source rock and corresponding volcanic and plutonic rocks by combining a geodynamic code with a thermodynamic model for magma generation and evolution. For the geodynamic modelling a finite element code (MVEP2) solves the conservation of mass, momentum and energy equations. The thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibria in magmatic systems is performed with pMELTS for mantle-like bulk compositions. The thermodynamic dependent properties calculated by pMELTS are density, melt fraction and the composition of the liquid and solid phase in the chemical system: SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Cr2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5-H2O. In order to take into account the chemical depletion of the source rock with increasing melt extraction events, calculation of phase diagrams is performed in two steps: 1) With an initial rock composition density, melt fraction as well as liquid and solid composition are computed over the full upper mantle P-T range. 2) Once the residual rock composition (equivalent to the solid composition after melt extraction) is significantly different from the initial rock composition and the melt fraction is lower than a critical value, the residual composition is used for next calculations with pMELTS. The implementation of several melt extraction events take the change in chemistry into account until the solidus is shifted to such high temperatures that the rock cannot be molten anymore under upper mantle conditions. An advantage of this approach is that we can track the change of melt chemistry with time, which can be compared with natural constraints. In the thermo-mechanical code the

  6. Preface to special issue: Granite magmatism in Brazil (United States)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll


    Granites are important both to the geologic evolution and to the economy of Brazil. Deposits of precious and rare metals, such as Au, Sn and many others, are directly or indirectly associated with granites, especially in the geologically under-explored Amazon region. On the opposite eastern side of the country, expanding exploitation of natural granite as dimension stone makes Brazil currently the world's second largest exporter of granite blocks. Granites are a major constituent of the Brazilian Archean-Proterozoic cratonic domains (the Amazon and São Francisco cratons) and their surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts. The granites are thus fundamental markers of the major events of crustal generation and recycling that shaped the South American Platform. As a result, Brazilian granites have received great attention from the national and international community, and a number of influential meetings focused on the study of granites were held in the country in the last three decades. These meetings include the two International Symposia on Granites and Associated Mineralization (Salvador, January 21-31, 1987, and August 24-29, 1997), the Symposium on Rapakivi Granites and Related Rocks (Belém, August 2-5, 1995) and the Symposium on Magmatism, Crustal Evolution, and Metallogenesis of the Amazonian Craton (Belém, August 2006). Special issues dedicated to contributions presented at these meetings in the Journal of South American Earth Sciences (Sial et al., 1998), Lithos (Stephens et al., 1999), Canadian Mineralogist (Dall'Agnol and Ramo, 2006), Precambrian Research (Ramo et al., 2002) and Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Dall'Agnol and Bettencourt, 1997; Sial et al., 1999a) are still important references on the knowledge of Brazilian granites and granite petrology in general.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐翠玲; 赵广涛; 何雨旸; 李德平


    Tengchong Cenozoic volcanic rocks, which consist of basaltic trachy-andesite, trachy-andesite, and basaltic andesite, belonging to the high-K and calc-alkaline series, are continental intraplate volcanic rocks erupted after the Tethys Ocean was closed. They are distributed near the collision zone of the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The geochemical features of the rocks can be used to define the tectonic properties and magma sources. The systematic geochemical study of the typical rock samples by XRF and ICP MS shows that the rocks are characterized by high K2O,CaO, low TiO2,and high Mg # (averaging about 46). REE shows a LREE-enriched pattern with significantly negative Eu. Large ion lithophilc elements (LILE) and high field strength elements (HFSE) are enriched compared to the primitive mantle, and the LILE have higher enrichment than the HFSE. Th shows a significantly positive anomaly. The geochemical composition of the studied volcanic rocks is similar to the volcanic arc magma, suggesting that the magmat-ic activity was triggered by the subduction of the Indian plate down to the Eurasian plate. Characteristic element ratios show that the magma may be derived from the subduction-related EM I mantle.%腾冲新生代火山岩位于印度板块和欧亚板块碰撞带附近,但是喷发时大洋已经闭合,属于大陆板内火山岩.对其进行地球化学研究,可以用来划分构造属性和推测岩浆来源.采用XRF和ICP-MS对典型岩石样品进行了较系统的岩石地球化学研究,结果表明,岩石类型有玄武质粗面安山岩、粗面安山岩和玄武安山岩,属高钾钙碱性系列;岩石化学显示高K2O、CaO和低TiO2,Mg#较高,平均约为46;稀土元素分布呈右倾,显示明显的Eu负异常;相对于原始地幔富集大离子亲石元素和高场强元素,并具有明显的Th正异常;地球化学组成总体上与岛弧岩浆岩相似,推测其成因与印度板块向欧亚板块俯冲引发的岩浆活

  8. Regionwide Geodynamic Analyses of the Cenozoic Carbonate Burial in Sri Lanka Related to Climate and Atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Sandaruwan Ratnayake


    Full Text Available Asian tectonism and exhumation are critical components to develop modern icehouse climate. In this study, stratigraphic sections of eight wells in the Mannar and Cauvery basins were considered. The author demonstrated that this local system records a wealth of information to understated regional and global paleoclimatic trends over the Cenozoic era. The lithostratigraphic framework has been generally characterized by deposition of carbonate-rich sediments since the Middle Cenozoic. Geological provenance of carbonate sediments had probably related to local sources from Sri Lankan and Indian land masses. The main controlling factor of carbonate burial is rather questionable. However, this carbonate burial has indicated the possible link to the Middle to Late Cenozoic global climatic transition. This major climatic shift was characterized by long-term reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration over the Cenozoic era. Consequently, this geological trend (carbonate burial has a straightforward teleconnection to the global cooling towards the glaciated earth followed by the development of polar ice sheets that persist today.

  9. Reply to Ali & Aitchison's comment on 'Restoration of Cenozoic deformation in Asia, and the size of Greater India'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.; Lippert, P.C.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Kapp, P.; DeCelles, P.G.


    In our recent paper [van Hinsbergen et al., 2011a], we provide a kinematic restoration of Cenozoic deformation in Asia based on the currently available kinematic estimates on fault zones and fold-thrust belts in Tibet, the Pamir, the Tien Shan, Mongolia, Siberia and Indochina. Our reconstruction sug

  10. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel


    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic and structural field data along the strike-slip Central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion; consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activity steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long x 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter-term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the Central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  11. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy) (United States)

    Ruch, J.; Vezzoli, L.; De Rosa, R.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Acocella, V.


    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic, and structural field data along the strike-slip central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures, and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activities steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long × 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  12. The magmatic history of the Vetas-California mining district, Santander Massif, Eastern Cordillera, Colombia (United States)

    Mantilla Figueroa, Luis C.; Bissig, Thomas; Valencia, Víctor; Hart, Craig J. R.


    The Vetas-California Mining District (VCMD), located in the central part of the Santander Massif (Colombian Eastern Cordillera), based on U-Pb dating of zircons, records the following principal tectono-magmatic events: (1) the Grenville Orogenic event and high grade metamorphism and migmatitization between ˜1240 and 957 Ma; (2) early Ordovician calc-alkalic magmatism, which was synchronous with the Caparonensis-Famatinian Orogeny (˜477 Ma); (3) middle to late Ordovician post-collisional calc-alkalic magmatism (˜466-436 Ma); (4) late Triassic to early Jurassic magmatism between ˜204 and 196 Ma, characterized by both S- and I-type calc-alkalic intrusions and; (5) a late Miocene shallowly emplaced intermediate calc-alkaline intrusions (10.9 ± 0.2 and 8.4 ± 0.2 Ma). The presence of even younger igneous rocks is possible, given the widespread magmatic-hydrothermal alteration affecting all rock units in the area. The igneous rocks from the late Triassic-early Jurassic magmatic episodes are the volumetrically most important igneous rocks in the study area and in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera. They can be divided into three groups based on their field relationships, whole rock geochemistry and geochronology. These are early leucogranites herein termed Alaskites-I (204-199 Ma), Intermediate rocks (199-198 Ma), and late leucogranites, herein referred to as Alaskites-II (198-196 Ma). This Mesozoic magmatism is reflecting subtle changes in the crustal stress in a setting above an oblique subduction of the Panthalassa plate beneath Pangea. The lower Cretaceous siliciclastic Tambor Formation has detrital zircons of the same age populations as the metamorphic and igneous rocks present in the study area, suggesting that the provenance is related to the erosion of these local rocks during the late Jurassic or early Cretaceous, implying a local supply of sediments to the local depositional basins.

  13. Cenozoic Carbonate Stratigraphy of the Yucatan Shelf, Southern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Ortega-Nieto, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.


    The Yucatan shelf in the southern Gulf of Mexico has developed as a large shallow ramp shelf, tectonically stable that preserves a continuous sedimentary record for the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. We present the preliminary results of a study involving well stratigraphy, X-ray diffraction and petrography of the Cenozoic sequence sampled in the UNAM-5, UNAM-6 and UNAM-7 exploratory boreholes drilled in the southwestern and southern sectors of the Yucatan state. The boreholes were drilled as part of the Chicxulub Drilling Project aimed to investigate the formation and characteristics of the large crater, formed by an asteroid impact at the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary. Our study aims to investigate the stratigraphic relations, textural changes and characteristics of the sedimentary units, to identify events associated with the evolution of the platform during the Cenozoic. We constructed detailed stratigraphic columns for the three borehole cores and prepared samples collected across the stratigraphic section for petrography and clay analyses. The petrographic studies were made at different depths above the K/Pg boundary to recognize textural variations, the identification of dolomite was made by the method of staining thin sections, and the dolomite fabrics were analyzed to identify the nature and shape of their crystal boundaries. The method of X-ray diffraction was used to identify clay types. The three boreholes cross the K/Pg boundary at different depths. The stratigraphic column is formed, from bottom to top, of a limestone sequence with evaporites nodules, little contents of benthic foraminifera, scarce planktic foraminifera and oogonia fossils suggesting internal lagoonal environments that vary to outer lagoon. This sequence is underlain by limestones with different degrees of dolomitization that in many cases present poorly preserved microfossil contents. Above this sequence, there is a clay bed identified as palygorskita, which has a variable

  14. Cenozoic tectonic reorganizations of the Death Valley region, southeast California and southwest Nevada (United States)

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Thompson, Ren A.


    The Death Valley region, of southeast California and southwest Nevada, is distinct relative to adjacent regions in its structural style and resulting topography, as well as in the timing of basin-range extension. Cenozoic basin-fill strata, ranging in age from greater than or equal to 40 to approximately 2 million years are common within mountain-range uplifts in this region. The tectonic fragmentation and local uplift of these abandoned basin-fills indicate a multistage history of basin-range tectonism. Additionally, the oldest of these strata record an earlier, pre-basin-range interval of weak extension that formed broad shallow basins that trapped sediments, without forming basin-range topography. The Cenozoic basin-fill strata record distinct stratigraphic breaks that regionally cluster into tight age ranges, constrained by well-dated interbedded volcanic units. Many of these stratigraphic breaks are long recognized formation boundaries. Most are angular unconformities that coincide with abrupt changes in depositional environment. Deposits that bound these unconformities indicate they are weakly diachronous; they span about 1 to 2 million years and generally decrease in age to the west within individual basins and regionally, across basin boundaries. Across these unconformities, major changes are found in the distribution and provenance of basin-fill strata, and in patterns of internal facies. These features indicate rapid, regionally coordinated changes in strain patterns defined by major active basin-bounding faults, coincident with step-wise migrations of the belt of active basin-range tectonism. The regionally correlative unconformities thus record short intervals of radical tectonic change, here termed "tectonic reorganizations." The intervening, longer (about 3- to 5-million-year) interval of gradual, monotonic evolution in the locus and style of tectonism are called "tectonic stages." The belt of active tectonism in the Death Valley region has abruptly

  15. Cenozoic terrestrial palynological assemblages in the glacial erratics from the Grove Mountains, east Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aimin Fang; Xiaohan Liu; Weiming Wang; Feixin Huang; Lianjun Yu


    Fossiliferous glacial erratics have been found in moraines of the Grove Mountains, east Antarctica since 1998 by Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHNARE) teams. These erratics were derived from a suite of glaciogene strata hidden beneath the Ant-arctic Ice Sheet in the Lambert glacier drainage system, and thus provide a record of Cenozoic paleoenvironmental conditions and fossil biotas that are so far unknown from outcrops and drill cores in this region. By microfossil analysis, sparse Neogene spores and pollen grains are revealed, including: Toroisporis (Lygodiaceae), Granulatisporites (Pteridaceae?), Osmunda (Osmundaceae), Polypodiaceae, Magnastriatites (Parkeriaceae), Deltoidospora, Araucariaceae, Taxodiaceae, Podocarpus (Podocarpaceae), Dacrydium (Podocarpaceae), Pinus (Pinaceae), Keteleeria (Pinaceae), Picea (Pinaceae), Tsuga (Pinaceae), Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia (Asteraceae), Asteraceae, Grami-neae, Fraxinoipollenites (Oleaceae), Oleoidearumpollenites (Oleaceae), Oleaceae, Operculumpollis, Nothofagidites (Nothofagus), Rhus, Quercus (Fagaceae), Juglans (Juglandaceae), Pterocarya (Juglandaceae), Liquidambar (Hamamelidaceae), Ulmus (Ulmaceae), Ulmoidep-ites (Ulmaceae), Tilia, Proteacidites (Proteaceae) and Tricolpopollenites; but without any marine diatoms. Most of the spores and pollen grains in the erratics are considered to originate from local sources except for some older exotic components that might be recycled from the basement sedimentary rocks by the ice sheet, so they are in situ sporo-palynological assemblages. Furthermore, since the source areas of the glaciogenic sedimentary rocks are assumed to be local or in the up glacier areas, the palynological assemblages in these erratics represent an inland terrestrial flora during a warmer period of the ice-sheet evolutionary history. The ages of these erratics are also dis-cussed based on the occurrence of some diagnostic pollens such as the Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Nothofagus, which

  16. Cretaceous–Cenozoic burial and exhumation history of the Chukchi shelf, offshore Arctic Alaska (United States)

    Craddock, William H.; Houseknecht, David W.


    Apatite fission track (AFT) and vitrinite reflectance data from five exploration wells and three seafloor cores illuminate the thermal history of the underexplored United States Chukchi shelf. On the northeastern shelf, Triassic strata in the Chevron 1 Diamond well record apatite annealing followed by cooling, possibly during the Triassic to Middle Jurassic, which is a thermal history likely related to Canada Basin rifting. Jurassic strata exhumed in the hanging wall of the frontal Herald Arch thrust fault record a history of probable Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous structural burial in the Chukotka fold and thrust belt, followed by rapid exhumation to near-surface temperatures at 104 ± 30 Ma. This history of contractional tectonism is in good agreement with inherited fission track ages in low-thermal-maturity, Cretaceous–Cenozoic strata in the Chukchi foreland, providing complementary evidence for the timing of exhumation and suggesting a source-to-sink relationship. In the central Chukchi foreland, inverse modeling of reset AFT samples from the Shell 1 Klondike and Shell 1 Crackerjack wells reveals several tens of degrees of cooling from maximum paleo-temperatures, with maximum heating permissible at any time from about 100 to 50 Ma, and cooling persisting to as recent as 30 Ma. Similar histories are compatible with partially reset AFT samples from other Chukchi wells (Shell 1 Popcorn, Shell 1 Burger, and Chevron 1 Diamond) and are probable in light of regional geologic evidence. Given geologic context provided by regional seismic reflection data, we interpret these inverse models to reveal a Late Cretaceous episode of cyclical burial and erosion across the central Chukchi shelf, possibly partially overprinted by Cenozoic cooling related to decreasing surface temperatures. Regionally, we interpret this kinematic history to be reflective of moderate, transpressional deformation of the Chukchi shelf during the final phases of contractional tectonism in the

  17. Composition of modern sand from the Sierra Nevada, California, USA: Implications for actualistic petrofacies of continental-margin magmatic arcs


    Ingersoll, Raymond V.; Eastmond, Daniel J.


    The Sierra Nevada of California represents the roots of a long-lived magmatic arc (primarily Cretaceous) that is presently being dissected as the range is uplifted, beginning in the south and progressing northward. This dissection is occurring concurrently with northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction, south of which magmatic-arc activity is absent, and north of which magmatic-arc activity continues. A north-to-south transect along the Sierra Nevada represents transitions of activ...

  18. Magmatism in the Asunción-Sapucai-Villarrica Graben (Eastern Paraguay) Revisited: Petrological, Geophysical, Geochemical, and Geodynamic Inferences


    Piero Comin-Chiaramonti; Angelo De Min; Aldo Cundari; Girardi,Vicente A. V.; Marcia Ernesto; GOMES,CELSO B.; Claudio Riccomini


    The Asunción-Sapucai-Villarrica graben (ASV) in Eastern Paraguay at the westernmost part of the Paraná Basin was the site of intense magmatic activity in Mesozoic and Tertiary times. Geological, petrological, mineralogical, and geochemical results indicate that the following magmatic events are dominant in the area: (1) tholeiitic basalt and basaltic andesites, flows and sills of low- and high-titanium types; (2) K-alkaline magmatism, where two suites are distinguished, that is, basanite to p...

  19. The magmatic budget of Atlantic type rifted margins: is it related to inheritance? (United States)

    Manatschal, Gianreto; Tugend, Julia; Picazo, Suzanne; Müntener, Othmar


    In the past, Atlantic type rifted margins were either classified as volcanic or non-volcanic. An increasing number of high quality reflection and refraction seismic surveys and drill hole data show a divergent style of margin architecture and an evolution in which the quantity and distribution of syn-rift magmatism is variable, independently of the amount of extension. Overgeneralized classifications and models assuming simple relations between magmatic and extensional systems are thus inappropriate to describe the formation of rifted margins. More recent studies show that the magmatic evolution of rifted margins is complex and cannot be characterized based on the volume of observed magma alone. On the one hand, so-called "non-volcanic" margins are not necessarily amagmatic, as shown by the results of ODP drilling along the Iberia-Newfoundland rifted margins. On the other hand, magma-rich margins, such as the Norwegian, NW Australian or the Namibia rifted margins show evidence for hyper-extension prior to breakup. These observations suggest that the magmatic budget does not only depend on extension rates but also on the composition and temperature of the decompressing mantle. Moreover, the fact that the magmatic budget may change very abruptly along strike and across the margin is difficult to reconcile with the occurrence of plumes or other deep-seated large-scale mantle phenomena only. These overall observations result in questions on how magmatic and tectonic processes are interacting during rifting and lithospheric breakup and on how far inheritance may control the magmatic budget during rifting. In our presentation we will review results from the South and North Atlantic and the Alpine Tethys domain and will discuss the structural and magmatic evolution of so-called magma-rich and magma-poor rifted margins. In particular, we will try to define when, where and how much magma forms during rifting and lithospheric breakup. The key questions that we aim to address

  20. Magmatic versus phreatomagmatic fragmentation: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence (United States)

    White, J. D. L.; Valentine, G. A.


    What are the fragmentation processes in volcanic eruptions? At meetings like this sessions ask "what can pyroclasts tell us?" and the answer is mostly "the properties of the magma at the point of solidification." The only place a pyroclast can preserve a fragmentation signature is at its surface, as the fracture or interface that made it a fragment. Commonly contrasted are "phreatomagmatic" and "magmatic" fragmentation in eruptions. Strictly, the latter means only fragmentation of magma without external water, but it often carries the connotation of disruption by bubbles of magmatic gas. Phreatomagmatic fragmentation implies a role for external water in fragmenting the magma, including vaporization and expansion of water as steam with rapid cooling/quenching of the magma. Magma is necessarily involved in phreatomagmatic fragmentation, and a common approach to assessing whether a pyroclast formed by magmatic or phreatomagmatic fragmentation is to make a stepwise assessment. This often uses particle vesicularity (high=magmatic), shape of particles (blocky=phreatomagmatic), degree of quenching (high=phreatomagmatic), or a glassy fluidal exterior film on particles (present=magmatic). It is widely known that no single one of these criteria is entirely diagnostic and other criteria are often considered, such as welding (=magmatic), particle aggregation (=phreatomagmatic), lithic-fragment abundance (high=phreatomagmatic), and proportion of fines (high=phreatomagmatic). Magmatic fragmentation varies, and even without water can yield anything from rhyolite pumice to obsidian to basaltic achneliths or carbonatitic globules. This makes direct argument for magmatic fragmentation difficult, and many papers have taken an alternative approach: they have "tested" for phreatomagmatism using the fingerprints listed above, and if the fingerprint is lacking a magmatic fragmentation process is considered to be "proven". In other words, absence of evidence for phreatomagmatic

  1. Cenozoic tectonics of western North America controlled by evolving width of Farallon slab. (United States)

    Schellart, W P; Stegman, D R; Farrington, R J; Freeman, J; Moresi, L


    Subduction of oceanic lithosphere occurs through two modes: subducting plate motion and trench migration. Using a global subduction zone data set and three-dimensional numerical subduction models, we show that slab width (W) controls these modes and the partitioning of subduction between them. Subducting plate velocity scales with W(2/3), whereas trench velocity scales with 1/W. These findings explain the Cenozoic slowdown of the Farallon plate and the decrease in subduction partitioning by its decreasing slab width. The change from Sevier-Laramide orogenesis to Basin and Range extension in North America is also explained by slab width; shortening occurred during wide-slab subduction and overriding-plate-driven trench retreat, whereas extension occurred during intermediate to narrow-slab subduction and slab-driven trench retreat.

  2. Late Cenozoic tectonic deformation in the Tianshan Mountain and its foreland basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peizhen


    @@ The magnificent Tianshan Mountain has owned its respects and high praise since the beginning of ancient Chinese civilization. When the history wheeled into the 1990s, a large group of earth scientists once again focused their sights on the Tianshan Mountain, the most spectacular Cenozoic rejuvenated intra-plate mountain building. Why does such strong tectonic deformation occur in the continental interior several thousand kilometers away from plate boundaries? What are the pattern and magnitude of the tectonic deformation? What factors dominate tectonic deformation in the continental interior? How do the dynamic processes at the depth dictate tectonic deformation near the surface? The Tianshan Mountain provides a natural laboratory to answer these important scientific questions.

  3. Fluid Composititon and Carbon & Oxygen Isotope Geochemistry of Cenozoic Alkali Basalts in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭杰; 王先彬; 等


    The fluid compositions of Cenozoic alkali basalts in eastern China have been determined by the pyrolysis-MS method,meanwhile the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of CO2 released from these samples at different heating temperatures have been analyzed by the vacuum step-heating method.The data show the volatiole heterogeneity in upper-mantle sources and different evolution trends of alkali basaltic magmas in eastern China,and these alkali basaltic magmas may be generated in the oxidizing milieu,as compared with mantle-derived xenoliths in these alkali basalts,and exotic volatile components were mixed into these magmas in the process of their formation and development.

  4. Geological characteristics and evolution of the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan plateau since the late Cenozoic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau developed an integrated series of late Cenozoic lacustrine,loess,red and moraines deposits.Various genetic sediments recorded rich information of Quaternary palaeoenvironment changes.Xigeda Pliocene lacustrine deposits,formed during 4.2 Ma B.P.-2.6 Ma B.P.,experienced nine periodic warm-cold stages.Eolian deposition in western Sichuan began at 1.15 Ma B.P.,and the loess-soil sequences successively record fourteen palaeomonsoon change cycles.Red clay in the Chengdu plain record five stages of paleoclimatic change stages since 1.13 Ma B.P..There was an old glacial period of 4.3 Ma the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.During the Quaternary,there were five extreme paleoclimatic events corresponding to five glaciations.

  5. Evolution of land mammal diversity in North America during the Cenozoic (United States)

    Stucky, Richard K.


    The North American continental patterns of generic richness, extinction, and origination have been reexamined and analyzed in the context of alpha and beta species diversity. The major models of diversity are discussed as well as primary concepts and theories based on studies of living organisms. The adequacy of the fossil record is considered and patterns of genetic richness and species level diversity are outlined. Major shifts in mammalian community structures are reviewed and hypotheses are presented on diversity origin, regulation, and maintenance for the North American record. Results demonstrate a complex relationship between continental alpha and beta diversity characterized by marked changes through time and differences in patterns at each level. It is clear that both biotic and abiotic factors have strongly influenced the evolution of North American species diversity and that major restructuring occurred in Cenozoic mammalian communities.

  6. Late Cenozoic magnetic polarity stratigraphy in the Jiudong Basin, northern Qilian Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志军; 方小敏; 李吉均


    Late Cenozoic sediments in the Hexi Corridor, foreland depression of the Qilian Mountain preserved reliable records on the evolution of the Northern Tibetan Plateau. Detailed magnetic polarity dating on a 1150 m section at Wenshushan anticline in the Jiudong Basin, west of Hexi Corridor finds that the ages of the Getanggou Formation, Niugetao Formation and Yumen Conglomerate are>11-8.6 Ma, 8.6-4.5 Ma and 4.5-0.9 Ma respectively. Accompanying sedimentary analysis on the same section suggests that the northern Tibetan Plateau might begin gradual uplift since 8.6-7.6 Ma, earlier than the northeastern Tibetan Plateau but does not suppose that the plateau has reached its maximum elevation at that time. The commencement of the Yumen Conglomerate indicates the intensive tectonic uplift since about 4.5 Ma.

  7. Mesozoic-Cenozoic thermal history of Turpan-Hami Basin: apatite fission track constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wenbin; WAN Jinglin; SHU Liangshu; SUN Yan; GUO Jichun; WANG Feng


    Apatite fission track dating is carried out on nine samples collected from the central part (Lianmuqin section) and from both northern and southern margins of Turpan-Hami Basin. The fission-track ages of seven Jurassic samples are distinctly younger than depositional ages. In contrast, the fission-track ages of two Cretaceous samples are older than, or as old as depositional ages. These observations indicate that the Jurassic samples have been annealed or partially annealed, whereas the Cretaceous samples have not been annealed.The further thermal modelling results show that Turpan-Hami Basin experienced a Late Cretaceous period (120-100 Ma) of tectonic uplift with rapid cooling and exhumation of sediments. The samples underwent a Cenozoic period of reburial and re-heating and were exhumed again at 10-8 Ma.

  8. Modes, tempo and spatial variability of Cenozoic cratonic denudation: morphoclimatic constraints from West Africa (United States)

    Beauvais, Anicet; Chardon, Dominique


    After the onset of Gondwana break-up in the Early Mesozoic, the emerged part of the African plate underwent long Greenhouse effect climatic periods and epeirogeny. The last Greenhouse effect period in the Early Cenozoic and the alternation of wet and dry climatic periods since the Eocene enhanced episodes of rock chemical weathering and laterite production, forming bauxites and ferricretes, interrupted by drier periods of dominantly mechanical denudation, shaping glacis [1]. In Sub-Saharan West Africa, this evolution resulted in pulsate and essentially climatically-forced denudation that has shaped an ubiquitous sequence of five stepped lateritic paleosurfaces that synchronously developed over Cenozoic times. The modes, timing and spatial variability of continental denudation of the region are investigated by combining geomorphologic and geochronological data sets. The geomorphologic data set comprises the altitudinal distribution of the lateritic paleosurfaces relicts and their differential elevation from 42 locations in Sub-Saharan West Africa where the sequence (or part of it) has been documented. The geochronological data set consists in the age ranges of each paleosurface tackled by radiometric 39Ar-40Ar dating of the neoformed oxy-hydroxides (i.e., cryptomelane, K1-2Mn8O16, nH2O, [4]) carried by their laterites at the Tambao reference site, Burkina Faso [1, 3]. Five groups of 39Ar-40Ar ages, ~ 59 - 45 Ma, ~ 29 - 24 Ma, ~ 18 - 11.5 Ma, ~ 7.2 - 5.8 Ma, and ~ 3.4 - 2.9 Ma, characterize periods of chemical weathering whereas the time laps between these groups of ages correspond to episodes of mechanical denudation that reflect physical shaping of the paleosurfaces. For the last 45 Ma, the denudation rate estimates (3 to 8 m Ma-1) are comparable with those derived on shorter time scale (103 to 106 y.) in the same region by the cosmogenic radionuclide method [2]. Combined with the geomorphologic data set, these age ranges allow the visualization of the regional

  9. Magmatic evolution of the Ilopango Caldera, El Salvador, Central America (United States)

    Zezin, D.; Mann, C. P.; Hernández, W.; Stix, J.


    The Ilopango caldera (16 x 13 km) is an active, long-lived magmatic system, erupting voluminous amounts of pyroclastic material numerous times over the course of its evolution. The caldera is presently water filled and the most recent activity is a dome growth event in 1880. Established age constraints from extracaldera pyroclastic sequences, indicate caldera forming events occur ~ every 10,000 years over the last 40,000 years. The most recent pyroclastic eruption (TBJ) is constrained to A.D. 429 erupting 70 km3 DRE of pyroclastic material. We combine major element and trace element chemistry with 40Ar/39Ar age constraints of the intracaldera domes and intracaldera pyroclastic deposits to extent the caldera history. The intracaldera domes are andesitic to rhyolitic in composition (57 - 76 wt. % SiO2), some with basaltic enclaves (54 wt. % SiO2) and pyroclastic units observed inside the caldera (San Agustín Pumice Breccia) are dacitic to rhyolitic in composition (69 -75 wt. % SiO2). Formation of an intracaldera andesitic dome at 359±7.9 ka provides a minimum age of caldera formation and extends the caldera history back ~ 320 ka years. The variable composition of the intracaldera domes, the presence of mafic enclaves in the dome lavas, mafic clasts in the TB4 plinian fall, mafic banding in the TB3 and TB2, attest to the obvious involvement of a more mafic magma The highly evolved compositions of the pyroclastic units and the volume of erupted material, point towards a large evolving magma reservoir at depth. The mafic magma may replenish the subsurface reservoir and act as a catalyst for volcanic eruption. The presence of an intracaldera lake, the regularity with which the volcano erupts and the presence of a more mafic magma are the ingredients for a catastrophic disaster. The Ilopango caldera, located 10 km to the east of the capital city of San Salvador (~ 1.5 million people) poses a threat both locally and globally as demonstrated 1600 years ago as it

  10. Formation of non-magmatic iron-meteorite group IIE (United States)

    Wasson, John T.


    Instrumental neutron-activation (INAA) data for metal in 22 nonmagmatic IIE meteorites show narrow ranges in Ir and other refractory siderophiles; the Ir range is a factor of 2.6, a factor of ∼2 smaller than in nonmagmatic IAB-MG, and orders of magnitude smaller than in the large magmatic groups. Siderophile data show no evidence of fractional crystallization. IIE irons can be split into two sets, a larger main-set and a set of 6 Cu- (or FeS) rich irons. Elemental concentrations in metal from veins in H5 chondrite Portales Valley fall within the IIE range with the exceptions of Co (high) and Ga (low). H-group-chondrite and Au-normalized IIE abundances for siderophiles show that IIE irons are ∼30% higher than H in refractory siderophiles Re, Ir and W and are about 30% lower than H chondrites in the volatiles Ga and Sb, inconsistent with proposals that IIE irons formed from H chondrites. The IIE fractionations contrast with those in L chondrites which are about 15% lower than H in the three refractory elements and 40% higher than H in volatiles indicating that IIE irons did not form from H chondrites but from a more reduced and siderophile-rich kind of ordinary chondrite ("HH" chondrites). Most O-isotope data support a close relationship between IIE irons and H or HH chondrites; lower Δ17O in primitive (chondritic) silicates support an HH classification. Literature isotopic data for Ru and Mo also show that IIE metal formed from an ordinary chondrite parent; it appears that the silicates and metal were formed by melting of a single asteroid. There is no evidence for radiogenic (26Al) heating; this, the rapid cooling recorded in the sizes of parental gamma crystal in the metal and the absence of fractional crystallization strongly support the hypothesis that IIE melting was the result of impacts. To summarize, the weight of the evidence favors the conclusion that IIE meteorites were formed by one or more impacts on an HH asteroid. The target probably had a

  11. Effects of ice-cap unloading on shallow magmatic reservoirs (United States)

    Bakker, Richard; Frehner, Marcel; Lupi, Matteo


    One of the effects of global warming is the increase of volcanic activity. Glacial melting has been shown to cause visco-elastic relaxation of the upper mantle, which in turn promotes upwelling of magmas through the crust. To date, the effects of ice-cap melting on shallow (i.e., less than 10 km depth) plumbing systems of volcanoes are still not clear. We investigate the pressure changes due to glacial unloading around a magmatic reservoir by combining laboratory and numerical methods. As a case study we focus on Snæfellsjökull, a volcano in Western Iceland whose ice cap is currently melting 1.25 meters (thickness) per year. Our approach is as follows: we obtain representative rock samples from the field, preform tri-axial deformation tests at relevant pressure and temperature (PT) conditions and feed the results into a numerical model in which the stress fields before and after ice cap removal are compared. A suite of deformation experiments were conducted using a Paterson-type tri-axial deformation apparatus. All experiments were performed at a constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1, while varying the PT conditions. We applied confining pressures between 50 and 150 MPa and temperatures between 200 and 1000 ° C. Between 200 and 800 ° C we observe a localized deformation and a slight decrease of the Young's modulus from 41 to 38 GPa. Experiments at 900 and 1000 ° C exhibit macroscopically ductile behavior and a marked reduction of the Young's modulus down to 4 GPa at 1000 ° C. These results are used to construct a numerical finite-element model in which we approximate the volcanic edifice and basement by a 2D axisymmetric half-space. We first calculate the steady-state temperature field in the volcanic system and assign the laboratory-derived temperature-dependent Young's modulus to every element of the model. Then the pressure in the edifice is calculated for two scenarios: with and without ice cap. The comparison between the two scenarios allows us estimate the

  12. Volatiles and the tempo of flood basalt magmatism (United States)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Manga, Michael


    Individual flood basalt lavas often exceed 103 km3 in volume, and many such lavas erupt during emplacement of flood basalt provinces. The large volume of individual flood basalt lavas implies correspondingly large magma reservoirs within or at the base of the crust. To erupt, some fraction of this magma must become buoyant and overpressure must be sufficient to encourage failure and dike propagation. The overpressure associated with a new injection of magma is inversely proportional to the total reservoir volume, and as a large magma body heats the surrounding rocks thermally activated creep will relax isotropic overpressure more rapidly. Here, we examine the viability of buoyancy overpressure as a trigger for continental flood basalt eruptions. We employ a new one-dimensional model that combines volatile exsolution, bubble growth and rise, assimilation, and permeable fluid escape from Moho-depth and crustal chambers. We investigate the temporal evolution of degassing and the eruptibility of magmas using the Siberian Traps flood basalts as a test case. We suggest that the volatile inventory set during mantle melting and redistributed via bubble motion controls ascent of magma into and through the crust, thereby regulating the tempo of flood basalt magmatism. Volatile-rich melts from low degrees of partial melting of the mantle are buoyant and erupt to the surface with little staging or crustal interaction. Melts with moderate volatile budgets accumulate in large, mostly molten magma chambers at the Moho or in the lower crust. These large magma bodies may remain buoyant and poised to erupt-triggered by volatile-rich recharge or external stresses-for ∼106 yr. If and when such chambers fail, enormous volumes of magma can ascend into the upper crust, staging at shallow levels and initiating substantial assimilation that contributes to pulses of large-volume flood basalt eruption. Our model further predicts that the Siberian Traps may have released 1019-1020 g of CO2

  13. Magmatic sulfides in the porphyritic chondrules of EH enstatite chondrites (United States)

    Piani, Laurette; Marrocchi, Yves; Libourel, Guy; Tissandier, Laurent


    The nature and distribution of sulfides within 17 porphyritic chondrules of the Sahara 97096 EH3 enstatite chondrite have been studied by backscattered electron microscopy and electron microprobe in order to investigate the role of gas-melt interactions in the chondrule sulfide formation. Troilite (FeS) is systematically present and is the most abundant sulfide within the EH3 chondrite chondrules. It is found either poikilitically enclosed in low-Ca pyroxenes or scattered within the glassy mesostasis. Oldhamite (CaS) and niningerite [(Mg,Fe,Mn)S] are present in ≈60% of the chondrules studied. While oldhamite is preferentially present in the mesostasis, niningerite associated with silica is generally observed in contact with troilite and low-Ca pyroxene. The Sahara 97096 chondrule mesostases contain high abundances of alkali and volatile elements (average Na2O = 8.7 wt.%, K2O = 0.8 wt.%, Cl = 7100 ppm and S = 3700 ppm) as well as silica (average SiO2 = 62.8 wt.%). Our data suggest that most of the sulfides found in EH3 chondrite chondrules are magmatic minerals that formed after the dissolution of S from a volatile-rich gaseous environment into the molten chondrules. Troilite formation occurred via sulfur solubility within Fe-poor chondrule melts followed by sulfide saturation, which causes an immiscible iron sulfide liquid to separate from the silicate melt. The FeS saturation started at the same time as or prior to the crystallization of low-Ca pyroxene during the high temperature chondrule forming event(s). Protracted gas-melt interactions under high partial pressures of S and SiO led to the formation of niningerite-silica associations via destabilization of the previously formed FeS and low-Ca pyroxene. We also propose that formation of the oldhamite occurred via the sulfide saturation of Fe-poor chondrule melts at moderate S concentration due to the high degree of polymerization and the high Na-content of the chondrule melts, which allowed the activity of Ca

  14. Contrasting magmatic signatures in the Rairakhol and Koraput alkaline complexes, Eastern Ghats belt, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Bhattacharya; M Basei


    The relation between alkaline magmatism and tectonism has been a contentious issue, particularly for the Precambrian continental regions. Alkaline complexes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt, India, have been interpreted as rift-valley magmatism. However, those complexes occurring in granulite ensemble in the interior segments of the Eastern Ghats belt could not possibly be related to the rift-system, assumed for the western margin of the Eastern Ghats belt. Koraput complex was emplaced in a pull-apart structure, dominated by magmatic fabrics and geochemically similar to a fractionated alkaline complex, compatible with an alkalibasalt series. Rairakhol complex, on the other hand, shows dominantly solid-state deformation fabrics and geochemically similar to a fractionated calc-alkaline suite. Isotopic data for the Koraput complex indicate ca. 917 Ma alkaline magmatism from a depleted mantle source and postcrystalline thermal overprint at ca. 745 Ma, also recorded from sheared metapelitic country rocks. The calc-alkaline magmatism of the Rairakhol complex occurred around 938 Ma, from an enriched mantle source, closely following Grenvillian granulite facies imprint in the charnockitic country rocks.

  15. Age and nature of Triassic magmatism in the Netoni Intrusive Complex, West Papua, Indonesia (United States)

    Webb, Max; White, Lloyd T.


    We report field observations together with petrological, geochemical and geochronological data from granitoids of the Netoni Intrusive Complex of West Papua. Until now, our knowledge of the timing of granitic magmatism in this region has been limited to a wide range of ages (241-6.7 Ma) obtained from K-Ar measurements of hornblende, biotite and plagioclase, primarily from samples of river detritus. We collected in situ samples along several traverses into the intrusive complex to: (1) develop a better understanding of the lithologies within the intrusive complex; and (2) determine the timing of magmatism using U-Pb dating of zircon. We also dated zircons from two river sand samples to identify other potential pulses of magmatism that may have been missed due to a sampling bias. The zircons extracted from the river sands yield age spectra similar to those obtained from the in situ samples. The combined data demonstrate that magmatism in the Netoni Intrusive Complex occurred between 248 Ma and 213 Ma. The petrological and geochemical data indicate that the granitoids were most likely emplaced in an ocean-continent (Andean style) subduction setting. This builds on previous work which suggests that a magmatic belt extended along eastern Gondwana (now New Guinea and eastern Australia) throughout much of the Paleozoic. The volcanic ejecta that were produced along this arc and the subsequent erosion of the mountain chain are a potential source of detritus for Triassic and younger sedimentary rocks in New Guinea, eastern Indonesia and north/northwestern Australia.

  16. Late Cenozoic genus Fupingopollenites development and its implications for the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) evolution (United States)

    Miao, Y.; Song, C.; Fang, X.; Meng, Q.; Zhang, P.; Wu, F.; Yan, X.


    An extinct palynomorph, Fupingopollenites, was used as the basis for a discussion of the late Cenozoic Asian summer monsoon (ASM) evolution and its possible driving forces. Based on the spatial and temporal variations in its percentages across Inner and East Asia, we found that Fupingopollenites mainly occurred in East Asia, with boundaries to the NE of ca. 42°N, 135°E and NW of ca. 36°N, 103°E during the Early Miocene (ca. 23-17 Ma). This region enlarged westwards, reaching the eastern Qaidam Basin (ca. 36°N, 97.5°E) during the Middle Miocene (ca. 17-11 Ma), before noticeably retreating to a region bounded to the NW at ca. 33°N, 105°E during ca. 11-5.3 Ma. The region then shrank further in the Pliocene, with the NE boundary shrinking southwards to about 35°N, 120°E; the area then almost disappeared during the Pleistocene (2.6-0 Ma). The flourishing and subsequent extinction of Fupingopollenites is indicative of a narrow ecological amplitude with a critical dependence on habitat humidity and temperature (most likely mean annual precipitation (MAP) >1000 mm and mean annual temperature (MAT) >10°C). Therefore, the Fupingopollenites geographic distribution can indicate the humid ASM evolution during the late Cenozoic, revealing that the strongest ASM period occurred during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO, ~17-14 Ma), after which the ASM weakened coincident with global cooling. We argue that the global cooling played a critical role in the ASM evolution, while the Tibetan Plateau uplifts made a relatively small contribution. This result was supported by a Miocene pollen record at the Qaidam Basin, inner Asia and the contemporaneously compiled pollen records across the Eurasia.

  17. Restoration of Cenozoic deformation in Asia, and the size of Greater India (United States)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Kapp, P. A.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Lippert, P. C.; DeCelles, P. G.; Torsvik, T. H.


    A long-standing problem in the geological evolution of the India-Asia collision zone is how and where convergence between India and Asia was accommodated since collision. Proposed collision ages vary from 65 to 35 Ma, although most datasets are consistent with collision being underway by 50 Ma. Plate reconstructions show that since 50 Ma ~2400-3200 km (west to east) of India-Asia convergence occurred, much more than the 450-900 km of documented Himalayan shortening. Current models therefore suggest that most post-50 Ma convergence was accommodated north of the Indus-Yarlung suture zone. We review kinematic data and construct an updated restoration of Cenozoic Asian deformation to test this assumption. We show that geologic studies have documented 600-750 km of N-S Cenozoic shortening across the Tibetan plateau. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region underwent ~1050 km of upper crustal shortening. Geological evidence from Tibet is inconsistent with models that propose 750-1250 km of eastward extrusion of Indochina over 750-1250 km. Approximately 250 km of Indochinese extrusion from 30-20 Ma of Indochina suggested by SE Asia reconstructions can be reconciled by dextral transpression in eastern Tibet. We use our reconstruction we calculate the required size of Greater India as a function of collision age. Even with a 35 Ma collision age, the size of Greater India is 2-3 times larger than Himalayan shortening. For a 50 Ma collision, the size of Greater India from west to east is ~1350-2600 km, consistent with robust paleomagnetic data from upper Cretaceous-Paleocene Tethyan Himalayan strata. These estimates for the size of Greater India far exceed documented shortening in the Himalaya. We conclude that most of Greater India was consumed by subduction or underthrusting, without leaving a geological record that has been recognized at the surface.

  18. Cenozoic uplift on the West Greenland margin: active sedimentary basins in quiet Archean terranes. (United States)

    Jess, Scott; Stephenson, Randell; Brown, Roderick


    The North Atlantic is believed by some authors to have experienced tectonically induced uplift within the Cenozoic. Examination of evidence, onshore and offshore, has been interpreted to imply the presence of kilometre scale uplift across the margins of the Barents Sea, North Sea, Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea. Development of topography on the West Greenland margin (Baffin Bay), in particular, has been subject to much discussion and dispute. A series of low temperature thermochronological (AFT and AHe) studies onshore and interpretation of seismic architecture offshore have suggested uplift of the entire margin totalling ~3km. However, challenges to this work and recent analysis on the opposing margin (Baffin Island) have raised questions about the validity of this interpretation. The present work reviews and remodels the thermochronological data from onshore West Greenland with the aim of re-evaluating our understanding of the margin's history. New concepts within the discipline, such as effect of radiation damage on Helium diffusivity, contemporary modelling approaches and denudational mapping are all utilised to investigate alternative interpretations to this margins complex post rift evolution. In contrast to earlier studies our new approach indicates slow protracted cooling across much of the region; however, reworked sedimentary samples taken from the Cretaceous Nuussuaq Basin display periods of rapid reheating and cooling. These new models suggest the Nuussuaq Basin experienced a tectonically active Cenozoic, while the surrounding Archean basement remained quiet. Faults located within the basin appear to have been reactivated during the Palaeocene and Eocene, a period of well-documented inversion events throughout the North Atlantic, and may have resulted in subaerial kilometre scale uplift. This interpretation of the margin's evolution has wider implications for the treatment of low temperature thermochronological data and the geological history of the North

  19. The evolution of endothermy in Cenozoic mammals: a plesiomorphic-apomorphic continuum. (United States)

    Lovegrove, Barry Gordon


    The evolution of endothermy in birds and mammals was one of the most important events in the evolution of the vertebrates. Past tests of hypotheses on the evolution of endothermy in mammals have relied largely on analyses of the relationship between basal and maximum metabolic rate, and artificial selection experiments. I argue that components of existing hypotheses, as well as new hypotheses, can be tested using an alternative macrophysiological modeling approach by examining the development of endothermy during the Cenozoic. Recent mammals display a 10°C range in body temperature which is sufficiently large to identify the selective forces that have driven the development of endothermy from a plesiomorphic (ancestral) Cretaceous or Jurassic condition. A model is presented (the Plesiomorphic-Apomorphic Endothermy Model, PAE Model) which proposes that heterothermy, i.e. bouts of normothermy (constant body temperature) interspersed with adaptive heterothermy (e.g. daily torpor and/or hibernation), was the ancestral condition from which apomorphic (derived), rigid homeothermy evolved. All terrestrial mammal lineages are examined for existing data to test the model, as well as for missing data that could be used to test the model. With the exception of Scandentia and Dermoptera, about which little is known, all mammalian orders that include small-sized mammals (mammals that have either lost the capacity for heterothermy, or in which heterothermy has yet to be measured. Mammalian heterothermy seems to be plesiomorphic and probably evolved once in the mammalian lineage. Several categories of endothermy are identified (protoendothermy, plesioendothermy, apoendothermy, basoendothermy, mesoendothermy, supraendothermy, and reversed mesoendothermy) to describe the evolution of endothermy during the Cenozoic. The PAE Model should facilitate the testing of hypotheses using a range of macrophysiological methods (e.g. the comparative method and the reconstruction of ancestral

  20. Evidence for a Cenozoic radiation of ferns in an angiosperm-dominated canopy. (United States)

    Schuettpelz, Eric; Pryer, Kathleen M


    In today's angiosperm-dominated terrestrial ecosystems, leptosporangiate ferns are truly exceptional--accounting for 80% of the approximately 11,000 nonflowering vascular plant species. Recent studies have shown that this remarkable diversity is mostly the result of a major leptosporangiate radiation beginning in the Cretaceous, following the rise of angiosperms. This pattern is suggestive of an ecological opportunistic response, with the proliferation of flowering plants across the landscape resulting in the formation of many new niches--both on forest floors and within forest canopies--into which leptosporangiate ferns could diversify. At present, one-third of leptosporangiate species grow as epiphytes in the canopies of angiosperm-dominated tropical rain forests. However, we know too little about the evolutionary history of epiphytic ferns to assess whether or not their diversification was in fact linked to the establishment of these forests, as would be predicted by the ecological opportunistic response hypothesis. Here we provide new insight into leptosporangiate diversification and the evolution of epiphytism by integrating a 400-taxon molecular dataset with an expanded set of fossil age constraints. We find evidence for a burst of fern diversification in the Cenozoic, apparently driven by the evolution of epiphytism. Whether this explosive radiation was triggered simply by the establishment of modern angiosperm-dominated tropical rain forest canopies, or spurred on by some other large-scale extrinsic factor (e.g., climate change) remains to be determined. In either case, it is clear that in both the Cretaceous and Cenozoic, leptosporangiate ferns were adept at exploiting newly created niches in angiosperm-dominated ecosystems.

  1. Declining sensitivity of the carbonate compensation depth to sea level during the Cenozoic (United States)

    Armstrong McKay, David I.; Tyrrell, Toby; Wilson, Paul A.


    Over the course of the Cenozoic the global carbonate compensation depth (CCD), the depth in the ocean below which carbonate deposited on the seafloor is not preserved, has shifted from a relatively shallow average position (~3000 to 3500 m in the equatorial Pacific) in the Palaeocene to a relatively deep position (~4600 m in the equatorial Pacific) today. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain this shift, including increased input of terrestrial weathering products to the ocean, decreased bottom-water corrosivity due to increased ocean ventilation, and the decline of shelf carbonates leading to carbonate burial shifting to the deep ocean (known as 'shelf-basin carbonate burial fractionation'). Here we build on earlier attempts to quantify the impacts of carbonate burial fractionation on the CCD by analysing global hypsometric and carbonate burial data and determining the relationship between sea level, shelf carbonate burial extent, and the CCD. We show that if carbonate burial rates remain constant across the Cenozoic then carbonate burial fractionation can explain between 550 and 800 m of the long-term ~1600 m CCD deepening in the equatorial Pacific, ~430 m of which occurring across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) ~34 million years ago when the CCD permanently deepened by ~500 m. This finding indicates that other processes dominated CCD change before and after the EOT and during events such as the Mid-Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO), but a higher resolution global CCD record is required to better constrain the global magnitude of CCD change during these times. We find that the sensitivity of the CCD to sea level change was at its greatest prior to the EOT and then declined by approximately half due to the loss of extensive carbonate platforms at the end of the Eocene and the intersection of the CCD with large tracts of the abyssal plain.

  2. The offshore record of variable Cenozoic sediment flux from Western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.


    underplating onshore, as well as other plate tectonic mechanisms, are compatible with observations. A dense grid of seismic data and well logs from numerous boreholes in the research area allow to estimate the rate of deposition of matrix mass and to localize main areas of sediment outpour as a function......). This is believed mainly to be a consequence of varying erosion rates and/or changes in sediment catchments in Western Scandinavia. This has previously been interpreted in terms of variable tectonic uplift of the area caused by a hitherto unknown tectonic agent; Neither crustal shortening and thickening or magmatic...

  3. 青藏高原新生代隆升研究现状%The study of the Cenozoic uplift in the Tibetan Plateau: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克信; 林晓; 王国灿; 洪汉烈; 徐亚东; 王岸; 曹凯; 骆满生; 季军良; 肖国桥


    Lots of research work has been devoted to the tectonic uplift process of the Tibetan Plateau. Previous researches tried to determine the initial collage time between India and Eurasian plates (the collision between India and Eurasian plates), the uplift stages and the spatial-temporal oudine, the time when the plateau reached the present elevation, the uplift dynamical mechanism, the relationship between the mineralization and the uplift of the plateau, the environmental variation and its response to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau during Cenozoic in different areas by using a series of means or methods, such as geological structure analysis, tectonic thermo-chronology, sedimentology, palaeotology and paleomagnetism, and paleoaltimetry. The existing estimates of the time when India plate collided with Eurasian plate include 70Ma, 65Ma, 55Ma, 50Ma, 45 Ma, and 40~34Ma. The collision was not completed at a certain time, but lasted for 10~15Ma or so. There are several opinions concerning the collision style, i.e., the migration from west to east, the migration from east to west, and the migration in other directions. The uplift processes of the plateau were very different in space and time during Cenozoic. There were many dissimilar sub-divisions of the uplift stages, such as 3, 4, and 5 uplift stages. As for the time when the plateau reached the present elevation, there are five opinions, holding that it took place at 3.6 Ma, 13~8Ma, 26~ 20Ma, 40~35Ma and 55~45Ma respectively. There is still controversy concerning the uplift dynamical mechanism of the plateau, and four mechanisms are existent, i.e., collision, subduction, lateral extrusion, and lithosphere delamination. The multi-phases uplift and tectonic-magmatic evolution of the plateau resulted in complex and varied continental ore-forming processes. The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau during Cenozoic was coupled with the changes in environment and climate.%新生代青藏高原的隆升过程倍受世界关注.

  4. Precise U-Pb dating of Cenozoic tropical reef carbonates: Linking the evolution of Cenozoic Caribbean reef carbonates to climatic and environmental changes. (United States)

    Silva-Tamayo, J. C.; Ducea, M.; Cardona, A.; Montes, C.; Rincon, D.; Machado, A.; Flores, A.; Sial, A.; Pardo, A.; Niño, H.; Ramirez, V.; Jaramillo, C.; Zapata, P.; Barrios, L.; Rosero, S.; Bayona, G.; Zapata, V.


    Coral reefs are very diverse and productive ecosystems; and have long been the base of the economic activity of several countries along the tropics. Because coral reefs are very sensitive to environmental changes and their adaptation to changing stressing conditions is very slow, the combination of current rapid environmental changes and the additional stresses created by growing human populations (i.e. rapid anthropogenic CO2 additions to the atmosphere),plus the economic and coastal development may become a lethal synergy. The ongoing acidification of modern oceans is a major issue of concern because it may have serious consequences for the survival of shelly marine invertebrates as the 21st century progresses. Ocean Acidification (OA) is now being driven by rapid CO2 release to the atmosphere. Although evidences of the devastating effects of oceanic acidification in the marine biota are provided by the decreased rate of coral skeleton production and the reduced ability of algae and free-swimming zooplankton to maintain protective shells, among others, predicting the effects of oceanic acidification on the future oceans (2050-2100) has remained rather difficult because the atmospheric CO2 sequestration by the global oceans occurs in geologic time scales. Important changes in the atmospheric pCO2 and major climatic/environmental events seem to have controlled the evolution of the Cenozoic equatorial-tropical carbonates r1-10. Rapid additions of green house gases to the atmosphere occurred during the Paleocene-Eocene transition and would have promoted several other events of global warming until the early Oligocene (i.e. the Eocene thermal maximum). These periods of high greenhouse gases concentrations would have also resulted on OA, affecting the reef carbonate ecology and tropical carbonate budgets. Relating temporal variations in the Cenozoic reef carbonate structure, ecology and factory is vital to help understanding and predicting the future effects of the

  5. Mantle-derived magmatic gas releasing features at the Rehai area, Tengchong county, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官志冠; 白春华; 孙明良


    This paper deals with the chemical and isotopic compositions of escaped gases from the Rehai geothermal area in Tengchong county of Yunnan Province. Results indicate that there is the mantle-derived magmatic intrusion in shallow crust at this area. Modern mantle-derived mag-matic volatiles are being released currently in a steady stream by way of active faults. The escaped gases are mostly composed of CO2, together with subordinate amounts of H2S, N2, H2, CH4, SO2, CO and He. At the studied area, the north-south directed fault is the deepest, and it may be interlinked with the deep-seated thermal reservoir that would be directly recharged by the mantle-derived magmatic volatile. The He, C isotopic evidence reveals that the modern active magma beneath Rehai area may originate from the historical mantle-derived magma which caused the latest eruptive activity of volcanoes in that region.

  6. Pluton emplacement and magmatic arc construction: A model from the Patagonian batholith (United States)

    Bruce, Robert; Nelson, Eric; Weaver, Stephen


    A model of batholithic construction in Andean arcs and its applicability to possibly similar environments in the past is described. Age and compositional data from the Patagonian batholith of southern Chile show a long history of magmatism in any given area (total age range is 15 to 157 Ma), but different regions appear to have different magmatic starting ages. Furthermore, mafic rocks seem to be the oldest components of any given region. An assembly line model involving semicontinuous magmatism and uplift was outlined, which has implications for other terranes: uplift rates will be proportional to observed ranges in age, and total uplift will be proportional to the age of the oldest pluton in any given area. It is suggested that misleading results would be obtained if only small areas of similar terranes in the Archean were available for study.

  7. Decreasing Magmatic Footprints of Individual Volcanos in a Waning Basaltic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A> Valentine; F.V. Perry


    The distribution and characteristics of individual basaltic volcanoes in the waning Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field provide insight into the changing physical nature of magmatism and the controls on volcano location. During Pliocene-Pleistocene times the volumes of individual volcanoes have decreased by more than one order of magnitude, as have fissure lengths and inferred lava effusion rates. Eruptions evolved from Hawaiian-style eruptions with extensive lavas to eruptions characterized by small pulses of lava and Strombolian to violent Strombolian mechanisms. These trends indicate progressively decreasing partial melting and length scales, or magmatic footprints, of mantle source zones for individual volcanoes. The location of each volcano is determined by the location of its magmatic footprint at depth, and only by shallow structural and topographic features that are within that footprint. The locations of future volcanoes in a waning system are less likely to be determined by large-scale topography or structures than were older, larger volume volcanoes.

  8. Length Scales of Magmatic Segments at Intermediate and Fast Spreading Ridges (United States)

    Boulahanis, B.; Carbotte, S. M.; Klein, E. M.; Smith, D. K.; Cannat, M.


    A synthesis of observations from fast and magmatically-robust intermediate spreading ridges suggest that fine-scale tectonic segments, previously classified as 3rd order, correspond with principle magmatic segments along these ridges, each with their own magmatic plumbing system in the crust and shallow mantle. In this study, we use multi-beam sonar data available for fast and intermediate spreading ridges to determine the length distribution of these segments for comparison with the primary segmentation of the ridge axis found at slower spreading ridges. A study of intermediate, slow and ultraslow-spreading ridges using global satellite-derived bathymetry indicates a dominant segment length of 53 km [Briais and Rabinowicz, J. Geophys. Res. 2002]. However, satellite-derived bathymetry cannot be used to identify fine-scale tectonic segmentation of fast and magmatically-robust intermediate spreading ridges due to the subdued low-relief expression of ridge-axis discontinuities along these spreading rates. This study focuses on the well-mapped regions of the East Pacific Rise between 13.35°S and 18°N, and the Galapagos Spreading Center between 85° and 95.38° W. We reexamine tectonic segmentation of the ridge axis previously identified in the literature and modify the locations of ridge-axis discontinuities defining segment ends in regions where modern multi-beam bathymetric data coverage has improved relative to that available in early studies. Discontinuities of first, second, and third order are used to define tectonic segment lengths. Initial results show a mean segment length of 42 km (standard deviation of 27 km) and a median of 33 km, with 85 segments studied, similar to the segment length distributions observed at slower spreading ridges. To further evaluate the hypothesis of principle magmatic segments, we also examine the relationship between fine-scale tectonic segmentation and properties of the crustal magmatic system imaged in prior seismic studies of

  9. Comment on "Atmospheric PCO₂ perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province". (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R; Caldeira, Ken


    Schaller et al. (Research Article, 18 March 2011, p. 1404) proposed that carbon dioxide (CO(2)) released by the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province eruptions over periods of about 20,000 years led to substantial increases of up to 2000 parts per million (ppm) in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (PCO(2)) near the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Use of an atmosphere-ocean model coupled to a carbon-cycle model predicts PCO(2) increases of less than 400 ppm from magmatic volatiles, with only a small climatic impact.

  10. Late Triassic syn-exhumation magmatism in central Qiangtang, Tibet: Evidence from the Sangehu adakitic rocks (United States)

    Liu, Han; Wang, Bao-di; Ma, Long; Gao, Rui; Chen, Li; Li, Xiao-bo; Wang, Li-quan


    The geodynamic setting of Late Triassic magmatic activity along the Longmu Co-Shuanghu suture zone (LSSZ) in central Qiangtang, Tibet is a matter of debate. This paper presents zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages, zircon Hf isotopic compositions, and whole-rock geochemical data for the Sangehu (SGH) granitic intrusion in central Qiangtang, and addresses the petrogenesis of Late Triassic magmatism, and the history of collision between the northern and southern Qiangtang terranes. The SGH pluton consists mainly of biotite adamellite with mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs), and small amounts of K-feldspar granite. The biotite adamellite, MMEs, and K-feldspar granite give ages of 207.8 ± 3.0 Ma, 212.4 ± 31 Ma, and 211.6 ± 3.8 Ma, respectively. The MMEs show magmatic textures and acicular apatite, and are coeval with the host biotite adamellite, suggesting they were produced by magma mixing. All samples from the SGH pluton show high Sr and low Y contents, and positive Eu anomalies, similar to adakitic rocks. The high K2O contents and low Mg#, Cr, and Ni contents, and enriched Hf isotopic characteristics of the zircons indicate that these magmas were derived from the partial melting of thickened crust. However, the whole-rock geochemical data and zircon Hf isotopic compositions also reveal heterogeneity at the source. The combined magmatic and metamorphic records suggest that Triassic magmatic activity in central Qiangtang was closely related to the collision of the northern and southern Qiangtang terranes. The large-scale Late Triassic (225-200 Ma) magmatic event in central Qiangtang may have resulted from the breakoff of the Longmu Co-Shuanghu Tethys Ocean lithospheric slab in the early Late Triassic (236-230 Ma). The Late Triassic magmatic rocks, including adakitic rocks, are coeval with retrograde high-pressure (HP) to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in central Qiangtang, and show characteristics of syn-exhumation magmatism. The early adakitic rocks (>220 Ma

  11. Transregional lineament of Central Asia, its magmatism, metallogeny and seismicity (United States)

    Sidorova, I.


    The analysis of the place and role of such large fault as Central Kyzylkum, North Nurata and South Ferghana, Atbashin, which were regarded earlier as separate independent structures led us to the idea that they are parts of a single global structure. We suggest that it should be called "Transregional lineament of Central Asia". Transregional lineament of Central Asia is multisutured long-term, and in the nodal points of some parts it is complicated by deep fault zones of «Anti Tien-Shan» trend.There are large gold ore deposits (Muruntau, Kokpatas, Kumtor) in the intersection of some of these faults. Within the lineament there are 4 mafite - ultramafite associations of different age, that are presented as isolated or combined blocks, zones and regions. The most ancient is ophiolite one (I association). Best of all it is developed in Sultanuvais and Northern Tamdytau, Uzbekistan. The second, rift association of this belt is picrite-gabbro-diabase-alkali-olivine-basalt is widespread within the belt (northern Bukantau, northern Nuratau, northern slope of the Altay ridge).The third association is peridotite-gabbroic. It is represented by the Tebinbulak intrusive of Sultanuvais. Coverings, small stocks, dikes and explosion tubes formed by potassic mafite-ultramafites ore related to much later inter-plate (P-T) occurrences of mafite-ultramafite magmatism (IY association). On Kyrgyzstan's territory the studied lineament is observed as a system of regional deep faults -Atbashi-Inylchek and Southern Ferghana, with which the ophiolite ultramafite-mafite formation is associated. The rocks have the traces of tectonic movements, which can be the ground to regard them as protrusions. Tectonically, the vast territory of Mongolia is divided into two large blocks: northern and southern. This part of the lineament called Transmongolian. This part is week studied-a special investigation was only carried out in its western part - Bulgan fault. Thus, in the presence of linear

  12. Geochemical Characteristics of the Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in Central Qiangtang, Tibet: Relation with the Uplift of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Fuwen; PAN Guitang; XU Qiang


    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks in central Qiangtang are tectonically outcropped in the transitional area where crust of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau thins northwards and the Passion's ratios of the crust increases abnormally northwards. Of all Cenozoic volcanic rocks of northern Tibet, the volcanic rocks in Qiangtang area is the oldest one with ages from 44.1±1.0 Ma to 32.6±0.8 Ma. Petrological and geochemical studies of the volcanic rocks in central Qiangtang suggest they formed in the extension environment of post collision-orogeny and were the product of mixture of magmas from crust and mantle. The uplift of the northern plateau is closely related to decoupling of mantle lithosphere,crustal extension and thinning as well as volcanism. Therefore, it is inferred that the main uplift of the northern plateau began from about 40 Ma ago.

  13. A high-resolution multi-proxy record of late Cenozoic environment change from central Taklimakan Desert, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang


    Full Text Available The Taklimakan Desert in the Tarim Basin is the largest desert in Central Asia, and is regarded as one of the main dust sources to the Northern Hemisphere. Late Cenozoic sedimentary sequences with intercalated in-situ aeolian dune sands in this area preserve direct evidence for the Asian desertification. Herein, we report a high-resolution multi-proxy climatic record from the precise magnetostratigraphic dated Hongbaishan section in the central Taklimakan Desert. Our results show that a fundamental climate change, characterized by significant cooling, enhanced aridity, and intensified atmospheric circulation, occurred at 2.8 Ma. Good correlations between climate records in the dust sources and downwind areas suggest a broadly consistent climate evolution of northwestern China during the late Cenozoic, which is probably driven by the uplift of the Tibet Plateau and the Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  14. Decoupled taxonomic radiation and ecological expansion of open-habitat grasses in the Cenozoic of North America. (United States)

    Strömberg, Caroline A E


    Because of a dearth of Cenozoic grass fossils, the timing of the taxonomic diversification of modern subclades within the grass family (Poaceae) and the rise to ecological dominance of open-habitat grasses remain obscure. Here, I present data from 99 Eocene to Miocene phytolith assemblages from the North American continental interior (Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Montana/Idaho), constituting the only high-resolution mid-Cenozoic record of grasses. Analyses of these assemblages show that open-habitat grasses had undergone considerable taxonomic diversification by the earliest Oligocene (34 million years ago) but that they did not become ecologically dominant in North America until 7-11 million years later (Late Oligocene or Early Miocene). This pattern of decoupling suggests that environmental changes (e.g., climate changes), rather than taxonomic radiations within Poaceae, provided the key opportunity for open-habitat grasses to expand in North America.

  15. The imprint of Cenozoic migrations and evolutionary history on the biogeographic gradient of body size in New World mammals. (United States)

    Morales-Castilla, Ignacio; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Á; Purvis, Andy; Hawkins, Bradford A; Rodríguez, Miguel Á


    Ecology, evolution, and historical events all contribute to biogeographic patterns, but studies that integrate them are scarce. Here we focus on how biotic exchanges of mammals during the Late Cenozoic have contributed to current geographic body size patterns. We explore differences in the environmental correlates and phylogenetic patterning of body size between groups of mammals participating and not participating in past biotic exchanges. Both the association of body size with environmental predictors and its phylogenetic signal were stronger for groups that immigrated into North or South America than for indigenous groups. This pattern, which held when extinct clades were included in the analyses, can be interpreted on the basis of the length of time that clades have had to diversify and occupy niche space. Moreover, we identify a role for historical events, such as Cenozoic migrations, in configuring contemporary mammal body size patterns and illustrate where these influences have been strongest for New World mammals.

  16. Orthorhombic faults system at the onset of the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic Barents Sea rifting (United States)

    Collanega, Luca; Breda, Anna; Massironi, Matteo


    The structures of the Late Mesozoic/Cenozoic Barents Sea rifting have been investigated with multichannel 3D seismics, covering an area of 7700 sqKm in the Hoop Fault Complex, a transitional area between the platform and the marginal basins. The main structural lineaments have been mapped in a time domain 3D surface and their activity ranges have been constrained through the sin-sedimentary thickness variations detected in time-thickness maps. Two main fault systems have been identified: an orthorhombic fault system consisting of two fault sets trending almost perpendicularly one to the other (WNW-ESE and NNE-SSW) and a graben/half-graben system, elongated approximately N-S in the central part of the study area. While the graben/half-graben system can be explained through the theory of Anderson, this landmark theory fails to explain the simultaneous activity of the two fault sets of the orthorhombic system. So far, the models that can better explain orthorhombic fault arrangements are the slip model by Reches (Reches, 1978; Reches, 1983; Reches and Dieterich, 1983) and the odd-axis model by Krantz (Krantz, 1988). However, these models are not definitive and a strong quest to better understand polymodal faulting is actual (Healy et al., 2015). In the study area, the presence of both a classical Andersonian and an orthorhombic system indicates that these models are not alternative but are both effective and necessary to explain faulting in different circumstances. Indeed, the Andersonian plain strain and the orthorhombic deformation have affected different part of the succession during different phases of the rifting. In particular, the orthorhombic system has affected only the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic interval of the succession and it was the main active system during the initial phase of the rifting. On the other hand, the graben/half-graben system has affected the whole sedimentary succession, with an increasing activity during the development of the rifting. It has

  17. Crust recycling induced compositional-temporal-spatial variations of Cenozoic basalts in the Trans-North China Orogen (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Liu, Yongsheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Zong, Keqing; Hu, Zhaochu; Chen, Haihong; Zhou, Lian


    It has been advocated that the stagnant Pacific slab within the mantle transition zone played a critical role in the genesis of the Cenozoic basalts in the eastern part of the North China Craton (NCC); however, it is not clear whether this recycled oceanic crust contributed to the chemical makeup of the Cenozoic basalts in the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO, the central zone of the NCC). Here, we show that Cenozoic basalts from the TNCO are featured by low CaO contents, high TiO2 and FeOT contents and high Fe/Mn and Zn/Fe ratios, indicating a mantle source of pyroxenite. Temporally, these basalts evolved from alkali basalts of Late Eocene-Oligocene age to coexisting alkali and tholeiitic basalts of Late Miocene-Quaternary age. Spatially, their isotopic and chemical compositions vary symmetrically from the center to both the north and the south sides along the TNCO, i.e., SiO2 contents and 87Sr/86Sr ratios increase, FeOT contents and 143Nd/144Nd, Sm/Yb and Ce/Pb ratios decrease. The estimated average melting pressure of the TNCO tholeiitic basalts ( 3 GPa) agrees well with the present lithosphere thickness beneath the north region of the TNCO ( 90-120 km). The temporal and spatial chemical variations of Cenozoic basalts in the TNCO suggest that the recycled oceanic crust in the mantle of the TNCO is mainly related to the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic plate and the northward subduction of the Tethyan ocean plate. The westward subduction of Pacific slab may not have contributed much than previously thought.

  18. The Ajo Mining District, Pima County, Arizona--Evidence for Middle Cenozoic Detachment Faulting, Plutonism, Volcanism, and Hydrothermal Alteration (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Force, Eric R.; Wilkinson, William H.; More, Syver W.; Rivera, John S.; Wooden, Joseph L.


    Introduction: The Ajo porphyry copper deposit and surrounding Upper Cretaceous rocks have been separated from their plutonic source and rotated by detachment faulting. Overlying middle Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been tilted and show evidence for two periods of rotation. Following these rotations, a granitic stock (23.7?0.2 Ma) intruded basement rocks west of the Ajo deposit. This stock was uplifted 2.5 km to expose deep-seated Na-Ca alteration.

  19. Mean Annual Precipitation Explains Spatiotemporal Patterns of Cenozoic Mammal Beta Diversity and Latitudinal Diversity Gradients in North America



    Spatial diversity patterns are thought to be driven by climate-mediated processes. However, temporal patterns of community composition remain poorly studied. We provide two complementary analyses of North American mammal diversity, using (i) a paleontological dataset (2077 localities with 2493 taxon occurrences) spanning 21 discrete subdivisions of the Cenozoic based on North American Land Mammal Ages (36 Ma – present), and (ii) climate space model predictions for 744 extant mammals under eig...

  20. The Kuqa late Cenozoic fold-thrust belt on the southern flank of the Tian Shan Mountains (United States)

    Li, Yue-Jun; Wen, Lei; Zhang, Hong-An; Huang, Tai-Zhu; Li, Hui-Li; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Meng, Qing-Long; Peng, Geng-Xin; Huang, Shao-Ying; Zhang, Qiang


    The Kuqa fold-thrust belt (KFTB), a late Cenozoic fold-thrust belt on the southern flank of the Tian Shan Mountains, consists of several deformation zones trending nearly W-E. The main décollement fault of the KFTB gradually rises southwards. There are three regional main décollement faults in the Triassic dark mudstone, Paleogene gypsum salt (Kumugeliemu Formation), and Neogene gypsum salt (Jidike Formation), respectively, and possibly a fourth in the Jurassic coalbed. Laterally, thin-skinned structures are developed in the main segments of the KFTB, whereas thick-skinned structures are in the root zone. Vertically, the structural deformation above the Cenozoic gypsum-salt layers (Paleogene gypsum salt in the middle segment of the KFTB and Neogene gypsum salt in the eastern segment) is characterized by décollement folding, whereas that below is characterized by thrusting. The KFTB was resulted from the late Cenozoic intra-continental orogeny in the Tian Shan area under the far-field effect of the India-Asia collision. The deformation of KFTB began (folding and thrusting) ca. 23 Ma, when the far-field effect of the India-Asia collision reached the Tian Shan area. The deformation of KFTB accelerated ca. 10, 5-2, and 1-0 Ma. In general, the evolution of the KFTB is forward propagating, and the hinter parts of the KFTB continue to deform, while its front propagates southwards.

  1. Pacific Plate slab pull and intraplate deformation in the early Cenozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Butterworth


    Full Text Available Large tectonic plates are known to be susceptible to internal deformation, leading to a range of phenomena including intraplate volcanism. However, the space and time dependence of intraplate deformation and its relationship with changing plate boundary configurations, subducting slab geometries, and absolute plate motion is poorly understood. We utilise a buoyancy driven Stokes flow solver, BEM-Earth, to investigate the contribution of subducting slabs through time on Pacific Plate motion and plate-scale deformation, and how this is linked to intraplate volcanism. We produce a series of geodynamic models from 62 to 42 Ma in which the plates are driven by the attached subducting slabs and mantle drag/suction forces. We compare our modelled intraplate deformation history with those types of intraplate volcanism that lack a clear age progression. Our models suggest that changes in Cenozoic subduction zone topology caused intraplate deformation to trigger volcanism along several linear seafloor structures, mostly by reactivation of existing seamount chains, but occasionally creating new volcanic chains on crust weakened by fracture zones and extinct ridges. Around 55 Ma subduction of the Pacific-Izanagi ridge reconfigured the major tectonic forces acting on the plate by replacing ridge push with slab pull along its north-western perimeter, causing lithospheric extension along pre-existing weaknesses. Large scale deformation observed in the models coincides with the seamount chains of Hawaii, Louisville, Tokelau, and Gilbert during our modelled time period of 62 to 42 Ma. We suggest that extensional stresses between 72 and 52 Ma are the likely cause of large parts of the formation of the Gilbert chain and that localised extension between 62 and 42 Ma could cause late-stage volcanism along the Musicians Volcanic Ridges. Our models demonstrate that early Cenozoic changes in Pacific plate driving forces only cause relatively minor changes in Pacific

  2. Pacific plate slab pull and intraplate deformation in the early Cenozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Butterworth


    Full Text Available Large tectonic plates are known to be susceptible to internal deformation, leading to a~range of phenomena including intraplate volcanism. However, the space and time dependence of intraplate deformation and its relationship with changing plate boundary configurations, subducting slab geometries, and absolute plate motion is poorly understood. We utilise a buoyancy-driven Stokes flow solver, BEM-Earth, to investigate the contribution of subducting slabs through time on Pacific plate motion and plate-scale deformation, and how this is linked to intraplate volcanism. We produce a series of geodynamic models from 62 to 42 Ma in which the plates are driven by the attached subducting slabs and mantle drag/suction forces. We compare our modelled intraplate deformation history with those types of intraplate volcanism that lack a clear age progression. Our models suggest that changes in Cenozoic subduction zone topology caused intraplate deformation to trigger volcanism along several linear seafloor structures, mostly by reactivation of existing seamount chains, but occasionally creating new volcanic chains on crust weakened by fracture zones and extinct ridges. Around 55 Ma, subduction of the Pacific-Izanagi ridge reconfigured the major tectonic forces acting on the plate by replacing ridge push with slab pull along its northwestern perimeter, causing lithospheric extension along pre-existing weaknesses. Large-scale deformation observed in the models coincides with the seamount chains of Hawaii, Louisville, Tokelau and Gilbert during our modelled time period of 62 to 42 Ma. We suggest that extensional stresses between 72 and 52 Ma are the likely cause of large parts of the formation of the Gilbert chain and that localised extension between 62 and 42 Ma could cause late-stage volcanism along the Musicians volcanic ridges. Our models demonstrate that early Cenozoic changes in Pacific plate driving forces only cause relatively minor changes in Pacific

  3. Cenozoic mean greenhouse gases and temperature changes with reference to the Anthropocene. (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew


    Cenozoic greenhouse gases (GHG) variations and warming periods underscore the extreme rates of current climate change, with major implications for the adaptability and survivability of terrestrial and marine habitats. Current rise rate of greenhouse gases, reaching 3.3 ppm CO2 per year during March 2015-2016, is the fastest recorded since the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Event (PETM) when carbon release to the atmosphere was about an order of magnitude less than at present. The ice core evidence of concentration of (GHG) and temperatures in the atmosphere/ocean/cryosphere system over the last 740 kyr suggests that the rate of rise in GHG over the last ~260 years, CO2 rates rising from 0.94 ppm yr(-1) in 1959 (315.97 ppm) to 1.62 ppm yr(-1) in 2000 (369.52 ppm) to 3.05 ppm yr(-1) in 2015 (400.83 ppm), constitutes a unique spike in the history of the atmosphere. The reliance of pre-740 kyr paleoclimate estimates on multiple proxies, including benthic and plankton fossils, fossil plants, residual organic matter, major and trace elements in fossils, sediments and soils, place limits on the resolution of pre-upper Pleistocene paleoclimate estimates, rendering it likely recorded mean Cenozoic paleoclimate trends may conceal abrupt short-term climate fluctuations. However, as exemplified by the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and earlier GHG and temperature spikes associated with major volcanic and asteroid impact events, the long-term residence time of CO2 in the atmosphere extends the signatures of abrupt warming events to within detection limits of multiple paleoproxies. The mean post-1750 temperature rise rate (approximately ~0.0034 °C per yr, or ~0.008 °C per yr where temperature is not masked by sulfur aerosols) exceeds those of the PETM (approximately ~0.0008-0.0015 °C per yr) by an order of magnitude and mean glacial termination warming rates (last glacial termination [LGT] ~ 0.00039; Eemian ~0.0004 °C per yr) by near to an order of magnitude

  4. Cenozoic volcanism and lithospheric tectonic evolution in Qiangtang area, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Xiaoguo; LI Cai; JIN Wei


    Following the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates, the Cenozoic volcanic activities are rather frequent in the Qiangtang area of northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. They can be divided into four series: alkaline basalt series, high-K calc-alkaline series, shoshonitic series and peralkaline potassic-ultrapotassic series. Geochemical data suggest that the magma sources of Cenozoic volcanic rocks have transferred from spinel Iherzolite mantle in the early stage to garnet peridotite enriched mantle (EM2) in the later stage. The high Mg# number and extremely high Cr-Ni-Co abundance of high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic series andesites in the Qiangtang area indicate that the primary magma might be derived from subduction of continent lithosphere from the Lhasa block. Incompatible element ratios of La/Rb, Zr/Rb, Rb/Nb, K/Nb,Pb/La and K/La of peralkaline potassic-ultrapotassic series lavas in northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are lower than island arc volcanic rocks and higher than and similar to oceanic island basalts. This signature indicates that the primary magma derive from a paleo-mantle wedge interfused by fluids derived from asthenosphere and/or subducted mantle lithosphere. But the above element ratios of ultrapotassic lavas in southern Tibet and ultrapotassic lamprophyres in eastern Tibet are higher than and similar to island arc volcanic rocks, which means that the primary magma sources contained a large quantity of crust contaminant from fluids and/or melts derived from subducted continent lithosphere. The studies result supports that the indian continental .lithosphere has underthrust beneath Tibet to about the middle of the plateau, and Eurasian (Qaidam basin) mantle lithosphere has underthrust beneath the Qiangtang area of northern Tibet Plateau. In the paper we demonstrate further that the pulsing cycles of potassic-ultrapotassic volcanism of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau result from an asthenospher pulsing upwelling caused by the intraplate subduction

  5. Megacrysts in the Cenozoic basalt of the Tuoyun Basin,Southwest Tianshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) YongJun; LUO ZhaoHua; REN ZhongBao; LIANG Tao


    Abundant megacrysts of clinopyroxene, amphibole, anorthoclase, and phlogopite are found together with deep-seated xenoliths in the Cenozoic basalt of the Tuoyun Basin, Southwest Tianshan. The megacrysts are mainly in the cone sheet formed at the early stage of the volcanic activity. Clinopyroxene megacrysts are located in the lower part of the profile, with amphibole and phlogopite megacrysts in the middle part and anorthoclase megacrysts in the upper part. The crystal integrity, absence of deformation fabric and their relation to the host basalt suggest that they were crystallized from the host magma and quickly transported to the surface. The mineralogical studies imply that the clinopyroxene megacrysts are of Al-augite with higher Al2O3 (>9%). Amphibole megacrysts are kaersutite rich in TiO2 (>4.5%). Sulfide inclusions such as pyrrhotite occur in some clinopyroxene and amphibole megacrysts. Thermodynamic calculations reveal that pyroxene megacrysts formed under the temperature of 1185.85―1199.85℃ and the pressure between 1.53 and 1.64 Gpa comparable to the crust-mantle boundary and amphibole megacrysts crystallized under the pressure of around 0.85 Gpa, temperature about 1000℃ comparable to the depth of 30 km. Anorthoclase megacrysts crystallized under the pressure between 0.8―1 Gpa,temperature about 900℃.The absence of Ti-rich inclusions such as rutile can be considered as an evidence of quick magma ascending. The P-T conditions estimated via pyroxene megacrysts and phenocrysts compose a P-T path with a steep slope. It can be considered as another evidence of quick magma ascending. However, the estimated temperatures for amphibole megacrysts are markedly lower than those for pyroxene megacrysts given the same pressure. It probably shows that the amphiboles have crystallized at the vanguard of magma and under the volatile-rich condition. Thus, we can conclude that the Cenozoic basalts are produced in an extensional tectonic setting and the

  6. Pacific plate slab pull and intraplate deformation in the early Cenozoic (United States)

    Butterworth, N. P.; Müller, R. D.; Quevedo, L.; O'Connor, J. M.; Hoernle, K.; Morra, G.


    Large tectonic plates are known to be susceptible to internal deformation, leading to a~range of phenomena including intraplate volcanism. However, the space and time dependence of intraplate deformation and its relationship with changing plate boundary configurations, subducting slab geometries, and absolute plate motion is poorly understood. We utilise a buoyancy-driven Stokes flow solver, BEM-Earth, to investigate the contribution of subducting slabs through time on Pacific plate motion and plate-scale deformation, and how this is linked to intraplate volcanism. We produce a series of geodynamic models from 62 to 42 Ma in which the plates are driven by the attached subducting slabs and mantle drag/suction forces. We compare our modelled intraplate deformation history with those types of intraplate volcanism that lack a clear age progression. Our models suggest that changes in Cenozoic subduction zone topology caused intraplate deformation to trigger volcanism along several linear seafloor structures, mostly by reactivation of existing seamount chains, but occasionally creating new volcanic chains on crust weakened by fracture zones and extinct ridges. Around 55 Ma, subduction of the Pacific-Izanagi ridge reconfigured the major tectonic forces acting on the plate by replacing ridge push with slab pull along its northwestern perimeter, causing lithospheric extension along pre-existing weaknesses. Large-scale deformation observed in the models coincides with the seamount chains of Hawaii, Louisville, Tokelau and Gilbert during our modelled time period of 62 to 42 Ma. We suggest that extensional stresses between 72 and 52 Ma are the likely cause of large parts of the formation of the Gilbert chain and that localised extension between 62 and 42 Ma could cause late-stage volcanism along the Musicians volcanic ridges. Our models demonstrate that early Cenozoic changes in Pacific plate driving forces only cause relatively minor changes in Pacific absolute plate motion

  7. Constraining Early Cenozoic exhumation of the British Isles with vertical profile modelling (United States)

    Doepke, Daniel; Cogné, Nathan; Chew, David


    Despite decades of research is the Early Cenozoic exhumation history of Ireland and Britain still poorly understood and subject to contentious debate (e.g., Davis et al., 2012 and subsequent comments). One reason for this debate is the difficultly of constraining the evolution of onshore parts of the British Isles in both time and space. The paucity of Mesozoic and Cenozoic onshore outcrops makes direct analysis of this time span difficult. Furthermore, Ireland and Britain are situated at a passive margin, where the amount of post-rift exhumation is generally very low. Classical thermochronological tools are therefore near the edge of their resolution and make precise dating of post-rift cooling events challenging. In this study we used the established apatite fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He techniques, but took advantage of the vertical profile approach of Gallagher et al. (2005) implemented in the QTQt modelling package (Gallagher, 2012), to better constrain the thermal histories. This method allowed us to define the geographical extent of a Late Cretaceous - Early Tertiary cooling event and to show that it was centered around the Irish Sea. Thus, we argue that this cooling event is linked to the underplating of hot material below the crust centered on the Irish Sea (Jones et al., 2002; Al-Kindi et al., 2003), and demonstrate that such conclusion would have been harder, if not impossible, to draw by modelling the samples individually without the use of the vertical profile approach. References Al-Kindi, S., White, N., Sinha, M., England, R., and Tiley, R., 2003, Crustal trace of a hot convective sheet: Geology, v. 31, no. 3, p. 207-210. Davis, M.W., White, N.J., Priestley, K.F., Baptie, B.J., and Tilmann, F.J., 2012, Crustal structure of the British Isles and its epeirogenic consequences: Geophysical Journal International, v. 190, no. 2, p. 705-725. Jones, S.M., White, N., Clarke, B.J., Rowley, E., and Gallagher, K., 2002, Present and past influence of the Iceland

  8. Millennia of magmatism recorded in crustal xenoliths from alkaline provinces in Southwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs; Waight, Tod Earle; Nielsen, Troels


    a rich record of melt injection. The xenoliths are derived from 25–36km depth and were transported to the sub-surface within 4 ±1 h(Fe-in-rutile speedometry), during which they were exposed to the magmatic temperature of 1,015 ±50 ◦C(Zr-in-rutile thermometry). Garnet major-element speedometry shows...

  9. Ga/Mg ratio as a new geochemical tool to differentiate magmatic from metamorphic blue sapphires (United States)

    Peucat, J. J.; Ruffault, P.; Fritsch, E.; Bouhnik-Le Coz, M.; Simonet, C.; Lasnier, B.


    Using ICP-MS-LA analyses, we demonstrate that the use of the Ga/Mg ratio, in conjunction with the Fe concentration, is an efficient tool in discriminating between "metamorphic" and "magmatic" blue sapphires. Magmatic blue sapphires found in alkali basalts (e.g. southeastern Asia, China, Africa) are commonly medium-rich to rich in Fe (with average contents between 2000 and 11000 ppm), high in Ga (> 140 ppm), and low in Mg (generally 10). Conversely, metamorphic blue sapphires found in basalts (e.g. Pailin pastel) and in metamorphic terrains (e.g. Mogok, Sri Lanka, Ilakaka) are characterized by low average iron contents ( 60 ppm) with low average Ga/Mg ratios (< 10). Basaltic magmatic sapphires have Fe, Ga and Mg contents similar to those obtained for primary magmatic sapphires found in the Garba Tula syenite. This suggests that these both sets of sapphires have a possible common "syenitic" origin, as previously proposed from other criteria. In addition, plumasite-related sapphires and metamorphic sapphires also exhibit similar composition in trace elements. Based on results from the present study, we suggest that fluid circulations during a metamorphic stage produced metasomatic exchanges between mafic and acidic rocks (plumasite model), thus explaining the high Mg contents and converging Ga/Mg ratios observed in metamorphic sapphires.

  10. High-precision geochronology confirms voluminous magmatism before, during, and after Earth's most severe extinction. (United States)

    Burgess, Seth D; Bowring, Samuel A


    The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe in the Phanerozoic, extinguishing more than 90% of marine and 75% of terrestrial species in a maximum of 61 ± 48 ky. Because of broad temporal coincidence between the biotic crisis and one of the most voluminous continental volcanic eruptions since the origin of animals, the Siberian Traps large igneous province (LIP), a causal connection has long been suggested. Magmatism is hypothesized to have caused rapid injection of massive amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, driving climate change and subsequent destabilization of the biosphere. Establishing a causal connection between magmatism and mass extinction is critically dependent on accurately and precisely knowing the relative timing of the two events and the flux of magma. New U/Pb dates on Siberian Traps LIP lava flows, sills, and explosively erupted rocks indicate that (i) about two-thirds of the total lava/pyroclastic volume was erupted over ~300 ky, before and concurrent with the end-Permian mass extinction; (ii) eruption of the balance of lavas continued for at least 500 ky after extinction cessation; and (iii) massive emplacement of sills into the shallow crust began concomitant with the mass extinction and continued for at least 500 ky into the early Triassic. This age model is consistent with Siberian Traps LIP magmatism as a trigger for the end-Permian mass extinction and suggests a role for magmatism in suppression of post-extinction biotic recovery.

  11. Stochastic modelling of deep magmatic controls on porphyry copper deposit endowment (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Caricchi, Luca


    Porphyry deposits, our main source of copper and of significant amounts of Mo, Re and Au, form at convergent margins in association with intermediate-felsic magmas. Although it is accepted that copper is transported and precipitated by fluids released by these magmas, the magmatic processes leading to the formation of economic deposits remain elusive. Here we perform Monte Carlo petrological and geochemical modelling to quantitatively link crustal magmatic processes and the geochemical signatures of magmas (i.e., Sr/Y) to the formation of porphyry Cu deposits of different sizes. Our analysis shows that economic deposits (particularly the largest ones) may only form in association with magma accumulated in the lower-middle crust (P > ~0.5 GPa) during ≥2–3 Ma, and subsequently transferred to and degassed in the upper crust over periods of up to ~2.0 Ma. Magma accumulation and evolution at shallower depths (<~0.4 GPa) dramatically reduces the potential of magmatic systems to produce economic deposits. Our modelling also predicts the association of the largest porphyry deposits with a specific Sr/Y interval (~100 ± 50) of the associated magmatic rocks, which is virtually identical to the range measured in giant porphyry copper deposits.

  12. Observational constraints on the identification of shallow lunar magmatism: Insights from floor-fractured craters (United States)

    Jozwiak, L. M.; Head, J. W., III; Neumann, G. A.; Wilson, L.


    Floor-fractured craters are a class of lunar crater hypothesized to form in response to the emplacement of a shallow magmatic intrusion beneath the crater floor. The emplacement of a shallow magmatic body should result in a positive Bouguer anomaly relative to unaltered complex craters, a signal which is observed for the average Bouguer anomaly interior to the crater walls. We observe the Bouguer anomaly of floor-fractured craters on an individual basis using the unfiltered Bouguer gravity solution from GRAIL and also a degree 100-600 band-filtered Bouguer gravity solution. The low-magnitude of anomalies arising from shallow magmatic intrusions makes identification using unfiltered Bouguer gravity solutions inconclusive. The observed anomalies in the degree 100-600 Bouguer gravity solution are spatially heterogeneous, although there is spatial correlation between volcanic surface morphologies and positive Bouguer anomalies. We interpret these observations to mean that the spatial heterogeneity observed in the Bouguer signal is the result of variable degrees of magmatic degassing within the intrusions.

  13. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization (United States)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen


    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as 'cratonization', is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons. The majority of magmatic zircons from the main magmatic cycles have Hf isotopic compositions that are generally more evolved than CHUR, forming vertical arrays that extend to moderately radiogenic compositions. Complimentary O isotope data, also show a significant variation in composition. However, combined, these data define not only the source components from which the magmas were derived, but also a range of physio-chemical processes that operated during magma transport and emplacement. These data also identify a previously unknown crustal reservoir in the Capricorn Orogen.

  14. Dating emplacement and evolution of the orogenic magmatism in the internal Western Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Thomsen, Tonny B.; Ovtcharova, Maria;


    by relics of two different pyroxenes as well as the texture of allanite. Hornblende barometry indicates pressures of similar to 0.46 GPa consistent with the presence of magmatic epidote. Field relationships between the two Plutons, the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Biella Volcanic Suite...

  15. Chlorine isotopes of thermal springs in arc volcanoes for tracing shallow magmatic activity (United States)

    Li, Long; Bonifacie, Magali; Aubaud, Cyril; Crispi, Olivier; Dessert, Céline; Agrinier, Pierre


    The evaluation of the status of shallow magma body (i.e., from the final intrusion stage, to quiescence, and back to activity), one of the key parameters that trigger and sustain volcanic eruptions, has been challenging in modern volcanology. Among volatile tracers, chlorine (Cl) uniquely exsolves at shallow depths and is highly hydrophilic. Consequently, Cl enrichment in volcanic gases and thermal springs has been proposed as a sign for shallow magmatic activities. However, such enrichment could also result from numerous other processes (e.g., water evaporation, dissolution of old chloride mineral deposits, seawater contamination) that are unrelated to magmatic activity. Here, based on stable isotope compositions of chloride and dissolved inorganic carbon, as well as previous published 3He/4He data obtained in thermal springs from two recently erupted volcanoes (La Soufrière in Guadeloupe and Montagne Pelée in Martinique) in the Lesser Antilles Arc, we show that the magmatic Cl efficiently trapped in thermal springs displays negative δ37Cl values (≤ - 0.65 ‰), consistent with a slab-derived origin but distinct from the isotope compositions of chloride in surface reservoirs (e.g. seawater, local meteoric waters, rivers and cold springs) displaying common δ37Cl values of around 0‰. Using this δ37Cl difference as an index of magmatic Cl, we further examined thermal spring samples including a 30-year archive from two thermal springs in Guadeloupe covering samples from its last eruption in 1976-1977 to 2008 and an island-wide sampling event in Martinique in 2008 to trace the evolution of magmatic Cl in the volcanic hydrothermal systems over time. The results show that magmatic Cl can be rapidly flushed out of the hydrothermal systems within <30 to 80 years after the eruption, much quicker than other volatile tracers such as CO2 and noble gases, which can exsolve at greater depths and constantly migrate to the surface. Because arc volcanoes often have well

  16. Filling in the juvenile magmatic gap: Evidence for uninterrupted Paleoproterozoic plate tectonics (United States)

    Partin, C. A.; Bekker, A.; Sylvester, P. J.; Wodicka, N.; Stern, R. A.; Chacko, T.; Heaman, L. M.


    Despite several decades of research on growth of the continental crust, it remains unclear whether the production of juvenile continental crust has been continuous or episodic throughout the Precambrian. Models for episodic crustal growth have gained traction recently through compilations of global U-Pb zircon age frequency distributions interpreted to delineate peaks and lulls in crustal growth through geologic time. One such apparent trough in zircon age frequency distributions between ∼2.45 and 2.22 Ga is thought to represent a pause in crustal addition, resulting from a global shutdown of magmatic and tectonic processes. The ∼2.45-2.22 Ga magmatic shutdown model envisions a causal relationship between the cessation of plate tectonics and accumulation of atmospheric oxygen over the same period. Here, we present new coupled U-Pb, Hf, and O isotope data for detrital and magmatic zircon from the western Churchill Province and Trans-Hudson orogen of Canada, covering an area of approximately 1.3 million km2, that demonstrate significant juvenile crustal production during the ∼2.45-2.22 Ga time interval, and thereby argue against the magmatic shutdown hypothesis. Our data is corroborated by literature data showing an extensive 2.22-2.45 Ga record in both detrital and magmatic rocks on every continent, and suggests that the operation of plate tectonics continued throughout the early Paleoproterozoic, while atmospheric oxygen rose over the same time interval. We argue that uninterrupted plate tectonics between ∼2.45 and 2.22 Ga would have contributed to efficient burial of organic matter and sedimentary pyrite, and the consequent rise in atmospheric oxygen documented for this time interval.

  17. Investigating the long-term geodetic response to magmatic intrusions at volcanoes in northern California (United States)

    Parker, A. L.; Biggs, J.; Annen, C.; Houseman, G. A.; Yamasaki, T.; Wright, T. J.; Walters, R. J.; Lu, Z.


    Ratios of intrusive to extrusive activity at volcanic arcs are thought to be high, with estimates ranging between 5:1 and 30:1. Understanding the geodetic response to magmatic intrusion is therefore fundamental to large-scale studies of volcano deformation, providing insight into the dynamics of the inter-eruptive period of the volcano cycle and the building of continental crust. In northern California, we identify two volcanoes - Medicine Lake Volcano (MLV) and Lassen Volcanic Center (LaVC) - that exhibit long-term (multi-decadal) subsidence. We test the hypothesis that deformation at these volcanoes results from processes associated with magmatic intrusions. We first constrain the spatial and temporal characteristics of the deformation fields, establishing the first time-series of deformation at LaVC using InSAR data, multi-temporal analysis techniques and global weather models. Although the rates of deformation at the two volcanoes are similar (~1 cm/yr), our results show that the ratio of vertical to horizontal displacements is significantly different, suggesting contrasting source geometries. To test the origin of deformation, we develop modeling strategies to investigate thermal and viscoelastic processes associated with magmatic intrusions. The first model we develop couples analytical geodetic models to a numerical model of volume loss due to cooling and crystallization based upon temperature-melt fraction relationships from petrological experiments. This model provides evidence that magmatic intrusion at MLV has occurred more recently than the last eruption ~1 ka. The second model we test uses a finite element approach to simulate the time-dependent viscoelastic response of the crust to magmatic intrusion. We assess the magnitude and timescales of ground deformation that may result from these processes, exploring the model parameter space before applying the models to our InSAR observations of subsidence in northern California.

  18. Sulfide oxidation as a process for the formation of copper-rich magmatic sulfides (United States)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Ballhaus, Chris; Berndt, Jasper


    Typical magmatic sulfides are dominated by pyrrhotite and pentlandite with minor chalcopyrite, and the bulk atomic Cu/Fe ratio of these sulfides is typically less than unity. However, there are rare magmatic sulfide occurrences that are dominated by Cu-rich sulfides (e.g., bornite, digenite, and chalcopyrite, sometimes coexisting with metallic Cu) with atomic Cu/Fe as high as 5. Typically, these types of sulfide assemblages occur in the upper parts of moderately to highly fractionated layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions, a well-known example being the Pd/Au reef in the Upper Middle Zone of the Skaergaard intrusion. Processes proposed to explain why these sulfides are so unusually rich in Cu include fractional crystallization of Fe/(Ni) monosulfide and infiltration of postmagmatic Cu-rich fluids. In this contribution, we explore and experimentally evaluate a third possibility: that Cu-rich magmatic sulfides may be the result of magmatic oxidation. FeS-dominated Ni/Cu-bearing sulfides were equilibrated at variable oxygen fugacities in both open and closed system. Our results show that the Cu/Fe ratio of the sulfide melt increases as a function of oxygen fugacity due to the preferential conversion of FeS into FeO and FeO1.5, and the resistance of Cu2S to being converted into an oxide component even at oxygen fugacities characteristic of the sulfide/sulfate transition (above FMQ + 1). This phenomenon will lead to an increase in the metal/S ratio of a sulfide liquid and will also depress its liquidus temperature. As such, any modeling of the sulfide liquid line of descent in magmatic sulfide complexes needs to address this issue.

  19. Magmatic immiscibility and fluid phase evolution in the Mount Genis granite (southeastern Sardinia, Italy) (United States)

    Frezzotti, Maria Luce


    The Mount Genis granite is one of the post-tectonic intrusives emplaced late in the magmatic history of the Hercynian batholith in Sardinia. Devitrified silicate melt inclusions are present in some (magmatic) rock-forming and miarolitic quartz. These magmatic remnants show initial melting at 680- 720°C. High-temperature observations (700-800°C) revealed the presence in some of the inclusions of mixed hydrosaline melt (L1) and silicate melt (L2), with extremely variable L1/L2 ratios. Electron microprobe analyses indicate L1 to be K-Na dominated chlorides. Inclusions of mixed silicate and hydrosaline melts are interpreted to have been formed by heterogeneous trapping of two immiscible fluid phases (silicate-hydrosaline) after second boiling, most likely during the final crystallization stage. Magma-derived brines (63 eq wt% NaCl) circulated at subsolidus conditions from ≈600°C and were retained in the miarolitic cavities down to about 400°C. Fluid unmixing occurred locally in the miarolitic cavities from 550° to 412°C. At temperatures of ≈400° to 100°C the microgranite was invaded by diluted waters (≈4-5 eq wt% NaCl). A possible model for fluid evolution begins with a hydrosaline melt exsolving from the magma at the late-magmatic stage. The absence of boiling within the volatile (hydrosaline) system shows that brines can occur by direct magmatic immiscibility. The comprehensive hydrothermal evolution suggests a nearly isobaric cooling path, with local boiling episodes in the miaroles, probably in coincidence with invasion of external waters.

  20. Magmatic cycles pace tectonic and morphological expression of rifting (Afar depression, Ethiopia) (United States)

    Medynski, S.; Pik, R.; Burnard, P.; Dumont, S.; Grandin, R.; Williams, A.; Blard, P.-H.; Schimmelpfennig, I.; Vye-Brown, C.; France, L.; Ayalew, D.; Benedetti, L.; Yirgu, G.


    The existence of narrow axial volcanic zones of mid-oceanic ridges testifies of the underlying concentration of both melt distribution and tectonic strain. As a result of repeated diking and faulting, axial volcanic zones therefore represent a spectacular topographic expression of plate divergence. However, the submarine location of oceanic ridges makes it difficult to constrain the interplay between tectonic and magmatic processes in time and space. In this study, we use the Dabbahu-Manda Hararo (DMH) magmatic rift segment (Afar, Ethiopia) to provide quantitative constraints on the response of tectonic processes to variations in magma supply at divergent plate boundaries. The DMH magmatic rift segment is considered an analogue of an oceanic ridge, exhibiting a fault pattern, extension rate and topographic relief comparable to intermediate- to slow-spreading ridges. Here, we focus on the northern and central parts of DMH rift, where we present quantitative slip rates for the past 40 kyr for major and minor normal fault scarps in the vicinity of a recent (September 2005) dike intrusion. The data obtained show that the axial valley topography has been created by enhanced slip rates that occurred during periods of limited volcanism, suggestive of reduced magmatic activity, probably in association with changes in strain distribution in the crust. Our results indicate that the development of the axial valley topography has been regulated by the lifetimes of the magma reservoirs and their spatial distribution along the segment, and thus to the magmatic cycles of replenishment/differentiation (<100 kyr). Our findings are also consistent with magma-induced deformation in magma-rich rift segments. The record of two tectonic events of metric vertical amplitude on the fault that accommodated the most part of surface displacement during the 2005 dike intrusion suggests that the latter type of intrusion occurs roughly every 10 kyr in the northern part of the DMH segment.

  1. Epithermal mineralization controlled by synextensional magmatism in the Guazapares Mining District of the Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province, Mexico (United States)

    Murray, Bryan P.; Busby, Cathy J.


    We show here that epithermal mineralization in the Guazapares Mining District is closely related to extensional deformation and magmatism during the mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up of the Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province, Mexico. Three Late Oligocene-Early Miocene synextensional formations are identified by detailed volcanic lithofacies mapping in the study area: (1) ca. 27.5 Ma Parajes formation, composed of silicic outflow ignimbrite sheets; (2) ca. 27-24.5 Ma Témoris formation, consisting primarily of locally erupted mafic-intermediate composition lavas and interbedded fluvial and debris flow deposits; (3) ca. 24.5-23 Ma Sierra Guazapares formation, composed of silicic vent to proximal ignimbrites, lavas, subvolcanic intrusions, and volcaniclastic deposits. Epithermal low-to intermediate-sulfidation, gold-silver-lead-zinc vein and breccia mineralization appears to be associated with emplacement of Sierra Guazapares formation rhyolite plugs and is favored where pre-to-synvolcanic extensional structures are in close association with these hypabyssal intrusions. Several resource areas in the Guazapares Mining District are located along the easternmost strands of the Guazapares Fault Zone, a NNW-trending normal fault system that hosts most of the epithermal mineralization in the mining district. This study describes the geology that underlies three of these areas, which are, from north to south: (1) The Monte Cristo resource area, which is underlain primarily by Sierra Guazapares formation rhyolite dome collapse breccia, lapilli-tuffs, and fluvially reworked tuffs that interfinger with lacustrine sedimentary rocks in a synvolcanic half-graben bounded by the Sangre de Cristo Fault. Deposition in the hanging wall of this half-graben was concurrent with the development of a rhyolite lava dome-hypabyssal intrusion complex in the footwall; mineralization is concentrated in the high-silica rhyolite intrusions in the footwall and along the

  2. Andean Basin Evolution Associated with Hybrid Thick- and Thin-Skinned Deformation in the Malargüe Fold-Thrust Belt, Western Argentina (United States)

    Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.


    Andean deformation and basin evolution in the Malargüe fold-thrust belt of western Argentina (34-36°S) has been dominated by basement faults influenced by pre-existing Mesozoic rift structures of the hydrocarbon-rich Neuquen basin. However, the basement structures diverge from classic inversion structures, and the associated retroarc basin system shows a complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of mixed extension and contraction, along with an enigmatic early Cenozoic stratigraphic hiatus. New results from balanced structural cross sections (supported by industry seismic, well data, and surface maps), U-Pb geochronology, and foreland deposystem analyses provide improved resolution to examine the duration and kinematic evolution of Andean mixed-mode deformation. The basement structures form large anticlines with steep forelimbs and up to >5 km of structural relief. Once the propagating tips of the deeper basement faults reached cover strata, they fed slip to shallow thrust systems that were transported in piggyback fashion by newly formed basement structures, producing complex structural relationships. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages for the 5-7 km-thick basin fill succession reveal shifts in sedimentation pathways and accumulation rates consistent with (1) local basement sources during Early-Middle Jurassic back-arc extension, (2) variable cratonic and magmatic arc sources during Late Jurassic-Cretaceous postrift thermal subsidence, and (3) Andean arc and thrust-belt sources during irregular Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic shortening. Although pulses of flexural subsidence can be attributed to periods of fault reactivation (inversion) and geometrically linked thin-skinned thrusting, fully developed foreland basin conditions were only achieved in Late Cretaceous and Neogene time. Separating these two contractional episodes is an Eocene-lower Miocene (roughly 40-20 Ma) depositional hiatus within the Cenozoic succession, potentially signifying forebulge passage or neutral to

  3. Glass melt inclusion in clinopyroxene from Linqu Cenozoic basalt, Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongfu; Eizo Nakamura; ZHANG Jin; Ishikawa Akira


    Cenozoic basalts from the Linqu County, Shandong Province, China entrain some clinopyroxene crystals, of which many contain abundant glass melt inclusions. These melt inclusions are extremely irregular in shape with most grain sizes in a range of 10-50 μm and coexist with low-Mg# olivines, labradorites and Ca-rich potassium feldspars. In-situ major and trace element analyses show that the glass melt inclusions are high in alkalis (Na2O+K2O > 10 wt%), SiO2 (>54 wt%), CaO and FeO (>4 wt%), but low in MgO (Mg# < 20), and have LREE enrichments ((Ce/Yb)cn = 11.6-16.4) and apparently positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*>2), thus having phonolitic compositions. The compositional features of clinopyroxene crystals, glass melt inclusions and their coexistent minerals suggest that these melt inclusions were exotic melts in clinopyroxenes trapped prior to their entrainment in the host basalt. The discovery of these melt inclusions provides a new approach to further investigating the evolution of Meso- zoic lithospheric mantle beneath the southeastern North China Craton.

  4. Environmental rock-magnetism of Cenozoic red clay in the South Pacific Gyre (United States)

    Shimono, Takaya; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu


    Nonfossiliferous red clay can be used for elucidating long-range environmental changes, although such studies were limited so far because of the difficulty in precise age estimation and extremely low sedimentation rates. We conducted an environmental rock-magnetic study of Cenozoic red clay at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1365 in the South Pacific Gyre. Magnetostratigraphy could be established only above ˜6 m below the seafloor (mbsf) (˜5 Ma). Below ˜6 mbsf, the ages of the cores were transferred from the published ages of nearby Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 596, which is based mainly on a constant Cobalt flux model, by intercore correlation using magnetic susceptibility and rare earth element content variation patterns. Rock-magnetic analyses including first-order reversal curve diagrams, the ratio of anhysteretic remanent magnetization susceptibility to saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), and IRM component analyses revealed that magnetic minerals consist mainly of biogenic magnetite and terrigenous maghemite, and that the proportion of the terrigenous component increased since ˜23 Ma. We consider that the increase reflects a growth of eolian dust flux associated with a northward shift of Australia and the site to an arid region of the middle latitudes. The increase of the terrigenous component accelerated after ˜5 Ma, which may be associated with a further growth of the Antarctic glaciation at that time. This is coeval with the onset of the preservation of magnetostratigraphy, suggesting that the primary remanent magnetization is carried by the terrigenous component.

  5. First fossil evidence of Connaraceae R. Br. from Indian Cenozoic and its phytogeographical significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahasin Ali Khan; Subir Bera


    Fossil leaflet impression described here as a new species Rourea miocaudata sp. nov., showing close resemblance with the modern leaflets of Rourea caudata Planch. (Connaraceae R. Br.), has been recorded from the lower part of the Siwalik sediments (Dafla Formation, middle–upper Miocene) exposed at the road-cutting section of Pinjoli area in West Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh. The importantmorphological characters of the fossil are its narrow elliptic leaflet, cuneate base, long caudate apex, entire margin, eucamptodromous to brochidodromous secondary veins, presence of intersecondary veins, percurrent and reticulate tertiary veins and orthogonally reticulate quaternary veins. This is the first authentic record of the occurrence of leaflet comparable to R. caudata of Connaraceae from the Cenozoic sediments of India and abroad. At present R. caudata does not grow in India and is restricted only in southeast Asia especially in China and Myanmar. This taxon probably migrated to these southeast Asian regions after lower Siwalik sedimentation (middle–upper Miocene) due to climatic change causedby post-Miocene orogenic movement of the Himalaya. The recovery of this species and other earlierdescribed evergreen taxa from the same formation, suggests the existence of a tropical, warm and humid climatic conditions during the depositional period.

  6. Late Cenozoic Tectonic Deformation in the Dongsha Islands and Adjacent Sea Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shiguo(吴时国); LIU Zhan(刘展); WANG Wanyin(王万银); GUO Junhua(郭军华); T. Lüdmann; H. K. Wong


    Dongsha Island and the adjacent sea area locate at the northern continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS), and is connected to the east by the Manila Trench. Analyses of seismic stratigraphy and gravity, magnetic and drilling wells data led to the discovery of three post-fault sequences (V, VI, VII). Extensive tectonic uplift, magma activity and erosion occurred in Dongsha Island and the adjacent area, where most of the faults in the northeastern SCS were still active during Pliocene and Quaternary. Two groups of faults trending NEE and NW were developed during Late Cenozoic. We conclude that three important tectonic movements, especially Dongsha movement (4.4-5.2 Ma) and Liuhua movement (1.4-1.89 Ma), controlled the structural framework in the Dongsha rise; whose deformation in the east is stronger than that in the west and whose stress field variation suggests that the tectonic uplift in the study area contributed to magmato-tectonic events correlated to the main collision phases between the East China and Taiwan 5-3 and 3-0 Ma ago.

  7. Features of Late Cenozoic Deepwater Sedimentation in Southern Qiongdongnan Basin,Northwestern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Shengqiang; Yao Genshun; Lü Fuliang; Hu Bing; He Xiaosu; Wang Bin; Li Li


    Based on high resolution 2D and 3D seismic data acquired in recent years,using sequence stratigraphy analysis and geophysical methods,we discuss the features of Late Cenozoic deepwater sedimentation in the southern Qiongdongnan (琼东南) basin.The study area entered a bathyal slope environment in the Miocene.The channel developed in the Sanya (三亚) Formation was controlled by a fault break,and its shingled seismic characteristics represent multiple erosion and fill,which may indicate that turbidite current developed in the slope environment.The polygon faults found in mudstone of the Meishan (梅山) Formation represent the deepwater hungry sedimentary environment.The large-scale channels developed on the top of HuangUu (黄流) Formation could be the result of a big sea level drop and an increase of sediment supply.The fantastic turbidite channel developed in Late Quaternary in the slope environment has "fan-like" body and long frontal tiny avuision channel The analysis of these features suggests that the sediment supply of the study area in the post-rifting period was dominant from the Vietnam uplift in the southwest.These deepwater sedimentary features could be potential reservoirs or migration pathways for deepwater petroleum systems.

  8. A universal driver of macroevolutionary change in the size of marine phytoplankton over the Cenozoic. (United States)

    Finkel, Z V; Sebbo, J; Feist-Burkhardt, S; Irwin, A J; Katz, M E; Schofield, O M E; Young, J R; Falkowski, P G


    The size structure of phytoplankton assemblages strongly influences energy transfer through the food web and carbon cycling in the ocean. We determined the macroevolutionary trajectory in the median size of dinoflagellate cysts to compare with the macroevolutionary size change in other plankton groups. We found the median size of the dinoflagellate cysts generally decreases through the Cenozoic. Diatoms exhibit an extremely similar pattern in their median size over time, even though species diversity of the two groups has opposing trends, indicating that the macroevolutionary size change is an active response to selection pressure rather than a passive response to changes in diversity. The changes in the median size of dinoflagellate cysts are highly correlated with both deep ocean temperatures and the thermal gradient between the surface and deep waters, indicating the magnitude and frequency of nutrient availability may have acted as a selective factor in the macroevolution of cell size in the plankton. Our results suggest that climate, because it affects stratification in the ocean, is a universal abiotic driver that has been responsible for macroevolutionary changes in the size structure of marine planktonic communities over the past 65 million years of Earth's history.

  9. Book Review: Late Cenozoic Climate Change in Asia: Loess, Monsoon and Monsoon-arid Environment Evolution (United States)

    Clemens, Steven C.


    Loess-Paleosol deposits drape >500,000 km2 of eastern China, spanning environments from the humid, monsoon-influenced regions near the coast to the arid, westerlies-dominated regions inland. Sections, up to hundreds of meters thick, are exposed in deeply incised river valleys and can be accessed as well by drilling. Combined, the high sedimentation rates and extensive geographic coverage make these sections unique among global terrestrial sediment archives. The Chinese loess-paleosol sequences, and the arid interior regions to the northwest, record diverse aspects of geologic and environmental change ranging from the tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau (106 year time scale) through glacial-interglacial scale changes in global ice volume and greenhouse gasses (105 year time scale) on down through the orbital (104 years) to millennial and centennial scale events (103-102 year) relevant to the underpinnings of human interactions with changing environmental pressures. 'Late Cenozoic Climate Chang in Asia: Loess, Monsoon and Monsoon-arid Environment Evolution' is a timely contribution that synthesizes findings derived from the extensive work in these areas, places the findings in the broader context of global climate change and helps to define avenues for future research.

  10. High=porosity Cenozoic carbonate rocks of South Florida: progressive loss of porosity with depth (United States)

    Halley, Robert B.; Schmoker, James W.


    Porosity measurements by borehole gravity meter in subsurface Cenozoic carbonates of South Florida reveal an extremely porous mass of limestone and dolomite which is transitional in total pore volume between typical porosity values for modern carbonate sediments and ancient carbonate rocks. A persistent decrease of porosity with depth, similar to that of chalks of the Gulf Coast, occurs in these rocks. Carbonate strata with less than 20% porosity are absent from the rocks studied here. Aquifers and aquicludes cannot be distinguished on the basis of porosity. Aquifers are not exceptionally porous when compared to other Tertiary carbonate rocks in South Florida. Permeability in these strata is governed more by the spacial distribution of pore space and matrix than by total volume of porosity present. Dolomite is as porous as, or slightly less porous than, limestones in these rocks. This observation places limits on any model proposed for dolomitization and suggests that dolomitization does not take place by a simple ion-for-ion replacement of magnesium for calcium. Dolomitization may be selective for less porous limestone, or it may involve the incorporation of significant amounts of carbonate as well as magnesium into the rock. The great volume of pore space in these rocks serves to highlight the inefficiency of early diagenesis in reducing carbonate porosity and to emphasize the importance of later porosity reduction which occurs during the burial or late near-surface history of limestones and dolomites.

  11. Cenozoic rejuvenation events of Massif Central topography (France): Insights from cosmogenic denudation rates and river profiles (United States)

    Olivetti, Valerio; Godard, Vincent; Bellier, Olivier


    The French Massif Central is a part of the Hercynian orogenic belt that currently exhibits anomalously high topography. The Alpine orogenesis, which deeply marked Western European topography, involved only marginally the Massif Central, where Cenozoic faulting and short-wavelength crustal deformation is limited to the Oligocene rifting. For this reason the French Massif Central is a key site to study short- and long-term topographic response in a framework of slow tectonic activity. In particular the origin of the Massif Central topography is a topical issue still debated, where the role of mantle upwelling is invoked by different authors. Here we present a landscape analysis using denudation rates derived from basin-averaged cosmogenic nuclide concentrations coupled with longitudinal river profile analysis. This analysis allows us to recognize that the topography of the French Massif Central is not fully equilibrated with the present base level and in transient state. Our data highlight the coexistence of out-of-equilibrium river profiles, incised valleys, and low cosmogenically derived denudation rates ranging between 40 mm/kyr and 80 mm/kyr. Addressing this apparent inconsistency requires investigating the parameters that may govern erosion processes under conditions of reduced active tectonics. The spatial distribution of denudation rates coupled with topography analysis enabled us to trace the signal of the long-term uplift history and to propose a chronology for the uplift evolution of the French Massif Central.

  12. First fossil evidence of Connaraceae R. Br. from Indian Cenozoic and its phytogeographical significance (United States)

    Khan, Mahasin Ali; Bera, Subir


    Fossil leaflet impression described here as a new species Rourea miocaudata sp. nov., showing close resemblance with the modern leaflets of Rourea caudata Planch. (Connaraceae R. Br.), has been recorded from the lower part of the Siwalik sediments (Dafla Formation, middle-upper Miocene) exposed at the road-cutting section of Pinjoli area in West Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh. The important morphological characters of the fossil are its narrow elliptic leaflet, cuneate base, long caudate apex, entire margin, eucamptodromous to brochidodromous secondary veins, presence of intersecondary veins, percurrent and reticulate tertiary veins and orthogonally reticulate quaternary veins. This is the first authentic record of the occurrence of leaflet comparable to R. caudata of Connaraceae from the Cenozoic sediments of India and abroad. At present R. caudata does not grow in India and is restricted only in southeast Asia especially in China and Myanmar. This taxon probably migrated to these southeast Asian regions after lower Siwalik sedimentation (middle-upper Miocene) due to climatic change caused by post-Miocene orogenic movement of the Himalaya. The recovery of this species and other earlier-described evergreen taxa from the same formation, suggests the existence of a tropical, warm and humid climatic conditions during the depositional period.

  13. Fission track dating of the Cenozoic uplift in Mabian area, southern Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN YanFen; HAN ZhuJun; WAN JingLin


    The apparent ages of samples are obtained from fission track dating of apatite samples collected from the fault zones in Mabian area, southern Sichuan Province.In addition, thermal history is simulated from the obtained data by applying AFTSolve Program, to acquire the thermal evolution history of the samples.The result shows that tectonically the Mabian area was relatively stable between 25 and 3 Ma, compared to the inner parts and other marginal areas of the Tibetan Plateau.The studied area had little response to the rapid uplift events that occurred for several times in the Tibetan Plateau during 25-3 Ma.The latest thermal event related to the activity of the Lidian fault zone (about 8 Ma) is later than that of the Ebian fault zone (18-15 Ma ) to the west, indicating to some extent that the evolution of fault activity in the Mabian area has migrated from west to east.The latest extensive tectonic uplift occurred since about 3 Ma.As compared with the Xianshuihe fault zone, the Mabian area is closer to the eastern margin of the plateau, while the time of fast cooling event in this area is later than that in the southeast segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone (3.6-3.46 Ma).It appears to support the assumption of episodic uplift and stepwise outward extension of the eastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau in late Cenozoic.

  14. Cenozoic pulsed deformation history of northeastern Tibetan Plateau reconstructed from fission-track thermochronology (United States)

    Wang, Xiuxi; Song, Chunhui; Zattin, Massimiliano; He, Pengju; Song, Ai; Li, Jijun; Wang, Qiangqiang


    The synorogenic basin deposits and bedrocks of their source terranes within and along the Tibetan Plateau contain fundamental information regarding the spatiotemporal evolution of the largest orogenic plateau on Earth. The Guide-Xining region is located on the northeastern portion of the Tibet and its Eocene-early Pleistocene basin succession is well preserved. By integrating apatite fission-track thermochronology from sedimentary and basement samples, with heavy minerals and paleocurrent data, we decipher an almost complete sequence of exhumation and depositional events during the Cenozoic. Our data indicates that the initial deformation along the Guide-Xining region occurred since the Eocene, with the reorganization of the regional tectonomorphology and the formation of a broad basin. Thereafter, this single large basin was disrupted by multiple episodes of exhumation and deformation. Our study illuminate that the multiple-stage active processes (occurred at 49-42, 36-32, 23-19, 16-13 and 8-4 Ma) work together to produce the current NE Tibetan Plateau.

  15. Fission track dating of the Cenozoic uplift in Mabian area, southern Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The apparent ages of samples are obtained from fission track dating of apatite samples collected from the fault zones in Mabian area, southern Sichuan Province. In addition, thermal history is simulated from the obtained data by applying AFT Solve Program, to acquire the thermal evolution history of the samples. The result shows that tectonically the Mabian area was relatively stable between 25 and 3 Ma, compared to the inner parts and other marginal areas of the Tibetan Plateau. The studied area had little response to the rapid uplift events that occurred for several times in the Tibetan Plateau during 25-3 Ma. The latest thermal event related to the activity of the Lidian fault zone (about 8 Ma ) is later than that of the Ebian fault zone (18-15 Ma ) to the west, indicating to some extent that the evolution of fault activity in the Mabian area has migrated from west to east. The latest extensive tectonic uplift occurred since about 3 Ma. As compared with the Xianshuihe fault zone, the Mabian area is closer to the east- ern margin of the plateau, while the time of fast cooling event in this area is later than that in the southeast segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone (3.6-3.46 Ma ). It appears to support the assumption of episodic uplift and stepwise outward extension of the eastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau in late Cenozoic.

  16. Timing, distribution, amount, and style of Cenozoic extension in the northern Great Basin (United States)

    Henry, Christopher D.; McGrew, Allen J.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Snoke, Arthur W.; Brueseke, Matthew E.


    This field trip examines contrasting lines of evidence bearing on the timing and structural style of Cenozoic (and perhaps late Mesozoic) extensional deformation in northeastern Nevada. Studies of metamorphic core complexes in this region report extension beginning in the early Cenozoic or even Late Cretaceous, peaking in the Eocene and Oligocene, and being largely over before the onset of “modern” Basin and Range extension in the middle Miocene. In contrast, studies based on low-temperature thermochronology and geologic mapping of Eocene and Miocene volcanic and sedimentary deposits report only minor, localized extension in the Eocene, no extension at all in the Oligocene and early Miocene, and major, regional extension in the middle Miocene. A wealth of thermochronologic and thermobarometric data indicate that the Ruby Mountains–East Humboldt Range metamorphic core complex (RMEH) underwent ~170 °C of cooling and 4 kbar of decompression between ca. 85 and ca. 50 Ma, and another 450 °C cooling and 4–5 kbar decompression between ca. 50 and ca. 21 Ma. These data require ~30 km of exhumation in at least two episodes, accommodated at least in part by Eocene to early Miocene displacement on the major west-dipping mylonitic zone and detachment fault bounding the RMEH on the west (the mylonitic zone may also have been active during an earlier phase of crustal extension). Meanwhile, Eocene paleovalleys containing 45–40 Ma ash-flow tuffs drained eastward from northern Nevada to the Uinta Basin in Utah, and continuity of these paleovalleys and infilling tuffs across the region indicate little, if any deformation by faults during their deposition. Pre–45 Ma deformation is less constrained, but the absence of Cenozoic sedimentary deposits and mappable normal faults older than 45 Ma is also consistent with only minor (if any) brittle deformation. The presence of ≤1 km of late Eocene sedimentary—especially lacustrine—deposits and a low-angle angular

  17. Deep Mechanical Background for the Cenozoic Volcanism in the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Xiong; Wang Jiye; Teng Jiwen


    The principle prerequisite for the formation of a volcano is the generation of a channel for magma transportation. There is little research on the deep mechanical mechanism for the formation of a magma transportation channel in the Tibetan plateau.Based on the subcrustal mantle convection-generated stress field inversed by gravity anomalies, together with its relationship to the Cenozoic volcanism in the plateau, and the mechanism of crustal fracture formation, as well as the numerical results of the evolution of mantle convection beneath the plateau, this paper investigates the deep mechanical mechanism for the formation of a magma transportation channel in the Tibetan plateau. There are two significant extensional convection-generated stress zones beneath the plateau, in which the volcanic rocks in the central and northern parts of the plateau are distributed. The Linzizong volcanism in southern Tibet correlates the upwelling mantle flow prior to the India-Asia collision or during the early stage of the collision. The magnitude of the stress is ~100 MPa, which is the same order of force that causes crustal fractures. The evidence implies that the mantle convection-generated stress is one of the principle causes of crustal fractures, and furthermore, the formation of the magma transportation channel in the Tibetan plateau.

  18. Tachylyte in Cenozoic basaltic lavas from the Czech Republic and Iceland: contrasting compositional trends (United States)

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Krmíček, Lukáš; Teschner, Claudia; Řanda, Zdeněk; Skála, Roman; Jonášová, Šárka; Fediuk, Ferry; Adamovič, Jiří; Pokorný, Richard


    Tachylytes from rift-related volcanic rocks were recognized as: (i) irregular veinlets in host alkaline lava flows of the Kozákov volcano, Czech Republic, (ii) (sub)angular xenoliths in alkaline lava of the feeding channel of the Bukovec volcano, Czech Republic, and (iii) paleosurface of a tholeiitic lava flow from Hafrafell, Iceland. The tachylyte from Kozákov is phonotephrite to tephriphonolite in composition while that from Bukovec corresponds to trachyandesite to tephriphonolite. Both glass and host rock from Hafrafell are of tholeiitic basalt composition. The tachylyte from Kozákov, compared with the host rock, revealed a substantial enrichment in major elements such as Si, Al and alkalis along with Rb, Sr, Ba, Nb, Zr, REE, Th and U. The tachylyte from Bukovec displays contrasting trends in the incompatible element contents. The similarity in composition of the Hafrafell tachylyte paleosurface layer and parental tholeiitic basalt is characteristic for lavas. The host/parent rocks and tachylytes have similar initial Sr-Nd characteristics testifying for their co-magmatic sources. The initial ɛNd values of host/parent rocks and tachylytes from the Bohemian Massif (+3.4 to +3.9) and those from Iceland (+6.3) are interpreted as primary magma values. Only the tachylyte from Bukovec shows a different ɛNd value of -2.1, corresponding to a xenolith of primarily sedimentary/metamorphic origin. The tachylyte from Kozákov is a product of an additional late magmatic portion of fluids penetrating through an irregular fissure system of basaltic lava. The Bukovec tachylyte is represented by xenoliths originated during the interaction of ascending basaltic melt with granitoids or orthogneisses, whereas the Hafrafell tachylyte is a product of a rapid cooling on the surface of a basalt flow.

  19. Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System - A New Model for the Origin of Ore-deposits (United States)

    Su, S.; Tang, Z.; Wu, G.; Deng, J.; Xiao, Q.; Luo, Z.; Cui, Y.


    Origin and emplacement processes of ore-deposits connected with intrusions remains poorly understood. Here we propose a new model 'Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System' to explain the origin of ore-deposits. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals will finally settle in the conduits at later stage of magma evolved in magma metallogenic system. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals include many types, such as sulfide melts and iron melts bearing fluids. Conduits will form along the zones of structural weakness, such as fault zone and interface of two different types of rocks. These conduits are usually very complicated in the magmatic system, exemplified by two typical ore-deposits, detailed as follows. The Jinchuan sulfide deposit, located in Gansu Province, China, is the third largest magmatic Cu-Ni Platinum Group Elements (PGE) in the world. There are mainly four orebodies (orebody 58, 24, 1, and 2) from west to east, with Ni/Cu value at 1.24, 1.56, 1.83 and 2.06 respectively; the content of Pt+Pd ranges from 0.4 to 10.3 ppm, with the highest value occurs in the west. This suggests that the direction of the melt flow bearing sulfide is from west to east and the front of the conduit system is in the east part of the deposit. Sulfide segregation in the magmatic chamber or in the conduits might have caused ore content to change in different part of the conduit systems. Another typical example is the Xishimen iron deposit, which is located in the South of Hebei Province, China. It has been considered as a skarn-type iron deposit conventionally. However, many geological evidence suggests that Xishimen iron deposit is a magmatic iron deposit instead. Such evidence includes: 1. The boundaries between iron orebodies and country rocks are obvious, no transitional relationship; 2. Iron ore body injected into the country rocks (including genesis, diorite, and marble); 3. There are some vesicular in the iron ores; 4. Magnetite as an interstitial mineral

  20. Estructuras magmáticas en granitos Magmatic structures in granites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio P. Pinotti


    hospeda.Structural aspects of granites related to mechanisms for structures development and their timing of formation are still a subject of lively debate. Many authors suggest that structures generated during magmatic stages (i.e. from early magmatic flow with mineral grains suspended in melt to late magmatic grain-supported flow are only hardly preserved in granitic bodies. In this contribution, several magmatic structures in granitoid plutons from Sierras Pampeanas are showed, where small plutons and batholithic-sized bodies are both analysed. We discuss: a map-scale lithological variations, such as principal magmatic units, where magma dynamics are evidenced by mixing processes within magmatic chamber; b metre to decametre-scale magmatic layering that may be isomodal or modally-graded; c overprinting submagmatic structures indicating interplay between plutons or pluton internal units according to regional deformation; d composite magmatic layering and schlieren commonly associated to mafic microgranular enclaves, locally within synmagmatic shear zones. These structural features can be ascribed to three main processes: a assembly of differentiated magmatic pulses; b local hydrodynamic sorting related to density currents in a mush; c mechanical disruption and chemical hybridization of mafic magmas during ascent and emplacement; among others. The identification of preserved structures in granitoids, their timing and mechanisms of formation, as well as the structural dynamic of the surrounding crust, play a prominent role in proposing emplacement models for granitic plutons.

  1. Bi-directional subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean during the Late Silurian: Magmatic records from both the southern Central Tianshan Block and northern Tarim Craton (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jinjiang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Ge, Maohui


    The subduction polarity of the South Tianshan Ocean (STO) is a matter of debate, primarily in that the Paleozoic structures of Tianshan orogenic belt have been strongly overprinted by the Cenozoic intra-continental deformation. Indentifying the arc-related magmatic rocks may provide a convincible clue for understanding the closure process of the STO. In this study, whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotope were presented on the andesite and monzonite from the Bayanbulak area of the southern Central Tianshan Block (CTB) and on the quartz diorite from the Ouxidaban area of the northern Tarim Craton. Geochemically, all the samples are Na-rich, enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Ba, U, K and Pb), and depleted in high strength field elements (Nb, Ta and Ti), like most arc-type igneous rocks. The Bayanbulak andesite samples display high MgO, Fe2O3T, TiO2 and Mg# values, and positive εHf(t) values, indicating magma source from the wedge mantle. But the existence of xenocrystic zircons implies that continental crust material were involved during magma ascend, suggesting a continental arc setting for the Bayanbulak andesite. The Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite samples display relatively higher SiO2 contents, and lower MgO, Fe2O3T and TiO2 concentrations, indicating crustal sources. But the Mg# values of the Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite are 48.76-51.85 and 50.31-53.73, and the εHf(t) values are -2.5 to 8.7 and -1.7 to 4.1, indicating that their magma sources were also mixed by mantle-derived components. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that the Bayanbulak andesite, the Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite were formed at 423, 424 Ma, and 421 Ma, respectively. The age and geochemical data indicate that both the southern CTB and northern Tarim Craton were active continental margins during the Late Silurian, favoring a bi-directional subduction

  2. The Late Pliocene mafic lavas from the Camusú Aike volcanic field (˜50°S, Argentina): Evidence for geochemical variability in slab window magmatism (United States)

    D'Orazio, M.; Innocenti, F.; Manetti, P.; Haller, M. J.; Di Vincenzo, G.; Tonarini, S.


    The Camusú Aike volcanic field (CAVF), part of the discontinuous N-S-trending belt of Cenozoic mafic lava formations that occur in a backarc position along extra-Andean Patagonia, is located in southern Patagonia (˜50°S, Santa Cruz province), approximately 70 km east of the extensive Meseta de las Vizcachas and just south of the upper Río Santa Cruz valley. The CAVF volcanics cover a surface of ˜200 km 2 and occur mainly as lava flows and scoria cones. They are subdivided into two groups: Group I volcanics are high-TiO 2, low-Mg# olivine-hypersthene-normative basalts and trachybasalts that erupted at about 2.9 Ma; Group II lavas are much less abundant, more primitive basaltic andesites that erupted at about 2.5 Ma. Both groups show a within-plate geochemical signature, though it is more marked in Group I lavas. The main geochemical characteristics, age, and location of CAVF volcanics are consistent with the slab window opening model proposed by different authors for the genesis of the Miocene-Recent mafic magmatism of Patagonia south of 46.5°S. The whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope features of Group I lavas ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.7035-0.7037; 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.51288-0.51291) indicate a genetic link between these lavas and the primitive basalts in southernmost Patagonia (Pali Aike volcanic field and Estancia Glencross area), which have been interpreted as melting products of an isotopically depleted asthenosphere. The relatively evolved compositions of the erupted Group I magmas are modeled by a polybaric crystal fractionation process without significant involvement of crustal contamination. The more primitive Group II lavas are strongly depleted in incompatible elements, have slightly higher (LREE+Ba+Th+U)/HFSE ratios, and have more enriched Sr-Nd isotope compositions ( 87Sr/ 86Sr≈0.7039; 143Nd/ 144Nd≈0.51277) that are more akin to the Patagonian basalts farther to the north. The most likely explanation for the geochemical features of Group II lavas is the

  3. Magmatic cycles pace tectonic and morphological expression of rifting (Afar depression, Ethiopia) (United States)

    Medynski, Sarah; Pik, Raphael; Burnard, Peter; Blard, Pierre-Henri


    Dyking and faulting at mid-oceanic ridges are concentrated in narrow axial volcanic zones due to focussing of both melt distribution and tectonic strain along the plate boundary. Due to the predominantly submarine location of oceanic ridges, the interplay between these processes remain poorly constrained in time and space. In this study, we use the Dabbahu-Manda Hararo (DMH) magmatic rift segment (MRS) (Afar, Ethiopia) to answers the long debated chicken-egg question about magmatic and tectonic processes in extensive context: which on comes first, and how those two processes interplay to finally form oceanic ridges? The DMH MRS is an oceanic ridge analogue and here we present quantitative slip rates on major and minor normal fault scarps for the past 40 kyr in the vicinity of a recent (September 2005) dike intrusion. Our data show that the long-term-vertical slip rates of faults that ruptured in 2005 are too low to explain the present rift topography and that the 2005 strain distribution is not the main stress accommodating mechanism in the DMH segment. Instead, we show that the axial valley topography is created by enhanced slip rates which occur only when the amount of magma available in magma reservoirs is limited, thus preventing dykes from reaching the surface. Our results suggest that development of the axial valley topography is regulated by the magma reservoir lifetime and, thus, to the magmatic cycles of replenishment/differentiation (< 100 ky). This implies that in the DMH rift system (with a magma supply typical of an intermediate spreading centre), significant topography of the axial rift valley is transient, and is expressed only when magma available in the reservoirs decreases. The absence of tilting on the rift margins over the last 200 kyr also suggests that amagmatic accommodation of extension is not required over this time period. Extension instead is accommodated by dykes injected laterally from multiple ephemeral reservoirs located along the DMH

  4. Crustal Structure And Magmatism, Coast Mountains Orogen, Latitude 52-53 degrees North, British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Rusmore, M. E.; Gehrels, G.; Woodsworth, G. J.


    New geologic data and U-Pb ages reveal complex history of arc accretion, crustal thickening and migration of magmatic fronts during deformation. Plutonic ages define distinct western and eastern Jurassic - mid Cretaceous arcs that share a common history after ~90 Ma. Juxtaposition of these arcs occurred during mid- Cretaceous crustal shortening in a dominantly SW-vergent crustal-scale thrust belt. Significant crustal thickening buried 151 Ma granitic clasts to pressures > 6 kb, and mid-Cretaceous plutons were emplaced at this depth along the axis of the orogen. Thrusting continued after establishment of the 90 Ma arc; a regional SW-verging thrust emplaced high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane and deep-seated plutons over low- grade rocks of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes. The shear zone is coincident with the western boundary of 82-89 Ma plutons and a regionally extensive, late-kinematic, sill-like pluton. Dextral shear zones preserved on the flanks of the orogen suggest a component of Late Cretaceous transpression. By 75 Ma, metamorphism, deformation, and magmatism had migrated central portions of the orogen and there is no evidence of ductile deformation and syn-kinematic metarmorphism younger than ~70 - 65 along the western flank of the orogen. The Coast shear zone localized 62-58 Ma synkinematic plutons during NE-side up displacement, creating a sharp western magmatic front. Sparse cooling ages suggest plutons and metamorphic rocks adjacent to the CSZ cooled through 500-600 deg between 54-58 Ma during exhumation along the shear zone. Voluminous granitic plutons were emplaced from ~55-50 Ma, but significant crustal extension that affected the eastern side of the orogen farther north is not evident along this transect. This history supports previous models of crustal subcretion and the generation of arc magmas in thickened crust. Definition of two pre-90 Ma arcs negates models calling for simple Andean-style orogen prior to mi