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Sample records for cenoura daucus carota

  1. Resposta de plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris) e de cenoura (Daucus carota) à deriva simulada de glyphosate e clomazone Response of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) and carrot (Daucus carota) to simulated glyphosate and clomazone drift

    OpenAIRE

    R.P. Rogoli; L.C. Fontana; S.S. Figueredo; J.A. Noldin

    2008-01-01

    Várias espécies de hortaliças são de muita importância para a alimentação humana e tornam-se alvos da deriva de herbicidas, pois comumente são cultivadas nas proximidades de culturas como arroz, soja e milho, pulverizadas com esses produtos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar possíveis efeitos de doses reduzidas dos herbicidas glyphosate e clomazone sobre plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris) e de cenoura (Daucus carota), em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento. As doses avaliadas dos herbi...

  2. Resposta de plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris e de cenoura (Daucus carota à deriva simulada de glyphosate e clomazone Response of beetroot (Beta vulgaris and carrot (Daucus carota to simulated glyphosate and clomazone drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Rogoli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Várias espécies de hortaliças são de muita importância para a alimentação humana e tornam-se alvos da deriva de herbicidas, pois comumente são cultivadas nas proximidades de culturas como arroz, soja e milho, pulverizadas com esses produtos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar possíveis efeitos de doses reduzidas dos herbicidas glyphosate e clomazone sobre plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris e de cenoura (Daucus carota, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento. As doses avaliadas dos herbicidas foram de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% da dose recomendada, equivalentes a 0, 63, 126, 189 e 252 g ha-1 de glyphosate e 0, 14,4, 28,8, 43,2 e 57,6 g ha-1 de clomazone, respectivamente, aplicadas aos 20, 30 e 40 dias após a emergência das culturas. Observou-se aumento no percentual de fitotoxicidade do glyphosate com o incremento na dose do herbicida, e a maior suscetibilidade ocorreu com a deriva nos estádios mais precoces, em ambas as espécies. As doses de clomazone não causaram qualquer sintoma detectável visualmente para as plantas de beterraba e de cenoura. Os resultados sugerem que o herbicida glyphosate causa injúrias às plantas de beterraba e cenoura, independentemente do estádio em que ocorre a interceptação do produto. No entanto, o herbicida clomazone não interfere no desenvolvimento inicial de plantas de beterraba e cenoura.Herbicide drift over horticultural crops is a common problem in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, mainly in areas near rice, soybean and corn fields. The objective of this research was to evaluate glyphosate and clomazone drift effects on beetroot (Beta vulgaris and carrot (Daucus carota plants. The herbicides were sprayed at three different growth stages: 20, 30 and 40 days after seedling emergence. Herbicide rates evaluated were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the label rate. The sprayed rates were 0, 63, 126, 189 and 252 g ha-1 of glyphosate and 0.0, 14.4, 28.8, 43.2 and 57.6 g ha-1 of clomazone. Glyphosate injury to

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAF BLIGHT OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CAUSED BY Alternaria dauci (KÜHN GROVES & SKOLKO: SURVIVAL OF Alternaria dauci IN VEGETAL RESIDUES OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CROP ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA QUEIMA DAS FOLHAS DA CENOURA (Daucus carota L. CAUSADA POR Alternaria dauci (Kühn GROVES & SKOLKO: Sobrevivência de Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & SKOLKO em restos culturais da cenoura (Daucus carota L.

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    Geraldo Martins Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The spore viability of Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & Skolko in carrot (Daucus carota L. debris which were kept at different levels of temperature and relative humidity, without light, was studied. The temperature levels tested were 8, 16, 24 and 32°C, and the relative humidity levels 3, 18, 51, 73 and 100%. The treatments were different combinations of these levels. Humidity was the more important factor in preserving the fungus spore ability to germinate and its infectivity. Under conditions of high relative humidity and temperatures of 24 and 32°C, the spores rapidly lost their viability. This did not happen when the relative humidity was equal to, or below, 51%. The survival of fungus mycelium on carrot petioles was studied in non-treated organic soil, at different humidity levels, at three different depths, during a period of 120 days. Soil humidity was the factor of major significance in the persistence of the mycelium, followed by depths and time factors. In petioles kept at depths of 10 and 20 cm in humid soil, the survival was greatly reduced, while survival was markedly higher in those kept at the surface of dry soil. The effect of humidity on the viability of mycelium was studied also under soiless condition. Petioles were maintained in relative humidity controlled chamber, at 24°C. In saturated atmosphere (100% humidity, the mycelium viability was lost in less than 20 days. It was concluded that both, the conidial and mycelial form of Alternaria dauci are quite sensitive to high humidity levels.

    Estudou-se a sobrevivência das formas conidial e miceliana de Alternaria dauci, respectivamente, sobre folhas necrosadas e pecíolos de cenoura, sob diferentes condições mesológicas. Os esporos do fungo sobre conidióforos em folhas necrosadas de cenoura foram mantidos por 120 dias sob condi

  4. Estimativa do consumo de água na cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota, L.) v. nantes superior, para a região de piracicaba, através do método do balanço hídrico Estimation of carrot water consumption (Daucus carota, L.) t. nantes superior, in piracicaba county through the water balance methodology

    OpenAIRE

    M.V.T. de Moura; S. Marques Júnior; T.A. BOTREL; J.A. Frizone

    1994-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a demanda hídrica da cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota, L.) cv. Nantes Superior, pelo método do balanço hídrico sob condições de campo, para a região de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo (22° 42' 30" S; 47° 30' 00" W, à 560 metros de altitude). Os valores de evapotranspiração máxima obtidos pelo método do balanço hídrico foram correlacionados com os valores de evapotranspiração de referência estimados pelo método de Penman, objetivando a de...

  5. Estimativa do consumo de água na cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota, L. v. nantes superior, para a região de piracicaba, através do método do balanço hídrico Estimation of carrot water consumption (Daucus carota, L. t. nantes superior, in piracicaba county through the water balance methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.T. Moura

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a demanda hídrica da cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota, L. cv. Nantes Superior, pelo método do balanço hídrico sob condições de campo, para a região de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo (22° 42' 30" S; 47° 30' 00" W, à 560 metros de altitude. Os valores de evapotranspiração máxima obtidos pelo método do balanço hídrico foram correlacionados com os valores de evapotranspiração de referência estimados pelo método de Penman, objetivando a determinação do coeficiente de cultura. O consumo total de água considerando-se um ciclo vegetativo de 101 dias foi de 365 mm, gerando um consumo médio de 3,61 mm/dia. Nesta situação, o coeficiente de cultura médio encontrado foi de 1,1.To estimate the evapotranspiration of a carrot crop (Daucus carota, L. v. Nantes Superior, under field conditions, in Piracicaba (22° 42' 30" S; 47° 30' 00" W, at 560 m., maximum evapotranspiration was determinated by the water balance method and correlated to the reference evapotranspiration estimated by Penman's method, in order to obtain the crop coefficient. The total water consumption of the vegetative cycle (101 days was about 365 mm, with a mean of 3,61 mm/dia. In this situation the mean crop coefficient was 1.1.

  6. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kevin; Cerda, Ariel; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is one of the most important vegetable cultivated worldwide and the main source of dietary provitamin A. Contrary to other plants, almost all carrot varieties accumulate massive amounts of carotenoids in the root, resulting in a wide variety of colors, including those with purple, yellow, white, red and orange roots. During the first weeks of development the root, grown in darkness, is thin and pale and devoid of carotenoids. At the second month, the thickening of the root and the accumulation of carotenoids begins, and it reaches its highest level at 3 months of development. This normal root thickening and carotenoid accumulation can be completely altered when roots are grown in light, in which chromoplasts differentiation is redirected to chloroplasts development in accordance with an altered carotenoid profile. Here we discuss the current evidence on the biosynthesis of carotenoid in carrot roots in response to environmental cues that has contributed to our understanding of the mechanism that regulates the accumulation of carotenoids, as well as the carotenogenic gene expression and root development in D. carota. PMID:27485223

  7. INFLUENCE OF AMMONIACAL FERTILIZERS IN THE MAIN ROOT BRANCHING OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. INFLUÊNCIA DOS ADUBOS AMONIACAIS NA RAMIFICAÇÃO DA RAIZ PRINCIPAL DA CENOURA (Daucus carota L.

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    Peter Ernst Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

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    Misshape of carrot roots can be incited by soil agents, like badly prepared soil and nematodes or by ammonium fertilizers. RALEIGH (Knott, cited by SILVA, found that ammonium fertilizers can kill the root and consequently cause malformation. The preference of sodium nitrate or other non-ammonium fertilizers is widely spread in Brazilian literature about carrot. MALAVOLTA (1967 even recommends only small quantities of manure to prevent root damage. REGINA (1964 advises against use of ammonium sulphate and other ammonium fertilizers for the same reason. CAMARGO (1963 also prefers sodium nitrate but mentions the possibility of substitution by ammonium sulphate, too. Although, it was impossible to find any original experimental information about, in Brazilian literature. The sodium nitrate is imported by Brazil from Chile and is therefore almost five times more expensive than ammonium sulphate, in spite of its lower nitrogen content. This trial investigated four sources of nitrogen: ammonium sulphate, sodium nitrate, urea and manure. The quantities applied were higher than MALAVOLTA recommends for carrot. The results don't show any significant difference between treatments, neither in ramification frequence nor in yield. The variety used was a cone-shaped carrot, named London. Other varieties possibly are susceptible to malformation of root by ammonium fertilizers. This will be investigated in further experiments.

    A deformação da raiz da cenoura pode ser causada por diversos agentes do solo, como nematóides, solo mal preparado e, ainda adubos ricos em amônio. Segundo RALEIGH, citado por Silva, adubos amoniacais podem matar a ponta radicular, causando assim deformação da raiz. Na literatura brasileira sobre adubação de cenoura, é muito difundida a preferência de nitrato de sódio ou outros adubos n

  8. EFEITO DA IRRADIAÇÃO IONIZANTE g NA QUALIDADE PÓS-COLHEITA DE CENOURAS (Daucus carota L. cv. NANTES

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    LIMA Keila S. Cople

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da irradiação gamasobre as características físicas e químicas pós-colheita da cenoura da cultivar Nantes. Segundo a Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar (POF, 1991 realizada na região Sudeste do Brasil, no grupo de raízes e tubérculos, a cenoura é amplamente consumida. Sabe-se, ainda que, a cenoura representa uma das melhores fontes de carotenóides provitamínicos A (alfa e beta caroteno na dieta. As cenouras foram tratadas com a irradiação ionizante gama, fonte de Césio, nas doses de 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 e 1.0kgy, atendendo a dose máxima permitida pela FDA (1995. Os diferentes tratamentos da cenoura e o grupo-controle foram avaliados através das análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, relação SST/ATT, perda de peso, firmeza, cor, carotenóides totais, ácido ascórbico (vitamina C e voláteis. A análise de variância (tratamento estatístico F de Fisher dos resultados obtidos mostrou que não houve diferença significativa ao nível de 5% entre os tratamentos e o grupo controle nas diversas análises realizadas, exceto na diferença total de cor, onde houve uma diminuição da mesma com o aumento da dose de irradiação; na acidez total titulável e na relação SST/ATT devido ao decréscimo dos ácidos orgânicos que geralmente ocorrem após a colheita. O processo de irradiação em baixas doses mostra-se promissor na manutenção da qualidade e apresenta-se como uma medida alternativa na redução de perdas pós-colheita.

  9. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto 60 em sementes de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L.), cenoura (Daucus carota L.) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) para estimular o aumento da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-07-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  10. Genetic and phenological variation of tocochromanol (vitamin E) content in wild (Daucus carota L. var. carota) and domesticated carrot (D. carota L. var. sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Claire H Luby; Hiroshi A Maeda; Irwin L Goldman

    2014-01-01

    Carrot roots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa) produce tocochromanol compounds, collectively known as vitamin E. However, little is known about their types and amounts. Here we determined the range and variation in types and amounts of tocochromanols in a variety of cultivated carrot accessions throughout carrot postharvest storage and reproductive stages and in wild-type roots (Daucus carota L. var. carota). Of eight possible tocochromanol compounds, we detected and quantified α-, and the combi...

  11. Susceptibility of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brita Dahl; Finckh, M.R.; Munk, Lisa;

    2008-01-01

    Sclerotinia soft rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a severe disease of cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus) in storage. It is not known whether Sclerotinia soft rot also affects wild carrots (D. carota ssp. carota), which hybridise and exchange genes, among them resistance...... genes, with the cultivated carrot. We investigated the susceptibility of wild carrots to S. sclerotiorum isolates from cultivated carrot under controlled and outdoor conditions. Inoculated roots from both wild and cultivated plants produced sclerotia and soft rot in a growth chamber test. Two isolates...... differed significantly in the ability to produce lesions and sclerotia on roots of both wild carrots and cv. Bolero. Flowering stems of wild carrots produced dry, pale lesions after inoculation with the pathogen, and above-ground plant weight was significantly reduced 4 weeks after inoculation...

  12. Hypotensive action of coumarin glycosides from Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, A H; Shaheen, E; Saeed, S A; Bibi, S; Irfanullah; Sadiq, M; Faizi, S

    2000-10-01

    Daucus carota (carrot) has been used in traditional medicine to treat hypertension. Activity-directed fractionation of aerial parts of D. carota resulted in the isolation of two cumarin glycosides coded as DC-2 and DC-3. Intravenous administration of these compounds caused a dose-dependent (1-10 mg/kg) fall in arterial blood pressure in normotensive anaesthetised rats. In the in vitro studies, both compounds caused a dose-dependent (10-200 microg/ml) inhibitory effect on spontaneously beating guinea pig atria as well as on the K+ -induced contractions of rabbit aorta at similar concentrations. These results indicate that DC-2 and DC-3 may be acting through blockade of calcium channels and this effect may be responsible for the blood pressure lowering effect of the compounds observed in the in vivo studies. PMID:11081994

  13. Evaluation of total carotenoids, alpha- and beta-carotene in carrots (Daucus carota L. during home processing Avaliação de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenoura (Daucus carota L. durante processamento a nível doméstico

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    Helena Maria PINHEIRO-SANT’ANA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of dehydration and different preparation methods during home processing related toalpha-carotene, beta-carotene and total carotenoids stability in carrots. Vitamin A values were evaluated after different treatments. Thus, carrots were submitted to steam cooking, water cooking with and without pressure, moist/dry cooking and conventional dehydration. Determination of alpha- and beta-carotenes was made by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC (conditions were developed by us using spectrophotometric detection visible-UV at 470 nm; a RP-18 column and methanol: acetonitrile: ethyl acetate (80: 10: 10 as mobile phase. Total carotenoids quantification was made by 449 nm spectrophotometer. The retention of the analyzed carotenoids ranged from 60.13 to 85.64%. Water cooking without pressure promoted higher retention levels of alpha- and beta-carotene and vitamin A values, while water cooking with pressure promoted higher retention levels of total carotenoids. Dehydration promoted the highest carotenoid losses. The results showed that, among the routinely utilized methods under domestic condition, cooking without pressure, if performed under controlled time and temperature, is the best method as it reduces losses in the amount of alpha- and beta-carotene, the main carotenoids present in the carrots. Despite the significant carotenoid losses, carrots prepared through domestic methods, remain a rich source of provitamin A.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência da desidratação e de diferentes métodos de preparo a nível doméstico sobre a estabilidade de alfa-caroteno, beta-caroteno e carotenóides totais em cenouras. Os valores de vitamina A foram avaliados após os diferentes tratamentos. Para tanto, amostras de cenoura foram submetidas à cocção a vapor, cocção em água com e sem pressão, cocção úmida/seca e à desidratação convencional. Para a determinação de alfa e beta

  14. Genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus)(Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated domestication and genetic structure in wild and open pollinated cultivated carrots (Daucus carota L.) with 3481 SNPs developed from carrot transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear genetic separation between wild and cultivated carrot accessions. Among the wild ...

  15. Reassessment of practical species identifications of the USDA Daucus carota germplasm collection: Morphological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Daucus includes about 20 species. The most widespread and economically important species, Daucus carota L., occurs on almost every continent. Cultivated carrot, subsp. sativus, has been selected from wild populations that are extremely diverse, especially in the western Mediterranean. Obli...

  16. Reassessment of practical subspecies identifications of the USDA Daucus carota L. germplasm collection: Morphological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Daucus includes about 20 species. The most widespread and economically important species, Daucus carota L., occurs on almost every continent. Cultivated carrot, subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Schubl. & G. Martens, has been selected from wild populations that are extremely diverse, especially in t...

  17. Hot air convective dehydration characteristics of Daucus carota var. Nantes

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    Raees-ul Haq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on experimental and theoretical study of air dehydration kinetics of Daucus carota var. Nantes in laboratory scale drying chamber. Steam blanching as a pretreatment was applied prior to dehydration of shreds and the results indicated a gradual decrease in drying time from 2.9 to 5.5% in temperature range of 50–70°C, for steam blanched samples in comparison to untreated carrots. Four different mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page and Henderson and Pabis were evaluated for goodness of fit by comparing their respective R2, χ2, and RMSE parameters. Comparison of the statistical parameters led to conclusion that Page model showed a better quality of fit and presents dehydration characteristics in better way to obtain drying curves than any other model.

  18. New Claims for Wild Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. carota) Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Silva, Jorge M; Zuzarte, Mónica; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Cardoso, Susana M; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil of Daucus carota subsp. carota from Portugal, with high amounts of geranyl acetate (29.0%), α-pinene (27.2%), and 11αH-himachal-4-en-1β-ol (9.2%), was assessed for its biological potential. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, dermatophytes, and Aspergillus strains. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were evaluated showing a significant activity towards Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 0.32-0.64 μL/mL), Cryptococcus neoformans (0.16 μL/mL), and dermatophytes (0.32-0.64 μL/mL). The inhibition of the germ tube formation and the effect of the oil on Candida albicans biofilms were also unveiled. The oil inhibited more than 50% of filamentation at concentrations as low as 0.04 μL/mL (MIC/128) and decreased both biofilm mass and cell viability. The antioxidant capacity of the oil, as assessed by two in chemico methods, was not relevant. Still, it seems to exhibit some anti-inflammatory potential by decreasing nitric oxide production around 20% in LPS-stimulated macrophages, without decreasing macrophages viability. Moreover, the oils safety profile was assessed on keratinocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, and hepatocytes. Overall, the oil demonstrated a safety profile at concentrations below 0.64 μL/mL. The present work highlights the bioactive potential of D. carota subsp. carota suggesting its industrial exploitation. PMID:26981143

  19. HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF DAUCUS CAROTA SEEDS IN NORMAL RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Kamlesh Singh; Hemant Dhongade; Nisha Singh; Pranita Kashyap

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota seeds in Normal rats.Method: Rats were divided in to 4 groups. First control group, treated with vehicle only for 7 days. Second group was standard, treated with lovastatin (7.2mg/kg) for 7 days. Third and fourth group were test, treated with Daucus carota seeds extract (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) for 7 days. 8th day blood sample was collected by retro orbital route and lipid profiles were estimated in serum.Result and Conclu...

  20. Construction and characterization of a deep-coverage carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first carrot (Daucus carota L.) BAC library was constructed using imbred line B8503, which is nematode-resistant and accumulates carotenes in its roots. The BAC library consists of 92,160 clones comprising 22.4 haploid genome equivalents based on a genome size of 473 Mb/1C. Upon the analysis of ...

  1. Genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus L.) (Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships illuminate the origin and domestication of modern crops. Despite being an important world-wide vegetable, the genetic structure and domestication of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is poorly understood. We provide the first such study using a la...

  2. Genome-wide association of the domestication syndrome in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrots (Daucus carota L.) were domesticated over 1,000 years ago in Central Asia. Two traits selected during domestication were increased carotenoid accumulation (white -> yellow -> orange root color) and decreased lateral root formation. While some preliminary research has been conducted on the un...

  3. Expression Analysis of Carotenoid Biosynthesis Genes in Carrot (Daucus Carota) Using Real Time Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is an important source of pro-vitamin A in the human diet, as well as other important antioxidant compounds. While essential to human health, very little is currently understood about the accumulation of carotenoids, the vitamin A precursors within the storage root that give ...

  4. Understanding the molecular mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in carrot (Daucus carota) using real time quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is an important source of pro-vitamin A in the human diet, as well as other important antioxidant compounds. While essential to human health, very little is currently understood about the accumulation of carotenoids, the vitamin A precursors within the storage root that give ...

  5. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for genotyping and mapping in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is one of the most important root vegetable crops grown worldwide on more than one million hectares. Its progenitor, wild Daucus carota, is a weed commonly occurring across continents in the temperate climatic zone. Diversity Array Technology (DArT) is a microarray-based molecular marker syst...

  6. The next generation of carotenoid studies in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the richest sources of naturally occurring ß-carotene while red and yellow carrot varieties contain large quantities of lycopene and lutein. The human body utilizes carotenoids, particularly ß-carotene (provitamin A) as a precursor for the production of ret...

  7. Compatibility Relations Between the Edible Carrot Daucus Carota and D. Pusillus, a Related Wild Species from the Argentinian Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish the feasibility of hybridization between the wild carrot species Daucus pusillus Michx. (2n = 2x = 22; 2n = 2x = 22 and 20), collected in the pampas grasslands of Argentina, and the edible carrot, Daucus carota L. (2n = 2x = 18), controlled pollinations were attempted on the plant. Due ...

  8. Carotamine, a Unique Aromatic Amide from Daucus Carota L. Var Biossieri (Apiaceae

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    Mohamed M. El-Azizi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique aromatic peptide 4-(p-aminobenzoylamino-2-aminobenzoic acid, carotamine, together with 2,4-diaminobenzoic acid, isolated for the first time from a plant source, were identified from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Daucus carota L. var. boissieri (Apiaceae. The structures were determined through conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by LC-ESI/MS and NMR spectral analysis.

  9. GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM THE ROOTS OF DAUCUS CAROTA L IN RATS

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    Nayeem Khatib

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Daucus carota L. (Apiaceae, is used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric disorders viz., acidity and gastric ulcers. The present study was undertaken to determine the gastroprotective potential of the fresh juice extract of the roots of Daucus carota. The juice extract of the roots of Daucus carota (DCE was tested orally at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, on gastric ulceration experimentally induced by pylorus ligation, aspirin and ethanol induced. The parameters considered to assess the anti-ulcer activity were volume of gastric secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity, mucus content and ulcer index. The DCE at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg, significantly decreased gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index, while it increased the pH and the mucus content as compared with control. The DCE at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced 60.45, 56.80 and 43.51 % significant inhibition when gastric ulceration were induced by pylorus ligation, aspirin and ethanol, respectively. The DCE possesses gastroprotective property and the results supported traditional uses of the roots of this plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer and acidity.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of Daucus (Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the phylogeny of 22 accessions of Daucus: D. broteri, D. capillifolius, D. carota, D. carota subsp. carota, D. carota subsp. commutatus, D. carota subsp. commutatus, D. carota subsp. drepanensis, D. carota subsp. gadecaei, D. carota subsp. gummifer, D. carota subsp. halophilius, D. carota...

  11. Bioreduction of substituted {alpha}-tetralones promoted by Daucus carota root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, Helena M.C.; Bianco, Graziela G.; Bombonato, Fernanda I.; Andrade, Leandro H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: grazielabianco@gmail.com; Porto, Andre L.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The bioreduction of a series of substituted {alpha}-tetralones, carried out using Daucus carota root (carrot), afforded the corresponding homochiral {alpha}-tetralols in variable conversions (9 to 90%) and excellent enantiomeric excesses. Two of the assayed {alpha}-tetralones were resistant to the bioreduction conditions. The absolute configurations of four {alpha}-tetralols were assigned as being (S), by comparison to the (S)-enantiomers obtained by kinetic resolution promoted by CALB-catalysed acetylation. Additionally, the new 5-methoxy-6-methyl-1-tetralone was synthesized in seven steps from 3-methylsalicylic acid. (author)

  12. Bioreduction of substituted α-tetralones promoted by Daucus carota root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioreduction of a series of substituted α-tetralones, carried out using Daucus carota root (carrot), afforded the corresponding homochiral α-tetralols in variable conversions (9 to 90%) and excellent enantiomeric excesses. Two of the assayed α-tetralones were resistant to the bioreduction conditions. The absolute configurations of four α-tetralols were assigned as being (S), by comparison to the (S)-enantiomers obtained by kinetic resolution promoted by CALB-catalysed acetylation. Additionally, the new 5-methoxy-6-methyl-1-tetralone was synthesized in seven steps from 3-methylsalicylic acid. (author)

  13. Development of a high-throughput SNP resource to advance genomic, genetic and breeding research in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid advancement in high-throughput SNP genotyping technologies along with next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms has decreased the cost, improved the quality of large-scale genome surveys, and allowed specialty crops with limited genomic resources such as carrot (Daucus carota) to access t...

  14. Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

    2006-01-01

    The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

  15. Metabolic cycles in primary metabolism of cell suspensions of Daucus carota L. analysed by C-NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krook, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the work described in this thesis, uptake and conversion of sugar by cells of batch-grown suspensions of Daucus carota L. were studied. Invasive techniques (measurements of enzyme activities and sugar and starch levels) and non-invasive techniques ( 13C-NMR) were used to

  16. In vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extracts of Daucus carota seeds in experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamlesh Singh; Nisha Singh; Anish Chandy; Ashish Manigauha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the In vivo antioxidFant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Daucus carota (D. carota) seeds in experimental animals. Methods: Methanolic extracts of D. carota seeds is used for hepatoprotection assessment. Oxidative stress were induced in rats by thioacetamide 100 mg/kg s.c, in four groups of rats (two test, standard and toxic control). Two test groups received D. carota seeds extract (DCSE) at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Standard group received silymarin (25 mg/kg) and toxic control received only thioacetamide. Control group received only vehicle. On the 8th day animals were sacrificed and liver enzyme like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in blood serum and antioxidant enzyme like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated in liver homogenate. Results: A significant decrease in SGPT, SGOT and ALP levels was observed in all drug treated groups as compared to thioacetamide group (P < 0.001) and in case of antioxidant enzyme a significant (P < 0.001) increase in SOD, CAT, GRD, GPX and GST was observed in all drug treated groups as compared with thioacetamide group. But in case of LPO a significant (P< 0.001) reduction was observed as compared to toxic control group. Conclusions: DCSE has contributed to the reduction of oxidative stress and the protection of liver in experimental rats.

  17. Bioactive C₁₇-Polyacetylenes in Carrots (Daucus carota L.): Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Dunemann, Frank; Schwab, Wilfried; Nothnagel, Thomas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-10-28

    C17-polyacetylenes (PAs) are a prominent group of oxylipins and are primarily produced by plants of the families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, and Asteraceae, respectively. Recent studies on the biological activity of polyacetylenes have indicated their potential to improve human health due to anticancer, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and serotogenic effects. These findings suggest targeting vegetables with elevated levels of bisacetylenic oxylipins, such as falcarinol, by breeding studies. Due to the abundant availability, high diversity of cultivars, worldwide experience, and high agricultural yields, in particular, carrot (Daucus carota L.) genotypes are a very promising target vegetable. This paper provides a review on falcarinol-type C17-polyacetylenes in carrots and a perspective on their potential as a future contributor to improving human health and well-being. PMID:26451696

  18. Genes of resistance to carrot soft rot in Daucus carota germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erwinia carotovora is a casual agent of soft rot in the carrot. This disease causes severe root losses in the crop, mainly during post-harvest storage but also in the field in the late growing season. Of the many cultivars screened in our department between 1988 and 1990, we found none that was resistant. Consequently, we started to look for sources of resistance genes among wild Daucus carota subspecies. Resistant plants were used for callus production, which will constitute the material for in vitro selection. Resistance to Erwinia carotovora is rather rare. Proof of this is research on the potato, which has been conducted for many years and where the only source of resistance that has been found is the wild species Solanumb brevidens. 3 refs

  19. Myo-Inositol trisphosphate mobilizes calcium from fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether or not inositol trisphosphate (IP3) mobilizes calcium in higher plant cells; they investigated the effect of IP3 on Ca2+ fluxes in fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts. The protoplasts were incubated in 45Ca2+-containing medium and the 45Ca2+ associated with the protoplasts was monitored with time. Addition of IP3 (20 micromolar) caused a 17% net loss of the accumulated 45Ca2+ within 4 minutes. There was a reuptake of 45Ca2+ and the protoplasts recovered to their initial value by 10 minutes. Phytic acid (IP6), also stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux from the protoplasts. Both the IP3- and the IP6-induced 45Ca2+ efflux were inhibited by the calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine

  20. Daucus carota pentane-based fractions arrest the cell cycle and increase apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shebaby, Wassim N; Mroueh, Mohammad; Bodman-Smith, Kikki; Mansour, Anthony; Taleb, Robin I; Costantine F. Daher; El-Sibai, Mirvat

    2014-01-01

    Background Daucus carota L.ssp.carota (wild carrot), an herb used in folk medicine worldwide, was recently demonstrated to exhibit anticancer activity. In this study we examined the anticancer effect of Daucus carota oil extract (DCOE) fractions on the human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 and clarified the mechanism of action. Methods and results Using the WST assay, the pentane fraction (F1) and 1:1 pentane:diethyl ether fraction (F2) were shown to possess the highest ...

  1. N-acetyl glutamate kinase from Daucus carota suspension cultures: embryogenic expression profile, purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke M; Loukanina, Natalia; Ferrar, Tony S; Moorhead, Greg B G; Thorpe, Trevor A

    2005-09-01

    In Daucus carota, N-acetylglutamate-5-phosphotransferase (NAGK; E.C. 2.7.2.8) specific activity was shown to correlate with the progression of somatic embryogenesis and was highest in the latter stages, where growth was most rapid. The enzyme was subsequently purified greater than 1200-fold using heat treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration, anion exchange and dye ligand chromatography. Carrot NAGK was shown to have a subunit molecular weight of 31 kDa and form a hexamer. The Kms for NAG and ATP are 5.24 and 2.11 mM, respectively. Arginine (Arg) is a K-type allosteric inhibitor of the enzyme, and Hill coefficients in the order of 5 in the presence of Arg suggest that the enzyme is highly cooperative. D. carota NAGK does not bind to Arabidopsis thaliana PII affinity columns, nor does the A. thaliana PII increase NAGK specific activity, indicating its cellular location is probably different. PMID:16289950

  2. Pharmacological evaluation of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota Linn root formulated cream on wound healing using excision and incision wound model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mithun Vishwanath K Patil; Amit D Kandhare; Sucheta D Bhise

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Daucus carota L. (Carrot) (Apiaceae) is used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of variety of ailments. The aim of present investigation was to formulate and evaluate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota L. root on excision wound model and incision wound model. Methods: The soft paraffin based cream containing 1%, 2% and 4% w/w of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota L. (EEDC) root was formulated and evaluated for pharmaceutical parameters such as rheological properties, pH, skin irritation and external characters. Excision wounds sized 300 mm2 and 2 mm depth were used for the study of rate of contraction of wound and epithelization at different time intervals. Incision wounds six centimeter long and two linear-paravertebral incisions were used for the study of tensile strength, total protein and hydroxyproline content measured on 10th day old incision wound. Results: Ethanolic extract of Daucus carota L. root cream formulation when applied topically did not show any sign and symptoms of skin irritation. Animals treated with topical EEDC cream formulation (1%, 2%and 4% w/w) showed significance decrease in wound area, epithelization period and scar width whereas rate of wound contraction significantly increased (P<0.01, P<0.001 and P<0.001 resp.) as compared to control group animals in excision wound model. In incision wound model there was significant increase (P<0.01 and P<0.001) in tensile strength, hydroxyproline content and protein content of animals treated with topical EEDC cream formulation (2% and 4% w/w, respectively). Conclusions: Wound-healing property of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota L. root may be attributed to the various phytoconstituents like flavonoids and phenolic derivatives present in the root and the quicker process of wound healing could be a function of either its antioxidant or antimicrobial potential. The present findings provide scientific evidence to the ethanomedicinal properties of Daucus

  3. Comparison of carrot (Daucus carota drying in microwave and in vacuum microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Béttega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a single operation employed to prolong the life of a large quantity of vegetables. Carrot (Daucus carota drying has been the subject of many studies. This plant has been highlighted in the human diet for having high nutritional value, mainly due to the high content of β-carotene. In this work, carrot drying behavior was studied in a regular microwave dryer and a vacuum microwave dryer. A vacuum of 450 mmHg was applied for drying of carrot in different geometrical shapes (cubes, discs and sticks. The samples were dried at power ratings of 1.0 W/g, 1.5 W/g and 2.0 W/g for both methods of drying. The evolution of physical properties such as density, volume and porosity was monitored and related to the moisture content of the sample and to the method of drying and power rating used. The geometric shape of the sample influenced the drying kinetics and it was verified that the cubic form was responsible for a slower drying. The application of vacuum showed no major changes in the drying kinetics in microwave but influenced the physical properties of the material. The influence of power ratings on the content of β-carotene was also evaluated and discussed. The main difference observed was the lower shrinkage of the samples dried in the vacuum microwave compared to those dried only in microwave.

  4. Regulation of ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling during root development in carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Long; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Li, Meng-Yao; Tan, Guo-Fei; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA), also known as vitamin C, is an essential nutrient in fruits and vegetables. The fleshy root of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a good source of AsA for humans. However, the metabolic pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of AsA content during root development in carrot have not been elucidated. To gain insights into the regulation of AsA accumulation and to identify the key genes involved in the AsA metabolism, we cloned and analyzed the expression of 21 related genes during carrot root development. The results indicate that AsA accumulation in the carrot root is regulated by intricate pathways, of which the l-galactose pathway may be the major pathway for AsA biosynthesis. Transcript levels of the genes encoding l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase and l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase were strongly correlated with AsA levels during root development. Data from this research may be used to assist breeding for improved nutrition, quality, and stress tolerance in carrots. PMID:25956452

  5. Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min-Jiao; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Xiong, Zhi; Park, Dong-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-08-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated YIM 690008T, was isolated from Daucus carota collected from South Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The strain grew well on most media tested and no diffusible pigment was produced. The aerial mycelium formed wrinkled single spores and short spore chains, some of which were branched. The whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, mannose, ribose, galactose and rhamnose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H4), MK-10(H6), MK-10(H8) and MK-10(H2). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, some unknown phospholipids, glycolipids and polar lipids. The major fatty acids were i-C16 : 0, ai-C17 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolate belongs to the family Nocardiopsaceae. However, based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, it was concluded that strain YIM 690008T represents a novel genus and novel species of the family Nocardiopsaceae, for which the name Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain YIM 690008T = DSM 46770T = JCM 30099T = KCTC 29480T) is proposed. PMID:25948617

  6. Nutritional Content and Antioxidant Properties of Pulp Waste from Daucus carota and Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamala, B N; Jamuna, P

    2010-12-01

    This study reports the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of pulp waste from two vegetables, carrot (Daucus carota) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris). Different in vitro assays used for determining antioxidant potential of extracts of pulp wastes were: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method. Total polyphenols, tannins and antioxidative components such as vitamin C, total carotenoids and β-carotene were analysed in the samples. The moisture content of samples ranged from 79 - 84%. The protein content was high in beetroot (13.23 mg/100g) and low in carrot (6.21mg/100g). Total polyphenols were higher in methanol extracts of samples (220-250 mg/100g) compared to ethanol and aqueous extracts. The antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH method exhibited 40% and 78% activity in methanol extracts of carrot and beetroot pulp waste (20 mg) respectively. Overall, the results suggest that carrot and beetroot pulp wastes can be exploited for their nutrients and antioxidant components and used for value addition in food formulations. Hence, these results pave the way for utilisation of bio-wastes from the food industry. PMID:22691993

  7. Daucus carota Pentane/Diethyl Ether Fraction Inhibits Motility and Reduces Invasion of Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, Perla; Daher, Costantine F; Mroueh, Mohamad; Nasrallah, Anita; Taleb, Robin I; El-Sibai, Mirvat

    2014-01-01

    Daucus carota (DC) is a herb used in folklore medicine in Lebanon to treat numerous diseases including cancer. Recent studies in our laboratory on DC oil and its fractions revealed potent anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo. The present study aims to investigate the effect of the most potent DC fraction, pentane/diethyl ether (50:50), on lung, skin, breast and glioblastoma cancer cell motility and invasion. Upon treatment, a pronounced decrease in cancer cell motility was observed in the 4 cell lines. The treatment also led to a decrease in cancer cell invasion and an increased cell adhesion. Additionally, the DC fraction caused a decrease in the activation of the ρ-GTPases Rac and CDC42, a finding that may partially explain the treatment-induced decrease in cell motility. The current study demonstrates a crucial effect of the DC pentane/diethyl ether fraction on cancer cell motility and metastasis, making it a potential candidate for cancer therapy specifically targeting cancer motility and metastasis. PMID:26088465

  8. Identification and Characterization of Terpene Synthases Potentially Involved in the Formation of Volatile Terpenes in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Tholl, Dorothea; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick; Simon, Philipp W; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-05-20

    Plants produce an excess of volatile organic compounds, which are important in determining the quality and nutraceutical properties of fruit and root crops, including the taste and aroma of carrots (Daucus carota L.). A combined chemical, biochemical, and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the differential accumulation of volatile terpenes in a diverse collection of fresh carrots (D. carota L.). Here, we report on a transcriptome-based identification and functional characterization of two carrot terpene synthases, the sesquiterpene synthase, DcTPS1, and the monoterpene synthase, DcTPS2. Recombinant DcTPS1 protein produces mainly (E)-β-caryophyllene, the predominant sesquiterpene in carrot roots, and α-humulene, while recombinant DcTPS2 functions as a monoterpene synthase with geraniol as the main product. Both genes are differentially transcribed in different cultivars and during carrot root development. Our results suggest a role for DcTPS genes in carrot aroma biosynthesis. PMID:25924989

  9. Color evolution of aqueous solutions obtained by thermal processing of carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: influence of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, H; Cazor, A; Trinh, D

    2008-05-01

    The color of aqueous solutions obtained by heating carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots in water ("stocks") is different when the thermal treatment is applied with or without exposure to light. CIE L*, a*, and b* scale values of stocks processed for different times were recorded and 4 patterns were initially observed. To explain the 1st part of this evolution (patterns 1 and 2), pectin extraction and beta-elimination in stocks were studied. Light dependence was investigated to explain patterns 3 and 4. A model with 2 compounds is proposed to explain all the color variations. PMID:18460127

  10. Analytical and biological studies of kanji and extracts of its ingredient, daucus carota L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fermented beverage, Kanji, prepared from roots of Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang. var. vavilovii Mazk. (Apiaceae), despite long usage history has not been investigated for analytical studies and biological activities. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate different types of Kanji samples and various types of extracts/fractions of root of the plant for a number of analytical studies and in vitro antioxidant activities. The Kanji sample, Lab-made Kanji, having better analytical and biological profile was further investigated for preliminary clinical studies. The analytical studies indicated that Lab-made Kanji was having comparatively higher contents of phytochemicals than that of the commercial Kanji samples, different types of extracts and fractions (P < 0.05). All the Kanji samples and aqueous and ethanol extracts of fresh roots exhibited comparable antioxidant activities in DPPH assay (52.20 - 54.19%) that were higher than that of methanol extract (48.78%) of dried roots. The antiradical powers (1/ EC50) of Lab-made Kanji and aqueous extract were found to be higher than that of the ethanol and methanol extracts. In beta-carotene linoleate assay, the Kanji samples showed higher activity than that of the methanol extract, but comparable to that of the vitamin-E and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) (P < 0.05). A preliminary clinical evaluation indicated that Kanji has no harmful effect on blood components, liver function and serum lipid profile. The results of the present study indicate that Kanji is an effective antioxidant beverage. (author)

  11. Combating photooxidative stress in green hairy roots of Daucus carota cultivated under light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Chiranjit; Sircar, Debabrata; Chatterjee, Moniya; Das, Sampa; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2014-01-15

    The light-dependent generation of active oxygen species, which can disrupt normal metabolic process of plant, is termed as photo-oxidative stress. Plants are equipped with enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defence system to reduce the effect of such stress. Hairy root culture of Daucus carota when cultivated under continuous illumination (250 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) turned green. To know the reason behind that and photo-oxidative stress response in green hairy roots, activities of several antioxidant enzymes were measured. When compared with normal hairy roots, green hairy roots showed an enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Treatment with a SOD inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate led to suppression of SOD activity in a concentration-dependent manner in green hairy roots. Interestingly, SOD-suppressed root showed three-fold enhanced caffeic acid glucoside accumulation in the soluble fraction as compared to untreated ones. While ascorbate peroxidase activity showed marginal increase in green hairy roots, a decrease in the activities of guaiacol peroxidase and catalase were observed. SDS-PAGE of crude protein profile from green hairy roots showed a distinct band, which was absent in normal hairy roots. MALDI-TOF-MS/MS analysis of the extracted protein confirmed it as the large subunit of RuBisCO. RT-PCR based expression analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase showed enhanced transcript levels in green hairy roots as compared to normal hairy roots, whereas reverse trends were observed with the transcripts accumulation for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase. These findings corroborate with the in vitro BADH activities in hairy roots, and thus indicate an important role of this stress enzyme in combating photo-oxidative stress in green hairy roots upon continuous light exposure. PMID:24331434

  12. Carrot (Daucus carota L . ssp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. as source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita BYSTRICKÁ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carrot (Daucus carota L. s sp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. is a significant source of vitamins (A, B, C and beta carotene. Further it contains vitamins B, C, E, H, folic acid and pantothenic acid. Carrot is an important source of trace elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, P, S, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Consumption of carrot improves eyesight, lowers cholesterol and improves digestion. In this work we evaluated and compared content of total polyphenols, ß-caroteneand antioxidant activity in five varieties of carrot (’Jitka’, Kardila’, Katlen , Rubína’ and Koloseum Samples of carrot were collected at full maturity stages from area of Bardejov. Samples of fresh carrot were homogenized (25 g in 50 ml 80 % ethanol and analysed after sixteen hours. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The content of ß-carotene was determined spectrophotometricaly at 450 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm using spectrophotometer. Total polyphenols content in samples ranged from 81.25 ± 13.11 mg/kg to 113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg and content of ß-carotenes ranged from 24.58 ± 2.38 mg/kg to 124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg. We also evaluated and compared the antioxidant activity in selected varieties of ca rrot, which varied from 6.88 ± 0.92 % to 9.83 ± 0.62 %. Statistically si gnificant the highest value of total polyphenols was recorded in variety of Koloseum (113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg. This variety is also character ized by the highest content of ß- carotene (124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg as well as the highest value of antioxidant activity (9.83 ± 0.62 %.

  13. Cadmium and zinc toxicity effects on growth and mineral nutrients of carrot (Daucus Carota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was carried out in two successive seasons of 2006 and 2007 on carrot (Daucus carota L. var. Nantesa superior) at the Ministry of Local Government (Al Zahra Municipality), Gaza Strip, Palestine. It aimed to study the effect of (Cd and Zn) at different rates (10, 20 and 40 mu g g-1 Cd) and (75, 150 and 225 mu g g-1 Zn) on carrot plants. All of the studied growth characters (fresh and dry weights of shoot and root) and some of growth analysis (leaf weight ratio (LWR), relative growth rate (RGR mg g/sup -1d-1/), the rate of production of one sub-cellular component per unit of Cd and Zn (mg/g Cd or Zn per day) and specific utilization rate (SUR mg dw mg Cd/sup -1/ or Zn/sup -1/ d/sup -1/) decreased with increasing Cd either alone or combined with Zn soil addition at all levels, but it increased when Zn (at all levels) was added, with some exception. Moreover attempts were carried out to reduce the toxic effect of Cd on the plants by using different rates of Zn soil addition. The effect of Cd and Zn either alone or their combination on minerals (N, P and K) in plant (shoot and root) were studied. Increase in K, P and N concentrations was recorded by the carrot shoots and roots supplied with the all levels of Zn soil addition either alone or combined with Cd soil addition. Adding Zn alone was found to insignificantly affect growth characters, but if it was combined with Cd in different levels, it overcome to some extent the toxicity of Cd on growth characters as well as minerals concentrations. (author)

  14. Quantification of the relative abundance of plastome to nuclear genome in leaf and root tissues of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.), is an important horticultural crop with significant health benefits, providing pro-vitamin A carotenoids in the human diet. Carotenoids primarily serve as photoprotectants in leaves during photosynthesis where they accumulate in chloroplasts. Carotenoids can also accumulat...

  15. Quantification of the Ratio of Plastid to Chromosomal Genome in Leaf and Root Tissue of Carrot (Daucus Carota) Using Real Time Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota), is an important horticultural crop with significant health benefits associated with providing pro-vitamin A carotenoids in the human diet. These carotenoid pigments primarily serve as photoprotectants during photosynthesis, but also provide pigment to attract pollinators and ...

  16. Formation of norisoprenoid flavor compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots: characterization of a cyclic-specific carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments that upon oxidative cleavage lead to the production of norisoprenoids that have profound effect on flavor and aromas of agricultural produce. The biosynthetic pathway to norisoprenoids in carrots (Daucus carota L.) is still widely unknown. We found that geranial i...

  17. Estudio Cinético y de Superficie de Respuesta para la Rehidratación de Zanahorias (Daucus carota) Liofilizadas Kinetic Study and Surface Response Analysis on the Rehydration of Frozen-dried Carrot (Daucus carota)

    OpenAIRE

    María L Zambrano; Deborah B Rodríguez; Alfredo Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    Se estudio el efecto de la temperatura sobre la cinética, el coeficiente de difusión y la adición de ácido cítrico y cloruro de sodio sobre la rehidratación de zanahorias (Daucus carota). Se aplicó un diseño de superficie de respuesta con 4 factores y 3 puntos centrales. No se encontró diferencia significativa (a=0.05) a temperaturas de 70 y 93ºC con constante cinética promedio de 0.42 min-1, con diferencias entre los coeficientes de difusión entre 6.1 a 3.18 x10-9m²/s. Las variables de mayor...

  18. Modeling the transfer of arsenic from soil to carrot (Daucus carota L.)--a greenhouse and field-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changfeng; Zhou, Fen; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-07-01

    Reliable empirical models describing arsenic (As) transfer in soil-plant systems are needed to estimate the human As burden from dietary intake. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in parallel with a field trial located at three sites through China to develop and validate soil-plant transfer models to predict As concentrations in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Stepwise multiple linear regression relationships were based on soil properties and the pseudo total (aqua regia) or available (0.5 M NaHCO3) soil As fractions. Carrot As contents were best predicted by the pseudo total soil As concentrations in combination with soil pH and Fe oxide, with the percentage of variation explained being up to 70 %. The constructed prediction model was further validated and improved to avoid overprotection using data from the field trial. The final obtained model is of great practical relevance to the prediction of As uptake under field conditions. PMID:25750050

  19. Eating Quality of Carrots (Daucus carota L.) Grown in One Conventional and Three Organic Cropping Systems over Three Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L; Edelenbos, Merete

    2015-11-11

    The eating quality of carrots (Daucus carota L.) was investigated to evaluate the impact of cropping systems (one conventional and three organic systems) and growing years (2007, 2008, and 2009) on root size, chemical composition, and sensory quality. The content of dry matter, sugars, polyacetylenes, and terpenes as well as the sensory quality and root size were related to the climate during the three growing years. A higher global radiation and a higher temperature sum in 2009 as compared to 2007 and 2008 resulted in larger roots, higher contents of dry matter, sucrose, total sugars, and total polyacetylenes, and lower contents of terpenes, fructose, and glucose. No differences were found between conventional and organic carrots with regard to the investigated parameters. This result shows that organically grown carrots have the same eating quality as conventionally grown carrots, while being produced in a more sustainable way. PMID:26513153

  20. Investigation and Assessment of 40K Accumulation in the Segments of an Ordinary Carrot (Daucus carota L. and Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mikalauskienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an alteration in specific activity and transfer factor of naturally occurring radionuclide 40K from soil with a loamy structure to the segments of root vegetables – an ordinary carrot (Daucus carota L. and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.. The paper establishes the specific activity of 40K in soil and vegetable segments and evaluates transfer factors (TF. The obtained data show that the transfer factor of naturally occurring radionuclide 40K from soil to the segments of the ordinary carrot (Daucus carota L. varied from 0,28 to 0,99 while that of the red beet (Beta vulgaris L. – from 0,53 to 0,96. The results of the study could be used for estimating 40K transfer in the system “soil-plant” and accumulation of radionuclide in composting garden waste.Artilce in Lithuanian

  1. Efecto de la aplicación de ultrasonidos en vegetales: impacto sobre la microbiota, textura y color de la Zanahoria (Daucus carota)

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Diaz, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The food industry has the challenge of the constant innovation and optimization process. In vegetable decontamination by chemical disinfectants is the trend. The aim of this project is evaluate the efficacy of low-frequency ultrasound as a method for reducing microbial in vegetables and evaluate the effect on their colour and firmness. We have worked with raw carrots (Daucus carota) subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 10-20 minutes and the frequency used was 25 and 40 kHz. The effectiveness...

  2. Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.) cultivated in Turkey: characterization of the seed oil and essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Chalchat, Jean Claude; Musa Özcan, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Chemical composition and physical properties were established in carrot (Daucus carota L.) seeds from Konya, Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, HCl-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were determined in the seed oil. Th...

  3. Studi Tentang Kandungan Timbal (Pb) Dan Kadmium (Cd) Dalam Wortel (Daucus Carota L) Di Pasar Kota Medan Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Deva

    2014-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a tuber vegetable that has an important role in the provision of food, especially the provision of vitamins and minerals. Carrot contain vitamin A and many other substances which have medicinal effect, so it is favored by the people. Crops especially vegetables, is a mediator for metal absorption. Because of its widespread utilization, carrot should be free of all contaminants that can harm humans, including heavy metals. The purpose of this study was to determin...

  4. Estudio Cinético y de Superficie de Respuesta para la Rehidratación de Zanahorias (Daucus carota Liofilizadas Kinetic Study and Surface Response Analysis on the Rehydration of Frozen-dried Carrot (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L Zambrano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudio el efecto de la temperatura sobre la cinética, el coeficiente de difusión y la adición de ácido cítrico y cloruro de sodio sobre la rehidratación de zanahorias (Daucus carota. Se aplicó un diseño de superficie de respuesta con 4 factores y 3 puntos centrales. No se encontró diferencia significativa (a=0.05 a temperaturas de 70 y 93ºC con constante cinética promedio de 0.42 min-1, con diferencias entre los coeficientes de difusión entre 6.1 a 3.18 x10-9m²/s. Las variables de mayor influencia sobre la rehidratación son el contenido de ácido cítrico, la temperatura y la concentración de ácido cítrico, a los niveles estudiados. Las condiciones de mayor rehidratación para las muestras de zanahoria liofilizada fueron obtenidas para una concentración de 0.636 g/100ml ácido, con un óptimo de 7kg de agua/kg de sólido seco, de acuerdo al modelo de superficie de respuesta obtenido. El valor promedio fue de 6.65kg de agua/kg de sólido seco.In this work the effect of temperature on the kinetics, the diffusion coefficient sand the addition of citric acid and sodium chloride on the rehydration of frozen-dried carrots (Daucus carota have been studied. The model response surface was 4 factors with 3 central points. For 70 and 93 ºC, no significant differences (a=0.05 for the kinetic constant with mean of 0.42min-1. Important differences were found between diffusion coefficients, from 6.1 to 3.18 x10-9 m²/s for 70 y 93ºC. The variables with higher influence on rehydration were the content of citric acid, citric acid concentration and temperature, at the studied levels. The best condition for rehydration of carrot frozen-dried was obtained for 0.636 g/100ml acid concentration with 7 kg of water/kg dry solid, using the surface model. The mean value was 6.65 kg of water/kg dry solid.

  5. Daucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The existing collections of Daucus genetic resources have recently been significantly enriched in the germplasm originating from the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Central Asia and Northern Africa. The need for thorough evaluation and valorization of these resources is urgent, as they can provide a...

  6. Daucus carota Pentane-Based Fractions Suppress Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells by Inhibiting the MAPK and PI3K Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebaby, Wassim N; Bodman-Smith, K B; Mansour, Anthony; Mroueh, Mohamad; Taleb, Robin I; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Daher, Costantine F

    2015-07-01

    Daucus carota L. ssp. carota (Apiacea, wild carrot, Queen Anne's lace) has been used in folk medicine throughout the world and recently was shown to possess anticancer and antioxidant activities. This study aims to determine the anticancer activity of the pentane fraction (F1) and the 1:1 pentane:diethyl ether fraction (F2) of the Daucus Carota oil extract (DCOE) against human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and Caco-2). Treatment of cells with various concentrations of F1 or F2 fractions produced a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that both fractions induced sub-G1 phase accumulation and increased apoptotic cell death. Western blot revealed the activation of caspase-3, PARP cleavage, and a considerable increase in Bax and p53 levels, and a decrease in Bcl-2 level. Treatment of HT-29 cells with either fraction markedly decreased the levels of both phosphorylated Erk and Akt. Furthermore, the combined treatment of F1 or F2 with wortmannin showed no added inhibition of cell survival suggesting an effect of F1 or F2 through the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. This study proposes that DCOE fractions (F1 and F2) inhibit cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT-29 cells through the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways. PMID:25599142

  7. Transfer model of lead in soil-carrot (Daucus carota L.) system and food safety thresholds in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-09-01

    Reliable empirical models describing lead (Pb) transfer in soil-plant systems are needed to improve soil environmental quality standards. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to develop soil-plant transfer models to predict Pb concentrations in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Soil thresholds for food safety were then derived inversely using the prediction model in view of the maximum allowable limit for Pb in food. The 2 most important soil properties that influenced carrot Pb uptake factor (ratio of Pb concentration in carrot to that in soil) were soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC), as revealed by path analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were based on soil properties and the pseudo total (aqua regia) or extractable (0.01 M CaCl2 and 0.005 M diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) soil Pb concentrations. Carrot Pb contents were best explained by the pseudo total soil Pb concentrations in combination with soil pH and CEC, with the percentage of variation explained being up to 93%. The derived soil thresholds based on added Pb (total soil Pb with the geogenic background part subtracted) have the advantage of better applicability to soils with high natural background Pb levels. Validation of the thresholds against data from field trials and literature studies indicated that the proposed thresholds are reasonable and reliable. PMID:25904232

  8. Purification and characterization of glycosyltransferases involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell-suspension cultures of Daucus carota L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major anthocyanins accumulated by an Afghan cultivar of Daucus carota L. are cyanidin 3-(xylosylglucosylgalactosides) acylated with sinapic or ferulic acid. The formation of the branched triglycoside present as a common structural element requires an ordered sequence of glycosylation events. Two of these enzymic glycosylation reactions have been detected in protein preparations from carrot cell-suspension cultures. The first step is a galactosyl transfer catalyzed by UDP-galactose: cyanidin galactosyltransferase (CGT) resulting in cyanidin 3-galactoside. The putative second step is the formation of cyanidin 3-(xylosylgalactoside) catalyzed by UDP-xylose: cyanidin 3-galactoside xylosyltransferase (CGXT). Both enzyme activities were characterized from crude protein preparations. The CGT was purified 526-fold from the cytosolic fraction of UV-irradiated cell cultures by ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sephacel, affinity chromatography on Blue Sepharose CL-6B, gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75 and elution from the gel matrix after non-dissociating PAGE. Its molecular mass was estimated by SDS-PAGE and by calibrated gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75. In both cases a molecular mass of 52 kDa was determined, indicating that the native protein is a monomer of 52 kDa. The galactosyl transfer and the xylosyl transfer are presumed to be catalyzed by separate enzymes. (author)

  9. Enhanced accumulation of phytosterols and phenolic compounds in cyclodextrin-elicited cell suspension culture of Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras-Moreno, Begoña; Almagro, Lorena; Pedreño, M A; Sabater-Jara, Ana Belén

    2016-09-01

    In this work, suspension-cultured cells of Daucus carota were used to evaluate the effect of β-cyclodextrins on the production of isoprenoid and phenolic compounds. The results showed that the phytosterols and phenolic compounds were accumulated in the extracellular medium (15100μgL(-1) and 477.46μgL(-1), respectively) in the presence of cyclodextrins. Unlike the phytosterol and phenolic compound content, β-carotene (1138.03μgL(-1)), lutein (25949.54μgL(-1)) and α-tocopherol (8063.82μgL(-1)) chlorophyll a (1625.13μgL(-1)) and b (9.958 (9958.33μgL(-1)) were mainly accumulated inside the cells. Therefore, cyclodextrins were able to induce the cytosolic mevalonate pathway, increasing the biosynthesis of phytosterols and phenolic compounds, and accumulate them outside the cells. However, in the absence of these cyclic oligosaccharidic elicitors, carrot cells mainly accumulated carotenoids through the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Therefore, the use of cyclodextrins would allow the extracellular accumulation of both phytosterols and phenolic compounds by diverting the carbon flux towards the cytosolic mevalonate/phenylpropanoid pathway. PMID:27457992

  10. Quantifying biochemical quality parameters in carrots (Daucus carota L.) - FT-Raman spectroscopy as efficient tool for rapid metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähmer, Andrea; Böttcher, Christoph; Rode, Andrea; Nothnagel, Thomas; Schulz, Hartwig

    2016-12-01

    Application of FT-Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous quantification of carotenoids, carbohydrates, polyacetylenes and phenylpropanoids with high bioactive potential was investigated in storage roots of Daucus carota. Within single FT-Raman experiment carbohydrates, carotenoids, and polyacetylenes could be reliably quantified with high coefficients of determination of R(2)>0.91. The most abundant individual representatives of each compound class could be quantified with comparably high quality resulting in R(2)=0.97 and 0.96 for α-carotene and β-carotene, in R(2)=0.90 for falcarindiol (FaDOH), R(2)=0.99, 0.98 and 0.96 for fructose, glucose and sucrose. In contrast, application of FT-Raman spectroscopy for quantification of two laserine-type phenylpropanoids was investigated but failed due to low concentration and Raman response. Furthermore, evaluation of metabolic profiles by principle component analysis (PCA) revealed metabolic variety of carrot root composition depending on root color and botanical relationship. PMID:27374560

  11. Advances in transforming kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers 126) roots with different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains for increasing MA fungi growth

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Medina Sierra; Francisco Hernando Orozco P.; María Elena Márquez F.

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se transformaron raíces de kudzú (Pueraria phaseoloides) y de zanahoria (Daucus carota) en diferentes medios de cultivo, mediante el empleo de cinco cepas diferentes de Agrobacterium rhizogenes; de comportamiento diferente tanto en la transformación de zanahoria por las cepas de A. rhizogenes A.r.15834, A.r.8196 y A.r.2659; como en la transformación de kudzú por las cepas A.r.15834 y A.r.1724. Por otro lado, se logró la multiplicación en medio White modificado (WM) de l...

  12. Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L. cultivated in Turkey: characterization of the seed oil and essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalchat, Jean Claude

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and physical properties were established in carrot (Daucus carota L. seeds from Konya, Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, HCl-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were determined in the seed oil. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were petroselinic (59.35%, linoleic (11,82%, palmitic (10.01% and stearic (2.41% acids. Mineral contents (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se, Sr, V and Zn of seeds were also determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The seeds were found to be rich in protein, fiber and ash. The essential oil and edible oil compositions of carrot seeds from Konya were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The oil yields of essential and edible oil from carrot seeds were established as 0.83% and 7.84%, respectively. The major constituents of seed essential oil were carotol (66.78%, daucene (8.74%, (Z,Z--farnesene (5.86%, germacrene D (2.34%, trans--bergamotene (2.41% and -selinene (2.20%. Whereas, carotol (30.55%, daucol (12.60% and copaenol (0.62% were the important components of edible carrot seed oil. However, the dominant component of both oils was carotol.Se determinó la composición química y las propiedades físicas de las semillas de zanahoria (Daucus carota L. obtenidas en Konya, Turquía, con objeto de investigar usos potenciales de las mismas. Se determinó la humedad, el peso, el contenido proteico, en aceite, en fibra, en ceniza, en ceniza insoluble en ácido clorhídrico, los carbohidratos totales, y el rendimiento de la obtención de aceite esencial a partir de 1000 semillas maduras. Asimismo se determinó la densidad relativa, el índice de refracci

  13. Influence of temperature on the respiration rate of minimally processed organic carrots (Daucus Carota L. cv. Brasília

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane das Neves Barbosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of temperature on the respiration rate of minimally processed organic carrots (Daucus Carota L. cv. Brasília with and without the application of a gelatin film. The samples were packed in flexible bags and stored at 1, 5 and 10 °C. During the five days of storage, the CO2 and O2 concentrations in the headspace of the package were monitored by gas chromatography, and the mathematical model based on enzymatic kinetics was used to estimate the respiration rate of minimally processed organic carrots. The effect of temperature on the respiration rate was evaluated by the Arrhenius equation. The results showed that the O2 concentration decreased during the storage period and the CO2 concentration increased. The lowest O2 concentrations of 2.59 and 2.66% were found for the samples stored at 10 °C with and without the film, respectively. For the CO2 concentration, the highest concentrations of 16.25 and 16.32% were again found for the temperature of 10 °C with and without the application of the film, respectively. At the temperature of 1 °C, the maximum respiratory rates for the samples without and with the film were 10.82 and 10.44 mL CO2.kg-1/hour, respectively, after 72 hours of storage. The greatest respiratory rate was obtained at 10 °C, the maximum peak being reached after 50 hours. Activation energy values were of 50.59 kJ.mol-1, for the samples with the film, and 51.88 kJ.mol-1 for the samples without the film.

  14. Effect of sodium chloride on the germination of the seeds of a collection of carrot accessions (Daucus carota L. cultivated in the region of Sidi Bouzid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basma Kahouli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of ten accessions of carrot (Daucus carota L. collected from seven areas in the region of Sidi Bouzid, Lessouda (three accessions: L1, L2 and L3 Faid (one accession: F4, El Ogla (one accession: E5, Regueb (two accessions: R7 and R8, Lahweze (one accession: L10 Garet Hdid (one accession: G11 and Souk Jedid (one accession: S12 were germinated at 20° C in the dark and in the presence of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 g/l during 14 days. The results obtained showed that germination is possible until the highest concentration of salt (16 g/l but germination and speed of germination decrease according to the concentration, so the accession L3 was the most tolerant and accessions L1, L2 and S12 was the most sensitive.

  15. Técnicas de mineralización para la determinación de macronutrientes en muestras de raíz de zanahoria (Daucus carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchini, María Rosa; Eyherabide, Guillermo

    1998-01-01

    Con el objeto de determinar la metodología más adecuada para la mineralización de muestras de raíz de zanahoria (Daucus carota L) se emplearon 5 técnicas por vía seca, que se compararon con el método estándar (vía húmeda). El ensayo se condujo bajo un diseño en bloques completos aleatorizados con 5 repeticiones. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la evaluación de P y Ca, con respecto a los valores del método estándar, pero sí en la evaluación del contenido de K, calcinando a temp...

  16. Induction of extracellular defense-related proteins in suspension cultured-cells of Daucus carota elicited with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Jara, Ana B; Almagro, Lorena; Pedreño, María A

    2014-04-01

    Suspension cultured-cells (SCC) of Daucus carota were used to evaluate the effect of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, separately or in combination, on the induction of defense responses, particularly the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins. A comparative study of the extracellular proteome (secretome) between control and elicited carrot SCC pointed to the presence of amino acid sequences homologous to glycoproteins which have inhibitory activity against the cell-wall-degrading enzymes secreted by pathogens and/or are induced when carrot cells are exposed to a pathogen elicitor. Other amino acid sequences were homologous to Leucine-Rich Repeat domain-containing proteins, which play an essential role in defense against pathogens, as well as in the recognition of microorganisms, making them important players in the innate immunity of this plant. Also, some tryptic peptides were shown to be homologous to a thaumatin-like protein, showing high specificity to abiotic stress and to different reticuline oxidase-like proteins that displayed high levels of antifungal activity, suggesting that methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins could play a role in mediating defense-related gene product expression in SCC of D. carota. Apart from these elicitor-inducible proteins, we observed the presence of PR-proteins in both control and elicited carrot SCC, suggesting that their expression is mainly constitutive. These PR-proteins are putative class IV chitinases, which also have inhibitory activity against pathogen growth and the class III peroxidases that participate in response to environmental stress (e.g. pathogen attack and oxidative), meaning that they are involved in defense responses triggered by both biotic and abiotic factors. PMID:24589476

  17. Effects of different doses of gamma radiation in the conservation and in the physiochemical characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perecin, Thalita Neme; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia Cristina Aparecida S.; Leite, Daniela Terenzi Stuchi; Wyler, Patricia [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E- mail: tperecin@cena.usp.br; arthur@cena.usp.br; lcasilva@cena.usp.br; dtstuchi@ig.com.br; patwyler@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the characteristics physic-chemical of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally, seeking the increase of shelf life and decrease of the microbial load. The carrots were acquired in the commerce of Piracicaba city and taken to the laboratory of Foods Irradiation of CENA/USP, where they were washed in running water, peeled and cut in form of slices. The carrot slices were putted in solution of chlorinated water 15ml/L by 4 minutes, droughts and package in a plastic box of polypropylene. After they were conditioned in plastic containers . After they were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0.725 kGy/hour) with the doses of: 0 (control), 1,0 and 2,0 kGy and stored in temperature of 5 deg C. They were analyzed: loss of fresh mass, the color (factors L, the, b), the pH, Brix and tetrable acidity, 4,10,16 and 22 days after the irradiation. The delineation experimental used was entirely at random with 10 repetitions for each treatment. By analyze of the obtained results concluded that the irradiation there was not difference significant statistics between the treatments with irradiation and the control. (author)

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Aloevera barbedensis, Daucus carota, Emblica officinalis, Honey and Punica granatum and Formulation of a Health Drink and Salad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeswin Philip

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Indian folk medicine has been in practice from time immemorial. Traditional medicine interconnects our body with nature for a healthy living. The naturally occurring antimicrobials in food vary in their efficacy and function, toxicology, safety and mechanism of action against microorganisms.Methodology and Results: The study revitalizes the traditional system of medicine in order to achieve self reliance in health care and health for all by analyzing the antimicrobial property of aqueous extracts of aloevera (Aloevera barbedensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis, honey and pomegranate (Punicagranatum, and to assess the reason for inhibition of growth of pathogenic organisms by DNA and protein analysis. Various aqueous extracts showed inhibition to microrganisms like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexineri and Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusion significance and impact of study: The study also formulated and standardized a nourishing health drink and salad using the tested foods and estimated their shelf life and nutritive value. The health drink and salad had a low protein, low fat and moderate carbohydrate content. Therapeutically this drink and salad can be used to treat obesity.

  19. Identification and characterization of DcUCGalT1, a galactosyltransferase responsible for anthocyanin galactosylation in purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) taproots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Ma, Jing; Wang, Feng; Ma, Hong-Yu; Wang, Qiu-Xia; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Purple carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) accumulate large amounts of cyanidin-based anthocyanins in their taproots. Cyanidin can be glycosylated with galactose, xylose, and glucose in sequence by glycosyltransferases resulting in cyanidin 3-xylosyl (glucosyl) galactosides in purple carrots. The first step in the glycosylation of cyanidin is catalysis by UDP-galactose: cyanidin galactosyltransferase (UCGalT) transferring the galactosyl moiety from UDP-galactose to cyanidin. In the present study, a gene from 'Deep purple' carrot, DcUCGalT1, was cloned and heterologously expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant DcUCGalT1 galactosylated cyanidin to produce cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and showed optimal activity for cyanidin at 30 °C and pH 8.6. It showed lower galactosylation activity for peonidin, pelargonidin, kaempferol and quercetin. It accepted only UDP-galactose as a glycosyl donor when cyanidin was used as an aglycone. The expression level of DcUCGalT1 was positively correlated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in carrots. The enzyme extractions from 'Deep purple' exhibited galactosylation activity for cyanidin, peonidin and pelargonidin, while those from 'Kuroda' (a non-purple cultivar) did not. PMID:27264613

  20. RENDIMIENTO DE 12 HÍBRIDOS COMERCIALES DE ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota L. EN EL CAMPO Y EN LA PLANTA DE EMPAQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Richmond-Zumbado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 12 híbridos comerciales de zanahoria (Daucus carota L. en Cot de Oreamuno, Cartago, Costa Rica, con el objetivo de evaluar el rendimiento en el campo y la planta de empaque, de junio a octubre del 2007. Los híbridos evaluados fueron: Bangor F1, Big Sur, Bolero F1, Concerto F1 (VAC 03 F1, XCR3688, Esperanza, Nandrin F1, Napoli F1, S-505, Spearhead, Trinity y Sirkana. Se obtuvo el número y peso de las raíces de los híbridos comerciales clasificadas en raíces totales, comerciales y diferentes variables de rechazo; en el campo y en la planta de empaque. Los híbridos con el mayor rendimiento comercial en campo y en planta empacadora, en orden decreciente, fueron: Bangor F1, Esperanza, Concerto F1, Nandrin F1 y Sirkana. Los materiales con menor rechazo en campo fueron Nandrin F1, Sirkana y Bangor F1, y en planta empacadora fueron: Big Sur, Sirkana, Napoli F1, Bolero F1 y XCR3688. Las principales causas de rechazo de la zanahoria en el campo y en la planta empacadora fueron: raíces bifurcadas, con rajadura, raíz pequeña y tamaño jumbo.

  1. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  2. Effects of different doses of gamma radiation in the conservation and in the physiochemical characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the characteristics physic-chemical of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally, seeking the increase of shelf life and decrease of the microbial load. The carrots were acquired in the commerce of Piracicaba city and taken to the laboratory of Foods Irradiation of CENA/USP, where they were washed in running water, peeled and cut in form of slices. The carrot slices were putted in solution of chlorinated water 15ml/L by 4 minutes, droughts and package in a plastic box of polypropylene. After they were conditioned in plastic containers . After they were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0.725 kGy/hour) with the doses of: 0 (control), 1,0 and 2,0 kGy and stored in temperature of 5 deg C. They were analyzed: loss of fresh mass, the color (factors L, the, b), the pH, Brix and tetrable acidity, 4,10,16 and 22 days after the irradiation. The delineation experimental used was entirely at random with 10 repetitions for each treatment. By analyze of the obtained results concluded that the irradiation there was not difference significant statistics between the treatments with irradiation and the control. (author)

  3. Chlorogenic acid biosynthesis: characterization of a light-induced microsomal 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microsomal preparations from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures catalyze the formation of trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate (chlorogenate) from trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate. trans-5-O-(4-Coumaroyl)shikimate is converted to about the same extent to trans-5-O-caffeoylshikimate. trans-4-O-(4-Coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-3-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate, trans-4-coumarate, and cis-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate do not act as substrates. The reaction is strictly dependent on molecular oxygen and on NADPH as reducing cofactor. NADH and ascorbic acid cannot substitute for NADPH. Cytochrome c, Tetcyclacis, and carbon monoxide inhibit the reaction suggesting a cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function monooxygenase. Competition experiments as well as induction and inhibition phenomena indicate that there is only one enzyme species which is responsible for the hydroxylation of the 5-O-(4-coumaric) esters of both D-quinate and shikimate. The activity of this enzyme is greatly increased by in vivo irradiation of the cells with blue/uv light. We conclude that the biosynthesis of the predominant caffeic acid conjugates in carrot cells occurs via the corresponding 4-coumaric acid esters. Thus, in this system, 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate can be seen as the final intermediate in the chlorogenic acid pathway

  4. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL CAUSED SOFT ROT DISEASE ON CARROT (Daucus carota L.) LOCAL VARIETY IN BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari; Retno Kawuri; Meitini Wahyuni Proborini

    2015-01-01

    Soft rot bacteria infection in carrot tuber (D. carota L.) causes severe economic losses. Soft rot disease can be caused by various bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria as causal agent of soft rot disease in local carrot variety in Bali. Samples were collected at Badung Tradisional Market, Denpasar, Bali. Isolation was carried out by serial dilution method (Platting Method). Eight bacteria (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL5, BL6, BL7 and BL8) were ...

  5. Effect of Different Packaging Density on the Fermentation Quality of Daucus carota Seedings Silage%不同封装密度对胡萝卜苗青贮品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁婉; 刘子瑜; 董翔; 许庆方; 孙江; 许佳瑞

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different packaging density on the quality, nutrient content and ammonia nitrogen content of Daucus carota seedings fermented silage. The Daucus carota seedings were packaged to ferment with high density (486.0 kg/m3), moderated density (428.4 kg/m3) and low density (300.3 kg/m3), respectively. After 330 d fermentation, the samples were collected and tested. While pH value and ammonia nitrogen content of Daucus carota seedings silage fermented with low packaging density were significantly lower than those of silage fermented with high packaging density (P<0.05), the crude protein content of silage fermented with low packaging density was higher than that of silage fermented with high and moderate packaging density. Based on the of comprehensive evaluation of fermentation quality, nutrient content and ammonia nitrogen content, the 300.3 kg/m3 was recommended as preferred packaging density of Daucus carota seedings fermented silage.%为了探讨不同封装密度对胡萝卜苗青贮发酵品质、养分及氨态氮含量的影响,以高(486.0 kg/m3)、中(428.4 kg/m3)、低(300.3 kg/m3)3种封装密度桶装密封青贮胡萝卜苗,青贮330 d后取样进行分析。结果表明,低密度胡萝卜苗青贮与高密度胡萝卜苗青贮相比,其pH值和氨态氮含量都显著降低(P<0.05);且低密度组胡萝卜苗青贮粗蛋白含量高于其他2组。从胡萝卜苗青贮发酵品质、养分及氨态氮含量综合评定,胡萝卜苗青贮的最佳封装密度应选在低密度(300.3 kg/m3左右)。

  6. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL CAUSED SOFT ROT DISEASE ON CARROT (Daucus carota L. LOCAL VARIETY IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot bacteria infection in carrot tuber (D. carota L. causes severe economic losses. Soft rot disease can be caused by various bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria as causal agent of soft rot disease in local carrot variety in Bali. Samples were collected at Badung Tradisional Market, Denpasar, Bali. Isolation was carried out by serial dilution method (Platting Method. Eight bacteria (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL5, BL6, BL7 and BL8 were isolated from soft rot tuber. BL6 isolate showed positive result in Postulat Koch test that caused soft rot on carrot tuber. The result of identification by Microgen™ GnA+B-ID System and identification book Bergeys’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Ninth Edition (Holt et al., 1994, BL6 was identified as Citrobacter.

  7. Effect of the gamma ionizing irradiation on after crop quality of cv. Nantes carrots (Daucus carota L.); Efeito da irradiacao ionizante gama na qualidade pos-colheita de cenouras (Daucus carota L.) cv. Nantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Grossi, Jorge L.S. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos]. E-mail: keilacople@ig.com.br; Lima, Antonio L.S.; Alves, F.M.P.[Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEX), Rio de Janeiro, RJ Brazil). Instituto de Projetos Especiais; Coneglian, Regina C.C. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia; Godoy, Ronoel L.O. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Tecnologia Agroindustrial de Alimentos; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U.O. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao. Departamento de Nutricao Basica e Experimental]. E-mail: keilacople@ig.com.br

    2001-08-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the post harvest physical and chemical characteristics of cv. Nantes carrots. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS, 1991) carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely consumed. It is also well known that the carrot is one of the best sources of provitamin A (a and b-carotene). Doses of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kGy of gamma ionizing irradiation, from a cesium source, in accordance with the maximum dose allowed by the FDA (1995), were used on the carrots. The different treatments and the control group were evaluated by analysing for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TTA), TSS/TTA ratio, weight loss, hardness, colour, total carotenoid content, ascorbic acid concentration and volatiles. The variance analysis (F of the Fisher treatment) of the results showed no significant difference at the 5% level between the irradiated samples and the control group for most of the tests, except for the colour intensity, which faded with increase in the irradiation dose, total acidity and TSS/TTA ratio, which decreased due to the decrease in the organic acid concentration after harvest. The results show that the low dose irradiation process is very promising to maintain the quality of the product, being a good alternative to avoid post harvest losses. (author)

  8. Enzymatic reduction of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde with carrot bits (Daucus carota): a simple experiment for understanding biocatalysis; Reducao enzimatica do 4-(dimetilamino)benzaldeido com pedacos de cenoura (Daucus carota): um experimento simples na compreensao da biocatalise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, Alvaro Takeo; Portas, Viviane Barbosa; Oliveira, Camila de Souza de, E-mail: alvaro.omori@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The present paper describes a simple, low-costly and environmentally friendly procedure for reduction of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde using carrot bits in water. This interdisciplinary experiment can be used to introduce the concepts of biocatalysis and green chemistry to undergraduate students. (author)

  9. Genome-wide analysis of AP2/ERF transcription factors in carrot (Daucus carota L.) reveals evolution and expression profiles under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Yao; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Huang, Ying; Tian, Chang; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    AP2/ERF is a large transcription factor family that regulates plant physiological processes, such as plant development and stress response. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an important economical crop with a genome size of 480 Mb; the draft genome sequencing of this crop has been completed by our group. However, little is known about the AP2/ERF factors in carrot. In this study, a total of 267 putative AP2/ERF factors were identified from the whole-genome sequence of carrot. These AP2/ERF proteins were phylogenetically clustered into five subfamilies based on their similarity to the amino acid sequences from Arabidopsis. The distribution and comparative genome analysis of the AP2/ERF factors among plants showed the AP2/ERF factors had expansion during the evolutionary process, and the AP2 domain was highly conserved during evolution. The number of AP2/ERF factors in land plants expanded during their evolution. A total of 60 orthologous and 145 coorthologous AP2/ERF gene pairs between carrot and Arabidopsis were identified, and the interaction network of orthologous genes was constructed. The expression patterns of eight AP2/ERF family genes from each subfamily (DREB, ERF, AP2, and RAV) were related to abiotic stresses. Yeast one-hybrid and β-galactosidase activity assays confirmed the DRE and GCC box-binding activities of DREB subfamily genes. This study is the first to identify and characterize the AP2/ERF transcription factors in carrot using whole-genome analysis, and the findings may serve as references for future functional research on the transcription factors in carrot. PMID:25971861

  10. Cloning and sequencing of antifreeze protein gene inDaucus carota var \\%sativus\\% Hoffm Deutschl%胡萝卜var sativus Hoffm Deutschl抗冻蛋白基因的克隆及测序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹明安; 崔鸿文; 樊代明; 郭立

    2001-01-01

    Antifreeze protein gene (afp) in three native carrot cultivars(Daucus carota var \\%sativus\\% Hoffm Deutschl),Wuzhong carrot in Ningxia,H uaxian carrot in Shaanxi and Hanzhong carrot in Shaanxi,was cloned by PCR (polym erase chain reaction).Wuzhong carrots afp was sequenced and its sequence w as compared with that of Daucus carota var \\%autumn\\% King from British.Ther e were 35 different bases between two varieties in 1004 sequenced nucleotides,among which there were 20 nonsense mutations and 15 sense mutations.Based on sense mutations homology was 98.5%.%以宁夏吴忠胡萝卜、陕西华县胡萝卜、陕西汉中胡萝卜3个地方品种为材料,用PCR方法克隆了中国胡萝卜var\\%sativus\\%HoffmDeutschl的抗冻蛋白基因\\%afp\\%,测定了宁夏吴忠胡萝卜\\%afp\\%的核苷酸序列,和英国胡萝卜var\\%autumn\\%King\\%afp\\%序列对比,在所测1004个核苷酸中,有35个碱基不同,其中无义突变20个,有义突变15个。按有义突变计,同源性为\\{98.5%\\}

  11. A plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase of 120 kilodaltons on the endoplasmic reticulum from carrot (Daucus carota) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.H.; Ratterman, D.M.; Sze, H. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Cytosolic Ca[sup 2+] levels are regulated in part by Ca[sup 2+]-pumping ATPases that export Ca[sup 2+] from the cytoplasm; The types and properties of Ca[sup 2+] pumps in plants are not well understood. The kinetic properties of a 120-kD phosphoenzyme (PE) intermediate formed during the reaction cycle of a Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase from suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells are characterized. Only one Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was formed when carrot membrane vesicles were incubated with [[gamma]-[sup 32]P]ATP. Formation of this 120-kD phosphoprotein was inhibited by vanadate, enhanced by La[sup 3+], and decreased by hydroxylamine, confirming its identification as an intermediate of a phosphorylated-type Ca[sup 2+]-translocating ATPase. The 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was most abundant in endoplasmic reticulum-enriched fractions, in which the Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was estimated to be 0.1% of membrane protein. Direct quantitation of Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was used to examine the kinetics of PE formation. PE formation exhibited a K[sub m] for Ca[sup 2+] of 1 to 2 [mu]m and a K[sub m] for ATP of 67 nm. Relative affinities of substrates, determined by competition experiments, were 0.075 [mu]m for ATP, 1 [mu]m for ADP, 100 [mu]m for ITP, and 250 [mu]m for GTP. Thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, specific inhibitors of animal sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase, had no effect on PE formation; erythrosin B inhibited with 50% inhibition at <0.1 [mu]m. Calmodulin (1 [mu]m) stimulated PE formation by 25%. The results indicate that the carrot 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase is similar but not identical to animal plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase and yet is located on endomembranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. This type of Ca[sup 2+] pump may reside on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum, thought to play a major role in anchoring the cytoskeleton and in facilitating secretion. 34 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Projected Dietary Intake of Zinc, Copper, and Cerium from Consumption of Carrot (Daucus carota) Exposed to Metal Oxide Nanoparticles or Metal Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Stephen D; Bradfield, Scott J; Kumar, Pawan; White, Jason C; Ma, Xingmao

    2016-01-01

    The expanding production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have raised concerns about the potential risk of those materials to food safety and human health. In a prior study, the accumulation of Zn, Cu, and Ce from ZnO, CuO, or CeO2, respectively, was examined in carrot (Daucus carota L.) grown in sand culture in comparison to accumulation from exposure to equivalent concentrations of ionic Zn(2+), Cu(2+), or Ce(4+). The fresh weight concentration data for peeled and unpeeled carrots were used to project dietary intake of each metal by seven age-mass classes from child to adult based on consumption of a single serving of carrot. Dietary intake was compared to the oral reference dose (oral RfD) for chronic toxicity for Zn or Cu and estimated mean and median oral RfD values for Ce based on nine other rare earth elements. Reverse dietary intake calculations were also conducted to estimate the number of servings of carrot, the mass of carrot consumed, or the tissue concentration of Zn, Cu, or Ce that would cause the oral RfD to be exceeded upon consumption. The projections indicated for Zn and Cu, the oral RfD would be exceeded in only a few highly unrealistic scenarios of exceedingly high Zn or Cu concentrations in the substrate from ZnO or CuO or consumption of excessive amounts of unpeeled carrot. The implications associated with the presence of Ce in the carrot tissues depended upon whether the mean or median oral RfD value from the rare earth elements was used as a basis for comparison. The calculations further indicated that peeling carrots reduced the projected dietary intake by one to two orders of magnitude for both ENM- and ionic-treated carrots. Overall in terms of total metal concentration, the results suggested no specific impact of the ENM form on dietary intake. The effort here provided a conservative view of the potential dietary intake of these three metals that might result from consumption of carrots exposed to nanomaterials (NMs) and how

  13. Projected Dietary Intake of Zinc, Copper, and Cerium from Consumption of Carrot (Daucus carota) Exposed to Metal Oxide Nanoparticles or Metal Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Stephen D.; Bradfield, Scott J.; Kumar, Pawan; White, Jason C.; Ma, Xingmao

    2016-01-01

    The expanding production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have raised concerns about the potential risk of those materials to food safety and human health. In a prior study, the accumulation of Zn, Cu, and Ce from ZnO, CuO, or CeO2, respectively, was examined in carrot (Daucus carota L.) grown in sand culture in comparison to accumulation from exposure to equivalent concentrations of ionic Zn2+, Cu2+, or Ce4+. The fresh weight concentration data for peeled and unpeeled carrots were used to project dietary intake of each metal by seven age-mass classes from child to adult based on consumption of a single serving of carrot. Dietary intake was compared to the oral reference dose (oral RfD) for chronic toxicity for Zn or Cu and estimated mean and median oral RfD values for Ce based on nine other rare earth elements. Reverse dietary intake calculations were also conducted to estimate the number of servings of carrot, the mass of carrot consumed, or the tissue concentration of Zn, Cu, or Ce that would cause the oral RfD to be exceeded upon consumption. The projections indicated for Zn and Cu, the oral RfD would be exceeded in only a few highly unrealistic scenarios of exceedingly high Zn or Cu concentrations in the substrate from ZnO or CuO or consumption of excessive amounts of unpeeled carrot. The implications associated with the presence of Ce in the carrot tissues depended upon whether the mean or median oral RfD value from the rare earth elements was used as a basis for comparison. The calculations further indicated that peeling carrots reduced the projected dietary intake by one to two orders of magnitude for both ENM- and ionic-treated carrots. Overall in terms of total metal concentration, the results suggested no specific impact of the ENM form on dietary intake. The effort here provided a conservative view of the potential dietary intake of these three metals that might result from consumption of carrots exposed to nanomaterials (NMs) and how peeling

  14. Daucus for the flora of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Flora of North America Project will treat more than 20,000 species of plants native or naturalized in North America north of Mexico, about 7% of the world's total. This contribution presents a floristic account of the two species of wild carrots (Daucus) occurring in North America, Daucus carota...

  15. Interferência das plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade e qualidade de cenoura Weed interference in carrot yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.A. Soares

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a interferência das plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade e qualidade de cenoura (Daucus carota, foi realizado um experimento no período de julho a outubro de 2007, em Mossoró-RN. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis períodos de controle de plantas daninhas, em que a cultura da cenoura permaneceu livre da competição com essas plantas, por meio de capinas, a partir da emergência: 0-12, 0-24, 0-36, 0-48, 0-60 e 0-72 dias (testemunha mantida no limpo. As características avaliadas foram: produtividade comercial de raízes, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez total (AT, vitamina C e pH de raízes. A produtividade comercial de raízes de cenoura foi alterada pela convivência da cultura com as plantas daninhas, a qual respondeu a capinas até os 40 e 37 DAE, tolerando-se perdas de produtividade de 5 e 10%, respectivamente, em relação ao tratamento mantido no limpo durante todo o ciclo. Os teores de SS e de vitamina C não foram influenciados pela interferência das plantas daninhas, ao passo que a maior convivência da cultura com as plantas daninhas resultou em acidez total e pH das raízes mais elevados e menor relação sólidos solúveis/acidez total.This work aimed to evaluate weed interference in yield and quality of carrots (Daucus carota. An experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments were composed of six periods of weed control (0-12, 0-24, 0-36, 0-48, 0-60 and 0-72 days after emergence (DAE. The characteristics evaluated were: yield of commercial roots, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, vitamin C, TSS/TTA ratio and pH of roots. The commercial root yields decreased with weed interference, with weed control being required until 36 DAE. Root TSS rates and vitamin C did not vary with weed interference. The presence of

  16. ELABORACIÓN DE PASTAS ALIMENTICIAS ENRIQUECIDAS A PARTIR DE HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa wild.) Y ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota) ELABORACAO DE PASTA ALIMENTICIA ENRIQUECIDA A PARTIR DE FARINHA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa wild.) E CENOURA (Daucus carota) PRODUCTION OF FOOD PASTAS ENRICHED FROM QUINUA's (Chenopodium quinoa wild.) FLOUR AND CARROT (Daucus carota)

    OpenAIRE

    M ASTAÍZA; L RUÍZ; Elizalde, A.

    2010-01-01

    La pasta de sémola es un alimento de consumo masivo, pero el valor biológico de su proteína es bajo, dada la deficiencia de Usina en la proteína del trigo. Al complementar la sémola con harina de quinua y zanahoria, se mejora la calidad de la proteína por ser la quinua muy rica en Usina y se incrementa el contenido de fibra soluble y vitamina A con la adición de zanahoria. Este estudio se desarrolló en dos etapas; en la Etapa I se elaboraron y analizaron pastas enriquecidas con harina integra...

  17. Taxa de respiração de cenouras minimamente processadas e armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas Respiration rate of storage processed carrots at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigberto Antonio Spagnol

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre as hortaliças minimamente processadas, a cenoura é uma das mais populares, sendo comercializada de várias maneiras: raladas, cortadas em fatias, palitos, e ainda apresentadas na forma de mini-cenoura (baby carrot. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as taxas respiratórias de cenouras (Daucus carota da cultivar Nantes minimamente processadas. O armazenamento foi realizado nas temperaturas de 1 °C, 5 °C e 11 °C, e 90% UR. A taxa respiratória foi determinada usando um fluxo contínuo de ar. O teor de CO2 e etileno foi medido por um cromatógrafo a gás. A taxa de respiração para as cenouras fatiadas foi mais alta do que para os produtos inteiros. Os valores da energia de ativação obtidos para as cenouras fatiadas e inteiras foi de 69,82 kJmol-1 e 54,60 kJmol-1, respectivamente. A produção de etileno foi insignificante para as cenouras durante os 14 dias de armazenamento.The carrot is one of the most popular vegetables from minimally processed vegetables. It is commercialized in many different ways: shreds, slices, sticks and baby carrots. The aim of this work is to determine the respiration rate of minimally processed carrots. They were in storage at temperatures of 1 °C, 5 °C and 11 °C, and 90% RH. The respiration rate was determined using continuous humidification airflow and measuring the CO2 concentration using a gas chromatograph connected to a microcomputer. The respiration rates of the minimally processed carrots showed a higher respiration rate than for the whole products. The activation energy values calculated for the minimally processed carrots corresponded to 69.82 kJmol-1 for the whole products. The ethylene production for the carrots remained insignificant throughout the 14 days of storage.

  18. 野胡萝卜花挥发油成分分析及生物活性研究%Study on Constituents and Biological Activity of Volatile Oil from Umbels of Daucus Carota Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美; 邵邻相; 徐玲玲; 成文召; 高海涛; 丁晴

    2012-01-01

    To analyse constituents and determine the biological activity of the volatile oil from umbels of daucus carota linn. , chemical constituents was analyzed by GC/MS, the vitality of bacteria was assayed with nephelometry method and the vitality of cancer cell was evaluated by MTT assay. 31 compositions were identified and the mian compound was β -bisabolene accounting for 63. 06% of the total oil. The inhibition rate of the oil against acinetobacter baumanii for 24 h was 33. 12% at high concentration of 30 g/L. The IC50 of the oil on hepatocellular carcinoma HuH7 cells for 6,12,24 h were 122. 99,132. 25 ,46. 20 mg/L and the IC50 on human lung cancer cell line NCI - H446 were 244.82,113. 13,61.76 mg/L. The mian constituents of volatile oil from umbels of daucus carota linn, were terpenes such as β - bisabolene and the oil had antibacterial and anticancer activities.%分析野胡萝卜花挥发油的成分及检测其生物活性.采用GC/MS分析野胡萝卜花挥发油的成分,比浊法检测细菌活性,MTT法检测细胞活力.从野胡萝卜花挥发油中鉴定出31种化合物,以β-红没药烯为主要成分,占到63.06%.高质量浓度(30 g/)的野胡萝卜花挥发油作用鲍曼不动杆菌24h的抑制率为33.12%.野胡萝卜花挥发油作用人肝癌HuH7细胞6、12、24h的IC50分别是122.99、132.25、46.20 mg/L,作用人肺癌NCI-H446细胞6、12、24 h的IC50是244.82、113.13、61.76 mg/L.野胡萝卜花挥发油主要成分是B-红没药烯等萜类化合物,具有抗菌抑癌的作用.

  19. The Protein synthesis spectrum during the induction phase of somatic embryogenesis in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultures and the role of Nitrogen forms for embryo development

    OpenAIRE

    Mashayekhi-Nezamabadi, Kaveh

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the investigation was to broaden our knowledge about the pattern of protein synthesis during the induction phase of somatic embryogenesis in Daucus cultures using petioles as the source material implementing histological, bio-chemical, molecular and bio-informatics methods to achieve this aim for a better understanding of the somatic embryo-genesis in the model system carrot. During the induction phase, histological examination of cross sections of petiole ex-plants of Da...

  20. Estudo dos métodos de extração de carotenóides em cenoura por fluido supercrítico (efs) e convencional A study of the methods of carotenoid extraction in carrots using supercritical fluid extraction (sfe) and conventional methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ellem Waleska Nascimento da Fonseca Contado; Leonardo da Silva Patto; Denise Alvarenga Rocha; Celeste Maria Patto de Abreu; Angelita Duarte Corrêa; Custódio Donizete dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    A cenoura (Daucus carota L. ), planta da família das umbelíferas, produz uma raiz aromática e comestível, sendo uma das hortaliças mais cultivadas no Brasil. Representa a principal fonte de origem vegetal em carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, especialmente o á e o β-caroteno, sendo, também, uma grande fonte de fibra dietética, antioxidantes e minerais. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar dois processos de extração de β-caroteno, fluído super crítico (EFS) e o convencio...

  1. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil from the Fruits of Daucus carota against Mosquitoes%野胡萝卜果实精油对蚊幼虫的毒杀活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦巧慧; 彭映辉; 何建国; 熊国红; 扶巧梅

    2011-01-01

    Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from fruits of Daucus carota against Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was investigated by immersion method and the main compounds of the essential oil were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.LC50 values of the essential oil against the 4th instar larvae of A.albopictus and C.pipiens quinquefasciatus at 24 h were 67.87 μg·mL-1 and 34.12 μg·mL-1,respectively.Thirty-four compounds were identified in the essential oil,including the main component α-Pinene(54.72%),followed by β-bisabolene(11.35%) and β-asarone(10.14%).Six active compounds were quantitatively determined,including α-pinene(up to 577.46 mg·mL-1 in the oil),myrcene(80.26 mg·mL-1),limonene(28.95 mg·mL-1),β-caryophyllene(24.38 mg·mL-1),β-pinene(11.59 mg·mL-1) and γ-terpinen(2.33 mg·mL-1).The results indicated that the essential oil showed higher larvicidal activity against mosquitoes than many other plant essential oils which have been documented.It might be considered as a potential source for production of efficient and environment-friendly mosquito larvicide.%采用浸液法研究了野胡萝卜Daucus carota果实精油对白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus和致倦库蚊Culexpipiens quinquefasciatus幼虫的毒杀活性;利用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)对精油的主要成分进行了定性、定量分析。结果发现,野胡萝卜果实精油毒杀白纹伊蚊和致倦库蚊4龄幼虫的24h LC50值分别为67.87μg.mL-1和34.12μg.mL-1;精油中共含有34种化合物,相对含量最高的是α-蒎烯(54.72%),其次为β-红没药烯(11.35%)和β-细辛脑(1

  2. Influence of boron nutrition on net uptake and efflux of 32P and 14C-glucose in Helianthus annuus roots and cell cultures of Daucus carota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P and 14C-glucose uptake were reduced under B deficiency in both Daucus cell suspensions and Helianthus roots. Similarly, efflux rates were found to be smaller in B deficient material. Efflux rates tended to be more affected than net uptake of both 32P and glucose. This may explain why sunflower roots showed a higher glucose net uptake immediately after transferring from a B sufficient to a B deficient nutrient solution. The data confirm earlier findings of B as an essential element for membrane function and integrity. B-deficiency effects could be reversed by the addition of B within less than one hour. Cell suspensions reacted similarly to roots with respect to B deficiency and may thus be suitable for further research on B deficiency effects. (orig.)

  3. Advances in transforming kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers 126 roots with different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains for increasing MA fungi growth

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    Marisol Medina Sierra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kudzú (P. phaseoloides and carrot (D. carota roots were transformed in this survey into different kinds of culture medium by using five different A. rhizogenes strains. These presented different behaviour both in carrot transformation by A. rhizogenes 15834, A.r.8196 and A.r.2659 strains as well as kudzu transformation by A.r.15834 and A.r.1724 strains. Transformed carrot root growth was increased in WM culture medium, whilst transformed kudzu root growth did not increase in either the same medium or in modified MS medium. Transformed carrot roots were used for G. intrarradices increase and sporulation; however, wild AMF strains, isolated from a mining area (the lower Cauca area of Antioquia, did not grow either in roots from this specie or those from kudzu, in spite of this plant having great affinity for wild AMF strains. The results represent an advance in the procedure for DNA isolation and keeping AMF collections, required for other research.

  4. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de cenoura classificadas por tamanho Physiological quality of carrot seeds classified by size

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    Valdecir José dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção de sementes de cenoura (Daucus carota L. com alta qualidade está restrita à elevada heterogeneidade na maturação fisiológica, pois produz sementes em épocas diferentes e de tamanhos variados. A classificação de sementes de cenoura por tamanho pode ser uma boa alternativa para a melhoria da qualidade fisiológica. Para discriminar lotes de sementes por qualidade fisiológica, bem como identificar testes que forneçam uma estimativa do desempenho de sementes classificadas por tamanho, desenvolveu-se um experimento com três lotes de sementes de cenoura das cultivares 'Brasília' e 'Alvorada', sendo obtidos seis tratamentos distintos, dados pela combinação das duas cultivares com os lotes de tamanhos: médio, grande e extragrande. Nas cultivares 'Alvorada' e 'Brasília', apesar de não haver influência do tamanho das sementes na percentagem de germinação e no comprimento de parte aérea e total de plântulas, houve diferença significativa, além da massa seca de plântulas e do peso das sementes, para o comprimento de raiz, mostrando que essa variável foi a mais sensível para diferenciar lotes pelo vigor. Assim, os lotes de sementes menores mostraram inferioridade na qualidade fisiológica em relação às sementes maiores, justificando a classificação de sementes por tamanho.The acquisition of carrot (Daucus carota L. seeds with high quality is restricted to the high heterogeneity at physiological maturity, because it produces seeds at different times and sizes. The classification of carrot seed by size can be a good alternative for improving the physiological quality. To differentiate seed lots by physiological quality, and identify tests that provide an estimate the performance of seed classified by size, it was developed an experiment with three seed lots of carrot cultivars 'Alvorada' and 'Brasília'. It was obtained six different treatments, given by combination of the two cultivars, which had medium, large and

  5. Carrot seed germination and vigor in response to temperature and umbel orders Germinação e vigor de sementes de cenoura em resposta a temperatura e ordens de umbela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Sousa Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Several factors may influence carrot (Daucus carota L. crop establishment. High temperatures (35 - 40°C, for instance, may delay or inhibit carrot seed germination in the field and so compromise the stand establishment. Carrot seeds from superior umbel orders usually have better physiological quality than those of lower umbel orders. These seeds from superior umbel orders may also show a better performance in adverse conditions. In addition, seeds from different ages show differences in vigor, which affect the stand establishment, mainly under adverse conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the germination at high temperatures and the carrot seed vigor of different umbel orders of 'Brasília', as well as the different 'Alvorada' seed lots. Preliminarily, 'Brasilia' seeds were incubated at temperatures ranging from 20 to 36°C. Also, seeds from the primary, secondary and tertiary umbel orders harvested separately from a basic seed production field and seeds from lots harvested in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed to the following tests: germination at 20°C (optimum and 35°C (adverse, accelerated aging, cold test, seedling emergence in greenhouse and mass of 100 seeds. High temperatures reduced carrot seed germination. Seeds germinated better at 20°C than 35 or 36ºC. Seeds from primary and secondary orders, as well as less aged seed lots, had higher vigor and germination at high temperature.Vários fatores podem influenciar no estabelecimento da cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota L.. Altas temperaturas (35 - 40°C, por exemplo, podem retardar ou inibir a germinação das sementes de cenoura no campo, comprometendo assim o estabelecimento de plântulas. Sementes oriundas de umbelas de ordem superior geralmente apresentam melhor qualidade fisiológica do que aquelas de menor ordem. Estas sementes podem apresentar uma melhor performance no campo, principalmente sob condições adversas. Lotes de sementes armazenados por diferentes per

  6. The influence of antimicrobial compounds or coating and modified atmosphere packaging on radiation sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua on quality maintenance of ready-to-use carrots (Daucus carota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An edible coating based on caseinate and whey protein combined with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP): (60% O2; 30% CO2; 10% N2) and gamma irradiation on the microbiological stability and physico-chemical quality of minimally processed carrots (Daucus carota L.) was evaluated. Carrots were irradiated at 0.5 or 1 kGy and stored at 4 ± 1 deg. C for 21 days. Results showed that gamma irradiation did not affect significantly (p > 0.05) the physico-chemical properties of the carrots. Microbiological analysis showed that for uncoated carrots a dose of 0.5 and 1 kGy applied under air and MAP reduced, respectively, by 3.5 and 4 log CFU/g and by 4 and 4.5 log CFU/g the content in aerobic plate count (APC). For coated carrots a dose of 0.5 and 1 kGy applied under air and MAP reduced, respectively, by 4 and 4.5 log CFU/g and by 3 and 4.25 log CFU/g the content of APC. The coating was able to protect carrots against dehydration during storage under air. Coating and irradiation treatment at 1 kGy were also able to protect the firmness during storage under air. MAP retarded whitening of uncoated carrots, but this treatment had a detrimental effect on the firmness. Processed carrots were also coated with caseinate based coating containing spice extracts or of antimicrobial compounds present in spices and irradiated at doses from 0.07 to 2.4 kGy to evaluate the radiosensitization of Listeria monocytogenes HPB 2812 serovar 1/2a (106 CFU/g). The dose (D10) required to reduce L. monocytogenes population by 1 log was 0.36 kGy for samples packed under air and 0.17 kGy for those packed under MAP. In presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde, Spanish oregano, winter savory and Chinese cinnamon, the results showed that these active compounds had an effect on the irradiation sensitivity of bacterium in reducing L. monocytogenes population in carrots. The most efficient compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde where a mean increase of the relative radiation sensitivity of 3.8 times was observed for both

  7. Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura da cenoura em função do espaçamento entre fileiras Periods of weed interference in carrot in function of spacing between rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota, cultivada em dois espaçamentos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial 2 x 14, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram na combinação de dois espaçamentos (15 x 6 cm e 20 x 6 cm e sete períodos iniciais de controle ou convivência da cultura com as plantas daninhas (0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 e 72 dias após a emergência. Os períodos críticos de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foram de 19 a 36 e 18 a 42 dias após emergência da cultura, respectivamente para os espaçamentos de 15 x 6 cm e 20 x 6 cm entre fileiras. O menor espaçamento entre fileiras resultou na redução do período crítico de prevenção à interferência das plantas daninhas em sete dias. A interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo reduziu a produtividade de cenoura em até 96%.This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in carrot (Daucus carota cultivated in two spacings (15 x 6 cm and 20 x 6 cm. The experimental design was arranged in a randomized block in a 2 x 14 factorial scheme, with two repetitions. The treatments consisted in the combination of the two spacings and seven initial periods of control or coexistence of the culture with the weeds( 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 days after emergence. The critical periods of weed interference prevention (CPWIP were from 19 to 36 and 18 to 42 days after crop emergence, respectively, for spacing rows from 15 x 6 cm to 20 x 6 cm. The shortest spacing between the rows resulted in the reduction of the critical period of weed interference prevention in carrot in seven days. Weed interference throughout the crop cycle reduced crop yield up to 96%.

  8. Comparative FISH mapping of Daucus species (Apiaceae family)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Daucus (Apiaceae family) contains about 20 mostly diploid species with n=9, 10 and 11, including carrot (D. carota L., 2n=18). Here, we report a pachytene chromosome-based karyotype of carrot. We integrated the carrot linkage groups with chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FI...

  9. Estudo dos métodos de extração de carotenóides em cenoura por fluido supercrítico (efs e convencional A study of the methods of carotenoid extraction in carrots using supercritical fluid extraction (sfe and conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellem Waleska Nascimento da Fonseca Contado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cenoura (Daucus carota L. , planta da família das umbelíferas, produz uma raiz aromática e comestível, sendo uma das hortaliças mais cultivadas no Brasil. Representa a principal fonte de origem vegetal em carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, especialmente o á e o β-caroteno, sendo, também, uma grande fonte de fibra dietética, antioxidantes e minerais. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar dois processos de extração de β-caroteno, fluído super crítico (EFS e o convencional e analisar a composição centesimal da cenoura in natura. O teor de β-caroteno obtido pela extração por EFS e por convencional foi de 2.457 e 2.455 µg/100g, respectivamente. Os valores médios encontrados para a matéria-seca da cenoura foram de: matéria-seca = 8,9%; extrato etéreo = 0,29%; cinzas = 8,11%; fibra bruta = 14,57%, proteína bruta = 6,4%, extrato não nitrogenado = 6,3% e valor calórico = 27,7kcal. Conclui-se que a extração de carotenóides em cenoura pelo fluido supercritico é uma técnica de separação viável, pois este fluido é inerte, não deixa resíduo final e não gera resíduo ambiental. Pelos teores encontrados conclui-se também que as cenouras são boas fontes de fibras, apresentam alto teor de umidade e baixo teor de gorduras, cinzas e valor calórico.The carrot (Daucus carota L. is a plant of the Umbelliferae family. It produces an aromatic and edible root, and is one of the most widely cultivated vegetable in Brazil. It represents the main source of plant-origin, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, especially α and β-carotene, and is also a great source of dietary fiber, antioxidants and minerals. This study aimed to evaluate two methods of extraction of β-carotene, supercritical fluid (SFE and conventional, and to examine the proximate composition of the carrot in nature. The contents of β-carotene obtained by SFE and by conventional extraction were 2,457 and 2,455 µg/100g, respectively. The average values found

  10. Microscopia electrônica de inclusões citoplas máticas e alterações celulares associadas ao vírus do mosaico da cenoura Electron microscopy of cytoplasmic inclusion and cell modification associated with carrot mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. B. Camargo

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Exames electrono-microscópicos de secções ultrafinas de tecidos foliares de cenoura (Daucus carota L. e coentro (Coriandrum sativumL. infetados pelo vírus do mosaico da cenoura (VMC revelaram a ocorrência de inclusões em forma de bandas densas no citoplasma. Exames mais detalhados dessas bandas revelaram serem elas constituídas pela justaposição de lamelas delgadas (10-15m¼ de espessura, as quais parecem eventualmente desprender-se e formar outros tipos de inclusão, como as de perfil circular e em forma de catavento, comumente associadas à infecção provocada por vírus do grupo Y da batata. Ocasionalmente, partículas do VMC foram observadas nas proximidades dessas inclusões. As dimensões das bandas densas atingiram até 0,l-0,2¼ x 3-4¼, visíveis mesmo em exames ao microscópio convencional. Além da ocorrência dessas inclusões, pôde também ser observada a presença de grande número de vesículas no citoplasma, aparentemente associadas a uma atividade do complexo de Golgi.A virus, inducing mosaic and malformation of carrot leaves (Daucus carota L., was found in Piedade, SP. It was termed carrot mosaic virus (CMV, and is both mechanically and aphid transmitted. Morphologically it belongs to the potato virus Y group (15m¼ x 740m¼. Electron microscopic examination of thin sections of leaf tissues from carrot or coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. infected with CMV demonstrated the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, usually in the form of dense bands. They could reach sizes up to 0.2¼ x 4¼ and were detectable even under light microscopic examination. These bands, at higher magnification, showed to be built up of thin lamella (10-15m¼ thick, closely apposed. Occasionally individual or group of lamella appeared to loose from the bands, producing other type of profile, such as pin wheels and rings. CMV particles were sometimes observed in the vicinity of these inclusions, often laying parallel to their surface. These

  11. Validação de dois sistemas de previsão para a queima das folhas da cenoura

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    SOUZA ROSEMARI T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Através de quatro experimentos realizados em campo, no período de setembro/98 a dezembro/99, avaliou-se a aplicabilidade de dois sistemas de previsão no controle da queima das folhas da cenoura (Daucus carotae. Seis esquemas de aplicação de fungicida (protetor ou sistêmico, baseados no acúmulo de valores diários de severidade (VDS para Alternaria dauci ou equivalentes de infecção (EI para Cercospora carotae, foram comparados a dois calendários fixos de tratamento e uma testemunha sem fungicida. Enquanto o número de VDS registrados por um coletor eletrônico (Colpam variou de 25 a 94 por ciclo da cultura, nenhum EI foi detectado ao longo dos quatro experimentos. Com a adoção do sistema de VDS, o número de aplicações do fungicida protetor clorotalonil diminuiu de 7,5 (fixo, sete dias para 3,5 (VDS 3-5, 2,7 (VDS 6-8 e dois (VDS 9-11 por cultivo. Nas mesmas condições, o fungicida sistêmico metconazole foi aplicado 3,7 (fixo, 14 dias, 2,5 (VDS 3-5, 1,7 (VDS 6-8 e 1,5 (VDS 9-11 vezes. A relação entre a área abaixo da curva de progresso de doença (AACPD e o peso de raiz foi significativa em dois experimentos (P = 0,005 e 0,016. Quanto ao rendimento de raízes, o limiar de 3-5 VDS igualou-se ao esquema de calendário fixo em 3/4 das situações. Portanto, nas condições locais, o controle da queima das folhas pelo sistema de VDSs está condicionado ao limite de 3-5 VDS e à utilização de fungicidas sistêmicos com eficácia igual ou superior à do metconazole.

  12. Metodologias de inoculação de Rhizoctonia solani na cultura da cenoura Inoculation methodology of Rhizoctonia solani in carrot

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    Amanda Cabral Corrêa de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani pode causar diferentes tipos de doenças em cenoura (Daucus carota L.. Para a avaliação de métodos de controle geralmente se utiliza inoculação artificial. Objetivou-se neste trabalho, ajustar uma concentração de inóculo de R. solani (AG-4 no cultivo de cenoura. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com 5 repetições sendo a unidade experimental um vaso de 3L com 40 sementes. Como substrato, utilizou-se solo/areia (3:1. Os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 sendo, 4 densidades de inóculo (9; 18; 36; 72; mg de inóculo·kg-1 de solo e 3 métodos de infestação artificial (incorporados a todo o solo; incorporados na superfície; contato direto com as sementes e uma testemunha adicional. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara de crescimento a 20(0C, com fotoperíodo de 12 h. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente do 8º ao 30º dia após a semeadura, registrando-se o estande e o número de plântulas com tombamento. Analisou-se o índice de velocidade de emergência, porcentagem média de tombamento pré e pós emergência. A densidade de 72 mg de inóculo·kg-1 de solo incorporado na superfície foi o método mais eficiente.Rhizoctonia solani may cause different diseases in carrot (Daucus carota L.. To test control methods, artificial inoculation is generally employed. This work aimed to adjust a methodology to inoculate R. solani (AG-4 in carrot. A randomized block outline with five replicates was used, with an experimental unit of a 3L-pot with 40 seeds and a substact composed by a mixture of soil/sand (3:1 v/v. Treatments were those in a factorial experiment 4 x 3, with 4 inoculum densities (9; 18; 36; 72 mg of inoculum.kg-1 of soil and three forms of artificial infestation (incorporated to the substract as a whole; incorporated on the surface; with direct contact with seeds and an additional control. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber at 20(0C and a 12h photoperiod. The

  13. 胡萝卜AP2/ERF-B1亚族两个转录因子基因的克隆及其非生物胁迫响应分析%Isolation and Analysis of Expression Proifles under Abiotic Stress Treatments of Two AP2/ERF-B1 Group Transcription Factor Genes fromDaucus carota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蔚; 王枫; 谭国飞; 徐志胜; 李梦瑶; 熊爱生

    2014-01-01

    AP2/ERF是植物中普遍存在的一类重要转录因子,参与植物整个生命周期的生长发育和逆境信号转导。本研究以胡萝卜(Daucus carota)‘黑田五寸’为试验材料,基于其转录组和基因组数据,检索和拼接获得胡萝卜AP2/ERF家族2个转录因子基因序列g39811和g47170。采用RT-PCR方法,分别从‘黑田五寸’中克隆DcERF-B1-1(g39811)和DcERF-B1-2(g47170)转录因子基因。序列分析显示,胡萝卜DcERF-B1-1和DcERF-B1-2转录因子基因分别含有630个和594个开放阅读框,分别编码209和197个氨基酸;均含有相对保守的AP2结合域,具有典型的植物AP2/ERF类转录因子特征。从氨基酸组成成分、理化性质、亲水性/疏水性和三级结构上分析显示,胡萝卜DcERF-B1-1和DcERF-B1-2转录因子亲水性大于疏水性,其氨基酸序列可能属于亲水性蛋白。空间结构分析显示,它们都具有1个α螺旋和3个β折叠。进化树分析显示,二者均属于AP2/ERF家族转录因子中ERF亚族的B1组。实时定量荧光PCR显示,在低温、干旱、盐胁迫的条件下, DcERF-B1-2转录因子比DcERF-B1-1转录因子对逆境的响应更大;在高温的条件下, DcERF-B1-1转录因子比DcERF-B1-2转录因子对逆境的响应更大。%AP2/ERF is an important family of transcription factors in higher plant, which encoded proteins in-volved in the development and signal transduction of abiotic/biotic resistance in higher plant. Theg39811 and g47170 gene sequences, which encoding two AP2/ERF transcription factors, were isolated based on transcrip-tome and genome sequence data of carrot (Daucus carota). TheDcERF-B1-1 (g39811) andDcERF-B1-2 (g47170) genes were cloned by RT-PCR method using cDNA as template from carrot cultivar ‘Heitianwucun’. Then, nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequence, phylogenetic tree, and molecular modeling were predicted and analyzed. Sequence analysis indicated that the length of

  14. Vida útil de produto minimamente processado composto por abóbora, cenoura, chuchu e mandioquinha-salsa Shelf life of fresh-cut composed of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alvarenga Alves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do tempo de armazenamento sobre a qualidade de produto minimamente processado à base de hortaliças: abóbora (Cucurbita moschata Duch, cenoura (Daucus carota L., chuchu (Sechium edule Swartz e mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft. As hortaliças foram sanificadas em hipoclorito de sódio 200 mg.L-1, por 5 minutos, descascadas, manualmente, e cortadas utilizando-se processador. O produto processado foi sanificado em hipoclorito de sódio 50 mg.L-1, por 3 minutos, e apenas as mandioquinhas-salsa foram imersas em solução de ácido ascórbico 1%, por 2 minutos. As embalagens flexíveis de polietileno de baixa densidade linear (25 x 20 cm, contendo 400 g do "mix", foram armazenadas a 5ºC e 99% UR, por 8 dias. A firmeza e o valor L* das hortaliças estudadas não alteraram com o tempo de armazenamento. Os valores a* e b* da abóbora não oscilaram durante o armazenamento. O valor a* da mandioquinha-salsa e do chuchu aumentou e o da cenoura diminuiu com o armazenamento, enquanto o valor b* da cenoura, do chuchu e da mandioquinha-salsa reduziu. O "mix" apresentou taxa de perda de massa muito baixa e ascensão respiratória até o oitavo dia. A atmosfera de equilíbrio, em torno de 2,93% de O2 e 7,06% de CO2, foi alcançada no interior da embalagem, contendo o "mix", a partir do segundo dia. Não foi detectada a presença de coliformes a 45ºC e Salmonella sp. em nenhuma amostra. Os coliformes a 35ºC aumentaram durante o armazenamento. Conclui-se que, o produto minimamente processado, à base de hortaliças mantém a sua qualidade por 8 dias a 5ºC.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of storage time on the quality of fresh-cut product made up of four vegetables: pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch, carrot (Daucus carota L., chayote (Sechium edule Swartz, and peruvian carrot (Arracaia xanthorrhiza Bancroft. The vegetables were sanitized in sodium hypochlorite solution (200 mg.L-1 for 5

  15. Inositol trisphosphate metabolism in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of exogenously added D-myo-[1-3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) has been examined in microsomal membrane and soluble fractions of carrot cells grown in suspension culture. When [3H]IP3 was added to a microsomal membrane fraction, [3H]IP2 was the primary metabolite consisting of approximately 83% of the total recovered [3H] by electrophoresis. [3H]IP was only 6% of the [3H] recovered, and 10% of the [3H]IP3 was not further metabolized. In contrast, when [3H]IP3 was added to the soluble fraction, approximately equal amounts of [3H]IP2 and [3H]IP were recovered. Ca2+ (100 micromolar) tended to enhance IP3 dephosphorylation but inhibited the IP2 dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction by about 20%. MoO42- (1 millimolar) inhibited the dephosphorylation of IP3 by the microsomal fraction and the dephosphorylation of IP2 by the soluble fraction. MoO42-, however, did not inhibit the dephosphorylation of IP3 by the soluble fraction. Li+ (10 and 50 millimolar) had no effect on IP3 metabolism in either the soluble or membrane fraction; however, Li+ (50 millimolar) inhibited IP2 dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction about 25%

  16. Gamma irradiation induced variation in carrots (Daucus Carota L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot tissue cultures, germinating seed, and dry seed were exposed to gamma radiation. Irradiation accelerated germination of carrot seed in the M1 generation at low doses (0.5 and 1 krad), whereas higher doses delayed germination. A high negative correlation was observed between dose and survival of plants after seed irradiation. Plant size and root weight were 20% to 35% greater than control plants after seeds, but not tissue culture, were exposed to low doses of gamma irradiation. Higher doses reduced M1 plant size by > 50% in germinating seed and tissue culture treatments but less for the dry seed treatment. Seed production decreased while phenotypic variation of M1 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Root weight and total dissolved solids were highly variable in M2 families. Less variation was observed in total carotene content and none was seen in sugar type [reducing vs. non reducing sugars]. Induced variation in root color and rot shape was also observed. Irradiation of germinating seed and tissue cultures yielded more M2 variation than irradiation of dry seed. Putative point mutations were not observed. Unirradiated carrot tissue cultures did not yield significant M2 somaclonal variation. Average root weight of M2 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage, especially for the dry seed treatment (Author)

  17. Gamma irradiation-induced variation in carrots (Daucus carota L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot tissue cultures, germinating seed, and dry seed were exposed to gamma radiation. Irradiation accelerated germination of carrot seed in the M1 generation at low doses (0.5 and 1 krad), whereas higher doses delayed germination. A high negative correlation was observed between dose and survival of plants after seed irradiation. Plant size and root weight were 20% to 35% greater than control plants after seeds, but not tissue cultures, were exposed to low doses of gamma irradiation. Higher doses reduced M1 plant size by 50% in germinating seed and tissue culture treatments but less for the dry seed treatment. Seed production decreased while phenotypic variation of M1 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Root weight and total dissolved solids were highly variable in M2 families. Less variation was observed in total carotene content and none was seen in sugar type (reducing vs. non reducing sugars). Induced variation in root color and root shape was also observed. Irradiation of germinating seed and tissue cultures yielded more M2 variation than irradiation of dry seed. Putative point mutations were not observed. Unirradiated carrot tissue cultures did not yield significant M2 somaclonal variation. Average root weight of M2 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage, especially for the dry seed treatment

  18. Characterization of inositol phosphates in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have shown previously that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) stimulates an efflux of 45Ca2+ from fusogenic carrot protoplasts. In light of these results, we suggested that IP3 might serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not IP3 and other inositol phosphates were present in the carrot cells, the cells were labeled with myo-[2-3H]inositol for 18 hours and extracted with ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid. The inositol metabolites were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by paper electrophoresis. We found that [3H]inositol metabolites coeluted with inositol bisphosphate (IP2) and IP3 when separated by anion exchange chromatography. However, we could not detect IP2 or IP3 when the inositol metabolites were analyzed by paper electrophoresis even though the polyphosphoinositides, which are the source of IP2 and IP3, were present in these cells. Thus, [3H]inositol metabolites other than IP2 and IP3 had coeluted on the anion exchange columns. The data indicate that either IP3 is rapidly metabolized or that it is not present at a detectable level in the carrot cells

  19. Stereoselective reductions of chalcones using biocatalyst – Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wender A. Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocatalysis is an important area in terms the organic synthesis, where many of its features can be used to induce stereoselective synthesis of important pharmaceutical intermediates and several commercially available products. However, catalysts to induce asymmetry are not available to all, due to its high cost and reactions restrictions. Recent studies indicate that the use of vegetables available in our everyday can be an alternative to investigate its effectiveness in some stereoselective reduction with economic important and ecological implications. From the previously synthesized compound 1 was carried out methodological study aimed stereoselective reduction to its respective alcohol saturated with the intention of using it as a building block in the synthesis of compounds with activity from an methodology efficient and convergent.

  20. Pervasive Mitochondrial Sequence Heteroplasmy in Natural Populations of Wild Carrot, Daucus carota spp. carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Mandel

    Full Text Available Exceptions to the generally accepted rules that plant mitochondrial genomes are strictly maternally inherited and that within-individual sequence diversity in those genomes, i.e., heteroplasmy, should be minimal are becoming increasingly apparent especially with regard to sequence-level heteroplasmy. These findings raise questions about the potential significance of such heteroplasmy for plant mitochondrial genome evolution. Still studies quantifying the amount and consequences of sequence heteroplasmy in natural populations are rare. In this study, we report pervasive sequence heteroplasmy in natural populations of wild carrot, a close relative of the cultivated crop. In order to assay directly for this heteroplasmy, we implemented a quantitative PCR assay that can detect and quantify intra-individual SNP variation in two mitochondrial genes (Cox1 and Atp9. We found heteroplasmy in > 60% of all wild carrot populations surveyed and in > 30% of the 140 component individuals that were genotyped. Heteroplasmy ranged from a very small proportion of the total genotype (e.g., 0.995:0.005 to near even mixtures (e.g., 0.590:0.410 in some individuals. These results have important implications for the role of intra-genomic recombination in the generation of plant mitochondrial genome genotypic novelty. The consequences of such recombination are evident in the results of this study through analysis of the degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD between the SNP sites at the two genes studied.

  1. Morphogenetic responses of cultured totipotent cells of carrot /Daucus carota var. carota/ at zero gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.; Steward, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment designed to test whether embryos capable of developing from isolated somatic carrot cells could do so under conditions of weightlessness in space was performed aboard the unmanned Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 782 under the auspices of the joint United States-Soviet Biological Satellite Mission. Space flight and weightlessness seem to have had no adverse effects on the induction of embryoids or on the development of their organs. A portion of the crop of carrot plantlets originated in space and grown to maturity were not morphologically different from controls.

  2. Conservação de cenouras 'Brasília' tratadas com cera Storage of 'Brasília' carrot treated with waxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Caron

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes tipos de cera sobre a conservação pós-colheita de cenoura (Daucus carota L. cv Brasília: Citrosol A, Citrosol M, Citrosol AK, Citrosol Papaya, Bentevi sem diluição, Bentevi com diluição 1:3 em água, Bentevi com diluição 1:6, Fruit Wax sem diluição, Fruit Wax com diluição 1:3, Fruit Wax com diluição 1:6, Stafresh, Megh Wax sem diluição, Megh Wax com diluição 1:3 e Megh Wax com diluição 1:6. Cenouras sem cera serviram de controle. Após os tratamentos, as raízes foram colocadas em condições ambientais, em temperatura de 26ºC e umidade relativa de 70%. Foram determinadas a perda de matéria fresca, a pressão de turgescência (método da aplanação, a incidência de podridão e a aparência após dois, quatro, seis e oito dias de conservação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualisado com quinze tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída de dez raízes. Citrosol A, M e AK provocaram 100% de podridão aos 2 dias de armazenamento. Até o 8º dia, os menores percentuais de podridão foram observados em cenouras tratadas com Stafresh (7,5% e Bentevi 1:3 (8,75%. A perda de matéria fresca foi alta durante o experimento, sendo que apenas Stafresh e Bentevi pura promoveram alguma proteção contra esta perda. A elevada desidratação promoveu baixos valores de pressão de turgescência em todos os tratamentos, exceto para Stafresh, onde foram verificados maiores valores de pressão de turgescência até o sexto dia. Apenas StaFresh manteve a qualidade das raízes até 8 dias a 26ºC. Para as demais ceras não foram observados benefícios na conservação das raízes, considerando as poucas diferenças significativas em relação ao controle.The effect of treatments with several waxes in the postharvest preservation of carrot 'Brasília' was evaluated, using Citrosol A, Citrosol M, Citrosol AK, Citrosol Papaya, Bentevi undiluted, Bentevi with dilution 1

  3. Correlações fenotípica, genética aditiva e ambiental em cenoura Phenotypic, additive genetic and environmental correlations in carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter José Siqueira

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção de variedades comerciais envolve, por via de regra, a seleção de vários caracteres simultaneamente. Sendo assim, o conhecimento prévio de suas interrelações também pode ser fundamental na estratégia a ser adotada pelo melhorista. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estimar as correlações fenotípica, genética aditiva de ambiente para diversos pares de caracteres de interesse agronômico de cenoura (Daucus carota L., variedade Campinas, nas épocas de outono-inverno e primavera-verão, na Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul (SP, do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas. Esse germoplasma, originário da Seção de Hortaliças do referido Instituto, apresenta elevado nível de resistência à queima das folhas e grande variação quanto ao formato de raízes. Além disso, revela tendência para emissão precoce da haste floral após estímulos de baixa temperatura e/ou fotoperíodo longo, durante estádio vegetativo da cultura. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso com 102 progênies de meios-irmãos e quatro e três repetições para as épocas de outono-inverno primavera-verão respectivamente. As correlações fenotípica (rF, genética aditiva (rA e de ambiente (rE foram estimadas nas duas épocas de plantio, mediante análises de covariância entre pares de caracteres. As correlações fenotípicas, de valores significativos, e as correlações genéticas aditivas, foram negativas somente para os pares de caracteres envolvendo a porcentagem de florescimento prematuro (FL ou a porcentagem de raízes com defeito (DEF, sendo positivas para as demais associações de caracteres. As correlações genéticas aditivas foram de alta magnitude (>0,5 para a maioria dos pares de caracteres analisados nas duas épocas de plantio. A seleção para a produção de raízes cilíndricas comerciáveis (CILC mostra-se favorável em ambas as épocas de plantio, na redução do caráter FL, bem como no aumento de produção de ra

  4. Characterization of Centromeric Histone H3 (CENH3) Variants in Cultivated and Wild Carrots (Daucus sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunemann, Frank; Schrader, Otto; Budahn, Holger; Houben, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, centromeres are the assembly sites for the kinetochore, a multi-protein complex to which spindle microtubules are attached at mitosis and meiosis, thereby ensuring segregation of chromosomes during cell division. They are specified by incorporation of CENH3, a centromere specific histone H3 variant which replaces canonical histone H3 in the nucleosomes of functional centromeres. To lay a first foundation of a putative alternative haploidization strategy based on centromere-mediated genome elimination in cultivated carrots, in the presented research we aimed at the identification and cloning of functional CENH3 genes in Daucus carota and three distantly related wild species of genus Daucus varying in basic chromosome numbers. Based on mining the carrot transcriptome followed by a subsequent PCR-based cloning, homologous coding sequences for CENH3s of the four Daucus species were identified. The ORFs of the CENH3 variants were very similar, and an amino acid sequence length of 146 aa was found in three out of the four species. Comparison of Daucus CENH3 amino acid sequences with those of other plant CENH3s as well as their phylogenetic arrangement among other dicot CENH3s suggest that the identified genes are authentic CENH3 homologs. To verify the location of the CENH3 protein in the kinetochore regions of the Daucus chromosomes, a polyclonal antibody based on a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of DcCENH3 was developed and used for anti-CENH3 immunostaining of mitotic root cells. The chromosomal location of CENH3 proteins in the centromere regions of the chromosomes could be confirmed. For genetic localization of the CENH3 gene in the carrot genome, a previously constructed linkage map for carrot was used for mapping a CENH3-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker, and the CENH3 locus was mapped on the carrot chromosome 9. PMID:24887084

  5. Characterization of centromeric histone H3 (CENH3 variants in cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus sp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dunemann

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, centromeres are the assembly sites for the kinetochore, a multi-protein complex to which spindle microtubules are attached at mitosis and meiosis, thereby ensuring segregation of chromosomes during cell division. They are specified by incorporation of CENH3, a centromere specific histone H3 variant which replaces canonical histone H3 in the nucleosomes of functional centromeres. To lay a first foundation of a putative alternative haploidization strategy based on centromere-mediated genome elimination in cultivated carrots, in the presented research we aimed at the identification and cloning of functional CENH3 genes in Daucus carota and three distantly related wild species of genus Daucus varying in basic chromosome numbers. Based on mining the carrot transcriptome followed by a subsequent PCR-based cloning, homologous coding sequences for CENH3s of the four Daucus species were identified. The ORFs of the CENH3 variants were very similar, and an amino acid sequence length of 146 aa was found in three out of the four species. Comparison of Daucus CENH3 amino acid sequences with those of other plant CENH3s as well as their phylogenetic arrangement among other dicot CENH3s suggest that the identified genes are authentic CENH3 homologs. To verify the location of the CENH3 protein in the kinetochore regions of the Daucus chromosomes, a polyclonal antibody based on a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of DcCENH3 was developed and used for anti-CENH3 immunostaining of mitotic root cells. The chromosomal location of CENH3 proteins in the centromere regions of the chromosomes could be confirmed. For genetic localization of the CENH3 gene in the carrot genome, a previously constructed linkage map for carrot was used for mapping a CENH3-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR marker, and the CENH3 locus was mapped on the carrot chromosome 9.

  6. Estudio de la Cinética de Rehidratación de Zanahoria (Daucus Carota) Deshidratadas Rehydration Kinetics Study of the Dehydrated Carrot (Daucus carota)

    OpenAIRE

    Yendi I Melquíades; Clara López; Marta E Rosas

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta un estudio cinético de la rehidratación de zanahorias para dos tipos de cortes o geometrías (placas y cilindros). Las zanahorias fueron lavadas, peladas y cortadas para someterlas a un tratamiento de 5 min. en agua destilada a 80 ºC antes de ser deshidratadas en un horno de convección a diferentes temperaturas. La cinética de rehidratación se obtuvo por medio de un modelo difusional y se determinó su posible dependencia con la temperatura mediante una relación de tipo Arrhenius. S...

  7. Estudio de la Cinética de Rehidratación de Zanahoria (Daucus Carota Deshidratadas Rehydration Kinetics Study of the Dehydrated Carrot (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yendi I Melquíades

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio cinético de la rehidratación de zanahorias para dos tipos de cortes o geometrías (placas y cilindros. Las zanahorias fueron lavadas, peladas y cortadas para someterlas a un tratamiento de 5 min. en agua destilada a 80 ºC antes de ser deshidratadas en un horno de convección a diferentes temperaturas. La cinética de rehidratación se obtuvo por medio de un modelo difusional y se determinó su posible dependencia con la temperatura mediante una relación de tipo Arrhenius. Se observó que la rehidratación se ve afectada por el pretratamiento debido a los cambios estructurales, que finalmente afectan la capacidad de rehidratación de las muestras. Los coeficientes de difusión no presentan tal dependencia.A kinetic study of the rehydration of carrots for two types of cuts (geometries (slabs and cylinders, is presented. The carrots were washed, peeled and cut an then treated for 5 min in distilled water at 80 ºC before being dehydrated in a convection oven at different temperatures. The rehydration kinetics was obtained by means of a diffusion model and its temperature dependence was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. It was observed that the rehydration is affected by the pretreatment due to the structural changes that finally affect the rehydration capacity of the samples. Diffusion coefficients do not present such dependence.

  8. Influência da desidratação na recuperação da firmeza e na brotação em cenoura Dehydration, firmness and carrot sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADONAI GIMENEZ CALBO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Raízes de cenoura Daucus Carota L. Brasília recém-colhidas foram submetidas a diferentes níveis de desidratação com emprego de ventilação forçada a 25 ± 2 °C. Sob teores relativos de água inferiores a 0,95 a firmeza dependente da pressão celular, medida com a técnica da aplanação, ficou reduzida a praticamente zero, ao passo que as raízes do tratamento controle tiveram firmeza acima de 7,0 kgf cm-2. Após o armazenamento em sacos plásticos de polietileno de baixa densidade, durante 67dias a 5 ± 2 °C, as raízes que tiveram seu teor relativo de água reduzido a menos de 0,75 recuperaram a firmeza em mais de 60% da turgescência inicial do controle, além de apresentarem brotação. A recuperação da firmeza ocorreu sem absorção de água, visto que o armazenamento em embalagens de plástico diminuiu mas não anulou a transpiração. Essa recuperação da firmeza e a posterior brotação contrariou a expectativa inicial de que as raízes murchas não brotariam. Duas hipóteses foram postuladas para explicar esses resultados: a primeira seria o envolvimento de um processo de redistribuição de água na raiz; a segunda, a redução do volume do órgão, de acordo com a teoria coesiva do encolhimento celular. A favor da primeira hipótese pesou a formação de pequenas lacunas lisógenas distribuídas a partir do centro do cilindro vascular. O volume total dessas cavidades lisógenas corresponderia a uma quantidade de água aparentemente inferior a 2% do volume da raiz, a qual seria insuficiente para explicar a recuperação da firmeza em raízes que perderam mais de 20% de seu conteúdo de água. Fica a possibilidade de haverem outras causas não percebidas de redistribuição de água ou que, de fato, a presumida redução plástica do volume das células - de acordo com a teoria coesiva do encolhimento celular - tenha ocorrido.'Brasília' carrot roots (Daucus carota L. have been exposed to different dehydration levels

  9. Study of the tolerance of ten accessions of carrot (Daucus carota L. to salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basma Kahouli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work has focused on the assessment of the tolerance of ten accessions of carrot (L1, L2, L3, F4, E5, R7, R8, L10, G11 and S12 to salt stress, grown in the region of Sidi Bouzid. The tests were carried out under plastic greenhouse (during 5 months. The results obtained show that the salt stress reduced the parameters of growth and production. However, a difference in the response to salt stress was recorded between the accessions studied. A reduction in yield of up to 70 % with the concentration 3 g / l of NaCl, for different accessions studied is recorded. However, the accession L1 who has given the longer roots and dry matter yield and the largest root shows the most tolerant accessions unlike L10, G11 and S12 which are the most sensitive.

  10. Polyacetylenes from carrots (Daucus carota) improve glucose uptake in vitro in adipocytes and myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Houri, Rime B; Kotowska, Dorota; Christensen, Kathrine B; Bhattacharya, Sumangala; Oksbjerg, Niels; Wolber, Gerhard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Christensen, Lars P

    2015-07-01

    A dichloromethane (DCM) extract of carrot roots was found to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose uptake (GU) in adipocytes in a dose dependent manner. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the DCM extract resulted in the isolation of the polyacetylenes falcarinol and falcarindiol. Both polyacetylenes were able to significantly stimulate basal and/or insulin-dependent GU in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and porcine myotube cell cultures in a dose-dependent manner. Falcarindiol increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-mediated transactivation significantly at concentrations of 3, 10 and 30 μM, while PPARγ-mediated transactivation by falcarinol was only observed at 10 μM. Docking studies accordingly indicated that falcarindiol binds to the ligand binding domain of PPARγ with higher affinity than falcarinol and that both polyacetylenes exhibit characteristics of PPARγ partial agonists. Falcarinol was shown to inhibit adipocyte differentiation as evident by gene expression studies and Oil Red O staining, whereas falcarindiol did not inhibit adipocyte differentiation, which indicates that these polyacetylenes have distinct modes of action. The results of the present study suggest that falcarinol and falcarindiol may represent scaffolds for novel partial PPARγ agonists with possible antidiabetic properties. PMID:25970571

  11. Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L. as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Moneim M.R. AFIFY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control, the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10%, 20% CaPP for six weeks. The obtained results revealed that groups supplemented with 10% and 20% CaPP significantly decrease total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase compared to positive and negative groups. Organs weight, body weight gain significantly decreased compared with positive control. Moreover dietary carrot pomace powder can used to reduce the body weight and reducing hypercholesterolemic complications. In addition, dietary carrot pomace powder serves to improve the blood picture and to reduce the blood glucose level in hypercholesterolemic rats and could use in obese people for body loss. Data of kidney function (Urea record an increase in CaPP 20% level (26.9±2.96 but this increase was non significant with the negative control group (26.6±3.1.

  12. Response to cadmium of Daucus carota hairy roots dual cultures with glomus intraradices or Gigaspora margarita

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušková, Martina; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2005), s. 217-224. ISSN 0940-6360 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/02/0293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * heavy metal * monoxenic culture Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2005

  13. Content of carotenoids in roots of seventeen cultivars of Daucus carota L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech-Nowak, Aleksandra; Swiderski, Adam; Kruczek, Michał; Luczak, Irena; Kostecka-Gugała, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the content of carotenoids in seventeen cultivars of carrots grown in Poland. Conventional orange cultivars with rarely grown were compared: white, yellow and purple with yellow core cultivars. To determine the content of carotenoids, extracts from lyophilized carrot roots were prepared and analyzed by spectrophotometric as well as HPLC methods with DAD detector. The highest content of carotenoids was found in cultivars: 'Korund F(1)' (48 mg/100g of fresh weight) and 'Salsa F(1)' (36 mg/100g of fresh weight). The antioxidant properties of selected cultivars were compared using the DPPH method. PMID:22428130

  14. Bioactive chemicals from carrot (Daucus carota) juice extracts for the treatment of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Rana; Clench, Malcolm R; Le Maitre, Christine L

    2011-11-01

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that consumption of fruits and vegetables with antioxidant properties correlates with reduced risk for cancers, including leukemia. Carrots contain beneficial agents, such as β-carotene and polyacetylenes, which could be effective in the treatment of leukemia. This study investigated the effect of carrot juice extracts on myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines together with normal hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia cell lines and nontumor control cells were treated with carrot juice extracts for up to 72 hours in vitro. Induction of apoptosis was investigated by using annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis, and results were confirmed by using 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole morphology. Effects on cellular proliferation were investigated via cell cycle analysis and cell counts. Treatment of leukemia cell lines with carrot juice extract induced apoptosis and inhibited progression through the cell cycle. Lymphoid cell lines were affected to a greater extent than were myeloid cell lines, and normal hematopoietic stem cells were less sensitive than most cell lines. This study has shown that extracts from carrots can induce apoptosis and cause cell cycle arrest in leukemia cell lines. The findings suggest that carrots may be an excellent source of bioactive chemicals for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:21864090

  15. Analysis of texture in baby carrot (Daucus carota) subjected to the process of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: ssabato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The carrot is a vegetable of great economic value due to its versatility in the food industry and can be used as raw or minimally processed vegetable or aggregating value to the product, transforming the fresh carrots in baby carrots. It is well known that the application of gamma radiation in food may help in maintaining the quality of food. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the low doses of ionizing radiation on texture of minimally processed baby carrot after the processing in a Multipurpose {sup 60}Co irradiator. It can be concluded that the treatment with low doses of gamma radiation keep the quality of fresh-cut baby carrot. (author)

  16. Genetic diversity of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars revealed by analysis of SSR loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work we evaluate a collection of 88 carrot cultivars and landraces for polymorphisms at SSR loci and use the obtained markers to assess the genetic diversity, and we show molecular evidence for divergence between Asiatic and Western carrot genetic pools. The use of primer pairs flanking repe...

  17. Bioaccessibility of Polyphenols from Plant-Processing Byproducts of Black Carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiloglu, Senem; Capanoglu, Esra; Bilen, Fatma Damla; Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Grootaert, Charlotte; Van de Wiele, Tom; Van Camp, John

    2016-03-30

    Plant-processing byproducts of black carrot represent an important disposal problem for the industry; however, they are also promising sources of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins. The present study focused on the changes in polyphenols from black carrot, peel, and pomace during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMAC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined using spectrophotometric methods, whereas identification and quantification of polyphenols were carried out using UPLC-ESI-MS(E) and HPLC-DAD, respectively. TPC, TMAC, and TAC significantly decreased (23-82%) as a result of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nevertheless, the amount of pomace anthocyanins released at all stages of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was higher than black carrot anthocyanins, suggesting that pomace may be a better source of bioaccessible anthocyanins. Overall, the current study highlighted black carrot byproducts as substantial sources of polyphenols, which may be used to enrich food products. PMID:26262673

  18. Major Cytogenetic Landmarks and Karyotype Analysis in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Other Apiaceace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyotyping can be helpful for understanding species evolution and relationships. Cytological studies in Apiaceae have provided information on the chromosome number and morphology of several crops. However, karyological data of their wild relatives are scarce. In addition, the number of chromosomes ...

  19. Biofortification of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) with Iodine and Selenium in a Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Kopeć, Aneta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Koronowicz, Aneta; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The low content of iodine (I) and selenium (Se) forms available to plants in soil is one of the main causes of their insufficient transfer in the soil-plant-consumer system. Their deficiency occurs in food in the majority of human and farm animal populations around the world. Both elements are classified as beneficial elements. However, plant response to simultaneous fertilization with I and Se has not been investigated in depth. The study (conducted in 2012–2014) included soil fertilization of carrot cv. “Kazan F1” in the following combinations: (1) Control; (2) KI; (3) KIO3; (4) Na2SeO4; (5) Na2SeO3; (6) KI+Na2SeO4; (7) KIO3+Na2SeO4; (8) KI+Na2SeO3; (9) KIO3+Na2SeO3. I and Se were applied twice: before sowing and as top-dressing in a total dose of 5 kg I⋅ha-1 and 1 kg Se⋅ha-1. No negative effects of I and Se fertilization were noted with respect to carrot yield. Higher accumulation and the uptake by leaves and storage roots of I and Se were obtained after the application of KI than KIO3, as well as of Na2SeO4 than Na2SeO3, respectively. Transfer factor values for leaves and roots were about a dozen times higher for Se than for I. Selenomethionine content in carrot was higher after fertilization with Na2SeO4 than with Na2SeO3. However, it was the application of Na2SeO3, KI+Na2SeO3 and KIO3+Na2SeO3 that resulted in greater evenness within the years and a higher share of Se from selenomethionine in total Se in carrot plants. Consumption of 100 g f.w. of carrots fertilized with KI+Na2SeO3 and KIO3+Na2SeO3 can supply approximately or slightly exceed 100% of the Recommended Daily Allowance for I and Se. Moreover, the molar ratio of I and Se content in carrot fertilized with KI+Na2SeO3 and KIO3+Na2SeO3 was the best among the research plots. PMID:27303423

  20. Daucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the Oregon Flora Project is to serve as a comprehensive resource for the vascular plants of Oregon that grow without cultivation, and to foster effective use of this knowledge by all citizens. This contribution presents a floristic account of the two species of wild carrots occurring ...

  1. Produção comercializável e teores de Cu e Zn em cenoura em decorrência da ação residual de fósforo e composto de lixo em solo sob cerrado Marketable yield and contents of Cu and Zn in carrot as influenced by residual phosphate and urban compost in a cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel V. de Mesquita Filho

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se em 1997, em condições de campo um experimento em Latossolo Vermelho Escuro distrófico argiloso sob cerrado de Brasília, para avaliar o efeito residual das aplicações em anos anteriores, a lanço de doses de fósforo (superfosfato triplo, e de composto de lixo na produção de cenoura (Daucus carota, cv. Brasília, assim como nos teores de cobre e zinco em raízes frescas. Aproveitou-se o mesmo delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com 3 repetições, no mesmo campo experimental dos experimentos anteriores distribuídos num esquema fatorial 3 x 5 incluindo-se 3 níveis de fósforo (0; 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 5 níveis de composto de lixo (0; 20; 40; 60 e 80 t ha-1. A colheita foi realizada aos 90 dias após o plantio. A análise estatística dos dados de produção total de raízes revelou efeito residual da adubação dos últimos dois anos em linear e quadrático altamente significativo (pA field experiment was conducted on a clayey Yellow Red Oxisol to evaluate the residual effect of the application of phosphorus and urban waste compost of the previous two years on the root production of carrot cv. Brasília. The soil of the previous experiment design used a factorial consisting of three levels of phosphorus (0; 400 and 800 kg ha-1, applied as triple superphosphate combined with five levels of urban waste compost (0; 20; 40; 60 and 80 t.ha-1, was arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Carrot plants were harvested 90 days after planting. After the harvest, a linear and quadratic effect for phosphorus and urban waste compost (p<0,01 was observed. The linear interaction P x quadratic urban compost was highly significant (p<0,01. The maximum root total production was 26.5 t.ha-1 corresponding to 18.5 t ha-1 of marketable yield, estimated by the calculated doses of 762.5 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 53.2 t ha-1 of urban waste compost according to the function: Y(PROD = 4.541143 + 4.0088 x 10-2 P2O5 + 2

  2. Integrated molecular and morphological studies of Daucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninety-four nuclear orthologs were used to analyze phylogenetic structure in 92 accessions of 13 species and two subspecies of Daucus, and 15 accessions of related genera. A near parallel set of accessions was used for morphological analyses of germplasm. Reiterative analyses examined data of both a...

  3. Phylogenomics of the carrot genus (Daucus, Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular phylogenetics of genome-scale data sets (phylogenomics) often produces phylogenetic trees with unprecedented resolution. We here explore the utility of multiple nuclear orthologs for the taxonomic resolution of a wide variety of Daucus species and outgroups. We studied the phylogeny of 89 ...

  4. AVALIAÇÃO DA VIDA DE PRATELEIRA DE CENOURAS MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrelise VERZELETTI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a vida de prateleira de cenouras minimamente processadas, verifi cando a infl uência de diferentes tipos de cortes (cubos, ralada e inteira e em diferentes embalagens (ar atmosférico e vácuo, armazenadas sob temperatura de refrigeração. Após as operações de higienização e processamento, amostras dos diferentes cortes de cenoura foram acondicionadas em embalagens com ar atmosférico e em embalagens a vácuo, e armazenadas a 7°C durante 14 dias. A composição centesimal da cenoura in natura foi determinada, obtendose elevado teor de umidade. Durante o período de armazenamento, o teor de umidade aumentou, principalmente para as cenouras raladas, devido ao alto grau de injurias mecânicas deste tipo de corte. As cenouras minimamente processadas na forma ralada foram mais suscetíveis ao ataque microbiológico.

  5. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de populações de cenoura Adaptability and stability of carrot populations

    OpenAIRE

    Giovani Olegário da Silva; Agnaldo Donizete F de Carvalho; Jairo V Vieira; Roberto Fritsche-Neto

    2012-01-01

    No processo de desenvolvimento de novas cultivares de cenoura, é imprescindível o conhecimento do comportamento das populações em fase final de melhoramento, frente aos possíveis ambientes para os quais elas possam vir a ser indicadas. Isso pode ser verificado por meio de análises de adaptabilidade e estabilidade. O objetivo desse estudo foi quantificar a adaptabilidade e estabilidade de populações de cenoura do grupo Brasilia. O trabalho foi conduzido nos anos agrícolas de 2007/2008, 2008/20...

  6. DcE2F, a functional plant E2F-like transcriptional activator from Daucus carota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albani, D; Mariconti, L; Ricagno, S;

    2000-01-01

    In animal cells the progression of the cell cycle through G(1)/S transition and S phase is under the control of the pRB/E2F regulatory pathway. The E2F transcription factors are key activators of genes coding for several regulatory proteins and for enzymes involved in nucleotide and DNA synthesis....... In this report we have detected the presence of E2F-like DNA binding activities in carrot nuclear extracts, and we have isolated a carrot cDNA (DcE2F) encoding a plant E2F homologue. The DcE2F gene is expressed in proliferating cells and is induced during the G(1)/S transition of the cell cycle......, transactivation assays have revealed that DcE2F is a functional transcription factor that can transactivate, together with a DP partner, an E2F-responsive reporter gene in both plant and mammalian cells....

  7. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial resistance in grated carrots (Daucus carota)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Lafortune, R

    2004-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of gamma irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging as an alternative treatment to ensure the innocuity and the shelf life extension of pre-cured vegetables. Grated carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli (10{sup 6} CFU/g) and packed under air or under MAP condition (60% O{sub 2}, 30% CO{sub 2} and 10% N{sub 2}). The packages were then, gamma irradiated at doses from 0.15 to 0.9 kGy and stored at 4{+-}1 deg. C. E. coli counts were periodically evaluated during 50 days of storage. Results showed that at day 1, an irradiation treatment at a dose of 0.15 kGy reduced by 3 and 4 log the microbial level representing a level of 3 and 2 log CFU/g when samples were irradiated under air and under MAP respectively. However, a level of 3 log CFU/g was detected in both treated samples after 7 days of storage. When samples were irradiated at doses {>=}0.3 kGy no E.coli were detected during the whole storage in samples treated under MAP. However, when samples were treated under air, a level of 1-2 log CFU/g of E.coli was detected after 5 days of storage.

  8. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial resistance in grated carrots ( Daucus carota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Lafortune, R.

    2004-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of gamma irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging as an alternative treatment to ensure the innocuity and the shelf life extension of pre-cured vegetables. Grated carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli (10 6 CFU/g) and packed under air or under MAP condition (60% O 2, 30% CO 2 and 10% N 2). The packages were then, gamma irradiated at doses from 0.15 to 0.9 kGy and stored at 4±1°C. E. coli counts were periodically evaluated during 50 days of storage. Results showed that at day 1, an irradiation treatment at a dose of 0.15 kGy reduced by 3 and 4 log the microbial level representing a level of 3 and 2 log CFU/g when samples were irradiated under air and under MAP respectively. However, a level of 3 log CFU/g was detected in both treated samples after 7 days of storage. When samples were irradiated at doses ⩾0.3 kGy no E.coli were detected during the whole storage in samples treated under MAP. However, when samples were treated under air, a level of 1-2 log CFU/g of E.coli was detected after 5 days of storage.

  9. Influence of Cultivar and UGmax on Antioxidative Properties of Carrot Roots (Daucus Carota L. and their Stability During Freezing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keutgen Anna J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present experiment, the significance of cultivar (convention-al and coloured and of the application of the soil fertility enhancer UGmax on health-promoting properties of carrot roots subjected to the freezing process of carrot cubes after water blanching was investigated. The selection of cultivar turned out to be highly signif-icant with respect to the development of health-promoting properties of carrot roots. The highest antioxidant properties were found in the purple cultivar ‘Deep Purple’. Its mean antioxidant capacity accounted for 5.31 mmol Fe+2 · kg–1 f.m. Essential for health-promoting properties were the contents of anthocyanins (R2 = 0.83, chlorogenic acid (R2 = 0.81 and total polyphenolics (R2 = 0.71. The application of the biological agent UGmax improved the qual-ity of carrot significantly, increasing the content of total carotenoids and reducing the losses of ascorbic acid during processing. The freezing process negatively influenced the antioxidative properties of carrot irrespective of cultivar and applied agro-technique (use of UGmax, especially in the case of water-soluble antioxidants such as anthocyanins and ascorbic acid.

  10. Cloning of lea cDNA fragment of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and analysis of its expression features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Addition of concentrated sucrose to MS culture arrests the development of carrot somatic embryo at the stage of cotyledon embryo and, with the sucrose concentration restored to normal level, the embryo thus arrested is reactivated into post-embryonic development. Using the method of RT-PCR, the cDNA fragment of a new member of the Dc3 family of lea has been obtained from carrot somatic embryo under regulated state. As revealed by Northern blotting, strong expression has been observed in carrot somatic embryo under regulated state but the expression was much reduced 12 h after deregulation, and nearly disappeared 24 h after. Based on this finding as well as results of related studies, it is surmised that changing the sucrose concentration in culture enabled carrot somatic embryo under suspension culture to undergo a specific course of development which is comparable to the dormancy-germination process of seeds.

  11. Isolation and characterization of a novel cis-acting sequences regulating root-specific gene from Daucus carota L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; GUO Chang-an; REN Haibo; CHEN Fan

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporins are ubiquitous channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water across cell membranes. Most of aquaporins are represent in more than one tissues, but some of them performed highest in roots. They are belived to participate in water transport. DcRB7, a member of the aquaporin family, was isolated from somatic embryos of carrot and identified as a homologous gene of TobRB7. Further studies showed that the expression of DcRB7 was particular in carrot root. To investigate the transcription regulation of DcRB7, a 650-bp upstream sequence of DcRB7 was isolated by inverse PCR, and was fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) report gene. After the recombined vectors were transformed into tobacco, the expression pattern was performed by histochemical staining and the quantitative analysis of GUS activity. The results indicated that the cis-acting element of DcRB7 gene directs GUS expression not only as root-specific but also as drought inducible.

  12. Genomic identification of WRKY transcription factors in carrot (Daucus carota) and analysis of evolution and homologous groups for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Yao; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tian, Chang; Huang, Ying; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors belong to one of the largest transcription factor families. These factors possess functions in plant growth and development, signal transduction, and stress response. Here, we identified 95 DcWRKY genes in carrot based on the carrot genomic and transcriptomic data, and divided them into three groups. Phylogenetic analysis of WRKY proteins from carrot and Arabidopsis divided these proteins into seven subgroups. To elucidate the evolution and distribution of WRKY transcription factors in different species, we constructed a schematic of the phylogenetic tree and compared the WRKY family factors among 22 species, which including plants, slime mold and protozoan. An in-depth study was performed to clarify the homologous factor groups of nine divergent taxa in lower and higher plants. Based on the orthologous factors between carrot and Arabidopsis, 38 DcWRKY proteins were calculated to interact with other proteins in the carrot genome. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that DcWRKY20 can interact with DcMAPK1 and DcMAPK4. The expression patterns of the selected DcWRKY genes based on transcriptome data and qRT-PCR suggested that those selected DcWRKY genes are involved in root development, biotic and abiotic stress response. This comprehensive analysis provides a basis for investigating the evolution and function of WRKY genes. PMID:26975939

  13. Production of edible coating based on fruit and vegetable residues: application on minimally processed carrot (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of edible coatings obtainable from alternative biodegradable materials has gained attention as a promising treatment to prolong the shelf-life of fresh-cut vegetables. Thus, this work aimed to develop a biodegradable coating based on fruit and vegetable residues flour. Immersion coating strategy was studied on the quality of minimally fresh-cut carrots during refrigeration storage by means of weight loss, color variation, pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids content. Better performance was obtained for coated carrots, which exhibited a tendency to have lower whiteness index than uncoated counterparts and enhanced overall quality. Despite a drop in color saturation expressed by chroma values (varying from 59 to 46 was observed, color index presented a positive value for all samples (varying from 13 to 15 indicating orange color preservation throughout storage. Although color parameter was influenced by coating treatment, minor modifications occur over storage concerning weight loss, pH, titratable acidity and soluble content. Results obtained demonstrated the potential of the fruit and vegetable residues flour for edible coatings formulation. Practical application on minimally processed carrots supported its suitability to be used as an alternative coating material and constitute a motivating route to evaluate and optimize this alternative preservation technique.

  14. An Evaluation of the Sensory Properties of Irish Grown Organic and Conventional Carrots (Daucus carota L.) and mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsenan, Clare; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; O'Sullivan, Grace; Pierce, Eoin

    2008-01-01

    There is a general belief among consumers that organically farmed foods are superior in sensory quality when compared to conventionally produced foods. The aim of this study was to establish whether perceptible sensory differences exist between Irish grown organic and conventional carrots and Irish grown organic and conventional mushrooms. Three batches of organically farmed carrots and mushrooms and three batches of conventionally produced carrots and mushrooms were tested. A semi-trained pa...

  15. Genetic structure in cultivated and wild carrots (¤Daucus carota¤ L.) revealed by AFLP analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, S.I.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2000-01-01

    Genetic variation within and among five Danish populations of wild carrot and five cultivated varieties was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Ten AFLP primer combinations produced 116 polymorphic bands. Based on the marker data an UPGMA-cluster analysis and principal...... markers specific to the cultivated carrot makes it possible to detect introgression from cultivated to wild types....

  16. The DcMaster Transposon Display maps polymorphic insertion sites in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    DcMaster is a family of PIF/Harbinger-like class II transposable elements identified in carrot. We present a modified Transposon Display molecular marker system allowing amplification of genomic regions containing DcMaster elements. We scored 77 DcMaster Transposon Display (DcMTD) amplicons, of whic...

  17. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial resistance in grated carrots (Daucus carota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of gamma irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging as an alternative treatment to ensure the innocuity and the shelf life extension of pre-cured vegetables. Grated carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli (106 CFU/g) and packed under air or under MAP condition (60% O2, 30% CO2 and 10% N2). The packages were then, gamma irradiated at doses from 0.15 to 0.9 kGy and stored at 4±1 deg. C. E. coli counts were periodically evaluated during 50 days of storage. Results showed that at day 1, an irradiation treatment at a dose of 0.15 kGy reduced by 3 and 4 log the microbial level representing a level of 3 and 2 log CFU/g when samples were irradiated under air and under MAP respectively. However, a level of 3 log CFU/g was detected in both treated samples after 7 days of storage. When samples were irradiated at doses ≥0.3 kGy no E.coli were detected during the whole storage in samples treated under MAP. However, when samples were treated under air, a level of 1-2 log CFU/g of E.coli was detected after 5 days of storage

  18. Enzymatic reduction of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde with carrot bits (Daucus carota): a simple experiment for understanding biocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes a simple, low-costly and environmentally friendly procedure for reduction of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde using carrot bits in water. This interdisciplinary experiment can be used to introduce the concepts of biocatalysis and green chemistry to undergraduate students. (author)

  19. Effect of the gamma ionizing irradiation on after crop quality of cv. Nantes carrots (Daucus carota L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the post harvest physical and chemical characteristics of cv. Nantes carrots. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS, 1991) carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely consumed. It is also well known that the carrot is one of the best sources of provitamin A (a and b-carotene). Doses of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kGy of gamma ionizing irradiation, from a cesium source, in accordance with the maximum dose allowed by the FDA (1995), were used on the carrots. The different treatments and the control group were evaluated by analysing for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TTA), TSS/TTA ratio, weight loss, hardness, colour, total carotenoid content, ascorbic acid concentration and volatiles. The variance analysis (F of the Fisher treatment) of the results showed no significant difference at the 5% level between the irradiated samples and the control group for most of the tests, except for the colour intensity, which faded with increase in the irradiation dose, total acidity and TSS/TTA ratio, which decreased due to the decrease in the organic acid concentration after harvest. The results show that the low dose irradiation process is very promising to maintain the quality of the product, being a good alternative to avoid post harvest losses. (author)

  20. Production of edible coating based on fruit and vegetable residues: application on minimally processed carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai; Mariana Rangel Alves de Souza; Natalia Vinhosa Bruno; Édira Castello Branco de Andrade Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    The application of edible coatings obtainable from alternative biodegradable materials has gained attention as a promising treatment to prolong the shelf-life of fresh-cut vegetables. Thus, this work aimed to develop a biodegradable coating based on fruit and vegetable residues flour. Immersion coating strategy was studied on the quality of minimally fresh-cut carrots during refrigeration storage by means of weight loss, color variation, pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids content. Bett...

  1. Multiple nuclear ortholog next generation sequencing phylogeny of Daucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next generation sequencing is helping to solve the data insufficiency problem hindering well-resolved dominant gene phylogenies. We used Roche 454 technology to obtain DNA sequences from 93 nuclear orthologs, dispersed throughout all linkage groups of Daucus. Of these 93 orthologs, ten were designed...

  2. Environ: E00455 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00455 Daucus ... carota fruit Crude drug Pinene [CPD:C06077], (-)-Limonene [CPD:C00521], Ducol, Car ... cetaldehyde [CPD:C00084], Tiglic acid [CPD:C08279] Daucus ... carota [TAX:4039] Apiaceae (carrot family) Daucus ... t plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) E00455 Daucus ... carota fruit ...

  3. Efeito de espécies vegetais em bordadura em cebola sobre a densidade populacional de tripes e sirfídeos predadores.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Paulo Antonio de Souza; Sousa e Silva Carlos Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Analisou-se a relação entre o efeito do plantio de diferentes espécies vegetais, em bordadura, na cultura da cebola, Allium cepa L, na incidência de Thrips tabaci Lind. e sirfídeos predadores, Toxomerus spp. O experimento foi conduzido na Epagri, EE de Ituporanga, de agosto a dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram cebola em monocultivo; cebola + trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); cebola + nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg.); cebola + cenoura (Daucus carota L...

  4. Aspectos da fisiologia de cenoura minimamente processada Physiological aspects of minimally processed carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Milza M Lana

    2000-01-01

    O processamento mínimo de hortaliças compreende as operações que eliminam as partes não comestíveis, seguidas pelo corte em tamanhos menores, tornando-as prontas para consumo imediato e mantendo a condição de produto in natura. A oferta e o interesse do consumidor por esses produtos têm sido crescentes, tanto para o mercado institucional (restaurantes e cozinhas industriais), como para o consumidor final. A cenoura é, dentre as hortaliças, uma das principais espécies comercializadas nessa for...

  5. Antioxidant Activity and Sensory Properties Carrot (Daucus carrota) Soyghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Susiloningsih Enny Karti Basuki; Sarofa Ulya; Sholihah Fauziah Imroatus

    2016-01-01

    Carrot (Dascus carota L.) is one of the more commonly used vegetables of human nutrition. It is rich in beta carotene, ascorbic acid, tocopherol and classified as vitaminized food. Combination of carrot juice and yoghurt produce a nutritionally balanced food. The aim of this study is to determine the best combination of carrot juice concentration and was fermentation duration. soyghurt was prepared in the laboratory scale production from soymilk and carrot juice was fermented with Streptococc...

  6. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL E INSTRUMENTAL DO ESBRANQUIÇAMENTO SUPERFICIAL DE MINI-CENOURA DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. A. T. K. PEREIRA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Dentre os atributos de qualidade sensorial exigidos para mini-cenouras, a cor externa é um dos mais importantes. Este trabalho objetivou comparar dois métodos de avaliação da cor em mini-cenouras: instrumental (colorimetria e sensorial (análise descritiva. Raízes de cenouras da variedade Indiana-F1 foram processadas na Indústria Mr. Rabbit Farm Ltda., divididas em dois lotes, onde um seguiu o fl uxograma de processamento da indústria e ao outro foi acrescentada a etapa de revestimento em solução polipeptídica a 2%. Os dois lotes foram armazenados em expositores verticais, sob duas temperaturas distintas, 5oC e 10oC, para posterior avaliação instrumental e sensorial da cor. A avaliação instrumental foi realizada com um colorímetro modelo Color Quest II (Sphere (“Hunter Lab Reston”, VA calibrado para cor branca. O método sensorial foi realizado por uma equipe composta por nove provadores adequadamente selecionados e treinados, utilizando escala não estruturada de 9 cm. Os resultados obtidos da análise instrumental indicaram não haver diferença signifi cativa (p>0,05 entre as mini-cenouras com e sem revestimento, armazenadas a 5 e 10º C. Já nos resultados da equipe treinada foi verifi cada diferença entre as amostras ( <0,05. Após 25 dias, as mini-cenouras revestidas foram classifi cadas, pela equipe treinada, com nenhum esbranquiçamento e as não revestidas como muito esbranquiçadas, demonstrando que o método sensorial foi mais efi ciente para avaliação do esbranquiçamento de mini-cenouras.

  7. Qualidade fisiológica e tamanho de sementes de cenoura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodo Angelica Brod

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A maturação de sementes de cenoura ocorre escalonadamente nas umbelas de diferentes ordens e, sendo a colheita realizada em uma única etapa, pode ocorrer desuniformidade de tamanho, dentro de um mesmo lote de sementes. Desta forma, este trabalho foi realizado visando determinar o efeito do tamanho da semente na sua qualidade fisiológica. Quatro lotes de sementes comerciais de cenoura cv. Brasília, provenientes da região de Bagé-RS, foram separados em três frações: grande (retenção em peneira de perfuração redonda 2 mm; média (retenção em peneira de perfuração redonda 1,5 mm e a mistura entre grande e média (em porções iguais. Foram conduzidos os seguintes testes: germinação, tetrazólio, condutividade elétrica, envelhecimento acelerado e emergência de plântulas em casa de vegetação. Não houve diferenças significativas quanto aos diferentes tamanhos de sementes em todos os testes realizados, com exceção do teste de emergência de plântulas em casa de vegetação com avaliação aos 14 dias após a semeadura. Porém, este teste não mostrou consistência na separação das frações em diferentes níveis de qualidade, para os diferentes lotes.

  8. Vybrané charakteristiky z biologie významných druhů z čeledi miříkovitých

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorová, Vladislava

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare the germination of cultural and weed variety of selected species of the family Apiceae. There were selected species: Daucus carota and Pastnaca sativa. For this research were selected three stocks of Carrot: Daucus carota -- wild, Daucus carota -- seeded from stored root in the garden - variety Olympus and Daucus carota -- originated from the propagation crop species -- variety Cider. For Pastinaca sativa were selected two populations: Pasti...

  9. The impact of fermentation with exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria on rheological, chemical and sensory properties of pureed carrots (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Riikka; Honkapää, Kaisu; Maina, Ndegwa H; Shi, Qiao; Viljanen, Kaarina; Maaheimo, Hannu; Virkki, Liisa; Tenkanen, Maija; Lantto, Raija

    2015-08-17

    Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) offers a natural means to modify technological and nutritional properties of foods and food ingredients. This study explored the impact of fermentation with different exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing LAB on rheological, chemical and sensory properties of puréed carrots in water, as a vegetable model, with the focus on texture formation. The screening of 37 LAB strains for starter selection revealed 16 Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Weissella strains capable of EPS (dextran, levan, and/or β-glucan) production in the carrot raw material. Fermentations with five out of six selected EPS producers modified perceived texture of the liquid carrot model (p<0.05). The formation of low-branched dextran correlated with perceived thickness, whereas the production of β-glucan correlated with perceived elasticity. Low-branched dextran producing Weissella confusa and Leuconostoc lactis strains produced thick texture accompanied by pleasant odour and flavour. The fermentation with the selected EPS-producing LAB strains is a promising clean label approach to replace hydrocolloid additives as texturizers in vegetable containing products, not only carrot. PMID:26001525

  10. Influence of cultivar and harvest year on the volatile profiles of leaves and roots of carrots (Daucus carota spp. sativus Hoffm.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Detlef; Nothnagel, Thomas; Schulz, Hartwig

    2015-04-01

    The focus of the present work centers on the diversity of volatile patterns of carrots. In total 15 main volatiles were semiquantified in leaves and roots using isolation by headspace solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with FID and MS detection. Significant differences in the main number of compounds were detected between the cultivars as well as the years. Genotype-environment interactions (G × E) are discussed. The most abundant metabolites, β-myrcene (leaves) and terpinolene (roots), differ in the sum of all interactions (cultivar × harvest year) by a factor of 22 and 62, respectively. A statistical test indicates significant metabolic differences between cultivars for nine volatiles in leaves and 10 in roots. In contrast to others the volatiles α-pinene, γ-terpinene, limonene, and myristicine in leaves as well as β-pinene, humulene, and bornyl acetate in roots are relatively stable over years. A correlation analysis shows no strict clustering regarding root color. While the biosynthesis in leaves and roots is independent between these two organs for nine of the 15 volatiles, a significant correlation of the myristicine content between leaves and roots was determined, which suggests the use of this compound as a bitter marker in carrot breeding. PMID:25797828

  11. Analysis of the Thermal Degradation of the Individual Anthocyanin Compounds of Black Carrot (Daucus carota L.): A New Approach Using High-Resolution Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulou, Ioanna; Thaeron, Delphine; Baker, Ashley; Jones, Anita; Robertson, Neil

    2015-08-12

    The black carrot dye is a mixture of cyanidin molecules, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of which shows a highly overlapped aromatic region. In this study, the (1)H NMR (800 MHz) aromatic chemical shifts of the mixture were fully assigned by overlaying them with the characterized (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the separated compounds. The latter were isolated using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and their chemical shifts were identified using (1)H and two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy (COSY) NMR spectroscopy. The stability of the black carrot mixture to heat exposure was investigated at pH 3.6, 6.8, and 8.0 by heat-treating aqueous solutions at 100 °C and the powdered material at 180 °C. From integration of high-resolution (1)H NMR spectra, it was possible to follow the relative degradation of each compound, offering advantages over the commonly used ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis) and HPLC approaches. UV/vis spectroscopy and CIE color measurements were used to determine thermally induced color changes, under normal cooking conditions. PMID:26160425

  12. Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Two Laccases from Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Their Response to Abiotic and Metal Ions Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Laccases, which belong to the blue copper oxidase enzyme family, oxidize many organic and inorganic compounds. The laccase-encoding genes DcLac1 and DcLac2 were isolated from the economically important tuberous root carrot, and their proteins were successfully expressed and purified using the Escherichia coli expression system BL21(DE3). DcLac1 and DcLac2 had molecular masses of approximately 64 and 61.9 kDa, respectively. With 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate acid) as the substrate, DcLac1 and DcLac2 had K m values of 3.9043 and 1.255 mM, respectively, and V max values of 54.0832 and 81.7996 μM mg(-1) min(-1), respectively. Moreover, DcLac1 and DcLac2 had optimal pH values of 2.8 and 2.6, respectively, and optimal temperatures of 45 and 40 °C, respectively. The activities of the two enzymes were promoted by Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), and Na(+) but inhibited by Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), K(+), SDS, and EDTA. Expression profiles showed that the two DcLac genes had almost identical responses to high and low temperature stresses but different responses to salt, drought, and metal stresses. This study provided insights into the characteristics and tolerance response mechanisms of laccase in carrot. PMID:26626349

  13. nfluences of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost and bacterial fertilizer on soluble soil nitrogen forms and on the growth of carrot (Daucus Carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Balla Kovács

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a greenhouse study to compare the effects of food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer and their combination with the effect of mineral fertilizer on yield of carrot and the available nutrient content of soils. The study was conducted on calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils and consisted of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The NH4NO3 resulted in reduced growing of carrot plant in sandy soil, and the treatment effect of mineral fertilizer was not observed significantly in chernozem soil. Sandy soil showed higher response of growth of carrot to food waste compost fertilization than chernozem soil. Sole application of EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not have marked effect on yield parameters and sizes of roots. When EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied together with ammonium-nitrate or with compost in chernozem soil, the weights of roots and the sizes of roots in some cases became higher compared to the values of appropriate treatments without inoculation. In sandy soil the diameter of roots slightly increased when EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied with ammonium-nitrate and with ammonium-nitrate+compost combination compared to appropriate treatment without inoculation. In chernozem soil the maximum weights and sizes of roots were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1 bacterial fertilizer and in sandy soil with compost treatment. Our results of soluble nitrogen content of soils are in good agreement with yield parameters of carrot. Results suggest that food waste compost could be a good substitute for mineral fertilizer application in carrot production mainly in sandy soil. EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not cause marked effect on yield and yield parameters of carrot plant, but its combination with other fertilizers promises a little bit higher yield or plant available nutrient in the soil. These effects do not clear exactly, so further studies are needed.

  14. Isolation of development-related genes in somatic embryo radicle of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using modified cDNA RDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁丰秋; 张雷; 黄美娟; 吴乃虎

    2000-01-01

    Using modified cDNA RDA capitalizing on the high affinity of streptavidin for biotin and magnetic-absorption-based separation, we have obtained four bands of specifically expressed cDNA in the carrot somatic embryo deregulated for 12 h, which were designated as NR-1, NR-2, NR-3 and NR-4, respectively. As revealed by homology analysis of their DNA sequences after cloning them into pBS, remarkable homology was demonstrated in NR-2, NR-3 and NR-4 with the genes coding for LEA (late embryogenesis abundant protein), Dna J and xyloglucan endo-trans-glycosylase in plants. On the other hand, NR-1 showing no homology with any known sequence may have come from unknown genes. Using 32P-labeled NR-1 as probe, hybridization with cDNA fragment population has shown that we have actually cloned a new gene fragment related to radicle development. As shown by further Southern hybridization, these genes may be present in carrot genome in the form of single or low copies.

  15. Isolation of development-related genes in somatic embryo radicle of carrot (Daucus carota L.) using modified cDNA RDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using modified cDNA RDA capitalizing on the high affinity of streptavidin for biotin and magnetic-absorption-based separation,we have obtained four bands of specifically expressed cDNA in the carrot somatic embryo deregulated for 12 h,which were designated as NR-1,NR-2,NR-3 and NR-4,respectively.As revealed by homology analysis of their DNA sequences after cloning them into pBS,remarkable homology was demonstrated in NR-2,NR-3 and NR-4 with the genes coding for LEA (late embryogenesis abundant protein),Dna J and xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase in plants.On the other hand,NR-1 showing no homology with any known sequence may have come from unknown genes.Using 32P-labeled NR-1 as probe,hybridization with cDNA fragment population has shown that we have actually cloned a new gene fragment related to radicle development.As shown by further Southern hybridization,these genes may be present in carrot genome in the form of single or low copies.

  16. Sitios de infección por hongos más frecuentes en la zanahoria (Daucus carota L. y patogenicidad en sus diferentes tejidos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Rivera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi from carrot roots collected in the field local market were isolated and identified. Sites of natural infection on the root were recorded. Sixteen genera were identified and their pathogenicity tested by  placing them on: not wounded periderm, pericyclic parenchyma, phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. Half of the total fungi was isolated in both field and market samples. The most frequent natural infection sites were the crown, end of the tap root, and lateral roots. In the pathogenicity tests a gradient of resistance was shown varying from a very high level at periderm to a low level at the xylem parenchyma.  Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,  Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium tricinctum, F. nivale, F. solani, F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. y Gliocladium sp., all penetrated directly throught the periderm and also infected the other tissues. Geotrivhum candidum Rhizopus stolonifer . Verticillium sp., Penicillium so., and Candida sp. did no intect the periderm, but were pathogenic  to the pericyclic, phloem, and xylem parenchyma. Phoma sp. and Mucor sp. only infected phloem and xylem parenchyma.

  17. Plant extracts and essential oils on the control of Alternaria alternata , Alternaria dauci and on the germination and emergence of carrot seeds ( Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Batista de Lima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate garlic, pepper and coriander plant extract as well as neem and orange peel essential oil effective ness to control Alternaria alternata and Alternaria dauci and their efficiency during carrot seeds germination and emergence. A completely randomized design was used in three different experiments. The first experiment evaluated the effect of plant extracts and essential oils on the incidence of A. alternata and A. dauci . It was done by means of a factorial design applied to five treatments (garlic, pepper, coriander, and neem and orange peel essential oils at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30%.They also evaluated the controls untreated and with fungicide (Thiram.The second experiment evaluated the effect of the treatment at30% concentration on the germination and emergence of seedlings assessed on trays, and in the third experiment, the presence of A. alternata and A. dauci on the pericarp, endosperm and on the embryo. A. alternata showed higher incidence than A. dauci. The garlic extract and the orange essential oil showed the potential to control A. dauci and A. alternata, because their lower concentrations were able to sufficiently reduce the incidence of these fungi and because they do not affect carrot seeds germination and emergence. A. alternata conidia were found on the embryo (8%, pericarp (17% and endosperm (31%.

  18. Sitios de infección por hongos más frecuentes en la zanahoria (Daucus carota L.) y patogenicidad en sus diferentes tejidos.

    OpenAIRE

    German Rivera; Alejandro Esquivel; Rafael Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Fungi from carrot roots collected in the field local market were isolated and identified. Sites of natural infection on the root were recorded. Sixteen genera were identified and their pathogenicity tested by  placing them on: not wounded periderm, pericyclic parenchyma, phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. Half of the total fungi was isolated in both field and market samples. The most frequent natural infection sites were the crown, end of the tap root, and lateral roots. In the patho...

  19. Utilización de un secadero solar en el proceso de deshidratación de zanahoria (Daucus Carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Ariza, Heidi Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Se pretendió supervisar el comportamiento del aire caliente dentro de una cámara de secado, resultado del calentamiento del aire entrante del medio ambiente por efecto de la radiación solar, utilizando sensores de temperatura ubicados de forma distribuida en la cámara de secado y en su exterior. Luego se realizó un proceso de secado de zanahoria en láminas, supervisado mediante sensores de temperatura y humedad relativa, evaluando el comportamiento del aire caliente en el interior del seca...

  20. The influence of the fungal pathogen Mycocentrospora acerina on the proteome and polyacetylenes and 6-methoxymellein in organic and conventionally cultivated carrots (Daucus carota) during post harvest storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, Sébastien; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Edelenbos, Merete;

    2012-01-01

    Many carrots are discarded during post harvest cold storage due to development of fungal infections, caused by, e.g., Mycocentrospora acerina (liquorice rot). We compared the susceptibility of carrots grown under conventional and organic agricultural practices. In one year, organically cultivated...... metabolism. This combined metabolic and proteomic study indicates that roots respond to fungal infection through altered metabolism: simultaneous induction of 6-methoxymellein and synthesis of defence related proteins....... carrots showed 3× to 7× more symptoms than conventionally cultivated, when studying naturally occurring disease at 4 and 6 months, respectively. On the other hand, we have developed a bioassay for infection studies of M. acerina on carrots and observed that organic roots were more susceptible after one...

  1. Early Identification of Stable Transformation Events by Combined Use of Antibiotic Selection and Vital Detection of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Callus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Yeu Yau; Seth J Davis; Ahmet Ipek; Philipp W Simon

    2008-01-01

    Genetic transformation is a useful technique to complement conventional breeding in crop improvement. Although carrot has been a model organism for in vitro embryogenesis study, genetic transformation of carrot is still lengthy and labor intensive. An efficient transformation and detection system is desirable. Direct infection of Agrobacterium to carrot calli has provided an easy way for carrot genetic transformation. To improve the efficiency of antibiotic selection in this method, we report the combined use of an improved green-fluorescent protein, referred to as smGFP, to establish a versatile selection method for carrot callus transformation system. By combining antibiotic selection with the bright fluorescence observed in the callus tissue, we were able to easily identify stable transformants in early stage of the transformation process. In addition to the GFP expression of the callus cells, the transgenic nature of callus cells was confirmed with Southern and Western analysis. We found we can link the simplicity of carrot-callus-cell transformation, early detection of stable transformants with antibiotic selection, visualization of GFP fluorescence, and molecular analysis (Southern and Western) of callus tissue (non-photosynthetic tissue) to provide a more efficient way in identifying stable transformants at early stage of carrot transformation.

  2. Effect of cover crops on emergence and growth of carrot (Daucus carota L. in no-plow and traditional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to determine the influence of cover crop biomass incorporated into the soil at different times and using different treatments on carrot emergence and growth. 7 species of cover crops were included in the study: Secale cereale, Avena sativa, Vicia sativa, Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum, and Helianthus annuus.  Number of emerged carrot plants significantly depended on the cover crop used and on the method of pre-winter and spring pre-sowing tillage. Carrot emerged best after a rye or oats cover crop. Regardless of the cover crop species used, the largest number of carrots emerged in cultivation on ridges. In other variants of no-plow tillage, number of seedlings was significantly lower and did not differ from that under traditional plow tillage. The highest leaf rosettes were formed by carrot growing after a rye or oats cover crop. The highest rosettes were produced by carrots in the treatments where tillage was limited to the use of a tillage implement in spring and the lowest ones after pre-winter plowing. The effect of tillage on the emergence and height of carrot leaves largely depended on weather conditions in the successive years of the study. The largest number of leaves was found in carrots grown after a buckwheat cover crop and in cultivation without cover crop, while the smallest one after phacelia and white mustard. Carrots produced the largest number of leaves after a sunflower cover crop and the use of a tillage implement in spring, while the number of leaves was lowest when the mustard biomass was incorporated into the soil in spring. The use of cover crops significantly increased the mass of leaves produced by carrot as compared to the cultivation without cover crop. The largest mass of leaves was produced by carrots grown after the phacelia and mustard cover crops. Conventional plow tillage and pre-winter tillage using a stubble cultivator promoted an increase in the mass of carrot leaves.

  3. Development and Characterization of Novel SSR Markers in Carrot (Daucus Carota L.) and Their Application for Mapping and Diversity Analysis in Apiaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic resources in carrot and other Apiaceae are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of a large set of pcr-based codominant markers, such as simple sequence repeats (SSR), would allow integration of the different carrot genetic maps constructed to date (mainly using anonymous dominant mark...

  4. Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short-term supplement of coloured carrot (Daucus carota) varieties as forage material for egg-laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershoj, Marianne; Kidmose, Ulla; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplying egg-laying hens with different forage materials may influence egg production and quality. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of standard feed plus 70 g day−1 per hen of three coloured carrot varieties (orange, yellow and purple) as forage material in comparison with a standard feed control on egg production, egg yolk colour and deposition of carotenoids in the yolk. RESULTS: Carrot supplementation reduced feed intakes significantly, but not...

  5. Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Grzebelus, Dariusz; Iorizzo, Massimo; Senalik, Douglas; Ellison, Shelby; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Macko-Podgorni, Alicja; Heller-Uszynska, Kasia; Kilian, Andrzej; Nothnagel, Thomas; Allender, Charlotte; Simon, Philipp W; Baranski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, but genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to develop a saturated genetic linkage map of carrot. We analyzed a set of 900 DArT markers in a collection of plant materials comprising 94 cultivated and 65 wild carrot accessions. The accessions were attribu...

  6. Combined effects of coating, modified atmosphere packaging, and gamma irradiation on quality maintenance of ready-to-use carrots (Daucus carota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, R; Caillet, S; Lacroix, M

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an edible coating combined with modified atmosphere (MA; 60% O2, 30% CO2, and 10% N2) packaging and gamma irradiation on the microbiological stability and physicochemical quality of minimally processed carrots. A coating based on calcium caseinate and whey protein isolates was used. Coated and uncoated peeled minicarrots were packed under the MA or air (78.1% N2, 20.9% O2, and 0.036% CO2), irradiated at 0.5 or 1 kGy, and stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 21 days. Samples were evaluated periodically for aerobic plates counts (APCs) and physicochemical properties (firmness, white discoloration, and whiteness index). Gamma irradiation did not significantly affect the physicochemical properties of the carrots (P > 0.05). Microbiological analysis revealed that for uncoated carrots irradiation at 0.5 and 1 kGy under air and MA reduced the APCs by 3.5 and 4 log CFU/g and by 4 and 4.5 log CFU/g, respectively. For coated carrots, irradiation at 0.5 and 1 kGy under air and MA reduced the APCs by 4 and 4.5 log CFU/g and by 3 and 4.25 log CFU/g, respectively. The coating was able to protect carrots against dehydration during storage under air. Coating and irradiation at 1 kGy were also able to protect carrot firmness during storage under air. MA packaging retarded whitening of uncoated carrots but had a detrimental effect on firmness. The edible coating used in this study did not significantly inhibit (P > 0.05) microbial growth on carrots. PMID:15726981

  7. Increased Nicotiana tabacum fitness through positive regulation of carotenoid, gibberellin and chlorophyll pathways promoted by Daucus carota lycopene β-cyclase (Dclcyb1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J C; Cerda, A; Simpson, K; Lopez-Diaz, I; Carrera, E; Handford, M; Stange, C

    2016-04-01

    Carotenoids, chlorophylls and gibberellins are derived from the common precursor geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). One of the enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis is lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) that catalyzes the conversion of lycopene into β-carotene. In carrot, Dclcyb1 is essential for carotenoid synthesis in the whole plant. Here we show that when expressed in tobacco, increments in total carotenoids, β-carotene and chlorophyll levels occur. Furthermore, photosynthetic efficiency is enhanced in transgenic lines. Interestingly, and contrary to previous observations where overexpression of a carotenogenic gene resulted in the inhibition of the synthesis of gibberellins, we found raised levels of active GA4 and the concommitant increases in plant height, leaf size and whole plant biomass, as well as an early flowering phenotype. Moreover, a significant increase in the expression of the key carotenogenic genes, Ntpsy1, Ntpsy2 and Ntlcyb, as well as those involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll (Ntchl), gibberellin (Ntga20ox, Ntcps and Ntks) and isoprenoid precursors (Ntdxs2 and Ntggpps) was observed. These results indicate that the expression of Dclcyb1 induces a positive feedback affecting the expression of isoprenoid gene precursors and genes involved in carotenoid, gibberellin and chlorophyll pathways leading to an enhancement in fitness measured as biomass, photosynthetic efficiency and carotenoid/chlorophyll composition. PMID:26893492

  8. Fractionation of Plant Bioactives from Black Carrots (Daucus carota subspecies sativus varietas atrorubens Alef.) by Adsorptive Membrane Chromatography and Analysis of Their Potential Anti-Diabetic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Rodríguez-Werner, Miriam; Schlösser, Anke; Liehr, Martin; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-07-27

    Black and purple carrots have attracted interest as colored extracts for coloring food due to their high content of anthocyanins. This study aimed to investigate the polyphenol composition of black carrots. Particularly, the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds of the variety Deep Purple carrot (DPC), which presents a very dark color, was performed by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analyses. The separation of polyphenols from a DPC XAD-7 extract into an anthocyanin fraction (AF) and co-pigment fraction (CF; primarily phenolic acids) was carried out by membrane chromatography. Furthermore, possible anti-diabetic effects of the DPC XAD-7 extract and its AF and CF were determined. DPC samples (XAD-7, CF, and AF) inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, DPC XAD-7 and chlorogenic acid, but not DPC CF and DPC AF, caused a moderate inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells. However, DPC samples did not affect glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) activity. Overall, DPC exhibits an inhibitory effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity and on cellular glucose uptake indicating potential anti-diabetic properties. PMID:27362825

  9. Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, however, genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to devel...

  10. The effect of commercial enzyme preparation-assisted maceration on the yield, quality, and bioactivity of essential oil from waste carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śmigielski, K. B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight enzyme preparations were screened with a view to maximizing the yield of carrot seed essential oil. Three of the eight enzyme preparations investigated, lipase from Mucor circinelloides, XPect® pectinase, and Esperase® protease, significantly influenced the amount of essential oil obtained, with Esperase® being the most effective. The Taguchi method was applied to optimize the processing conditions for the Esperase® protease. Under the optimum conditions, the essential oil yield increased by approximately 48%. The main constituent compounds in the oil are: carotol (OeA: 40.80%–OeB: 46.17%, daucol (OeA: 7.35%–OeB: 6.22%, sabinene (OeA: 5.12%–OeB: 6.13%, alpha-pinene (OeA: 4.24%–OeB: 5.11% and geranyl acetate (OeA: 4.50%–OeB: 3.68%. As compared to the control sample, the essential oil obtained from enzyme-pretreated carrot seeds has the same biological activity against Bacillus subtilis and Candida sp., lower activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and higher activity against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum.Ocho preparados enzimáticos fueron seleccionados con el fin de maximizar el rendimiento de aceites esenciales de semillas de zanahoria. Tres de los ocho preparados de las enzimas investigadas, lipasa de Mucor circinelloides, Xpect® pectinasa y Esperase® proteasa, influyeron de manera significativa sobre la cantidad de aceite esencial obtenido, siendo Esperase® el más eficaz. El método de Taguchi se aplicó para optimizar las condiciones del procesamiento para esta última. Bajo las condiciones óptimas, el rendimiento de los aceite esenciales aumentó aproximadamente un 48%. Los principales compuestos constituyentes del aceite son: carotol (OEA: 40.80%–OeB: 46,17%, ducol (OEA: 7,35%–OeB: 6,22%, sabineno (OEA: 5,12%–OeB: 6,13%, alfa-pineno (OEA: 4,24%– OeB: 5,11% y acetato de geranilo (OEA: 4,50%–OeB: 3,68%. En comparación con la muestra control, el aceite esencial obtenido a partir de las semillas de zanahoria mediante enzima-pretratada tiene la misma actividad biológica frente a Bacillus subtilis y Candida sp., menor actividad frente a Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, y Pseudomonas aeruginosa, y una mayor actividad contra Aspergillus niger y Penicillium expansum.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Aloevera barbedensis, Daucus carota, Emblica officinalis, Honey and Punica granatum and Formulation of a Health Drink and Salad

    OpenAIRE

    Jeswin Philip; Sheila John; Priya Iyer

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Indian folk medicine has been in practice from time immemorial. Traditional medicine interconnects our body with nature for a healthy living. The naturally occurring antimicrobials in food vary in their efficacy and function, toxicology, safety and mechanism of action against microorganisms.Methodology and Results: The study revitalizes the traditional system of medicine in order to achieve self reliance in health care and health for all by analyzing the antimicrobial property of aqueou...

  12. Plant extracts and essential oils on the control of Alternaria alternata , Alternaria dauci and on the germination and emergence of carrot seeds ( Daucus carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Batista Lima; Luana Lopes Assumpção Rentschler; João Tavares Bueno; Ana Cláudia Boaventura

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate garlic, pepper and coriander plant extract as well as neem and orange peel essential oil effective ness to control Alternaria alternata and Alternaria dauci and their efficiency during carrot seeds germination and emergence. A completely randomized design was used in three different experiments. The first experiment evaluated the effect of plant extracts and essential oils on the incidence of A. alternata and A. dauci . It was done by means of...

  13. Aspectos da fisiologia de cenoura minimamente processada Physiological aspects of minimally processed carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milza M. Lana

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available O processamento mínimo de hortaliças compreende as operações que eliminam as partes não comestíveis, seguidas pelo corte em tamanhos menores, tornando-as prontas para consumo imediato e mantendo a condição de produto in natura. A oferta e o interesse do consumidor por esses produtos têm sido crescentes, tanto para o mercado institucional (restaurantes e cozinhas industriais, como para o consumidor final. A cenoura é, dentre as hortaliças, uma das principais espécies comercializadas nessa forma, ou seja, ralada, picada em cubos ou rodelas ou na forma de mini-cenoura (`baby-carrot'. As operações de processamento causam uma série de estresses e alterações metabólicas indesejáveis que reduzem a vida útil da hortaliça processada em relação ao produto inteiro. Dentre as principais, incluem-se o aumento da taxa respiratória e da transpiração, a deterioração microbiana, a produção de metabólitos secundários e a degradação de membranas lipídicas. São apresentados os efeitos de diversos fatores como cultivares, formas de corte, tratamentos químicos, uso de revestimentos, irradiação, atmosfera modificada e refrigeração sobre a magnitude das alterações fisiológicas resultantes do processamento.Minimal processing of vegetables involves the elimination of non-edible parts followed by cutting into smaller pieces, so that the product obtained is ready-to-eat and fresh-like. The demand for minimally processed vegetables by consumers and by food service industry has increased. Carrot is among the most popular vegetables marketed this way, that is shredded, cut as slices or cubes and as baby-carrot. Minimal processing operations induce stress and undesirable metabolic changes that reduce the product shelf life in relation to the intact organs from which they were obtained. These metabolic changes include increase in respiration and transpiration rate, pathological breakdown, synthesis of secondary compounds and membrane

  14. Associação de densidades populacionais de cenoura e alface no desempenho agronômico da cenoura em cultivo consorciado em faixa Association of carrot and lettuce planting densities on carrot agronomic performance in strip-intercropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bezerra Neto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado de junho a setembro de 2003, em área experimental da ESAM, para avaliar associações de densidades populacionais de cenoura e alface no desempenho agronômico da cenoura em sistema consorciado em faixa. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos completos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram resultantes da combinação de quatro populações de cenoura [100%; 80%; 60% e 40% população recomendada no cultivo solteiro (PRCS] com quatro populações de alface (100%; 80%; 60% e 40% da PRCS. A PRCS da cenoura na região é de 500.000 plantas/ha e no cultivo da alface é de 250.000 plantas/ha. As cultivares de cenoura e alface plantadas, pertencentes aos grupos Brasília e Americana, foram, respectivamente, 'Brasília' e 'Tainá'. Na cenoura avaliou-se altura de plantas, massa seca da parte aérea e das raízes, produtividades total e comercial, e classificação de raízes. Não houve interação significativa entre as densidades populacionais da cenoura e de alface em qualquer uma das características avaliadas na cenoura. Não houve também efeito significativo do aumento dos níveis populacionais da alface em qualquer característica avaliada na cenoura. O aumento na densidade populacional da cenoura aumentou a altura de plantas da cenoura e diminui a massa seca da parte aérea e de raízes, e a percentagem de raízes classes longa e média, e refugo. O aumento na associação das densidades populacionais de cenoura e de alface aumentou a produtividade total e comercial da cenoura, além do aumento na percentagem de raízes classe curta.An experiment was carried out from June to September 2003, in the field, in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Associations of carrot (cv. Brasília and lettuce (cv. Tainá planting densities on carrot agronomic performance in strip-intercropping system were evaluated. The experimental design was of randomized complete

  15. Produção e aceitabilidade de cenoura sob cultivo orgânico no inverno e no verão Production and acceptability of carrot under organic cultivation in winter and summer

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Paulus; Cláudia de A Moura; Anderson Santin; Ana Regina Dalhem; Gilmar A Nava; Celso EP Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Para o cultivo da cenoura é importante conhecer a adaptação das cultivares de acordo com as condições climáticas do local e a preferência do consumidor. Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho e a aceitação, detectando assim a preferência dos consumidores a diferentes cultivares de cenoura em sistema de cultivo orgânico, realizou-se o presente trabalho. Avaliou-se o desempenho das cultivares de cenoura em Dois Vizinhos (PR). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados com cin...

  16. Cenouras minimamente processadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas e tratadas com radiação gama: avaliação microbiológica, físico-química e química

    OpenAIRE

    LIMA Keila S. Cople; Lima Antonio L. S.; Luchese Rosa H.; Godoy Ronoel L. O.; Sabaa-Srur Armando U. O.

    2003-01-01

    As cenouras são as principais fontes de origem vegetal em carotenóides provitamínicos A (a e o b-caroteno) e podem ser transformados em vitamina A dentro do organismo animal. Segundo a Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar realizada na região Sudeste do Brasil, no grupo de raízes e tubérculos, a cenoura é amplamente consumida. As cenouras minimamente processadas foram acondicionadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas de 5% O2/10% CO2 e 21% O2 (ar sintético), e tratadas com radiação ionizante g...

  17. Calagem em cultivos sucessivos de cenoura e alface Liming on crop rotation system of carrot and lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E Trani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantidade de calcário indicada de forma rotineira para hortaliças tem pouca experimentação de campo para dar suporte a níveis de aplicação. Neste trabalho procurou-se estabelecer valores para a saturação por bases (V e pH (CaCl2 para melhor produtividade e qualidade de cenoura (de inverno e alface (de verão, cultivadas sucessivamente por três anos agrícolas em um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo em Monte Alegre do Sul (SP. Avaliou-se a calagem aplicada no ano, bem como o efeito residual da calagem no segundo e terceiro anos subseqüentes. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: 0; 2; 4; 6 e 8 t ha-1 de calcário no primeiro ano, e 4 e 8 t ha-1 de calcário no segundo e terceiro anos. Constatou-se efeito positivo da calagem sobre a produção e qualidade comercial da cenoura e da alface nos três anos agrícolas e efeito residual da calagem aplicada no primeiro ano do experimento sobre as produções de cenoura e alface nos anos seguintes. No primeiro ano, a produtividade de cenoura comercial foi de 24% a 39% maior do que a testemunha sem calcário, enquanto o peso médio da cabeça de alface aumentou de 79% a 199%. As maiores produtividades de cenoura foram de 46 t ha-1 obtidas com V=73% e pH (CaCl2= 5,7. As melhores produções de alface foram atingidas com V entre 72% e 80% e o pH (CaCl2 entre 5,5 e 5,6. A omissão de B, Cu, Mn e Zn em um dos tratamentos com calagem acarretou na queda de produtividade e qualidade da cenoura nos três anos agrícolas.Amounts of lime recommended for carrots and lettuce have little experimental support for the amounts indicated. This research was developed to determine the adequate value of soil bases saturation (V and pH (CaCl2 to obtain the best yield and commercial quality of carrot (winter and lettuce (summer cultivated on crop rotation system during three years. The experiment was carried out in Monte Alegre do Sul, São Paulo State, Brazil, on a Typic Kandaudult soil. The residual effect of liming, at the

  18. Effects of coating on the acceptability of baby-carrots / Efeito do revestimento na aceitabilidade de mini-cenouras

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    Fábio Yamashita

    2008-08-01

    in the maintenance of the characteristic colour of the carrot.A aparência de um produto influencia a opinião do consumidor na sua decisão de compra e conseqüente consumo. Assim, a vida de prateleira e aceitabilidade de cenouras minimamente processadas é influenciada pela descoloração ou esbranquiçamento superficial que se desenvolve no produto. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a aceitabilidade sensorial, em relação à cor, de mini-cenouras. Raízes de cenouras da variedade Indiana-F1 foram processadas na Indústria Mr. Rabbit Farm Ltda e divididas em dois lotes, onde um seguiu o fluxograma de processamento da indústria e ao outro foi acrescentada a etapa de revestimento em solução aquosa de 2% de polipeptídeos. Os dois lotes foram armazenados em expositores verticais, sob duas temperaturas, 5oC e 0oC, para posterior avaliação sensorial. Os testes de aceitação das 4 amostras de mini cenouras foram realizados com 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21 e 25 dias de armazenamento. Em cada tempo, de 100 a 125 consumidores avaliaram as mini-cenouras utilizando escala hedônica de 9 pontos. As avaliações foram realizadas em três supermercados existentes em Viçosa. Com um dia de armazenamento, a separação espacial das amostras sugeriu existir três grupos, um formado por amostras de mini-cenouras sem revestimento a 5º C e revestidas a 10º C e os outros dois por mini cenouras revestidas a 5º C e não revestidas a 10 ºC. A distribuição dos consumidores demonstrou que a aceitação foi bastante homogênea, indicando não haver definição de preferência dos consumidores por nenhuma amostra específica. Do quinto ao 25º dia, a separação espacial das amostras sugeriu existir dois grupos distintos em relação à aceitabilidade, um formado por minicenouras revestidas e outro por não revestidas, independente da temperatura de armazenamento, onde o grupo formado por amostras e mini-cenouras revestidas apresentou melhor aceitação por um número maior de consumidores

  19. Identificação das causas de perdas pós-colheita de cenoura no varejo, Brasília-DF

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    Lana Milza M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As perdas pós-colheita de cenoura em 4 lojas de uma rede de supermercados de Brasília foram avaliadas pelo período de um ano. A amostragem foi realizada em duas etapas: antes da exposição do produto na área de vendas (amostra Qualidade Inicial e após o descarte das perdas do produto (amostra Descarte. Foram quantificadas a proporção de raízes pequenas, médias e grandes e a incidência dos danos: bifurcação, rachadura, defeitos de formato, doença, praga, dano mecânico e outros. A cenoura comprada pelo supermercado apresentou cerca de 86,88 + 0,66% das raízes na faixa de 12-22 cm. No descarte, diminuiu a proporção de cenouras médias e grandes, enquanto aumentou a proporção de cenouras pequenas e quebradas. A proporção de raízes com ombro verde foi reduzida de 23,74 + 1,11% na amostra Qualidade Inicial para 13,29 + 1,37% na amostra Descarte, indicando que grande parte das raízes com ombro verde foi adquirida pelo consumidor, e neste caso não parece ter sido um fator indutor de perda. Cerca de 51% das cenouras recebidas no supermercado apresentavam algum tipo de dano, sendo os mais importantes defeitos de formato (31,0 + 1,16%, dano mecânico (9,46 + 0,4% e murcha (4,66 + 0,99%. As principais causas de descarte foram dano mecânico (37,4 + 2,47%, defeitos de formato (32,0 + 2,58% e murcha (7,6 + 1,59%.

  20. Caracterização e dissimilaridade entre populações de cenoura Characterization and dissimilarity among carrot populations

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    Giovani O da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a efetividade de caracteres fenotípicos na caracterização e dissimilaridade, bem como a distância genética entre populações melhoradas e cultivares de cenoura. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Embrapa Hortaliças, Distrito Federal. Seis genótipos de cenoura, sendo três populações melhoradas (712467, 712473 e 712464, e três cultivares (Brasília, BRS Esplanada e BRS Planalto pertencentes ao grupo Brasília, foram avaliadas nas safras de verão de 2007/2008, 2008/2009, 2009/2010. Os experimentos foram instalados em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições e parcelas de 1 m² de área útil. Aos 100 dias após semeio, foram colhidas 25 raízes por parcela e avaliadas individualmente para diâmetro do xilema da raiz, e para caracteres que fazem parte dos descritores mínimos para registro e proteção de cultivares de cenoura. Foram realizadas estimativas de repetibilidade e número de avaliações necessárias para caracterizar as populações, a dissimilaridade fenotípica e genotípica entre as populações, e os coeficientes de determinação (R² de acordo com diferente número de avaliações. Verificou-se que, com exceção do caractere formato de ponta da raiz, os demais caracteres estudados, que fazem parte dos descritores mínimos de cenoura, não são eficientes para ambos os processos de caracterização e discriminação de populações de cenoura pertencentes ao grupo Brasília. Não são esperados grandes efeitos heteróticos ao serem cruzados os genótipos de processamento BRS Esplanada e 712464. Para as populações de mesa avaliadas, é possível obter efeitos heteróticos apenas quando utilizada a cultivar Brasília nos cruzamentos.The effectiveness of phenotypic characters for characterization and evaluation of dissimilarity, and the genetic distance among improved carrot populations and cultivars were observed. The essays were carried out in Brasília, Brazil. Three improved carrot

  1. Geographical Distribution of Wild Daucus Species in the Natural Grasslands of the Argentinian Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Argentina, three wild carrot species have been described: Daucus montanus Umb. & Bonpl. ex Schult., D. montevidensis Link ex Sprengel and D. pusillus Michx. There is a discrepancy among authors about the distinctive morphological traits of the last two species; thus, it is difficult to ascertain...

  2. Fruit morphological descriptors as a tool for discrimination of Daucus L. germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological diversity of a Daucus L. germplasm collection maintained at the National Gene Bank of Tunisia was assessed using fourteen morphological descriptors related to mature fruits. Quantification of variability for each character was investigated using the standardized Shannon-Weaver Diversit...

  3. Nuclear DNA content variation within the genus Daucus (Apiaceae) determined by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Daucus (Apiaceae) comprises species from around the world, covering a wide climatic range, and showing great morphological plasticity. Both cultivated and wild forms are described within the genus. The aim of the present study was to estimate the genome size variability in the collection o...

  4. Análise de fatores e regressão bissegmentada no estudo da adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cenoura

    OpenAIRE

    Agnaldo Donizete Ferreira de Carvalho; Giovani Olegario da Silva; Ricardo Borges Pereira; Jadir Borges Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade e a adaptabilidade de oito genótipos de cenoura (três cultivares e cinco populações), em 17 ambientes, nas regiões nordeste, centro-oeste, sudeste e sul do Brasil, nos anos agrícolas 2009/10, 2010/11 e 2011/12. Os experimentos foram conduzidos entre novembro e janeiro de cada ano, conforme o calendário agrícola dos produtores. A parcela experimental foi composta de área igual a 1,0 m², em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições...

  5. Identificação das causas de perdas pós-colheita de cenoura no varejo, Brasília-DF

    OpenAIRE

    Lana Milza M.; Moita Antônio Williams; Nascimento Edson F. do; Souza Geraldo da S. e; Melo Mário Felipe de

    2002-01-01

    As perdas pós-colheita de cenoura em 4 lojas de uma rede de supermercados de Brasília foram avaliadas pelo período de um ano. A amostragem foi realizada em duas etapas: antes da exposição do produto na área de vendas (amostra Qualidade Inicial) e após o descarte das perdas do produto (amostra Descarte). Foram quantificadas a proporção de raízes pequenas, médias e grandes e a incidência dos danos: bifurcação, rachadura, defeitos de formato, doença, praga, dano mecânico e outros. A cenoura comp...

  6. Relações entre caracteres de cenoura para sistemas de cultivos orgânico e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Olegário da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com a estratégia de seleção e o ganho que ela proporcionará, pode-se orientar, de maneira mais efetiva, um programa de melhoramento, bem como predizer o sucesso do esquema seletivo adotado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a estabilidade das relações entre caracteres fenotípicos a partir de populações de cenoura cultivadas em sistemas de produção orgânico e convencional. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Embrapa Hortaliças, DF. Duas populações de cenoura em fase de melhoramento e quatro cultivares comerciais foram plantados em novembro de 2007 no campo nos dois sistemas de produção, com delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas de 1 m², com 100 plantas por parcela. Aos 90 dias após o semeio, 20 raízes por parcela foram colhidas e avaliadas para caracteres fenotípicos. Foi realizada análise de variância com determinação da interação entre tratamentos e sistemas de produção, correlações fenotípicas, análise de trilha e os ganhos com as seleções direta e correlacionada. Observouse que a quase totalidade das correlações medianas acima de 0,30, bem como os maiores efeitos diretos da análise de trilha e os maiores ganhos diretos e indiretos estimados, foi repetida nos dois sistemas, indicando que eles foram muito semelhantes na expressão da relação entre os caracteres. Assim, o melhoramento visando aos caracteres avaliados não precisa ser realizado em ambas as áreas de cultivos orgânico e convencional.

  7. Biological activities and volatile constituents of Daucus muricatus L. from Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiabdellah Amel; El Amine Dib Mohammed; Djabou Nassim; Allali Hocine; Tabti Boufeldja; Muselli Alain; Costa Jean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to find new bioactive natural products, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil components extracted from the separated organs of the Algerian medicinal and aromatic plant Daucus muricatus L. were studied. Results The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) was investigated using Gas Chromatography–Retention Indices (GC-RI) and GC–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Two types of essential oils were produced by D. muri...

  8. Produtividade de cenoura e alface em sistema de consorciação Production of lettuce and carrot in an intercropping system

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    Luiz Carlos S. Caetano

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as culturas de cenoura e alface no sistema de consórcio, foram conduzidos dois experimentos na estação experimental da Pesagro-Rio em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, em cultivo de inverno nos anos de 1995 e 1996. As alfaces foram cultivadas em monocultivo e em consórcio com a cultura de cenoura. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Para cenoura foram analisados seis tratamentos (cenoura em monocultivo e em consórcio com cinco cultivares de alface. Para a alface foi utilizado esquema fatorial com dois sistemas de cultivo e cinco cultivares. As parcelas experimentais possuíam dimensões de 1 m x 1,5 m. No primeiro experimento, foram utilizadas as cultivares de alface Babá-de-verão, Regina-71, Vitória, Brasil-303 e Carolina e no segundo experimento, as cultivares Carolina, Elisa, Regina-71, Vitória e Marisa. A cultivar de cenoura utilizada foi a Brasília. A eficiência do consórcio foi avaliada pelo cálculo da Razão de Área Equivalente (RAE. Em ambos experimentos, tanto para monocultivo quanto para consórcio, as culturas apresentaram produção adequada para comercialização. Apenas houve prejuízo à cenoura no sistema de consórcio quando esta foi cultivada com a alface cv. Marisa. Os valores da RAE, 1,74 e 1,76, evidenciaram que a utilização do consórcio foi vantajosa nos dois ensaios, ou seja, para obter-se a mesma produção de alface ou cenoura em monocultivo seria necessário um acréscimo em área de 74% e 76%, considerando o primeiro e segundo ano de experimentação, respectivamente.Two experiments were conducted at the Campos Experiment Station - Pesagro-Rio, during the winter season of 1995 and 1996, to evaluate the performance of carrot and lettuce in an intercropping system. For the first experiment the lettuce cultivars comprised Babá-de Verão, Regina-71, Vitória, Brasil-303 and Carolina, whilst for the second experiment comprised Carolina, Elisa

  9. Modificações sensoriais em cenoura minimamente processada e armazenada sob refrigeração Sensory modifications of fresh cut carrots stored under refrigeration

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    Josane Maria Resende

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as modificações sensoriais em cenoura minimamente processada em dois tipos de cortes durante o armazenamento sob refrigeração. Semanalmente avaliou-se a aparência, a cor, o aroma, o sabor e a textura de cenouras cv. Nantes, minimamente processadas, acondicionadas em potes de polietileno tereftalato (PET e armazenadas a 7ºC, por 14 dias. Para definir a freqüência de consumo e preferência pelo tipo de corte, amostras do produto foram apresentadas ao público e os resultados foram anotados em porcentagem em relação ao número total de pessoas consultadas. Com o decorrer do armazenamento houve redução nos escores para a aparência e a cor, enquanto que o sabor e a textura melhoraram em ambos os cortes. Cenouras raladas apresentaram melhor cor e aparência em relação à cenoura cortada em rodelas, entretanto o sabor e a textura foram melhores para cenouras em rodelas. As cenouras raladas são as mais indicadas para o consumo uma vez que a aparência é o atributo que mais causa impacto na escolha pelo consumidor e dentro desta a cor é a característica mais relevante. A freqüência de consumo deste tipo de produto esta aumentando gradativamente e em relação à preferência pelo tipo de corte, o consumidor optou pela cenoura ralada pela sua maior praticidade e versatilidade de uso.Sensory modifications were evaluated in carrots cv Nantes lightly processed in two kinds of cut (grated and sliced during the storage under refrigeration. Fresh cut carrots were packed in polyethylene tereftalato (PET boxes and stored at 7ºC for 14 days. The carrot's appearance, color, aroma, flavor and texture were evaluated weekly. To obtain the frequency of consumption and preference of kind of cut, samples were offered to people to try. During the storage of both kinds of cut, a reduction in scores for appearance and color occurred, while flavor and texture scores were improved. Fresh cut carrots in the grated form presented better

  10. Shelf life of minimally processed carrot and green pepper Vida útil de cenoura e pimentão minimamente processados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimeire Pilon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest losses of horticultural products justify the use of preservation techniques. The processing not only adds value to the products, but also makes the products more convenient to the consumers. The objective of this research was to define the methodologies for the minimal processing of carrot and green pepper as to the type and intensity of the adoption of conservation techniques, and to monitor the products after processing through microbiological, physicochemical and nutritional analysis. The vegetables were washed and they were immersed in cold (7ºC water with 100 mg L-1 free chlorine for sanitation, followed by centrifugation for 5 min. The product was put into BOPP/LDPE (biaxially orientated polypropylene/low-density polyethylene plastic bags, which were sealed under atmospheric air, vacuum and modified atmosphere (2% O2, 10% CO2, 88% N2 and stored at 1ºC±1ºC. The approximate composition of the vegetables stayed stable during the storage period, in the three tested treatments. The contents of vitamin C for the samples of minimally processed carrot and green pepper did not present differences among treatments. The contents of beta-carotene decreased slightly during the storage period for the minimally processed carrot and green pepper. After processing, carrot and green pepper had psychrotrophic counts of 10²-10(5 and 10³-10(6 CFU g-1, respectively. Anaerobic mesophiles and total coliforms were found in green peppers, representing 1.6x10³ - 7.4x10(5 and As perdas pós-colheita de alimentos hortícolas justificam a adoção de técnicas de conservação. Uma vez beneficiados, esses produtos permitem agregar valor à produção primária e se tornam de conveniência ao consumidor. Este trabalho teve como objetivo definir as metodologias do processamento mínimo de cenoura e pimentão quanto ao tipo e intensidade de adoção das técnicas de barreiras e monitorar os produtos após o processamento, através de an

  11. Controle pós-emergente de plantas daninhas em cenoura Post-emergence weed control in carrot crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Zagonel

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em Piraí do Sul-PR no ano de 1995 em solo de textura argilo arenosa, tendo como objetivo avaliar a eficiência e a seletividade do herbicida propaquizafop no controle pós-emergente de plantas daninhas na cultura da cenoura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, quais sejam: propaquizafop (100, 125 e 150 g i.a./ha; fluazifop-p-butil (188 g i.a./ha; testemunha capinada e testemunha sem capina. A cultivar de cenoura utilizada foi Nantes Tim Tom semeada em 15 de junho, com espaçamento de 0,25 x 0,05 m, em parcelas com área útil de 5,00 x 1,00 m. As plantas daninhas predominantes foram Brachiaria plantaginea (capim-papuã, Digitaria horizontalis (capim-milhã e Eleusine indica (capim pé-de-galinha. As avaliações foram efetuadas aos 15, 30 e 45 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Observou-se que o herbicida propaquizafop, nas doses de 100, 125 e 150 g i.a./ha foi eficiente no controle sobre capim-papuã, capim-milhã e capim pé-de-galinha. O controle de plantas daninhas realizado através de herbicidas proporcionou a mesma produção obtida com o controle manual. A perda na produção ocasionada pela presença de plantas daninhas foi da ordem de 76,4%. Não foram observados efeitos fitotóxicos nas plantas de cenoura que pudessem ser atribuídos aos produtos utilizados.The presented field trial was conducted in 1995 in Piraí do Sul, Paraná State, Brazil, on a sand-clay texture soil, to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of propaquizafop on carrot crop weed control. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications, and 5.00 x 1.00 m plots. The treatmens were: propaquizafop (100, 125 and 150 g a.i/ha; fluazifop-p-butil (188 g a.i/ha; control with weeding and control without weeding. The carrot cultivar Nantes Tim Tom was sown on June 15 with plants spaced 0.25 x 0.05 m. The prevalent weeds

  12. Utilização de agentes polinizadores na produção de sementes de cenoura e pimenta doce em cultivo protegido Influence of pollinators on seed production and quality of carrot and sweet pepper in a greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Warley Marcos Nascimento; Eliana Marília L Gomes; Elizabeth A Batista; Raquel A de Freitas

    2012-01-01

    A polinização constitui um processo fundamental para a perpetuação de várias espécies vegetais, e o desenvolvimento dos frutos e das sementes está diretamente relacionado com a polinização das flores. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência de agentes polinizadores na produção e qualidade de sementes de cenoura e de pimenta doce em sistema de cultivo protegido. No ensaio de cenoura utilizaram-se, em telados, os tratamentos de polinização com as abelhas Arapuá (Trigon...

  13. Análise de fatores e regressão bissegmentada no estudo da adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cenoura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo Donizete Ferreira de Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade e a adaptabilidade de oito genótipos de cenoura (três cultivares e cinco populações, em 17 ambientes, nas regiões nordeste, centro-oeste, sudeste e sul do Brasil, nos anos agrícolas 2009/10, 2010/11 e 2011/12. Os experimentos foram conduzidos entre novembro e janeiro de cada ano, conforme o calendário agrícola dos produtores. A parcela experimental foi composta de área igual a 1,0 m², em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Os tratos culturais foram similares aos usados pelos produtores. Na colheita, as raízes comercializáveis foram quantificadas e os valores transformados para t ha-1. Realizouse a análise de variância e, posteriormente, a análise de fatores e a análise de regressão bissegmentada, visando ao estudo de estabilidade e adaptabilidade. Nenhum genótipo apresentou adaptabilidade ampla. A análise de fatores conseguiu agrupar menos de 50% dos ambientes avaliados. O genótipo ideal não foi encontrado pela análise de regressão. O cultivar 'BRS Planalto' foi o mais adaptado, pelo método da regressão bissegmentada, enquanto, pela análise de fatores, 'Brasília', CNPH-600 e CNPH-589 mostraram-se mais adaptados. Os resultados obtidos por essas metodologias demonstram a dificuldade de recomendação de um cultivar para todas as regiões produtoras e que programas regionalizados devem ser iniciados. A utilização dos dois métodos associados permite a tomada de decisões mais segura acerca do comportamento dos genótipos de cenoura.

  14. Desempenho agroeconômico do bicultivo de alface em sistema solteiro e consorciado com cenoura Agrieconomic performance of lettuce under bicropping, sole crop and intercropped with carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Q. de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram implantados de setembro a dezembro/2002, na ESAM (RN, para avaliar o desempenho agroeconômico do bicultivo de dois grupos de alface em sistema solteiro e consorciado com duas cultivares de cenoura em faixas. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos balanceados em grupos, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas as cultivares pertencentes aos grupos crespa (Lucy Brown, Tainá, Laurel e Verônica e lisa (Babá de Verão, Maravilha das Quatro Estações, Elisa e Carolina. No experimento consorciado foi utilizado o esquema de parcelas sub-divididas, onde os tratamentos designados às parcelas foram as cvs. de cenoura Alvorada e Brasília e os designados às sub-parcelas foram as cvs. de alface do grupo crespa e as do grupo lisa. Na alface foi avaliado o rendimento de folhas e na cenoura o rendimento total, comercial e a classe das raízes. Foram usados índices agroeconômicos para medir a eficiência do sistema consorciado: Índice de Uso Eficiente da Terra, Renda Bruta, Renda Líquida, Vantagem Monetária, Vantagem Monetária Corrigida, Taxa de Retorno e Índice de Lucratividade. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores cvs. de cenoura e cvs. de alface sobre os rendimentos das culturas. As cvs. de cenoura não influenciaram os rendimentos das culturas. As cvs. de alface não afetaram os rendimentos da cenoura. No bicultivo da alface consorciada com cenoura, recomenda-se o emprego das cvs Lucy Brown e Tainá do grupo crespa ou da 'Babá de Verão' e 'Maravilha das Quatro Estações' do grupo lisa no primeiro plantio. No segundo plantio, apenas a cv. do grupo lisa Maravilha das Quatro Estações se sobressaiu das demais no desempenho produtivo em cultivo consorciado.As cultivares de alface do grupo crespa consorciadas com cenoura se sobressaíram daquelas do grupo lisa no desempenho produtivo. Os consórcios cenoura 'Alvorada' x alface 'Lucy Brown'; e cenoura 'Brasília' x alface 'Maravilha das Quatro Esta

  15. Produtividade, florescimento prematuro e queima-das-folhas em cenoura cultivada em sistema orgânico e convencional Yield, bolting and leaf blight in carrots grown under organic and conventional conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assis M. Carvalho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Quatro ensaios foram implantados no verão para avaliar a produtividade, o florescimento prematuro e a queima-das-folhas em genótipos de cenoura conduzidos em sistema orgânico e convencional. Os ensaios foram instalados em Brazlândia e na Embrapa Hortaliças. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos (genótipos Alvorada, Brasília RL, Brasília Bionatur, Kuronan, Nantes 3 Tip Top, Carandaí AG 106, Brazlândia e Pop. 0212246 e cinco repetições. Os nutrientes foram incorporados ao solo através de composto orgânico, no sistema orgânico e, fertilizantes químicos, no sistema convencional. Aos 70 dias da semeadura as plantas foram avaliadas no campo para incidência de doenças. Foi também identificada a prevalência de patógenos. A colheita foi realizada 95 dias após a semeadura. O florescimento prematuro foi mais freqüente no genótipo Brasília Bionatur, no sistema convencional, em Brazlândia. Foi observada diferença entre genótipos para queima-das-folhas nos dois sistemas. Nantes foi a mais suscetível, enquanto a Pop. 0212246 foi uma das mais resistentes nos dois sistemas de cultivo. Alternaria dauci prevaleceu em Brazlândia, enquanto Cercospora carotae foi observado em ambas as localidades, no sistema orgânico. Quanto à produção comercial e total os genótipos Pop. 0212246 e Brazlândia estiveram entre os mais produtivos, independente do sistema de cultivo. Para produtividade comercial e total, número e peso de raízes refugadas o sistema convencional apresentou resultados superiores ao orgânico. As cultivares Brasília RL, Brazlândia e a Pop. 0212246 podem ser recomendadas para plantio no período de verão, no DF, independente do sistema de cultivo. A Pop. 0212246 apresenta características agronômicas desejadas pelo mercado e poderá futuramente ser disponibilizada para produtores da região.Four experiments were carried out with carrots genotypes during summer season in Distrito

  16. Qualidade de raízes de cenoura em sistemas consorciados com alface sob diferentes densidades populacionais Quality of carrot roots in intercropped systems with lettuce under different planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio P. Barros Júnior

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado de junho a setembro de 2003, em campo da ESAM, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de raízes de cenoura (Brasília em sistemas consorciados com alface (Tainá sob diferentes densidades populacionais. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram resultantes da combinação de quatro populações de cenoura [(40%, 60%, 80% e 100% da população recomendada no cultivo solteiro (PRCS] com quatro populações de alface (40%, 60%, 80% e 100% da PRCS. As características avaliadas nas raízes da cenoura foram acidez total titulável (ATT, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, açúcares totais (ACT pH, relação sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável, além da produtividade comercial da cenoura e da alface. Ocorreu interação significativa entre as densidades populacionais das culturas componentes na ATT das raízes da cenoura. Houve aumento no conteúdo de SST e no pH à medida que se aumentou a densidade populacional de cenoura. Houve também um aumento na produtividade comercial de raízes de cenoura e na produtividade da alface com o aumento de suas densidades populacionais, respectivamente. A variação na população de cenoura não afetou a produtividade da alface, mas a variação na população da alface afetou negativamente a produtividade comercial da cenoura. Entre as características avaliadas, as que se correlacionaram de maneira significativa com a produtividade comercial de cenoura, foram as concentrações de sólidos solúveis totais e açucares totais, evidenciando assim, que estes atributos podem ser considerados representativos da qualidade de raízes da cenoura.The experiment was carried out from June to September 2003, in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, to evaluate the quality of carrot roots (cv. Brasília in intercropped systems with lettuce (cv. Tainá under different planting

  17. Periods of constant and falling-rate for infrared drying of carrot slices Períodos de secagem constante e decrescente de fatias de cenoura por infravermelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Botelho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the infrared drying process of carrot slices and to determine coefficients related to the heat and mass transfer of the process. Fresh carrots were used, dried until constant weight in a dryer with infrared heating source. Different models were utilized to fit the experimental data of constant and falling drying rate periods. It was verified that the coefficients of heat and mass transfer, during the constant drying rate, significantly increased with temperature on rise. The Diffusion Approximation, Two Terms, Midili and Verna models satisfactory represented the falling period of drying rate of carrot slices. The effective diffusion coefficient increased with temperature and this relationship can be represented by the Arrhenius equation, obtaining activation energy to the drying process of 29.092 kJ mol-1.Com este trabalho objetivou-se estudar o processo de secagem por infravermelho das fatias de cenoura e determinar alguns coeficientes referentes à transferência de calor e massa do processo. Utilizaram-se cenouras frescas, secadas até massa constante em um secador com fonte de aquecimento por infravermelho. Aos dados experimentais se ajustaram diferentes modelos para os períodos de taxa de secagem constante e decrescentes. Verificou-se que os coeficientes transferência de calor e massa, referentes ao período de secagem constante, aumentaram significativamente com o aumento da temperatura e que os modelos Aproximação da Difusão, Dois Termos, Midili e Verna representaram satisfatoriamente o período de secagem decrescente das fatias de cenoura. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo aumentou com a temperatura e esta relação pode ser representada pela Equação de Arrhenius, obtendo-se uma energia de ativação para o processo de secagem de 29,092 kJ mol-1.

  18. Testes para a seleção de populações de cenoura visando ao vigor e à longevidade das sementes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Populações de cenoura com sementes de maior qualidade fisiológica e potencial de armazenamento são de interesse para as empresas de sementes e horticultores. Assim, verificou-se a eficiência de alguns testes para a seleção de populações de cenoura com maior vigor e longevidade das sementes. Sementes de 50 progênies de meio-irmãos de cenoura tipo Brasília foram avaliadas quanto à massa de cem sementes, primeira contagem de germinação, germinação, dormência, envelhecimento acelerado com água e com solução saturada de NaCl. As sementes foram armazenadas com teor de água de 6,1±0,3% em embalagem hermética nas temperaturas de 15 e 25oC por 12 meses e a germinação foi avaliada trimestralmente. Os dados experimentais foram avaliados quanto à variância e correlações fenotípicas, genotípicas e ambientais; herdabilidade; coeficiente de variação genética e ganho por seleção. A seleção baseada na massa não deve ser utilizada, pois aumentaria a ocorrência de dormência nas sementes da geração seguinte. Os testes da primeira contagem, de germinação e de envelhecimento acelerado com água ou solução salina saturada podem ser utilizados para selecionar populações de cenoura com sementes de maior vigor e longevidade. O ganho genético estimado com a seleção para a germinação após 12 meses de armazenamento a 25°C foi de 14%.

  19. Verificação da adaptabilidade e estabilidade de populações de cenoura pelos métodos AMMI, GGE biplot e REML/BLUP

    OpenAIRE

    Giovani Olegario da Silva; Agnaldo Donizete Ferreira de Carvalho; Jairo Vidal Vieira; Giovani Benin

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a adaptabilidade e estabilidade de populações de cenoura diante de ambientes com cultivo orgânico e convencional e realizar a comparação entre as metodologias estatísticas utilizadas. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em 2007 e 2008, em cinco locais. Em São Gotardo (MG); Irecê (BA) e Gama (DF) foi realizado cultivo convencional e em PAD (DF) (Programa de Assentamento Dirigido do Distrito Federal) e Gama (DF) foi utilizado o sistema de cultivo orgânico. O deline...

  20. Biological activities and volatile constituents of Daucus muricatus L. from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendiabdellah Amel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to find new bioactive natural products, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil components extracted from the separated organs of the Algerian medicinal and aromatic plant Daucus muricatus L. were studied. Results The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD was investigated using Gas Chromatography–Retention Indices (GC-RI and GC–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Two types of essential oils were produced by D. muricatus: (i The oil from roots is mainly composed by nonterpenic oxygenated compounds (59.8 g/100 g, and (ii the aerial part oils (i.e., the leaves, stems, flowers, and umbels was mainly composed by terpenic hydrocarbon compounds (62.3–72.2 g/100 g. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction isolated from different organs of Daucus muricatus were studied by HS–SPME/GC–RI and GC–MS after optimization of Solid Phase MicroExtraction parameters. For all organs studied, the main volatiles emitted by the plant were hydrocarbon compounds (60.7–82.2 g/100 g. Only quantitative differences between the volatiles of the separated organs studied were observed. In addition, the activity of the oil of D. muricatus against eight bacterial strains and one yeast was investigated. The oil from roots revealed active against S. aureus, while the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts was active against the yeast C. albicans. Conclusions Daucus muricatus essential oil seems be a promising source of natural products with potential antimicrobial activity.

  1. Desempenho agronômico da cenoura adubada com jitirana antes de sua semeadura Agronomic performance of carrot fertilized with scarlet starglory before sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mychelle Karla Teixeira de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A jitirana é uma planta herbácea nativa que se apresenta como uma fonte potencial para adubação verde no nordeste semi-árido do Brasil e gera inúmeros benefícios, com destaque para o aumento da disponibilidade de nutrientes para as culturas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico da cenoura adubada com jitirana antes de sua semeadura. Um experimento foi conduzido na horta didática do Departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN, no período de setembro a dezembro de 2008. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos completos casualizados com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, com três repetições. O primeiro fator foi constituído pelas quantidades de jitirana incorporadas ao solo (5,4; 8,8; 12,2 e 15,6 t ha-1 em base seca e o segundo fator pelos tempos de incorporação da jitirana (0; 10; 20 e 30 dias antes da semeadura da cenoura - DAS. O tratamento adicional (testemunha foi de 80 t ha-1 de esterco bovino. As características avaliadas na cenoura foram: altura das plantas, número de folhas por planta, massa seca da parte aérea, produtividade comercial, produtividade refugo e produtividade classificada. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores quantidades de jitirana incorporadas ao solo e seus tempos de incorporação antes da semeadura da cenoura em nenhuma das características avaliadas. O melhor desempenho produtivo da cenoura foi obtido na quantidade de 15,6 t ha-1 de jitirana incorporada ao solo e no tempo de 20 dias antes de sua semeadura.The scarlet starglory is an herbaceous plant native that is presented as a potential source for green manure in the semi-arid northeast of Brazil, and generates many benefits, especially the increased availability of nutrients for crops. The objective of this present study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of carrot fertilized with scarlet starglory before

  2. Partial chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Daucus crinitus Desf. extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, M. A.; Bendahou, M.; Bendiabdellah, A.; Djabou, N.; Allali, H.; Tabti, B.; Paolini, J.; Costa, J.

    2010-07-01

    The chemical composition of fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction of the roots, leaves and stems from Daucus crinitus Desf. were, determined using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The fatty acid fractions of different organs (leaves, stems and roots) were characterized by lauric acid (17.9, 17.5 and 18.1 % respectively) and other long chain fatty acids (until C22). Qualitative and quantitative differences were reported between the unsaponifiable fractions of different organs from D. crinitus. The unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, roots and stem showed high amounts of aliphatic components (83.4%, 87.2% and 91.4%, respectively). The monoterpen, diterpen and sesquiterpen components were only present in small percentages. The antimicrobial properties of the D. critinus extracts were tested on four different microorganisms. These extracts were found to be active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. (Author) 35 refs.

  3. Principais características da raiz de cenoura na perspectiva de agentes da cadeia produtiva Main carrot root attributes based on stake holders perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia S Onoyama

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se verificar quais são as características mais importantes da raiz de cenoura sob a ótica dos agentes da cadeia produtiva de cenoura. Para tanto, foram realizadas visitas e entrevistas com produtores, empresas de semente, vendedores de insumos, lavadores, processadores, atacadistas e gerentes de supermercados, comparando-se esses resultados com os da pesquisa de percepção de consumidores de supermercados do Distrito Federal. Em ambos os casos, utilizou-se questionário estruturado com perguntas fechadas nas quais os entrevistados classificaram os atributos segundo notas que variaram de 1 (nenhuma importância a 5 (muito importante. Para verificar a ordenação de importância dos atributos e os contrastes das médias, utilizou-se o método estatístico de análise de dados categóricos. O resultado da pesquisa indicou que os consumidores estão preocupados com valores nutricionais, textura, cor externa e sabor da cenoura. Já os demais agentes da cadeia atentaram mais para as características relacionadas com a padronização, com a coloração externa e com o ombro verde. Foram detectadas diferenças de percepção entre os agentes da cadeia, em especial dos consumidores, para os quais foram observadas diferenças nas respostas em função do gênero, idade, grau de escolaridade, estado civil e localização do supermercado. Estes resultados são muito importantes para o direcionamento de projetos de pesquisa com cenoura, que precisa atender as exigências tanto do setor produtivo quanto dos consumidores.The present investigation aimed at elucidating the carrot attributes which stake holders view as the most important. A research was carried out with carrot growers, seed companies, supplier salespersons, washers, food processors, wholesalers and supermarket managers and was compared to the perception of consumers from supermarkets located in the Federal District of Brazil. Data sets were collected through structured interviews

  4. Níveis de irrigação na germinação das sementes de cenoura Irrigation levels and carrot seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Assis Lima Júnior; Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra; José Elias da Cunha Metri

    2000-01-01

    Este trabalho foi desenvolvido na fazenda Cazuzinha, no Município de Sumé, Estado da Paraíba, com o propósito de se estudar o efeito de cinco níveis de água (irrigar diariamente com 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% da evaporação medida no tanque "Classe A") durante o período de germinação das cultivares de cenoura Tropical e Brasília. As parcelas experimentais foram irrigadas com regadores comuns e o plantio realizado conforme as recomendações dos produtores locais. O delineamento estatístico foi o de b...

  5. Esplanada: cultivar de cenoura de verão para fins de processamento Esplanada: a new tropical carrot variety suitable for minimum processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo V. Vieira

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A cenoura é uma das hortaliças tradicionais mais consumidas no Brasil. Entretanto, o consumo de mini cenouras tipo "cenourete" obtidas via processamento mínimo ainda é muito pequeno no país. Isto se deve possivelmente ao restrito conhecimento da tecnologia de produção deste produto e da dificuldade em se obter matéria prima de qualidade e com regularidade, especialmente no período de verão. As raízes das principais cultivares utilizadas no Brasil não apresentam características de qualidade como coloração, formato e tamanho adequados para possibilitar máximo rendimento industrial. Neste contexto, foi desenvolvida a cultivar de polinização aberta "Esplanada", que apresenta boa adaptação às condições edafoclimáticas brasileiras, possui alta resistência à queima-das-folhas, baixa incidência de florescimento precoce no verão e resistência moderada a nematóides formadores de galhas. Estas características viabilizam seu cultivo em qualquer época do ano, nas principais regiões de produção. As raízes são compridas, finas e apresentam coloração uniforme, características estas adequadas para o processamento mínimo visando a produção de cenourete. Esta cultivar poderá ocupar posição estratégica na cadeia produtiva de cenoura, uma vez que vai possibilitar a produção de mini cenouras durante todo o ano em qualquer região do país.Carrot is one of the most consumed vegetables in Brazil. However, the consumption of "baby carrots", obtained by minimally processed roots, is still very low in the country, due to lack of processing technology knowledge and the low amount of minimally processed carrots produced in Brazil as a consequence of the low industrial productivity. The carrot varieties currently employed in minimum processing have as major disadvantages a series of low quality attributes including inadequate root shape and size which precludes reaching the maximum industrial yield. In this context, Embrapa

  6. Determination of kinetic and equilibrium parameters of the batch adsorption of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by black carrot (Daucus carota L.) residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effect of temperature on the adsorption of Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by modified carrot residues (MCR) was investigated. The equilibrium contact times of adsorption process for each heavy metals-MCR systems were determined. Kinetic data obtained for each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were applied to the Lagergren equation, and adsorption rate constants (kads) at these temperatures were determined. These rate constants related to the adsorption of heavy metal by MCR were applied to the Arrhenius equation, and activation energies (Ea) were determined. In addition, the isotherms for adsorption of each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were also determined. These isothermal data were applied to linear forms of isotherm equations that they fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the Langmuir constants (qm and b) were calculated. b constants determined at different temperatures were applied to thermodynamic equations, and thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH), free energy (ΔG), and entropy (ΔS) were calculated and these values show that adsorption of heavy metal on MCR was an endothermic process and process of adsorption was favoured at high temperatures

  7. Stress-Induced Accumulation of DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a Transcripts Coincides with Critical Time Point for Structural Biomass Prediction in Carrot Primary Cultures (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, M Doroteia; Nogales, Amaia; Cardoso, Hélia G; Kumar, Sarma R; Nobre, Tânia; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Stress-adaptive cell plasticity in target tissues and cells for plant biomass growth is important for yield stability. In vitro systems with reproducible cell plasticity can help to identify relevant metabolic and molecular events during early cell reprogramming. In carrot, regulation of the central root meristem is a critical target for yield-determining secondary growth. Calorespirometry, a tool previously identified as promising for predictive growth phenotyping has been applied to measure the respiration rate in carrot meristem. In a carrot primary culture system (PCS), this tool allowed identifying an early peak related with structural biomass formation during lag phase of growth, around the 4th day of culture. In the present study, we report a dynamic and correlated expression of carrot AOX genes (DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a) during PCS lag phase and during exponential growth. Both genes showed an increase in transcript levels until 36 h after explant inoculation, and a subsequent down-regulation, before the initiation of exponential growth. In PCS growing at two different temperatures (21°C and 28°C), DcAOX1 was also found to be more expressed in the highest temperature. DcAOX genes' were further explored in a plant pot experiment in response to chilling, which confirmed the early AOX transcript increase prior to the induction of a specific anti-freezing gene. Our findings point to DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a as being reasonable candidates for functional marker development related to early cell reprogramming. While the genomic sequence of DcAOX2a was previously described, we characterize here the complete genomic sequence of DcAOX1. PMID:26858746

  8. Determination of kinetic and equilibrium parameters of the batch adsorption of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by black carrot (Daucus carota L.) residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezel, Fuat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir (Turkey)], E-mail: fguzel@dicle.edu.tr; Yakut, Hakan; Topal, Giray [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir (Turkey)

    2008-05-30

    In this study, the effect of temperature on the adsorption of Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by modified carrot residues (MCR) was investigated. The equilibrium contact times of adsorption process for each heavy metals-MCR systems were determined. Kinetic data obtained for each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were applied to the Lagergren equation, and adsorption rate constants (k{sub ads}) at these temperatures were determined. These rate constants related to the adsorption of heavy metal by MCR were applied to the Arrhenius equation, and activation energies (E{sub a}) were determined. In addition, the isotherms for adsorption of each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were also determined. These isothermal data were applied to linear forms of isotherm equations that they fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the Langmuir constants (q{sub m} and b) were calculated. b constants determined at different temperatures were applied to thermodynamic equations, and thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy ({delta}H), free energy ({delta}G), and entropy ({delta}S) were calculated and these values show that adsorption of heavy metal on MCR was an endothermic process and process of adsorption was favoured at high temperatures.

  9. Influence of field attack by carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) on sensory quality, antioxidant capacity and content of terpenes, falcarindiol and 6-methoxymellein of carrots (Daucus carota L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljåsen, Randi; Vogt, Gjermund; Olsen, Elisabeth; Lea, Per; Høgetveit, Lars Arne; Tajet, Torgeir; Meadow, Richard; Bengtsson, Gunnar B

    2013-03-20

    The effect of different degrees of attack by carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) on quality parameters of carrots was studied in field experiments for two years. Treatments were different degrees of physical insect protection by floating row cover. An increasing attack level of psyllids showed an enhancement effect on the antioxidant capacity (ORAC), content of falcarindiol, 6-methoxymellein, and terpenes, and scores for bitter taste, chemical flavor, terpene flavor, and toughness. Carrot psyllid attack decreased the yield, total sugar, fructose, glucose, and sensory attributes sweet taste, color hue, color strength, crispiness, and juiciness. Carrot plants at 8-10 weeks of age tolerated attack by psyllids at low levels (2% leaves with curling or discoloration). PMID:23414489

  10. Development and in-house validation of allergen-specific ELISA tests for the quantification of Dau c 1.01, Dau c 1.02 and Dau c 4 in carrot extracts (Daucus carota)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Foetisch; L. Dahl; B. Jansen; W.M. Becker; J. Lidholm; R. van Ree; H. Broll; S. Kaul; S. Vieths; T. Holzhauser

    2011-01-01

    Even though carrot allergy is common in Europe, the amount of different allergens in carrots is still unknown due to a lack of methods for quantitative allergen measurements. The current study aimed at the development of quantitative ELISA tests for the known carrot allergens, namely Dau c 1.01, Dau

  11. 胡萝卜多糖体外抗氧化活性研究%Study on Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Carrot (Daucus carota var. sativa) in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉军; 陈彦; 王松华; 方玉明

    2011-01-01

    Carrot Polysaccharides were extracted with hot water. The antioxidant activity in vitro of Carrot polysaccharide was investigated by measuring its scavenging effect superoixide anion, hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical and its inhibitory effect on peroxidation of yolk lipoprotein. The results show that carrot polysaccharide had good scavenging effects on 0-2, ·OH and DPPH· and inhibitory effect on peroxidation of yolk lipoprotein. So polysaccharides from carrot had strong antioxidant activity in Vitro.%采用热水浸提法从胡萝卜中提取胡萝卜多糖,通过测定胡萝卜多糖对超氧阴离子自由基(O-·2)、羟基自由基(·OH)、DPPH自由基的清除能力以及对卵黄脂蛋白脂质过氧化的抑制作用,研究其体外抗氧化活性.结果表明,胡萝卜多糖对·OH、O-·2、DPPH自由基具有较强的清除能力,对卵黄脂蛋白脂质过氧化具有一定的抑制作用,因此胡萝卜多糖具有良好的体外抗氧化活性.

  12. 利用改进的cDNA RDA技术分离胡萝卜(Daucus carota L.)体细胞胚根发育相关的基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁丰秋; 张雷; 黄美娟; 吴乃虎

    2000-01-01

    根据链霉亲和素与生物素之间的结合作用及磁性吸附分离的原理,发展出改进的cDNA代表性差式分析(representational difference analysis,RDA)技术,并用来检测在调控和解调控培养12h的胡萝卜体细胞胚中特异表达的基因.结果显示,在解调控12h的胡萝卜体细胞胚中,存在4条特异表达的cDNA片段,命名为NR-1,NR-2,NR-3和NR-4.将这些片段分别克隆在pBS噬菌粒载体中.DNA序列同源性比较表明,片段NR-3和NR-4分别与植物的DnaJ和木质葡聚糖内转糖基化酶(xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase)的编码基因有很高的同源性,而片段NR-2中有一段序列与LEA蛋白(late embryogenesis abundant proteins)基因有一定的同源性.NR-1则可能来自新基因.用32P标记NR-1作探针,与cDNA片段群体进行杂交证实,从解调控12h的胡萝卜体细胞胚中克隆到一种与胚根发育相关的新基因序列.Southern杂交表明,此基因在胡萝卜基因组中可能以单拷贝或低拷贝的形式存在.

  13. Stress-induced accumulation of DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a transcripts coincides with critical time point for structural biomass prediction in carrot primary cultures (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doroteia eCampos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-adaptive cell plasticity in target tissues and cells for plant biomass growth is important for yield stability. In vitro systems with reproducible cell plasticity can help to identify relevant metabolic and molecular events during early cell reprogramming. In carrot, regulation of the central root meristem is a critical target for yield-determining secondary growth. Calorespirometry, a tool previously identified as promising for predictive growth phenotyping has been applied to measure the respiration rate in carrot meristem. In a carrot primary culture system (PCS, this tool allowed identifying an early peak related with structural biomass formation during lag phase of growth, around the 4th day of culture. In the present study, we report a dynamic and correlated expression of carrot AOX genes (DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a during PCS lag phase and during exponential growth. Both genes showed an increase in transcript levels until 36 h after explant inoculation, and a subsequent down-regulation, before the initiation of exponential growth. In PCS growing at two different temperatures (21 °C and 28 °C, DcAOX1 was also found to be more expressed in the highest temperature. DcAOX genes’ were further explored in a plant pot experiment in response to chilling, which confirmed the early AOX transcript increase prior to the induction of a specific anti-freezing gene (AFP. Our findings point to DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a as being reasonable candidates for functional marker development related to early cell reprogramming. While the sequence of gDcAOX2a was previously described, we characterize the complete genomic sequence of DcAOX1.

  14. The effect of commercial enzyme preparation-assisted maceration on the yield, quality, and bioactivity of essential oil from waste carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Śmigielski, K. B.; Majewska, M.; Kunicka-Styczyńska, A.; Gruska, R.; Stańczyk, Ł.

    2014-01-01

    Eight enzyme preparations were screened with a view to maximizing the yield of carrot seed essential oil. Three of the eight enzyme preparations investigated, lipase from Mucor circinelloides, XPect® pectinase, and Esperase® protease, significantly influenced the amount of essential oil obtained, with Esperase® being the most effective. The Taguchi method was applied to optimize the processing conditions for the Esperase® protease. Under the optimum conditions, the essential oil yield increas...

  15. Effect of intercropping carrot (Daucus carota L. with french marigold (Tagetes patula nana L. and pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. on the occurrence of some pests and quality of carrot yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Jankowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping combines different aspects of the interaction between organisms in ecosystems and may be classified as a pro-ecological method of plant cultivation limiting the harmful human interference in the environment, especially the use of chemicals. It also allows high yield, good quality, and economic productivity to be achieved. The aim of the present study, conducted in the years 2003–2004 in Mydlniki near Kraków, was to determine the effect of intercropping carrot Nardin F1 with French marigold (Tagetes patula nana L. 'Kolombina' and pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. 'Promyk' on carrot yield, its quality, and the occurrence of pests. On average in both years of the study, intercropping did not reduce total or marketable carrot yield. In 2003 intercropping contributed to a significant increase in marketable yield compared with yield from sole cropping. In 2004 the dry matter content was higher in the roots of carrots grown with pot marigold. The treatments intercropped with both French and pot marigold were characterized by an increased content of sugars in carrot roots and in 2004 year – of carotenoids. Intercropping had a significant effect on the number of roots damaged by the carrot rust fly, Psila rosae, (the best in this respect was the combination with Tagetes and by nematodes (the best in this respect was the combination with Calendula. The number of larvae of carrot psyllid, Trioza viridula, was significantly lower in the plots where carrot was intercropped. The study did not find intercropping to have a positive effect on reducing the occurrence of the root aphid.

  16. Effect of intercropping carrot (Daucus carota L. with two aromatic plants, coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and summer savory (Satureja hortensis L., on the population density of select carrot pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping, or the use of different aspects of the interaction between organisms in ecosystems, can be classified as an ecological method that limits harmful human interference in the environment, especially the consumption of chemicals. The impact of intercropping carrot with coriander Coriandrum sativum L. and summer savory Satureja hortensis L. on the occurrence of select carrot pests was estimated in the years 2010-2011. Intercropping had a significant effect on the decrease of the number of roots damaged by carrot rust fly Psila rosae. During harvest, the least number of damaged roots was observed in combination with summer savory S. hortensis L. The number of carrot psyllid Trioza viridula Zett. and aphids on carrot leaves and roots damaged by nematodes was significantly lower on plots where carrot was intercropped. Intercropping both herbs had a positive influence on the number of beneficial insects. In all of the years of the study, the highest number of Coccinellidae and Syrphidae were observed on plots where carrot was intercropped with coriander.

  17. Effect of intercropping carrot (Daucus carota L.) with french marigold (Tagetes patula nana L.) and pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) on the occurrence of some pests and quality of carrot yield

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Jankowska; Elżbieta Jędrszczyk; Małgorzata Poniedziałek

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping combines different aspects of the interaction between organisms in ecosystems and may be classified as a pro-ecological method of plant cultivation limiting the harmful human interference in the environment, especially the use of chemicals. It also allows high yield, good quality, and economic productivity to be achieved. The aim of the present study, conducted in the years 2003–2004 in Mydlniki near Kraków, was to determine the effect of intercropping carrot Nardin F1 with Fren...

  18. Identificação das causas de perdas pós-colheita de cenoura no varejo, Brasília-DF Identification of causes of postharvest carrot losses in the retail market

    OpenAIRE

    Milza M. Lana; Antônio Williams Moita; Edson F. do Nascimento; Geraldo da S e Souza; Mário Felipe de Melo

    2002-01-01

    As perdas pós-colheita de cenoura em 4 lojas de uma rede de supermercados de Brasília foram avaliadas pelo período de um ano. A amostragem foi realizada em duas etapas: antes da exposição do produto na área de vendas (amostra Qualidade Inicial) e após o descarte das perdas do produto (amostra Descarte). Foram quantificadas a proporção de raízes pequenas, médias e grandes e a incidência dos danos: bifurcação, rachadura, defeitos de formato, doença, praga, dano mecânico e outros. A cenoura comp...

  19. Estratégias de seleção para germinação de sementes de cenoura em condições de temperaturas elevadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Olegário da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir estratégias mais adequadas de seleção e verificar a efetividade dessas estratégias para aumentar a taxa de germinação de sementes de cenoura em duas temperaturas (20 e 35 ºC. A primeira contagem (vigor e a taxa de germinação de sementes foram utilizadas como critérios de avaliação. Foram estudadas 27 populações de cenoura (derivadas do cultivar Brasília e três cultivares (testemunhas. Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados com três repetições de 50 sementes de cada material genético. Foram estimados os padrões de correlação entre os caracteres, e as médias entre os tratamentos foram comparadas. Vigor e taxa de germinação apresentaram-se significativos em diferenciar as populações avaliadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre as duas temperaturas para os dois caracteres. Dessa forma, a seleção deve ser efetuada em conjunto nas duas temperaturas, para evitar a potencial perda da adaptação em uma delas. A primeira contagem e a taxa de germinação apresentam correlações elevadas dentro de cada temperatura, indicando que se pode optar pela avaliação de apenas um caractere.

  20. Carrot (Daucus sativus Röhl.) colonization by Alternaria spp. and effect of fungicide spray on their population

    OpenAIRE

    Survilienė, Elena; Valiuškaitė, Alma

    2006-01-01

    In 2003–2005, at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture research was carried out to establish Alternaria dauci incidence in carrots (Daucus sativus Röhl.) during vegetation, and root damage by Alternaria radicina during storage. Resistance of 21 carrot cultivars to alternaria leaf blight (A. dauci) was established in natural infection conditions. In stored roots black rot (A. radicina) made up to 12% of all identified rots. The biological efficiency of fungicides Amistar 250 SC (azoxystrobi...

  1. Characterization of volatile compounds of Daucus crinitus Desf. Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction as alternative technique to Hydrodistillation

    OpenAIRE

    Tabti Boufeldja; Allali Houcine; Desjobert Jean-Marie; Djabou Nassim; El Amine Dib Mohammed; Muselli Alain; Costa Jean

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Traditionally, the essential oil of aromatic herbs is obtained using hydrodistillation (HD). Because the emitted volatile fraction plays a fundamental role in a plant's life, various novel techniques have been developed for its extraction from plants. Among these, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) can be used to obtain a rapid fingerprint of a plant's headspace. Daucus crinitus Desf. is a wild plant that grows along the west coast of Algeria. Only a single st...

  2. Main: L1DCPAL1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L1DCPAL1 S000504 15-September-2006 (last modified) kehi L1 element, found in PAL1 promoter in ca ... rrot (Daucus ... carota), is a protoplastization (dilution) respons ... ACCC); see also S000492 (BOXL CORE of DC PAL1); L1 Daucus ... carota (carrot) ATTCACCTACCC ...

  3. Main: L4DCPAL1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L4DCPAL1 S000503 15-September-2006 (last modified) kehi L4 element, found in PAL1 promoter in ca ... rrot (Daucus ... carota), is a UV-B responsive element; L4 contains ... ; see also S000492 (BoxL core of DC PAL); L4; PAL; Daucus ... carota (carrot) AATCTCCAACCA ...

  4. Partial chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Daucus crinitus Desf. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolini, J.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction of the roots, leaves and stems from Daucus crinitus Desf. were, determined using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The fatty acid fractions of different organs (leaves, stems and roots were characterized by lauric acid (17.9, 17.5 and 18.1 % respectively and other long chain fatty acids (until C22. Qualitative and quantitative differences were reported between the unsaponifiable fractions of different organs from D. crinitus. The unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, roots and stem showed high amounts of aliphatic components (83.4%, 87.2% and 91.4%, respectively. The monoterpen, diterpen and sesquiterpen components were only present in small percentages. The antimicrobial properties of the D. critinus extracts were tested on four different microorganisms. These extracts were found to be active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.La composición química de los ácidos grasos y la fracción insaponificable de raíces, hojas, y tallos de Daucus crinitus Desf. fueron establecidas utilizando cromatografía de gases (GC y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. La fracción de ácidos grasos de los diferentes órganos (hojas, tallos y raíces se caracterizó por el ácido láurico (17.9, 17.5 y 18.1% respectivamente y otros ácidos grasos de cadena larga (hasta C22. Diferencias cualitativas y cuantitativas se registraron entre las fracciones insaponificable de los diferentes órganos de D. crinitus. De hecho, las fracciones insaponificable de la raíz, de la hoja y del tallo mostraron cantidades altas de componentes alifáticos (83.4%, 87.2% y 91.4%, respectivamente. Los componentes monoterpénicos, diterpénicos y sesquiterpénicos solo estuvieron presentes en un pequeño porcentaje. Las propiedades antimicrobianas de los extractos de D. critinus fueron ensayadas en cuatro

  5. Germinação de sementes de cenoura osmoticamente condicionadas e peletizadas com diversos ingredientes Germination of carrot seed primed and pelleted with several ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley M Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A semente de cenoura caracteriza-se por ser relativamente pequena, o que dificulta o processo de distribuição, tornando a mecanização por semeadeiras convencionais uma prática difícil. A técnica da peletização tem sido utilizada visando a melhoria da distribuição de sementes e o estabelecimento de plântulas no campo. As sementes peletizadas geralmente apresentam menor velocidade de germinação quando comparadas com as sementes nuas do mesmo lote. O condicionamento osmótico tem sido utilizado para aumentar a velocidade de germinação de sementes. Neste estudo foram avaliados materiais cimentantes para a peletização de sementes e verificadas as relações existentes entre o condicionamento osmótico e a germinação das sementes peletizadas de cenoura cv. Alvorada. A peletização foi feita utilizando-se, como material de enchimento, a mistura de microcelulose e areia fina em volumes iguais e, para enchimento foram avaliados cinco materiais cimentantes: bentonita, methocel, opadry, rhoximat e goma arábica. Sementes peletizadas receberam ou não o acabamento com iriodin. Uma testemunha (sementes nuas foi incluída no ensaio. Em outro estudo, sementes foram osmoticamente condicionadas em solução aerada de polietileno glicol e peletizadas imediatamente após o condicionamento osmótico ou após a secagem. Os produtos rhoximat e opadry apresentaram as melhores características como material cimentante, formando uma fina camada de revestimento, que resultou na formação de péletes com superfície lisa, uniforme e ótima aparência externa. Em geral, péletes apresentaram uma ligeira redução na porcentagem e na velocidade de germinação, em comparação às sementes não peletizadas, com diferenças maiores para os péletes que receberam o acabamento com iriodin. O condicionamento osmótico aumentou a velocidade de germinação das sementes peletizadas de cenoura.Carrot seeds are small and the distribution in the field by

  6. Primed carrot seeds performance under water and temperature stress Desempenho de sementes osmocondicionadas de cenoura sob estresse hídrico e térmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Dias Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Uniformity and percentage of seedling emergence of direct-seeded vegetables have a major impact on their yield and quality. Depending on temperature and soil water potential, carrot seeds performance in the field is poor justifying the use of techniques to accelerate the germination and seedling emergence. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of priming treatments, with and without aeration, on carrot seeds performance under water and temperature stress. Two seed lots of carrots, Brasília cultivar, were primed in PEG 6000 -1.0 and -1.2 MPa solutions, for four and eight days, at 20ºC, using two imbibition methods: priming in paper towel moistened with the respective solutions and immersion into aerated osmotic solutions. Non-primed seeds were used as control. After priming, the seeds were dried at room temperature until reach initial seed moisture content. The seeds were submitted to the following tests: germination, first count, seedling emergence in the field, germination at sub-optimal (15ºC and supra-optimal temperature (30ºC and germination under water stress (PEG 6000 at -0.4 MPa. Priming in -1.0 and -1.2 MPa PEG 6000 during four and eight days can be useful for improving carrot seedling emergence in the field and seed performance under supra and sub-optimal temperatures. Aeration of the peg solution was beneficial when seeds were primed at -1.2 MPa for eight days.Na cultura da cenoura são constantes os problemas relativos ao desempenho das sementes em campo, justificando técnicas que acelerem a germinação das sementes e a emergência das plântulas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do condicionamento osmótico, com e sem uso de soluções aeradas, no desempenho de sementes de cenoura sob estresse hídrico e térmico. Para tanto, sementes de dois lotes, cv. Brasília, foram condicionadas em soluções de PEG 6000 a -1,0 e -1,2 MPa, por quatro e oito dias, a 20ºC, utilizando-se dois métodos de embebi

  7. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade fenotípica de genótipos de cenoura Adaptability and phenotypic stability of carrot genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Duda de Oliveira

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade fenotípica de dez genótipos de cenoura, nove de polinização aberta [Alvorada (FELTRIN; Tropical (ISLA; Brasília (ISLA; Nova Brasília (ISLA; Carandaí (SVS; Brasília (SVS; Brazlândia (HORTEC; HT-2000 (HORTEC, e Brasília-RL (SAKATA] e o híbrido AF-845 (SAKATA, em semeaduras, de janeiro e março, em São José do Rio Pardo (SP, janeiro e fevereiro, em Ponta Grossa (PR, e na primeira e última semana de fevereiro, em São Gotardo (MG, e Carandaí (MG, totalizando oito experimentos (SJRP-JAN; SJRP-MAR; PG-JAN; PG-FEV; SG-FEV'; SG-FEV''; C-FEV', e C-FEV'', que foram implementados em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância individual e conjunta, e à análise de adaptabilidade e de estabilidade. Dos oito ambientes testados, apenas C-FEV'', PG-JAN e SG-FEV'' foram considerados favoráveis ao cultivo de cenoura, com destaque para C-FEV''. Entre genótipos, na maioria dos ambientes, 'Brazlândia' se destacou tanto na produtividade total, quanto na produtividade comercial de raízes. Na análise de adaptabilidade, 'Brazlândia' e 'Brasília-RL' indicaram possuir desempenho mais do que proporcional à melhoria promovida pelo ambiente, sendo indicados para semeaduras em ambientes favoráveis. O híbrido AF-845 mostrou ter pequena capacidade em responder às variações ambientais, não sendo indicado para nenhum dos ambientes estudados. Os genótipos de cenoura, em geral, apresentaram estabilidade de comportamento nos ambientes estudados.The adaptability and phenotypic stability of ten carrot genotypes, nine of open polinization [Alvorada (FELTRIN; Tropical (ISLA; Brasilia (ISLA; Nova Brasilia (ISLA; Carandai (SVS; Brasilia (SVS; Brazlandia (HORTEC; HT-2000 (HORTEC, and Brasilia-RL (SAKATA] and the hybrid AF-845 (SAKATA, were evaluated under different sowing dates and places. In January and March in Sao Jose do Rio Pardo, January and February in

  8. Alteração do crescimento e dos teores de nutrientes com utilização de fertilizante organomineral em cenoura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Fernandes Kaseker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de fertilizantes organominerais contendo extratos de algas é recente no Brasil. Em vista disso, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação foliar de fertilizante organomineral contendo extrato da alga Ascophyllum nodosum (Activo® no desenvolvimento e nos teores de nutrientes em cenoura. O experimento foi conduzido na área de olericultura da Universidade Federal do Paraná, no município de Pinhais, PR, no ano de 2009, em sistema orgânico, utilizando cultivar do tipo Nantes. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, e os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de fertilizante organomineral à base de extrato de algas. Foi utilizado um esquema fatorial com duas doses (0,2 e 0,4% e duas épocas de aplicação (25 e 45 dias após o plantio, e um tratamento testemunha. As aplicações aumentaram a altura da parte aérea, o diâmetro radicular e o número de folhas, sendo esta variável também influenciada pela concentração. A produtividade aumentou com a aplicação do fertilizante organomineral, independentemente da concentração e da época de aplicação. Os teores nutricionais na parte aérea e nas raízes também foram alterados em decorrência das aplicações, sendo observada diminuição dos teores foliares de Cu e dos teores radiculares de N, Ca, Mg, Cu e Zn, possivelmente em função de efeito de diluição, pelo incremento da biomassa. Conclui-se que a aplicação do fertilizante organomineral contendo extrato de algas foi benéfica ao crescimento, desenvolvimento e produção das plantas de cenoura, o que resultou em diminuição na concentração de N, Ca, Mg, Cu e Zn na raiz e de Cu na parte aérea.

  9. Efeito de espécies vegetais em bordadura em cebola sobre a densidade populacional de tripes e sirfídeos predadores Effect of different species of border plants on the population density of thrips and syrphids predators in onion crop

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    Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a relação entre o efeito do plantio de diferentes espécies vegetais, em bordadura, na cultura da cebola, Allium cepa L, na incidência de Thrips tabaci Lind. e sirfídeos predadores, Toxomerus spp. O experimento foi conduzido na Epagri, EE de Ituporanga, de agosto a dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram cebola em monocultivo; cebola + trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; cebola + nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg.; cebola + cenoura (Daucus carota L., cv. Nantes e cv. Brasília; cebola + milho (Zea mays L.; cebola + rúcula (Eruca sativa L. + vegetação espontânea. O plantio de diferentes espécies vegetais em bordadura não provocou diferenças significativas na incidência de tripes e sirfídeos predadores. A produtividade comercial de bulbos de cebola foi similar em sistema de monocultivo e diversificado, sugerindo ser possível adotar tais sistemas sem perdas em rendimento.The effect of planting different species of border plants on the population density of thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind, and syrphid predators (Toxomerus spp., population density were evaluated at EPAGRI, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The research was carried out from August to December 1998. The treatments were onion monoculture; onion intercropped with buck wheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Poligonaceae; onion intercropped with fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg.; onion intercropped with carrots (Daucus carota L. Nantes and Brasília cultivars; onion intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.; onion intercropped with Eruca sativa and weed. The onion thrips and syrphid predators population density were similar in onion monoculture and policulture. The yields were similar in onion monoculture and policulture, suggesting the possibility to intercrop onion without losses.

  10. Ensaios sôbre desidratação de vegetais Experiments on dehydration of vegetable foods

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    André Tosello

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available Êste trabalho, que reune resultados de ensaios de secagem efetuados em Campinas pelo processo de ar quente, em um secador em forma de túnel yertical, semi-industrial e especialmente construido para êsse fim, representa uma contribuição para o estudo da desidratação de diversos dos nossos alimentos. Observou-se que os produtos amiláceos, tais como batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L., cenoura (Daucus carota L. var. sativa D.C., ervilhas (Pisum sativum L., mandioca (Manikot utilissima Pohl e mandioquinha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancr. podem ser sêcos entre 40 e 55°C de temperatura, em tempo variável de 5-10 horas, conforme a densidade de distribuição do material nas bandejas do secador. O feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp. bem como a batata doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam. constituíram exceção ao tempo de secagem, levando 15 horas para secar.The present work summarizes the results of experiments on dehydration of vegetable foods performed at the Instituto Agronômico, Campinas. Drying was carried out by the hot air process in a drier shaped as a vertical tunnel specially built for this purpose, and which is considered very advantageous for studies on dehydration of various kinds of foodstuff. Amilaceous products such as potatoes (Salanum tuberosum, carrots (Daucus carota, peas (Pisum sativum, cassava (Manihot utilissima, and mandioquinha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza were dried at temperatures between 40° and 55°C. The time of treatment varied for most materials from 5 to 10 hours according to the thickness the material was distributed on the shelves of the drier. The guando (Cajanus cajarn as well as sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas needed about 15 hours to be dried.

  11. Desempenho de sistemas consorciados de cenoura e alface avaliados através de métodos uni e multivariados Biological performance of carrot and lettuce intercropping systems as assessed through uni- and multivariate methods

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    Francisco Bezerra Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A análise de dados provenientes de experimentos de consorciação geralmente é mais complexa do que as advindas de experimentos em cultivo solteiro. Nesta situação, vários tipos de análises são recomendados, como análise univariada de variância do rendimento das culturas componentes separadamente; dos rendimentos combinados dos sistemas consorciados; da eficiência produtiva por modelos de análise de envoltória de dados (DEA ou de métodos de análise multivariada dos rendimentos das culturas associadas. Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho biológico de sistemas consorciados de cenoura e alface crespa através de métodos uni e multivariados. Dois experimentos (um consorciado e outro solteiro foram conduzidos em blocos casualizados completos, com quatro repetições. O experimento consorciado foi conduzido em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 + 2, com os tratamentos provenientes da combinação de duas cultivares de cenoura (Alvorada e Brasília com quatro cultivares de alface crespas (Lucy Brown, Tainá, Laurel e Verônica e as duas cvs. de cenoura sem consorciação. Os tratamentos do experimento solteiro consistiram das quatros cvs. de alface testadas. As características avaliadas na alface e cenoura foram massa fresca da parte aérea e rendimento de raízes comerciais, respectivamente. Análises uni e multivariadas de variância foram realizadas nas características avaliadas tanto na alface como na cenoura em função dos fatores tratamentos testados. O método multivariado mostrou-se bastante informativo, em função da maior capacidade discriminante, além da descrição da superioridade relativa dos tratamentos por meio da técnica das variáveis canônicas. Os índices combinados de medida de eficiência dos sistemas consorciados tiveram comportamento similar na discriminação dos melhores sistemas de cultivo consorciados quando avaliados pelo método univariado. Na avaliação de todos os sistemas consorciados

  12. Evaluation of the use of plastic film of polyvinyl chloride (PVC in the storage of carrots Avaliação do uso de filme plástico de policloreto de vinila (PVC no armazenamento de cenouras

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    Marie Yamamoto Reghin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In carrot roots, reducing the percentage of mass and the occurrence of diseases are the leading causes of post-harvest losses during storage and marketing. Also, budding and rooting are indicated as the possible effect on the use of modified atmosphere in root vegetables and tubers. This study was conducted to compare forms of packaging and storage time on weight loss, percentage of sprouted roots and concentration of ? carotene in three carrot cultivars. The carrots were placed in shallow trays of polystyrene and wrapped with PVC film, and put two roots per tray, or in bulk. Then, the roots were stored in the dark at ambient conditions for 20 days Carrots stored with plastic film (PVC remained commercially viable for up to 12 days. When stored in bulk showed weight loss of more than 5% in 4 days, which is not feasible to trade. The content of carotenoids was constant throughout the storage period for the in three cultivars.Em raízes de cenoura, a redução da porcentagem de massa e a ocorrência de doenças são as principais causas de perda pós-colheita durante o armazenamento e a comercialização. Também, a brotação e o enraizamento são apontados como os possíveis prejuízos ao uso da atmosfera modificada em hortaliças de raízes e tubérculos. O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar formas de embalagem e tempo de armazenamento sobre a perda de massa, porcentagem de raízes brotadas e concentração de ? caroteno em três cultivares de cenoura. As cenouras foram acondicionadas em bandejas rasas de poliestireno e embaladas com filme plástico de PVC, sendo acondicionadas duas raízes por bandeja, ou a granel. Em seguida, as raízes foram armazenadas no escuro em condições ambiente durante 20 dias As cenouras armazenadas com filme plástico de (PVC mantiveram-se viáveis comercialmente por até 12 dias. Quando armazenadas à granel apresentaram perda de peso superior a 5% em 4 dias, não sendo viável para o com

  13. Qualidade nutricional de cenoura e alface cultivadas em Mossoró-RN em função da densidade populacional Nutritional quality of carrot and lettuce grown in Mossoró-RN, Brazil, as affected by plant densities

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    Francisco Bezerra Neto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado durante o período de junho a setembro de 2003, na área experimental do departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, em Mossoró-RN, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de densidades populacionais de cenoura e de alface, em segundo, cultivo na qualidade nutricional desses cultivos em sistema de consorciação em faixa. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com três repetições. As populações de referência para o cultivo solteiro (PRCS foram de 500.000 plantas.ha-1 para a cenoura e de 250.000 plantas.ha-1 para a alface, que corresponderam à densidade populacional de 100%. Os tratamentos foram resultantes da combinação de quatro populações de cenoura (40%, 60%, 80% e 100% da PRCS com quatro populações de alface (40%, 60%, 80% e 100% da PRCS. As características avaliadas nas raízes da cenoura foram firmeza, conteúdo de vitamina C, carotenóides totais e beta-caroteno, e nas folhas da alface firmeza, conteúdo de vitamina C, carotenóides totais e clorofila total. Foram utilizadas a cv Brasília (cenoura e a cv. Tainá (alface. As associações de densidades populacionais de cenoura e alface não afetaram qualquer característica de ambas as culturas. Porém, as densidades populacionais da cenoura influenciaram as características da cenoura, e as densidades de alface afetaram as características da folha de alface. A firmeza, conteúdo de vitamina C e de beta-caroteno nas raízes da cenoura diminuíram com o aumento da densidade deste cultivo, enquanto que o conteúdo de carotenóides totais aumentou com o incremento na densidade populacional desta cultura. Mesmo comportamento decrescente também foi observado no conteúdo de vitamina C, carotenóides totais e de clorofila total nas folhas de alface com o aumento da densidade populacional de alface.The experiment was carried

  14. Requerimientos hídricos de la zanahoria (D. carota L.) durante tres etapas de su desarrollo

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    Fabio Emilio Forero-Ulloa; Germán Eduardo Cely-Reyes; Edilson Emilio Neira-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    La zanahoria (D. carota L.) es uno de los principales productos del departamento de Boyacá, participa con 1093 ha, especialmente en los municipios de Ventaquemada, Samacá y Tunja. Los híbridos Chantenay tienen en Ventaquemada un rendimiento promedio de 20 t.ha-1, que es bajo comparado con el de la Sabana de Bogotá, de 28.1t.ha-1; las limitantes en la producción de la zona son: falta de riego, semillas de altas exigencias agronómicas (adecuada mecanización del suelo, fertilización apropiada…) ...

  15. Efeitos da solarização do solo na densidade populacional da tiririca e na produtividade de hortaliças sob manejo orgânico Effects of soil solarization on purple nutsedge population density and on productivity of vegetable crops under organic cultivation

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    MARTA DOS SANTOS FREIRE RICCI

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um ensaio de campo em Seropédica, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, para avaliar o efeito da solarização do solo na população infestante de tiririca (Cyperus rotundus e na produtividade de hortaliças submetidas a manejo orgânico. A solarização correspondeu à cobertura do solo com polietileno transparente (50 mim por um período de 210 dias. Houve um aumento da temperatura média da camada superficial do solo (0-10 cm da ordem de 23%, em relação ao das parcelas não-solarizadas. Após a retirada do plástico, cultivaram-se: cenoura (Daucus carota 'Brasília', repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata 'Astrus', beterraba (Beta vulgaris 'Tall Top Early Wonder' e vagem-anã (Phaseolus vulgaris 'Alessa'. Em termos gerais, a solarização reduziu em 59% a reinfestação pela tiririca. Nas parcelas solarizadas, houve significativo incremento das produtividades de cenoura (28%, vagem (32%, beterraba (37% e repolho (34%. A fixação biológica do nitrogênio, a julgar pela nodulação da vagem, não foi afetada pela solarização, mas a população de nematóides do solo sofreu considerável redução.A field experiment was carried out at Seropédica, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of soil solarization on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus weed population and on productivity of vegetable crops under organic cultivation. Solarization was accomplished by covering the soil surface with transparent polyethylene sheets (50 mum for a period of 210 days. The mean temperature at 010 cm soil layer was about 23% higher than that of unsolarized plots. Following plastic removal the area was planted with carrot (Daucus carota 'Brasília', cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata 'Astrus', garden beet (Beta vulgaris 'Tall Top Early Wonder', and dwarf greenbean (Phaseolus vulgaris 'Alessa'. In general, soil solarization reduced purple nutsedge population by 59%. There was a significant increase in yields of carrot (28%, cabbage

  16. População de plantas, método de colheita e qualidade de sementes de cenoura, cultivar Brasília

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    BARBEDO ADELIANA SAES COELHO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brasília é uma cultivar de cenoura com possibilidade de produção de raízes em áreas e épocas de elevada temperatura. A produção de suas sementes ainda requer pesquisa quanto ao estímulo artificial ao florescimento e população de plantas. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, o estudo desses fatores, no método semente-semente, da cultivar Brasília, em São Manuel, SP. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, com e sem aplicação de ácido giberélico. As populações foram 25.000, 50.000, 100.000, 200.000 e 400.000 plantas ha-1. As sementes foram separadas de acordo com a origem de sua coleta, constituindo dois grupos: sementes de umbelas de primeira e segunda ordem (colheita selecionada e sementes de todas as umbelas da parcela útil (colheita geral. Após cada colheita foram realizados análises de pureza física, testes de germinação e de vigor (emergência de plântulas em campo e envelhecimento acelerado, avaliações do peso de mil sementes e do teor de água. Houve florescimento e produção de sementes, mesmo sem a aplicação do ácido giberélico. De modo geral, as sementes de colheita selecionada apresentaram qualidade superior às de colheita geral, com diferenças de germinação de até 16%. O aumento da população de plantas, até 200.000 plantas ha-1, não diminuiu a qualidade das sementes.

  17. Estudo micrometeorológico com cenouras (var. nantes I- Influência da temperatura do ar Micrometebeologic study with carrots (var. nantes. I- Influence of air temperature

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    Orivaldo Brunini

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o efeito da temperatura do ar sobre o desenvolvimento de cenouras (var. Nantes, cultivadas em latossolo roxo sob quatro condições: com cobertura de plástico sobre a cultura em solo nu; sem cobertura de plástico sobre a cultura e solo com cobertura morta; com cobertura de plástico sobre a cultura e solo com cobertura morta; e sem cobertura de plástico sobre a cultura e solo nu. O tratamento com cobertura de plástico e solo eom cobertura morta foi o que apresentou maior produtividade, além de diminuir o ciclo da cultura. As variações térmicas mostraram-se correlacionadas com o tipo de cobertura a que esteve sujeita a cultura, sendo que o tratamento com cobertura de plástico e solo com cobertura morta apresentou maiores valores da temperatura do ar, e o tratamento sem cobertura conservando o solo nu apresentou menores valores da temperatura do ar.The effect of air temperature on the development of carrots (var. nantes was analysed under four conditions: with polyethylene cover over the crops, and bare soil: without polyethylene cover over the crop, and soil with mulch; with polyethylene cover over the crops, and mulch; and without polyethylene cover over the crop, and bare soil. The treatment with polyethylene cover over the crop and soil with mulch increased the yields and shortened the maturity date. The thermal variations of air were correlated with the type of mulch, and the yields were correlated with air temperature too.

  18. Carrot cake with and without gluten: development of formulas and acceptance of product = Bolo de cenoura com e sem glúten: desenvolvimento da formulação e aceitação do produto

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    Angélica Aparecida Maurício

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the processing and the consumer’s growing demand for foods that present, besides the high sensorial and nutritional quality, benefits associated to the health raise the necessity of new ingredients that can assist their needs and also the market’s demand. The current project had as its objective the comparison in theacceptance of different formulations of carrot cake without gluten with wheat germ oil and with gluten and wheat germ oil and palm for consumers; to identify the nutritional composition of these ones as well as the purchase intention. The obtained cakes with the formulations of BIG, BGOM and BGOP, were appraised in their chemicaland physical properties, preference and purchase intention. The cakes with the formula BIG MIX-1 and BGOP 80 g presented chemical properties, physics, preference and purchase intention comparable to the ones of the standard formula. Therefore, MIX-1 and the oil of Palm can be used as ingredients to formulate carrot cake, supplyingproducts with characteristics that assist the demands of the market.= As mudanças no processamento e a crescente exigência do consumidor por alimentos que apresentem, além da alta qualidade sensorial e nutricional, benefícios associados à saúde, fazem surgir à necessidade de novos ingredientes que possam atender a estas exigências do mercado. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho comparar a aceitação de diferentes formulações de bolo de cenoura sem glúten com óleo de milho e, com glúten e óleo de milho e palma por consumidores; determinar a composição nutricional dos mesmos bem como a intenção decompra. As formulações de bolo de cenoura isentos de glúten (BIG foram compostas por dois mix isentos de glúten (MIX-1 e MIX+1, o bolo de cenoura com glúten e óleo de milho (BGOM considerado como padrão ebolo de cenoura com glúten e óleo de palma (BGOP que foi preparado com duas diferentes proporções de óleo de palma (80 e 100 g. Avaliou-se o

  19. Análise multidimensional de consórcios cenoura-alface sob diferentes combinações de densidades populacionais Multidimensional analysis of carrot-lettuce intercroppings under different combinations of population densities

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    Francisco Bezerra Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho biológico de sistemas consorciados de cenoura e alface, sob diferentes combinações de densidades populacionais, com uso das análises bivariada de variância e envoltória de dados (DEA. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso completos, com cinco repetições, com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4x4. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de quatro populações de plantas de cenoura (40, 60, 80 e 100% da população recomendada no cultivo solteiro - PRCS com quatro populações de plantas de alface (40, 60, 80 e 100% da PRCS. As populações recomendadas para os cultivos solteiros da cenoura e alface foram 500 mil e 250 mil plantas por hectare, respectivamente. Tanto o método bivariado como o método de análise de envoltória de dados são bastante eficazes na discriminação dos melhores sistemas de cultivo consorciados, por meio dos rendimentos das culturas. Os resultados da eficiência produtiva, medidos por modelos DEA, permitem uma análise estatística simples do ensaio consorciado. A robustez do método de análise bivariada de variância assegura a validade dos resultados.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the biological performance of carrot and lettuce intercropping systems under different combinations of population densities, using the bivariate analysis of variance and data envelopment analysis (DEA. The experimental design was the randomized complete blocks, in a 4x4 factorial scheme (carrot densities: 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the recommended sole crop density (RSCD; lettuce densities: 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the RSCD, with five replications. The recommended population density for carrot in sole crop is 500 thousand plants per hectare and for lettuce in sole crop is 250 thousand plants per hectare. Both bivariate method of variance and data envelopment analysis are quite effective in discriminating the best intercropping systems as

  20. Seleção de progênies de meio-irmãos de cenoura baseada em características de sementes Selection of carrot progenies based on seed characteristics

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    Jairo V. Vieira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A menor germinação e emergência de plântulas em campo de cenoura obtida nas sementes de cultivares nacionais em relação às importadas, aumenta o custo de produção além de impossibilitar a otimização do estande final através do emprego de semeadeiras de precisão. Setenta e quatro progênies de meio-irmãos oriundas de uma população de cenoura tipo Brasília foram avaliadas quanto a germinação, vigor e peso de sementes com o objetivo de verificar a variabilidade e as relações genéticas entre os referidos caracteres. Evidenciou-se a existência de diferenças significativas entre as progênies de meio-irmãos em relação a todos os caracteres avaliados. Os altos valores de herdabilidade e variabilidade genética entre progênies para os caracteres avaliados sugerem que métodos de melhoramento simples combinados com métodos de seleção tendo por base a teoria de índice podem ser aplicados visando a melhoria da qualidade fisiológica das sementes de cenoura.Low seed germination and stand establishment of carrot seeds from Brazilian cultivars generally increase the production cost and impairs the use of precision seeders. Germination, vigor and seed weight of 74 progenies from a population of carrot cv. Brasilia were evaluated to verify the variability and the genetic relations among these three characteristics. Significant differences were observed among the progenies in relation to all characteristics. High values of heritability and genetic variability among progenies suggests that simple breeding methods combined with index selection methods may be applied during breeding programs in order to increase the physiological seed quality of carrot.

  1. Avaliação sensorial e estabilidade físico-química de um blend de laranja e cenoura Sensorial evaluation and physical-chemical stability of a blend of orange and carrot

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    Ivanise Guilherme Branco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi elaborado um blend de suco de laranja e cenoura com diferentes teores de cenoura (5 e 25% e concentrado a diferentes teores de sólidos solúveis (15 e 30 °Brix. Foram realizadas análises físicas e químicas das matérias-primas e do blend com maior preferência sensorial, com a finalidade de caracterizar o produto e, principalmente, verificar as alterações do ácido ascórbico e dos carotenóides totais após o processo de concentração dos blends. Também foi investigada a estabilidade física e química do blend durante sessenta dias. O teste de ordenação-preferência mostrou que a formulação do blend com 5% de cenoura e 15 °Brix de concentração foi a preferida pelos julgadores. O processo de concentração e o armazenamento, pelo período de 60 dias, acarretou na redução significativa dos conteúdos de ácido ascórbico e carotenóides totais.In this work a "blend" of orange and carrot juice with different proportions of carrot (5 and 25% and concentrated to different degrees of soluble solids (15 and 30 °Brix was developed. Physical and chemical analyses of the raw material and most sensorial preference "blend" were carried out with the main aim of characterizing the product. Special attention was paid to observe changes in the proportion of ascorbic acid and total carotenoides after the concentration juice process. The physical and chemical stability of the blend was also investigated during a period of sixty days. In the sensorial analysis the ordering preference test was applied. The results showed that the formulation with the most sensorial preference was that with 5% of carrot and concentration up to 15 °Brix. The concentration process and the storage, for the period of 60 days, caused a significant reduction of the contents of ascorbic acid and total carotene.

  2. Produção e qualidade de sementes de cenoura das cultivares Brasília e Carandaí

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    CARDOSO ANTONIO ISMAEL INÁCIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a produção e a qualidade das sementes obtidas de plantas de cenoura, das cultivares Brasília e Carandaí. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e cinco plantas úteis por parcela. Adotou-se o sistema semente-raiz-semente e indução floral por vernalização das raízes, durante 40 dias, a 5 °C. Foram avaliados o número de umbelas, as produções de sementes por planta e por umbela, a massa (g de mil sementes, a germinação e a primeira contagem de germinação em cada classe de umbela. A cultivar Brasília superou a Carandaí na produção de sementes por planta (52 g, em virtude da maior produção nas umbelas secundárias (38 g, e não diferiu da cultivar Carandaí quanto à produção nas umbelas primárias e terciárias. Nas demais características avaliadas não foram observadas diferenças entre as cultivares. A produção por umbela foi-se reduzindo sucessivamente das primárias (7,5 g por umbela às secundárias (3,0 g por umbela e às terciárias (0,5 g por umbela. As sementes das umbelas primárias apresentaram maior massa (média de 2,1 g por mil sementes em relação às secundárias (1,6 g por mil sementes que, por sua vez, superaram as terciárias (1,4 g por mil sementes. As sementes das umbelas primárias e secundárias apresentaram maior poder germinativo comparativamemte às terciárias.

  3. Chemical characterization of leaves of organically grown carrot Dacus carota L. in various stages of development for use as food

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    Camila Wihby Leite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, street markets and vegetable distributors discard vegetable leaves and stems, including those of carrot (Dacus carota L.. Seeking to reduce the waste of vegetable parts, this study characterized chemically the leaves of organically grown carrot in three stages of development to determine the best time for their removal and consumption as food. The leaves were dehydrated in an oven at 70 °C for 43 hours and analyzed for chemical composition, antioxidant activity, chlorophyll content, fatty acid composition, and also calcium (Ca, sodium (Na, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, and copper (Cu contents. The analyses indicated 100 days of development as the ideal stage for the removal and consumption of carrot leaves with good antioxidant activity requiring only 63.78 ± 0.5 mg.L-1 methanol leaf extract to inhibit 50% of the concentration of the free radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1picrilidrazil, and total protein and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3/LNA contents of 18.23% ± 2.8 and 876.55 ± 20.62 mg.100 g-1 of dry matter, respectively.

  4. The effects of gamma irradiation on the growth and cytology of carrot (Dacus Carota L.) tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot (Dacus Carota L.) tissue suspension cultures were subjected to 0.5-40 krad of gamma irradiation. Callus fresh weight was significantly increased and dry weight slightly increased by low doses (0.5 and 1 krad). Cells size increased at all doses. Cell number and colony-forming ability decreased. There was a negative correlation between radiation dose and mitotic index, and a positive correlation between dose and mitotic abnormalities (multipolar separations, lagging chromosomes, and bridges). Frequency of prophase was increased, and ana phase and telophase were reduced. Tissue culture conditions increased the incidence of aneuploidy and polyploidy in comparison to carrot root tips. Aneuploidy in tissue cultures was decreased and polyploidy was increased by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation stimulated shoot formation at 1 krad, and inhibited shoot formation at high doses (20-40 krads). The frequency of abnormal plants (albinos, and plants with no roots or deformation of leaves) regenerated from carrot cell cultures was increased by gamma irradiation. (authors). 30 refs., 3 figs

  5. Produção e aceitabilidade de cenoura sob cultivo orgânico no inverno e no verão Production and acceptability of carrot under organic cultivation in winter and summer

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    Dalva Paulus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Para o cultivo da cenoura é importante conhecer a adaptação das cultivares de acordo com as condições climáticas do local e a preferência do consumidor. Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho e a aceitação, detectando assim a preferência dos consumidores a diferentes cultivares de cenoura em sistema de cultivo orgânico, realizou-se o presente trabalho. Avaliou-se o desempenho das cultivares de cenoura em Dois Vizinhos (PR. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e quatro tratamentos para a época de inverno (cvs Nantes, Shin Kuroda, Danvers e Flaker e cinco tratamentos para o verão (cvs Shin Kuroda, Kuronan, Brasília, Esplanada e Carandaí. Avaliou-se a resistência à queima das folhas (Alternaria dauci, incidência de ombro verde, sólidos solúveis totais, produtividade e aceitabilidade, por meio de análise sensorial das cenouras in natura e em conserva tipo picles. Para o cultivo de inverno a cultivar Nantes resultou em maior produtividade (29,02 t ha-1 e para o cultivo de verão a produtividade da cultivar Esplanada foi superior (32,0 t ha-1 às demais cultivares, que não diferiram estatisticamente entre si. A cv. Esplanada apresentou maior resistência à queima das folhas e menor percentagem (5,6% de ombro verde. As características organolépticas das cultivares apresentaram boa aceitabilidade pelos consumidores participantes.For the carrot cultivation it is important to understand the adaptation of cultivars according to the local weather conditions and consumer preference. The objective was to evaluate the performance and acceptance, thereby detecting the consumer's preference for different carrot cultivars in organic cropping system. The performance of the cultivars Nantes, Shin Kuroda and Danvers Flaker was evaluated in the winter season and cultivars Shin Kuroda, Kuronan, Brasilia, Esplanada and Carandaí for cultivation of summer in Dois Vizinhos, Paraná state, Brazil

  6. Tamanho de amostra para avaliação de caracteres de cenoura em sistemas de cultivo agroecológico Sample size for evaluation of carrot traits in agroecologic cultivation systems

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    Giovani Olegário da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O correto dimensionamento de experimentos deve ser utilizado para que se possa reduzir o erro experimental e com isso, maximizar a precisão das informações obtidas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o número mínimo de famílias e de plantas por parcela para avaliação de caracteres de raiz em uma população de cenoura cultivada em sistema agroecológico. Os ensaios foram conduzidos no verão de 2006/2007 em duas propriedades com cultivo agroecológico em Brasília: Associação Mokiti Okada, que segue modelo de Agricultura Natural em Brazlândia-DF e Núcleo Rural Taguatinga, seguindo modelo de Agricultura Orgânica em Taguatinga-DF. Foram avaliadas 100 famílias de meio-irmãos de cenoura dispostas em delineamento de blocos casualizados com duas repetições e parcelas de 1 m². Foram colhidas 20 plantas competitivas por parcela e avaliadas individualmente para os caracteres comprimento de raiz, diâmetro da raiz, massa da raiz, diâmetro do xilema da raiz, relação diâmetro do xilema/diâmetro da raiz, tipo de ponta da raiz, tipo de ombro da raiz, parâmetro a* para os tecidos xilema e floema. Foi realizada análise de variância conjunta e para cada sistema, com informação entre e dentro de parcelas. Foram realizadas ainda análises de representatividade do número mínimo de famílias e de plantas para representar uma população de cenoura. Foi verificado que uma amostra de 18 plantas competitivas/parcela coletadas em ensaios com 2 repetições, bem como de 74 famílias, são suficientes para garantir uma adequada avaliação de famílias meio-irmãos de cenoura para os caracteres estudados.The correct experiment design should be used to reduce the experimental error and, with that, maximize the precision of the information obtained. The objective of this work was to estimate the minimum number of families and of plants per plot for evaluation of root traits in a carrot population cultivated in agroecologic systems. The

  7. Efeito de baixas doses de irradiação nos carotenóides majoritários em cenouras prontas para o consumo Effect of low doses of irradiation on the carotenoids in read-to-eat carrots

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    Keila S. Cople Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito das baixas doses da radiação gama na concentração de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenouras minimamente processadas, durante a vida-útil. As cenouras são as principais fontes de carotenóides provitamínicos A (alfa e beta-caroteno de origem vegetal. De acordo com a Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar (POF realizada na região Sudeste do Brasil, no grupo de raízes e tubérculos a cenoura é amplamente consumida. A estabilidade dos carotenóides varia grandemente durante o processamento e o armazenamento, dependendo de sua estrutura, temperatura, oxigênio, luz, umidade, atividade de água e presença de ácidos e metais antioxidantes e pró-oxidantes. As cenouras minimamente processadas neste experimento foram manualmente descascadas, lavadas, cortadas mecanicamente, acondicionadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas de 5% O2 / 10% CO2 e 21% O2 (ar sintético, tratadas com radiação ionizante gama, fonte de césio, nas doses de 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1,00kGy, e armazenadas a 5°C durante 24 dias. Os carotenóides totais foram quantificados por espectrofotometria a 449nm. Para a determinação de alfa e beta-caroteno utilizou-se cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Os diferentes tratamentos e o grupo controle foram, também, avaliados através das análises de cor e voláteis, por cromatografia gasosa/espectrometria de massas associada à microextração em fase sólida (CG-EM/MEFS, para estudar as perdas dos carotenóides durante o processamento.This study aims was to evaluate the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on the total carotenoids, alpha and beta-carotene content in minimally processed carrots, during the shelflife. Carrots are the mains vegetable source of carotenoids provitamin A (alpha and beta-carotene. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely

  8. Combination of lettuce and rocket cultivars in two cultures intercropped with carrots Combinação de cultivares de alface e rúcula em dois cultivos em consórcio com cenoura

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    Vânia CN Porto

    2011-09-01

    produção de hortaliças e o sucesso da associação entre as culturas será tanto maior quanto maior a complementaridade entre elas. O presente trabalho foi realizado de junho a novembro de 2006, na Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró, Brasil, para avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas cultivares de alface e duas de rúcula consorciadas em faixas com cenoura em dois cultivos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos casualizados com cinco repetições, com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 + 2. Os tratamentos consistiram da combinação de duas cultivares de alface (Babá de Verão e Tainá e duas de rúcula (Cultivada e Folha Larga consorciadas com cenoura 'Brasília', mais dois tratamentos adicionais (duas cultivares de alface ou duas cultivares de rúcula cultivadas em cultivo solteiro. Em cada bloco foi inserida uma parcela com a cenoura em cultivo solteiro. As características avaliadas na alface foram altura e diâmetro de plantas, número de folhas por planta, produtividade e massa da matéria seca da parte aérea; na rúcula: altura de plantas, número de folhas por planta, rendimento de massa verde e massa da matéria seca da parte aérea, e na cenoura: altura de plantas, produtividade total e comercial, percentual de raízes longas e médias, de raízes curtas e de refugo. A cultivar de alface Tainá teve melhor desempenho, tanto em cultivo solteiro como consorciado. As rúculas 'Cultivada' e 'Folha Larga' tiveram desempenho produtivo semelhante em ambos os sistemas de cultivo. As culturas de alface e rúcula tiveram melhor desempenho produtivo no segundo cultivo. A produção de raízes comerciais de cenoura nos sistemas consorciados foi de 68,3%, dos quais 48,6% foram de raízes longas e médias e 19,7% de raízes curtas. A produção de raízes comerciais de cenoura no sistema solteiro foi de 75,0%, dos quais 51,7% foram de raízes longas e médias e 23,3% de raízes curtas.

  9. Dicty_cDB: VHB556 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHB556 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11514-1 VHB556P (Link to Original ... ase, complete cds. 32 3e-04 5 AB177648 |AB177648.1 Daucus ... carota DcPA 2 mRNA for plasma membrane H+-ATPase, ... complete sequence. 46 0.068 1 AB177651 |AB177651.1 Daucus ... carota DcPA 5 mRNA for plasma membrane H+-ATPase, ...

  10. Níveis de irrigação na germinação das sementes de cenoura Irrigation levels and carrot seed germination

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    Francisco de Assis Lima Júnior

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido na fazenda Cazuzinha, no Município de Sumé, Estado da Paraíba, com o propósito de se estudar o efeito de cinco níveis de água (irrigar diariamente com 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% da evaporação medida no tanque "Classe A" durante o período de germinação das cultivares de cenoura Tropical e Brasília. As parcelas experimentais foram irrigadas com regadores comuns e o plantio realizado conforme as recomendações dos produtores locais. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos casualizados com arranjo fatorial (5x2 e três repetições. O efeito dos níveis de irrigação foi estatisticamente significativo a nível de 1% de probabilidade e a curva que melhor ajustou sua regressão foi: y = -15,82 + 1,0542x - 0,00562x². Destacaram-se os tratamentos de 100 e 80% da evaporação no Tanque "Classe A" como os que proporcionaram as maiores germinações de semente, e o tratamento de 20% como o que produziu a menor germinação; nenhum efeito significativo foi observado para os tratamentos de cultivar, blocos e interação níveis versus cultivar. Para se obter boa germinação das cultivares Brasília e Tropical, quando cultivadas na microrregião homogênea do Cariri Ocidental paraibano, recomenda-se adotar níveis de irrigação com base em pelo menos 80% da evaporação medida no tanque "Classe A".A study was conducted at Sumé County, State of Paraiba, Brazil, aiming to determine the effects of five water levels (daily irrigations with 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % of the Class A Evaporation Pan on the seed germination of two carrot cultivars (Tropical and Brasília. The experimental plots were planted according to local recommendations and irrigated with manual irrigators. The statistical layout was a factorial randomized block design (5x2 with three replicates. The effect of the water levels on the seed germination was statistically significant, at the 1% level of probability, and the regression curve obtained was

  11. Produção e renda bruta de mandioquinha-salsa, solteira e consorciada com cenoura e coentro = Yield and gross income of Peruvian carrot in monocrop system and intercropped with carrot and coriander

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    Néstor Antonio Heredia Zárate

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas a mandioquinha-salsa ‘Amarela de Carandaí’- M, a cenoura ‘Brasília - Ce o coentro ‘Tipo Português’- Co em cultivos solteiros e os consórcios MCe e MCo. Os cinco tratamentos foram arranjados no campo, no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. A colheita da cenoura foi aos 95 dias após a semeadura; a do coentro, aos 112 dias e a da mandioquinha-salsa, aos 247 dias após o plantio. A altura das plantas (42,3 cm e as massas frescas de raízes total (9,07 t ha-1 e comercial (6,55 t ha-1 da cenoura no consórcio MCe tiveram aumentos significativos de 4,4 cm; 2,34 e 1,73 t ha-1, respectivamente, em relação às plantas cultivadas solteiras. No coentro, a altura (24,0 cm e a massa fresca de folhas (2,98 t ha-1 das plantas solteiras foram significativamente maiores que as consorciadas. Na mandioquinha-salsa, houve influência significativa da forma de cultivo e os maiores valores de massas frescas, em t ha-1, de folhas(17,84, rebentos (4,07, coroas (3,99 e de raízes totais (14,04, comerciais (10,46 e nãocomerciais (3,58 foram obtidos no cultivo solteiro. O consórcio MCe foi considerado efetivo (RAE = 1,47 e o MCo foi inefetivo (RAE = 0,76. A renda bruta indicou que osdois consórcios não devem ser recomendados para o produtor de mandioquinha-salsa porque induziriam perdas de R$ 8.650,00 e R$ 7.011,25, respectivamente.‘Amarela de Carandaí’ Peruvian carrot (M, ‘Brasília’ carrot (Ce and ‘Tipo Português’ coriander (Co were studied in monocrop system and intercropped with carrot and coriander. Five treatments were arranged at field in a completely randomized block design with five replications. Harvest of carrot occurred 95 days after sowing; coriander harvest occurred 112 days after sowing; and the Peruvian carrot harvest, 247 days after planting. Plant height (42.3 cm and fresh masses of total (9.07 t ha-1 and commercial (6.55 t ha-1 roots of carrot in the MCe intercrop

  12. Efeito de coberturas mortas vegetais sobre o desempenho da cenoura em cultivo orgânico Effect of mulch of different plant species on the performance of organically grown carrot

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    CAB Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de coberturas mortas com resíduos de diferentes espécies de plantas no rendimento da cenoura em cultivo orgânico e nos níveis de reinfestação pela vegetação espontânea. O experimento foi conduzido no Sistema Integrado de Produção Agroecológica ("Fazendinha Agroecológica Km 47", em Seropédica-RJ, empregando delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de coberturas dos canteiros com a biomassa aérea, seca e triturada, de capim Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e guandu (Cajanus cajan, além da testemunha (sem qualquer cobertura. Por ocasião da colheita da cenoura, determinou-se a produtividade e as médias em peso, comprimento e diâmetro máximo das raízes tuberosas. A reinfestação de ervas espontâneas foi estimada pelo número total de indivíduos por m², sendo as coletas realizadas aos 20, 50 e 80 dias após a semeadura. A cenoura cultivada nas parcelas tratadas com resíduos de leguminosas apresentou aumentos significativos de todas as variáveis fitotécnicas, com exceção para o comprimento médio da raiz. Nas parcelas cobertas com resíduos da gramínea, os resultados foram estatisticamente iguais aos da testemunha. A reinfestação por plantas espontâneas por unidade de área cultivada alcançou níveis da ordem de 300% superiores em parcelas sem cobertura do solo, na comparação com aquelas que receberam as palhadas.The effect of soil mulch with different plant species was evaluated in relation to the performance of organically grown carrots and to weed population levels. The experiment was carried out at the Integrated Agroecological Production System located in Seropédica, Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro State (Baixada Fluminense, Brazil, using a randomized blocks design comprising four treatments replicated six times. These treatments consisted of soil mulch with chopped and dried above

  13. Utilização de agentes polinizadores na produção de sementes de cenoura e pimenta doce em cultivo protegido Influence of pollinators on seed production and quality of carrot and sweet pepper in a greenhouse

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    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A polinização constitui um processo fundamental para a perpetuação de várias espécies vegetais, e o desenvolvimento dos frutos e das sementes está diretamente relacionado com a polinização das flores. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência de agentes polinizadores na produção e qualidade de sementes de cenoura e de pimenta doce em sistema de cultivo protegido. No ensaio de cenoura utilizaram-se, em telados, os tratamentos de polinização com as abelhas Arapuá (Trigona spinipes, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula, Tibuna (Nannotrigona (Scaptotrigona bipunctata, moscas (Musca domestica, polinização manual e livre (fora do telado. No ensaio de pimenta doce, utilizaram-se os tratamentos de polinização com as abelhas Arapuá (Trigona spinipes, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula, Marmelada (Frieseomellita varia, polinização manual e livre (auto fecundação. A utilização de abelhas Jataí e Tibuna apresentou grande potencial para a produção de sementes de cenoura em condições de cultivo protegido. Para a produção de sementes de pimenta doce não há necessidade de utilização de agentes polinizadores, no entanto a presença desses agentes aumenta o peso dos frutos. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes das duas espécies não foi influenciada pelos diferentes tipos de polinização.Pollination is a fundamental process for the perpetuation of various plant species, and the development of fruits and seeds is directly related to the pollination of flowers. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of pollinators on seed production and quality of carrot and sweet pepper under greenhouse conditions. In the carrot study, plants were grown in cages, and the following treatments were used: pollination with Arapuá (Trigona spinipes bees, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula bees, Tibuna (Nannotrigona (Scaptotrigona bipunctata bees, flies (Musca domestica, hand pollination, and free pollination (outside

  14. Chemical analysis, antimicrobial and anti-oxidative properties of Daucus gracilis essential oil and its mechanism of action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meriem El Kolli; Hocine Laouer; Hayet El Kolli; Salah Akkal; Farida Sahli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the essential oils (EO) composition, antimicrobial and antioxi-dant power of a local plant, Daucus gracilis (D. gracilis). Methods: The aerial parts of D. gracilis were subjected to hydro distillation by a Cle-venger apparatus type to obtain the EO which had been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and screened for antimicrobial activity against five bacteria and three fungi by agar diffusion method. The mechanism of action of the EO was determined on the susceptible strains by both of time kill assay and lysis experience. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by agar macro-dilution and micro-dilution methods. Anti-oxidative properties of the EO were also studied by free diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and reducing power techniques. Results: The EO yielded 0.68 (v/w). The chemical analysis presented two dominant constituents which were the elemicin (35.3%) and the geranyl acetate (26.8%). D. gracilis EO inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus and Proteus mirabilis significantly with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 17.15 mg/mL by the agar dilution method and 57.05 mg/mL and 114.1 mg/mL, respectively by liquid micro-dilution. A remarkable decrease in a survival rate as well as in the absorbance in 260 nm was recorded, which suggested that the cytoplasm membrane was one of the targets of the EO. The EO showed, also, important anti-oxidative effects with an IC50 of 0.002 mg/mL and a dose-dependent reducing power. Conclusions: D. gracilis EO showed potent antimicrobial and anti-oxidative activities and had acted on the cytoplasm membrane. These activities could be exploited in the food industry for food preservation.

  15. Characterization of volatile compounds of Daucus crinitus Desf. Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction as alternative technique to Hydrodistillation

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    Tabti Boufeldja

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally, the essential oil of aromatic herbs is obtained using hydrodistillation (HD. Because the emitted volatile fraction plays a fundamental role in a plant's life, various novel techniques have been developed for its extraction from plants. Among these, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME can be used to obtain a rapid fingerprint of a plant's headspace. Daucus crinitus Desf. is a wild plant that grows along the west coast of Algeria. Only a single study has dealt with the chemical composition of the aerial part oils of Algerian D. crinitus, in which isochavicol isobutyrate (39.0%, octyl acetate (12.3%, and β-caryophyllene (5.4% were identified. Using GC-RI and GC-MS analysis, the essential oils and the volatiles extracted from separated organs of D. crinitus Desf. were studied using HS-SPME. Results GC-RI and GC-MS analysis identified 72 and 79 components in oils extracted using HD and in the volatile fractions extracted using SPME, respectively. Two types of essential oils were produced by the plant: the root oils had aliphatic compounds as the main component (87.0%-90.1%, and the aerial part oils had phenylpropanoids as the main component (43.1%-88.6%. HS-SPME analysis showed a more precise distribution of compounds in the organs studied: oxygenated aliphatic compounds were well represented in the roots (44.3%-84.0%, hydrocarbon aliphatic compounds were in the leaves and stems (22.2%-87.9%, and phenylpropanoids were in the flowers and umbels (47.9%-64.2%. Moreover, HS-SPME allowed the occurrence of isochavicol (29.6 - 34.7% as main component in D. crinitus leaves, but it was not detected in the oils, probably because of its solubility in water. Conclusions This study demonstrates that HD and HS-SPME modes could be complimentary extraction techniques in order to obtain the complete characterization of plant volatiles.

  16. Requerimientos hídricos de la zanahoria (D. carota L. durante tres etapas de su desarrollo

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    Fabio Emilio Forero-Ulloa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La zanahoria (D. carota L. es uno de los principales productos del departamento de Boyacá, participa con 1093 ha, especialmente en los municipios de Ventaquemada, Samacá y Tunja. Los híbridos Chantenay tienen en Ventaquemada un rendimiento promedio de 20 t.ha-1, que es bajo comparado con el de la Sabana de Bogotá, de 28.1t.ha-1; las limitantes en la producción de la zona son: falta de riego, semillas de altas exigencias agronómicas (adecuada mecanización del suelo, fertilización apropiada… y presencia de patógenos y arvenses. Con el objetivo de buscar los requerimientos hídricos del cultivo de zanahoria en tres fases fenológicas (crecimiento, elongación y madurez del órgano cosechable, el estudio se desarrolló en el segundo semestre de 2014, en Ventaquemada, vereda Bojirque; la evaluación de las fases se realizó bajo un diseño de muestreo estratificado con muestreos destructivos efectuados cada 30 días a partir de la siembra. El valor del coeficiente de cultivo (Kc se determinó a través de la metodología propuesta por la FAO. Se instalaron dos lisímetros de 1 m3 de capacidad, con el fin de establecer el consumo hídrico del cultivo. La evapotranspiración del cultivo de referencia (ETo fue obtenida con los datos climáticos tomados por la estación meteorológica inalámbrica Ambient Tiempo WS-2080 instalada en el sitio, los cuales se analizaron a través de la ecuación de Penman-Monteith, con el apoyo del software Cropwat. El Kc para cada etapa fenológica fue: fase crecimiento, 0.14; fase elongación, 0.29, y fase madurez órgano cosechable, 0.55.

  17. Caída de presión en lecho fijo de cubos de papa, remolacha y zanahoria considerando encogimiento Queda de pressão em leito fixo de cubos de batata, beterraba e cenoura considerando encolhimento

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    Javier Telis-Romero

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo fue determinada experimentalmente la porosidad de lechos de cubos de papa, remolacha y zanahoria en función de la humedad con aristas iniciales de 8mm. La porosidad del lecho, con diferentes contenidos de humedad obtenida por secado a 70ºC por diferentes tempos, fue calculada utilizando las determinaciones experimentales de volumen del lecho y volumen real de las partículas. Estos dos volumenes fueran bien representados por ecuaciónes lineares basadas en la Ley de la aditividad de los volumens. La porosidad fue representada satisfactoriamente por una ecuación parabólica. La relación volumen del lecho adimensional y humedad fue representada por polinomios de tercer grado. Utilizando un equipamiento con sistema de control, fue determinada experimentalmente la caída de presión a través de un lecho fijo de cubos de papas, zanahoria y remolacha de 100mm de espesura y los resultados fueron representados de manera satisfactoria por una ecuación obtenida por una modificación empírica del modelo de Ergun. Como era de esperarse, la caída de pression aumento com la disminución de la porosidad del lecho, consequencia del encogimiento de los productos.Neste trabalho, o porosidade de leitos de cubos de batata, beterraba e cenoura com arestas iniciais de 8mm, foi determinada experimentalmente em função da umidade. A porosidade do leito, com diferentes umidades, obtidas por secagem a 70ºC por tempos diferentes, foi calculada utilizando-se as determinações experimentais de volume do leito e volume real das partículas. Esses dois volumes foram bem representados por equações lineares baseadas na lei da adtividade dos volumes. A porosidade foi representada satisfatoriamente por uma equação parabólica. A relação entre o volume do leito admensional e a umidade foram representadas por polinômios de terceiro grau. A queda de pressão através de um leito fixo de cubos de batata, beterraba e cenoura de 100mm de espessura foi

  18. Technology roadmapping, uma alternativa no delineamento da pesquisa agropecuária e sua aplicação na cadeia de cenoura Technology roadmapping, an alternative for designing agricultural research and its application on the carrot chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia S Onoyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo discutir a aplicação do método "Technology roadmapping" (TRM na definição da programação de pesquisa da cadeia de cenoura da Embrapa Hortaliças, considerando um horizonte de 15 anos. Esta cadeia produtiva foi escolhida por ser a cenoura uma das olerícolas de maior importância socioeconômica do Brasil, pelo histórico de projetos da Embrapa Hortaliças com impactos positivos nesta cadeia e pela motivação da equipe em realizar estudos prospectivos para identificar demandas reais e potenciais de pesquisa à cultura. A aplicação do TRM obedeceu a seguinte ordem cronológica: 1 definição do escopo do estudo prospectivo; 2 entedimento do contexto da cadeia de valor da cenoura para facilitar o processo de adaptação do TRM; 3 estabelecimento do modelo conceitual do roadmapping adaptado da representação gráfica básica com quatro macrocamadas indicadoras: mercado, negócio, linhas de pesquisa e recursos (físico, financeiro, humano e competências; 4 realização de pesquisas em fontes primárias e secundárias com produtores, atacadistas, empresas de semente, supermercados, processadoras, consumidores e pesquisadores; e 5 realização de workshop com parceiros externos e colaboradores e reuniões posteriores com os grupos temáticos para a construção do mapa da rota tecnológica. A aplicação do TRM, do ponto de vista gerencial, possibilitou um levantamento atualizado da realidade da cadeia produtiva de cenoura no Brasil e a explicitação clara de ações de pesquisa visando a atender as demandas priorizadas desta cadeia. Contemplou ainda a verificação dos recursos humanos e materiais necessários para atender as ações de pesquisa distribuídas no tempo. Na esfera científica, constatou-se a flexibilidade do método ao ser aplicado com sucesso no setor olerícola, podendo se extender para as demais cadeias de hortaliças bem como do agronegócio.This study aimed to present the application of

  19. Viabilidad del desarrollo de alimentos funcionales frescos por incorporación de aloe vera a la matriz estructural de endibia (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum), brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica), coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis) y zanahoria (Daucus carota L.) mediante la técnica de impregnación a vacío

    OpenAIRE

    SANZANA RAMOS, SIGRID XIMENA

    2010-01-01

    El vínculo que une la alimentación y la salud es un aspecto que desde hace algunos años marca la evolución de la industria de los alimentos. El origen de los alimentos funcionales, es fruto de esta preocupación, ampliando el concepto de alimentación a la posibilidad de mantener y/o mejorar la salud. Los alimentos funcionales que incluyen, según definición del ILSI, a cualquier alimento o ingrediente del mismo que pueda producir para la salud un beneficio adicional al del valor nutritivo de...

  20. Physiological and quality attributes associated with different centrifugation times of baby carrots Atributos fisiológicos e de qualidade associados com tempos de centrifugação de mini-cenouras

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    Celso Luiz Moretti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugation is one of the most important steps in the fresh-cut industry. Inadequate centrifugation can lead to increased white blush in baby carrots. The present work was carried out aiming at evaluating the effects of different centrifugation times in baby carrots physiological and quality attributes. Carrot roots cv. Alvorada were harvested and minimally processed as baby carrots. After processing, samples were placed in nylon bags and centrifuged (378 rad. s-1 for 0; 30; 60; 90, and 120 seconds. Temperature of baby carrots centrifuged for 120 seconds was 63% higher than the temperature at the beginning of the experiment. Respiratory activity increased 49% when centrifugation time increased from 30 to 120 seconds. Ethylene evolution remained around 1.7 µL kg-1 h-1 until 60 seconds, increasing to 3.5 µL kg-1 h-1 at 120 seconds of centrifugation. Whiteness index increased 34% and 68% when centrifugation time shifted from 30 s to 60 s and from 30 s to 120 s, respectively. No significant changes in total carotenoids content were observed for the different tested centrifugation intervals. Baby carrots should be centrifuged for 30 seconds in order to maintain the quality and to avoid the development of white blush.A centrifugação é uma das etapas mais importantes na indústria de processamento mínimo. A centrifugação inadequada pode levar a um aumento do esbranquiçamento em mini-cenouras. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes tempos de centrifugação nas características fisiológicas e de qualidade em minicenouras. Raízes de cenouras cv. Alvorada foram colhidas e minimamente processadas como minicenouras. Após o processamento, as amostras foram colocadas em sacos de nylon e centrifugadas (378 rad. s-1 por 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 segundos. A temperatura das minicenouras centrifugadas por 120 segundos foi 63% mais alta que a temperatura do início do experimento. A atividade respiratória aumentou 49

  1. BRS Planalto: cultivar de cenoura de polinização aberta para cultivo de verão BRS Planalto: an open pollinated carrot cultivar adapted for cultivation under summer season conditions

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    Jairo V Vieira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O grupo varietal Brasília apresenta ampla adaptação para cultivo em regiões/épocas de clima mais quente e tolerância às principais doenças que afetam o cultivo da cenoura em regiões tropicais e subtropicais ("queima-das-folhas" e as galhas radiculares causadas por nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne. No entanto, algumas cultivares desse segmento apresentam elevada incidência de defeitos genéticos que afetam a qualidade visual, sensorial e nutricional das raízes. A Embrapa Hortaliças desenvolveu a cultivar BRS Planalto, visando minimizar parte destas limitações. 'BRS Planalto' é uma variedade de polinização aberta que foi desenvolvida a partir da cultivar de cenoura 'Brasília'. Foram realizados 18 ciclos de seleção recorrente, com base no desempenho de progênies de meios-irmãos. Em cada ciclo de seleção foram feitas avaliações para caracteres fenotípicos, separadamente em cada família de meios-irmãos, em duas repetições com parcelas de 1 m² (aproximadamente 100 raízes por parcela. 'BRS Planalto' apresenta maior uniformidade do xilema e floema e uma coloração de raiz laranja mais escura que 'Brasília', devido a uma maior acumulação dos pigmentos α-caroteno e β-caroteno (precursores da vitamina A. Além disso, 'BRS Planalto' apresenta maior tolerância ao florescimento precoce no verão associada com baixas incidências de raízes com ombro verde, ombro roxo e halo branco. As raízes de 'BRS Planalto' possuem melhor aparência e formato mais padronizado. Além destas características, essa cultivar mostrou bom potencial produtivo, tanto em cultivo convencional quanto orgânico. Desta forma, 'BRS Planalto' poderá ocupar uma posição estratégica dentro da cadeia produtiva de cenoura no Brasil, representando uma opção com melhor qualidade visual e nutricional de raízes quando comparada com outras cultivares do grupo Brasília.The variety group 'Brasília' is still largely cultivated during the summer

  2. Divergência genética entre acessos de cenoura pertencentes a grupos varietais distintos utilizando caracteres morfológicos Genetic divergence among carrot accessions belonging to different varietal groups using morphologic characters

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    Jairo Vidal Vieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de híbridos de cenoura tem aumentado consideravelmente na última década no Brasil. Estudos de determinação de divergência genética entre genótipos têm sido ferramentas de grande importância em programas de melhoramento, auxiliando na identificação de genitores com potencial heterótico. No entanto, pouco ainda se sabe sobre a capacidade combinatória de acessos de cenoura adaptados às regiões tropicais. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram: (1 estimar parâmetros genéticos, (2 estimar a importância relativa de quatro caracteres morfológicos na discriminação de grupos varietais de cenoura e (3 obter indicação, a partir deste conjunto de dados morfológicos, de combinações promissoras para cruzamentos, visando utilização prática da heterose. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em campo, nas primaveras de 2000 e 2001, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições. Foram avaliadas quinze plantas competitivas em cada parcela para os caracteres comprimento de folha, tamanho da raiz, diâmetro de raiz e massa fresca de raiz. Os dados foram submetidos às análises de variância, de dissimilaridade e da importância relativa dos caracteres. Todos os caracteres apresentaram valores de herdabilidade e da relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental de medianos a altos. Os caracteres comprimento e diâmetro de raiz foram os que mais contribuíram para a diferenciação dos genótipos. O grupo mais divergente foi 'Imperator'. Desta forma, cruzamentos deste grupo com os demais acessos tendem a proporcionar maior efeito da heterose. Os acessos pertencentes ao grupo 'Brasília', podem ser cruzados com a maioria dos acessos (exceto para aqueles derivados dos grupos varietais 'Chantenay' e 'Danvers', com probabilidade de geração de populações superiores em relação à heterose.The utilization of carrot hybrids has increased in the last decade in Brazil. The estimative of genetic

  3. Alterations in Co2 fixation enzymes, Phosphatase Activity and Endogenous Phytohormones in P-deficient Callus induced from phloem of carrot (Daccus Carota) Roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carrot callus liquid medium culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of P-deficiency on cellular responses separate from the whole plant response. Carrot (Daccus carota L.) callus was induced from the secondary phloem of the tap root. When explants were supplied with one-tenth the amount of Pi supplied to control explants (40 ppm), the concentration of P in callus was reduced by about 68% in a period of three weeks. This reduction in callus P was correlated with 48% reduction in callus fresh and dry weights. This effect was mediated through a reduction in cell number/callus by 48%. Meanwhile, the cell number/mg f.wt. of callus tissue was not affected in P-deficient treatment comparing to P-sufficient one, which might refer to a direct role of P-deficiency on the reduction of cell division. Although total N and soluble protein concentrations were not affected in P-deficient callus, chlorophyll concentration was reduced. In addition higher activity of acid phosphatase was obtained in P-deficient tissue reaching about 41% over its activity in P-sufficient callus which in turn could increase recycling process of P to spare available P for the newly formed cells. This was supported by the higher value of P utilization efficiency (d.wt. produced per unit P taken up) obtained from P-deficient callus

  4. Uso de cobertura morta vegetal no controle da umidade e temperatura do solo, na incidência de plantas invasoras e na produção da cenoura em cultivo de verão Efficiency of mulching on soil moisture and temperature, weed control and yield of carrot in summer season

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    Francisco Vilela Resende

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes tipos de cobertura morta de solo de origem vegetal sobre o crescimento, controle de plantas daninhas, produtividade e regime hidrotérmico do solo no cultivo da cenoura, cultivar Brasília, em um experimento conduzido no período de setembro a dezembro de 1998, em Marília, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições em parcelas de 2 m². Estudou-se os seguintes tipos de cobertura: serragem de madeira, casca de arroz, maravalha (raspa de madeira, capim seco (Cynodon spp. e controle (solo sem cobertura morta. A utilização da cobertura morta de solo mostrou-se como uma prática vantajosa para o cultivo de verão da cenoura, reduziu a temperatura em até 3,5ºC, aumentou a retenção de umidade do solo em até 2,3% em relação ao controle e melhorou o desenvolvimento das plantas de cenoura. Houve menor incidência de plantas daninhas com o uso de maravalha e capim seco que, juntamente com a serragem também aumentaram o número de plantas colhidas. Entre os tipos de cobertura morta utilizados, a casca de arroz e a maravalha se destacaram em relação ao solo descoberto como os materiais que proporcionaram maior produtividade (112,6 e 99,6 t/ha respectivamente. O uso de cobertura morta de solo mostrou-se vantajoso em vários aspectos para cultura da cenoura, sendo técnica e economicamente viável, principalmente, em pequenas áreas e em cultivos orgânicos.The effects of different mulches were evalueted on carrot culture, cultivar Brasilia, in a experiment carried out at Marilia, São Paulo State, Brazil, from september to december/1998. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications and size plots of 2 m². Wood dust, wood chips, dry grass (Cynodon spp., rice straw and control (soil without cover were tested and their effects on the soil hidrothermal regime, weed control, growth and yield of carrot were determined

  5. Cenouras minimamente processadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas e tratadas com radiação gama: avaliação microbiológica, físico-química e química Minimally processed carrots in modified atmosphere packaging and gama irradiation treatment: microbiological, fisical-chemistry and chemistry evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila S. Cople Lima

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As cenouras são as principais fontes de origem vegetal em carotenóides provitamínicos A (a e o b-caroteno e podem ser transformados em vitamina A dentro do organismo animal. Segundo a Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar realizada na região Sudeste do Brasil, no grupo de raízes e tubérculos, a cenoura é amplamente consumida. As cenouras minimamente processadas foram acondicionadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas de 5% O2/10% CO2 e 21% O2 (ar sintético, e tratadas com radiação ionizante gama, fonte de césio, nas doses de 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1,00kGy. Os produtos após o emprego da radiação foram armazenados em refrigeração de 5°C durante 24 dias. Os diferentes tratamentos da cenoura e o grupo controle foram avaliados através das análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e microbiologia. Os resultados de microbiologia evidenciaram que os produtos tratados com as doses de 0,50, 0,75 e 1,0kGy apresentaram redução de 3 a 4 ciclos logarítmicos na contagem total de mesófilos (CTM logo após a irradiação e uma vida-útil de 20 dias. Não foram detectados coliformes totais e E. coli até o 24º dia. Os patógenos B. cereus, Salmonella e Estafilococos coagulase positivos em 0,1g do produto, também não foram detectados. As contagens de bactérias láticas mantiveram-se menores que 100UFC/g. O processo de irradiação em baixas doses mostra-se promissor na manutenção da qualidade e apresenta-se como uma medida alternativa na redução de perdas pós-colheita.Carrots are the mains vegetable sources of carotenoids provitamin A (a and b-carotene which might be transformed into vitamin A in animal organism. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS, 1991 carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely consumed. The minimally processed carrots were packaging with 5% O2/10% CO2 and 21% O2 (sintetic air, and g ionizing radiation treatments was carried

  6. Número mínimo de famílias de meios-irmãos para avaliação de uma população de cenoura Minimum number of half-sib families to represent a carrot population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Vidal Vieira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar um método de determinação do número mínimo de famílias de meios-irmãos, para representar uma população de cenoura, a fim de subsidiar o processo de obtenção de parâmetros genéticos e o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares. Foi feita uma simulação utilizando o aplicativo computacional Genes. Os resultados indicaram que o número de famílias varia conforme a característica e o parâmetro de interesse, e que 67 é o menor número de famílias de meios-irmãos, considerado adequado para representar uma população de cenoura, sob seleção para múltiplas características.The objective of this work was to present a method to determine the minimum number of half-sib families to represent a carrot population aiming to provide consistent and stable estimates of key genetic parameters, in order to develop new cultivars. A simulation technique was conducted according to the package Genes Program. The results demonstrated that the minimum number of families depended on the trait and genetic parameter used. The results of the simulation analysis indicated that 67 is the minimum number of families required to provide reliable estimate of the genetic parameters in a carrot population under multitrait selection systems.

  7. Seleção para resistência de genótipos de cenoura aos nematóides-das-galhas Selection for carrot genotypes resistance to root-knot nematodes in field and greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani O da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi verificada a relação entre caracteres avaliados em campo e casa-de-vegetação, relativos à avaliação de genótipos de cenoura quanto à resistência ao nematóide-das-galhas (Meloidogyne spp., visando identificar quais caracteres possibilitam a diferenciação entre os genótipos e verificar a possibilidade de avaliação apenas em um ambiente ou a eliminação de caracteres que apresentem correlação alta. Avaliaram-se 38 progênies da população '0812518' e 31 progênies da população '0812519', além das cultivares Brasília e Kuronan como testemunhas tolerante e suscetível, respectivamente. Em campo naturalmente infestado por uma mistura de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 e Meloidoigyne javanica, a seleção para resistência ao nematóide-das-galhas foi realizada com base na menor porcentagem de infecção na raiz principal dos genótipos de cenoura, rendimento de raiz e o fator de reprodução, enquanto que em casa-de-vegetação, para cada uma das mesmas espécies de nematóides e também para a mistura de ambas, foi medido o índice de galhas e índice de massa de ovos. Verificou-se que não houve possibilidade de seleção em apenas um dos ambientes testados ou a eliminação de caracteres, indicando que para a obtenção de cultivares mais produtivas e mais tolerantes é necessária a seleção combinada nos diferentes caracteres e ambientes. Para o experimento realizado em campo foi possível diferenciar os genótipos apenas para o rendimento de raiz. No experimento em casa-de-vegetação, para todos os caracteres foi possível identificar genótipos superiores. Porém, as médias das populações não foram melhores que a testemunha 'Brasília' da qual estas se originaram, confirmando a necessidade da busca por métodos mais eficientes de seleção.We verified the relation among the evaluated characters in field and greenhouse, concerning to the evaluation to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. for the carrot crop, to

  8. Relações entre caracteres de raiz e ganhos genéticos diretos e indiretos em populações de cenoura Relationships among root traits and direct and indirect genetic gains in carrot populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani O da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre efeitos múltiplos da seleção para características específicas de raiz ainda são limitadas em cenoura. Neste contexto, os objetivos do trabalho foram: (1 verificar a possibilidade da utilização do efeito direto da análise de trilha em substituição à correlação genética nas estimativas de ganhos correlacionados; (2 identificar estratégias de seleção para a obtenção de ganhos correlacionados em massa de raiz, a seleção de raízes mais grossas ou mais compridas; (3 determinar quais tecidos da raiz possibilitam maiores ganhos para o aumento do diâmetro da raiz; e (4 verificar a possibilidade de obter ganhos positivos concomitantemente, para coloração da raiz e para os demais caracteres avaliados. Três populações de cenoura (derivadas da cv. Brasília foram cultivadas durante o período do verão no Distrito Federal. Aos 90 dias após a semeadura foram colhidas 25 raízes por parcela e avaliados individualmente os caracteres massa da raiz; comprimento de raiz; diâmetro da raiz e do xilema da raiz; espessura do floema e o valor do componente de cromaticidade a* do xilema e floema. Foi realizada análise de variância e calculadas as correlações genéticas entre os caracteres. Posteriormente foi realizada a análise de trilha, calculadas as respostas correlacionadas (baseadas na correlação genética e no efeito direto da análise de trilha, e estimação dos ganhos diretos com a seleção. Observou-se que a substituição das correlações genéticas pelos efeitos diretos da análise de trilha para o cálculo dos ganhos correlacionados proporcionou melhor estimação do efeito que a seleção para determinado caráter traria nos demais, após a retirada dos efeitos indiretos. Para massa de raiz não são esperados ganhos correlacionados pela seleção nos demais caracteres avaliados. Para diâmetro da raiz os maiores ganhos correlacionados foram observados pela seleção no caráter espessura do

  9. PRODUÇÃO E COMPOSIÇÃO MINERAL DE CENOURA ADUBADA COM RESÍDUOS ORGÂNICOS YIELD AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF CARROTS FERTILIZAED WITH ORGANIC RESIDUES

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    MARIA APARECIDA NOGUEIRA SEDIYAMA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o estado nutricional, a produção e a qualidade de raízes de cenoura, cultivar Brasília, influenciados pelos seguintes tratamentos: sete tipos de compostos orgânicos produzidos com dejeto de suínos na forma líquida e material palhoso (bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, capim-napier e palha de café, com o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar contendo ou não gesso ou superfosfato triplo; um tratamento com dejeto seco de suínos; um com adubação mineral e uma testemunha, sem adubação. O experimento foi realizado em 3 de maio a 23 de agosto de 1994, em condições de campo, no delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, em Ponte Nova (MG. De modo geral, a maior altura de planta e a produção de parte aérea foram obtidas nos tratamentos com compostos orgânicos e dejeto seco de suínos. Os tratamentos com compostos produzidos com palha de café mais dejeto líquido, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar mais dejeto líquido mais superfosfato triplo e capim-napier mais palha de café mais dejeto líquido proporcionaram produções totais de raízes superiores a 50 t.ha-1. O composto produzido com palha de café e dejeto líquido proporcionou a maior produção de raízes total e comerciável. O enriquecimento do composto, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar mais dejeto líquido, com gesso ou superfosfato triplo, não alterou a produção de raízes nem os teores de Ca e P nas folhas e raízes. As raízes de cenoura, cujos tratamentos receberam adubação orgânica ou mineral, apresentaram teores de P e K superiores e Ca semelhante aos teores considerados padrões para elaboração de dietas para o ser humano.The present study was undertaken to evaluate the plant nutritional status the root quality and yield of carrots, cv. Brasília, influenced by the following treatments: seven types of organic compounds which were produced from liquid swine manure and straw-materials, that is, crushed

  10. Identification of Somatic Hybrids Between Panax ginseng and Daucus carrot%人参与胡萝卜体细胞杂交杂种愈伤的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林阅兵; 张颖; 王义; 王昱; 张美萍

    2012-01-01

    Kinship relations of Panax ginseng are relatively far from Daucus carrot.Good traits of medicinal plants such like output qualith etc controlled by multiple gene through part of the gene transfer does not reflect all the material basis of the plants.Both of the parents to nuclear genes and cytoplasmic may be involved recombination in gene fusion events to propduce large amounts of a variety of individual genetic variation. Somatic hybrids between Panax ginseng and Daucus carrot by Electric fusion,screening for group of somatic cell hybrids,to obtain new germplasm. Foster innovation of variety achieve the purpose of improved species.We obtained 8 pieces of hybrid calli clone from the 25 calli clone systems after fusion, and identificated them through the morphology, cytology, isezyme, SDS-PAGE and other methods. We analyzed the index of physiological, biochemical and active ingredients of the hybrids, the results showed that the 8 hybrid calli contained Panax ginseng saponin, the contents of the 5 calli in them were higher than the ginseng calli, and the contents of 2 calli were 1.4 times of the ginseng calli. These indicated that the secondary metabolites contents of ginseng were increased by somatic cell hybridization of ginseng and carrot, the heterosis were reflected preliminarily.%贵重中药人参与胡萝卜亲缘关系较远,药用植物的优良性状如产量、品质等均由多基因控制,通过部分基因转移不能反映中药的全部物质基础.由于双亲的核基因和胞质基因都参与了融合事件,因而会发生核基因和胞质基因的重组,产生大量多样化的遗传变异个体,筛选获得的体细胞杂种群,可进一步获得我们所期望的新的种质资源,培育创新品种,达到改良物种的目的。用电容合法对人参与胡萝卜进行体细胞融合,对融合再生的25块杂种愈伤从形态学,细胞学,同工酶电泳,SDS-PAGE电泳进行鉴定分析。结果表明有8块为

  11. Evolução e variabilidade espacial da salinidade em Neossolo Flúvico cultivado com cenoura sob irrigação Evolution and spatial variability of salinity in a Fluvic Neossol cropped with irrigated carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivan R. de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se um experimento de campo com o intuito de verificar o efeito da irrigação por microaspersão, utilizando-se água de condutividade elétrica média de 1,42 dS m-1, sob as propriedades químicas de um Neossolo Flúvico cultivado com cenoura cv. Brasília. A área foi dividida em dois setores (S1 e S2, com 900 m² cada um (30 x 30 m e texturas contrastantes; no S2 adicionou-se cobertura morta aos 23 dias após a semeadura (DAS e se adotou uma fração de lixiviação de 0,20 para os dois setores. Realizaram-se duas amostragens de solo, antes da semeadura e a 96 DAS, nas camadas de 0-20 e 20-40 cm, em 49 pontos no S1 e 52 pontos no S2, segundo uma malha de 5 x 5 m. No extrato da pasta saturada foram medidos o pH e a condutividade elétrica (CEes, e determinadas as bases solúveis; determinou-se, ainda, as bases trocáveis, calculando-se a relação de adsorção de sódio e a percentagem de sódio trocável. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva e geoestatística. Considerando-se a camada de 0-40 cm, a área salina no S1, inicialmente de 7,98%, aumentou para 15,09% ao final do ciclo cultural. Para o S2, a área salina passou de 5,97 para 5,52%; verificou-se, assim, a influência decisiva da textura e da cobertura morta no controle da salinidade do solo.A field experiment was carried out aiming to verify the effect of micro sprinkler irrigation, using water with an average electrical conductivity of 1.42 dS m-1, on the chemical properties of a Fluvic Neossol cropped with carrot, variety Brasília. The area was divided into two sectors (S1 and S2, each one with 900 m² (30 x 30 m and contrasting textures; at S2 mulch was added at day 23 after sowing (DAS. A leaching fraction of 0.20 was adopted for both sectors. Two soil sampling schemes were carried out, before sowing and at 96 DAS, in the 0-20 and 20-40 cm layers, at 49 points in S1 and 52 points in S2, according to a regular 5 x 5 m mesh. In the extract of saturated

  12. Densidade de plantio de cultivares de cenoura para processamento submetidas à adubações química e orgânica Planting density of carrot cultivars for industrialization under organic and chemical fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José MQ Luz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a produtividade das cultivares de cenoura Alvorada e Carandaí em diferentes densidades de plantio utilizando-se adubações química e orgânica, visando a produção de matéria-prima para o processamento de cenouretes e catetinhos. Foram utilizadas as densidades: 16; 20; 24; 28 e 32 plantas por metro linear, sendo as parcelas compostas por 10 linhas transversais ao sentido do canteiro, com 1 m de comprimento entre si. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados em arranjo fatorial 2x2x5 (duas cultivares, dois tipos de adubação e cinco densidades de plantio com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados: peso total de raízes, estimativa de produtividade, comprimento de raízes, raízes com diâmetro menor que 3,0 cm (%, raízes com ombro verde (%, sobras para o processamento (%, descarte (% e severidade da queima das folhas. A colheita foi feita aos 104 dias após o plantio. O peso total de raízes e raízes com diâmetro inferior a 3,0 cm não foram influenciados pelo tipo de adubação. O aumento da densidade reduziu a produção de raízes com diâmetro superior a 3,0 cm e o comprimento médio das raízes. Quando utilizou-se adubação química ocorreu maior presença de raízes com ombro verde e a cultivar Alvorada apresentou as maiores porcentagens de raízes com esta característica.In this research the yield of Alvorada and Carandaí carrot cultivars was verified, under different planting densities, submitted to organic and chemical fertilization, aiming to obtain roots with adequate characteristics for cenourete production (similar to baby carrot and catetinho (mini ball form. Five planting densities were used: 16; 20; 24; 28 and 32 plants m-1 with four replications, in a total of 80 plots of 10 lines spaced 0,25 m from each other. The total root weight, average root length, roots with smaller diameter than 3,0 cm (%, roots with green superior part (%,leftovers for processing

  13. Análise sensorial de genótipos de cenoura cultivados em sistema orgânico e convencional Sensorial analysis of carrot genotypes grown under organic and conventional conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assis M. Carvalho

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada análise sensorial em genótipos de cenoura Alvorada, Brasília RL, Brasília Bionatur, Kuronan, Nantes e Carandaí, produzidos em sistema orgânico e convencional no Distrito Federal. No teste de comparação pareada 1, foram utilizadas raízes de Alvorada, Brasília e Nantes servidas cruas para 33 consumidores na CEASA (DF. Não foi observada diferença estatística significativa entre as amostras para preferência do consumidor. No teste de comparação pareada 2, foi utilizada a cv. Brasília, cozida no vapor e servida a 24 pessoas de um edifício residencial, em Taguatinga (DF. As amostras provenientes do sistema orgânico foram preferidas pelos consumidores. Para o teste de ordenação 1 e 2, doze pessoas não treinadas provaram amostras de Alvorada, Brasília RL, Brasília Bionatur, Kuronan, Nantes e Carandaí cozidas em água. Alvorada proveniente do sistema orgânico foi preferida pelos consumidores. No teste de comparação pareada 3, realizado em área aberta na Universidade de Brasília, foi utilizada a cv. Alvorada cozida em água e servida a 36 consumidores. Não foi observada diferença estatística significativa para preferência entre sistemas de cultivo. No teste de comparação pareada 4, realizado no restaurante da Embrapa Hortaliças, Alvorada cozida a vapor foi servida a 39 consumidores. Amostras provenientes do sistema orgânico foram preferidas pelos consumidores. Alvorada proveniente do sistema de cultivo orgânico e preparada no vapor foi preferida pelos consumidores em detrimento do mesmo material, cru ou cozido em água.Sensorial analysis was carried out in carrot genotypes Alvorada, Brasília RL, Brasília Bionatur, Kuronan, Nantes and Carandaí, grown under organic and conventional systems in Distrito Federal, Brazil. For the paired comparison test 1, uncooked samples of 'Alvorada', 'Brasília' and 'Nantes' were given to 33 consumers. There was no statistical difference among genotypes or crop system

  14. Produção e qualidade de sementes e raízes de cenoura cultivada em solo com adubação orgânica e mineral Production and quality of seeds and roots of carrot cultivated under organic and mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riselane de Lucena Alcântara Bruno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de sementes orgânicas no mercado e a escassez de informações sobre o assunto têm sido fortes empecilhos para a produção orgânica. Avaliou-se a eficiência da adubação verde (AV, do composto orgânico (CO e do biofertilizante (B na produção da cenoura e na qualidade das sementes, comparados à adubação convencional (AC-testemunha, nos tratamentos: 1 AC; 2 AV+B via solo; 3 AV+B via planta; 4 CO+B via solo; 5 CO+B via planta; 6 CO+AV+B via solo e 7 CO+AV+B via planta. Os maiores valores morfológicos (altura, comprimento e diâmetro, de germinação e de vigor foram proporcionados pelo tratamento 5, enquanto a produção e os sólidos solúveis totais alcançaram maiores gradientes nas plantas cultivadas com o tratamento 4, superando os dados do tratamento 1. O tratamento 3 proporcionou produção de raízes com menor número de galhas de nematóide. As cenouras procedentes dos tratamentos 2 e 6 foram classificadas em tamanho curto. A decomposição do AV, associado ao B via planta, pode ter proporcionado maior resistência das cenouras aos nematóides e melhor classificação comercial. Os tratamentos orgânicos proporcionaram boa qualidade de raízes, sementes e maior produção.The inexistence of organic seeds in the market and the absence of information constitute a difficulty for the organic production. The green fertilizer efficiency (GF was evaluated, of organic compound (OC, and biofertilizer (B in carrot production and seeds quality, compared to conventional fertilizer (CF-control, through the treatments: 1 CF; 2, GF+B via soil; 3 GF+B via plant; 4 OC+B via soil; 5 OC+B via plant; 6 OC+GF+B via soil and 7 OC+GF+B via plant. Higher morphological values (height, length and diameter, of germination and vigor were given by treatment 5, while production and total soluble solids reached higher gradients when growing plants with treatment 4, upper data of treatment 1. Treatment 3 resulted in root production with lower

  15. Efeito inibidor dos extratos hidroalcóolicos de coberturas mortas sobre a germinação de sementes de cenoura e alface Inhibitory effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of five plant species used as mulches on germination of lettuce and carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio L. M. de Souza

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter a prospecção fitoquímica e avaliar o efeito inibitório dos extratos hidroalcóolicos de capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora, capim-jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa, capim-colonião (Panicum maximum, mucuna (Mucuna aterrima e serrapilheira de bambu (Bambuza spp., sobre a germinação de sementes de alface e cenoura. O teste de germinação foi conduzido sobre papel umedecido com extrato das espécies citadas diluídos em 25, 50, 75 e 100 % (v/v, e água destilada. Avaliou-se a porcentagem de final e o índice de velocidade de germinação. O índice de velocidade de germinação e a porcentagem de germinação de sementes de cenoura e alface, reduziram significativamente nas diluições de 50 a 100 % (v/v em relação as demais diluições e ao controle. O extrato de mucuna apresentou significativamente maior efeito inibidor em comparação com os demais extratos testados, principalmente sobre a germinação de sementes de alface. A prospecção fitoquímica indicou a presença de classes de substâncias com potencial alelopático.Studies were undertaken to evaluate the inhibitory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from dry mass of plant species used as mulches: Melinis minutiflora, Hyparrhenia rufa, Panicum maximum, Mucuna aterrima and bamboo leaves (Bambuza spp.. The inhibitory activity was measured on germination tests of lettuce and carrot seeds. Five extract concentrations of each species were used: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % (v/v. The rate of speed germination and percentage of germination of both species decreased significatly in function of the extract concentrations in the range from 50 to 100 % (v/v. Mucuna aterrima extract was significatly more inibitory than the other extracts, mainly for lettuce seeds. Bioassays with extracts showed the presence of several groups of alleopathic compounds.

  16. EST data: 6516 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RA2976 D25047 C22605 R02976 8 D DPlate 067 D11 5' AGT GTC CTG AGT GGT TGC TG 3' 5' TTA CAT CTC T ... GT GCA GAA GG 3' >DCU93048_1(U93048|pid:g2224911) Daucus ... carota somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase ...

  17. Association of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' with the Psyllid, Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) is a serious pest of carrots (Daucus carota L.) in northern and central Europe. Carrots exhibiting symptoms of psyllid damage were observed in commercial fields in southern Finland in 2008. Symptoms in affected plants included leaf curling, yellow and purple ...

  18. EST data: 3933 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ED1163 C73943 C99723 E21163 3 D DPlate 041 E12 5' CGA GTG CAA AGA CAA ACC TG 3' 5' ACA AGC ACC A ... TCA CCA CC 3' >DCJ001367_1(AJ001367|pid:g2808638) Daucus ... carota mRNA for Rab8-like small GTP-binding protei ...

  19. EST data: 4862 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EG0685 AU030146 AU030147 E50685 2 D DPlate 050 F08 5' TCC CCC TGT ACG TCC TCC TC 3' 5' AGA ATA C ... A TCC ATA CG 3' >AB012708_1(AB012708|pid:g3551257) Daucus ... carota mRNA for 98b, complete cds. ...

  20. Rice8987 g_array: cDNA information: 6835 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g_6835 ST0586 >CPHYPOTHE_1(AJ001304|pid:g2369766) Citrus paradisi mRNA for hypothetical protein; ... similar to protein B2 from Daucus ... carota. DPlate 086 B09 AU032987 AU075550 C18 ...

  1. Rice8987 g_array: cDNA information: 2513 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g_2513 EA0188 >ATFCA2_11(Z97337|pid:g2244840) Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 4, ESSA I cont ... o. 2; similarity to pathogenesis-related protein - Daucus ... carota. &D71411(D71411) DPlate 025 A10 AU174461 AU ...

  2. EST data: 462 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CB2034 C26288 AU108247 C12034 1 G DPlate 005 F10 5' CTG CTC ACA ATA CCA CAT GC 3' 5' ATC TAA TGT ... y to nuclear matrix constituent protein 1 (NMCP1); Daucus ... carota; PATCHX:D1021240. ...

  3. EST data: 2377 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EA0188 AU174461 AU174462 no DPlate 025 A10 5' ACA TTG CTT GCC CAT GGT AC 3' 5' TGC TGG TGC AAG C ... o. 2; similarity to pathogenesis-related protein - Daucus ... carota. &D71411(D71411) ...

  4. Rice8987 g_array: cDNA information: 2363 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g_2363 CB2034 >ATF6H11_11(AL021684|pid:g2827709) Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 5, BAC clon ... y to nuclear matrix constituent protein 1 (NMCP1); Daucus ... carota; PATCHX:D1021240. DPlate 005 F10 C26288 AU1 ...

  5. EST data: 856 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CE0048 AU166525 AU068370 M DPlate 009 H11 5' TGT ATC ACC ATT ACC ATT CG 3' 5' GAT AAT TTT CCA GT ... C GGA CG 3' >AB019327_1(AB019327|pid:g3811007) Daucus ... carota mRNA for NADP specific isocitrate dehydroge ...

  6. PLANT UPTAKE OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). lants included all fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum I.). Minimal intact...

  7. Gene : CBRC-MMUS-02-0408 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-02-0408 Novel 2 B UNKNOWN EXTN_DAUCA 4e-15 32% sp|P06599|EXTN_DAUCA Extensin precursor ... emb|CAA26632.1| unnamed protein product [Daucus ... carota] prf||1111211A extensin 5e-14 32% gnl|UG|Mm ...

  8. Rice8987 g_array: cDNA information: 4225 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g_4225 CB0587 >ATF6H11_11(AL021684|pid:g2827709) Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 5, BAC clon ... y to nuclear matrix constituent protein 1 (NMCP1); Daucus ... carota; PATCHX:D1021240. DPlate 002 A06 AU176396 A ...

  9. PCR based identification of Pythium spp. causing cavity spot in carrots and sensitive detection in soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavity spot is caused by several Pythium species and is one of the most economically important diseases of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Diagnosis of the pathogens in soil and in carrot tissue has been complicated. On the bases of ITS sequences PCR primers were designed for the identification of the fi...

  10. fRNAdb Summary: FR213492 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FR213492 AF077872,AF077874,AF077881,AF077883,AF077891,AF077897,AF077900,AF077905,AY552527,X17534 ... 5.8S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) rRNA_5_8S Daucus ... carota,Arafoe aromatica,Komarovia anisosperma,Pimp ...

  11. EST data: 215 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CB0966 D22402 AU102142 DPlate 003 G03 5' AAG GTA CCG AAT TAT CAA TC 3' 5' TCA TTC TGG ACT GAA TG ... A AC 3' >AB019327_1(AB019327|pid:g3811007) Daucus ... carota mRNA for NADP specific isocitrate dehydroge ...

  12. EST data: 137 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CB0587 AU176396 DPlate 002 A06 5' CTG TAC GCC TTC AGA CCC TC 3' 5' ATG AAG GTC ATC GGG TGC TC 3' ... y to nuclear matrix constituent protein 1 (NMCP1); Daucus ... carota; PATCHX:D1021240. ...

  13. Molecular detection of aster yellows phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrots affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: triozidae) in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) causes considerable damage to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in many parts of Europe. It was recently established that the new bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” is associated with carrot psyllid and plants affected by this insect pest. No other path...

  14. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in 70-80% of commercial fields and experimental plots in southeastern Norway from late July to mid-September 2011; al...

  15. Effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotids present in the carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work it was investigated the effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotid's in the carrot (daucus carota), using for it three different radiation dose (100, 150 and 200 kilo-rad) and analyzing them by means of the liquid chromatography technique of high resolution (HPLC)

  16. Association Between Pachytene Chromosomes and Linkage Groups in Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of carrot (Daucus carota L.) consists of ~ 480 Mb/1C organized in 9 chromosome pairs. The importance of carrots in human nutrition is triggering the development of genomic resources, including carrot linkage maps, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone library and BAC end sequence...

  17. Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization: Regeneration of fertile plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dudits, Denes; Maroy, Eszter; Praznovszky, Tunde; Olah, Zoltan; Gyorgyey, Janos; Cella, Rino

    1987-01-01

    Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly lower chromosome ...

  18. Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

  19. Molecular mapping of vernalization requirement and fertility restoration genes in carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a cool-season vegetable normally classified as a biennial species, requiring vernalization to induce flowering. Nevertheless, some cultivars adapted to warmer climates require less vernalization and can be classified as annual. Most modern carrot cultivars are hybrids wh...

  20. The carrot genome sequence brings colors out of the dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-05-27

    The genome sequence of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is the first completed for an Apiaceae species, furthering knowledge of the evolution of the important euasterid II clade. Analyzing the whole-genome sequence allowed for the identification of a gene that may regulate the accumulation of carotenoids in the root. PMID:27230684

  1. First Report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in Carrots in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) damage were observed in commercial fields in southern Finland in August 2008. Carrot psyllid is a serious pest of carrots in northern and central Europe, where it can cause up to 100% yield los...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10...

  3. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on carrot in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March of 2014, carrot plants (Daucus carota L. var. Mascot) exhibiting symptoms of yellowing, purpling, and curling of leaves, proliferation of shoots, formation of hairy secondary roots, general stunting and plant decline were observed in commercial fields in the Gharb region of Morocco. The sym...

  4. Meloidogyne incognita nematode resistance QTL in carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are major pests attacking carrots (Daucus carota) worldwide, causing galling and forking of the storage roots, rendering them unacceptable for market. Genetic resistance could significantly reduce the need for broad-spectrum soil fumigants in carrot production....

  5. GenBank blastn search result: AK064582 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064582 002-112-F03 AY061993.1 Daucus carota ATP synthase subunit 8 (atp8-1) gene, complete cds; atp...9 and atp9/atp6 pseudogenes, complete sequence; mitochondrial genes for mitochondrial products.|PLN PLN 2e-21 Plus Plus ...

  6. Multiple Exocytotic Markers Accumulate at the Sites of Perifungal Membrane Biogenesis in Arbuscular Mycorrhizas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Genre, A.; Ivanov, S.; Fendrych, Matyáš; Faccio, A.; Žárský, Viktor; Bisseling, T.; Bonfante, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2012), s. 244-255. ISSN 0032-0781 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/1629 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Daucus carota * Exocytosis * Medicago truncatula Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2012

  7. Ganhos genéticos para caracteres de raiz em populações de cenoura nos sistemas orgânico e convencional de produção Genetic gains for root characters in carrot populations in conventional and organic production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani O da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar os ganhos genéticos para caracteres de raiz em populações de cenoura cultivadas nos sistemas orgânico e convencional. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília (DF. Duas populações de cenoura derivadas da cultivar Brasília e de origem comum até 2002, foram subdivididas em duas populações, avaliadas e selecionadas, por oito gerações consecutivas, nos verões de 2000 a 2007. Em 2008, amostras de sementes das populações, provenientes de cada ciclo de seleção, foram semeadas em campo e conduzidas sob manejo orgânico e convencional de produção, em delineamento de blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos, quatro repetições e parcelas de 1 m². Aos 90 dias após a semeadura, 20 raízes por parcela foram colhidas para a avaliação dos caracteres comprimento, diâmetro do xilema e do floema; comprimento da extensão do ombro verde; massa fresca; presença de halo; formato de ponta e de ombro e coloração do xilema e floema. Foi realizada análise de variância com determinação da interação entre tratamentos e sistemas de produção, agrupamento de médias entre os tratamentos, e calculados os ganhos reais com a seleção. Pôde-se verificar que nos oito anos de seleção não houve ganhos significativos para os caracteres estudados nas duas populações. Com isso, conclui-se que os caracteres avaliados já se encontram fixados nas duas populações estudadas. Verificou-se que a seleção não precisa ser realizada nos dois sistemas de cultivo, orgânico e convencional, possibilitando diminuição de recursos financeiros e de mão-de-obra empregados no melhoramento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic gain with the selection of root characters of carrot populations cultivated in organic and conventional production systems. The experiments were carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, Brazil. Two carrot populations derived from Bras

  8. Genetic parameter and correlation estimates of processing traits in half-sib progenies of tropical-adapted carrot germplasm Parâmetros genéticos e correlações entre características para processamento em progênies de meios-irmãos de germoplasma de cenoura tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo V Vieira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of the genetic parameters associated with processing (fresh-cut traits, including root length (RL, is crucial for carrot breeding programs in tropical areas. The cultivar Alvorada is an important germplasm due to its resistance to nematodes, leaf blight, heat-tolerance, and high carotenoid content. Seventy-four 'Alvorada' half-sib progenies were evaluated during the summer of 2005 in the Federal District, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Thirteen competitive plants in each block were randomly selected and evaluated and/or classified for RL and for number of leaves (NL, leaf length (LL, root tip type (RT, root mass (RW, crown shape (CS, root diameter (RD, and xylem diameter (XD. The Pearson's correlation coefficients and the heritability values were estimated for all traits. The path analysis was also used considering the RL trait as dependent variable. The heritability for RL ranged from 12 to 44%. For the other traits, the values ranged from 3% (RD to 79% (LL. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations among all traits were low to intermediate. Path analysis indicated positive direct relationship between RL and RW, whereas RD and XD displayed negative direct effect on RL. Longer roots had narrow diameter and narrow XD. Recurrent selection based upon either half-sib or S1 families would be more effective than mass phenotypic recurrent selection in increasing RL and to develop populations expressing multiple desirable processing traits in tropical-adapted carrot germplasm.A estimativa de parâmetros genéticos associados com caracteres de processamento industrial, incluindo comprimento de raiz (RL, é crucial para programas de melhoramento de cenoura para áreas tropicais. A cultivar Alvorada é um importante germoplasma devido à sua resistência a nematóides e queima-das-folhas, tolerância ao calor e alto conteúdo de carotenóides. Setenta e quatro progênies meio-irmãs derivadas de 'Alvorada

  9. CONSUMER PROFILE AND PRICE VARIATION OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PERFIL DO CONSUMIDOR E OSCILAÇÕES DE PREÇOS DE PRODUTOS AGROECOLÓGICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Lidia Silva Cavalcante

    2011-10-01

    >Curcubita moschata, berinjela (Solanum melongena, beterraba (Beta vulgaris L., cenoura (Daucus carota L., jiló (Solanum gilo Raddi e pepino (Cucumis sativus foram os produtos que mais apresentaram variação percentual no preço (convencional x orgânico.

  10. Componentes genéticos e fenotípicos para caracteres de importância agronômica em população de cenoura sob seleção recorrente Genotypic and phenotypic parameters for economically important traits of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Olegário da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar os componentes genéticos e fenotípicos para caracteres em populações de cenoura, no intento de orientar estratégias de seleção. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em Lapão (BA e Embrapa Hortaliças Brasília (DF no verão de 2004. Foram avaliadas nove populações híbridas de cenoura, utilizando-se delineamento em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições de cada tratamento de 2 m². Aos 90 dias após o plantio, 15 plantas competitivas por parcela foram colhidas e avaliadas individualmente para os caracteres rendimento de raiz, comprimento de raiz, comprimento do ombro verde, tipo de ponta, tipo de ombro, diâmetro da raiz, diâmetro do xilema da raiz, relação diâmetro do xilema/diâmetro da raiz, e cor a* (cor de cor determinado por colorimetria, variando de verde a vermelho para o xilema e floema. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e foram estimadas a herdabilidade no sentido amplo na média das parcelas pelo quadrado médio e a correlação entre os caracteres. De acordo com as estimativas de herdabilidade, para os caracteres diâmetro de xilema (0,92 e 0,87, cor a* do xilema (0,96 e 0,95 e relação entre diâmetro de xilema e diâmetro de raiz (0,87 e 0,91, pode-se aplicar forte pressão de seleção nos dois locais de avaliação. O maior rendimento de raiz foi associado a maiores diâmetros de raiz e de xilema, bem como por maiores valores da relação entre diâmetro de xilema e de raiz. Raízes mais grossas são associadas a menor a* (quantidade de β-caroteno, principalmente em relação à parte da raiz que é constituída pelo xilema. Pelos valores de correlação, há indicação de que a seleção para maior teor de carotenóides não pode ser efetuada sem considerar os caracteres de diâmetro de raiz, que são importantes componentes do rendimento.The objective of this work was to estimate the genotypic and phenotypic parameters for traits of carrot populations among

  11. Sequence analysis of keratin-like proteins and cloning of intermediate filament-like cDNA from higher plant cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two keratin-like proteins of 64 and 55 ku were purified from suspension cells of Daucus carota L.,and their partial amino acid sequences were determined.The homological analysis showed that the sequence from the 64 ku protein was highly homological to b -glucosidase,and that from the 55 ku protein had no significant homologue in GenBank.Using conservative sequence of animal IF proteins as primer,we cloned a cDNA fragment from Daucus carota L.Southern blot and Northern blot results indicated that this cDNA fragment was a single copy gene and expressed both in suspension cells and leaves.Homological analysis revealed that it had moderate homology to a variety of a -helical proteins.Our results might shed more light on molecular characterization of IF existence in higher plant.

  12. Determination of trace elements of Egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis, NAA, a high resolution Ge(Li) gamma ray spectrometer was used to determine the concentration of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, W, and Zn in Cumin, coriander, carrots, and Daucus carota (Umbelliferae Family), alfalfa, Kidney bean, Phaseolus sativus, Phaseolus vulgaris, bean, lentil, and fenugreek (Legumirosae Family). Multielement determination technique on destructive and nondestructive samples was followed. This method is simple, precise and sensitive to 17 trace elements. (author)

  13. Biocatalytic reductions by plant tissue - Green alternative to alcohol production

    OpenAIRE

    Gašo-Sokač, Dajana; Nujić, Marija; Bušić, Valentina; Habuda-Stanić, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    The use of biocatalysts for the industrial synthesis of chemicals has been attracting much attention as an environmental friendly synthetic method. Various plants, such as apple (Malus pumila), carrot (Daucus carota), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), onion (Allium cepa), potato (Solanum tuberosum), radish (Raphanus sativus) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were used as biocatalysts. Enzymes that plants produce are able to perform reactions under mild conditions (pH and temperature), with remarka...

  14. Quantitative proteomics by 2DE and MALDI MS/MS uncover the effects of organic and conventional cropping methods on vegetable products

    OpenAIRE

    Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming aims to be environmentally sound, but the question as to whether organic cropping brings more nutritional benefits to farmers and consumers than the conventional cropping needs still to be answered. To gain insights into the molecular effects of organic farming we used proteome analysis to analyze cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var ‘capitata’) and carrot (Daucus carota var. ‘sativus’) Our aim was to identify the metabolic pathways that are affected by different cropping regimes...

  15. Lactic acid fermentation in vegetable juices supplemented with different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Rakin Marica B.; Baras Josip K.; Vukašinović Maja S.

    2005-01-01

    The work is concerned with the conditions for lactic acid fermentation in a mixture of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L) juice and carrot (Daucus carota L) juice and different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748.Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using the higher content of brewer’s yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 has ...

  16. The examination of parameters for lactic acid fermentation and nutritive value of fermented juice of beetroot, carrot and brewers yeast autolysate

    OpenAIRE

    MILAN MAKSIMOVIC; MAJA VUKASINOVIC; JOSIP BARAS; MARICA RAKIN

    2004-01-01

    The conditions for lactic acid fermentation based on a mixture of beetoot juice (Beta vulgaris L.) and carrot juice (Daucus carota L.) and different content of brewers yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748 has been studied. Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using a higher content of brewers yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 showed bet...

  17. Viruserkrankungen in Möhren - gegenwärtige Probleme und verfügbare Nachweismethoden

    OpenAIRE

    Fittje, Susanne; Menzel, Dr. Wulf; Saucke, Dr. Helmut; Vetten, Dr. Heinrich-Josef

    2005-01-01

    An apparently new virus disease of carrots (Daucus carota) has gained increasing importance in Germany. The complex of symptoms consisting of leaf reddening, plant stunting, hairy and rat tailed roots is thought to be caused by viral infections. Particularly the main carrot growing areas in Lower Saxony are adversely affected. In field surveys in 2003 about 30 % symptomatic plants were observed with average weight losses of about 30 %. In severe cases symptom-related yield reduction was estim...

  18. Chemical ecology of the carrot fly, Psila rosae (F.): laboratory and field studies

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Martin James

    2004-01-01

    The carrot fly (Psila rosae F.) is an important pest of the cultivated carrot (Daucus carota) and other crop species in the family Apiaceae, since the larvae burrow into and feed on the developing roots. Current P. rosae control relies heavily upon the use of chemical insecticides, but these are inadequate. The aims of this study were to investigate the chemical ecology of P. rosae, particularly with regard to long range attractant and repellent semiochemicals suitable for incorporation into ...

  19. Zhodnocení vlivu UV záření a ozónu na posklizňové změny mrkve

    OpenAIRE

    Martincová, Věra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how it will affect the general harvest carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) UV radiation and ozone selected parameters carrots or development of pathogens during storage. After harvesting carrots general, the roots of both varieties (Afalon F1 and Cortina F1) from both production systems (ecological and integrated) transported to the laboratory of the Department of Horticulture (CUA in Prague). In untreated carrots were determined before storage: n...

  20. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Jiang; Liang Cao; Yuan Yuan; Min Chen; Yan Jin; Luqi Huang

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapi...

  1. Abilities of some higher plants to hydrolyze the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Mironowicz; Krystyna Kromer; Paweł Pawłowicz; Antoni Siewiński

    2014-01-01

    In the biotransformations carried out under the same conditions, the whole intact plants of Spirodela punctata, Nephrolepis exaltata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia and the suspension cultures of Helianthus tuberosus, Daucus carota and Petunia hybrida hydrolyze (partially or totally) the ester bonds of the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols and also the menthyl acetate. Nevertheless, the methyl esters of aromatic acids, structurally similar to the former substrate...

  2. Combined effect of water loss and wounding stress on gene activation of metabolic pathways associated with phenolic biosynthesis in carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Redondo-Gil, Mónica; Benavides, Jorge; Nair, Vimal; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Daniel A. Jacobo-Velázquez

    2015-01-01

    The application of postharvest abiotic stresses is an effective strategy to activate the primary and secondary metabolism of plants inducing the accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds. In the present study, the effect of water stress applied alone and in combination with wounding stress on the activation of primary (shikimic acid) and secondary (phenylpropanoid) metabolic pathways related with the accumulation of phenolic compound in plants was evaluated. Carrot (Daucus carota) was us...

  3. Seed treatment technology of carrot seeds with plant volatile substances

    OpenAIRE

    Ličková, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of carrot (Daucus carota L.) seed treatment using essential oil vapour phase, especially focused on finding appropriate combination of concentration, temperature and application time to decrease number of native fungi and evaluating the effect of essential oil on seed germination. Seed samples were contaminated with natural microorganisms. Essential oils of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry) and ci...

  4. Pembuatan Tepung Wortel serta Penetapan Kadar Protein dan Lemak

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Evi Ekayanti

    2016-01-01

    Carrot(Daucus carota L.) isone which a vegetablefrequently often to consumptionincluding raw engulfed or jus and usually with other vegetable. One of alternatif to grow up carrot consumption make to carrot flour can be make variation food healthy. In this study sample obtained from village of Cinta Rakyat , Berastagi, Medan. The purpose of this study is to carrot flour manufacturing and determined of protein concentration using kjedahl and fat using extraction method with soxhlet. The mil...

  5. CarrotDB: a genomic and transcriptomic database for carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tan, Hua-Wei; Wang, Feng; Hou, Xi-Lin; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an economically important vegetable worldwide and is the largest source of carotenoids and provitamin A in the human diet. Given the importance of this vegetable to humans, research and breeding communities on carrot should obtain useful genomic and transcriptomic information. The first whole-genome sequences of ‘DC-27’ carrot were de novo assembled and analyzed. Transcriptomic sequences of 14 carrot genotypes were downloaded from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) d...

  6. OPTIMASI PROSES PEMANASAN PADA PEMBUATAN CHIPS WORTEL KAYA KAROTENOID MENGGUNAKAN RENPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY)

    OpenAIRE

    Suhardi 1)

    2011-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) contains carotenoid pigment in the form of vitamin A of about 12.000 S.I/100 gram. Epidemiology studies show that carotenoid has many benefits for health. Carotenoid is affected by temperature during thermal process. Therefore carrot processing must be controlled to minimize carotenoid destruction during process. The aims of this research were to optimize temperature processing, time, and ratio of carrot-tapioca flour. It was assumed that carotenoid destruction can b...

  7. The socio-economic importance of the Apiales

    OpenAIRE

    Heywood, Vernon H.

    2015-01-01

    Within the Apiales, the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) is by far the most important family, both economically and socially. Although it includes the carrot (Daucus carota), one of the world’s leading root crops, and other widely consumed vegetables such as parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), celery and celeriac (Apium graveolens), the family is perhaps best known for its remarkable diversity of culinary herbs, flavourings, condiments and spices, such as parsley, dill, coriander, anise, chervil, caraway, and...

  8. The incidence and distribution of Listeria monocytogenes in ready‐to‐eat vegetables in South‐Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayeoba, Titilayo A.; Atanda, Olusegun O.; Obadina, Adewale O.; Bankole, Mobolaji O.; Adelowo, Olawale O.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study investigated the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready‐to‐eat (RTE) vegetables: (Cucumber, Cucumis sativas; Cabbage, Brassica olerecea; Carrot, Daucus carota; Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum; Lettuce, Lactuca sativa) in six states in South‐Western Nigeria. A total of 555 composite samples were collected from 30 traditional markets within the states and only 244 L. monocytogenes species were isolated by standard methods. The incidence of L. monocytogenes was low and not ...

  9. Impact of Biofield Treatment on Yield, Quality and Control of Nematode in Carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of biofield treatment when used for control of nematode on carrot crops, Daucus carota , under typical growing conditions in year 2012 at Guadalupe, California, USA. Following biofield treatment, carrot seeds were planted in replicate plots with mechanical seeder and their development was recorded compared to control seed growth from untreated plots and plots treated with the commercial standard nematicide, further Vydate L was applied thre...

  10. The effect of plant growth regulators on morphogenesis in tissue culture of some agriculture species

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Trajkova, Fidanka

    2015-01-01

    The vegetative propagation of the plants in in vitro conditions enables to abbreviate the process of selection, enhance the genetic stability of plants and improve the production of healthy plants free of viruses. In this paper the results of our experimental work for determination of the potential of in vitro morphogenesis and micropropagation of some agricultural species are presented (Apium graviolens L., Daucus carota subsp. sativus L., Cucumis sativus L., Cucurbita pepo var. cylindrica, ...

  11. Effect of Intercropping Bulb Onion and Vegetables on Purple Blotch and Downy Mildew

    OpenAIRE

    F.M. Olubayo; J.H. Nderitu; S.M. Gachu; J.W. Muthomi; R.D. Narla

    2011-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted over two growing seasons to determine the effectiveness of vegetable intercrops in the management of downy mildew (Peronospora destrutor) and purple blotch (Alternaria porri) of bulb onion. Vegetable intercrops evaluated, were carrot (Daucus carota), spider plant (Cleome gynandra) and French bean (Phaseolus vulgarisHowever, further studies are necessary to determine the optimal spatial arrangements of onion and vegetable intercrops in foliar disease management.

  12. Desiccation tolerance of somatic embryoids.

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteroo, F.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the research performed on the subject "Desiccation tolerance in somatic embryoids". Somatic embryoids are bipolar structures formed in tissue culture, with both a shoot and a root apex, which resemble very much zygotic embryos found in seeds. Through simultaneous development of root and shoot, these embryoids can grow out into complete plantlets.In Chapter 2 we describe an optimized method to produce completely desiccation tolerant carrot ( Daucus carota ) embryoids. Usi...

  13. Sequence analysis of keratin-like proteins and cloning of intermediate filament-like cDNA from higher plant cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大中; 陈丹英; 杨橙; 翟中和

    2000-01-01

    Two keratin-like proteins of 64 and 55 ku were purified from suspension cells of Caucus carota L, and their partial amino acid sequences were determined. The homological analysis showed that the sequence from the 64 ku protein was highly homological to p-glucosidase, and that from the 55 ku protein had no significant homologue in GenBank. Using conservative sequence of animal IF proteins as primer, we cloned a cDNA fragment from Daucus carota L. Southern blot and Northern blot results indicated that this cDNA fragment was a single copy gene and expressed both in suspension cells and leaves. Homological analysis revealed that it had moderate homology to a variety of a-helical proteins. Our results might shed more light on molecular characterization of IF existence in higher plant.

  14. Patrón proteico extracelular durante la embriogénesis somática; en suspensiones celulares de Coffea arabica L

    OpenAIRE

    F. R. Quiroz Figueroa; S. C. Kú Rodríguez; V. M. Loyola Vargas

    2002-01-01

    Un amplio número de especies vegetales excretan proteínas; al medio de cultivo, algunas de estas proteínas tienen función; durante la embriogénesis somática. La mayor parte de la información; disponible sobre este campo ha sido obtenida con cultivos celulares; de Daucus carota, es necesario extender estas áreas de estudio a otros; sistemas, como por ejemplo al género Coffea. Se obtuvieron cultivos; embriogénicos en medio líquido para Coffea arabica, se detectaron; proteín...

  15. EPR as an analytical tool in assessing the mineral nutrients and irradiated food products-vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.

    2008-12-01

    EPR spectral investigations of some commonly available vegetables in south India, which are of global importance like Daucus carota (carrot), Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (cluster beans), Coccinia indica (little gourd) and Beta vulgaris (beet root) have been carried out. In all the vegetable samples a free radical corresponding to cellulose radical is observed. Almost all the samples under investigation exhibit Mn ions in different oxidation states. The temperature variation EPR studies are done and are discussed in view of the paramagnetic oxidation states. The radiation-induced defects have also been assessed by using the EPR spectra of such irradiated food products.

  16. Abilities of some higher plants to hydrolyze the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the biotransformations carried out under the same conditions, the whole intact plants of Spirodela punctata, Nephrolepis exaltata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia and the suspension cultures of Helianthus tuberosus, Daucus carota and Petunia hybrida hydrolyze (partially or totally the ester bonds of the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols and also the menthyl acetate. Nevertheless, the methyl esters of aromatic acids, structurally similar to the former substrates, do not undergo hydrolysis. At the same time, the viability of first four plants was observed for different levels of acetate concentration. The method of continuous preparative hydrolysis of the same acetates was worked out in Cyrtomium falcatum culture.

  17. Lactic acid fermentation in vegetable juices supplemented with different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakin Marica B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is concerned with the conditions for lactic acid fermentation in a mixture of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L juice and carrot (Daucus carota L juice and different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748.Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using the higher content of brewer’s yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 has shown better growth and lactic acid production than L. acidophilus NCDO 1748.

  18. 胡萝卜栽培技术及其食用推广%Carrot Cultivation Techniques and Its Edible Promotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍小松; 李军民; 吴家全; 肖健

    2010-01-01

    @@ 胡萝卜(carrot)为伞形花科(Umbelliferae),胡萝卜属、野胡萝卜种(胡萝卜变种)、能形成肥大肉质根的二年生草本植物.学名Daucus carota L.var.sativaDC,别名红萝卜、黄萝卜、番萝卜、丁香萝卜,胡芦菔金,赤珊瑚、黄根等.染色体数2n=2x=18.

  19. Tunnel production enhances quality in organic carrot seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2009-01-01

    production of open-pollinated carrot varieties increased the yield and germination percentages when compared with normal field conditions. Yield was in the range of 100-250 g and 2-17 g seeds m-2 respectively, and germination percentage was 84-95 and 43-55, respectively. However, hybrid carrot seed...... production showed lower yields than did their open-pollinated counterparts. Yields ranging from 60-123 g seeds m-2 can be obtained, but the production needs to be carefully planned and monitored. Different growing systems in tunnels have been studied in both open-pollinated and hybrid carrot (Daucus carota L...

  20. Influencia de la distribución de las líneas de siembra en las mesetas de cultivo sobre la producción y calidad de la zanahoria cv

    OpenAIRE

    Matute García, María del Carmen

    2008-01-01

    La zanahoria (Daucus carota L.) es uno de los cultivos hortícolas en los que la producción ha sufrido mayor crecimiento en los últimos años (78% de incremento entre 1990 y 2005). Este incremento ha sido particularmente importante en Castilla y León y más concretamente en Segovia y Valladolid, provincias en las que actualmente se cultiva cerca de 1000 ha en cada una de ellas. Por la influencia que tiene en la recolección y sanidad del cultivo, en los últimos años esta siendo muy debatido el re...

  1. APLICACIÓN DE LA TECNICA DE IV GAMA PARA LA ELABORACIÓN DE ENSALADAS EVALUATION OF IV GAMA TECHNIQUE TO PREPARE VEGETABLE SALADS

    OpenAIRE

    Auris Damely García Méndez

    2008-01-01

    El propósito de la aplicación de la técnica de IV Gama en la elaboración de ensaladas listas para el consumo fresco, esta dirigido al control del deterioro en lechuga americana (Lactuca sativa), zanahoria (Daucus carota L.), radicchio (Cichorium intybus L.) y escarola (Cichorium endivia L.), destinadas a preparar ensaladas tipo “Mediterránea y Cheff”. La metodología permitió seleccionar y evaluar la técnica de IV Gama, así como las buenas prácticas de manufactura para extender la vida comerci...

  2. Aplicación de la técnica de iv gama para la elaboración de ensaladas.

    OpenAIRE

    García Méndez, Auris Damely

    2011-01-01

    El propósito de la aplicación de la técnica de IV Gama en la elaboración de ensaladas listas para el consumo fresco, está dirigido al control del deterioro en lechuga americana (Lactucasativa), zanahoria (Daucus carota L.), radicchio (Cichorium intybus L.) y escarola (Cichorium endivia L.), destinadas a preparar ensaladas tipo “Mediterránea y Cheff”. La metodología permitió seleccionar y evaluar la técnica de IV Gama, así como las buenas prácticas de manufactura para extender la vida comercia...

  3. AcEST: BP914611 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389...-3402. Query= BP914611|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000061_A01. (426 letters) Databa... (1997), Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search ...061_A01. (426 letters) Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searc...AUCA ADP-ribosylation factor 1 OS=Daucus carota ... 160 2e-39 sp|O48649|ARF1_SALBA ADP-ribosylation factor 1 OS=Salix bak

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14166-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ching..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Val...e) Salix gilgiana SGJ3 mRNA for DnaJ ... 253 1e-65 T07371( T07371 ) dnaJ protein homolog - pota...ig-U14166-1Q.Seq.d (1491 letters) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences prod...B 3,236,559 sequences; 1,051,180,864 total letters Searching..................................................don...e) Vitis vinifera contig VV78X195295.... 258 5e-67 AF308737_1( AF308737 |pid:none) Daucus carota

  5. Different responses to UV-B enhanced solar radiation in radish and carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.), plants with underground storage organs grown in the field, were exposed to either ambient (UVA) or 20 % UV-B (UVE) enhanced solar radiation till their root yield stage. In radish, UVE produced a significant increase in shoot and root fresh mass (FM), increase in the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids, and total proteins per unit FM, Hill reaction rate, and root yield. In contrast, carrot responded negatively to UVE showing a loss in the above parameters. (author)

  6. Use of ionizing radiation to ensure the safety of pre-cut fresh vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of D10 values for two Escherichia coli strains (an ATTC and a wild type), Listeria innocua, and a non toxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was carried out in different vegetal products. The studied products -celery (Apium graveolens), cabbage (Lactuca sativa var. capitata), iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata), carrots (Daucus carota L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and two mixed salads (Toscana, containing chopped iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata), red cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. rubra) and shredded carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Four Seasons, a mixture of chopped romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia), iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata), Butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. acephala) and spinach (Spinacia oleraceae) - were minimally processed. The effect of irradiation with 5 D10 doses on the natural microflora and on the sensory characteristics, during refrigerated storage, of the non inoculated products, was also studied. After irradiating with 5 D10 doses, a considerable reduction in the initial contamination of the studied vegetables was obtained. No significant variation of the microbiological counts of the irradiated products was observed during the refrigerated storage, while in the non-irradiated samples a progressive increase up to 3.5 logs in some vegetables was observed. In general, no significant changes in the sensory parameters were observed after irradiation and during seven days storage at refrigeration temperature (4 deg. C). (author)

  7. [The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

    1994-01-01

    Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading. PMID:8018898

  8. Metabolic changes in carrot cells in response to simultaneous treatment with ultraviolet light and a fungal elicitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet light induces anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell cultures of an Afghan cultivar of Daucus carota (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus). Simultaneous treatment with a fungal elicitor from Pythium aphanidermatum results in an inhibition of the catalytic activity of chalcone synthase (CHS), which in turn correlates with an inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis. On immunoblots, one isoenzyme (40 kDa) of CHS disappears upon elicitor treatment. On an mRNA level, only the mRNA for the 40-kDa-CHS is active after treatment with ultraviolet light. After inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the elicitor the enzyme protein disappears and the CHS mRNA is strongly diminished. This inhibition depends on the concentration of the elicitor. In addition, elicitor treatment leads to an induction of the general phenylpropanoid pathway as well as to the accumulation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid which is covalently bound to wall polysaccharides of the carrot cells. The possible function of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in providing precursors for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is discussed

  9. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems. Initial assessment of plant DNA mutation spectra as a biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, F.; Cataldo, D.A.; Fellows, R.J.; Jarrell, A.E.; Harvey, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    Munitions material can enter the environment as a result of manufacturing activities and field usage. Predictor methodologies, or biomarkers would enhance evaluation of environmental impacts. The goal of this exploratory study deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mutation frequency as a biomarker for munitions exposure. The approach e resolution of an effective repetitive sequence probe for the identification of characteristic mutations, and (2) the development of a testing media [a clonal cell line of carrot (Daucus carota) spension cells]. Commercially available probes demonstrated marginal resolution therefore a low-C{sub o}t library was then constructed. Three colonies from the low-C{sub o}t DNA library were screened and the DNA isolates sequenced. A suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota) was developed. A mutation spectra experiment was initiated at a 10-mg TNT/L exposure concentration with the attempt to clone over 1500 single TNT-exposed cells. Over the following six months greater than 98% of the initially isolated cells were unable to survive and produce micro calluses. The remaining calli were too few to be statistically significant and the experiment was terminated. The biomarker concept itself remains to be disproved, but the need for large numbers of uniform clones to differentiate true mutations suggest that more direct techniques using whole tissues need to be developed.

  10. Integrated molecular and morphological studies of the Daucus guttatus complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a previous study using 94 nuclear orthologs, we reported the species status of D. broteri and D. guttatus (here referred to as the D. guttatus complex) to be unresolved, partitioned into three clades. In the present study, a subset of ten of these 94 nuclear orthologs with 10,982 bp of aligned le...

  11. The antioxidant and anticancer effects of wild carrot oil extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebaby, Wassim Nasri; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Smith, Kikki Bodman-; Karam, Marc Christoph; Mroueh, Mohamad; Daher, Costantine F

    2013-05-01

    Daucus carota L. ssp. carota (Apiacea) is used in traditional medicine in Lebanon and in different regions throughout the world. The present study investigates the in vitro anticancer activities of Daucus carota oil extract (DCOE) on four human cancer cell lines as well as its in vitro antioxidant activity. DCOE was extracted from the dried umbels with 50:50 acetone-methanol. The oil extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and screened for its antioxidant properties in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating assay (FIC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The anticancer activity of the oil extract against human colon (HT-29, Caco-2) and breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines was evaluated using the trypan blue exclusion method and the WST-1 cell proliferation assay. DCOE exhibited antioxidant activity in all assays used. The FRAP value was 164 ± 5.5 µmol FeSO4 /g, and the IC50 values for DPPH and FIC assays were 2.1 ± 0.03 mg/ml and 0.43 ± 0.02 mg/ml, respectively. Also, DCOE demonstrated a significant increase in cell death and decrease in cell proliferation. The effect of DCOE on the cell lines exhibited time and dose-dependent responses. The present study established that DCOE possesses both antioxidant and promising anticancer activities. PMID:22815230

  12. Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Pacheco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., carrot (Daucus carota L., sweet potato with orange pulp (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. flour. Quantification of the total carotenoids was made by spectrophotometry. Quantification and determination of carotenoid profiles were formulated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with photodiode array detection. Microscale extraction was faster, cheaper and cleaner than the commonly used one, and advantageous for analytical laboratories.

  13. Metal-accelerated oxidation in plant cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czuba, M. (National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-05-01

    Cadmium and mercury toxicity is further enhanced by external oxidizing conditions O[sub 3] or inherent plant processes. Lepidium sativum L, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., or Phaseolus vulgaris L, were grown inpeat-lite to maturity under continuous cadmium exposure followed by one oxidant (O[sub 3]-6 hr. 30 pphm) exposure, with or without foliar calcium pretreatments. In comparison, Daucus carota, L and other species grown in a 71-V suspension, with or without 2,4-D were exposed continuously to low levels of methylmercury during exponential growth and analyzed in aggregates of distinct populations. Proteins were extracted and analyzed. Mechanisms of toxicity and eventual cell death are Ca-mediated and involve chloroplast, stomatal-water relations and changes in oxidant-anti-oxidant components in cells. Whether the metal-accelerated oxidative damage proceeds to cell death, depends on the species and its differential biotransformation system and cell association component.

  14. Provitamin a activity of Brazilian carrots: leaves and roots, raw and cooked and their chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Bicudo Almeida-Muradian

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine through carotenoid analysis, the provitamin A value of two carrots (Daucus carota L. cultivars (Brasilia and Beta3, leaves and roots, raw and submitted to two ways of cooking: boiling and microwave. Proximate analysis results are also presented for a better characterization of these vegetables (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fiber and total carbohydrates. The main carotenoids sources of provitamin A in this vegetable, both in leaves or roots was β-carotene and α-carotene. α-carotene shows half of the provitamin A value of β-carotene. Samples of the Brasilia cultivar presented the better provitamin A value both for leaves and roots. The results for raw samples of the Brasilia cultivar were 464.48 RE/100g for leaves and 606.42 RE/100g for roots. There were no significant losses of provitamin A with the boiling or microwave cooking methods used.

  15. Transgenic carrot expressing fusion protein comprising M. tuberculosis antigens induces immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakova, Natalia V; Zagorskaya, Alla A; Belavin, Pavel A; Uvarova, Elena A; Nosareva, Olesya V; Nesterov, Andrey E; Novikovskaya, Anna A; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Deineko, Elena V

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25949997

  16. Long and short term effects of plasma treatment on meristematic plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puač, N.; Živković, S.; Selaković, N.; Milutinović, M.; Boljević, J.; Malović, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we will present results of plasma treatments of meristematic cells of Daucus carota. Plasma needle was used as an atmospheric pressure/gas composition source of non-equilibrium plasma in all treatments. Activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase was measured immediately after plasma treatment and after two weeks following the treatment. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased in samples immediately after the plasma treatment. On the other hand, catalase activity was much higher in treated samples when measured two weeks after plasma treatment. These results show that there is a direct proof of the triggering of signal transduction in the cells by two reactive oxygen species H2O2 and O2-, causing enzyme activity and short and long term effects even during the growth of calli, where the information is passed to newborn cells over the period of two weeks.

  17. Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

  18. Plants as biofactories: glyphosate-induced production of shikimic acid and phenolic antioxidants in wounded carrot tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Moreno, Alejandro; Benavides, Jorge; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A

    2012-11-14

    The use of plants to produce chemical compounds with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications has intensified in recent years. In this regard, genetic engineering is the most commonly used tool to generate crop lines with enhanced concentrations of desirable chemicals. However, growing genetically modified plants is still limited because they are perceived as potential biological hazards that can create an ecological imbalance. The application of postharvest abiotic stresses on plants induces the accumulation of secondary metabolites and thus can be used as an alternative to genetic modification. The present project evaluated the feasibility of producing shikimic acid (SA) and phenolic compounds (PC) in wounded carrots ( Daucus carota ) treated with glyphosate. The spray application of a concentrated glyphosate solution on wounded carrot tissue increased the concentrations of SA and chlorogenic acid by ∼1735 and ∼5700%, respectively. The results presented herein demonstrate the potential of stressed carrot tissue as a biofactory of SA and PC. PMID:23101679

  19. The examination of parameters for lactic acid fermentation and nutritive value of fermented juice of beetroot, carrot and brewer’s yeast autolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MAKSIMOVIC

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for lactic acid fermentation based on a mixture of beetoot juice (Beta vulgaris L. and carrot juice (Daucus carota L. and different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748 has been studied. Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using a higher content of brewer’s yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 showed better growth and lactic acid production than L. acidophilus NCDO 1748. From the data obtained through chemical analyses of the fermented products, it can be seen that the mixture of beetroot and carrot juice and brewer’s yeast autolysate is richer in minerals (Ca, P, Fe and b-carotene than fermented beetroot juice with the same content of brewer’s yeast autolysate.

  20. Effect of foliar application of selenium on its uptake and speciation in carrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kápolna, Emese; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Laursen, K.H.;

    2009-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) shoots were enriched by selenium using foliar application. Solutions of sodium selenite or sodium selenate at 10 and 100 mu g Se ml(-1), were sprayed on the carrot leaves and the selenium content and uptake rate of selenium were estimated by ICP-MS analysis. Anion and cation......(-1) (dry mass) in the carrot root whereas the selenium concentration in the controls was below the limit of detection at 0.045 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass). Selenate-enriched carrot leaves accumulated as much as 80 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass), while the selenite-enriched leaves contained approximately 50 mu...... were used for foliar application. Only selenomethionine was detected in the carrot leaves. The identity of selenomethionine contained in carrot roots and leaves was successfully confirmed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS....

  1. Seed Germinability of 23 Crop Species After a Decade of Storage in the National Genebank of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xin-xiong; CHEN Xiao-ling; GUO Ying-he

    2005-01-01

    Seed viability of 18 576 accessions of 23 crops was monitored. After 10-12 years' storage in National Crop Genebank of China (NCGC), more than 96.12% of the accessions maintained high germination percentage (>85%). The germination of 95 accessions, accounting for 0.51% of the total, declined significantly from above 80% to below 70%. For each crop of carrot (Daucus carota var. sativa DC.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), cotton (Gossypium sp. L.), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.), the mean monitored germination percentage declined significantly as a whole, of which carrot and lettuce seeds lost viability more rapidly. Seed initial germination percentage and pre-storage environments affect subsequent seed viability in storage.

  2. Cloning of plasma membrane H+-ATPase gene in Populus euphratica Oliv.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning De-juan; Hou Pei-chen; Hu Zan-min; Shen Xin; Chen Shao-liang

    2006-01-01

    For this paper, the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase gene has been cloned from Populus euphratica Oliv. through a homology based strategy. The isolated 3,210 bp cDNA contains a single 2,862 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a putative H+-ATPase protein of 953 amino acid residues, with a significant homology to plasma membrane H+-ATPase of Prunus persica,Phaseolus vulgaris, Sesbania rostrata and Daucus carota. The predicted protein has a molecular weight of 104,553 Da. The copy number analysis revealed multiple copies of the PM H+-ATPase in the P. euphratica genome after digestion of their genomic DNA by the restriction enzymes EcoRⅠ, NdeⅠ, FbaⅠ and BglⅡ, and Southern blot.

  3. The complete chloroplast genome of North American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zeng-Jie; Li, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    We report complete nucleotide sequence of the Panax quinquefolius chloroplast genome using next-generation sequencing technology. The genome size is 156 359 bp, including two inverted repeats (IRs) of 52 153 bp, separated by the large single-copy (LSC 86 184 bp) and small single-copy (SSC 18 081 bp) regions. This cp genome encodes 114 unigenes (80 protein-coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes), in which 18 are duplicated in the IR regions. Overall GC content of the genome is 38.08%. A phylogenomic analysis of the 10 complete chloroplast genomes from Araliaceae using Daucus carota from Apiaceae as outgroup showed that P. quinquefolius is closely related to the other two members of the genus Panax, P. ginseng and P. notoginseng. PMID:27158867

  4. Evaluación de dos aislamientos de Trichoderma en el control de algunos hongos patógenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Jazmín

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluaron dos cepas del hongo Trichoderma harzianum (T-2 y TA como controladores bilógicos de los hongos fitopatógenos Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani y Sclerotium rolfsii. Se realizaron ensayos in vitro en PDA acidificado y posteriormente in vivo en plantas de Cucurbita máxima duchesne, Pisum sativum L., Cucumis sativus L. y Daucus carota L. Se hicieron observaciones de la patogenicidad de cada hongo y de la eficacia de los antagonistas. T·2 resulto ser mejor controlador de F. oxysporum y S. rolfsi;, mientras que T-4 resulto ser mejor controlador de R. sofani. Los antagonistas atenuaron pero no anularon los efectos producidos por los patógenos en las plantas.

  5. Carrot cells: a pioneering platform for biopharmaceuticals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Tello-Olea, Marlene Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is of importance in the molecular farming field as it constitutes the first plant species approved to produce biopharmaceuticals for human use. In this review, features that make carrot an advantageous species in the molecular farming field are analyzed and a description of the developments achieved with this crop thus far is presented. A guide for genetic transformation procedures is also included. The state of the art comprises ten vaccine prototypes against Measles virus, Hepatitis B virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Yersinia pestis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheria/Clostridium tetani/Bordetella pertussis, and Helicobacter pylori; as well as the case of the glucocerebrosidase, an enzyme used for replacement therapy, and other therapeutics. Perspectives for these developments are envisioned and innovations are proposed such as the use of transplastomic technologies-, hairy roots-, and viral expression-based systems to improve yields and develop new products derived from this advantageous plant species. PMID:25572939

  6. A high-quality carrot genome assembly provides new insights into carotenoid accumulation and asterid genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorizzo, Massimo; Ellison, Shelby; Senalik, Douglas; Zeng, Peng; Satapoomin, Pimchanok; Huang, Jiaying; Bowman, Megan; Iovene, Marina; Sanseverino, Walter; Cavagnaro, Pablo; Yildiz, Mehtap; Macko-Podgórni, Alicja; Moranska, Emilia; Grzebelus, Ewa; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Ashrafi, Hamid; Zheng, Zhijun; Cheng, Shifeng; Spooner, David; Van Deynze, Allen; Simon, Philipp

    2016-06-01

    We report a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly and analysis of the carrot (Daucus carota) genome, the first sequenced genome to include a comparative evolutionary analysis among members of the euasterid II clade. We characterized two new polyploidization events, both occurring after the divergence of carrot from members of the Asterales order, clarifying the evolutionary scenario before and after radiation of the two main asterid clades. Large- and small-scale lineage-specific duplications have contributed to the expansion of gene families, including those with roles in flowering time, defense response, flavor, and pigment accumulation. We identified a candidate gene, DCAR_032551, that conditions carotenoid accumulation (Y) in carrot taproot and is coexpressed with several isoprenoid biosynthetic genes. The primary mechanism regulating carotenoid accumulation in carrot taproot is not at the biosynthetic level. We hypothesize that DCAR_032551 regulates upstream photosystem development and functional processes, including photomorphogenesis and root de-etiolation. PMID:27158781

  7. Transgenic Carrot Expressing Fusion Protein Comprising M. tuberculosis Antigens Induces Immune Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Permyakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L. genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  8. Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization: Regeneration of fertile plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudits, Denes; Maroy, Eszter; Praznovszky, Tunde; Olah, Zoltan; Gyorgyey, Janos; Cella, Rino

    1987-01-01

    Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly lower chromosome number than predicted by simple addition of parental chromosome number. The methotrexate resistance phenotype was correlated with the expression of carrot-specific dihydrofolate reductase as judged by isozyme and immunological characteristics of the enzyme. The genomic construct of these somatic hybrids made the transmission of the resistance character into the next sexual generation possible. Images PMID:16593902

  9. Radiosensitivity of different tissues from carrot root at different phases of growth in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work compares the effect of γ-radiation dose and time in culture on the growth of cambium and phloem carrot (Daucus carota) root explants. It was found that the phloem is more radiosensitive than the cambium and that both tissues were more radiosensitive when irradiated on excision at the G1 phase rather than at the end of the lag phase on the ninth day of growth in culture when cells were predominantly at the G2 phase. The nuclear volumes of cells from both tissues were similar but were larger at the end of the more radioresistant lag phase than those of the G1 phase on excision. However, nuclear volume could not account for the differences in radiosensitivity between either the tissues or irradiation times in culture

  10. Two isoforms of plant RAD23 complement a UV-sensitive rad23 mutant in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA repair by nucleotide excision (NER) has been demonstrated in plant cells at the biochemical level but until now none of the molecular components of the plant NER complex has been identified. In this paper, the cloning and characterization of two isoforms of RAD23 from carrot (Daucus carota L.) are reported. It has been suggested that RAD23 in yeast is an assembly factor of the NER complex required for transcription-coupled repair as well as efficient overall genome repair. A functional assay demonstrated that both plant homologues complement the UV-sensitive phenotype of a rad23 deletion mutant of yeast. This result suggests that homologous polypeptides may catalyse NER in plants and yeast and, possibly, by a similar mechanism

  11. Effect of home freezing and Italian style of cooking on antioxidant activity of edible vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, F; Bordoni, A

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the modifications of antioxidant activity consequent to 3 typical home cooking practices (steaming, boiling, and microwave cooking) in fresh and home frozen vegetables. Six different vegetable species were examined: carrots (Daucus carota L.), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), tomatoes (Solanumn lycopersicum L.), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), peas (Pisum sativum L.), and yellow peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). All vegetables were conventional products and were analyzed in season to minimize differences due to agricultural practice and storage. Cooking and freezing are generally regarded as destructive to antioxidants, and this has fostered a belief among many consumers that raw vegetables are nutritionally superior to their frozen and/or cooked forms. In the current study, we provide evidence that this is not always the case. PMID:19241586

  12. Wild food plants used in the villages of the Lake Vrana Nature Park (northern Dalmatia, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatia is a country of diverse plant use traditions, which are still insufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to document local traditions of using wild food plants around Lake Vrana (northern Dalmatia, Zadar region.  We interviewed 43 inhabitants of six traditional villages north of Lake Vrana. On average 12 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 55 food plants and 3 fungi taxa. Wild vegetables were most widely collected, particularly by older women who gathered the plants mainly when herding their flocks of sheep. Wild fruits and mushrooms were rarely collected. The former used to be an important supplementary food for children, or for everyone during times of food shortage, and the latter were relatively rare due to the dry climate and shortage of woods. The most commonly collected plants are wild vegetables: Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sonchus oleraceus, Asparagus acutifolius, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex pulcher, Daucus carota, Allium ampeloprasum and Silene latifolia.

  13. Conditions Favorable for the Somatic Embryogenesis in Carrot Cell Culture Enhance Expression of the roIC Promoter-GUS Fusion Gene 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Nobuharu; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    1991-01-01

    We obtained carrot (Daucus carota) cells possessing the 5′-noncoding sequence of the ORF12 gene (roIC) of TL-DNA of the Ri plasmid and a structural gene of bacterial β-glucuronidase by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. When such cells were cultured in medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, substantial reduction in β-glucuronidase activity was observed. Upon transferring the cells from a 2,4-D-containing medium to one devoid of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, enhanced expression of β-glucuronidase in somatic embryo development was recorded. Activation by gibberillic acid and suppression by abscisic acid of β-glucuronidase activities, in concord with embryogenesis, were also noted. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667958

  14. Conditions Favorable for the Somatic Embryogenesis in Carrot Cell Culture Enhance Expression of the roIC Promoter-GUS Fusion Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, N; Uchimiya, H

    1991-01-01

    We obtained carrot (Daucus carota) cells possessing the 5'-noncoding sequence of the ORF12 gene (roIC) of TL-DNA of the Ri plasmid and a structural gene of bacterial beta-glucuronidase by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. When such cells were cultured in medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, substantial reduction in beta-glucuronidase activity was observed. Upon transferring the cells from a 2,4-D-containing medium to one devoid of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, enhanced expression of beta-glucuronidase in somatic embryo development was recorded. Activation by gibberillic acid and suppression by abscisic acid of beta-glucuronidase activities, in concord with embryogenesis, were also noted. PMID:16667958

  15. Companion Cropping as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Component for Management of Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in French Beans (Phasealous Vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six companion crops, (Tagetes spp L. (African marigold), Daucus carota L. (carrot), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), Brassica spp. L. kale), capsicum spp L. (chilli) and Zea mays (maize) were evaluated for their efficacy in suppressing field populations of the French bean flower thrips, (Frankliniella occidentals (Pergande), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips sjostedti (trybom). The companion crops were compared to two insecticides, Labda cyhalothrin (Karate 1.75% EC) and Methiocarb (Mesurol 500 SC) and untreated mono-crop of French beans. Three of the treatments, coriander, maize and African marigold were found to be effective in that order, by repelling the pest away from the crop. It is concluded that these crops could be recommended to farmers for use and therefore are able to minimise the high use of chemical insecticides

  16. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Citrate Synthase Gene in Rice( Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shan-shan; MING Feng; LU Qun; GUO Bin; SHEN Da-leng

    2005-01-01

    The full-length OsCS encoding citrate synthase was isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica). OsCS is 1477-bp long and encodes a 474 amino acid polypeptide. Its putative protein sequence is highly identical to Daucus carota, Nicotiana tabacum,Beta vulgaris subsp., Arabidopsis thaliana, and Citrus junos (>70%). The deduced amino-terminal sequence of OsCS showes characteristics of mitochondrial targeting signal. Southern blot analysis using ORF of the OsCS as the probe indicated that this gene exists in multiple copies in rice genome. The band with predicated size of 82 kD was detected by Western blot after being induced by 0.4 mmol/L IPTG.

  17. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants. PMID:25548775

  18. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. from Its Adulterants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C, C. tinctorius (80.10°C, C. officinalis (79.92°C, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat. Tzvel. (79.62°C, N. nucifera (80.58°C, Hemerocallis fulva (L. L. (84.78°C, and Z. mays (84.33°C. The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  19. Does origin always matter? Evaluating the influence of nonlocal seed provenances for ecological restoration purposes in a widespread and outcrossing plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiker, Jutta; Schulz, Benjamin; Wissemann, Volker; Gemeinholzer, Birgit

    2015-12-01

    For restoration purposes, nature conservation generally enforces the use of local seed material based on the "local-is-best" (LIB) approach. However, in some cases recommendations to refrain from this approach have been made. Here we test if a common widespread species with no obvious signs of local adaptation may be a candidate species for abandoning LIB during restoration. Using 10 microsatellite markers we compared population genetic patterns of the generalist species Daucus carota in indigenous and formerly restored sites (nonlocal seed provenances). Gene diversity overall ranged between H e = 0.67 and 0.86 and showed no significant differences between the two groups. Hierarchical AMOVA and principal component analysis revealed very high genetic population admixture and negligible differentiation between indigenous and restored sites (F CT = 0.002). Moreover, differentiation between groups was caused by only one outlier population, where inbreeding effects are presumed. We therefore conclude that the introduction of nonlocal seed provenances in the course of landscape restoration did not jeopardize regional species persistence by contributing to inbreeding or outbreeding depressions, or any measurable adverse population genetic effect. On the basis of these results, we see no obvious objections to the current practice to use the 10-fold cheaper, nonlocal seed material of D. carota for restoration projects. PMID:27069613

  20. A novel in vivo β carotene biosensor for heavy metals detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ling Shing; Lee, Bei Ru; Koh, Chia En; Ong, Yun Qiu; Choong, Chieh Wean

    2015-11-01

    A novel whole cell-based biosensor was constructed using Daucus carota cell as a biological component, with in vivo β-carotene as a reporter group. In this biosensor, the cells were immobilized using agarose gel, and change in in vivo β-carotene, before and after exposure of cells to heavy metals was noted using spectrophotometer at λ = 450 nm. Biosensor was found to operate at its optimum condition using cells from day-14 culture with density of 8 x 10(5) cells/cuvette, and immobilized with 0.5 % agarose at 45°C. The performance of biosensor was affected by pH with the best response produced at pH 7.5. Pb and Cu tests showed that biosensor was able to detect the presence of both heavy metals within the range of 0.01 ppm- 10.00 ppm. The performance of biosensor decreased in stability test with prolonged storage of 40 days, with a stable performance obtained after 10 days of storage. The results showed that β-carotene contain in naturally available cell D. carota responded well to the presence of heavy metals. It is a good indication that biosensor designed is a good candidate to be used for environmental toxicity assessment. PMID:26688961

  1. Evaluation of desiccated and deformed diaspores from natural building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Henn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing sophistication of paleoethnobotanical methods, it is now possible to reconstruct new aspects of the day-to-day life of past peoples, and, ultimately, gain information about their cultivated plants, land-use practices, architecture, diet, and trade. Reliable identification of plant remains, however, remains essential to the study of paleoethnobotany, and there is still much to learn about precise identification. This paper describes and evaluates the most frequent types of deformed desiccated diaspores revealed from adobe bricks used in buildings in Southwestern Hungary that were built primarily between 1850 and 1950. A total of 24,634 diaspores were recovered from 333.05 kg adobe samples. These seeds and fruits belong to 303 taxa, and the majority were arable and ruderal weed species. A total of 98.97% of the diaspores were identified to species. In other cases, identification was possible only to genus or family (0.93% and 0.10% of diaspores, respectively. Difficulties in identification were caused mainly by morphological changes in the size, shape, color, and surface features of diaspores. Most diaspores were darker in color and significantly smaller than fresh or recently desiccated seeds and fruits. Surface features were often absent or fragmented. The most problematic seeds to identify were those of Centaurea cyanus, Consolida regalis, Scleranthus annuus and Daucus carota ssp. carota, which are discussed in detail. Our research aids archaeobotanists in the identification of desiccated and deformed diaspores.

  2. Reducing the bioavailability of PCBs in soil to plant by biochars assessed with triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupling with triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) technique, hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrins (HPCD) extraction method, and the greenhouse pot experiments, the influences of biochars on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioavailability in soil to plant (Brassica chinensis L. and Daucus carota) were investigated. Addition of 2% biochars to soils significantly reduced the uptake of PCBs in plant, especially for di-, tri- and tetra-chlorobiphenyls. PCBs concentrations in the roots of B. chinensis and D. carota were reduced for 61.5–93.7%, and 12.7–62.4%, respectively in the presence of biochars. The kinetic study showed that in the soils amended with/without biochars, PCBs concentrations accumulated in TECAM, as well as in the HPCD extraction solution, followed significant linear relationships with those in plant roots. Application of biochars to soil is a potentially promising method to reduce PCBs bioavailability whereas TECAM technique can be a useful tool to predict the bioavailability of PCBs in soil. -- Highlights: ► Application of biochars significantly reduced the uptake of PCBs in plant. ► TECAM was a new and effective method to predict the PCBs bioavailability in soil. ► PCBs accumulated in TECAM followed significant linear relationships with plant. ► PCBs in TECAM were more similar with the plant uptake than HPCD solution. -- The reduced PCBs concentrations in plant roots by biochars show good linear relationship with those in TECAM

  3. Palatability of weeds from different European origins to the slugs Deroceras reticulatum Müller and Arion lusitanicus Mabille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Kollmann, Johannes; Edwards, Peter J.

    1999-04-01

    As part of a study on the significance of seed provenances in schemes to enhance biodiversity in agricultural habitats, juvenile plants of Cichorium intybus, Daucus carota, Leucanthemum vulgare and Silene alba of different European origins were exposed to grazing by two slug species, Deroceras reticulatum and Arion lusitanicus. Living plants were offered in trays, either in a glasshouse ( Deroceras) or outdoors ( Arion). The amount of herbivory was origin-dependent, with higher losses for all four species from German and Hungarian provenances compared with English and Swiss plants. The main trend was similar for both slug species except in the case of Daucus, and there was a significant 'origin × plant species' interaction. We found strong correlations between provenance-specific herbivory and certain climatic characteristics of the corresponding regions, i.e. winter minimum temperatures, and dryness in spring and late summer, which are crucial for the development of slugs. The results can be interpreted in terms of a SW-NE European climatic gradient and may be a consequence of differences in the need for plant defences against herbivory by slugs. Additionally, the data on palatability were compared with susceptibility towards two parasites which occurred in a field experiment, a leaf miner on Leucanthemum vulgare and a rust fungus on Silene alba. While specific leaf mining frequencies on Leucanthemum contrasted with the palatability of the different provenances to slugs, the rust infection on Silene was low on local and German plants, and higher on the more distant provenances from England and Hungary.

  4. Identification of hairy root loci in the T-regions of Agrobacterium rhizogenes Ri plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, F; Berkaloff, A; Richaud, F

    1986-07-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes induces root formation at the wound site of inoculation in plants and inserts a fragment of its plasmid (Ri) into the plant nuclear DNA. Parts of the transferred region (T-region) of the Ri plasmid of A. rhizogenes strain A4 or 8196 are cloned in Escherichia coli. Insertions of the E. coli lacZ coding region into the hybrid plasmids were made in vivo using transduction by miniMu. Twenty insertions localized in the TL-DNA of pRiA4 (or pRi1855) and 2 inserts in the T-DNA of pRi8196 were obtained in E. coli. One of the TL-DNA insertions is saved up because it is linked to an internal T-DNA deletion; the others because they confer a lactose plus phenotype on E. coli; this indicates that the T-DNA harbours sequences that are expressed in E. coli. Fifteen of these T-DNA insertions were transfered to Agrobacterium where they substitute the corresponding wild-type T-DNA of the Ri plasmid by homologous recombination. These strains corresponding to insertion-directed mutagenesis were used to inoculate Daucus carota slices and stems and leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana. The two insertions strains obtained in the T-DNA of pRi8196 are avirulent on K. daigremontiana; but their phenotypes differ on D. carota slices, suggesting that insertions affect distinct loci on the T-DNA involved in hairy root formation. Only one insertion out of the twenty obtained in the TL-DNA of pRiA4 (or 1855) induces a loss of virulence on leaves of K. daigremontiana. However the TL-DNA deletion harbouring strain induces a loss of virulence on D. carota and K. daigremontiana (stems and leaves), confirming the importance of the TL-DNA for hairy root induction. re]19850711 rv]19851230 ac]19860114. PMID:24307326

  5. Shelf life of minimally processed carrot and green pepper Vida útil de cenoura e pimentão minimamente processados

    OpenAIRE

    Lucimeire Pilon; Marília Oetterer; Cláudio R. Gallo; Marta H. F. Spoto

    2006-01-01

    The postharvest losses of horticultural products justify the use of preservation techniques. The processing not only adds value to the products, but also makes the products more convenient to the consumers. The objective of this research was to define the methodologies for the minimal processing of carrot and green pepper as to the type and intensity of the adoption of conservation techniques, and to monitor the products after processing through microbiological, physicochemical and nutritiona...

  6. Results of an exploration to expand the diversity of Daucus and Apiaceae germplasm collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    This brief report summarizes efforts conducted at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa to conserve important umbel accessions collected in 1999 from Greece, Syria, and Turkey as part of a plant exploration organized by Dr. Philipp Simon (USDA-ARS, Mad...

  7. Influence of technical processing units on polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Tian, Chengrui; Luo, Jiyang; Zhou, Rui; Sun, Xiangyu; Ma, Jinjin

    2013-12-01

    The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, and pasteurisation) on polyphenols and antioxidant activity of carrot juices was investigated. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of carrot juices varied with different processes. Five polyphenolic acids were identified in fresh carrot juice, and the predominant compound was chlorogenic acid. Compared with fresh carrot juice, blanching and enzyme liquefaction could result in the increase of the total polyphenol content (TPC) and the antioxidant activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals (DPPH) and Fe(2+)-chelating capacity (FC), whereas pasteurisation could result in the decrease of the TPC and the antioxidant activity in DPPH and FC. Meanwhile blanching, enzyme liquefaction, and pasteurisation showed little influence on the antioxidant activity in lipid peroxidation protection. The antioxidant activities in DPPH and FC increased with increasing concentration while no correlation between lipid peroxidation protection and polyphenols concentration. Polyphenols still retained high antioxidant activity after the processes, which have potential health benefits for consumers. PMID:23870871

  8. Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zapata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota.The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of weeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and

  9. 长春花Crlea基因的克隆及原核表达初步分析%Cloning and prokaryotic expression of Crlea gene from Catharanthus roseus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂明珠; 祖元刚; 房思良

    2006-01-01

    晚期胚胎丰富(Late Embryogenesis Abundant, LEA)蛋白是植物在干旱胁迫下响应并被描述为具有潜在的抗旱功能的一类重要的抗旱蛋白.通过建立干旱胁迫下长春花(Catharanthus roseus)的cDNA文库并进行测序筛选分析,首次分离得到Crlea(Crlea for Catharanthus roseus late embryogenesis abundant)全长基因.该基因具有492 bp的开放读码框,编码163个氨基酸,其中偏性氨基酸含量占总蛋白的55.9%.同源性分析表明该假定蛋白与胡萝卜(Daucus carota)LEA DC3 的同源性达69%.亲水性分析表明具有极强的亲水性.为进一步验证CrLEA蛋白的功能,构建了Crlea基因的原核表达载体并在大肠杆菌中对其表达进行了分析.结果表明,原核载体成功的表达了CrLEA蛋白,亲水性实验及热稳定性实验表明CrLEA蛋白具有极强的亲水性和热稳定性.%Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are one of the important proteins in stress response which have been described as having a potential role in drought tolerance. Crlea(Crlea for Catharanthus roseus late embryogenesis abundant) gene was first cloned from cDNA library of Catharanthus roseus under drought stress through sequencing screening method. The sequence analysis of the Crlea gene showed a complete 492bp ORF encoding a putative 163 amino acids polypeptide with a biased amino acid of 55.9% to total component. Homology analysis indicated a 69% similarity between CrLEA protein and carrot (Daucus carota)LEA DC3 protein. Hydrophobicity analysis found that CrLEA protein was extremely hydrophilic. For further identifying the function of CrLEA protein, prokaryotic recombinant vector of Crlea gene was constructed and the expression in E.coli was studied. Results showed recombinant CrLEA protein was successfully expressed in E.coli. Hydrophilic and heat-stable analysis of recombinant CrLEA protein showed a strong hydrophilic and heat-stable ability.

  10. APLICACIÓN DE LA TECNICA DE IV GAMA PARA LA ELABORACIÓN DE ENSALADAS EVALUATION OF IV GAMA TECHNIQUE TO PREPARE VEGETABLE SALADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auris Damely García Méndez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la aplicación de la técnica de IV Gama en la elaboración de ensaladas listas para el consumo fresco, esta dirigido al control del deterioro en lechuga americana (Lactuca sativa, zanahoria (Daucus carota L., radicchio (Cichorium intybus L. y escarola (Cichorium endivia L., destinadas a preparar ensaladas tipo “Mediterránea y Cheff”. La metodología permitió seleccionar y evaluar la técnica de IV Gama, así como las buenas prácticas de manufactura para extender la vida comercial de las ensaladas y garantizar la seguridad alimentaria para la población potencialmente consumidora. La aplicación combinada de soluciones de cloruro de calcio al 1%, acido cítrico a 0,1% y oxido de magnesio al 0,5% contribuyo a mantener la calidad de las ensaladas por un período de 16 días bajo refrigeración a 5 + 1 °C y 95 + 5% HR. En conclusión las técnicas ensayadas, posibilitaron extender el valor comercial de estos productos.The purpose of applying the fresh-cut technique in preparing vegetable salads ready for fresh consumption, was aimed to control the damage American lettuce (Lactuca sativa; carrot (Daucus carota L; Radicchio (Cichorium intybus L and endive (Cichorium endivia L.“ Mediterranean and Cheff” style salads were prepared for evaluation. The methodology allowed selecting and evaluating fresh-cut technique as well as good manufacturing practices, to extend the commercial life, and guarantee alimentary food safety to people. Use of 1% calcium chloride; 0.1% citric acid and 0.5% magnesium oxide solutions; allowed to maintain the quality of the salads for a period of 16 up to days, under refrigeration at 5± 1ºC and 95 ± 5 % RH. Finally the assays techniques let to extend the commercial value of these vegetables.

  11. Heat shock factors in carrot: genome-wide identification, classification, and expression profiles response to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Meng-Yao; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guang-Long; Ma, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Heat shock factors (HSFs) play key roles in the response to abiotic stress in eukaryotes. In this study, 35 DcHSFs were identified from carrot (Daucus carota L.) based on the carrot genome database. All 35 DcHSFs were divided into three classes (A, B, and C) according to the structure and phylogenetic relationships of four different plants, namely, Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Brassica rapa, and Oryza sativa. Comparative analysis of algae, gymnosperms, and angiosperms indicated that the numbers of HSF transcription factors were related to the plant's evolution. The expression profiles of five DcHsf genes (DcHsf 01, DcHsf 02, DcHsf 09, DcHsf 10, and DcHsf 16), which selected from each subfamily (A, B, and C), were detected by quantitative real-time PCR under abiotic stresses (cold, heat, high salinity, and drought) in two carrot cultivars, D. carota L. cvs. Kurodagosun and Junchuanhong. The expression levels of DcHsfs were markedly increased by heat stress, except that of DcHsf 10, which was down regulated. The expression profiles of different DcHsfs in the same class also differed under various stress treatments. The expression profiles of these DcHsfs were also different in tissues of two carrot cultivars. This study is the first to identify and characterize the DcHSF family transcription factors in plants of Apiaceae using whole-genome analysis. The results of this study provide an in-depth understanding of the DcHSF family transcription factors' structure, function, and evolution in carrot. PMID:25403331

  12. 2001: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Biggiogera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the papers published in the European Journal of Histochemistry in 2001, several deal with plant cells. Personally, as a cell biologist mainly working with animal cells, I have always been fascinated by plant cells: the images of those beautiful nuclei are not only something to look at and marvel at. In the past few years, important indications of cell structure and function have come from plant cytology and cytochemistry (see e.g. Medina et al., 2000. Along this line, Lingua and coworkers (2001 described the changes that occur after arbuscular mychorizal fungi colonization, which can induce a strong increase in metabolism. Nuclear changes can also be induced by pathogens, as in Licopersicon esculentum (Lingua et al., 2001. In the same issue, we find other interesting papers: Balestrazzi et al. (2001 have studied the expression of DNA topoisomerase I in Daucus carota: the elucidation of the expression pattern of this gene is important in the evaluation of its physiological functions. In another paper, Bianciotto et al. (2001 studied the association of arbuscular mychorrizal fungi with rhizobacteria, which are commonly used as biopesticides and biofertilizers: the anchoring between fungi and bacteria occurs by means of extracellular polysaccharides. This could be of relevance for the production of inocula with a stable fugus-bacteria association.

  13. Phytotoxicity, uptake and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene by plant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.J. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Biological Sciences]|[Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences; Bokern, M.; Boehme, C.; Harms, H. [Federal Agricultural Research Center, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science; Jones, K.C. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Biological Sciences

    1996-07-01

    Phytotoxicity, uptake, and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) by carrot (Daucus carota L.), soybean (Glycine max. L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and red goosefoot (Chenopodiun rubrum L.) cell suspension cultures were studied. Sealed glass systems were utilized for the investigation because 1,4-DCB is volatile. The sealed systems affect the growth of plant cells, but do not provide different results when testing xenobiotic uptake and metabolism. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (40 {micro}g in 40 ml medium) was taken up by carrot (49%), soybean (50%), and red goosefoot (62%) cells. Only the soybean cell cultures provided evidence of the existence of metabolites of this compound, probably conjugates of chlorophenols. Conditions for phytotoxicity tests were modified because the growth of cell cultures was affected when sealed for longer than 2 d. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene is toxic to cell cultures of the three tested plant species (tomato, soybean, and carrot). Concentrations of 0.5 mM caused 50% growth inhibition in carrot and soybean cultures. The tomato cultures were more sensitive, with 0.05 mM causing 50% growth inhibition.

  14. Residual tembotrione and atrazine in carrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Amanda F; Carneiro, Gabriella D P; Guimarães, Fernanda A R; Dos Reis, Marcelo R; Silva, Daniel V; Rocha, Bruno H; Souza, Matheus F; Sediyama, Tocio

    2016-07-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a vegetable crop that is grown throughout the year across various regions of Brazil in rotation or in succession to other cultures. Herbicide residual effect has emerged as a concern, because of the possibility of carryover. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tembotrione and atrazine residues - in mixture and isolated - on carrot planted in succession to corn. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with five replications. Treatments consisted of tembotrione (50.4 g ha(-1)), tembotrione (100.8 g ha(-1)), tembotrione + atrazine (50.4 g ha(-1)+ 2 L ha(-1)), tembotrione + atrazine (100.8 g ha(-1)+ 2 L ha(-1)), and atrazine (2.00 L ha(-1)) applied eight months before carrot seeding, plus a control treatment with no herbicide application. Investigated variables were shoot dry mass, productivity, and classification of carrot roots. The presence of atrazine and tembotrione decreased dry mass in the area, and only tembotrione reduced total root productivity. Thus, there is a carryover effect to tembotrione application that reduces the dry matter accumulation of shoot and total productivity, and an atrazine + tembotrione (100.8 g ha(-1)) mixture reduces the total productivity after application of these herbicides to soil. PMID:27052932

  15. Evaluation of Combined Disinfection Methods for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population on Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Petri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Most current disinfection strategies for fresh-cut industry are focused on the use of different chemical agents; however, very little has been reported on the effectiveness of the hurdle technology. The effect of combined decontamination methods based on the use of different sanitizers (peroxyacetic acid and chlorine dioxide and the application of pressure (vacuum/positive pressure on the inactivation of the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut lettuce (Lactuca sativa and carrots (Daucus carota was studied. Fresh produce, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, was immersed (4 °C, 2 min in tap water (W, chlorine water (CW, chlorine dioxide (ClO2: 2 mg/L and peroxyacetic acid (PAA: 100 mg/L in combination with: (a vacuum (V: 10 mbar or (b positive pressure application (P: 3 bar. The product quality and antimicrobial effects of the treatment on bacterial counts were determined both in process washing water and on fresh-cut produce. Evidence obtained in this study, suggests that the use of combined methods (P/V + sanitizers results in a reduction on the microorganism population on produce similar to that found at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the application of physical methods led to a significant detrimental effect on the visual quality of lettuce regardless of the solution used. Concerning the process water, PAA proved to be an effective alternative to chlorine for the avoidance of cross-contamination.

  16. Apparent inhibition of β-fructosidase secretion by tunicamycin may be explained by breakdown of the unglycosylated protein during secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells synthesize and secrete β-fructosidase, a glycoprotein with asparagine-linked glycans. Treatment of the cells with tunicamycin completely inhibits the apparent secretion of β-fructosidase as measured by the accumulation of the 35S-labelled protein in the cell wall or the culture medium. In the past, such a result has been interpreted as an inhibition of secretion by tunicamycin, but we suggest another explanation based on the following results. In the presence of tunicamycin, unglycosylated β-fructosidase is synthesized and is associated with an endoplasmic-reticulum-rich microsomal fraction. Pulse-chase experiments show that the unglycosylated β-fructosidase does not remain in the cells and appears to be secreted in the same way as glycosylated β-fructosidase; however, no radioactive, unglycosylated β-fructosidase accumulates extracellularly (cell wall or medium). Protoplasts obtained from carrot cells secrete β-fructosidase protein and activity, and treatment of the protoplasts with tunicamycin results in the synthesis of unglycosylated β-fructosidase. In the presence of tunicamycin, there is no accumulation of β-fructosidase activity or unglycosylated β-fructosidase polypeptide in the protoplast incubation medium. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the glycans of β-fructosidase are necessary for its stability, and that in these suspension-cultured cells, the unglycosylated enzyme is degraded during the last stage(s) of secretion, or immediately after its arrival in the wall

  17. Cross-talk between signaling pathways: the link between plant secondary metabolite production and wounding stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A; González-Agüero, Mauricio; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Plants subjected to wounding stress produce secondary metabolites. Several of these metabolites prevent chronic diseases and can be used as colorants, flavors, and as antimicrobials. This wound-induced production of plant secondary metabolites is mediated by signaling-molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA). However, their specific role and interactions that modulate the wound-respond in plants is not fully understood. In the present study, a subtractive cDNA library was generated, to better understand the global response of plants to wounding stress. Carrot (Daucus carota) was used as a model system for this study. A total of 335 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequences were obtained. ESTs sequences with a putative identity showed involvement in stress-signaling pathways as well as on the primary and secondary metabolism. Inhibitors of ROS biosynthesis, ET action, and JA biosynthesis alone and in combination were applied to wounded-carrots in order to determine, based on relative gene expression data, the regulatory role of ET, JA, and ROS on the wound-response in plants. Our results demonstrate that ROS play a key role as signaling-molecules for the wound-induced activation of the primary and secondary metabolism whereas ET and JA are essential to modulate ROS levels. PMID:25712739

  18. Long-term changes in the extractability and bioavailability of zinc and cadmium after sludge application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P.; Zhao, F.J.; Dunham, S.J.; Crosland, A.R.; Coleman, K.

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the extractability and uptake by crops of sludge metals in a long-term field experiment, started in 1942, were measured to assess whether Zn and Cd are either fixed by the sludge/soil constituents or are released as the sludge organic matter (OM) decomposes. Total and 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}-extractable concentrations of Zn and Cd in soil and total concentrations in crops were measured on archived crop and soil samples. Extractability of Zn as a proportion of the total ranged from 0.5 to 3% and that of Cd from 4 to 18%, and were higher in sludge-amended than farmyard manure or fertilizer-amended soils. Over a 23-yr period after 1961, when sludge was last applied, the extractability of both metals fluctuated, but neither decreased nor increased consistently. The relationships between total soil and crop metal concentrations were linear, with no evidence of a plateau across the range of soil metal concentrations achieved. The slopes of the soil-plant relationships depended on the type of crop or crop part examined, but were generally in the order red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > carrot (Daucus carota L.) > barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, there also were large seasonal differences in metal concentrations in the crops. It is concluded from the available evidence that up to 23 yr after sludge applications cease, Zn and Cd extractability and bioavailability do not decrease.

  19. Carotenoid Accumulation by Carrot Storage Roots in Relation to Nitrogen Fertilization Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of carotenoid compounds in carrot (Daucus carota L. roots of five cultivars, in relation to different nitrogen fertilization levels was investigated. The experiment was carried out at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Carrot cultivars ‘Karotan’ F1, ‘Trafford’ F1, ‘Krakow’ F1, ‘Komarno’ F1 and ‘HY 7842’ were used in the study. Nitrogen fertilization was applied as urea form, in doses ranging from 0 to 120 kg N ha–1, and on two terms: pre-sowing and in the middle of the growing season. The carrot seeds were sown at the beginning of May and the roots were harvested in mid-October at maturity. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents in the carrot roots were determined after the harvest by means of the standard spectrophotometric method. CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of the roots and the juice, as well as dry matter in the roots were determined. Results of the experiment showed that carotenoid accumulation in the roots was significantly affected by carrot genotype. ‘HY7842’ carrot showed the highest accumulation of total carotenoids and β-carotene. Nitrogen in the rates applied, did not significantly influence carotenoid content in the roots. Moderate correlation between carotenoid content and colour a* parameter (redness intensity of the roots and the juice was found.

  20. The study of the deuterium isotopic fractionation through the cell membrane of the plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to prove that there is a water deuterium isotope fractionation when the water passes through the cell membrane. The carrots (Daucus carota) were grown in vitro in a Murashige and Skoog mineral-salt medium and have been exposed to a water solution with a uniform isotopic content. After seven days the cell culture was filtered and the cell water was vacuum extracted. The water from aqueous solution and the cell water were analyzed for hydrogen by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The procedure was repeated for 14 and 21 day old cell cultures. The measurements have revealed a water deuterium isotopic fractionation between extra-cellular water and cellular water. The deuterium content was found to be higher within the cells by 10o/oo for non-embryonic cells and 13 o/oo for the embryonic cells. This fractionation is a non-evaporative fractionation between intracellular and extra-cellular water and it represents a new step in the overall fractionation of deuterium water in the plants. The existence of such isotopic fractionation through the cell membrane implies that the relationship between the deuterium content of cellulose nitrate in plant and meteoric water should be revised. Also, this finding is of interest for understanding the balance and dynamics of the hydrogen isotopes in the environment. (authors)

  1. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the root uptake and translocation of radiocaesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because mycorrhizal fungi are intimately associated with plant roots, their importance in radionuclide (RN) recycling and subsequent dispersion into the biosphere has received an increasing interest. Recently, the capacity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to take up and translocate radiocaesium to their host was demonstrated. However, the relative contribution of these processes in comparison to the ones of roots remains unknown. Here, the respective contributions of the hyphae of a Glomus species and the transformed carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots on radiocaesium uptake and translocation were compared and quantified. We observed that radiocaesium uptake by hyphae was significantly lower as compared to that of the roots, while the opposite was noted for radiocaesium translocation/uptake ratio. We also observed that the intraradical fungal structures might induce a local accumulation of radiocaesium and concurrently reduce its translocation within mycorrhizal roots. We believe that intraradical fungal structures might induce the down-regulation of radiocaesium channels involved in the transport processes of radiocaesium towards the xylem. - Radiocaesium root uptake and translocation is affected by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

  2. Phosphoglycerylethanolamine posttranslational modification of plant eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 1alpha (eEF-1A) is a multifunctional protein. There are three known posttranslational modifications of eEF-1A that could potentially affect its function. Except for phosphorylation, the other posttranslational modifications have not been demonstrated in plants. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry and peptide mass mapping, we show that carrot (Daucus carota L.) eEF-1A contains a phosphoglycerylethanolamine (PGE) posttranslational modification. eEF-1A was the only protein labeled with [14C]ethanolamine in carrot cells and was the predominant ethanolamine-labeled protein in Arabidopsis seedlings and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell cultures. In vivo-labeling studies using [3H]glycerol, [32P][Pi,[14C]myristic acid, and [14C]linoleic acid indicated that the entire phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine is covalently attached to the protein. The PGE lipid modification did not affect the partitioning of eEF-1A in Triton X-114 or its actin-binding activity in in vitro assays. Our in vitro data indicate that this newly characterized posttranslational modification alone does not affect the function of eEF-1A. Therefore, the PGE lipid modification may work in combination with other posttranslational modifications to affect the distribution and the function of eEF-1A within the cell

  3. Plants as biofactories: physiological role of reactive oxygen species on the accumulation of phenolic antioxidants in carrot tissue under wounding and hyperoxia stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés B; Del C Rodríguez, Silvia; Cao, Cong-Mei; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2011-06-22

    Plants subjected to postharvest abiotic stresses synthesize secondary metabolites with health-promoting properties. Here, we report the potential use of carrots (Daucus carota) as biofactories of caffeoylquinic acids when subjected to wounding and hyperoxia stresses. Wounding stress induced an increase of ∼287% in total phenolic content (PC) in carrots stored for 48 h at 20 °C. This increase was higher (∼349%) in the wounded tissue treated with hyperoxia stress. To further understand the physiological role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a signaling molecule for the stress-induced accumulation of phenolics in carrots, the respiration rate as well as the enzymatic activities of NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase were evaluated. Likewise, shredded carrots were treated with diphenyleneiodonium chloride solution to block NADPH oxidase ROS productions, and the phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and total PC were evaluated. Results demonstrated that ROS play a key role as a signaling molecule for the stress-induced accumulation of PC in carrots. PMID:21553806

  4. Stereoselective Reduction of Prochiral Ketones by Plant and Microbial Biocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidnia, K; Faghih-Mirzaei, E; Miri, R; Attarroshan, M; Zomorodian, K

    2016-01-01

    Chiral alcohols are the key chiral building blocks to many enantiomerically pure pharmaceuticals. The biocatalytic approach in asymmetric reduction of corresponding prochiral ketones to the preparation of these optically pure substances is one of the most promising routes. The stereoselective reduction of different kinds of prochiral ketones catalyzed by various plants and microorganisms was studied in this work. Benzyl acetoacetate, methyl 3-oxopentanoate, ethyl 3-oxopentanoate, and ethyl butyryl acetate were chosen as the model substrates for β-ketoesters. Benzoyl acetonitrile, 3-chloro propiophenone, and 1-acetyl naphthalene were chosen as aromatic aliphatic ketones. Finally, 2-methyl benzophenone and 4-chloro benzophenone were selected as diaryl ketones. Plant catalysis was conducted by Daucus carota, Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, Pastinaca sativa, and Raphnus sativus. For microbial catalysis, Aspergillus foetidus, Penicillum citrinum, Saccharomyces carlbergensis, Pichia fermentans, and Rhodotrula glutinis were chosen. Chiral alcohols were obtained in high yields and with optical purity. A superiority in the microorganisms' performance in the bioreduction of prochiral ketones was detected. Among microorganisms, Rhodotrula glutinis showed remarkable results with nearly all substrates and is proposed for future studies. PMID:27168684

  5. Stereoselective reduction of prochiral ketones by plant and microbial biocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Javidnia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral alcohols are the key chiral building blocks to many enantiomerically pure pharmaceuticals. The biocatalytic approach in asymmetric reduction of corresponding prochiral ketones to the preparation of these optically pure substances is one of the most promising routes. The stereoselective reduction of different kinds of prochiral ketones catalyzed by various plants and microorganisms was studied in this work. Benzyl acetoacetate, methyl 3-oxopentanoate, ethyl 3-oxopentanoate, and ethyl butyryl acetate were chosen as the model substrates for β-ketoesters. Benzoyl acetonitrile, 3-chloro propiophenone, and 1-acetyl naphthalene were chosen as aromatic aliphatic ketones. Finally, 2-methyl benzophenone and 4-chloro benzophenone were selected as diaryl ketones. Plant catalysis was conducted by Daucus carota, Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, Pastinaca sativa, and Raphnus sativus.For microbial catalysis, Aspergillus foetidus, Penicillum citrinum, Saccharomyces carlbergensis, Pichia fermentans, and Rhodotrula glutinis were chosen. Chiral alcohols were obtained in high yields and with optical purity. A superiority in the microorganisms' performance in the bioreduction of prochiral ketones was detected. Among microorganisms, Rhodotrula glutinis showed remarkable results with nearly all substrates and is proposed for future studies.

  6. Age-stage, two-sex life tables of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) with a discussion on the problem of applying female age-specific life tables to insect populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bing Huang; Hsin Chi

    2012-01-01

    Age-stage,two-sex life tables of the melon fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae ( Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),reared on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.),sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica Roem) and a carrot medium (mashed Daucus carota L.mixed with sucrose and yeast hydrolysate) were constructed under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1 ℃,65% ± 0.5%relative humidity,and a photoperiod 12 ∶ 12h (L ∶ D).The intrinsic rates of increase of B.cucurbitae were 0.144 6,0.141 2 and 0.068 8 days on cucumber,sponge gourd,and carrot medium,respectively.The highest net reproduction rate was 172 offspring per fly reared on sponge gourd.The mean generation times of B.cucurbitae ranged from 34 days reared on cucumber to 56 days reared on carrot medium.The life history raw data was analyzed using the traditional female age-specific life table and compared to results obtained using the age-stage,two-sex life table.When the age-specific female life table is applied to an age-stage-structured two-sex population,survival and fecundity curves will be improperly manipulated due to an inability to include variation in preadult development time.We discussed different interpretations of the relationship between the net reproductive rate and the intrinsic rate of increase to clarify possible misunderstanding in the literature.

  7. Plant uptake of pentachlorophenol from sludge-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). Plants included tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Minimal intact PCP was detected in the fescue and lettuce by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. No intact PCP was detected in the carrot tissue extracts. Chile pepper was not analyzed for intact PCP because methylene chloride extracts contained minimal 14C. The GC/MS analysis of soil extracts at harvest suggests a half-life of PCP of about 10 d independent of sludge rate or PCP loading rate. Rapid degradation of PCP in the soil apparently limited PCP availability to the plant. Bioconcentration factors (dry plant wt./initial soil PCP concentration) based on intact PCP were <0.01 for all crops, suggesting little PCP uptake. Thus, food-chain crop PCP uptake in these alkaline soils should not limit land application of sludge

  8. The impact of no-tillage cultivation and white mustard as a cover crop on weed infestation and yield of carrot and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borowy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year field experiment, no-tillage cultivation using white mustard (Sinapis alba L. ‘Bardena’, 30 kg ha−1, as a cover crop did not influence emergence of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ‘Czerwona Kula REW’ and had a favorable effect on emergence of carrot (Daucus carota L. ‘Berlikumer 2 – Perfekcja REW’. However, further growth of both vegetables was significantly slower under no-tillage cultivation. Both vegetables produced a higher yield of roots and the diameter of these roots was bigger under conventional cultivation. The effect of cultivation method on the content of total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in carrot and red beet leaves varied, while the content of dry matter, monosaccharides and total sugars was significantly higher in the roots of both vegetables harvested under no-tillage cultivation. The number of weeds growing on no-tilled plots covered with mustard mulch 4 weeks after seed sowing was lower by about 75%, but their fresh weight was higher more than 6 times in comparison to that under conventional cultivation. This was caused by the emergence of wintering and winter hardy weeds in places not covered by mustard plants in the autumn of the year preceding the cultivation of vegetables. Next year, they started to grow in the early spring and some of them produced a considerable amount of fresh weight and attained the flowering stage in the middle of April.

  9. Path analysis suggests phytoene accumulation is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrot roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two F2 carrot (Daucus carota L. populations (orange rooted Brasilia x very dark orange rooted High Carotene Mass - HCM cross and the dark orange rooted cultivated variety B493 x white rooted wild carrot Queen Anne's Lace - QAL cross with very unrelated genetic backgrounds were used to investigate intrinsic factors limiting carotenoid accumulation in carrots by applying phenotypic correlation and path analysis to study the relationships between major root carotenes, root color and several other morphological traits. Most of the correlations between traits were close and agreed in sign between the two populations. Root weight had a moderate to highly significant positive correlation with leaf length, root length and top and middle root diameter. Although phenotypic correlations failed to identify the order of the substrates and products in the carotenoid pathway the correct order of substrates and products (phytoene -> zeta-carotene -> lycopene was identified in the causal diagram of beta-carotene for the Brasilia x HCM population. Path analysis of beta-carotene synthesis in the B493 x QAL population suggested that selection for root carotenes had little effect on plant morphological traits. Causal model of beta-carotene and lycopene in the B493 x QAL population suggested that phytoene synthesis is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrots. Path analysis, first presented by Sewall Wright to study quantitative traits, appears to be a powerful statistical approach for the identification of key compounds in complex pathways.

  10. Sensory Quality of Orange, Purple and Yellow Carrots Stored under Controlled Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek GAJEWSKI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of long-term storage of carrot (Daucus carota L. roots under normal and controlled atmosphere (CA on their sensory quality and soluble solids content was investigated. Carrot cultivars of orange (‘Nebula’, purple-orange (‘Purple Haze’ and yellow (‘Mello Yello’ colour of the roots were stored for 6 months at 0-1oC, under controlled atmosphere (CA of gas composition 5% CO2+10% O2, 2% CO2+5% O2, 5% CO2+5% O2 and at normal atmosphere. Sensory quality was evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis method. Roots of ‘Nebula’ showed the best overall quality under normal atmosphere, although CA resulted in higher firmness and crunchiness. Roots of ‘Purple Haze’ showed the best quality under 5% CO2+5% O2 or 5% CO2+10% O2. Storage in these CA variants resulted in higher sweetness, juiciness, crunchiness and firmness. Roots of ‘Mello Yello’ showed the smallest differences in quality under CA variants. Storage of carrots in CA did not result in off-flavour or off-odour. CA-stored roots showed higher soluble solids content.

  11. Cooling parameters for fruits and vegetables of different sizes in a hydrocooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruel Bárbara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooling of fruits and vegetables in hydrocooling system can be a suitable technique. This work aimed to define cooling time for fruits and vegetables of different sizes, presenting practical indexes that could be used to estimate cooling time for produce with similar characteristics. Fruits (orange melon-Cucumis melo, mango-Mangifera indica, guava-Psidium guajava, orange-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, plum-Prunus domestica, lime-Citrus limon, and acerola-Prunus cerasus and vegetables (cucumber-Cucumis sativus, carrot-Daucus carota, and green bean-Phaseolus vulgaris, were cooled in a hydrocooling system at 1°C. The volume of fruits and vegetables ranged between 8.18 cm³ and 1,150.35 cm³, and between 13.06 cm³ and 438.4 cm³, respectively. Cooling time varied proportionally to produce volume (from 8.5 to 124 min for fruits, and from 1.5 to 55 min, for vegetables. The relationship between volume and time needed to cool fruits (from 1.03 min cm-3 to 0.107 min cm-3 and vegetables (from 0.06 min cm-3 to 0.12 min cm-3 is an index that could be used to estimate cooling time for fruits and vegetables with similar dimensions as those presented in this work.

  12. Differential selection on carotenoid biosynthesis genes as a function of gene position in the metabolic pathway: a study on the carrot and dicots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Clotault

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selection of genes involved in metabolic pathways could target them differently depending on the position of genes in the pathway and on their role in controlling metabolic fluxes. This hypothesis was tested in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway using population genetics and phylogenetics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Evolutionary rates of seven genes distributed along the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, IPI, PDS, CRTISO, LCYB, LCYE, CHXE and ZEP, were compared in seven dicot taxa. A survey of deviations from neutrality expectations at these genes was also undertaken in cultivated carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus, a species that has been intensely bred for carotenoid pattern diversification in its root during its cultivation history. Parts of sequences of these genes were obtained from 46 individuals representing a wide diversity of cultivated carrots. Downstream genes exhibited higher deviations from neutral expectations than upstream genes. Comparisons of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates between genes among dicots revealed greater constraints on upstream genes than on downstream genes. An excess of intermediate frequency polymorphisms, high nucleotide diversity and/or high differentiation of CRTISO, LCYB1 and LCYE in cultivated carrot suggest that balancing selection may have targeted genes acting centrally in the pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are consistent with relaxed constraints on downstream genes and selection targeting the central enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway during carrot breeding history.

  13. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeong Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla.

  14. Induced plant responses to pathogen attack. Analysis and heterologous expression of the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Harosoy 63).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, R; Schröder, G; Schiltz, E; Grisebach, H; Schröder, J

    1991-03-14

    In soybean (Glycine max L.), pathogen attack induces the formation of glyceollin-type phytoalexins. The biosynthetic key enzyme is a reductase which synthesizes 4,2', 4'-trihydroxychalcone in co-action with chalcone synthase. Screening of a soybean cDNA library from elicitor-induced RNA in lambda gt11 yielded two classes of reductase-specific clones. The deduced proteins match to 100% and 95%, respectively, with 229 amino acids sequenced in the purified plant protein. Four clones of class A were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the proteins were tested for enzyme activity in extracts supplemented with chalcone synthase. All were active in 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone formation, and the quantification showed that shorter lengths of the cDNAs at the 5' end correlated with progressively decreasing enzyme activities. Genomic blots with DNA from plants capable of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone synthesis revealed related sequences in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), but not in pea (Pisum sativum L.). No hybridization was observed with parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and carrot (Daucus carota) which synthesize other phytoalexins. The reductase protein contains a leucine-zipper motif and reveals a marked similarity with other oxidoreductases most of which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:1840523

  15. Structural and functional organisation of regenerated plant protoplasts exposed to microgravity on Biokosmos 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, D. A.; Kordyum, E. L.; Danevich, L. A.; Tarnavskaya, E. B.; Tairbekov, M. G.; Iversen, T.-H.; Baggerud, C.; Rasmussen, O.

    Preparatory experiments for the IML-1 mission using plant protoplasts, were flown on a 14-day flight on Biokosmos 9 in September 1989. Thirty-six hours before launch of the biosatellite, protoplasts were isolated from hypocotyl cells of rapeseed (Brassica napus) and suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota). Ultrastructural and fluorescence analysis of cell aggregates from these protoplasts, cultured under microgravity conditions, have been performed. In the flight samples as well as in the ground controls, a portion of the total number of protoplasts regenerated cell walls. The processes of cell differentiation and proliferation under micro-g did not differ significantly from those under normal gravity conditions. However, in micro-g differences were observed in the ultrastructure of some organelles such as plastids and mitochondria. There was also an increase in the frequency of the occurrence of folds formed by the plasmalemma together with an increase in the degree of complexity of these folds. In cell cultures developed under micro-g conditions, the calcium content tends to decrease, compared to the ground control. Different aspects of using isolated protoplasts for clarifying the mechanisms of biological effects of microgravity are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of Combined Disinfection Methods for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population on Fresh-Cut Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Eva; Rodríguez, Mariola; García, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    Most current disinfection strategies for fresh-cut industry are focused on the use of different chemical agents; however, very little has been reported on the effectiveness of the hurdle technology. The effect of combined decontamination methods based on the use of different sanitizers (peroxyacetic acid and chlorine dioxide) and the application of pressure (vacuum/positive pressure) on the inactivation of the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and carrots (Daucus carota) was studied. Fresh produce, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, was immersed (4 °C, 2 min) in tap water (W), chlorine water (CW), chlorine dioxide (ClO2: 2 mg/L) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA: 100 mg/L) in combination with: (a) vacuum (V: 10 mbar) or (b) positive pressure application (P: 3 bar). The product quality and antimicrobial effects of the treatment on bacterial counts were determined both in process washing water and on fresh-cut produce. Evidence obtained in this study, suggests that the use of combined methods (P/V + sanitizers) results in a reduction on the microorganism population on produce similar to that found at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the application of physical methods led to a significant detrimental effect on the visual quality of lettuce regardless of the solution used. Concerning the process water, PAA proved to be an effective alternative to chlorine for the avoidance of cross-contamination. PMID:26213954

  17. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  18. The melliferous potential of apiflora of southwestern Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mačukanović-Jocić Marina P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual and community-level melliferous potential of apiflora was evaluated in southwestern Vojvodina in order to assess its significance and contribution to the bee pasture. Seven plant communities belonging to ruderal, segetal and floodplain type of vegetation, with a total of 279 plant species were registered. Apifloristic and phytocoenological investigations included the determination and analysis of honey plants using the following parameters: total number, percentage, abundance and frequency of these species in the communities, as well as their intensity of pollen and nectar production. The coenotic coefficient of melliferousness (CCm indicating the melliferous potential of each community, was calculated based on the above parameters. Although the greatest number of melliferous species was found in the ass. Chenopodio-Ambrosietum artemisiifoliae (132, the highest percentage (80% of them was registered in the ass. Consolido-Polygonetum avicularis. Considering the coefficients of nectar and pollen production, the most valuable honey plants commonly present in the majority of communities were: Cirsium arvense, Rubus caesius, Lythrum salicaria, Daucus carota, Trifolium pratense, Dipsacus laciniatus, Medicago sativa, Asclepias syriaca, Cichorium intybus and Taraxacum officinale. The low abundance and frequency of melliferous species within the Consolido-Polygonetum avicularis, Polygonetum convolvulo-avicularis and Populetum nigrae-albae communities indicated their poor contribution to the bee pasture. Within ruderal vegetation, the highest CCm was registered in Amorpho-Typhaetum, providing, theoretically, the richest food resource for the honeybees in the investigated area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009 i br. 173018

  19. Trypsin-induced ATPase activity in potato mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, D.W.; Laties, G.G.

    1976-04-01

    Potato mitochondria (Solanum tuberosum var. Russet Burbank), which readily phosphorylate ADP in oxidative phosphorylation, show low levels of ATPase activity which is stimulated neither by Mg/sup 2 +/, 2,4-dinitrophenol, incubation with respiratory substrates, nor disruption by sonication or treatment with Triton X-100, individually or in concert. Treatment of disrupted potato mitochondria with trypsin stimulates Mg/sup 2 +/-dependent, oligomycin-sensitive ATPase activity 10- to 15-fold, suggesting the presence of an ATPase inhibitor protein. Trypsin-induced ATPase activity was unaffected by uncoupler. Oligomycin-sensitive ATPase activity decreases as exposure to trypsin is increased. Incubation at alkaline pH or heating at 60/sup 0/C for 2 minutes also activates ATPase of sonicated potato mitochondria. Disruption of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), red sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), and carrot (Daucus carota) mitochondria increases ATPase activity, which is further enhanced by treatment with trypsin. The significance of the tight association of the inhibitor protein and ATPase in potato mitochondria is not clear.

  20. Stereoselective Reduction of Prochiral Ketones by Plant and Microbial Biocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidnia, K.; Faghih-Mirzaei, E.; Miri, R.; Attarroshan, M.; Zomorodian, K.

    2016-01-01

    Chiral alcohols are the key chiral building blocks to many enantiomerically pure pharmaceuticals. The biocatalytic approach in asymmetric reduction of corresponding prochiral ketones to the preparation of these optically pure substances is one of the most promising routes. The stereoselective reduction of different kinds of prochiral ketones catalyzed by various plants and microorganisms was studied in this work. Benzyl acetoacetate, methyl 3-oxopentanoate, ethyl 3-oxopentanoate, and ethyl butyryl acetate were chosen as the model substrates for β-ketoesters. Benzoyl acetonitrile, 3-chloro propiophenone, and 1-acetyl naphthalene were chosen as aromatic aliphatic ketones. Finally, 2-methyl benzophenone and 4-chloro benzophenone were selected as diaryl ketones. Plant catalysis was conducted by Daucus carota, Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, Pastinaca sativa, and Raphnus sativus. For microbial catalysis, Aspergillus foetidus, Penicillum citrinum, Saccharomyces carlbergensis, Pichia fermentans, and Rhodotrula glutinis were chosen. Chiral alcohols were obtained in high yields and with optical purity. A superiority in the microorganisms' performance in the bioreduction of prochiral ketones was detected. Among microorganisms, Rhodotrula glutinis showed remarkable results with nearly all substrates and is proposed for future studies.

  1. Formulating natural based cosmetic product - irradiated herbal lip balm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbal lip balm was formulated in efforts to produce a safe product, attractive with multifunctional usage i.e. prevent chap lips, reduce mouth odour and benefits in improving the health quality. Problems faced in constructing formulations of herbal lip balm were focused to the extraction of anthocyanins, the stability of the pigments in the formulations and changes of colour during irradiation for the sterilization of herbal lip balm. Natural pigment, anthocyanin was used as a colorant agent in herbal lip balm, obtained from various herbs and vegetables i.e. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle), Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra (red cabbage) and Daucus carota (carrot). Water based extraction method was used in extracting the anthocyanins. The incorporation of honey in the formulations improved the colour of the lip balm. The usage of plant based ingredient i.e. cocoa butter substituting the normal based ingredient i.e. petroleum jelly in lip balm also affecting the colour of herbal lip balm. Irradiation at 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy was carried out as preservation and reducing of microbial load of the herbal lip balm and changes in colour were observed in formulations irradiated at 10 kGy. (Author)

  2. Uranium in vegetable foodstuffs: should residents near the Cunha Baixa uranium mine site (Central Northern Portugal) be concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, M O; Abreu, M M; Figueiredo, V

    2012-04-01

    Large uranium accumulations in vegetable foodstuffs may present risks of human health if they are consumed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the uranium concentrations in different vegetable foodstuffs and grown in agricultural soils, which are then consumed by the residents of the village of Cunha Baixa (Portugal),--located in an former uranium mining area. This study was conducted to address concerns expressed by the local farmers as well as to provide data for uranium-related health risk assessments for the area. Soils, irrigation water and edible tissues of lettuce, potato, green bean, carrot, cabbage, apple and maize (Latuca sativa L., Solanum tuberosum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L., Malus domestica Borkh, Zea mays L., respectively) were sampled and uranium determined. High uranium concentrations were found in some soils (U(total) > 50 mg/kg), in irrigation waters (218 to 1,035 μg/l) and in some vegetable foodstuffs (up to 234, 110, 30, 26, 22, 16 and 1.6 μg/kg fresh weight for lettuce, potato with peel, green bean pods, cabbage, corn, carrot and apple, respectively). However, the results of the toxicity hazard analysis were reassuring the estimated level of uranium exposure through the ingestion of these vegetable foodstuffs was low, suggesting no chemical health risk (hazard quotient <1) to this uranium exposure pathway for a local residents during their lifetime, even for the most sensitive part of the population (child). PMID:21964853

  3. Effects of sewage sludge on Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a priority organic pollutant frequently found in municipal sludges. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-DEHP (carbonyl labeled). Plants grown included three food chain crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Net 14C concentration in plants grown in soil amended with 14C-DEHP-contaminated sludge was independent of sludge rate (at the same DEHP loading) for lettuce, chile fruit, and carrot roots. Net 14C concentration, however, was inversely related to sludge rate in carrot tops, fescue, and chile plants. Intact DEHP was not detected in plants by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Calculated plant DEHP concentrations (based on measured net 14C concentrations and DEHP specific activities) were generally correlated better with DEHP soil solution concentrations than with total DEHP soil concentrations. Net 14C-DEHP bioconcentration factors were calculated from initial soil DEHP concentration and plant fresh weights. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 for fescue, lettuce, carrots, and chile, suggesting little DEHP uptake. Additionally, because intact DEHP was not detected in any plants, DEHP uptake by plants was of minor importance and would not limit sludge additions to soils used to grow these crops

  4. Plant uptake of pentachlorophenol from sludge-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). Plants included tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Minimal intact PCP was detected in the fescue and lettuce by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. No intact PCP was detected in the carrot tissue extracts. Chile pepper was not analyzed for intact PCP because methylene chloride extracts contained minimal 14C. The GC/MS analysis of soil extracts at harvest suggests a half-life of PCP of about 10 d independent of sludge rate or PCP loading rate. Rapid degradation of PCP in the soil apparently limited PCP availability to the plant. Bioconcentration factors (dry plant wt./initial soil PCP concentration) based on intact PCP were < 0.01 for all crops, suggesting little PCP uptake. Thus, food-chain crop PCP uptake in these alkaline soils should not limit land application of sludge

  5. The incidence and distribution of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat vegetables in South-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayeoba, Titilayo A; Atanda, Olusegun O; Obadina, Adewale O; Bankole, Mobolaji O; Adelowo, Olawale O

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables: (Cucumber, Cucumis sativas; Cabbage, Brassica olerecea; Carrot, Daucus carota; Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum; Lettuce, Lactuca sativa) in six states in South-Western Nigeria. A total of 555 composite samples were collected from 30 traditional markets within the states and only 244 L. monocytogenes species were isolated by standard methods. The incidence of L. monocytogenes was low and not statistically significant per vegetable type. The percentage distribution of the L. monocytogenes isolates in the RTE vegetables was 28.28, 9.02, 23.36, 19.67, and 19.67 for Cabbage, Carrot, Cucumber, Lettuce, and Tomatoes, respectively. Lagos state had the highest incidence of L. monocytogenes contamination (55%) followed by Ondo (48.89%), Oyo (48.75%), Ogun (44.09%), Osun (34.38%), and Ekiti (33.33%) states, respectively. Although the incidence of L. monocytogenes in the RTE vegetables in South-Western Nigeria is low, its presence should be a source of concern as it could constitute a public health threat for its consumers. PMID:26788311

  6. Radiation treatment of minimally processed fruits and vegetables for ensuring hygienic quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh samples of cucumber (Cucumis sativus), tomato (L. esculentum), carrots (Daucus carota), cabbage (Lactuca sativa var. capitata), apples (Pyrus malus), melon (Cucumis melo), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) were minimally processed, and packaged in polyethylene pouches followed by irradiation at different doses. The refrigerated samples were analysed weekly. The results revealed that a dose of 2 kGy for carrots, 1.5 kGy for cauliflower and 2.5 kGy for apples, cucumber and cabbage was sufficient to keep the minimally processed fruits/vegetables microbiologically and sensorially acceptable for two weeks at refrigerated temperature. Tomato, melon and bitter gourd due to the soft texture and microbial spoilage can not be stored up to two weeks, a dose of 2.5 kGy for tomato, 2 kGy for bitter gourd and 1 kGy for melon can be recommended for the refrigerated storage up to one week. According to the results, Salmonella and E. coli spiked on minimally processed cucumber, cabbage, cauliflower and bitter gourd showed D10-values of 0.25 and 0.29, 0.24 and 0.28 kGy, respectively for Salmonella parathyphi. While the D10-values for E. coli were 0.19, 0.17, 0.20 and 0.23 kGy in cucumber, cabbage, cauliflower and bitter gourd respectively. (author)

  7. Plant uptake of pentachlorophenol from sludge-amended soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellin, C.A.; O' Connor, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of {sup 14}C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). Plants included tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Minimal intact PCP was detected in the fescue and lettuce by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. No intact PCP was detected in the carrot tissue extracts. Chile pepper was not analyzed for intact PCP because methylene chloride extracts contained minimal {sup 14}C. The GC/MS analysis of soil extracts at harvest suggests a half-life of PCP of about 10 d independent of sludge rate or PCP loading rate. Rapid degradation of PCP in the soil apparently limited PCP availability to the plant. Bioconcentration factors (dry plant wt./initial soil PCP concentration) based on intact PCP were <0.01 for all crops, suggesting little PCP uptake. Thus, food-chain crop PCP uptake in these alkaline soils should not limit land application of sludge.

  8. Soil solarization for weed control in carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARENCO RICARDO ANTONIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil solarization is a technique used for weed and plant disease control in regions with high levels of solar radiation. The effect of solarization (0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks upon weed populations, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Brasília yield and nematode infestation in carrot roots was studied in São Luís (2º35' S; 44º10' W, MA, Brazil, using transparent polyethylene films (100 and 150 mm of thickness. The maximum temperature at 5 cm of depth was about 10ºC warmer in solarized soil than in control plots. In the study 20 weed types were recorded. Solarization reduced weed biomass and density in about 50% of weed species, including Cyperus spp., Chamaecrista nictans var. paraguariensis (Chod & Hassl. Irwin & Barneby, Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Vahl O. Kuntze, Mitracarpus sp., Mollugo verticillata L., Sebastiania corniculata M. Arg., and Spigelia anthelmia L. Approximately 40% of species in the weed flora were not affected by soil mulching. Furthermore, seed germination of Commelina benghalensis L. was increased by soil solarization. Marketable yield of carrots was greater in solarized soil than in the unsolarized one. It was concluded that solarization for nine weeks increases carrot yield and is effective for controlling more than half of the weed species recorded. Mulching was not effective for controlling root-knot nematodes in carrot.

  9. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the root uptake and translocation of radiocaesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre de Boulois, Herve [Universite catholique de Louvain, Mycotheque de l' Universite catholique de Louvain (MUCL), Unite de Microbiologie, Place Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Delvaux, Bruno [Universite catholique de Louvain, Unite des Sciences du Sol, Place Croix du Sud 2/10, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Declerck, Stephane [Universite catholique de Louvain, Mycotheque de l' Universite catholique de Louvain (MUCL), Unite de Microbiologie, Place Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)]. E-mail: declerck@mbla.ucl.ac.be

    2005-04-01

    Because mycorrhizal fungi are intimately associated with plant roots, their importance in radionuclide (RN) recycling and subsequent dispersion into the biosphere has received an increasing interest. Recently, the capacity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to take up and translocate radiocaesium to their host was demonstrated. However, the relative contribution of these processes in comparison to the ones of roots remains unknown. Here, the respective contributions of the hyphae of a Glomus species and the transformed carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots on radiocaesium uptake and translocation were compared and quantified. We observed that radiocaesium uptake by hyphae was significantly lower as compared to that of the roots, while the opposite was noted for radiocaesium translocation/uptake ratio. We also observed that the intraradical fungal structures might induce a local accumulation of radiocaesium and concurrently reduce its translocation within mycorrhizal roots. We believe that intraradical fungal structures might induce the down-regulation of radiocaesium channels involved in the transport processes of radiocaesium towards the xylem. - Radiocaesium root uptake and translocation is affected by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

  10. INFLUENCE OF MEDIA GELLING AGENTS ON ROOT BIOMASS AND IN VITRO VA-MYCORRfflZAL SYMBIOSIS OF CARROT WITH GIGASPORA MARGARITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANJALI VERMA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study with Ri-TDNA transformed roots of carrot (Daucus carota was carried out to evaluate the role of macro-elements contributed as impurities in the gelling agent (phytagel over and above those present in the minimal (M medium. Production of root biomass was taken as a measure to quantify the influence of macro-elements added to the minimal medium. The levels of phosphorus when adjusted to 1.19 mg/1 and 1.09 mg/l, lead to dry root biomass production at par with the control. Attempts made to lower the amount of impurities in phytagel by de-ionization using different alkalies, proved NaOH to give the best results in terms of relatively high amount of root biomass. In an in vitro dual culture system with carrot as host and Gigaspora margarita as the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, phytagel impurities helped to produce maximum number of infection units and auxiliary cells when phytagel was added to the minimal medium.

  11. Some AFLP amplicons are highly conserved DNA sequences mapping to the same linkage groups in two F2 populations of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP is a fast and reliable tool to generate a large number of DNA markers. In two unrelated F2 populations of carrot (Daucus carota L., Brasilia x HCM and B493 x QAL (wild carrot, it was hypothesized that DNA 1 digested with the same restriction endonuclease enzymes and amplified with the same primer combination and 2 sharing the same position in polyacrylamide gels should be conserved sequences. To test this hypothesis AFLP fragments from polyacrylamide gels were eluted, reamplified, separated in agarose gels, purified, cloned and sequenced. Among thirty-one paired fragments from each F2 population, twenty-six had identity greater than 91% and five presented identity of 24% to 44%. Among the twenty-six conserved AFLPs only one mapped to different linkage groups in the two populations while four of the five less-conserved bands mapped to different linkage groups. Of eight SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions primers tested, one conserved AFLP resulted in co-dominant markers in both populations. Screening among 14 carrot inbreds or cultivars with three AFLP-SCAR primers revealed clear and polymorphic PCR products, with similar molecular sizes on agarose gels. The development of co-dominant markers based on conserved AFLP fragments will be useful to detect seed mixtures among hybrids, to improve and to merge linkage maps and to study diversity and phylogenetic relationships.

  12. Low external pH replaces 2,4-D in maintaining and multiplying 2,4-D-initiated embryogenic cells of carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    A mixed culture comprised of both embryonic globules and nonembryogenic callus was derived from seedling hypocotyls of Daucus carota cv. Scarlet Nantes on 2,4-D- containing medium using well-established methods. Then the mixed cultures were transferred to, and serially subcultured on, a hormone-free medium near pH 4. The medium contained 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. When cultured in this way, embryonic globules were able to multiply without development into later embryo stages. Nonembryogenic callus did not survive. Continuous culture of embryonic globules on this low pH hormone-free medium yielded cultures consisting entirely of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). PGSP cultures have been maintained as such with continuous multiplication for nearly 2 years without loss of embryogenic potential. These hormone-free-maintained PGSPs continue their development to later embryo stages when cultured on the same hormone-free medium buffered at pH 5.8. We show that hormone-free medium near pH 4 can replace 2,4-D in its ability to sustain multiplication of 2,4-D-initiated embryogenic cells of carrot at an acceptable growth rate without their development into later embryo stages. This procedure provides selective conditions that do not permit the growth of non-embryogenic cells while providing an adequate environment for embryogenic cell proliferation and should prove invaluable in studying habituation.

  13. Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Cao, R. Q.; Kung, J. E.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system--NADP-thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). NADP-thioredoxin reductase (EC 1.6.4.5) was partially purified and found to be an arsenite-sensitive enzyme composed of two 34-kDa subunits. Carrot NADP-thioredoxin reductase resembled more closely its counterpart from bacteria rather than animal cells in acceptor (thioredoxin) specificity. Upon greening of the cells, the content of NADP-thioredoxin-reductase activity, and, to a lesser extent, thioredoxin h decreased. The results confirm the presence of a heterotrophic-type thioredoxin system in plant cells and raise the question of its physiological function.

  14. Lutein, a Natural Carotenoid, Induces α-1,3-Glucan Accumulation on the Cell Wall Surface of Fungal Plant Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaka, Junnosuke; Seo, Shigemi; Nishimura, Marie

    2016-01-01

    α-1,3-Glucan, a component of the fungal cell wall, is a refractory polysaccharide for most plants. Previously, we showed that various fungal plant pathogens masked their cell wall surfaces with α-1,3-glucan to evade plant immunity. This surface accumulation of α-1,3-glucan was infection specific, suggesting that plant factors might induce its production in fungi. Through immunofluorescence observations of fungal cell walls, we found that carrot (Daucus carota) extract induced the accumulation of α-1,3-glucan on germlings in Colletotrichum fioriniae, a polyphagous fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in various dicot plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation of carrot leaf extract successfully identified two active substances that caused α-1,3-glucan accumulation in this fungus: lutein, a carotenoid widely distributed in plants, and stigmasterol, a plant-specific membrane component. Lutein, which had a greater effect on C. fioriniae, also induced α-1,3-glucan accumulation in other Colletotrichum species and in the phylogenetically distant rice pathogen Cochliobolus miyabeanus, but not in the rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae belonging to the same phylogenetic subclass as Colletotrichum. Our results suggested that fungal plant pathogens reorganize their cell wall components in response to specific plant-derived compounds, which these pathogens may encounter during infection. PMID:27483218

  15. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect on selected crops using treated and untreated wastewater from different configurative domestic wastewater plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, B; Kumari, S K Sheena; Stenstrom, T A; Bux, F

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the phytotoxicity effect of untreated and treated wastewater collected from two different configurations of domestic wastewater treatment plants in South Africa. The phytotoxicity effect on vegetable seed growth was studied in terms of germination index (GI), relative seed germination (RSG) and relative root elongation (RRE) using four commercial crop varieties, viz., tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), radish (Raphanus sativus), carrot (Daucus carota) and onion (Allium cepa). According to phyototoxicity limits, 80% germination and above is regarded as non-toxic and less than 50% GI is regarded as highly toxic and not suitable for agricultural purposes. In our study, seeds were irrigated with concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of treated effluent (TE) and untreated effluent (UTE). The TE results were best with the highest GI (%) recorded as tomato, 177; carrot, 158.5; onion, 132; and lettuce, 124. The results of this study indicate that TE showed no phytotoxicty effects and recorded above 80% GI. The UTE irrigated crops reached a GI of only 50% and above which is clear evidence of the beneficial effect of waste water treatment. The overall results confirmed that treated wastewater has a beneficial effect on agricultural crops and can be used as a liquid fertilizer. PMID:26806819

  16. Cultivation of carrot and its use as fooder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is an important winter crop and used as vegetable as well as fodder for livestock. It is cultivated in temperate and sub-tropical regions of the world. Carrot is cultivated in all provinces of Pakistan. It is a cool-climate crop and develops normally in a wide range of temperatures. Root-growth is fastest at temperatures between 15 degree C and 18 degree C; carrot plant is biennial and completes its life-cycle in two years. It needs light soil, which has well manured. It grows in two ways i.e on ridges and on flat beds. Seed is planted about 1.25 to 2 cm deep, keeping row-distance 30 to 60 cm. Carrot requires abundant and well- distributed supply of water.. The weed-control during the early stage of growing-season is essential. The yields are about 20,000 to 30,000 kg per hectare. Higher yields can be obtained by using advanced agronomic practices. (author)

  17. Calmodulin stimulation of calcium transport in carrot microsomal vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake into microsomal vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota Danvers) was stimulated 2-3 fold by 5 ug/ml calmodulin (CaM). Microsomal vesicles separated with a linear sucrose gradient showed two peaks with CaM-stimulated Ca2+ uptake activities. One peak (at 1.12 g/cc) comigrated with the activity of the antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. This transport activity was enhanced 10-20 fold by 10 mM oxalate and appeared to be associates with vesicles derived primarily from the ER. The other peak of CaM-stimulated Ca2+ uptake (at 1.17 g/cc) was not affected by oxalate. These vesicles are probably derived from the plasma membrane. Preliminary experiments with the low-density vesicles (ER) vesicles, indicate that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate caused a transient reduction in intravesicular Ca2+. These results are consistent with the ER being an important site of intracellular Ca2+ regulation

  18. Modeling the Time Elapsing from Seed Sowing to Emergence in Some Vegetable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Uzun

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple regression model based on mean temperature was developed to be used for predicting the time elapsing from seed sowing to seedling emergence for some vegetable crops, namely tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill., pepper (Capsicum annum, L., aubergine (Solanum melongena, L., pea (Pisum sativum, L., carrot (Daucus carota, L., sweat corn (Zea mays, cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L.var. capitata (L Alef, cauliflower Brassica oleraceae L.var. botrytis L, onion (Allium cepa, L., celery (Apium graviolens, L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L., parsley (Petroselinum hortense , garden beet (Beta vulgaris, L., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, L., melon (Cucumis melo, L., runner bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Thunb., okra (Hibiscus esculentus, L., asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L., spinach (Spinacia oleracea, L., radish (Rhaphanus sativus, L. and turnip (Brassica rapa, L.. The prediction performance of the model with respect to the data used was highly acceptable. R2 values of regression co-efficients for each crop varied from 0.94 to 0.99 depending on the species. Plotting the actual days from seed sowing to emergence for all the crops against the predicted ones showed that the prediction performance of the model was good explaining 98% of the variation for combined data from all the crops. The present model also predicted optimum temperatures (To for tried vegetables in the limits of acceptability.

  19. Ambispora granatensis, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, associated with Asparagus officinalis in Andalucia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Javier; Barea, José-Miguel; Ferrol, Nuria; Oehl, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    A new dimorphic fungal species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycota, Ambispora granatensis, was isolated from an agricultural site in the province of Granada (Andalucía, Spain) growing in the rhizosphere of Asparagus officinalis. It was propagated in pot cultures with Trifolium pratense and Sorghum vulgare. The fungus also colonized Ri T-DNA transformed Daucus carota roots but did not form spores in these root organ cultures. The spores of the acaulosporoid morph are 90-150 μm diam and hyaline to white to pale yellow. They have three walls and a papillae-like rough irregular surface on the outer surface of the outer wall. The irregular surface might become difficult to detect within a few hours in lactic acid-based mountings but are clearly visible in water. The structural central wall layer of the outer wall is only 0.8-1.5 μm thick. The glomoid spores are formed singly or in small, loose spore clusters of 2-10 spores. They are hyaline to pale yellow, (25)40-70 μm diam and have a bilayered spore wall without ornamentation. Nearly full length sequences of the 18S and the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene place the new fungus in a separate clade next to Ambispora fennica and Ambispora gerdemannii. The acaulosporoid spores of the new fungus can be distinguished easily from all other spores in genus Ambispora by the conspicuous thin outer wall. PMID:20952800

  20. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L. PMID:26780918

  1. INTERACCIÓN DE LA BACTERIA Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Y HORTALIZAS DE RAÍZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoania Ríos Rocafull

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus es una bacteria endófita que presenta dentro de sus características metabólicas, mecanismos directos e indirectos de estimulación del crecimiento vegetal. Se han obtenido resultados positivos por su aplicación, fundamentalmente, en gramíneas y viandas tropicales. Sin embargo, en hortalizas, las investigaciones de esta interacción plantamicroorganismo son escasas. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de cuatro cepas de G. diazotrophicus aisladas de ecosistemas agrícolas cubanos, sobre el crecimiento de zanahoria (Daucus carota L. y remolacha (Beta vulgaris L.. Se demostró que la procedencia del microorganismo no tiene una relación directa con la especie vegetal que puede beneficiar con su interacción, ya que los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con una cepa proveniente de los frutos del mango. Esta cepa se seleccionó como promisoria para constituir el principio activo de un producto con efecto positivo sobre ambas hortalizas. Además, presentó un efecto estimulador del crecimiento mayor que el patrón de la especie bacteriana (PAL5, lo que indica la importancia del empleo de microorganismos autóctonos. Los resultados sugieren que G. diazotrophicus puede ser utilizada en la estimulación del crecimiento de hortalizas de raíz como zanahoria y remolacha y evidencian cuan compleja es la interacción planta-microorganismo.

  2. COPPER ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AND VEGETATION OF POLLUTED AREA COPŞA MICĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vrînceanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out in order to estimate the distribution and accumulation of copper in soils and vegetation fromCopşa Mică area used a radial network centered in the source of pollution – S.C. SOMETRA S.A. Copşa Mică. Soil andplant samples taken from the radial nodes of the network were analyzed to determine the content of copper. Values ofcopper content in plant ranged between 4.2 mg/kg and 97 mg/kg. Based on these results has been obtained a regressionequation that estimates the copper content in plants as function of the total copper content in soil. The spontaneousvegetation developed in the investigated area includes plants belonging to the following species: Amaranthusretroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Asclepias syriaca, Calamagrostis epigeios, Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Cynodondactylon, Daucus carota, Equisetum arvense, Phragmites australis, Picris hieracioides, Setaria glauca, Sinapisarvensis, Verbascum phlomoides and Xanthium strumarium. The copper pollution doesn’t represent a major problem inCopşa Mică area.

  3. Selecting iodine-enriched vegetables and the residual effect of iodate application to soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiu-Lan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zhang, Min; Huang, Yi-Zhong

    2004-12-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to select vegetables for iodine uptake. The residual effect of iodate fertilization on the growth of and iodine uptake by spinach plants were also investigated. Six vegetables, including leafy vegetables (pakchoi [Brassica chinensis L.], spinach [Spinacia oleracea L.]), tuber vegetables (onion [Allium cepa L.]), shoot vegetables (water spinach [Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.], celery [Apium graveolens L.]), and root vegetables (carrot [Daucus carota var. sativa DC.]) were examined. Results showed that the concentrations of iodate in soil had significant effect on the biomass of edible parts of pakchoi and spinach (p<0.01), whereas the concentrations of iodate in soil had no significant effect on that of carrots, water spinach, celery, and onion. Iodine concentrations in edible parts of vegetables and the transfer factors (TFedible parts) of soil-to-edible parts of vegetables significantly increased with increasing iodine concentrations in soil (p<0.001), and iodine concentrations in edible parts and TFedible parts of spinach were much higher than those of other vegetables at any treatment. Both transfer coefficients for edible parts (TCedible parts) and for aerial parts (TCaerial parts) of vegetables changed differently with increasing iodine concentrations in the soil, and TCedible parts and TCaerial parts of spinach were higher than those of other vegetables. Therefore, spinach was considered as an efficient vegetable for iodine biofortification. Further experiment showed that there is considerable residual effect of soil fertilization with iodate. PMID:15564656

  4. Post-dispersal seed fates of four prairie species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Deborah L; Wilson, Mark V

    2003-05-01

    After dispersal, seeds can germinate and establish as seedlings, persist as seeds, or die. Knowledge of these three seed fates is crucial for understanding the abundance and distribution of plant populations and ultimately, community composition and diversity. Few studies, however, have simultaneously measured these fates, while also examining the factors causing mortality. The goal of this research was to simultaneously quantify the three seed fates and factors causing death (predation and fungal disease) for four species found in prairies in western Oregon, USA. The most common seed fate for the four study species was death (44-80%). Fungal disease, which has seldom been quantified in natural ecosystems, generally caused less than 10% mortality for each of the four species. Vertebrate predation substantially reduced seed numbers only for Bromus carinatus (21%). Of the unmeasured mortality factors, indirect evidence showed invertebrate predation was a cause of death for seeds of only one species, Prunella vulgaris. In addition, competitive pressures caused seedling death for only the two grass species, Bromus carinatus and Cynosurus echinatus. Survival as established seedlings was generally much more common than survival as persistent seed, with the exception of Daucus carota, in which 14% of the sown seeds persisted the first year. PMID:21659169

  5. Low-dose irradiation of vegetable seeds: the effects on N and P uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed irradiation resulted in a random, infrequent and irregular pattern of both increases and decreases in plant uptake of fertilizer N and P, but in general did not change any yield parameter. Root distribution of the four vegetable cultivars was unaffected by seed irradiation. The percent utilization of the applied fertilizer N ranged from approximately 40% for the corn (Zea mays L. var. rugosa Bonaf.) crop to a low of 6% for the onions (Allium cepa L.) and carrots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa, DC.). Corresponding values for fertilizer P were 10 and 2, respectively. The reasons for the low efficiency of fertilizer N and P uptake by onions and carrots require further study. The isotope composition was identical for the various plant parts of any one cultivar. It is therefore necessary to analyze only one plant part, preferably that containing the highest percent of the particular nutrient, in order to obtain a measure of the isotope dilution throughout the above-ground plant parts. (author)

  6. Response of Listeria monocytogenes-inoculated leafy salad vegetables following irradiation and refrigerated storage under modified atmosphere. Section 1. Radiation sensitivity and quality of fresh cut vegetables exposed to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section summarizes research on quality of irradiated vegetables. Thirteen fresh-cut (minimally processed) vegetables (broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica), cilantro (Coriandrum sativum), red cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata), endive (Cichorium endivia), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), green and red leaf lettuce (L. sativa), Iceberg (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) and Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), carrots (Daucus carota), green onions, (Allium cepa) and celery (Apium graveolens dulce) plus alfalfa sprouts (Medicago sativa) were gamma irradiated at doses up to 3 kGy at 0.5 kGy intervals. The samples were then stored in air at 4 deg. C for 14 days. At the beginning and end of 14 days, electrolyte leakage, visual quality, and sogginess were assessed. Results showed that electrolyte leakage of vegetables increased linearly with increasing radiation doses when measured immediately after irradiation. Radiation dose threshold, defined as the dose at which electrolyte leakage was significantly (P<0.05) increased, varied among vegetables, ranging from 2.44 kGy for broccoli to 0.60 kGy for carrots. Irradiation had no effect on visual quality on the day of irradiation. After 14 days of storage, the responses of individual vegetables to ionizing radiation varied greatly. Irradiation, especially at lower doses, improved visual quality, and reduced sogginess and electrolyte leakage of many vegetables. It appears that most tested vegetables can tolerate 0.6 kGy radiation based on appearance and electrolyte leakage measurements. The implication and limitation of the results are discussed. (author)

  7. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  9. Calmodulin immunolocalization to cortical microtubules is calcium independent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.D.; Cyr, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium affects the stability of cortical microtubules (MTs) in lysed protoplasts. This calmodulin (CaM)-mediated interaction may provide a mechanism that serves to integrate cellular behavior with MT function. To test the hypothesis that CaM associates with these MTs, monoclonal antibodies were produced against CaM, and one (designated mAb1D10), was selected for its suitability as an immunocytochemical reagent. It is shown that CaM associates with the cortical Mats of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) cells. Inasmuch as CaM interacts with calcium and affects the behavior of these Mats, we hypothesized that calcium would alter this association. To test this, protoplasts containing taxol-stabilized Mats were lysed in the presence of various concentrations of calcium and examined for the association of Cam with cortical Mats. At 1 [mu]M calcium, many protoplasts did not have CaM in association with the cortical Mats, while at 3.6 [mu]M calcium, this association was completely abolished. The results are discussed in terms of a model in which CaM associates with Mats via two types of interactions; one calcium dependent and one independent.

  10. Calmodulin immunolocalization to cortical microtubules is calcium independent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.D.; Cyr, R.J.

    1992-12-31

    Calcium affects the stability of cortical microtubules (MTs) in lysed protoplasts. This calmodulin (CaM)-mediated interaction may provide a mechanism that serves to integrate cellular behavior with MT function. To test the hypothesis that CaM associates with these MTs, monoclonal antibodies were produced against CaM, and one (designated mAb1D10), was selected for its suitability as an immunocytochemical reagent. It is shown that CaM associates with the cortical Mats of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) cells. Inasmuch as CaM interacts with calcium and affects the behavior of these Mats, we hypothesized that calcium would alter this association. To test this, protoplasts containing taxol-stabilized Mats were lysed in the presence of various concentrations of calcium and examined for the association of Cam with cortical Mats. At 1 {mu}M calcium, many protoplasts did not have CaM in association with the cortical Mats, while at 3.6 {mu}M calcium, this association was completely abolished. The results are discussed in terms of a model in which CaM associates with Mats via two types of interactions; one calcium dependent and one independent.

  11. Chemical analysis, antimicrobial and anti-oxidative properties of Daucus gracilis essential oil and its mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem El Kolli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: D. gracilis EO showed potent antimicrobial and anti-oxidative activities and had acted on the cytoplasm membrane. These activities could be exploited in the food industry for food preservation.

  12. Influence of technical processing units on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Sun, Xiangyu; Quan, Meiping; Zheng, Cuiping; Kang, Lina; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-03-01

    The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, pasteurisation) on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot juice essential oil was investigated in this paper. A total of 36 compounds were identified by GC-MS from fresh carrot juice essential oil. The main constituents were carotol (20.20%), sabinene (12.80%), β-caryophyllene (8.04%) and α-pinene (6.05%). Compared with the oil of fresh juice, blanching and pasteurisation could significantly decrease the components of the juice essential oil, whereas enzyme liquefaction had no considerable effect on the composition of juice essential oil. With regard to the antimicrobial activity, carrot juice essential oil could cause physical damage and morphological alteration on microorganisms, while the three different processing units showed noticeable differences on the species of microorganisms, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results revealed that the carrot juice essential oil has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:25306362

  13. A complete plastid phylogeny of Daucus – concordance to nuclear results, and markers necessary for phylogenetic resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of study: Our purposes were to (1) obtain a well-resolved plastid counterpart to the 94 gene nuclear ortholog gene phylogeny of Arbizu et al. (2014, Amer. J. Bot. 101:1666-1685; and Syst. Bot., in press), and (2) to investigate various classes and numbers of plastid markers necessary for a c...

  14. Development and preservation of a cocktail beverage produced from Carrot (Daucus carrota), Pineapple (Ananas comosus) and Mango (Mangifera indoca L,)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrot is known to have the potential of providing vital nutrition as well as health and well-being to consumers. In this study, carrot juice was envisaged as a good vehicle for spreading its nutraceutical benefits. The study was then designed in two parts: (a) Survey to establish the beverage consumption pattern in the Anyaa-Sowutuom District in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana and (b) Carrot juice formulation and optimisation. The survey was conducted by administering a questionnaire to volunteer adult consumers. To develop an acceptable carrot juice beverage, pineapple juice and mango juice were included as components to improve taste and flavour respectively. A constrained, simplex centroid mixture design for three components was employed to optimise the proportions of the components in the final product based on sensory attributes. Chemical analyses as well as shelf stability studies were conducted for the optimised beverage preserved by chemicals and gamma radiation. Data obtained from the survey revealed that juices were very popular among consumers. The choice of a particular beverage was dependent on nutrition, taste and colour. Contour plots generated from sensory data of the products were overlaid to determine the optimum ratios of the components of the cocktail beverage. The optimised product consisted of 50-52% Carrot, 18-20% Pineapple and 28-30% Mango. Analysis of the beverage revealed 223 mg/100ml Potassium, 3.92 mg/100ml Pro-vitamin A (Beta carotene) and 43 mg/100ml vitamin C. After 8 weeks of storage 71% Pro-vitamin A was retained even under relatively higher doses (2.5kGy) of gamma radiation. The microbial quality of the beverage was good under all conditions. (au)

  15. Longevidad de Orgilus obscurator Ness: (Hymenoptera: Braconidae en presencia de diferentes fuentes de alimento Longevity of Orgilus obscurator Ness: (Hymenoptera: Braconidae under the influence of different food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA IDE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las tácticas implementadas en el control de Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff. en Chile fue la introducción en 1987 de Orgilus obscurator Ness., un parasitoide específico. Evaluaciones realizadas entre la VII y X regiones de Chile, entre 1995 y 1997, mostraron diferencias significativas en el establecimiento y porcentaje de parasitismo alcanzados por O. obscurator. Aún cuando son múltiples los factores que inciden en el éxito de un biocontrolador, es importante considerar la disponibilidad y accesibilidad de fuentes de alimento, tales como el néctar de algunas flores y su efecto en la longevidad de los adultos. Este estudio fue realizado en la temporada 1996-1997 y 1997-1998 en la Provincia de Valdivia, décima región de Chile. Se utilizaron 295 individuos adultos, entre machos y hembras, manteniéndolos con agua, sin agua, agua-miel y con flores de cuatro especies de plantas, tres pertenecientes a la familia Apiaceae y otra a la familia Asteraceae. La mayor longevidad promedio se obtuvo usando agua miel (23 días en machos y 33 días en hembras y flores de Conium maculatum y Daucus carota (14,1 días, las cuales permitieron aumentar dos veces la longevidad respecto al uso sólo de agua. Los resultados encontrados permiten sugerir la incorporación de algunas especies como C. maculatum y D. carota a las plantaciones de Pinus radiata D. Don, especialmente en la séptima y octava regiones del país, como una forma de aumentar la eficiencia de parasitación de O. obscuratorOne of the tactics that improved the control of Rhyacionia buoliana in Chile was the introduction in 1987 of Orgilus obscurator, a specific parasitoid. Evaluations between the regions VII and X of Chile during 1995 to 1997 have shown significant differences in the establishment and parasitism obtained by O. obscurator. Several factors are involved in the success of control strategies, including the availability and access to food sources such as water, flower nectar and

  16. Antifeeding Activity of Several Plant Extracts Against Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Gvozdenac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar L. is the most devastating polyphagous pest of deciduous forests, orchardsand urban greenery. To prevent damages that L. dispar larvae cause in forestry, agriculture andhorticulture, mechanical measures and the use of biological insecticides are the most frequentlyapplied practices. However, the use of conventional insecticides is inevitable in crop protectionand forest management on smaller areas, especially in gradation years. However, inadequateuse of these chemicals has led to disturbance of biocoenotic balance, outbreaks of somepreviously less harmful organisms and pesticide residues in soil and watercourses in someregions. To mitigate these consequences it is necessary to harmonize L. dispar control withintegrated management principles by applying selective and less toxic insecticides. Therefore,the potential of botanical insecticides and antifeeding substances is gaining in importance.The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ethanol extracts (1, 2 and 5% of Ambrosiaartemisiifolia L., Erigeron canadensis L., Daucus carota L., Morus alba L. and Aesculus hippocastanumL. on the feeding intensity of L. dispar larvae, i.e. to evaluate their antifeeding activity underthe conditions of “no-choice” test. Ten larvae per repetition were placed in Petri dishes andoffered oak leaf slices (2 x 9 cm2/repetition previously dipped in plant extract or ethanol (1, 2,and 5% for the control. Feeding intensity, expressed as a percentage of consumed leaf area (%,was measured after 48 h. For assessing the antifeeding activity of plant extracts AFI was calculatedand the extracts were classified according to scale: no antifeeding activity, slight antifeedingactivity, moderate antifeeding activity and strong antifeeding activity. Data were analyzedusing a two-way ANOVA and Duncan`s multiple range test. The results indicate that plantspecies, i.e. the origin of extracts, had a significant influence on the feeding intensity of L

  17. Increase in Methylene Resonance Signal Intensity Is Associated with Apoptosis in Plant Cells as Detected by 1H-NMR%利用核磁共振技术检测植物细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵友; 朱瑞宇; 徐烨; 闫永彬; 戴尧仁

    2004-01-01

    在细胞凋亡的研究中,通常以检测细胞核和细胞器的形态改变或生物化学特性变化为指标进行分析.已有的实验表明:动物细胞在凋亡过程中,细胞膜的脂质双分子层发生了一系列生物物理和生物化学改变,如膜电位的改变、磷脂酰丝氨酸由细胞膜内侧向外翻转、细胞膜微粘度的改变等,这些变化会导致细胞中亚甲基信号强度的增加.我们利用质子核磁共振光谱分析(1H-NMR)方法,首次发现用物理和化学方法诱导的烟草(Nicotiana tabacumL. cv.BY-2)和胡萝卜(Daucus carota L.)细胞在凋亡过程中伴随有亚甲基信号强度的明显增加.在用烟酰胺处理的烟草细胞中,亚甲基信号强度的增加与DNA Ladder几乎同时出现,随诱导时间的延长,亚甲基信号强度也逐渐增大,在24 h亚甲基信号强度增加约2倍.而这种特征在坏死的细胞中并不存在.说明亚甲基信号强度的增加是动、植物细胞凋亡过程中所具有的共同特征,1H-NMR技术提供了一种精确可靠的分析植物细胞凋亡的手段,同时由于它所具有的非侵害性的特点,可能在揭示细胞凋亡机制的研究中具有一定的意义.%Apoptosis, both in animal and plant cells, is usually analyzed by observing and detecting the characteristic morphological and biochemical changes in nuclei, organelles such as mitochondria and cell membranes. Using 1H-NMR we have found a correlation between the progression of apoptosis and 1H-NMR methylene signal intensity in cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. BY-2) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells. The increase in the methylene resonance signal intensity which reflects the alterations in membrane lipids and accordingly in the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of cell membrane during apoptosis was found to be closely associated with nuclear changes as detected by DNA laddering assay and the TUNEL procedure. The rise of methylene resonance signal intensity

  18. Use of irradiation to ensure hygienic quality of fresh, pre-cut fruits and vegetables and other minimally processed foods of plant origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are in demand as they offer convenience to consumers. However, these products are often unsafe due to possibility of contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, etc. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyse microbiological quality of minimally processed carrot (Daucus carota L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus) and different sprouts: Green gram (Phaseolus aureus), Dew gram (Phaseolus aconitifolius), Chick pea (Cicer arietinum), and Garden pea (Pisum sativum), and to optimise radiation dose necessary to ensure safety of these commodities. Microbiological quality of carrot was poor as compared to that of tomato and cucumber. Only one sample of carrot was contaminated with L. monocytogenes. Microbiological quality of pineapple was also found to be poor; all samples were positive for faecal coliforms and one sample was positive for Salmonella. Microbiological quality of sprout samples was poor with high aerobic plate count and yeast and mold count. A large percentage of samples were found contaminated with E. coli, coagulase positive S. aureus and Salmonella. D10 values of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in these minimally processed foods (MPF) were in the range of 188 to 362 Gy, except in sprouts where, L. monocytogenes showed much higher D10 values (531-579 Gy). A dose of 2 kGy would be necessary for 5 log reduction of these pathogens. The MPF irradiated at 1 kGy/2 kGy was free from all pathogens up to 12 days of storage at 4 deg C and 10 deg C. This dose did not significantly affect nutritional, organoleptic and textural properties of MPF. These results suggest that radiation processing can ensure safety of minimally processed foods of plant origin. (author)

  19. Promotion and computation of inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity of herbal cream by incorporating indigenous medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ram Kumar; Roy, Amit; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jha, Arvind Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Herbal cream imparts a chief role in regulating melanin production of skin. The phytoconstituents present in herbal cream impact biological functions of skin and contribute nutrients required for the healthy skin. In the present study, it was envisaged to prepare three batches of herbal cream (HC1, HC2 and HC3) containing ethanol extracts of Emblica officinalis (fruits), Daucus carota (root), Mangifera indica (leaves), Mentha arvensis (leaves), Terminalia arjuna (bark) and Cucumis sativus (fruits) and investigated the prepared cream for inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity. The herbal cream was formulated by incorporating different ratio of extracts, by using cream base. Each formulation HC1, HC2 and HC3 were segregated into three different formulations (HC1.1, HC1.2, HC1.3, HC2.1, HC2.2, HC2.3, HC3.1, HC3.2 and HC3.3) by incorporating increasing ratio of extract in formulation. The HC3.2 cream produces highest tyrosinase inhibitory effect 65.23 +/- 0.07%, while the HC2.1 exhibited minimum tyrosinase inhibitory effect 26.19 +/- 0.08% compared to other prepared cream. Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the formulations demonstrated that the rank order was HC3.2 > HC3.3 > HC1.2 > HC1.3 > HC3.1 > HC1.1 > HC2.3 > HC2.2 > HC2.1. It has been observed from the result that the formulations of antityrosinase activity were not concentrate dependent. This finding suggests that decrease in antityrosinase activity of HC1 and HC3 might be considering that the incompatibility of the higher extract content with the base of cream. The HC3 produce the maximum inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity might be due to higher level of polyphenol and flavonoids present in extracts. PMID:24783796

  20. Response of vegetable seed germination to solar radiation penetrating through soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response of vegetable seeds to irradiation and emergence of plants seeded at various depths were investigated to clarify the effects of solar radiation through soil on vegetable seed germination. Seeds of eight vegetable species were germinated in Petri dishes under 11-h irradiation per day. Seed germination was delayed in tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill.) but accelerated in perilla (Perilla ocymoides L.) and Japanese hornwort (Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk.) with increase in irradiation at the intensities higher than 0.4W m-2. Seeds of Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Matsum.), and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) showed delayed germination at more than 4-6W m-2. No effect of irradiation on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) seed germination was seen. For tomato, Japanese radish and Japanese hornwort, the effects of irradiation time on germination were also investigated. Tomato seed germination was delayed and Japanese hornwort seed germination was accelerated with increase in irradiation time beyond 2h per day. The emergence of tomato and Japanese hornwort covered with Shimokuriyagawa loam soil (Kuriyagawa soil) and vermiculite at depths of less than 5mm, 5-10mm and 10-15mm was observed. Plants emerged more rapidly from 5-10mm depths than from less than 5mm depth in tomato. The plants seeded at 10-15mm depths emerged as rapidly as those at 5-10mm depths using vermiculite but later than those at other depths using Kuriyagawa soil, probably due to high bulk density. The early emergence of Japanese hornwort was fastest from less than 5mm depth. The plants seeded at 5-10mm depths did not emerge much slower than those at less than 5mm depth. A seeding depth of 5-10mm was suitable for the rapid emergence of those vegetables covered with both the soil and vermiculite. (author)

  1. Bioconversion of Carotenoids in Five Fruits and Vegetables to Vitamin A Measured by Retinol Accumulation in Rat Livers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Carrillo-Lopez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent and major nutritional problems in developing countries, especially in young children. In many countries, a substantial proportion of dietary vitamin A is commonly derived from pro-vitamin A carotenoids obtained from colored fruits and orange or green vegetables. However, the bioavailability of retinol derived from carotenoids from these plant sources is not well known. Approach: The present study analyzed β-Carotene and Total Carotenoids (TC composition of carrots (Daucus carota, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Spinach (Spinacea oleracea, mangoes (Mangifera indica and papayas (Carica papaya and determined the bioconversion of their carotenoids to vitamin A by monitoring the levels of retinol accumulated in liver and plasma of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus. Products were freeze-dried, β-Carotene content analyzed by HPLC and TC by Spectrophotometry. Results: Carrots presented the highest content of β-carotene followed by parsley with 32.8 and 19.6 mg 100 g-1, respectively. Spinach had the highest content of TC followed by parsley with 60.7 and 56.7 mg 100 g-1, respectively. Four-week-old male Wistar rats received a standard diet as an adaptation period, a diet free of Carotenoids and Vitamin A (CVA-diet as depletion period and finally a Fruit or Vegetable (FoV based diet as repletion period. The highest β-carotene bioconversion was for mango and the lowest for parsley, whereas the highest TC bioconversion was for carrots and the lowest for parsley. There were no significant differences in plasma retinol between treatments. Conclusion/Recommendations: There was no relation between carotenoids content in FoV-based diet and retinol status in plasma. Furthermore, the employment of a general retinol conversion factor is regarded as not appropriate. So, it is recommended to consider specific conversion factors for groups of horticultural crops, for example, a factor for green leafy

  2. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems and initial assessment of material interaction with plant genetic material. Validation of the metabolic fate of munitions materials (TNT, RDX) in mature crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this effort were to confirm and expand data related to the behavior and impacts of munitions residues upon human food chain components. Plant species employed included corn (Zea mays), alfalfa (Medicago sativa). spinach (Spinacea oleraceae), and carrot (Daucus carota). Plants were grown from seed to maturity (70 to 120 days) in a low-fertility soil (Burbank) amended with either {sup 14}C-TNT or {sup 14}C-RDX at which time they were harvested and analyzed for munitions uptake, partitioning, and chemical form of the munition or munition-metabolite. All four of the plant species used in this study accumulated the {sup 14}C-TNT- and RDX-derived label. The carrot, alfalfa, and corn demonstrated a higher percentage of label retained in the roots (62, 73, and 83% respectively). The spinach contained less activity in its root (36%) but also contained the highest TNT specific activity observed (>4600 jig TNT equivalents/g dry wt.). The specific uptake values of RDX for the spinach and alfalfa were comparable to those previously reported for wheat and bean (314 to 590 {mu}g RDX-equivalents/g dry wt. respectively). An exception to this may be the carrot where the specific activity was found to exceed 4200 {mu}g RDX-equivalents/g dry wt. in the shoot. The total accumulation of TNT by the plants ranged from 1.24% for the spinach to 2.34% for the carrot. The RDX plants ranging from 15% for the spinach to 37% for the carrot. There was no identifiable TNT or amino dinitrotoluene (ADNT) isomers present in the plants however, the parent RDX compound was found at significant levels in the shoot of alfalfa (> 1 80 {mu}g/g) and corn (>18 {mu}g/g).

  3. Use of irradiation to improve the safety and quality of minimally processed fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    use products. In MP vegetables, contamination of foodborne pathogenic bacteria and their multiplication during storage is a serious health concern. Fresh carrots are the components of various Turkish salads such as season salad or Mediterranean salad. The reduction of the microbial population during processing and the D10-values for Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli inoculated on shredded carrots (Daucus carota L.) as well as the sensory quality of the irradiated product were evaluated. Low dose irradiation (1 kGy) was effective in eliminating Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli with no evidence of re-occurrence and adverse effect on sensory attributes during storage. Mixed salad samples - Radicchio and Butterhead lettuce, Red lettuce (L. sativa), Green lettuce (Lactuca. sativa) - were gamma irradiated at room temperature to determine the radiation sensitivity of the inoculated strains of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 and the effect of the recommended radiation dose on the ascorbic acid content and sensory attributes. The radiation doses necessary to reduce the bacterial population by 90% (D10-values) for Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis were determined as 0.26 kGy and 0.19 kGy, respectively. Sensory attributes such as odor and flavour were not affected at 1.5 kGy irradiation. Irradiation process was effective in the reduction of total viable cell, yeast and molds, coliform and E.coli counts as well as extension of the shelf-life. Salmonella spp. was eliminated on the soybean sprout samples with irradiation at 1.0 kGy dose. Consequently, irradiation at 1.0-1.5 kGy dose was effective in activating the foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and E. coli 0157:H7. (author)

  4. Use of domestic greywater for small-scale irrigation of food crops: Effects on plants and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, N.; Salukazana, L.; Jackson, S. A. F.; Smith, M. T.

    Disposal of greywater presents a problem in areas served with on-site sanitation or in areas with poor service provision. Such areas often also face challenges with respect to food security. Use of greywater for irrigation of food crops represents a possible beneficial use of greywater which can contribute to household food supply and to informal income generation. In this study, an above-ground crop (Swiss chard, Betavulgaris var. cicla) and a below-ground crop (carrot, Daucus carota) were irrigated in pots with mixed greywater sourced from households in an informal settlement. A simple form of sub-surface irrigation was used. Plant growth, crop yield, and levels of macro- and micronutrients in crops and soil were monitored through six growth cycles. Equivalent treatments, irrigated with either tap water or a hydroponic nutrient solution, were conducted for comparison. The same soil was used throughout to allow accumulation of greywater-derived substances in soil to be detected. The results indicated that: (i) irrigation with greywater increased plant growth and yield relative to crops irrigated with tap water only, although crops irrigated with hydroponic nutrient solution yielded the highest growth and yield; (ii) irrigation with greywater improved plant nutrient content relative to crops irrigated with tap water; (iii) soil irrigated with greywater showed increased electrical conductivity and increased concentrations of metals over time, coupled with an increase in sodium and metal concentrations in crops. Thus, provided precautions are taken with regard to salt and metal accumulation, greywater offers a potential source of water for household crop irrigation which additionally shows some fertiliser properties.

  5. Ecotoxicity of neutral red (dye) and its environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastury, Farzana; Juhasz, Albert; Beckmann, Sabrina; Manefield, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Neutral red (NR) is a synthetic phenazine with promising prospect in environmental biotechnology as an electron shuttle. Recently, NR injections into coal seam associated groundwater in Australia (final dissolved NR concentration: 8 µM ± 0.2) were shown to increase methanogenesis up to ten-fold. However, information about NR toxicity to ecological receptors is sorely lacking. The main aim of this study was to investigate the concentration dependent toxicity of NR in microorganisms and plants. Acute toxicity of NR was determined by the modified Microtox™ assay. Microbial viability was determined using Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Germination and early growth of plants was studied using Lactuca sativa, Daucus carota, Allium cepa and an Australian native Themeda triandra. Lastly, mutagenicity of the coal seam associated groundwater was assessed using the Ames test. The EC50 of acute NR toxicity was determined to be 0.11 mM. The EC50 of microbial viability was between 1 and 7.1mM NR. Among the concentrations tested, only 0.01, 0.10 and 100mM of NR significantly affected (p<0.001) germination of L. sativa. The EC50 for root elongation in seeds was between 1.2 and 35.5mM NR. Interestingly, root elongation in seeds was significantly stimulated (p<0.001) between 0.25 and 10mM NR, showing a hormetic effect. A significant increase in mutagenicity was only observed in one of the three wells tested. The results suggest that the average dissolved NR concentration (8 µM ± 0.2) deployed in the field trial at Lithgow State Coal Mine, Australia, appears not to negatively impact the ecological receptors tested in this study. PMID:26247897

  6. Male sterility in Arabidopsis induced by overexpression of a MYC5-SRDX chimeric repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Pablo; Browse, John

    2015-03-01

    Jasmonate hormone (JA) plays critical roles in both plant defense and reproductive development. Arabidopsis thaliana plants deficient in JA-biosynthesis or -signaling are male-sterile, with defects in stamen and pollen development. MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 are JAZ-interacting bHLH transcription factors that play a major role in controlling JA responses in vegetative tissue, but are not likely to play a role in reproductive tissue. We found that a closely related transcription factor, MYC5 (bHLH28), was able to induce JAZ promoters that control some of the early JA-responsive genes in a Daucus carota (carrot) protoplast expression system. A G-box sequence in the JAZ2 promoter was necessary and sufficient for induction by MYC5 (as it is for MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4), and induction of JAZ genes was repressed by co-expression of a stabilized, JAZ1ΔJas repressor. Two allelic myc5 mutants exhibited no overt phenotype; however, transgenic lines expressing MYC5 fused to an SRDX (SUPERMAN repressive domain X) motif phenocopied mutants defective in JA signaling. In particular, MYC5-SRDX plants were male-sterile, with defects in stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence and pollen viability. Importantly, expression of MYB21 and other transcription factors required for stamen and pollen maturation was strongly reduced in stamens of MYC5-SRDX plants relative to the wild type. Taken together, these results indicate that MYC5, probably together with other, redundant transcription factors, may be activated by JA signaling to induce the expression of MYB21 and components required for male fertility. PMID:25627909

  7. Uptake of munitions materiels (TNT, RDX) by crop plants and potential interactions of nitrogen nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, W. [USABRDL, Ft. Detrick, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Munitions materiel such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and their combustion/decomposition products can accumulate/cycle in terrestrial environs. High soil organic matter and fertility have been previously shown to negatively correlate with both TNT or RDX uptake in plants such as grass, wheat, and bean. The present study was therefore conducted using low fertility soil to assess uptake and distribution patterns of C-radiolabelled TNT and RDX (15 and 30 {micro}g/g) within corn (Zea mays), spinach (Spinacea oleraceae), carrot (Daucus carota), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown to maturity in growth chambers. Uptake by the plants at maturity (90- to 120-days) ranged from 1.8 to 2.7% of total amended {sup 14}C-TNT for carrots and corn respectively and 17 to 33% of total amended {sup 14}C-RDX for corn and carrots respectively. Distribution patterns of total radiolabel indicate that the TNT-derived label was primarily retained within the roots (60 to 85%) while the RDX-derived label was distributed to the shoots (85 to 97%). Less than 0.01 {micro}g/g dry wt. TNT was found in all analyzed shoot tissues with > 90% of the TNT-derived radiolabel in the form of polar metabolites. Concentrations of RDX in shoot tissues of corn exceeded 180 {micro}g/g dry wt. Alfalfa grown in unfertilized, fertilized (NO{sub 3}), or unfertilized-inoculated (Rhizobia) soil exhibited a 70 to 100% increase in dry wt. after 45 days in the TNT-amended (15 {micro}g/g) fertilized and unfertilized-inoculated plants versus the controls. A potential TNT/nitrogen interaction will be discussed.

  8. Legacy of earthworms' engineering effects enlarges the actual effects of earthworms on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms were recognized as key factor responsible for changes from early to late successional plant communities. They incorporate organic matter into the soil and creates there persistent structures, which improves conditions for plant growth. Earthworm activity might be therefore expected to be more important in early stages of the succession, when earthworm colonization of previously earthworm free soil starts, than in the late stages of the succession, where the soil was previously modified by earthworms. However, earthworms affect plants also via other effects such as increase of nutrient availability. The relative importance of soil structure modification and other earthworm effects on plants is poorly known, despite it is important for both theoretical and applied ecology. To test the effect of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa) on plants we performed microcosm laboratory experiment, where earthworms were affecting early successional (Poa compressa, Medicago lupulina, and Daucus carota) and late successional (Arrhenatherum elatius, Lotus corniculatus, and Plantago laceolata) plat species in soil previously unaffected by earthworms and in soil with previous long term effect of earthworms. These soils were taken from the early and late successional monitoring sites of the Sokolov coal mining district with known history. Earthworms increased plant biomass proportionally more in late successional soil. It was mainly because they increased availability of nutrients (nitrate and potassium) and plants get higher advantage out of this in late successional soil. Earthworms increased plant biomass of both early and late successional species, but late successional species suppressed early successional species in competition. This suppression was more intensive in presence of earthworms and in late successional soil. We therefore found multiplicative effect between earthworm soil engineering activity and their other effects, which might be

  9. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg-1) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg-1), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg-1 in carrot and 32 mg kg-1 in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils

  10. Soil influence on the performance of 26 native herbaceous plants suitable for sustainable Mediterranean landscaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretzel, Francesca; Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Benvenuti, Stefano; Bravi, Alessio; Malorgio, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    Native herbaceous plants have the potential for renaturalizing and recovering derelict soils, such as urban or anthropized soils. Ecological restoration following the establishment of a native wildflower meadow should lead to a reduction in management costs and to the preservation of native plant populations. This study was aimed at determining the ecological characteristics and the cultivation needs of 26 herbaceous species native to Italy and southern Europe in order to identify their landscape potential in low-maintenance conditions. The species were selected on the basis of their adaptation to unproductive soils in semi-natural and rural areas, and on their ornamental value, including their ability to attract insects. Mono-specific plots were set up in three different soils. Seed germination, seedling emergence, flowering dynamics, and plant growth were determined. Dormancy-breaking treatments were effective in improving the germination of most species. The percentage of field establishment and biomass appeared to be affected by the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. Soil texture slightly affected seedling emergence, whereas soil texture and the C and N levels affected plant growth, the number of flowers and the duration of flowering. Dianthus carthusianorum, Verbascum blattaria, Matricaria chamomilla and Hypochoeris radicata developed a higher biomass per plant in the soils with a low nutrient content, indicating their adaptability to infertile soils. Daucus carota, Papaver rhoeas, Verbascum sinuatum, Coleostephus myconis produced a higher biomass per plant in the most fertile soil, where they appeared to show a higher potential when competing with other species. The ecological characteristics shown by the native plants are extremely important in terms of combining seeds of different species to create and to maintain semi-natural herbaceous communities in low-maintenance landscapes.

  11. Action spectrum for induction of promoter activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene by UV in carrot suspension cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Junko [Kyoto Univ., Agricultural Chemistry Dept., Kyoto (Japan); Ozeki, Yoshihiro [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Biotechnology Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, Kazuichi [Kyoto Univ., Botany Dept., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The full-length promoter (-2335) of the carrot (Daucus carota) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (gDcPALLI) fused to the luciferase reporter gene was transiently transformed to carrot protoplasts by electroporation, and the promoter activity induced by monochromatic UV light of various wavelengths was examined. The action spectrum constructed from the fluence-response curves showed a single peak at around 280 nm, suggesting that the activation of the gDcPALI promoter is categorizable as one of the UVB light responses. The same assay system was applied to variously truncated gDcPALI promoters and to CaMV35S promoter fusion with various parts 5` - upstream of the gDcPALI promoter. The region from -396 to -190 (relative to the transcription start site) fused to the CaMV35S core (-90) promoter showed a 280 nm-dominant responses. However, gDCPALI promoters truncated above -570 and -396, although they contain the region between -396 and -190, did not show such a typical UVB response, i.e. they responded to 260 nm light as much as to 280 nm light. The promoter truncated to below -190 also responded to 260 nm light as much as to 280 nm light. Therefore we assumed that the gDcPALI promoter is composed of three functionally different parts: the upstream above -570 (modulator), the region from -396 to -190 (UVB responsive) and the downstream below -190 (UVB and C responsive). The overall UVB response of the gDcPALI full-length promoter is explained as the result of interaction of these three components. (Author).

  12. Impact and correlation of environmental conditions on pollen counts in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Anjum; Khan, Muneeba; Zeb, Shaista; Imam, Asif Ali

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative and qualitative survey of airborne pollen was performed in the city of Karachi, and the pollen counts were correlated with different climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the possible effect of meteorological factors on airborne pollen distribution in the atmosphere of Karachi city. Pollen sampling was carried out by using Burkard spore Trap for the period of August 2009 to July 2010, and a total of 2,922 pollen grains/m(3) were recorded. In this survey, 22 pollen types were recognized. The highest pollen count was contributed by Poaceae pollen type (1,242 pollen grains/m(3)) followed by Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (948 pollen grains/m(3)), Cyperus rotundus (195 pollen grains/m(3)) and Prosopis juliflora (169 pollen grains/m(3)). Peak pollen season was in August showing a total of 709 pollen grains/m(3) and lowest pollen count was observed in January-2010. Pearson's chi-square test was performed for the possible correlation of pollen counts and climatic factors. The test revealed significant positive correlation of wind speed with pollen types of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae; Brassica campestris; Asteraceae; and Thuja orientalis. While the correlation of "average temperature" showed significant positive value with Asteraceae and Tamarix indica pollen types. Negative correlation was observed between humidity/ precipitation and pollen types of Brassica campestris; Daucus carota; Ephedra sp.; and Tamarix indica. In the light of above updated data one could identify various aeroallergens present in the air of Karachi city. PMID:25530143

  13. Molecular characterisation of a calmodulin gene, VcCaM1, that is differentially expressed under aluminium stress in highbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, C; Aquea, F; Loyola, R; Slovin, J; Josway, S; Rengel, Z; Reyes-Díaz, M; Alberdi, M; Arce-Johnson, P

    2013-11-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a small acidic protein, is one of the best characterised Ca(2+) sensors in eukaryotes. This Ca(2+) -regulated protein plays a critical role in decoding and transducing environmental stress signals by activating specific targets. Many environmental stresses elicit changes in intracellular Ca(2+) activity that could initiate adaptive responses under adverse conditions. We report the first molecular cloning and characterisation of a calmodulin gene, VcCaM1 (Vaccinium corymbosum Calmodulin 1), in the woody shrub, highbush blueberry. VcCaM1 was first identified as VCAL19, a gene induced by aluminium stress in V. corymbosum L. A full-length cDNA of VcCaM1 containing a 766-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 149 amino acids was cloned from root RNA. The sequence encodes four Ca(2+) -binding motifs (EF-hands) and shows high similarity (99%) with the isoform CaM 201 of Daucus carota. Expression analyses showed that following Al treatment, VcCaM1 message level decreased in roots of Brigitta, an Al-resistant cultivar, and after 48 h, was lower than in Bluegold, an Al-sensitive cultivar. VcCAM1 message also decreased in leaves of both cultivars within 2 h of treatment. Message levels in leaves then increased by 24 h to control levels in Brigitta, but not in Bluegold, but then decreased again by 48 h. In conclusion, VcCaM1 does not appear to be directly involved in Al resistance, but may be involved in improved plant performance under Al toxicity conditions through regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and antioxidant systems in leaves. PMID:23627459

  14. An eco-metabolomic study of host plant resistance to Western flower thrips in cultivated, biofortified and wild carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A; Cristofori, Gabriele; van Steenis, Rosalinda; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2013-09-01

    Domestication of plants and selection for agronomic traits may reduce plant secondary defence metabolites relative to their ancestors. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is an economically important vegetable. Recently, carrot was developed as a functional food with additional health-promoting functions. Biofortified carrots contain increased concentrations of chlorogenic acid as an antioxidant. Chlorogenic acid is involved in host plant resistance to Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), one of the key agri- and horticultural pests worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate quantitative host plant resistance to thrips in carrot and to identify candidate compounds for constitutive resistance. As such we explored whether cultivated carrot is more vulnerable to herbivore attack compared to wild carrot. We subjected a set of 14 biofortified, cultivated and wild carrot genotypes to thrips infestation. We compared morphological traits and leaf metabolic profiles of the three most resistant and susceptible carrots using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). In contrast to our expectation, wild carrots were not more resistant to thrips than cultivated ones. The most thrips resistant carrot was the cultivar Ingot which is known to be tolerant against carrot root fly (Psila rosae). Biofortified carrots were not resistant to thrips. Plant size, leaf area and number of leaf hairs did not differ between resistant and susceptible carrots. The metabolic profiles of the leaves of resistant carrots were significantly different from those of susceptible carrots. The leaves of resistant carrots contained higher amounts of the flavanoid luteolin, the phenylpropanoid sinapic acid and the amino acid β-alanine. The negative effect of these compounds on thrips was confirmed using in-vitro bioassays. Our results have potential implications for carrot breeders. The natural variation of metabolites present in cultivated carrots can be used for improvement of

  15. Influence of different operating conditions on irrigation uniformity with microperforated tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Pizani, María Alejandra; Jesús Farías Ramírez, Asdrúbal

    2013-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a safe alternative to meet the growing demand for food. Numerous studies show that proper management of localized irrigation can increase crop yields and reduce soil salinization. Therefore, periodic field systems irrigation assessments are needed in order to optimize the use efficiency of irrigation water, as well as, to increase the agricultural area covered by the same amount of water and to reduce the environmental impact. It was assessed the behavior of micro perforated tapes under different operating conditions, crops and regions of Venezuela. Evaluations were made on irrigated areas using Santeno ® Type I tape with the following crops: Banana (Musa sp), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L) and forage sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum). In the other hand, Santeno ® Type II tape was used with papaya (Carica papaya L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) crops (the last crop using inverted irrigation tape). The procedures used for sampling and determining the uniformity indices of the system were performed using a series of adjustments to the methodology proposed by Keller and Karmeli (1975), Deniculi (1980) and De Santa and De Juan (1993), in order to increase the number of observations as a function of irrigation time. The calculated irrigation uniformity indices were as follow: Distribution Coefficient (UD), Uniformity Coefficient (CUC), Coefficient of Variation of Flows (CV) and Statistical Uniformity Coefficient (Us). The indices characterization was made according to Merrian and Keller (1978); Bralts (1986); Pizarro (1990) y ASAE (1996), respectively. The results showed that the irrigation uniformity for the evaluated systems varied from excellent to unacceptable, mainly due to the lack of maintenance and the absent of manometric connectors. Among the findings, it is possible to highlight the need for technical support to farmers, both in the installation, management and maintenance of irrigation systems. In this sense

  16. Evidence based approach to unani contraceptives: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Mohd Athar Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a process or technique for preventing pregnancy by means of medication, device or method that blocks or alters one or more of the processes of reproduction in such a way that sexual union can occur without impregnation. Promotion of family planning is central to the World Health Organization work on improving maternal health and is core to achieve the Millennium Development Goal. It is estimated that 90% of abortion related and 20% of pregnancy related morbidity and mortality, could be prevented by the use of effective contraception. Population explosion is the leading cause of poverty and pollution in developing countries which has detrimental effect on the life supporting system. Hence it is necessary to control the population by the use of contraceptives. Available contraceptives in conventional medicines have many adverse effects. Therefore, there is a need for research of newer, less expensive, less toxic, self-administered, completely reversible contraceptives. Much of these properties are observed in contraceptives as mentioned in classical Unani text. Unani physician has mentioned the various medicines and techniques of contraceptives. Scientific research has confirmed the efficacy of most of the herbal drugs like Ruta graveolans (Suddab, Juniperus communis (Abhal, Piper longum (Filfil daraz, Mentha arvensis (Pudina, Azadirachta indica (Neem, Punica granatum (Anar, Alium cepa (Piyaz and Daucus carota (wild carrot etc. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the ancient concept of contraception in Unani System of Medicine in the light of available scientific research. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 268-275

  17. Larvicidal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents against aedes albopictus and formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Sung-Woong; Hyun, Jinho; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-11-18

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the inhibition of acetylcholine esterase with their components. Of the 12 plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), caraway seed (Carum carvi), carrot seed (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), dill (Anethum graveolens), and parsley (Petroselinum sativum) resulted in >90% larval mortality when used at 0.1 mg/mL. Of the compounds identified, α-phellandrene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, (-)-limonene, (+)-limonene, γ-terpinene, cuminaldehyde, neral, (S)-+-carvone, trans-anethole, thymol, carvacrol, myristicin, apiol, and carotol resulted in >80% larval mortality when used at 0.1 mg/mL. Two days after treatment, 24.69, 3.64, and 12.43% of the original amounts of the celery, cumin, and parsley oils, respectively, remained in the water. Less than 50% of the original amounts of α-phellandrene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, cuminaldehyde, and trans-antheole were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. Carvacrol, α-pinene, and β-pinene inhibited the activity of Ae. albopictus acetylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 0.057, 0.062, and 0.190 mg/mL, respectively. A spherical microemulsion of parsley essential oil-loaded poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was prepared, and the larvicidal activity of this formulation was shown to be similar to that of parsley oil. PMID:26500081

  18. Crop uptake and extractability of cadmium in soils naturally high in metals at different pH levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.R.; Almas, A.; Narwal, R.P. [Haryana Agric. Univ., Hisar (India); Jeng, A.S.

    1995-12-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted for three years to study the effect of different pH levels on metal concentrations in plants and the cadmium (Cd) extractability by DTPA and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}. The soils used were an alum shale (clay loam) and a moraine (loam), which were adjusted to pH levels of 5.5, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.5. Wheat (Triticum aestivum), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were grown as test crops. Crop yields were not consistently affected at increasing soil pH levels. The concentration of Cd in plant species decreased with increasing soil pH in both soils and in all three years. Significant concentration differences between soil pH levels were only seen in wheat and carrot crops. Increasing soil pH also decreased the nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in plants in the first year crop but the copper (Cu) concentration was not consistently affected by soil pH. The effect of pH was more pronounced in the moraine then the alum shale soil. The DTPA-and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-extractable Cd was decreased with the increasing soil pH and the pH effect was more pronounced with NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} extractable Cd. Both extractants were found equally effective in relation to the Cd concentration in plants in this study. 33 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Assessment of pectinase production by Bacillus mojavensis I4 using an economical substrate and its potential application in oil sesame extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazala, Imen; Sayari, Nadhem; Romdhane, Molka Ben; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Haddar, Anissa

    2015-12-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) peels, local agricultural waste product, is rich in lignocellulolytic material, including pectin which can act as an inducer of pectinase production. Pectinolytic enzymes production by Bacillus mojavensis I4 was studied in liquid state fermentation using carrot peel as a substrate. Medium composition and culture conditions for the pectinase production by I4 were optimized using two statistical methods: Taguchi design was applied to find the key ingredients and conditions for the best yield of enzyme production and The Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the value of the four significant variables: carrot peels powder, NH4Cl, inoculum size and incubation time. The optimal conditions for higher production of pectinase were carrot peels powder 6.5 %, NH4Cl 0.3 %, inoculum level 3 % and cultivation time 32 h. Under these conditions, the pectinase experimental yield (64.8 U/ml) closely matched the yield predicted by the statistical model (63.55 U/ml) with R (2) = 0.963. The best pectinase activity was observed at the temperature of 60 °C and at pH 8.0. The enzyme retained more than 90 % of its activity after 24 h at pH ranging from 6.0 to 10.0. The enzyme preserved more than 85 % of its initial activity after 60 min of pre-incubation at 30-40 °C and more than 67 % at 50 °C. The extracellular juice of I4 was applied in the process of sesame seeds oil extraction. An improvement of 3 % on the oil yield was obtained. The findings demonstrated that the B. mojavensis I4 has a promising potential for future use in a wide range of industrial and biotechnological applications. PMID:26604345

  20. The Protective Effects of Carrot Seed Extract on Spermatogenesis and Cauda Epididymal Sperm Reserves in Gentamicin Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Carrot (Daucus carota L. is known to possess antifertility properties in female.However, according to Iranian traditional medicine, it can increase the potency in men. Theaim of this study was to investigate the influence of carrot seed extract (CSE on spermatogenesis,number and motility of sperms in cauda epididyme in male rats.Materials and Methods: Forty adult male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: controlgroup, groups receiving low- and high doses of CSE, animals that received high-dose of CSEwith gentamicin, and a gentamicin only group. After 4 weeks treatment, fasting serum sampleswere obtained for the sex hormone analysis. Under anesthesia, testis, cauda epididymidesand sperm ducts were dissected and sperm count, motility and cauda epididymis spermreserves (CESR were determined. Histopathological changes of testis were also studied toassess spermatogenesis. Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed byTukey HSD tests.Results: Administration of CSE caused a significant increase in CESR compared with thecontrol (28.2 ± 1.8 vs. 45.1 ± 2.0, ×106. The extract could also protect testis from the gentamicin-induced necrosis. The CSE administration caused about 3.5-times increase in theLH levels even in spite of receiving 5 mg/kg/day gentamicin with no significant effect on FSHlevels. The testosterone concentrations in the group received 400 mg/kg CSE were 30% and83% higher than its levels in the control and the gentamicin treated group, respectively.Conclusion: CSE can overcome reproductive toxicity of gentamicin and induces spermatogenesisprobably mainly through the elevation of testosterone levels.