WorldWideScience

Sample records for cenostigma tocantinum ducke

  1. Chemical constituents from bark of Cenostigma macrophyllum: cholesterol occurrence; Constituintes quimicos das cascas do caule de Cenostigma macrophyllum: ocorrencia de colesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Silva, Carmem Cicera Maria da; Caland Neto, Laurentino Batista; Lopes, Jose Arimateia Dantas; Cito, Antonia Maria das Gracas Lopes; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2007-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Cenostigma macrophyllum (Leguminosae-Caesapinioideae) resulted in the isolation and identification of valoneic acid dilactone, ellagic acid, lupeol, alkyl ferulate, four free sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol), a mixture of sitosteryl ester derivatives of fatty acids, sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. The mixtures of 3-beta-hydroxysterols and fatty acids were analysed by GC/MS. (author)

  2. Gastroprotective activity of Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire leaves on experimental ulcer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, A F S C; Fernandes, H B; Silva, F V; Oliveira, I S; Freitas, F F B P; Machado, F D F; Costa, C L S; Arcanjo, D D R; Chaves, M H; Oliveira, F A; Oliveira, R C M

    2013-10-28

    Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), popularly known in Brazil as "caneleiro", is widely used in folk medicine against gastrointestinal diseases. In previous studies, the ethanol extract of leaves from Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire had shown antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant and antiulcerogenic activities. The aim of this study was to assess the gastroprotective effect of the hydroalcoholic fraction of leaves of Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire (Cm-FHA), as well as to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms of action. Mice were used for the evaluation of the acute toxicity, and mice and rats to study the gastroprotective activity. The potential gastroprotective of Cm-FHA was assessed on different gastric ulcer models in rodents, such as absolute ethanol, HCl/ethanol, ischemia-reperfusion, cold restraint stress and indomethacin. The participation of prostaglandins, NO-synthase pathway and ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) in gastroprotective activity of Cm-FHA were evaluated after treatment with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin), a NO-synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) and a KATP channel blocker (glibenclamide 5mg/kg), respectively. Likewise, the catalase activity was determinated in order to assess the possible participation of antioxidant mechanisms. No signs of acute toxicity was observed after oral acute administration of Cm-FHA, considering the analyzed parameters. Likewise, Cm-FHA promoted a protective effect against gastric ulcers induced by absolute ethanol (lesion inhibition by 40% at both 100 and 200mg/kg), HCl/ethanol (lesion inhibition by 50 or 48% at 100 or 200mg/kg, respectively), ischemia-reperfusion (lesion inhibition by 49 or 90% at 100 or 200mg/kg, respectively) and cold restraint stress (lesion inhibition by 63 or 76% at 100 or 200mg/kg, respectively), as well as a increase of catalase activity was

  3. FT-Raman spectroscopic study of skin wound healing in diabetic rats treated with Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Nayana Pinheiro Machado de Freitas; Martins, Marcelino, E-mail: nayanamachado@oi.com.br [Faculdade Diferencial Integral (FACID), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Costa, Charlytton Luis Sena da; Maia Filho, Antonio Luis [Universidade Estadual do Piaui (UESPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Arisawa, Emilia Angela Loschiavo [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: patients with diabetes mellitus exhibit a delay in the lesion repair process. The active components of Cenostigma macrophyllum may represent a viable alternative to facilitate the recovery of these lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of emulsion oil-water Cenostigma macrophyllum in the repair process of lesions in rats with induced diabetes. Methods: 63 male rats (Wistar, 200-250 g body weight, 30-40 days old) were distributed into the following groups: control (C), diabetic (D) and diabetic treated with Cenostigma macrophyllum (P), subdivided based on the experimental times, days 7, 14 and 28, with 21 animals per main group. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg via penile vein and 12-h fasting) and confirmed at day 21 (glycemic index > 240 mg/dL). In the animals of group P, 0.5 ml of the oil-water emulsion obtained from the plant seed was used. The samples were removed and hemisectioned, and one portion was used for the quantitative histological analysis of collagen using Masson's trichrome staining, while another portion was analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Results: A higher percentage area of the volume of collagen fibers was observed for the experimental time Day 14 in group P compared with group D (p < 0.001). Regarding the ratio of areas of the amides I (1700-1600 cm{sup -1}) and III (1245-1345 cm{sup -1}), the groups D and P show the opposite behavior. Conclusion: Cenostigma macrophyllum accelerated the repair process in skin of diabetic ratsfor14 days. (author)

  4. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF FEMALE DUCK, MUSCOVY-DUCK AND MULE-DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of morphometrical measurements inthe female waterfowls. The animals used in this research were 90 ducks , 90 muscovy-ducks and 90mule-ducks in Bulukumba district of Brebes regency, Central Java, Indonesia. Parameters measuredwere maxilla length, neck length, body length, chest circumstance, wing length, chest length, femurlength and tibia length. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System ver. 9.1. Muscovyduckgenerally had the largest of size, followed by mule-duck and then duck. The most discriminantvariables were showed by chest length and chest circumstance. Muscovy-duck and mule-duck hadclosest genetic distance (3.974870 than both of the distance between duck and mule duck (14.10, andmuscovy-duck and duck (24.73. The smallest errorness level in grouping was showed in duck 1%followed by 2% in mule-duck and 3% in muscovy-duck.

  5. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  6. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2017-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle....

  7. Punnett and duck genetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lution that could be of much economic importance. Punnett was successful in his efforts by analysing reciprocal crosses between the Mallard and Indian Runner duck. Interestingly, he does not restrict his observations to the colour but also comments on the behaviour of the hybrids. Although Pun- nett does not discuss ...

  8. Welfare of ducks in European duck husbandry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Berk, J.; Cooper, J.; Faure, J.M.; Guemene, D.; Harlander, A.; Jones, T.; Knierim, U.; Kuhnt, K.; Pingel, H.; Reiter, K.; Serviere, J.; Ruis, M.A.W.

    2005-01-01

    European duck meat production is based on the use of Pekin, Muscovy and Mule duck genotypes that vary in their behavioural and physiological characteristics. Furthermore, large differences exist in their housing and management conditions. The aim of this review is to discuss the welfare of these

  9. Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin Concentration on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Duck Meat Jellies

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jae-Hyun; Yeo, Eui-Joo; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of duck feet gelatin concentration on the physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of duck meat jellies. Duck feet gelatin was prepared with acidic swelling and hot water extraction. In this study, four duck meat jellies were formulated with 3, 4, 5, and 6% duck feet gelatin, respectively. In the preliminary experiment, the increase in duck feet gelatin ranged from 5 to 20%, resulting in a significant (p

  10. Capture methods for Musk Ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Hemmings, J.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Musk Ducks Biziura lobata are endemic to wetlands, river systems and coastal oceanic waters of temperate Australia. Individuals of this species are difficult to capture because of their excellent swimming and diving abilities and frequent use of deep-water habitats. Night-lighting, baited clover-leaf traps and walk-in-nest-traps were used to capture Musk Ducks at Murray Lagoon, Cape Gantheaume Conservation Park, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. These techniques should be useful for capturing Musk Ducks at other locations in Australia.

  11. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  12. Remigial molt of sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Margaret R.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    Molt is a dynamic process occurring throughout much of the year in waterfowl. The molt of flight feathers by waterfowl, especially sea ducks, however, occurs over a compressed period of time and in spcific areas used each year. We provide an overview of the flight feather molt of sea ducks. We focus on the need to molt and why, the timing and duration of flight feather mot, and the duration birds remain at molting areas; energetics of molt and strategies for managing energetic needs; molt migration' food resources and foraging behavior; predation risks; temporal constraints and competition; response to disturbance; and molt habitats and seasonal differences in habitat used by sea ducks. We conclude by presenting and discussing data gaps and emphasize the continuing need for a holistic approach to sea duck management and international cooperation among countries.

  13. Duck Virus Enteritis - A Contingency Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Duck plague, also known as duck virus enteritis (DVE) is a highly contagious, extremely deadly epizootic virus with a potential for devastating continental waterfowl...

  14. Immune responses of ducks infected with duck Tembusu virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eLi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV can cause serious disease in ducks, characterized by reduced egg production. Although the virus has been isolated and detection methods developed, the host immune responses to DTMUV infection are unclear. Therefore, we systematically examined the expression of immune-related genes and the viral distribution in DTMUV-infected ducks, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results show that DTMUV replicates quickly in many tissues early in infection, with the highest viral titers in the spleen 1 day after infection. Rig-1, Mda5, and Tlr3 are involved in the host immune response to DTMUV, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, -2, -6, Cxcl8 and antiviral proteins (Mx, Oas, etc. are also upregulated early in infection. The expression of Il-6 increased most significantly in the tissues tested. The upregulation of Mhc-I was observed in the brain and spleen, but the expression of Mhc-II was upregulated in the brain and downregulated in the spleen. The expression of the interferons was also upregulated to different degrees in the spleen but that of the brain was various. Our study suggests that DTMUV replicates rapidly in various tissues and that the host immune responses are activated early in infection. However, the overexpression of cytokines may damage the host. These results extend our understanding of the immune responses of ducks to DTMUV infection, and provide insight into the pathogenesis of DTMUV attributable to host factors.

  15. Physicochemical properties and sensory analysis of duck meatballs containing duck meat surimi-like material during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurkhoeriyati, T; Huda, N; Ahmad, R

    2012-01-01

    The physicochemical properties and sensory analysis of duck meatballs containing duck meat surimi-like material during frozen storage were evaluated. Properties of meatballs containing duck surimi-like material prepared by acid solubilization (ACDS), alkaline solubilization (ALDS), and conventional processing (CDS) as well as duck mince (as the control, CON) were compared. ACDS had significantly higher (P sensory attributes in samples significantly (Psensory properties of duck meatballs containing duck surimi-like material. Thus, these techniques should be applicable to product development of duck surimi-like material. Surimi-like material from duck meat is an alternative source of meat protein to produce ready-to eat or value-added products. Little is known about duck surimi-like material and physicochemical and sensory properties of such products. Therefore, the results of this study are critical for assessing the possibility of duck meat surimi-like material for human food. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  17. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Russell, Robin E; Franson, J Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J; Allen, R Bradford; Nashold, Sean W; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  18. Nowitna NWR duck production survey, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a duck production survey that was conducted on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. The survey employed a stratified...

  19. Lower Duck River Mussel Survey and Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Duck River flows 290 miles through several major ecoregions before entering the impounded main stem Tennessee River at Sycamore Landing, Tennessee, adjacent to...

  20. Seasonal survival of adult female mottled ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jena A.; Haukos, David A.; Conway, Warren C.

    2017-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulgivula) is a non-migratory duck dependent on coastal habitats to meet all of its life cycle requirements in the Western Gulf Coast (WGC) of Texas and Louisiana, USA. This population of mottled ducks has experienced a moderate decline during the past 2 decades. Adult survival has been identified as an important factor influencing population demography. Previous work based on band-recovery data has provided only annual estimates of survival. We assessed seasonal patterns of female mottled duck survival from 2009 to 2012 using individuals marked with satellite platform transmitter terminals (PTTs). We used temperature and movement sensors within each PTT to indicate potential mortality events. We estimated cumulative weekly survival and ranked factors influential in patterns of mortality using known-fate modeling in Program MARK. Models included 4 predictors: week; hunting and non-hunting periods; biological periods defined as breeding, brooding, molt, and pairing; and mass at time of capture. Models containing hunt periods, during and outside the mottled duck season, comprised essentially 100% of model weights where both legal and illegal harvest had a negative influence on mottled duck survival. Survival rates were low during 2009–2011 (12–38% annual rate of survival), when compared with the long-term banding average of 53% annual survival. During 2011, survival of female mottled ducks was the lowest annual rate (12%) ever documented and coincided with extreme drought. Management actions maximizing the availability of wetlands and associated upland habitats during hunting seasons and drought conditions may increase adult female mottled duck survival.

  1. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7???1??C). ...

  2. Pastagens arborizadas no projeto de assentamento benfica, município de Itupiranga, Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Moreira dos Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Na microrregião de Marabá, PA, as pastagens dos agricultores familiares apresentam alta diversidade de árvores e palmeiras que têm papel importante tanto para limitação da degradação da biodiversidade quanto para suas utilidades. O trabalho foi realizado em 26 propriedades, onde 62 pastagens foram visitadas junto com o agricultor. Em cada pastagem foram repertoriadas todas as árvores e palmeiras presentes. Setenta e uma espécies foram encontradas, pertencentes a 32 famílias, das quais nove se destacaram com maior número de espécies: Caesalpiniaceae (11, Mimosaceae (10, Arecaceae (4, Lecythidaceae (4, Bignoniaceae (3, Fabaceae (3, Moraceae (3, Sapotaceae (3 e Sterculiaceae (3; 20 famílias apresentaram uma única espécie. Vinte e quatro espécies (34% do total pertenceram às três famílias Leguminosae (Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae e Mimosaceae. As espécies arborescentes são conservadas principalmente em razão dos usos diversos na propriedade. Das 21 espécies, indicadas para arborização de pastagens de agricultores desta e de outras comunidades, nove espécies são particularmente recomendadas pela resistência ao fogo e para muitos anos de pastagem, pelo fato de ter dois usos ou mais: Caryocar villosum (Aubl. Pers., Bertholletia excelsa H. B. K., Attalea speciosa Mart. ex Spreng., Oenocarpus distichus Mart., Astrocaryum tucuma Mart., Swartzia flaemingii Raddi, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl., Cenostigma tocantinum Ducke e Spondias mombin L.

  3. Yellow Ducks Overboard! A Lesson in Geography and World Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul; Beauboeuf, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This lesson was inspired by the book, "10 Little Rubber Ducks" by Eric Carle, which discusses ocean pollution. The book was inspired by an incident in 1992: A shipping container tumbled into the North Pacific Ocean, broke open, and 28,800 little rubber ducks (and other plastic bath toys) were lost at sea. The ducks were manufactured in China, and…

  4. Indigenous Ducks are Better Reservoirs of P. multocida than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were performed to study cross infections from chickens to ducks and vice versa. For each experiment the source birds (chickens or ducks) were infected with Pasteurella multocida strain 10322T. The infected birds were then mixed with sentinel indigenous ducks or chickens, respectively, six hours after ...

  5. Mycoplasma infection of ducks and geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, L; Szathmary, S

    2012-11-01

    Production of ducks and geese in certain parts of the world is very important. Mycoplasma diseases cause significant losses to the duck and goose industry. This review summarizes the epidemiological, clinical, and pathomorphological characteristics of mycoplasma diseases of ducks and geese and the involvement of the various mycoplasma species in their pathogenesis. The role of mycoplasma infections in the development of clinical signs, pathological lesions, and mortality of challenged birds is demonstrated in challenge experiments. Transmission of mycoplasma in the ovary and eggs resulting in the reduction of egg production and an increase of embryo mortality has been shown in challenge experiments as well as in field studies. The susceptibility of many mycoplasma isolates of the most important mycoplasma species of duck and goose origin were tested and showed relatively high average minimum inhibitory concentrations of lincomycin, tilosin, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and enrofloxacin but not for tiamulin. The successful treatment of mycoplasma infections with antibiotics in ducks and geese should be selected based on the minimum inhibitory concentration values against the mycoplasmas isolated from the flock.

  6. Morphology And Genetic Diversity Of Mitochondrial Dna D-loop Region Using Pcr-rflp Analysis In Magelang Duck And Other Native Duck

    OpenAIRE

    D. Purwantini; T. Yuwanta; T. Hartatik; Ismoyowati, I

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the different of plumage colors on morphological diversityof Magelang duck and genetic diversity using PCR-RFLP mtDNA D-loop region analysis of Magelangduck and four others native duck population (Tegal, Mojosari, Bali and Alabio duck) in Indonesia. Bloodsample was taken from 50 Magelang ducks and 20 of each native ducks. Morphological characteristicsof body measurement, production ability and egg quality of Magelang duck were analyzed usingCompletely ...

  7. Ducks: the "Trojan horses" of H5N1 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Ki; Negovetich, Nicholas J; Forrest, Heather L; Webster, Robert G

    2009-07-01

    Wild ducks are the main reservoir of influenza A viruses that can be transmitted to domestic poultry and mammals, including humans. Of the 16 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses, only the H5 and H7 subtypes cause highly pathogenic (HP) influenza in the natural hosts. Several duck species are naturally resistant to HP Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. These duck species can shed and spread virus from both the respiratory and intestinal tracts while showing few or no disease signs. While the HP Asian H5N1 viruses are 100% lethal for chickens and other gallinaceous poultry, the absence of disease signs in some duck species has led to the concept that ducks are the "Trojan horses" of H5N1 in their surreptitious spread of virus. An important unresolved issue is whether the HP H5N1 viruses are maintained in the wild duck population of the world. Here, we review the ecology and pathobiology of ducks infected with influenza A viruses and ducks' role in the maintenance and spread of HP H5N1 viruses. We also identify the key questions about the role of ducks that must be resolved in order to understand the emergence and control of pandemic influenza. It is generally accepted that wild duck species can spread HP H5N1 viruses, but there is insufficient evidence to show that ducks maintain these viruses and transfer them from one generation to the next.

  8. Benefits, costs, and determinants of dominance in American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Behavioural dominance was studied in captive American black ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-December 1984. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and groups of 10 ducks consisting of 5 adults (3 males and 2 females) and 5 juveniles (3 males and 2 females) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet, and ducks in the other 4 pens were given a restricted diet. Dominance structure within pens was linear. Adults were dominant to young, and body mass had no influence on dominance rank. The effect of sex on dominance rank was age-specific. Adult males were dominant to adult females and to young black ducks of both sexes; however, dominance rank of young males did not differ from adult or young females. Paired adults were dominant to unpaired adults and to young individuals that were either paired or unpaired. Paired young black ducks were similar in dominance rank to unpaired adults and unpaired young indicating that pairing did not make these individuals more dominant. Ducks on the restricted diet gained less body mass than ducks on the ad libitum diet, but dominant and subordinate black ducks within treatment groups experienced similar changes in body mass during the early winter. Dominant black ducks interacted more frequently and were more likely to form pair bonds than subordinates, thus higher energy costs of dominant individuals may explain the poor relationship between physical condition and dominance rank. There was a significant positive association between the dominance ranks of pair members.

  9. Transport of retinol in the duck plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    evidence has been presented for the identity of the plasma and egg-yolk retinol- binding protein-prealbumin complexes in the case of chicken (Heller, 1976). In pursuance of earlier studies in our laboratory on the mode of transport of retinol for embryonic development in duck (Sreekrishna and Cama, 1978), the plasma.

  10. 75 FR 9316 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control of Muscovy Ducks, Revisions to the Waterfowl Permit Exceptions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... expansion of this species to the north. ``These ducks are moving up because of global warming. Why when they... Muscovy ducks. If the Fish and Wild Life Service's true goal is to control indigenous Muscovy ducks, it...

  11. The response of ducks to V4 Newcastle disease virus and its transmission to contact ducks and domestic chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Bouzari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of Muscovy ducks with V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was undertaken to determine the response of the ducks to the virus and the possibility of virus transmission to ducks and chickens in village like conditions. Twelve ducks were randomly and equally divided into three groups of control, inoculated and in-contact. Additionally, the chickens were placed into two groups of four animals each, namely in-contact and control. The inoculated and in-contact ducks and in-contact chickens were kept together. The eye drop route was used for inoculation and hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies were measured for assessment of antibody response and cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were used for detection of the virus. The primary antibody response of inoculated ducks was very high and rapid (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 5.75 ± 0.50. The in-contact ducks showed antibody response with the same pattern but lower titers than the inoculated ducks (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 3.25 ± 1.70. The in-contact chickens showed a slight increase of HI antibody (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 2.25 ± 1.25 while the control chickens did not show any increase. The antibody response indicated the transmission of the virus to contact ducks and chickens. A single isolation of virus confirmed the ability of ducks to excrete the virus. It was concluded that the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was highly antigenic for ducks, and ducks can transmit it to other ducks and also in-contact chickens.

  12. Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE. The envelope (E gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs. Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.

  13. A multiplex PCR for detection of six viruses in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Shanyuan; Hong, Weiming; Wang, Anping; Zuo, Weiyong

    2017-10-01

    In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system. Specificity and sensitivity assays were also developed. The multiplex PCR was used to detect duck embryos infected with mixed viruses and those with clinically suspected diseases to verify the feasibility of the multiplex PCR. Results show that the primers can specifically amplify target fragments, without any cross-amplification with other viruses. The multiplex PCR system can amplify six DNA fragments from the pooled viral genomes and specifically detect nucleic acids of the six duck susceptible viruses when the template amount is 10 2 copies/μl. In addition, the system can be used to detect viral nucleic acids in duck embryos infected with the six common viruses. The detection results for clinical samples are consistent with those detected by single PCR. Therefore, the established multiplex PCR method can perform specific, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of six duck-infecting viruses and can be applied to clinical identification and diagnosis of viral infection in ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  15. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Alan B.; Allen, Stephen H.; Eberhardt, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) predation on nesting ducks was assessed by examining 1,857 adult duck remains found at 1,432 fox rearing dens from 1968 to 1973. Dabbling ducks were much more vulnerable to foxes than diving ducks. Dabbling ducks (1,798) found at dens consisted of 27% blue-winged teals (Anas discors), 23% mallards (A. platyrhynchos), 20% northern pintails (A. acuta), 9% northern shovelers (Spatula clypeata), 8% gadwalls (A. strepera), 3% green-winged teals (A. crecca), 2% American wigeons (A. americana), and 10% unidentified. Relative abundance of individual species and nesting chronology were the most important factors affecting composition of ducks taken by foxes. Seventy-six percent of 1,376 adult dabbling ducks and 40% of 30 adult diving ducks for which sex was determined were hens. In western North Dakota and western South Dakota, 65% of mallard and northern pintail remains found at dens were hens compared with 76% in eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota (P fox predation rates on ducks. Predation rate indices ranged from 0.01 duck/den in Iowa to 1.80 ducks/den in eastern North Dakota. Average annual predation rate indices for dabbling ducks in a 3-county intensive study area in eastern North Dakota were closely correlated with May pond numbers (r = 0.874, P foxes than hens of late nesting species. Predation rate indices were expanded to estimate total numbers of ducks taken by fox families during the denning season. Estimated numbers of dabbling ducks taken annually by individual fox families in 2 physiographic regions comprising the intensive study area ranged from 16.1 to 65.9. Predation was highest during wet years and lowest during dry years and averaged lower, but was more variable, in the region where tillage was greatest and wetland water levels were least stable. Predation in the intensive study area averaged 2.97 adult dabbling ducks/ km2/year and represented an estimated average annual loss of 13.5% of hen and 4.5% of drake

  16. Factors influencing depredation of artificial duck nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Grand, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Because artificial nests can facilitate controlled experiments of nest success, we used them to assess whether human visitation, nest density, vegetation structure, and proximity to habitat edge could affect depredation of duck nests on Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. More (P nests in a plot visited daily (100%) were depredated than those in plots visited at intervals of 7 (40%), 14 (35%), or 28 days (45%). More (P nests were depredated in a plot with 10 nests/ha (95%) than nests in a plot of a lower density (2/ha; 40%). Vegetation height, vegetation density, distance to a wetland, distance to forest edge, or distance to the nearest ecotone did not differ (P > 0.05) between depredated and undisturbed nests. We suggest that daily visitation of duck nests increases depredation, but longer intervals, typical of most nest studies, do not. High nesting densities, which could occur when flooding limits nesting habitat, may result in higher depredation rates.

  17. Coccidiosis in domesticated ducks in Ninevah governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Abdulla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to detect the intestinal coccidial types in 80 fecal samples of domesticated ducks in differentparts of Ninevah governorate. During the period from October 2007 to June 2008. Flotation method was employed fordetection. The results revealed that the total incidence of the genus Eimeria and genus Tyzzeria was 63.75%. Two species ofthe genus Eimeria and Tyzzeria were detected, namely E.anatis and E.butlakhi with a percentage of 17.5 % and 10 %respectively, while T.anseris and T.perniciosa were found in 25 % and 11.25% respectively. This study is regarded the firststudy in detection of these species in duck in Ninevah governorate.

  18. Review on the Performances of Cihateup Duck (Anas platyrhynchos Javanica as Genetic Resource of Local Poultry in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procula R Matitaputty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cihateup duck is one of the local Indonesian poultry genetic resources originated from West Java. These ducks are raised in Tasikmalaya and its surrounding area. Cihateup duck raised as layer or meat type duck is potential to provide business opportunities for people in West Java. For future development of Cihateup duck, some important potential characteristics of Cihateup ducks are required. This paper describes the phenotype performance, rearing management of Cihateup ducks and its genetic relationship with other ducks. Cihateup ducks have longer neck, wing, femur and tibia compared with other Indonesian ducks. Egg production (200 egg/head/year is lower than Alabio and Mojosari ducks. The quality of meat (taste and flavour is less preferred by consumers because of its odor. Genetic relationship between Cihateup duck with local ducks in Java is closer than Alabio ducks from South Kalimantan.

  19. Quantitative feed restriction of Pekin breeder ducks during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative feed restriction of Pekin breeder ducks during the rearing period and its effect on subsequent productivity. M.D. Olver. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Irene. Six male and 24 female Pekin ducks per pen were randomly allocated to 12pens to test the effects of quantitative feed restriction during the ...

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck interleukin-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belonging to the Th17 family is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. A 1034-bp cDNA encoding duck IL-17 (duIL-17) was cloned from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of ducks. The encoded protein, predicted to consisted of 169 amino acids, displayed a molec...

  1. Duck plague epizootics in the United States, 1967-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, K.A.; Kidd, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1967, the first confirmed diagnosis of duck plague (DP) in the USA was made from pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) on commercial duck farms on Long Island, New York. Within 10 mo, DP was confirmed as the cause of death in migratory waterfowl on a Long Island bay. This paper reviews 120 DP epizootics reported from 1967 to 1995 that involved waterfowl species native to North America or were reported in areas with free-flying waterfowl at risk. Duck plague epizootics occurred in 21 states with the greatest number reported in Maryland (29), New York (18), California (16), and Pennsylvania (13). The greatest frequency of epizootics (86%) was detected during the months of March to June. At least 40 waterfowl species were affected with the highest frequency of epizootics reported in captive or captive-reared ducks including muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) (68%), mallard ducks (A. platyrhynchos) (18%) and black ducks (A. rubripes) (14%). The greatest number of waterfowl died in three epizootics that involved primarily migratory birds in 1967 and 1994 in New York (USA) and 1973 in South Dakota (USA). The greatest number of DP epizootics reported since 1967 appear to have involved flocks of non-migratory rather than migratory waterfowl; therefore, in our opinion it remains unknown if DP is enzootic in either non-migratory or migratory waterfowl.

  2. Ducks: the "Trojan horses" of H5N1 influenza

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Jeong-Ki; Negovetich, Nicholas J; Forrest, Heather L; Webster, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    .... While the HP Asian H5N1 viruses are 100% lethal for chickens and other gallinaceous poultry, the absence of disease signs in some duck species has led to the concept that ducks are the "Trojan horses" of H5N1 in their surreptitious...

  3. Comparison of cranial dysraphism in a breed of crested duck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dysraphic state in the Dutch crested duck is a breed specific autosomal trait with an incomplete penetrance. We have observed similarities between the lesions found in the head of the normal Dutch crested duck (Hollandse kuifeend) and cases of dysraphism found in calves that have continuously been brought to our ...

  4. Egg Production Potentials of Muscovy Ducks ( Cairina moschata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg production potentials of Muscovy duck was evaluated in three management systems; semi-intensive management system (SI), intensive management system with wallow (IW) and intensive management system without wallow (IO). Sixty female Muscovy ducks were divided into three groups of 20 each on weight ...

  5. Assessing genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of duck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the maternal genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Nigerian duck populations were assessed. A total of 591 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region of 87 indigenous ducks from two populations in Nigeria were analyzed. Seven haplotypes and 70 polymorphic sites were ...

  6. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC class Igene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIN ZHANG

    2017-06-17

    Jun 17, 2017 ... could contribute to design effective diagnostics and vaccines for the species against various infections. [Zhang L., Liu W.-J., Wu J.-Q., Xu M.-L., Kong Z.-J., Huang Y.-Y. and Yang S.-H. 2017 Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos). MHC class I gene in two duck lines. J. Genet. 96, 371–375].

  7. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N1) Transmission Between Wild Ducks and Domestic Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Handberg, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virological investigation in a mixed flock of ducks and geese following detection of avian influenza virus antibodies in domestic geese. Low pathogenic H7N1 was found in both domestic and wild birds, indicating that transmission of virus was likely to have taken place...

  8. The Reproduction Performance of Tegal Duck Based on Hematology Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismoyowati Ismoyowati

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the physiological indicator of Tegal duck based on the hematological parameters and its relation to reproduction performances.  The research materials were 20 heads of male and 100 heads of female Tegal ducks. Parameters measured were erytrocyte, leucocyte, differential leucocyte, hemoglobin, hematocrit, protein total, albumin and globulin, and reproduction performances (semen volume and egg production.  Method of the research was experimental with Completely Randomized Design,  and data were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation.  The result of the experiment showed that hematological parameters of Tegal duck that had high production were high significantly (P<0,05 different than the others, except on albumin value.  It was concluded that reprodution performances of Tegal duck was highly affected by its hematologys status. (Animal Production 8(2: 88-93 (2006   Key Words: Reproduction performances, Tegal duck, hematology status

  9. A new species of duck from Central Colombia A new species of duck from Central Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetmore Alexander

    1946-04-01

    Full Text Available For a number of years there has been persistent report of "black ducks" from the mountain lakes of central Colombia, with the supposition on the part of hunters that these were the well-known species of that name of eastern North America. The senior author made some inquiry into the matter especially following a note published in CALDASIA N,o.9, Jan. 6, 1944, p. 407, where Mr. F. C. Lehmann gave a brief summary of what was known of these birds. His account indicates that dark-colored ducks are of common occurrence in various part of Colombia, especially in the Bogotá Savanna where they are called "pico de oro" or "picodioro". He recorded others near Cali in the Cauca Valley where they are known as "pato amarillo". The matter is of especial interest since the black duck of North America, Anas rubripes, while migratory in the northern part of its range is not known to pass south of the southern United states except for two or three casual records from the West Indies. Shortly before this, on September 17, 1943, Brother Nicéforo Maria of the Instituto de La Salle in Bogotá wrote that he has forwarding to the U. S. National Museum as a gift a small collection of birds taken principally by himself for which he desired identifications. When these arrived in due time there was among them a strange duck somewhat resembling Anas spinicauda, but differing in form and especially in much darker color. There was some supposition that it might be a hybrid, but this seemed hardly probable, so that the question of the "black ducks" reported from this area came immediately to mind.For a number of years there has been persistent report of "black ducks" from the mountain lakes of central Colombia, with the supposition on the part of hunters that these were the well-known species of that name of eastern North America. The senior author made some inquiry into the matter especially following a note published in CALDASIA N,o.9, Jan. 6, 1944, p. 407, where Mr. F. C

  10. Different Duck Species Infected Intramuscularly with Duck-Origin Genotype IX APMV-1 Show Discrepant Mortality and Indicate Another Fatal Genotype APMV-1 to Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guanghua; Cheng, Longfei; Fu, Qiuling; Qi, Baomin; Chen, Cuiteng; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Liu, Rongchang; Huang, Yu

    2017-03-01

    Isolations of genotype IX (gIX) avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) from various bird species have been more common recently, with isolates showing variable pathogenicity in different species of poultry. Here we sequenced the genome of a Muscovy duck origin gIX virus strain XBT14 and characterized the virulence and pathogenicity of this isolate in chickens and ducks. The genome sequence of strain XBT14 is 15,192 nt in length, containing multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. The XBT14 strain shared 91.6%-91.9% nucleotide identities with early-genotype viruses (such as genotype III and IV) and shared 85.3%-85.9% nucleotide homologies with later genotype viruses (such as genotype VII). Pathogenicity tests showed that strain XBT14 could cause death in different duck breeds with a mortality rate of 44.4% in Muscovy duck, 25.9% in Sheldrake, and 11.1% in Cherry Valley duck, respectively. Similar mortality discrepancies were also observed in different ducks when infected with chicken-origin gIX virus strain F48E8. These results indicate that XBT14-like velogenic gIX APMV-1 (such as XBT14, F48E8, and GD09-2) could cause fatal infection in duck, and genotype IX is another genotype velogenic to duck as well as genotype VII. Accompanied by genetic differences in the vaccine strains or dominant strains prevailing in poultry, the virulent XBT14-like gIX viruses might become potentially endemic strains in poultry in the future.

  11. The Ballistic Flight of an Automatic Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Collignon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Jacques de Vaucanson's automatic duck and its successive appearances in Thomas Pynchon's work (both 'Mason & Dixon' and, by extension, 'Gravity's Rainbow' to discuss the correlations between (self- evolving technologies and space age gadgets. The Cold War serves, therefore, as the frame of reference for this article, which is further preoccupied with the geographical positions that automatons or prototype cyborgs occupy: the last part of the essay analyses Walter Benjamin's 'Arcades Project', where mechanical hens stand at the entrance to dreamworlds. Automatic fowl guard, and usher into being, new technologised worlds.

  12. The Ballistic Flight of an Automatic Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Collignon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Jacques de Vaucanson's automatic duck and its successive appearances in Thomas Pynchon's work (both Mason & Dixon and, by extension, Gravity's Rainbow to discuss the correlations between (self- evolving technologies and space age gadgets. The Cold War serves, therefore, as the frame of reference for this article, which is further preoccupied with the geographical positions that automatons or prototype cyborgs occupy: the last part of the essay analyses Walter Benjamin's Arcades Project, where mechanical hens stand at the entrance to dreamworlds. Automatic fowl guard, and usher into being, new technologised worlds.

  13. Relationship of PCDD/F concentrations in duck-egg farmers and consumption of ranched duck eggs in central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Po-Chin; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2010-11-01

    The 2004 food market-basket survey in Taiwan found high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in duck eggs. A subsequent survey in Chang-Hua County, central Taiwan, found nine duck farms for egg production and duck eggs that were highly contaminated by PCDD/Fs in the secondary sampling and analysis during the years 2004 to 2005. Duck-egg farmers eat duck eggs rather than chicken eggs, and the aim of the current study was to evaluate how eating contaminated duck eggs affected serum PCDD/F accumulation and PCDD/F profiles in family members of duck-egg farmers. Forty-two family members of duck-egg farmers and 88 residents living nearby (control group) were recruited. Serum PCDD/F levels were significantly higher in duck-egg farmers than in the control group (28.1 vs 18.6 pg World Health Organization toxic equivalency [TEQ]/g lipid, WHO-TEQ). Significant differences in PCDD/F levels were found for most congeners, especially for 2,3,4,7,8-penta-chlorinated dibenzofurans. Elevated serum PCDD/F levels were positively associated with an increase in monthly duck-egg consumption after adjustments for fish consumption. The current result contradicted results of our previous study, which showed a positive association between fish intake and serum PCDD/F levels. The matter of cultivation in the contaminant area in Chang-Hua County should be considered more seriously. © 2010 SETAC

  14. Molting characteristics of crossbreds between Alabio and Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanti T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molting is a problem for duck farmers, during which the ducks stop laying eggs. Molting characteristics may be altered through crossing between non-molting to molting ducks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate molting characteristics of the crossing between Alabio and Pekin ducks. The materials used were 90 female AP (Alabio males x Pekin females and 90 female PA (Pekin males x Alabio females, 25 female Alabio and 25 female Pekin ducks. The ducks were housed in individual cages at the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi Bogor. Variables measured were the length of molting and egg production in 30 weeks, data were analyzed using ANOVA and followed by the estimation of the value of heterosis. Result showed that the molting of Pekin ducks was 71.31±9.36 days, it was longer than Alabio, AP or PA ducks, which were respectively 42.44±8.59, 43.63±4.88 and 49.35±4.85 days (P<0.01. Egg production of Pekin duck (56.41±4.59 was significantly lower (P<0.01 than that of Alabio, AP or PA, which were 72.48±3.24, 83.75±1.39 and 76.12±1.68 respectively. The heterosis of molting period of AP was higher than that of PA (-23.29 vs -13.23%. The heterosis of egg production of AP was higher than PA (29.96 vs 18.12%. It is concluded that the AP crossbred could be utilized as the initial population to produce a superior line characterized by high egg production and controllable molting.

  15. Mercury residues in wood ducks and wood duck foods in eastern Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, R.C.; Dimmick, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    Liver, breast muscle and body fat from 50 juvenile and five adult wood ducks (Aix sponsa) collected on the Holston River, Tennessee were analyzed for total mercury content. Black fly larvae (Simulium vittatum) sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), tapegrass (Vallisneria americanus), water stargrass (Heteranthera dubia), Elodea canadensis, and river bottom sediments were also analyzed to elucidate the distribution of mercury in the wood duck's environment. Liver tissues of juveniles contained the highest mean concentration of mercury (0.42 ppm). Mercury in breast muscle and body fat of juveniles averaged 0.15 and 0.10 ppm, respectively. Residues in corresponding tissues of adults were lower. Of environmental components tested, sediments had the highest mean concentration (0.76 ppm). Black fly larvae and aquatic plants had mean levels below 0.10 ppm.

  16. MORPHOLOGY AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA D-LOOP REGION USING PCR-RFLP ANALYSIS IN MAGELANG DUCK AND OTHER NATIVE DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Purwantini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the different of plumage colors on morphological diversity of Magelang duck and genetic diversity using PCR-RFLP mtDNA D-loop region analysis of Magelang duck and four others native duck population (Tegal, Mojosari, Bali and Alabio duck in Indonesia. Blood sample was taken from 50 Magelang ducks and 20 of each native ducks. Morphological characteristics of body measurement, production ability and egg quality of Magelang duck were analyzed using Completely Randomized Design with 11 plumage colors as treatments. PCR technique was administered to amplify fragments in mtDNA D-loop region and PCR products were digested with endonuclease restriction enzyme AluI and HaeIII. The result showed that morphology diversity of Magelang duck was statistically affected by different plumage colors. PCR-RFLP analysis using AluI and HaeIII restriction enzyme resulted in six combinations of restriction fragment pattern shown in six haplotypes (A, B, C, D, E and F. Haplotype difference showed genetic diversity in the population of Magelang duck and the other native ducks. In conclusion, the different plumage colors affected morphology diversity of Magelang duck. Genetic diversity of Indonesian native duck population could be identified by using PCR-RFLP analysis on mtDNA D-loop region.

  17. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  18. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo, E-mail: liujiaguo@njau.edu.cn; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-04-15

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  19. Wind power wetland survey and duck pair count instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial Survey Instructions for wind power wetland survey and duck pair count instructions for Kulm Wetland Management District. This survey has two surveying...

  20. Central Flyway Duck Banding project : Annual progress report 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Central Flyway Council (CFC) initiated a six year duck banding program in 1996 with emphasis on mallard banding in North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and...

  1. Duck Virus Enteritis for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses some of the options for managing the large numbers of waterfowl should there be an outbreak of the Duck Virus Enteritis Disease at the Prime...

  2. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the Circumpolar region

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this paper we review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during the last several decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be...

  3. Sex determination of duck embryos: observations on syrinx development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2013-01-01

    Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexing developing embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.

  4. Bottom's Semiology: The Duck-Rabbit and Magritte's Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoff, Ann E.

    1993-01-01

    Explores how a dyadic understanding of perception cancels the validity it might have as a model for the linguistic process. Discusses commonly misunderstood exhibits in the gallery of perception studies--the duck-rabbit and Magritte's pipe. (RS)

  5. Redescription of the African duck leech Theromyzon cooperi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae). J.H. Oosthuizen. Department of Zoology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 10 March 1992; accepled 2 Seplember 1992. The African duck leech Theromyzon cooperi, which is ...

  6. Seroprevalence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 subtype clade 2.3.2 on ducks and muscouvy ducks in small holders farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Martindah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence studies of HPAI H5 subtype in ducks and muscouvy duck in smallholders farm was carried out in Serang and Tangerang District, Banten Province. The study comprised a serological survey to define the distribution and prevalence of HPAI H5 subtype infection on ducks and muscouvy ducks as well as attempted isolation of the virus from these species. Unit of sample in each stage was randomly choosen by multy stage random sample. Blood samples were taken from ducks and muscouvy ducks that had never been vaccinated, purposively. Sera were tested using Haemaglutination Inhibition Test, antigen H5N1 (clade 2.3.2, while the cloaca and trachea swab samples was injected into specific pathogens free (SPF embryonated 9-11 days old, to isolate the virus. Results showed that H5 subtype virus could be isolated from tracheal swabs of ducks in the various age groups. The seroprevalence of H5 subtype virus in Banten Province was 25.5%, in which, 24.3% occured in ducks and in muscouvy duck in the rate of 1.2%, with titer HI positive was > 3log2. Based on species, seroprevalence level HPAI H5 subtype in ducks was 3-4 times higher than the level of seroprevalence of HPAI H5 subtype in muscouvy duck, which indicated that the H5 subtype virus more likely to circulate in the ducks flock than in muscouvy duck. This study noted that both muscouvy duck and ducks appeared to play a significant role in the epidemiology of the disease.

  7. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Orin J.; McGowan, Conor P.; Devers, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing) data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) from 1951–2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south). The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species.

  8. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orin J. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes from 1951–2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south. The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species.

  9. Evaluation of duck habitat and estimation of duck population sizes with a remote-sensing-based system

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During 1987-90, we used high-altitude photography, aerial videography, counts, and models to estimate sizes of breeding populations of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) and...

  10. Monitoring population size of endangered Hawaiian duck and prevalence of Mallard/Hawaiian duck hybrids: Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Hawaiian duck or Koloa maoli (Anas wyvilliana) is endemic to Hawai‘i and one of three extant waterfowl species occurring on the Hawaiian Islands. Relatively...

  11. MORPHOLOGY AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA D-LOOP REGION USING PCR-RFLP ANALYSIS IN MAGELANG DUCK AND OTHER NATIVE DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Purwantini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the different of plumage colors on morphological diversityof Magelang duck and genetic diversity using PCR-RFLP mtDNA D-loop region analysis of Magelangduck and four others native duck population (Tegal, Mojosari, Bali and Alabio duck in Indonesia. Bloodsample was taken from 50 Magelang ducks and 20 of each native ducks. Morphological characteristicsof body measurement, production ability and egg quality of Magelang duck were analyzed usingCompletely Randomized Design with 11 plumage colors as treatments. PCR technique was administeredto amplify fragments in mtDNA D-loop region and PCR products were digested with endonucleaserestriction enzyme AluI and HaeIII. The result showed that morphology diversity of Magelang duck wasstatistically affected by different plumage colors. PCR-RFLP analysis using AluI and HaeIII restrictionenzyme resulted in six combinations of restriction fragment pattern shown in six haplotypes (A, B, C, D,E and F. Haplotype difference showed genetic diversity in the population of Magelang duck and theother native ducks. In conclusion, the different plumage colors affected morphology diversity ofMagelang duck. Genetic diversity of Indonesian native duck population could be identified by usingPCR-RFLP analysis on mtDNA D-loop region.

  12. The Characteristics of Meat Duck, Problems and Prevention of Off Flavor Due to Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procula R Matitaputty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Source of poultry meat in Indonesia is currently dominated by chicken while local resources such as ducks have the potential to grow and be used as an alternative meat producer. Duck contribution towards the provision of a relatively small meat of 2.29%, compared with free-range chicken to reachs 20.33%. Sources of duck meat in Indonesia comes from local duck, and culled female ducks. Acceptance of most local duck meat is still relatively low, although in some areas local duck dishes are excellent. Meat ducks are generally less desirable, because taste and smell is different from chicken. Because consumers are not accustomed to the taste of typical meat, especially those that give the sensation of irregularities off meat – flavor or smell fishy/ rancid. Similarly, the color of duck meat is darker than that of chicken meat, high fat content of about 2.7 to 6.8%, which also influences consumer preferences. The high fat content, especially acid-unsaturated fatty acids in meat duck gives a tendency to produce off – flavors. Efforts to increase the consumption of duck meat should be based on the cause of the lack of acceptance by consumers. The smell of rancid meat duck is the most dominant cause of which is not liked by consumers. Efforts to reduce the off flavor of duck meat could be by adding antioxidant in feed stuffs.

  13. Fabrication of duck's feet collagen-silk hybrid biomaterial for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Hyeon; Park, Hae Sang; Lee, Ok Joo; Chao, Janet Ren; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Jung Min; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Ye Ri; Song, Jeong Eun; Khang, Gilson; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-04-01

    Collagen constituting the extracellular matrix has been widely used as biocompatible material for human use. In this study, we have selected duck's feet for extracting collagen. A simple method not utilizing harsh chemical had been employed to extract collagen from duck's feet. We fabricated duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold for the purpose of modifying the degradation rate of duck's feet collagen. This study suggests that extracted collagen from duck's feet is biocompatible and resembles collagen extracted from porcine which is commercially used. Duck's feet collagen is also economically feasible and it could therefore be a good candidate as a tissue engineering material. Further, addition of silk to fabricate a duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could enhance the biostability of duck's feet collagen scaffold. Duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold increased the cell viability compared to silk alone. Animal studies also showed that duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold was more biocompatible than silk alone and more biostable than duck's feet or porcine collagen alone. Additionally, the results revealed that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold had high porosity, cell infiltration and proliferation. We suggest that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could be used as a dermal substitution for full thickness skin defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Food Habits of Black Ducks Wintering in West Central Tennessee: Annual report 1990-91

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was conducted to describe the food habits of black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering in west central Tennessee and to compare foods of black ducks and...

  15. Summary of wood duck boxes, Des Lacs NWR 1976-1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of wood duck boxes checked for eggs and activity on the Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge from 1976 to 1983. Some years did not have any wood ducks, these...

  16. Cloning, characterization and expression of Peking duck fatty acid synthase during adipocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ding

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We have successfully cloned and characterized Peking duck FAS. FAS was induced during adipocyte differentiation and by oleic acid treatment. These findings suggest that Peking duck FAS plays a similar role to mammalian FAS during adipocyte differentiation.

  17. Nesting ecology of Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca in north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -eastern Algeria, on a breeding population of Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca, a Near-Threatened duck subjected to considerable pressure from egg-pilfering and illegal hunting. Two distinct habitats within the lake were used by Ferruginous ...

  18. Quantifying changes and influences on mottled duck density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the relative influence of environmental and intrinsic effects on populations is important for managing and conserving harvested species, especially those species inhabiting changing environments. Additionally, climate change can increase the uncertainty associated with management of species in these changing environments, making understanding factors affecting their populations even more important. Coastal ecosystems are particularly threatened by climate change; the combined effects of increasing severe weather events, sea level rise, and drought will likely have non-linear effects on coastal marsh wildlife species and their associated habitats. A species of conservation concern that persists in these coastal areas is the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). Mottled ducks in the western Gulf Coast are approximately 50% below target abundance numbers established by the Gulf Coast Joint Venture for Texas and Louisiana, USA. Although evidence for declines in mottled duck abundance is apparent, specific causes of the decrease remain unknown. Our goals were to determine where the largest declines in mottled duck population were occurring along the system of Texas Gulf Coast National Wildlife Refuges and quantify the relative contribution of environmental and intrinsic effects on changes to relative population density. We modeled aerial survey data of mottled duck density along the Texas Gulf Coast from 1986–2015 to quantify effects of extreme weather events on an index to mottled duck density using the United States Climate Extremes Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index. Our results indicate that decreases in abundance are best described by an increase in days with extreme 1-day precipitation from June to November (hurricane season) and an increase in drought severity. Better understanding those portions of the life cycle affected by environmental conditions, and how to manage mottled duck habitat in conjunction with these events will likely be key to

  19. Constitutive heterochromatin in chromosomes of duck hybrids and goose hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, E; Smalec, E

    2017-01-01

    Constitutive heterochromatin is a highly condensed fraction of chromatin in chromosomes. It is characterized by a high degree of polymorphism. Heterochromatin is located in the centromeric, telomeric, and interstitial parts of chromosomes. We used the CBG ( C: banding using B: arium hydroxide by G: iemsa) staining technique to identify heterochromatin in chromosomes. Analysis of karyotypes of F1 hybrids resulting from intergeneric hybridization of ducks (A. platyrhynchos × C. moschata) and interspecific crosses of geese (A. anser × A. cygnoides) were used to compare the karyotypes of 2 species of duck and 2 species of geese, as well as to compare the hybrids with the parent species. The localization of C-bands and their size were determined. In the duck hybrid, greater amounts of heterochromatin were noted in the homologous chromosomes from the duck A. platyrhynchos than in the chromosomes from the duck C. moschata. In the goose hybrid more heterochromatin was observed in the homologous chromosomes from the goose A. cygnoides than in the chromosomes from the goose A. anser. Comparison of chromosomes from the duck hybrid with chromosomes of the ducks A. platyrhynchos and C. moschata revealed nearly twice as much constitutive heterochromatin in the chromosomes of the hybrid. When chromosomes from the goose hybrid were compared with those of the geese A. anser and A. cygnoides, differences in the average content of heterochromatin were observed on only a few chromosomes. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Liu, Junyan; Shaozhou, Wulin; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Qingshan; Hua, Ronghong; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2016-11-10

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to (221)LD/NLPW(225) and (87)YAEYI(91) by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas (221)LD/NLPW(225) was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D) II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV.

  1. Differential gene expression analysis of in vitro duck hepatitis B virus infected primary duck hepatocyte cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issac Aneesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human hepatitis B virus (HBV, a member of the hepadna viridae, causes acute or chronic hepatitis B, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV infection, a dependable and reproducible model for hepadna viral studies, does not result in HCC unlike chronic HBV infection. Information on differential gene expression in DHBV infection might help to compare corresponding changes during HBV infection, and to delineate the reasons for this difference. Findings A subtractive hybridization cDNA library screening of in vitro DHBV infected, cultured primary duck hepatocytes (PDH identified cDNAs of 42 up-regulated and 36 down-regulated genes coding for proteins associated with signal transduction, cellular respiration, transcription, translation, ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, apoptosis, and membrane and cytoskeletal organization. Those coding for both novel as well as previously reported proteins in HBV/DHBV infection were present in the library. An inverse modulation of the cDNAs of ten proteins, reported to play role in human HCC, such as that of Y-box binding protein1, Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 1B, ribosomal protein L35a, Ferritin, α-enolase, Acid α-glucosidase and Caspase 3, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, Filamin and Pyruvate dehydrogenase, was also observed in this in vitro study. Conclusions The present study identified cDNAs of a number of genes that are differentially modulated in in vitro DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes. Further correlation of this differential gene expression in in vivo infection models would be valuable to understand the little known aspects of the hepadnavirus biology.

  2. Functional Characteristics of Spent Duck Meat for Use in Emulsion-Type Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Juni Sumarmono; Samsu Wasito

    2010-01-01

    Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thor...

  3. Study on rural duck production systems in selected areas of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanum, J.; Chwalibog, André; Huque, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate scavenging duck production systems in two regions (Netrokona Sadar Upazila and Sundargonj Upazila) of Bangladesh. Feeding systems and availability of feed for raising ducks, production performance of scaavenging ducks and profitability of raising...

  4. The biological control of Pomacea canaliculata population by rice-duck mutualism in paddy fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang Liang; Jia-en Zhang; Li Fang; Benliang Zaho; Mingzhu Luo; Prem Parajuli; Ying Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Duck has been used as a non-chemical control method against Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, but little is known about its principles that underlie the control of snail populations. An indoor experiment was initially used to observe the predation potential of ducks, followed by replicated field trials. In the indoor studies, ducks effectively preyed on...

  5. The duck genome and transcriptome provide insight into an avian influenza virus reservoir species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Li, Y.; Burt, D.W.; Chen, H.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Kraus, R.H.S.

    2013-01-01

    The duck (Anas platyrhynchos) is one of the principal natural hosts of influenza A viruses. We present the duck genome sequence and perform deep transcriptome analyses to investigate immune-related genes. Our data indicate that the duck possesses a contractive immune gene repertoire, as in chicken

  6. Density dependence in North American ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamieson, L. E.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence or otherwise of density dependence within a population can have important implications for the management of that population. Here, we use estimates of abundance obtained from annual aerial counts on the major breeding grounds of a variety of North American duck species and use a state space model to separate the observation and ecological system processes. This state space approach allows us to impose a density dependence structure upon the true underlying population rather than on the estimates and we demonstrate the improved robustness of this procedure for detecting density dependence in the population. We adopt a Bayesian approach to model fitting, using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods and use a reversible jump MCMC scheme to calculate posterior model probabilities which assign probabilities to the presence of density dependence within the population, for example. We show how these probabilities can be used either to discriminate between models or to provide model-averaged predictions which fully account for both parameter and model uncertainty.

  7. Modelling the distribution of domestic ducks in Monsoon Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockel, Thomas P.; Prosser, Diann; Franceschini, Gianluca; Biradar, Chandra; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Domestic ducks are considered to be an important reservoir of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), as shown by a number of geospatial studies in which they have been identified as a significant risk factor associated with disease presence. Despite their importance in HPAI epidemiology, their large-scale distribution in Monsoon Asia is poorly understood. In this study, we created a spatial database of domestic duck census data in Asia and used it to train statistical distribution models for domestic duck distributions at a spatial resolution of 1km. The method was based on a modelling framework used by the Food and Agriculture Organisation to produce the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, and relies on stratified regression models between domestic duck densities and a set of agro-ecological explanatory variables. We evaluated different ways of stratifying the analysis and of combining the prediction to optimize the goodness of fit of the predictions. We found that domestic duck density could be predicted with reasonable accuracy (mean RMSE and correlation coefficient between log-transformed observed and predicted densities being 0.58 and 0.80, respectively), using a stratification based on livestock production systems. We tested the use of artificially degraded data on duck distributions in Thailand and Vietnam as training data, and compared the modelled outputs with the original high-resolution data. This showed, for these two countries at least, that these approaches could be used to accurately disaggregate provincial level (administrative level 1) statistical data to provide high resolution model distributions.

  8. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  9. Population ecology and harvest of the American black duck: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, D.H.; Ankney, C.D.; Boyd, H.; Longcore, J.R.; Montalbano, F.; Ringelman, J.K.; Stotts, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    1. The purpose of our review was to examine available data on population trends and current status of black ducks and trends in natality and survival and to relate these, where possible, to changes in habitat, predation, disease, contaminants, harvest, and hybridization with mallards. 2. The number of black ducks tallied in the winter survey has declined steadily over the past 30 years at an average rate of about 3%/ year. Reliability and precision of the survey are uncertain; it may not provide an adequate index to the continental population of black ducks. Breeding surveys are incomplete and sporadic, but black ducks have decreased in Ontario and increased in the Maritime Provinces and Quebec. 3. Recent declines in numbers of black ducks tallied in the winter survey are not unusual in magnitude or much different from those that have occurred among several other species of waterfowl. 4. At present, black ducks are not especially scarce relative to numbers of several other ducks in eastern North America. 5. There is no solid evidence of major decreases in quality or quantity of breeding habitat for black ducks in recent years; in some areas, habitat has improved. 6. Natural mortality of black ducks has not been well studied, but does not seem unusually high compared to other dabbling ducks. 7. Harvest rates of black ducks are similar to those of sympatric mallards as determined by banding analyses. 8. There is no strong evidence for direct effects of contaminants on black ducks, but some indirect effects through invertebrate food resources have been detected. 9. Age ratios in black ducks show no trend in the past 18 years. 10. The quality and quantity of wintering habitat for black ducks have decreased substantially in some areas. 11. Disease and other natural mortality that affect black ducks do .not occur in unusually high frequency. 12. A decline in harvest of black ducks has occurred; most of the decline has been in the United States, especially since

  10. Estimation of L-threonine requirements for Longyan laying ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Fouad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective A study was conducted to test six threonine (Thr levels (0.39%, 0.44%, 0.49%, 0.54%, 0.59%, and 0.64% to estimate the optimal dietary Thr requirements for Longyan laying ducks from 17 to 45 wk of age. Methods Nine hundred Longyan ducks aged 17 wk were assigned randomly to the six dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised six replicate pens with 25 ducks per pen. Results Increasing the Thr level enhanced egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR (linearly or quadratically; p<0.05. The Haugh unit score, yolk color, albumen height, and the weight, percentage, thickness, and breaking strength of the eggshell did not response to increases in the Thr levels, but the albumen weight and its proportion increased significantly (p<0.05, whereas the yolk weight and its proportion decreased significantly as the Thr levels increased. Conclusion According to a regression model, the optimal Thr requirement for egg production, egg mass, and FCR in Longyan ducks is 0.57%, while 0.58% is the optimal level for egg weight from 17 to 45 wk of age.

  11. Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, K.F.

    1977-01-01

    A study to determine the major factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas in eastern North Dakota was conducted from 1969 through 1974. A total of 186 duck nests was found during searches on 6,018 ha of upland. Nest density per km2 for 5 major habitat types was 20.2 in untilled upland, 3.7 in standing grain stubble, 1.6 in mulched grain stubble, 1.2 in summer fallow, and 1.1 in growing grain. Pintails (Anas acuta) nested in cultivated cropland types in greater prevalence than other duck species. Nest densities were 12 times greater on untilled upland (20.2/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (1.7/km2), and hatched-clutch densities were 16 times greater on untilled upland (4.8/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (0.3/km2). Hatching success was greater on untilled upland (25%) than on tilled cropland (17%). Of 186 nests found, 77 percent did not hatch; 76 percent of the failures were attributed to predators and 19 percent to farming operations. Poor quality nesting cover, the result of intensive land use practices, and nesting failures caused by machinery and predators mainly mammals, were the principal factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni in Duck Faeces around Drinking Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from 192 ducks feeding around 10 wells and 6 ponds in peri-urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2006 to March, 2007. The samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, followed by characterisation of positive samples. The overall ...

  13. mercury contamination in domestic ducks in geita, northwest tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. Total mercury concentrations (THg) were determined in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhncha) tissues in Mgusu Village, Geita District NW Tanzania. Elevated mercury levels were found in all tissue samples and showed a trend of increasing mercury concentration with weight/age of the poultry. Highest total ...

  14. Ducks as Sentinels for Avian Influenza in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, Anette; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Beer, Martin; Wodak, Eveline; Fink, Maria; Greber, Norbert; Harder, Timm C.; Wilking, Hendrik; Brunhart, Iris; Matthes, Doris; Kraatz, Ulf; Strunk, Peter; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Fereidouni, Sasan R.; Staubach, Christoph; Conraths, Franz J.; Griot, Chris; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Stärk, Katharina D.C.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of ducks as sentinels for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, we placed mallards in contact with wild birds at resting sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Infections of sentinel birds with different AIV subtypes confirmed the value of such surveillance for AIV monitoring. PMID:19861060

  15. Fish and harlequin ducks compete on breeding streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeBourdais, S.V.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Esler, D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated interactions among harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus ( L., 1758)), fish, and their shared aquatic insect prey. We measured flow variability, benthic aquatic prey abundance, fish presence, and breeding density of harlequins on eight rivers in the Southern Coast Mountain Range

  16. Genetic Divergence in Ducks for Economic Traits | Kalita | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D2 Statistics was used to identify the genetic divergence in 4 groups of duck, namely Khaki Campbell (KC), Desi (D), Khaki Campbell x Desi (KC x D) and Desi x Khaki Campbell (D x KC) reared under rural conditions at the Siphajar, Darrang District, Assam, India. The study showed that both Khaki Campbell and Desi or ...

  17. Antiviral and immune stimulant activities of glycyrrhizin against duck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizin as an immune stimulant against duck hepatitis virus (DHV). In vitro study was carried out to determine cytotoxic and antiviral effects of glycyrrhizin in VERO cells. In vivo study was performed on 40 one-day-old White Pekin ducklings. –and the birds weres ...

  18. Performance of Pekin ducks subjected to qualitative feed restriction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of Pekin ducks subjected to qualitative feed restriction at various ages during the rearing period. Different diets low in lysine were fed to ducklings of various ages in three separate trials to investigate the effect of these diets on bodymass and subsequent reproductive performance. The results showed that when ...

  19. Hatchability and fertility of indigenous chicken and duck eggs, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flocks under study are located in the suburbs of Nairobi province and Machakos district. They belonged to smallholder farmers. Twenty seven clutches of eggs given to indigenous chickens to seat on, and 10 clutches of eggs given to ducks to seat on were investigated for six months. The number of eggs in each clutch ...

  20. Redescription of the African duck leech Theromyzon cooperi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African duck leech Theromyzon cooperi, which is the only representative of the genus so far reported in Africa, is redescribed. Aspects of its internal morphology are described for the first time. The conspecificity of the two supposed species T. cooperi and T. lineatum is also indicated.

  1. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in duck faeces around drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from one hundred and ninety-two ducks feeding around ten wells and six ponds in peri urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2004 to March, 2005. In total, one hundred and ninety-two samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, ...

  2. On a new Duck from the island of Sumba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büttikofer, J.

    1896-01-01

    Amongst a number of unregistered bird-skins in our Museum, which passed through my hands a few weeks ago, I found a Duck from the Island of Sumba with very worn plumage and damaged feet, probably a female or an immature male, which I was unable to identify with any known species. Count Salvadori, to

  3. Sublethal effects of chronic lead ingestion in mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos) fed 1, 5, or 25 ppm lead nitrate were bled and sacrificed at 3-wk intervals. No mortality occurred, and the pathologic lesions usually associated with lead poisoning were not found. Changes in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration did not occur. After 3-wk ducks fed 25 ppm lead exhibited a 40% inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity that persisted through 12 wk exposure. After 12 wk treatment similar enzyme inhibition was present in the ducks fed 5 ppm lead. At 3 wk there was a small accumulation of lead (less than 1 ppm) in the liver and kidneys of ducks fed 25ppm lead; no further increases occurred throughout the exposure. No significant accumulation of lead occurred the the tibiae or wing bones. Groups of ducks fed 5 and 25 ppm diets for 12 wk were placed on clean feed and examined through a 12 wk posttreatment period. After 3 wk on clean diet delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and lead concentrations in the blood had returned to pretreatment levels. Even though lead concentrations in the blood, soft organs and bone were low, a highly significant negative correlation between blood lead and blood enzyme activity was obtained. This enzyme bioassay should provide a sensitive and precise estimate for monitoring lead in the blood for waterflow.

  4. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC class I gene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-17

    Jun 17, 2017 ... ... groups division were exhibited on the homology modelling constructed based on theresolved protein structure of DuMHC I. This study explicit the characteristics of DuMHC I in the two duck lines and could contribute to design effective diagnostics and vaccines for the species against various infections.

  5. Evaluation of duck efficiency as a biocontrol agent on weed density and diversity in rice-duck farming (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of ducks number on weeds diversity and density in paddy fields, an experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resource University during growing season of 2011-2012. Experiment was arranged in split plot based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Main factors were duck number at three levels (consisting of control, 400 and 800 ducks.ha-1 and sub plots were three contrast cultivars (including Tarom as a traditional, and Shirodi and Ghaem as improved cultivars. Results of ANOVA showed highly significant differences between ducks, cultivars and ducks × cultivar interaction in terms of weeds density including nutsedge (Cyperus spp. L., common Water-plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica L., barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L., duckweed (Lemna minor L., azolla (Azolla pinata R.Br. and paddy yield. Accordingly, the lowest weed density and diversity were recorded at 800 and 400 ducks.ha-1, respectively. Among rice cultivars Tarom and Ghaem had the minimum and the maximum weeds density and diversity. The highest nutsedge density (67 plant.m-2 was related to Ghaem cultivar in control (without duck plots as much as 97% higher than 800 ducks.ha-1. Maximum paddy yield was observed in 800 ducks.ha-1 in Shirodi (5.3 t.ha-1, Ghaem (4.3 t.ha-1 and Tarom (3.6 t.ha-1 as much as 23, 7 and 20% higher than those cultivars in 400 ducks.ha-1, respectively. Finally, in the current research conditions using 800 ducks.ha-1and Tarom cultivar resulted the best performance because of the lowest weed diversity and density as compared to other treatments.

  6. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  7. Postcatastrophe population dynamics and density dependence of an endemic island duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavy, N.E.; Reynolds, M.H.; Link, W.A.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) are restricted to approximately 9 km2 in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. To evaluate the importance of density dependence for Laysan ducks, we conducted a Bayesian analysis to estimate the parameters of a Gompertz model and the magnitude of process variation and observation error based on the fluctuations in Laysan duck abundance on Laysan Island from 1994 to 2007. This model described a stationary distribution for the population at carrying capacity that fluctuates around a long-term mean of 456 ducks and is between 316 to 636 ducks 95% of the time. This range of expected variability can be used to identify changes in population size that warn of catastrophic events. Density-dependent population dynamics may explain the recovery of Laysan duck from catastrophic declines and allow managers to identify population monitoring thresholds.

  8. Floristic and phytosociology in dense “terra firme” rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN. Lemos

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense “Terra Firme” rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1, distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94, Araceae (65 and Arecaceae (43, comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41, Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50 and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28 showed the highest importance values (IV. The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%. The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition.

  9. Prevalence of Giardia spp. in ducks and geese in Nenevah governorate

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This study include the examination of 235 fecal samples 125 from domesticated ducks and 110 from domesticated geese from different localities in Nenevah governorate through the period from September 2009 to March, 2010 the Samples were stained by iodine stain and Giemsa stain and flotation method. The total percent of infection with Giardia cyst was 34.4%, 36.4% in duck and geese respectively. The study revealed presence of Giardia in diarrhetic and non diarrhetic fecal sample of ducks and ge...

  10. Efficacy assessment of an inactivated Tembusu virus vaccine candidate in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijiao; Li, Zhanhong; Zhang, Qingshui; Sun, Mengxu; Li, Shuang; Su, Wenliang; Hu, Xueying; He, Weiyong; Su, Jingliang

    2017-02-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a recently identified pathogen that causes severe egg drop and neurological disease in domestic duck and goose flocks. The infection has spread across the China mainland since its outbreak in 2010. Effective vaccines are needed to fight the disease. In this work, we describe the development and laboratory assessment of a cell culture-derived, inactivated duck TMUV vaccine. The TMUV-JXSP strain was successfully propagated on a baby hamster kidney cell line (BHK-21), inactivated with beta-propiolactone (BPL) and emulsified with mineral oil. The efficacy of different vaccination schedules was assessed in laying ducks and table ducks using virus challenge experiments. Two doses of vaccine provided efficient protection against the virus challenge to avoid the egg production drop in laying ducks. An ELISA demonstrated that 97% (39/40) of ducks seroconverted on day 21 after one dose of the inactivated vaccine and that significant increases in antibody titers against the virus were induced after the second immunization. For table ducks, a single dose of vaccine immunization resulted in a protection index of 87% and significant reduction of viral loads in tissues. Sterilizing immunity can be attained after second immunization. Our results demonstrate that BHK-21 cell culture is suitable for duck TMUV propagation and that BPL-inactivated TMUV vaccine can provide a high level of protection from virus challenge in laying ducks and table ducks. These data provide a scientific basis for the development of an inactivated vaccine for the prevention of duck TMUV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of Giardia spp. in ducks and geese in Nenevah governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study include the examination of 235 fecal samples 125 from domesticated ducks and 110 from domesticated geese from different localities in Nenevah governorate through the period from September 2009 to March, 2010 the Samples were stained by iodine stain and Giemsa stain and flotation method. The total percent of infection with Giardia cyst was 34.4%, 36.4% in duck and geese respectively. The study revealed presence of Giardia in diarrhetic and non diarrhetic fecal sample of ducks and geese. Higher rate was in diarrhetic ducks and geese of age less than 5 months 41.8%, 44.4% and this rate decreased with aging. The results showed the higher infection rate in rural area which was 38.5% in duck and 40.7% in geese compared to urban area 30%, 31.4% in ducks and geese respectively. Higher rate was recorded in December in ducks were 53.5% while the higher infection in March in geese were 44.4% and lowest rate of infection in September for both ducks and geese, this is the first study of Giardia spp, in ducks and geese in Nineveh governorate.

  12. Analysis of miRNAs and their target genes associated with lipid metabolism in duck liver

    OpenAIRE

    Jun He; Weiqun Wang; Lizhi Lu; Yong Tian; Dong Niu; Jindong Ren; Liyan Dong; Siwei Sun; Yan Zhao; Li Chen; Jianliang Shen; Xiuhong Li

    2016-01-01

    Fat character is an important index in duck culture that linked to local flavor, feed cost and fat intake for costumers. Since the regulation networks in duck lipid metabolism had not been reported very clearly, we aimed to explore the potential miRNA-mRNA pairs and their regulatory roles in duck lipid metabolism. Here, Cherry-Valley ducks were selected and treated with/without 5% oil added in feed for 2 weeks, and then fat content determination was performed on. The data showed that the fat ...

  13. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  14. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adzliana Sajahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO46(OH2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA by chicken (CES and duck eggshells (DES as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3. CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH42HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  15. Effects of selenium on mallard duck reproduction and immune function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteley, P.L.; Yuill, T.M.; Fairbrother, A.

    1989-11-01

    Selenium from irrigation drain water and coal-fired power stations is a significant environmental contaminant in some regions of the USA. The objectives were to examine whether selenium-exposed waterfowl had altered immune function, disease resistance, or reproduction. Pairs of adult mallards were exposed for 95-99 days on streams with sodium selenite-treated water at 10 and 30 ppb, or on untreated streams. Selenium biomagnified through the food chain to the ducks. Disease resistance was decreased in ducklings hatched on the streams and challenged with duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV1) when 15-days old. Liver selenium concentrations for these ducklings on the 10 and 30 ppb streams was 3.6 and 7.6 ppm dry weight, respectively. Mortality of ducklings purchased when 7-days old, exposed to selenium for 14 days, and challenged when 22-days old was not affected. However, their selenium exposure was lower (liver selenium 4.1 ppm dry weight for the 30 ppb stream). Five parameters of immune function were measured in adult ducks. Phagocytosis of killed Pasteurella multocida by blood heterophils and monocytes, and blood monocyte concentrations were higher in adult males following 84 days exposure to 30 ppb selenium. Their liver selenium concentrations were 11.1 ppm dry weight after 95-99 days exposure.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  17. Identification of double-yolked duck egg using computer vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available The double-yolked (DY egg is quite popular in some Asian countries because it is considered as a sign of good luck, however, the double yolk is one of the reasons why these eggs fail to hatch. The usage of automatic methods for identifying DY eggs can increase the efficiency in the poultry industry by decreasing egg loss during incubation or improving sale proceeds. In this study, two methods for DY duck egg identification were developed by using computer vision technology. Transmittance images of DY and single-yolked (SY duck eggs were acquired by a CCD camera to identify them according to their shape features. The Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD model equipped with a set of normalized Fourier descriptors (NFDs extracted from the acquired images and the convolutional neural network (CNN model using primary preprocessed images were built to recognize duck egg yolk types. The classification accuracies of the FLD model for SY and DY eggs were 100% and 93.2% respectively, while the classification accuracies of the CNN model for SY and DY eggs were 98% and 98.8% respectively. The CNN-based algorithm took about 0.12 s to recognize one sample image, which was slightly faster than the FLD-based (about 0.20 s. Finally, this work compared two classification methods and provided the better method for DY egg identification.

  18. Experimental susceptibility of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Porter, Robert E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 104.54 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 102and 102.9 PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that ducks play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  19. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin in Healthy and Renal Damaged Muscovy Ducks following Intravenous and Oral Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Aboubakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics aspects of levofloxacin were studied in healthy and experimentally renal damaged Muscovy ducks after single intravenous (IV and oral (PO dose of 10 mg kg−1 bwt. Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t1/2(β and mean residence time (MRT were longer in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones. Total clearance (Cltot in renal damaged ducks (0.20 L kg−1 h−1 was significantly lower as compared to that in healthy ones (0.41 L kg−1 h−1. Following PO administration, the peak serum concentration (Cmax was higher in renal damaged than in healthy ducks and was achieved at maximum time (tmax of 2.47 and 2.05 h, respectively. The drug was eliminated (t1/2(el at a significant slower rate (3.94 h in renal damaged than in healthy ducks (2.89 h. The pharmacokinetic profile of levofloxacin is altered in renal damaged ducks due to the increased serum levofloxacin concentrations compared with that in clinically healthy ducks. Oral administration of levofloxacin at 10 mg kg−1 bwt may be highly efficacious against susceptible bacteria in ducks. Also, the dose of levofloxacin should be reduced in renal damaged ducks. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration revealed significantly higher values for Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC ratios in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones, indicating the excellent pharmacokinetic characteristics of levofloxacin in renal damaged ducks.

  20. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases

  1. Body cooling and its energetic implications for feeding and diving of tufted ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, JJ; Butler, PJ; Woakes, AJ; Zegwaard, F

    1998-01-01

    Wintering in a temperate climate with low water temperatures is energetically expensive for diving ducks. The energy costs associated with body cooling due to diving and ingesting large amounts of cold food were measured in tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) feeding on zebra mussels (Dreissena

  2. New avian influenza A virus subtype combination H5N7 identified in Danish mallard ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, K.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    sequence was most closely related to the HPAIV A/Chicken/Netheriancts/01/03 (H7N7) that infected chickens and humans in the Netherlands in 2003. Ten persons with direct or indirect contact with the Danish mallard ducks showed signs Of influenza-like illness 2-3 clays following the killing of the ducks...

  3. Identification and expression analysis of duck interleukin-17D in Riemeralla anatipestifer infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin (IL)-17D is a proinflammatory cytokine with limited information on its biological functions. Here we provide the description of the sequence, bioactivity, and mRNA expression profile of duck IL-17D homologue. A full-length duck IL-17D (duIL-17D) cDNA with a 624-bp coding region was ident...

  4. How far can the freshwater bryozoan Cristatella mucedo disperse in duck guts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charalambidou, I.; Santamaría, L.; Figuerola, J.

    2003-01-01

    Statoblasts of Cristatella mucedo were fed to two duck species, pintail (Anas acuta) and shoveler (A. clypeata), to assess whether endozoochorous dispersal is responsible for the metapopulation structure of this bryozoan. Eight individuals (four per duck species) were force-fed 500 statoblasts each.

  5. Evaluation of Integrated Farming of Rice and Duck on Rice Grain Yield in Gilan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mofidian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate integrated farming of rice and duck on rice grain yield, an experiment was performed on Oryza sativa L. in Gilan, Iran in 2013. This experiment was performed based on factorial split and it was also according to plan of randomized complete block (RCB in three replications. In this experiment the main factor of duck was between two levels (by presence of duck and without presence of duck and the minor factor was the factorial combination of weeding levels (weeding on the releasing day of ducks and not weeding on the releasing day of ducks; and also the planting spaces were 20×20 cm, 25×25 cm, 30×30 cm.The results of the analysis of variance show that the presence of duck in a rice field causes increasing in plant height, the number of grains per panicle, the number of filled grains per panicle, weight of thousands grains, harvest index (HI and grain yield. In total, results and statistics show that using duck in rice fields causes increasing in grain yield and consequently it increases farmer’s income and also reduction of using agricultural pesticides and protecting the environment.

  6. Diffferential innate responses of chickens and ducks to low pathogenic avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Post, J.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Vervelde, L.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Ducks and chickens are hosts of avian influenza virus, each with distinctive responses to infection. To understand these differences, we characterized the innate immune response to low pathogenicity avian influenza virus H7N1 infection in chickens and ducks. Viral RNA was detected in the lungs of

  7. Mid-winter European dabbling duck distributions are not linked to species body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Delany, Simon; Fox, Anthony David

    In order to understand the current changes and to predict future changes in wintering dabbling duck (Anas sp.) distributions in response to climate change, it is important to understand how species distribute themselves on a continental scale in response to temperature. Thermoregulatory costs are...... are more important in shaping mid-winter duck distributions than factors related to thermoregulation alone....

  8. First report of Anatoecus dentatus in domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Linnaeus, 1978 from Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyathilakan N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infection is one of the prime causes for morbidity and mortality of ducks in India. Ducks have the habit of wading through the water resources especially paddy fields and feeding on snail which favours occurrence of various parasites. Among the parasites, lice infestation affects growth and productivity of ducks by way of irritation. Lice are well adapted as external parasites and usually are more a nuisance than a threat to their hosts. A nomadic farmer from Mannargudi area of Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu, India who had a flock of 1600 ducks reported continuous death of 700 ducks within a period of one month and brought a dead duck to Dept. of Veterinary Pathology for postmortem examination. Examination of entire body of duck prior to necropsy revealed the presence of live lice in the hairs around the junction of beak and head. About 7 lice specimens were collected and brought to Dept. of Veterinary Parasitology for identification. The lice specimens were processed and identified as Anatoecus dentatus based on the presence of ‘tin opener’ shaped effracter in the male genitalia. This is the first report of occurrence of these lice in ducks from Southern India.

  9. Hydrophobic duck feathers and their simulation on textile substrates for water repellent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuyang; Chen, Xianqiong; Xin, J H

    2008-12-01

    Inspired by the non-wetting phenomena of duck feathers, the water repellent property of duck feathers was studied at the nanoscale. The microstructures of the duck feather were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging method through a step-by-step magnifying procedure. The SEM results show that duck feathers have a multi-scale structure and that this multi-scale structure as well as the preening oil are responsible for their super hydrophobic behavior. The microstructures of the duck feather were simulated on textile substrates using the biopolymer chitosan as building blocks through a novel surface solution precipitation (SSP) method, and then the textile substrates were further modified with a silicone compound to achieve low surface energy. The resultant textiles exhibit super water repellent properties, thus providing a simple bionic way to create super hydrophobic surfaces on soft substrates using flexible material as building blocks.

  10. DDE thins eggshells and lowers reproductive success of captive black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Samson, F.B.; Whittendale, T.W.

    1971-01-01

    Eggs of captive black ducks fed diets containing DDE at 10 and 30 ppm (dry weight) experienced significant shell thinning and an increase in shell cracking when compared to eggs of untreated black ducks. Eggshells from dosed ducks were: 18-24 percent thinner at the equator than shells from undosed ducks; 28-31 percent thinner at the cap; and 29-38 percent thinner at the apex. Shell cracking averaged 21 percent among eggs fram the 30 ppm DDE dosage and 10 percent among eggs from the 10 ppm dosage. Only 2 percent of the eggs from untreated black ducks were cracked. Survival of ducklings fram dosed parents in terms of 'percentage of 21-day ducklings of embryonated eggs' was 40-76 percent lower than survival of ducklings from undosed parents. Average DDE residues (wet weight) in eggs from hens fed 10 and 30 ppm DDE were 46 ppm and 144 ppm, respectively.

  11. How hunter perceptions of wildlife regulations, agency trust, and satisfaction affect attitudes about duck bag limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored how factors, including the function of bag limits, agency trust, satisfaction, hunting participation, and demographics, related to opinions about duck bag limits. The results are from a survey of 2014 Minnesota resident waterfowl hunters. Analyses identified four dimensions of attitudes about functions of bag limits, including that they: (a) are descriptive in defining the acceptable number of ducks that can be bagged, (b) are injunctive in establishing how many ducks should be allowed to be bagged, (c) ensure fair opportunities for all hunters to bag ducks, and (d) reflect biological limitations to protect waterfowl populations. Descriptive and fairness functions of bag limits were related to opinions about bag limits, as were factors related to agency trust, satisfaction, ducks bagged, experience with more restrictive bag limits, hunter age, and hunting group membership. Agencies may increase support by building trust and emphasizing the descriptive and fairness functions of regulations.

  12. Science, population ecology, and the management of the American black duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    This essay deals with the relevance of some of the ideas of Romesburg (1981) to population ecology and management of the American black duck (Anas rubripes). Most investigations dealing with the effects of hunting regulations on black duck populations have used the hypothetico-deductive (H-D) approach of specifying a priori hypotheses and associated deduced predictions. These investigations have not used manipulative experimentation, however, but have involved severely constrained analyses of historical data and have thus produced weak inferences. The 1982 lawsuit over black duck hunting regulations, the current uncertainty about appropriate black duck management actions, and the frequent skirmishes in the published literature of black duck population ecology are natural consequences of these weak inferences. I suggest that we attempt to take advantage of management and other manipulations by treating them as an opportunity to learn something via experimentation, as recommended by Macnab (1983) and Walters (1986).

  13. Insulin effect on lipogenesis and fat distribution in three genotypes of ducks during overfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontier, Karine; André, Jean-Marc; Bernadet, Marie-Dominique; Ricaud, Karine; Davail, Stéphane

    2013-03-01

    In waterfowl, the response to overfeeding differs from one genotype to the other. Pekin ducks generally store lipids in the peripheral tissues while Muscovy and mule ducks promote hepatic lipid storage. A possible reason for these various susceptibilities to hepatic steatosis could be a difference in insulin sensitivity. We suggest a resistance to insulin in Pekin ducks. In the present work we investigate the action of insulin on glucose and lipid metabolisms for the three overfed genotypes. Regardless of the kind of genotype, all ducks appear to be sensitive to insulin: their glycemia is lower when the animals are treated with insulin. Insulin-treated Muscovy and Pekin ducks present a lower increase in total body weight (-16.5% for Muscovy; -8.3% for Pekin); and a significantly lower liver weight than the controls (-9.6% and -18.3%). The percentage of total lipids in the liver is higher in the controls than in the insulin-treated Pekin and mule ducks (respectively -40.4% and -34.7%), which means a decreased hepatic lipogenesis. Pekin ducks present a higher pectoral muscle weight when the individuals are insulin-treated (+9.7%). Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity appears to be significantly higher in insulin-treated Pekin and Muscovy ducks (1.39 and 3.38 times greater than controls). Insulin-treated mule ducks present a decrease of muscle and abdominal lipid storage compared to controls (-11.6% and -13.8%). In this experiment, exogenous insulin has induced an increase of lipid oxidation and has led to a less favorable use and storage of dietary glucose. The hypothesis of insulin-resistance of Pekin ducks is not verified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental susceptibility of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik; Porter, Robert E; Franson, J Christian

    2015-04-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 10(4.54) plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 10(2) and 10(2.9) PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that they play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  15. Local Duck Fanning At Paddy Three Times Planting Areas ("IP Padi 300"

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    Setioko A.R

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of duck husbandry in Indonesia is still run traditionally, herded in rice field or in the swampy area. This kind of husbandry seemed to be much preferred by farmers as they thought it was a simple and did not need high skill and high capital "IP padi 300" was a term of rice planting system tree times instead of twice in a year. This kind of changing might have significantly affected duck faming. The objective of the study was to observe the interactively effect of "IP padi 300" to duck husbandry at the same area. Two locations were choosen (Subang, West Jawa and Pemalang, Central Java with 5 farmers at each location to be involved in the study. As many as 1200 laying pullet ducks were distributed to 10 farmers at two locations. The farmers were suggested to raise laying ducks with their own systems (fully intensive, semi intensive and fully herded and were observed for 6 months. Biota was observed on both field and in the crop of the laying ducks. There was an interactive effect of "IP padi 300" and the duck farming on the same area. The availability of feed was increased on the "IP padi 300", which gave benefit to duck farming especially fue herded system, not to go far from owner's home base. Whilst the benefit to "IP padi 300" was assumed to the reduction of pest and desease, which was frequently attacked the rice field. The production of egg from herded duck was very fluctuative due to the movement and feed availability in the rice field. Field biota in Subang and Pemalang was very much the same in profile, although "golden snail" was only found in Subang. Ducks' crop content seemed to be very much similar with the profile of field biota, although rice grain was the most in the crop. Thus, it was found that field biota was not reduced by "IP padi 300", in fact it was rather increased.

  16. Modeling movement and fidelity of American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, N.L.; Conroy, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial relationships among stocks of breeding waterfowl can be an important component of harvest management. Prediction and optimal harvest management under adaptive harvest management (AHM) requires information on the spatial relationships among breeding populations (fidelity and inter-year exchange), as well as rates of movements from breeding to harvest regions. We used band-recovery data to develop a model to estimate probabilities of movement for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) among 3 Canadian breeding strata and 6 harvest regions (3 in Canada, and 3 in the United States) over the period 1965-1998. Model selection criteria suggested that models containing area-, year-, and age-specific recovery rates with area- and sex-specific movement rates were the best for modeling movement. Movement by males to southern harvest areas was variable depending on the originating area. Males from the western breeding area predominantly moved to the Mississippi Flyway or southern Atlantic Flyway (??ij = 0.353, SE = 0.0187 and ??ij = 0.473, SE = 0.037, respectively), whereas males that originated in the eastern and central breeding strata moved to the northern Atlantic flyway (??ij = 0.842, SE = 0.010 and ??ij = 0.578, SE = 0.0222, respectively). We used combined recoveries and recaptures in Program MARK to estimate fidelity to the 3 Canadian breeding strata. Information criteria identified a model containing sex- and age-specific fidelity for black ducks. Estimates of fidelity were 0.9695 (SE = 0.0249) and 0.9554 (SE = 0.0434) for adult males and females, respectively. Estimates of fidelity for juveniles were slightly lower at 0.9210 (SE = 0.0931) and 0.8870 (SE = 0.0475) for males and females, respectively. These models have application to the development of spatially stratified black duck harvest management models for use in AHM.

  17. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  18. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

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    William P. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  19. Eggshell breakage by incubating black ducks fed DDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Samson, F.B.

    1973-01-01

    Black duck (Anas rubripes) hens fed 10 ppm dry weight (approximately 3 ppm wet weight) of p,p'-DDE in the diet laid eggs with shells 22 percent thinner at the equator, 30 percent thinner at the cap, and 33 percent thinner at the apex than those of controls. Natural incubation increased shell cracking more than fourfold as compared with mechanical incubation. Hens removed cracked eggs from nests, and one hen terminated incubation. Hens fed DDE produced one-fifth as many ducklings as controls. DDE in eggs of dosed hens averaged 64.9 ppm wet weight.

  20. Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, K; Schmitt, C; Soike, D; Mankertz, A

    2003-12-01

    The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996 nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains four repeats of a 44-bp sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows close relation of DuCV with Goose circovirus and suggests classification of DuCV as a new member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae.

  1. Archiving California’s historical duck nesting data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Brady, Caroline; Eadie, John M.; Yarris, Greg S.

    2015-07-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the California Waterfowl Association (CWA) and other organizations, have compiled large datasets on the nesting ecology and management of dabbling ducks and associated upland nesting birds (Northern Harriers [Circus cyaneus], Short-eared Owls [Asio flammeus], Ring-necked Pheasants [Phasianus colchicus], and American Bitterns [Botaurus lentiginosus]) throughout California on Federal Refuges, State Wildlife Areas, and private lands, some participating in State and Federal habitat programs. These datasets encompass several long-term monitoring programs at multiple sites throughout California, and include data from more than 26,000 nests and span nearly 30 years.

  2. GENETIC VARIATION IN THREE BREEDS OF INDONESIAN LOCAL DUCKS BASED ON BLOOD AND EGG WHITE PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation of four blood protein loci and three egg white loci in three breeds of Indonesian local ducks (Magelang duck = MAD, Tegal duck = TED and Mojosari duck= MOD was investigated by using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The result showed that four blood protein loci (Pre-albumin, Albumin, Transferrin and Post-transferrin and three egg white loci (Ovalbumin, Ovoglobulin and Conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three breeds of local ducks. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein polyimorphism. The average value of heterozygosity on three breeds of local ducks had a genetic potential to determine the controlled mating system and selection to obtain pure line. The closest phylogenetic relationship among the three breeds of local ducks occurred between MAD and TED.

  3. Identification of Microorganisms in Duck Meat Products Available in Korea and the Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jung, Samooel; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Heo, Kang Nyung; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial count of duck meat and duck meat products commercially available in Korea. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment was applied at 0.1, 300, 400, and 500 MPa for 5 min to enhance the microbiological safety of duck meats. The levels of total aerobic bacteria were in the ranges of 3.53-6.19 and 3.62-6.85 Log CFU/g in raw and smoked duck products, respectively. By DNA sequence analysis, we identified microorganisms responsible for spoilage, with the most common species in the raw and smoked duck products being Aeromonas spp. or Pseudomonas spp. and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, respectively. HHP treatment significantly reduced the levels of total aerobic bacteria in raw and smoked duck products. This study demonstrates that HHP treatment may be used to effectively improve the safety of raw and smoked duck meat products.

  4. Identification of Microorganisms in Duck Meat Products Available in Korea and the Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Samooel; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Heo, Kang Nyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial count of duck meat and duck meat products commercially available in Korea. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment was applied at 0.1, 300, 400, and 500 MPa for 5 min to enhance the microbiological safety of duck meats. The levels of total aerobic bacteria were in the ranges of 3.53-6.19 and 3.62-6.85 Log CFU/g in raw and smoked duck products, respectively. By DNA sequence analysis, we identified microorganisms responsible for spoilage, with the most common species in the raw and smoked duck products being Aeromonas spp. or Pseudomonas spp. and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, respectively. HHP treatment significantly reduced the levels of total aerobic bacteria in raw and smoked duck products. This study demonstrates that HHP treatment may be used to effectively improve the safety of raw and smoked duck meat products. PMID:27194939

  5. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Su

    Full Text Available Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus, with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  6. Death feigning by ducks in response to predation by red foxes (Vulpes fulva)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    Predation by captive red foxes (Vulpes fulva) on approximately 50 ducks comprised of five species was observed in tests conducted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. Most ducks were attacked from a rear or lateral position and seized in the cervical or thoracic region. All birds became immobile (death-feigned) immediately when seized and with few exceptions remained motionless during prey-handling and for varying lengths of time thereafter. Initial death feints lasted from 20 sec to 14 min. Recovery was delayed by tactile, visual and, possibly, auditory cues from the foxes. Death-feigning birds appeared alert and often took advantage of escape opportunities. Twenty-nine birds survived initial capture and handling by the foxes. Naive foxes were wary of ducks during initial confrontations, but experienced foxes showed little hesitation in attacking them. After capture, most ducks were taken alive to lay-down sites where they were mouthed and often killed. Then the ducks were usually cached or taken to dens or pups. Several birds were cached alive. Red foxes appear to have adapted to the escape of death-feigning ducks by learning to kill some birds soon after capture and by the evolution of an appendage-severing behavior. Death feigning appears to be a highly developed antipredator behavior of ducks that facilitates the escape of some birds after capture by red foxes.

  7. Duck gait: Relationship to hip angle, bone ash, bone density, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Cara I; Rice, Meredith; Makagon, Maja M; Karcher, Darrin M

    2015-05-01

    The rapid growth meat birds, including ducks, undergo requires skeletal integrity; however, fast growth may not be conducive to adequate bone structure. A relationship likely exists between skeletal changes and duck mobility. Reduced mobility in meat ducks may have impacts on welfare and production. This study examined the relationships among gait score, bone parameters, and hip angle. Commercial Pekin ducks, ages 14 d (n = 100), 21 d (n = 100), and 32 d (n = 100) were weighed and gait scored with a 3-point gait score system by an observer as they walked over a Tekscan gait analysis system. Gait was scored as GS0, GS1, or GS2 with a score of GS0 defined as good walking ability and a score of GS2 as poorest walking ability. Ducks were humanely euthanized, full body scanned using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and the right femur and tibia were extracted. Leg bones were cleaned, measured, fat extracted, and ashed. QCT scans were rendered to create computerized 3D models where pelvic hip angles and bone density were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using PROC MIXED with age and gait score in the model. Body weight increased with age, but within an age, body weight decreased as walking ability became worse (P bone width and length were observed as the ducks aged (P Bone density increased linearly with both age and gait score (P relationship between duck mobility and skeletal changes during growth. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on growth performance in Muscovy ducks

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    T Sheng-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary Bacillus subtilis natto could affect growth performance of Muscovy ducks. A total of 120 hundred Muscovy ducks at the age of 1 day were randomly assigned to four groups (30 Muscovy ducks/group, and fed with diets supplemented with 0% (control group, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto, respectively during the 6-week feeding period. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Muscovy ducks were significantly improved by the dietary addition of Bacillus subtilis natto, and the results were more significant in 0.4% dietary Bacillus subtilis natto treatment group; Also, Bacillus subtilis natto reduced Escherichia coli and Salmonella colonies, and increased lactobacilli population in the ileum and the cecum. Biochemical parameters, including total protein, GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, GPT (glutamic pyruvic transaminase, AKP (alkaline phosphatase, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4 contents (pBacillus subtilis natto was added to the diets (p0.05. The results of the present study indicate that diets with 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto improved the growth performance of Muscovy ducks by increasing the absorption of protein, simulating hormone secretion, suppressing harmful microflora, and improving the duodenal structure and immune functions of Muscovy ducks. It is suggested that Bacillus subtilis natto is a potential candidate to be used use as a probiotic to improve the growth performance of Muscovy ducks.

  9. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  10. Morphometric Traits of Muscovy Ducks from Two Agro Ecological Zones of Nigeria

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    Yakubu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation between Muscovy ducks from the guinea savannah and rainforest zones of Nigeria was examined using multivariate discriminant analysis. Data comprised eight morphometric traits measured in a total of 435 adult ducks randomly selected in the two agro-ecological zones. Common descriptive statistics showed that ducks from the rainforest zone had higher (P< 0.05 body weight, foot length and thigh circumference, while their guinea savannah counterparts were longer (P< 0.05 in the neck. Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that foot length, neck length, thigh circumference and body length were more effective in discriminating between the duck populations. The low Mahalanobis distance of 3.39, as revealed by the canonical discriminant analysis, is an indication of high gene flow between ducks from the two agro-ecological zones. The cluster analysis also revealed the homogeneity of the genetic identity of the duck populations. The present information will be the basis for further characterization, conservation and sustainable genetic improvement strategies for indigenous ducks.

  11. Optimizing the Performance of Solo Duck Wave Energy Converter in Tide

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    Jinming Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The high efficiency performance of the Edinburgh Duck wave energy converter (WEC in 2D regular wave tests makes it a promising wave energy conversion scheme. A solo Duck WEC will be able to apply the point absorber effect to further enhance its performance. Since released degree of freedom will decrease the efficiency, a Duck WEC with fixed pitching axis will be a better option. However, for fixed supported WECs, tide is a non-ignorable consideration. In this paper, a movable mass method is utilized in the whole tidal range to not only balance the Duck to appropriate beak angles, but also follow the variation of hydrodynamic coefficients to keep cancelling the reactance of the system impedance so that complex conjugate control can be realized to optimize the power capture performance of the Duck WEC in tide. Results show that the beak angle should be adjusted to as large a value as possible so that the response amplitude of the Duck at maximum relative capture width will be reasonable small, and the lowest weight of the movable mass is found when its designed position locates at the center of the Duck profile.

  12. Detection and molecular characterization of J subgroup avian leukosis virus in wild ducks in China.

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    Xiangwei Zeng

    Full Text Available To assess the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J in wild ducks in China, we examined samples from 528 wild ducks, representing 17 species, which were collected in China over the past 3 years. Virus isolation and PCR showed that 7 ALV-J strains were isolated from wild ducks. The env genes and the 3'UTRs from these isolates were cloned and sequenced. The env genes of all 7 wild duck isolates were significantly different from those in the prototype strain HPRS-103, American strains, broiler ALV-J isolates and Chinese local chicken isolates, but showed close homology with those found in some layer chicken ALV-J isolates and belonged to the same group. The 3'UTRs of 7 ALV-J wild ducks isolates showed close homology with the prototype strain HPRS-103 and no obvious deletion was found in the 3'UTR except for a 1 bp deletion in the E element that introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. Our study demonstrated the presence of ALV-J in wild ducks and investigated the molecular characterization of ALV-J in wild ducks isolates.

  13. Experimental lead toxicity in the ring-necked duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautino, M; Bell, J U

    1986-12-01

    Ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) were administered a single lead shot by gastric intubation. At weekly intervals over a 7-week period, the birds were weighed and blood samples obtained for measurement of hematocrit, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), blood lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity. The birds were fluoroscoped weekly to ensure that the pellets had been retained. Blood lead concentrations peaked 1 week after dosing at a concentration of 7.75 micrograms/ml and then fell to control levels by Week 4. FEP concentrations in the treated ducks also peaked 1 week after dosing at levels which were roughly 1200% of control concentrations. The return of FEP concentrations to normal paralleled blood lead. ALAD activity was inhibited by approximately 85% by Week 1; however, there was a gradual but steady recovery of ALAD activity through Week 7. Four of the treated birds died within 2 to 3 weeks of lead administration. Physical signs of lead toxicity were maximal 7 to 10 days postdosing and included ataxia, loss of body weight, impaction of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and bile green diarrhea. In surviving birds, overt signs of toxicity declined with time and all birds appeared normal by Week 7.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of valnemulin in Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J; Yuan, L; Zhu, L; He, L; Luo, X; Wang, R; Liu, Y

    2012-01-01

    1. A pharmacokinetic study of valnemulin was conducted in healthy Muscovy ducks after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and oral administrations at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg body weight. 2. Drug concentrations in plasma were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pharmacokinetics parameters of valnemulin were analysed by compartmental analysis using the WinNonlin program. 3. After IV administration, valnemulin was widely distributed with a volume of distribution based on a terminal phase (V(z)) of 8·19 ± 3·07 l/kg, a mean elimination half-life (t(1/2Ke)) of 2·63 h, and a clearance (Cl) value of 5·56 ± 1·53 l/kg/h. Following intramuscular and oral administration, valnemulin was rapidly absorbed; the C(max) was 0·44 ± 0·13 and 0·12 ± 0·02 µg/ml (achieved at 0·28 and 1·80 h), the t(1/2Ke) was 3·17 ± 3·83 and 4·83 ± 1·81 h, and the absolute bioavailability (F) was 72% and 37%, respectively. 4. The plasma profile of valnemulin exhibited favourable pharmacokinetic characteristics in Muscovy ducks, such as wide distribution, and rapid absorption and elimination, though oral bioavailability was low.

  15. BLOOD PROFILE, DIGESTIVE ORGAN AND FECAL AMMONIA OF LAYING DUCKS FED BY FERMENTED FEED

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    Allaily Allaily

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine how the fermented feed effect against blood profile, digestive organ and fecal ammonia of laying ducks. Feed materials were prepared according to laying ducks need as 21% crude protein, then mixed rations already given water until 45% the water content, then anaerobic fermented for 7 days. This study used a completely randomized design with 4 treatments of feed, such as: dry feed, wet feed, wet fermentation feed, and commercial dry feed. Each treatment was repeated 5 times, and each replication was consisted of four laying ducks. Laying duck were 80 heads Indramayu duck at 5 month of old. Blood observations were taken 3 times at 5 months, 6.5 months and 8 months old. Parameters measured were red blood cell (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV = volume percentage of erythrocytes in the blood, hemoglobin (Hb, white blood cell (WBC, heterophile cell (H, lymphocytes (L, monosit (M and the ratio of HL. Blood was taken from vena pectoralis vein under duck wings. Observation of digestive organs and fecal ammonia content was at 8 months old of duck. The results showed in pre treatment of the 5 months ducks significantly influenced the PCV and the WBC, but at 6.5 months and 8 months of treatment did not significantly affect blood profile of laying ducks. Digestive organs of liver in fermentation treatment showed  significantly  lower  than  in  controls. The  content  of  fecal ammonia were not significantly different.

  16. Penggantian Sebagian Ransum Komersial dengan Polar dan Aditif Duck mix terhadap Komposisi Fisik Karkas Itik

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    Ni Wayan Siti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The substitution a part of commercial feed with pollard and duck mix additive on duck carcass physic composition ABSTRACT. The aim of this experiment was to study pollard optimum levels with additive complex mineral vitamin on the carcass physic composition Balinese male duck age 10 weeks, was carried out at Jl. Binginambe, Kediri village, Tabanan Regency. The design which used in this experiment a completely randomized design Those four treatments were ration contain 100% commercial feed (A; ration with 85% commercial feed + 15% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (B; ration with 70% commercial feed + 30% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (C; ration with 55% commercial feed + 45% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (D, respectively. The variables which measured were carcass weight, carcass percent, and carcass physic composition. The result of this experiment showed that the substitution commercial feed with pollard from 15-45% and duck mix were not significant (P >0.05 decrease carcass percent, carcass bone percent than treatment A. Meat percent on treatment B 1.81% non significant (P>0.05 increase than treatment A, but C and D treatments 2.63% and 4.87% significantly increase than treatment A. Subcutan fat on C and D treatments 6.72% and 6.67% significant lower (P <0.05 than treatment A, and D treatment 4.91% significant lower than treatment B. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that substitution pollard from 15%-45% with additive 0.3% duck mix were decrease carcass percent and bone carcass percent, but substitution pollard 30% and 45% can increase meat carcass percent and decrease fat Balinese male duck age 10 weeks.

  17. Studies on vertical and horizontal transmission of duck plague virus in apparently healthy waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Elizabeth C.

    1978-01-01

    Healthy waterfowl were found to be carriers of duck plague (DP) virus. Black ducks (Anas rubripes) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) surviving a natural outbreak of DP at Coloma, Wisconsin, in 1973 yielded DP virus in cloacal swabs taken four years postinfection. Experimental infection of previously unexposed mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynochos) with the Coloma strain of DP virus CO-WI (73) also produced cloacal virus shedding for up to four years after infection. A second DP virus strain, LA-SD (73) from the Lake Andes, South Dakota, epornitic, was detected from cloacal swabs of pintail ducks (Anas acuta), gadwall ducks (Anas strepera), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), and Canada geese infected experimentally one year before. The frequency of swabs positive for DP virus varied between individuals within each of the tested species. The amount of detectable DP virus shed was about 100 plaqueforming units of virus percloacal swab. Oral erosions were present in all species tested except Canada geese and gadwall ducks. Erosions occurred at the openings of the sublingual salivary gland ducts. DP virus was isolated from erosions. All ducks with lesions proved to shed DP virus, although not necessarily at the time they had the lesion. Three pintail ducks treated with dexamethasone for ten days, shed DP virus daily for 19 days after the first day of treatment. These birds also shed DP virus the one time they were tested prior to dexamethosone treatment. An acute lethal outbreak occurred in CO-WI (73) carrier birds. Both DP virus and specific lesions were found in dead birds. The deaths coincided with a change in housing and with the simultaneous introduction of co-housed LA-SD (73) infected ducklings. DP virus was isolated from the chorio-allantoic (CA) fluid of a fourteen day pekin embryo and from five of ten infertile pekin eggs laid by DP carrier birds.

  18. Effects of Pyridoxine on Growth Performance and Plasma Aminotransferases and Homocysteine of White Pekin Ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Xie; Jing Tang; Zhiguo Wen; Wei Huang; Shuisheng Hou

    2014-01-01

    A dose-response experiment with seven supplemental pyridoxine levels (0, 0.66, 1.32, 1.98, 2.64, 3.30, and 3.96 mg/kg) was conducted to investigate the effects of pyridoxine on growth performance and plasma aminotransferases and homocysteine of White Pekin ducks and to estimate pyridoxine requirement for these birds. A total of 336 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks were divided to 7 experimental treatments and each treatment contained 8 replicate pens with 6 birds per pen. Ducks were reared ...

  19. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting-Wei, E-mail: M10126010@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jai-Wei, E-mail: joeylee@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Hsueh-Yen, E-mail: M9926012@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsiao, E-mail: M10126011@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Chu, Chun-Yen, E-mail: cychu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Animal Vaccine Technology, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun, E-mail: sllin100@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Chang-Chien, Guo Ping, E-mail: guoping@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Department of Cosmetics and Fashion styling, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chi, E-mail: chiyu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  20. Trade patterns facilitating highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dissemination in the free-grazing layer duck system in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Dinh, T X; Han, T A; Do, D V; Nhu, T V; Pham, L T; Nguyen, T T T; Newman, S; Häsler, B; Pfeiffer, D U; Vergne, T

    2018-04-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam. In this study, we used a value chain approach to provide a complete picture of the actors involved in the production and marketing of free-grazing duck eggs and spent layer ducks, as well as to investigate the governance structure of this food system. Group interviews and key informant interviews were conducted in two provinces located in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) and the Red River Delta (RRD). The results presented here highlight similarities and differences in farming and trade practices between the two provinces. The trade of spent layer ducks involved large volumes of live ducks being sent to China and Cambodia for consumption, generating a substantial risk of transboundary spread of pathogens, including HPAI viruses. We describe the major role of "duck yards", which act as hubs in the northbound trade of spent layer ducks. These yards should be considered as essential links in the value chain of spent layer ducks when considering HPAI surveillance and control. The veterinary authorities are only marginally involved in the value chain activities, and their influence could be strengthened by increasing surveillance activities for instance in duck yards. Last, we discuss the dynamics of the duck value chain and further implications for future HPAI management policies. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  2. Phylogenetics, phylogeography and population genetics of North American sea ducks (tribe: Mergini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Pearce, John M.; Scribner, Kim T.

    2015-01-01

    Many environments occupied by North American sea ducks are remote and difficult to access, and as a result, detailed information about life history characteristics that drive population dynamics within and across species is limited. Nevertheless, progress on this front during the past several decades has benefited by the application of genetic technologies, and for several species, these technologies have allowed for concomitant tracking of population trends and genetic diversity, delineation of populations, assessment of gene flow among metapopulations, and understanding of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering grounds. This chapter provides an overview of phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and population genetics studies of North American sea duck species, many of which have sought to understand the major and minor genetic divisions within and among sea duck species, and most of which have been conducted with the understanding that the maintenance of genetic variation in wild sea duck populations is fundamental to the group’s long-term persistence.

  3. BLOOD SMEAR EVALUATION OF BALI DUCKS SAMPLED FROM TRADITIONAL FARMING SYSTEMS IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Haryono Utama

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Research to confirm the abnormalities of blood corpuscles in Bali ducks based on blood smear examination has been conducted. The research samples consisted of 105 ducks from various regencies in Bali. The blood smear examination was conducted by the method described in this literature and the data was collected and tabulated by means of the descriptive method. Erythrocyte abnormalities were: polychromasia (61.9%, anisocytosis (17.1%, poikilocytosis (21.0%. Abnormalities associated with leukocyte composition were: Lymphopenic (46.7%; Heterophylic (44.8%; Heteropenic (3.8%, also Thrombocyto penia (2.9% was present in 105 ducks. In conclusion 61,9% ducks examined deal with regenerative anaemia. They also have some blood abnormalities such as basophylia, eosinophylia, heterophylia, heteropenia, lymphopenia, and monocytosis.

  4. Dioxins and furans in wood duck eggs from the Lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the springs of 1992 and 1993 ten clutches of wood duck eggs were collected from the lower Roanoke River below a kraft process pulp paper mill that had...

  5. Distribution of ducks on the west Copper River Delta during the fall of 1980 and 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) conducted Fall aerial duck surveys on the Copper River Delta between late August and late October in 1980 and 1981 to...

  6. Duck nesting success and small mammal abundances in Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Juab County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report in on an investigation of duck nest success and small mammal abundance as it related to predation on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR)An...

  7. Foraging behavior of Long-tailed Ducks in a ferry wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Ducks) were observed diving in the wake of the Nantucket Island ferry during December over a 5-year period (2005–2009). The unusual diving behavior appeared to be related to foraging, but could not be confirmed. Long-tailed Ducks typically feed on more mobile prey than most other diving ducks, and it is speculated that the propeller wash in shallow water dislodged or disturbed prey and provided an enhanced feeding opportunity. Long-tailed Ducks collected while feeding in a disturbed area near a clamming boat not far from the ferry channel were feeding predominantly on Crangon septemspinosa (Sand Shrimp) that apparently had been dislodged by the clamming operation.

  8. Analysis of the wood duck nesting box program on Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge: 1977 - 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The wood duck nesting box program on Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge has undergone transition and expansion throughout the years. These changes have occurred as a...

  9. Upland Accessibility by Breeding Duck Pairs in the Prairie Pothole Joint Venture Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Duck pair density information was predicted from models developed with breeding mallard, northern pintail, blue-winged teal, gadwall, and northern shoveler pair data...

  10. Survelliance for Avian Influenza in Wood Ducks at Coldwater and Tallahatchie NWRs in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains sampling effort and results of Avian Influenza testing in live wood ducks at Coldwater, Walker Tract, and Tallahatchie in 2009. All samples were...

  11. Contaminants in redhead ducks wintering in Baffin Bay and Redfish Bay, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A sample of 39 redhead ducks was collected from Redfish and Baffin Bays on the Texas Coast during the winter of 1988-1989 to obtain baseline information on...

  12. Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge : Ducks Unlimited Pond A6 Draft Design : October 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ducks Unlimited (DU) received a grant from the North American Wetlands Conservation Council to design and implement the proposed restoration on Pond A6. This grant...

  13. Proposal: Tennessee River and Lower Duck River Mussel Survey and Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Provide the Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) with baseline data on freshwater mussel communities found within the lower 24 miles of the Duck River and the...

  14. Harlequin duck capture and EROD activity data from Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2011, 2013, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data set includes capture information and ethoxyresorufin­O­deethylase (EROD) activity results for harlequin ducks sampled during March 2011, 2013, and 2014 in...

  15. Interpreting evidence of depredation of duck nests in the prairie pothole region

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We examined patterns of depredation of duck nests by 9 species and 2 congeneric species-groups of predators in the Prairie Pothole Region: coyote (Canis latrans),...

  16. Report of Black Duck Nesting on the Blackwater River Migratory Bird Refuge 1932

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this investigation is to determine the extent of nesting in the area by ducks and the amount of destruction during the nesting season by predacious...

  17. Comparative toxicity of lead shot in black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.; Bunck, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    In winter, pen-reared and wild black ducks (Anas rubripes), and game farm and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), maintained on pelleted feed, were sham-dosed or given one number 4 lead shot. After 14 days, dosed birds were redosed with two or four additional lead shot. This dosing regimen also was repeated in summer using pen-reared black ducks and game farm mallards. Based upon mortality, overt intoxication, weight change, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and protoporphyrin concentration, black ducks and mallards were found to be equally tolerant to lead shot. However, captive wild ducks were more sensitive than their domesticated counterparts, as evidenced by greater mortality and weight loss following lead shot administration. This difference may be related to stress associated with captivity and unnatural diet.

  18. Immunotargeting with CD154 (CD40 ligand) enhances DNA vaccine responses in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gares, Sheryl L; Fischer, Karl P; Congly, Stephen E; Lacoste, Stacey; Addison, William R; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Gutfreund, Klaus S

    2006-08-01

    Engagement of CD154 on activated T cells with CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) potentiates adaptive immune responses in mammals. Soluble multimeric forms of CD154 have been used as an adjuvant or in immunotargeting strategies to enhance vaccine responses. The objective of our study was to examine the ability of duck CD154 (DuCD154) to enhance DNA vaccine responses in the duck hepatitis B model. Constructs were generated to express the functional domain of DuCD154 (tCD154), truncated duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) core antigen (tcore) and chimera of tcore fused to tCD154 (tcore-tCD154). Expression in LMH cells demonstrated that all proteins were secreted and that tCD154 and tcore-tCD154 formed multimers. Ducks immunized with the plasmid ptcore-tCD154 developed accelerated and enhanced core-specific antibody responses compared to ducks immunized with ptcore or ptcore plus ptCD154. Antibody responses were better sustained in both ptcore-tCD154- and ptcore plus ptCD154-immunized ducks. Core-specific proliferative responses of duck peripheral blood mononuclear cells were enhanced in ducks immunized with ptcore-tCD154 or ptcore alone. This study suggests that the role of CD154 in the regulation of adaptive immune responses had already evolved before the divergence of birds and mammals. Thus, targeting of antigens to APCs with CD154 is an effective strategy to enhance DNA vaccine responses not only in mammalian species but also in avian species.

  19. Different Effects of Sheep- and Duck-Meat Supplemented Diets on Serum Cytokine Levels of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjun; Han, Minyi; Sun, Weiqing; Xu, Haijun; Wei, Fashan; Yang, Yongsheng; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the different effects of diet supplemented with sheep- or duck-meat on serum cytokines of rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups fed on sheep meat, duck meat, or soybean, respectively. The profiles of amino acids and fatty acids of the three diets were examined, and the levels of serum cytokines in rats, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were detected 30 d after feeding, using radioimmunoassay. The contents of methionine and glycine in the sheep-meat and duck-meat diets were significantly higher than those in the soybean diet. The content of saturated fatty acids in the sheep-meat diet and duck-meat diet was higher than that in soybeans, while the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the duck-meat diet were highest and those in the sheep-meat diet were lowest. Serum levels of IL-2 and IL-10 in the rats of the sheep-meat and duck-meat groups were significantly higher than those in the rats of the soybean group (pmeat group were higher than those in the duck-meat group. But the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were not significantly different among the three groups. Additionally, there were positive correlations between glycine and IL-1β as well as glycine and IL-2, while negative correlation existed between C18:2 and TNF-α. Methionine, glycine and PUFAs in a diet supplemented with sheep- or duck-meat might influence the levels of serum cytokines in rats, suggesting the potential regulatory mechanism of amino acids and fatty acids from diet in immune responses.

  20. Economics of duck marketing in Oyo State | Saka | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prices of drake (N557.30) were significantly higher than prices of duck (N424.90) across the locations and also ducks were sold at significantly higher prices during festival periods than non-festival periods (p<0.01). Marketing profit was 31.2% of the total marketing cost and 68.9% of the marketing margin, thus indicating that ...

  1. Performance of the Broiler Duck Males after Application of Two Different Probiotic Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Weis; Beata Baraňska; Gabriel Pál; Cyril Hrnčár

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of the probiotic preparations with different probiotic strain on the basic fattening parameters of broiler duck males. The experiment was carried out in halfoperation conditions experimental base of Department of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in three-floor cage technology. Totally 45 one day broiler duck males of hybrid PKB divided into three groups: control group -...

  2. EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC PREPARATES WITH DIFFERENT STRAIN ON MEAT PRODUCTION OF BROILER DUCKS

    OpenAIRE

    J. WEIS; C. HRNČÁR; S. MINDEK

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of the probiotic preparates with different probiotic strain on the meat production of broiler duck females. The experiment realised in half-operation conditions experimental base of Department of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in three-floor cage technology. Totally 45 one day broiler duck females hybrid PKR divided into three groups: control group - without addition ...

  3. Genetic structure of avian influenza viruses from ducks of the Atlantic flyway of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Huang

    Full Text Available Wild birds, including waterfowl such as ducks, are reservoir hosts of influenza A viruses. Despite the increased number of avian influenza virus (AIV genome sequences available, our understanding of AIV genetic structure and transmission through space and time in waterfowl in North America is still limited. In particular, AIVs in ducks of the Atlantic flyway of North America have not been thoroughly investigated. To begin to address this gap, we analyzed 109 AIV genome sequences from ducks in the Atlantic flyway to determine their genetic structure and to document the extent of gene flow in the context of sequences from other locations and other avian and mammalian host groups. The analyses included 25 AIVs from ducks from Newfoundland, Canada, from 2008-2011 and 84 available reference duck AIVs from the Atlantic flyway from 2006-2011. A vast diversity of viral genes and genomes was identified in the 109 viruses. The genetic structure differed amongst the 8 viral segments with predominant single lineages found for the PB2, PB1 and M segments, increased diversity found for the PA, NP and NS segments (2, 3 and 3 lineages, respectively, and the highest diversity found for the HA and NA segments (12 and 9 lineages, respectively. Identification of inter-hemispheric transmissions was rare with only 2% of the genes of Eurasian origin. Virus transmission between ducks and other bird groups was investigated, with 57.3% of the genes having highly similar (≥99% nucleotide identity genes detected in birds other than ducks. Transmission between North American flyways has been frequent and 75.8% of the genes were highly similar to genes found in other North American flyways. However, the duck AIV genes did display spatial distribution bias, which was demonstrated by the different population sizes of specific viral genes in one or two neighbouring flyways compared to more distant flyways.

  4. Genetic structure of avian influenza viruses from ducks of the Atlantic flyway of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Wille, Michelle; Dobbin, Ashley; Walzthöni, Natasha M; Robertson, Gregory J; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds, including waterfowl such as ducks, are reservoir hosts of influenza A viruses. Despite the increased number of avian influenza virus (AIV) genome sequences available, our understanding of AIV genetic structure and transmission through space and time in waterfowl in North America is still limited. In particular, AIVs in ducks of the Atlantic flyway of North America have not been thoroughly investigated. To begin to address this gap, we analyzed 109 AIV genome sequences from ducks in the Atlantic flyway to determine their genetic structure and to document the extent of gene flow in the context of sequences from other locations and other avian and mammalian host groups. The analyses included 25 AIVs from ducks from Newfoundland, Canada, from 2008-2011 and 84 available reference duck AIVs from the Atlantic flyway from 2006-2011. A vast diversity of viral genes and genomes was identified in the 109 viruses. The genetic structure differed amongst the 8 viral segments with predominant single lineages found for the PB2, PB1 and M segments, increased diversity found for the PA, NP and NS segments (2, 3 and 3 lineages, respectively), and the highest diversity found for the HA and NA segments (12 and 9 lineages, respectively). Identification of inter-hemispheric transmissions was rare with only 2% of the genes of Eurasian origin. Virus transmission between ducks and other bird groups was investigated, with 57.3% of the genes having highly similar (≥99% nucleotide identity) genes detected in birds other than ducks. Transmission between North American flyways has been frequent and 75.8% of the genes were highly similar to genes found in other North American flyways. However, the duck AIV genes did display spatial distribution bias, which was demonstrated by the different population sizes of specific viral genes in one or two neighbouring flyways compared to more distant flyways.

  5. Generation of bioactive peptides from duck meat during post-mortem aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongmei; Chen, Xing; Huang, Jichao; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-12-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the endogenous release of bioactive peptides in duck meat during 7days of post-mortem aging. The degradation of muscle proteins led to release of small peptides (meat. The present findings provide an insight into the release of bioactive peptides in duck meat during post-mortem aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A study of Salmonella Spp. contamination in egg of ducks and turkeys, consumed in Fars province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali Ghorbani ranjbary

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Salmonella is a short rod shape, gram-negative, non-encapsulated, aerobic and anaerobic options that cause food poisoning in humans. Raw food of animal origin, particularly meat and eggs of birds have important role in the transfer of this disease. Since duck and turkey eggs are very important in the transmission of Salmonellosis and consuming of local and non-industrial eggs of ducks and turkeys in this area is common, the present study was performed to clarify the prevalence of salmonella contamination. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 300 native duck and turkey eggs were collected and transferred to the lab. In laboratory after sampling from surface of the eggs shell were disinfected with 80% ethanol and contents of 5 duck and turkey eggs, sparately mixed in special dishes. After 24 hr incubation at 37°C with a swab in selenite - F broth were inoculated. Samples were transferred to Salmonella - Shigella agar from selenite-f environment. After incubation in 37°C, colonies suspected to Salmonella were evaluated. Suspicious colonies in the TSI and lysine decarboxylase environments were inoculated. And bacteria that had reactions related to Salmonella, were studied by PCR with specific primers for Salmonella and serotypes of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Results: A total of 300 eggs of ducks and turkeys ,7 cases (2.3% were contaminated with Salmonella, and from 7 unclean egg s shell , 1 case of turkey egg shell (0.66% was infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. And 6 duck eggs shell (4% were infected, that all of the serotypes were Salmonella Typhimurium. Conclusion: Regarding the present study, and other researches, it can be concluded that the Salmonella infection in the duck and turkey eggs were less than poultry eggs and it seems that vertical transmission of Salmonella in the turkeys and ducks was less than poultry.

  7. Relationships between Duck and Grassland Bird Relative Abundance and Species Richness in Southern Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P. Skinner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital map products that integrate long-term duck population and land-use data are currently being used to guide conservation program delivery on the Canadian Prairies. However, understanding the inter-relationships between ducks and other grassland bird species would greatly enhance program planning and delivery. We hypothesized that ducks, and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta in particular, may function as an umbrella guild for the overall breeding habitat quality for other grassland bird species. We compared grassland bird species richness and relative abundance among areas of low, moderate, and high predicted waterfowl breeding densities (i.e., duck density strata in the southern Missouri Coteau, Saskatchewan. We conducted roadside point counts and delineated habitats within a 400 m radius of each point. The duck high-density stratum supported greater avian species richness and abundance than did the duck low-density stratum. Overall, duck and other grassland bird species richness and abundance were moderately correlated, with all r between 0.37 and 0.69 (all P < 0.05. Although the habitat requirements of Northern Pintail may overlap with those of other grassland endemics, priority grassland bird species richness was only moderately correlated with total pintail abundance in both years, and the abundances of pintail and grassland songbirds listed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada were not correlated. No differences in the mean number of priority grassland species were detected among the strata. Adequate critical habitat for several priority species may not be protected if conservation is focused only in areas of moderate to high wetland density because large tracts of contiguous, dry grassland habitat (e.g., pasture occur infrequently in high-quality duck habitat.

  8. Lead poisoning in the globally threatened marbled teal and white-headed duck in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo, Rafael; Green, Andy J; Jeske, Clinton W.; Urios, Vicente; Gerique, Cati

    2001-01-01

    Marbled teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) and white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala) are the two European ducks threatened with global extinction. We investigated lead (Pb) poisoning in stifftails (Oxyura spp., n = 83) and marbled teal (n = 80) shot or found dead or moribund in Spanish wetlands via gizzard examination and liver, bone, and blood Pb analysis. Ingested Pb shot was present in 32% of shot stifftails and 70 and 43% of dead or moribund stifftails and marbled teal,...

  9. Role of domestic ducks in the propagation and biological evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse-Post, D J; Sturm-Ramirez, K M; Humberd, J; Seiler, P; Govorkova, E A; Krauss, S; Scholtissek, C; Puthavathana, P; Buranathai, C; Nguyen, T D; Long, H T; Naipospos, T S P; Chen, H; Ellis, T M; Guan, Y; Peiris, J S M; Webster, R G

    2005-07-26

    Wild waterfowl, including ducks, are natural hosts of influenza A viruses. These viruses rarely caused disease in ducks until 2002, when some H5N1 strains became highly pathogenic. Here we show that these H5N1 viruses are reverting to nonpathogenicity in ducks. Ducks experimentally infected with viruses isolated between 2003 and 2004 shed virus for an extended time (up to 17 days), during which variant viruses with low pathogenicity were selected. These results suggest that the duck has become the "Trojan horse" of Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. The ducks that are unaffected by infection with these viruses continue to circulate these viruses, presenting a pandemic threat.

  10. Effect of certain anesthetic agents on mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, D.R.; Greenwood, R.J.

    1972-01-01

    Four anesthetic agents used in human or veterinary medicine and 3 experimental anesthetic preparations were evaluated for effectiveness in inducing narcosis when administered orally to game-farm mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).Tribromoethanol was the only compound to satisfy criteria of initial tests. Mean duration of the induction, immobilization, and recovery periods was 2.4 minutes, 8.7 minutes, and 1.3 hours, respectively, at the median effective dosage for immobilization (ED50; 100 mg./kg. of body weight). The median lethal dosage (LD50) was 400 mg./kg. of body weight.Tribromoethanol was also tested on mallards during the reproductive season. Effects on the hatchability of eggs or the survival of young were not detected.

  11. [Fungi microbiot of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Richard E; Feijó, Francisco M C; Alves, Nilza D; Lima, Paulo M; Pereira, Daniel S; Freitas, Carlos C O

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the occurrence of filamentous fungi found on the surface of the bees body from the specie Melipona subnitida Ducke that inhabits rocky places on the semi-arid Northeastern Brazil. Bees with cause of natural death were collected of beehives belonging to the Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido. We found the fungi: Aspergillus sp. 6 (37.5%); Aspergillus niger 2 (12.5%); Penicilium sp. 2 (12.5%); Aspergillus terreus 1 (6.3%); Curvularia sp. 1 (6.35%); Monilia sp. 1 (6.3%); Nigrospora sp. 1 (6.3%); Cladosporium sp. 1 (6.3%); Tricoderma sp. 1 (6.3%).

  12. GENETIC VARIATION IN THREE BREEDS OF INDONESIAN LOCAL DUCKS BASED ON BLOOD AND EGG WHITE PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation of four blood protein loci and three egg white loci in three breeds ofIndonesian local ducks (Magelang duck = MAD, Tegal duck = TED and Mojosari duck= MOD wasinvestigated by using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The result showed that four bloodprotein loci (Pre-albumin, Albumin, Transferrin and Post-transferrin and three egg white loci(Ovalbumin, Ovoglobulin and Conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three breeds of localducks. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein polyimorphism. The average value ofheterozygosity on three breeds of local ducks had a genetic potential to determine the controlled matingsystem and selection to obtain pure line. The closest phylogenetic relationship among the three breeds oflocal ducks occurred between MAD and TED.

  13. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from free range domestic duck (Cairina moschata) in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Muhairwa, A P

    2010-02-01

    Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter isolated from free-ranging ducks was determined in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. Ninety intestinal contents from ducks were screened for thermophilic Campylobacter using Skirrow's protocol. Of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 50 were tested for sensitivity to 12 antibiotics. Overall prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter was 80%. The prevalence of Campylobacter in adult ducks (91.3%) was significantly (p sodium, tetracycline and ampicillin respectively. Between 20-50% of isolates were resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin, cloxacillin and amoxicillin. Norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin had lower C. jejuni resistance of 10% and 16% respectively. C. jejuni isolates from adult ducks showed significantly higher rates of resistance (p < 0.05) to most antibiotics than did duckling isolates. High prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter in ducks could be of public health significance in Morogoro municipality. The observed multidrug resistance in this study poses a threat of transfer of antibiotic resistance to human pathogens because of the close contact between ducks and human.

  14. Cherry Valley ducks mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS mediated signaling pathway and antiviral activity research

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    Ning Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I like receptors (RLRs-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly up-regulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus. Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8 in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What’s more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (duck Tembusu virus, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks.

  15. Differential effects of coyotes and red foxes on duck nest success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Sargeant, A.; Grier, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Low recruitment rates prevail among ducks in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, primarily because of high nest depredation rates. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a major predator of duck eggs, but fox abundance is depressed by coyotes (Canis latrans). We tested the hypothesis that nest success of upland-nesting ducks is higher in areas with coyotes than in areas with red foxes. We conducted the study during 1990-92 in uplands of 36 areas managed for nesting ducks in North Dakota and South Dakota. Overall nest success averaged 32% (95% CI = 25-40) on 17 study areas where coyotes were the principal canid and 17% (CI = 11-25) on 13 study areas where red foxes were the principal canid (P = 0.01). Both canids were common on 6 other areas, where nest success averaged 25% (CI = 13-47). Habitat composition, predator communities with the exception of canids, and species composition of duck nests in coyote and red fox areas were similar overall. Upon examining only nests with greater than or equal to 6 eggs on the last visit prior to hatch or depredation, we determined nests with evidence characteristic of fox predation accounted for 4% of depredated nests in coyote areas and 27% in fox areas (P = 0.001). An expanding coyote population is contributing to higher overall nest success. Management of coyotes may be an effective method for increasing duck nest success.

  16. Infectious diseases, parasites, and biological toxins in sea ducks: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses disease agents in the broad sense, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and helminth parasites, and biological toxins. Some of these agents are known to cause mortality in sea ducks, some are thought to be incidental findings, and the significance of others is yet poorly understood. Although the focus of the chapter is on free-living sea ducks, the study of disease in this taxonomic group has been relatively limited and examples from captive sea ducks and other wild waterfowl are used to illustrate the pathogenicity of certain diseases. Much of the early work in sea ducks consisted of anecdotal and descriptive reports of parasites, but it was soon recognized that diseases such as avian cholera, renal coccidiosis, and intestinal infections with acanthocephalans were causes of mortality in wild populations. More recently, adenoviruses, reoviruses, and the newly emergent Wellfleet Bay virus, for example, also have been linked to die-offs of sea ducks. Declining populations of animals are particularly vulnerable to the threats posed by disease and it is important that we improve our understanding of the significance of disease in sea ducks. To conclude, we offer our recommendations for future directions in this field.

  17. Performance of a water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) system in the treatment of wastewater from a duck farm and the effects of using water hyacinth as duck feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Fu, Zhihui; Yin, Zhaozheng

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, intensive breeding of poultry and livestock of large scale has made the treatment of its waste and wastewater an urgent environmental issue, which motivated this study. A wetland of 688 m2 was constructed on an egg duck farm, and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was chosen as an aquatic plant for the wetland and used as food for duck production. The objectives of this study were to test the role of water hyacinth in purifying nutrient-rich wastewater and its effects on the ducks' feed intake, egg laying performance and egg quality. This paper shows that the constructed wetland removed as much as 64.44% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 21.78% of total nitrogen (TN) and 23.02% of total phosphorus (TP). Both dissolved oxygen (DO) and the transparency of the wastewater were remarkably improved, with its transparency 2.5 times higher than that of the untreated wastewater. After the ducks were fed with water hyacinth, the average daily feed intake and the egg-laying ratio in the test group were 5.86% and 9.79% higher, respectively, than in the control group; the differences were both significant at the 0.01 probability level. The egg weight in the test group was 2.36% higher than in the control group (P hyacinth. We concluded that a water hyacinth system was effective for purifying wastewater from an intensive duck farm during the water hyacinth growing season, as harvested water hyacinth had an excellent performance as duck feed. We also discussed the limitations of the experiment.

  18. Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (

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    H. C. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie, the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F, the total number of dead embryos (M, the maximum duration of fertility (Dm and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H; F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201 was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie (h2 = 0.07±0.03 and M (h2 = 0.07±0.01, moderately low for Dm (h2 = 0.13±0.02, of medium values for H (h2 = 0.20±0.03 and F (h2 = 0.23±0.03. High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm (rg = 0.93, between F and H (rg = 0.97 and between Dm and H (rg = 0.90. The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201, with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201 and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality rate. The average

  19. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  20. Identification of Microorganisms in Duck Meat Products Available in Korea and the Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jung, Samooel; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Heo, Kang Nyung; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial count of duck meat and duck meat products commercially available in Korea. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment was applied at 0.1, 300, 400, and 500 MPa for 5 min to enhance the microbiological safety of duck meats. The levels of total aerobic bacteria were in the ranges of 3.53-6.19 and 3.62-6.85 Log CFU/g in raw and smoked duck products, respectively. By DNA sequence analysis, we identified microorganisms responsible for spo...

  1. The estimation of genetic distance and discriminant variables on breed of duck (Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan by morphological analysis

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    B Brahmantiyo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on morphological body conformation of Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan ducks was carried out to determine the genetic distance and discriminant variables. This research was held in Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi, Bogor using 65 Alabio ducks, 40 Bali ducks, 36 Khaki Campbell ducks, 60 Mojosari ducks and 30 Pegagan ducks. Seven different body parts were measured, they were the length of femur, tibia, tarsometatarsus, the circumference of tarsometatarsus, the length of third digits, wing and maxilla. General Linear Models and simple discriminant analysis were used in this observation (SAS package program. Male and female Pegagan ducks had morphological size bigger than Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell and Mojosari ducks. Khaki Campbell ducks were mixed with Bali ducks (47.22% and Pegagan ducks from isolated location in South Sumatera were lightly mixed with Alabio and Bali. Mahalanobis genetic distance showed that Bali and Khaki Campbell ducks, also, Alabio and Mojosari ducks had similarity, with genetic distance of 1.420 and 1.548, respectively. Results from canonical analysis showed that the most discriminant variables were obtained from the length of femur, tibia and third digits.

  2. Cloning and expression profiling of the VLDLR gene associated with egg performance in duck (Anas platyrhynchos

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    Peng Xiu-li

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The very low density lipoprotein receptor gene (VLDLR, a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene family, plays a crucial role in the synthesis of yolk protein precursors in oviparous species. Differential splicing of this gene has been reported in human, rabbit and rat. In chicken, studies showed that the VLDLR protein on the oocyte surface mediates the uptake of yolk protein precursors into growing oocytes. However, information on the VLDLR gene in duck is still scarce. Methods Full-length duck VLDLR cDNA was obtained by comparative cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. Tissue expression patterns were analysed by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Association between the different genotypes and egg performance traits was investigated with the general linear model (GLM procedure of the SAS® software package. Results In duck, two VLDLR transcripts were identified, one transcript (variant-a containing an O-linked sugar domain and the other (variant-b not containing this sugar domain. These transcripts share ~70 to 90% identity with their counterparts in other species. A phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences showed that duck VLDLR proteins were closely related with those of chicken and zebra finch. The two duck VLDLR transcripts are differentially expressed i.e. VLDLR-a is mainly expressed in muscle tissue and VLDLR-b in reproductive organs. We have localized the duck VLDLR gene on chromosome Z. An association analysis using two completely linked SNP sites (T/C at position 2025 bp of the ORF and G/A in intron 13 and records from two generations demonstrated that the duck VLDLR gene was significantly associated with egg production (P Conclusions Duck and chicken VLDLR genes probably perform similar function in the development of growing oocytes and deposition of yolk lipoprotein. Therefore, VLDLR could be a candidate gene for duck egg performance

  3. THE DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS AND SOURCES OF LIPIDS IN DUCK DIETS

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    M.Yu. Sychov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of digestibility of nutrients in ducklings was performed by use of feed contained the lipids from different levels and sources. Experimental studies were conducted in terms of problem research laboratory of feed additives of National Agriculture University of Ukraine. The material for scientific experiments was the ducklings of cross STAR 53 H.Y. Experiment was carried out by group-analog method. We determined the optimal content of crude fat in fodder of young ducks at the first stage of experiment and the best source of lipids at second stage. We increased the crude fat in duckling feed by the introduction of sunflower oil at first stage. The amount of fat in the duck feed was 5% in control group and this were 3% and 7% in group II and III. The ducks from experimental groups received feed with sunflower oil at the second stage of experiment, the ducks of group II and III obtained feed from soya, rapeseed, and palm fat. Feeding the ducks was done per group twice per day – in morning and evening. It was registered that the feeding of 8-14 days ducks by food with crude fat of 7% plausible increased the digestibility of protein by 3.2%, of fat by 5.1%, and nitrogen-free extractives matters by 2.7%. At the same time the use of feed for 36-42 days ducks with crude fat of 7% allows to get the best results with the more higher level of protein and fat digestibility by 4.9% and 4.8% respectively. The use of feed with the addition of soybean oil for duck feeding have a positive effect towards increasing the level of digestibility of organic matter, protein, fat, and fiber in all the duck age groups. At the same time the use of feed containing palm oil reduces the digestibility of fat by 4,1-6,7%  compared to control group, that obtained feed with sunflower oil . We confirmed the prospect of further research in order to to establish the optimal ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of ducks and to determine their

  4. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano ( L. Powder

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    J. H. Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  5. Immunoglobulins of the non-galliform birds: Antibody expression and repertoire in the duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Mats L.; Middleton, Darlene L.; Radford, Cynthia; Warr, Gregory W.; Magor, Katharine E.

    2005-01-01

    Galliform and non-galliform birds express three immunoglobulin isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY. Beyond this we should not generalize because differences in gene organization may have functional consequences reflected in the immune response. At present, studies on non-galliform birds are largely restricted to ducks. Ducks express an alternatively spliced form of their IgY heavy chain (ν) gene, the IgY(ΔFc), that lacks the Fc region and Fc-associated secondary effector functions. It is not known how common the expression of the IgY(ΔFc) is among birds, nor the functional consequences. It is also not known whether the unusual organization of the duck IgH locus, also shared with the chicken, having the gene order of μ, α and ν, with α inverted in the locus, is unique to the galloanseriform lineage. Ducks, like chickens, have a single immunoglobulin light chain of the lambda (λ) type. Evidence suggests that ducks, like chickens, generate their immunoglobulin repertoire through a single functional rearrangement of the variable (V) region, and generate diversity through gene conversion from a pool of pseudogenes. In Southern blots of germline and rearranged bursal DNA, both the heavy and light chain loci of ducks appear to each undergo one major rearrangement event. For both heavy and light chains, the functional V region element and the pseudogenes appear to consist of a single gene family. Further analysis of 26 heavy chain joining (JH) and 27 light chain JL segments shows there is use of a single J segment in ducks, which is diversified presumably through somatic mutations and gene conversion events. Despite this limitation on the rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes, analysis of 26 DH and 122 VL sequences suggests that extensive sequence diversity is generated. PMID:16150486

  6. Chicken- and duck-associated Bacteroides-Prevotella genetic markers for detecting fecal contamination in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ayano; Sano, Daisuke; Hatori, Jun; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    Bacteroides-Prevotella group is one of the most promising targets for detecting fecal contamination in water environments, principally due to its host-specific distributions and high concentrations in feces of warm-blooded animals. We developed real-time PCR assays for quantifying chicken/duck-, chicken-, and duck-associated Bacteroides-Prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers (Chicken/Duck-Bac, Chicken-Bac, and Duck-Bac). A reference collection of DNA extracts from 143 individual fecal samples and wastewater treatment plant influent was tested by the newly established markers. The quantification limits of Chicken/Duck-Bac, Chicken-Bac, and Duck-Bac markers in environmental water were 54, 57, and 12 copies/reaction, respectively. It was possible to detect possible fecal contaminations from wild ducks in environmental water with the constructed genetic marker assays, even though the density of total coliforms in the identical water samples was below the detection limit. Chicken/Duck-Bac marker was amplified from feces of wild duck and chicken with the positive ratio of 96 and 61 %, respectively, and no cross-reaction was observed for the other animal feces. Chicken-Bac marker was detected from 70 % of chicken feces, while detected from 39 % of cow feces, 8.3 % of pig feces, and 12 % of swan feces. Duck-Bac marker was detected from 85 % of wild duck feces and cross-reacted with 31 % of cow feces. These levels of detection specificity are common in avian-associated genetic markers previously proposed, which implies that there is a practical limitation in the independent application of avian-associated Bacteroides-Prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers and a combination with other fecal contamination markers is preferable for detecting fecal contamination in water environments.

  7. Increased efficacy of inactivated vaccine candidates prepared with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains of predominant genotypes in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, S Y; Kwon, Y K; Song, C S; Lee, H J; Jeong, O M; Choi, B K; Jung, S C; Kang, M S

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has been a major causative agent of food-borne human disease, mainly due to consumption of contaminated food animal products. In particular, ducks serve as a reservoir of serovar Typhimurium, and are one of the common sources of human infection. To prevent infection of ducks, and therefore minimize human infection, it is critical to control the persistent epidemic strains in ducks. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity and virulence of serovar Typhimurium isolates from ducks in Korea to identify the predominant strains that might be used as efficient vaccine candidates for ducks. Among the isolates, 2 representative isolates (ST26 and ST76) of predominant genotypes were selected as vaccine strains on the basis of genotypic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA microarrays. Two-week-old ducks were then injected intramuscularly with inactivated vaccine candidates prepared using ST26 or ST76 (10(8) cfu/0.5 mL/duck or 10(9) cfu/0.5 mL/duck), and oral challenge with a highly virulent serovar Typhimurium strain (10(9) cfu/0.5 mL/duck) was carried out 2 wk later. Shedding of the challenge strain was significantly decreased in group 2 after vaccination. The antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all vaccinated groups were enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the unvaccinated control group. Overall, vaccination with ST26 or ST76 reduced bacterial shedding and colonization in internal organs, and induced elevated antibody response. In particular, serovar Typhimurium ST26 (10(8) cfu/0.5 mL/duck) was the most effective vaccine candidate, which can provide efficient protection against serovar Typhimurium in ducks with higher effectiveness compared to a commercial vaccine currently used worldwide. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  9. Comparative genomics in chicken and Pekin duck using FISH mapping and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowler Katie E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, we provided a comprehensive cytogenetic map for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and the first analysis of copy number variants (CNVs in birds. Here, we extend this approach to the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos, an obvious target for comparative genomic studies due to its agricultural importance and resistance to avian flu. Results We provide a detailed molecular cytogenetic map of the duck genome through FISH assignment of 155 chicken clones. We identified one inter- and six intrachromosomal rearrangements between chicken and duck macrochromosomes and demonstrated conserved synteny among all microchromosomes analysed. Array comparative genomic hybridisation revealed 32 CNVs, of which 5 overlap previously designated "hotspot" regions between chicken and turkey. Conclusion Our results suggest extensive conservation of avian genomes across 90 million years of evolution in both macro- and microchromosomes. The data on CNVs between chicken and duck extends previous analyses in chicken and turkey and supports the hypotheses that avian genomes contain fewer CNVs than mammalian genomes and that genomes of evolutionarily distant species share regions of copy number variation ("CNV hotspots". Our results will expedite duck genomics, assist marker development and highlight areas of interest for future evolutionary and functional studies.

  10. QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE EVALUATION OF NUGGETS PREPARED FROM SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the quality of nuggets prepared from spent hen and duck meat. The cooked nuggets were analyzed for pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, tyrosine value (TV, moisture, fat, protein, total plate count (TPC and sensory evaluations. Nuggets prepared from spent hen meat showed significantly higher (p<0.05 moisture content however pH, fat and protein content were significantly higher (p<0.05 in duck nuggets. TBA values, TVs and (TPC were highest in duck nuggets but were within the acceptable level up to 7th day of refrigerated storage (4±1°C in both types of nuggets. Both nuggets maintain their sensory quality up to 7th day of refrigeration storage but spent hen nuggets were preferred by consumers compared to nuggets prepared from spent duck meat. Result of the study indicated that, despite the comparative differences among these nuggets, spent duck and hen meat could be used for preparation of nutritionally rich and acceptable nuggets.

  11. COMPARISON OF MEAT PERFORMANCE OF PEKIN DUCKS FROM TWO CONSERVATIVE FLOCKS

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    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pekin ducks from P44 and P55 conservative flocks were compared for body weight and dimensions, feed intake, dressing percentage and carcass composition. P44 ducks, compared to P55 birds, had greater body weight (3124 vs. 3051 g, longer trunk with neck (47.8 vs. 47.5 cm, trunk (25.8 vs. 25.3 cm, keel (13.3 vs. 12.8 cm and shanks (6.3 vs. 6.2 cm as well as significantly greater chest circumference (34.6 vs. 33.7 cm. P55 ducks were characterized by lower feed intake per bird (7.48 kg and per kg body weight (2.45 kg and greater European Production Index (259 points compared to P44 ducks (7.73 kg, 2.53 kg, 251 points. The carcasses of P44 ducks contained more breast muscles (12.6% and skin with subcutaneous fat (31.4% but less leg muscles (13.2% compared to P55 birds (12.3, 29.7 and 13.9% of carcass with neck, respectively.

  12. Population trends of North American sea ducks as revealed by the Christmas Bird Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, D.K.; Sauer, J.R.; Butcher, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Relative to other waterfowl, sea ducks are not well understood, yet evidence from a variety of analyses suggests that as many as 10 of the 15 species of North American sea ducks may be declining in population. However, because of the difficulty of conducting surveys of breeding populations and the lack of range-wide winter surveys, few data are available to assess the population trends of sea ducks with confidence. We analyze Audubon Christmas Bird Count data using hierarchical modeling methods that control for varying effort among circles and over time. These procedures allow us to assess early-winter relative density patterns among states and Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) while also assessing trends in these regions and across the species North American range. Over the interval 1966 - 2003, continent-wide declines were observed in 1 of 11 species (the White-winged Scoter; -3.7%/yr). We compare CBC results to estimates of population change derived from the midwinter waterfowl survey conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The CBC does not effectively sample offshore populations of sea ducks; however, the CBC data can be used to assist in development of species-specific surveys, and CBC data can be used in combination with additional offshore sampling programs to better sample sea duck species.

  13. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

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    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  14. DNA microarray global gene expression analysis of influenza virus-infected chicken and duck cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V. Kuchipudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article pertain to the article by Kuchipudi et al. (2014 titled “Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens But Not Ducks Is Associated with Elevated Host Immune and Pro-inflammatory Responses” [1]. While infection of chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes often leads to 100% mortality within 1 to 2 days, infection of ducks in contrast causes mild or no clinical signs. The rapid onset of fatal disease in chickens, but with no evidence of severe clinical symptoms in ducks, suggests underlying differences in their innate immune mechanisms. We used Chicken Genechip microarrays (Affymetrix to analyse the gene expression profiles of primary chicken and duck lung cells infected with a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H2N3 virus and two HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes to understand the molecular basis of host susceptibility and resistance in chickens and ducks. Here, we described the experimental design, quality control and analysis that were performed on the data set. The data are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEOdatabase with accession number GSE33389, and the analysis and interpretation of these data are included in Kuchipudi et al. (2014 [1].

  15. A Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies to Improve the electrical System on the Duck Valley Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman Atkins, Shoshone-Paiute; Mark Hannifan, New West Technologies

    2005-06-30

    A range of sustainable energy options were assessed for feasibility in addressing chronic electric grid reliability problems at Duck Valley IR. Wind power and building energy efficiency were determined to have the most merit, with the Duck Valley Tribes now well positioned to pursue large scale wind power development for on- and off-reservation sales.

  16. Differences in highly pathogenic avian influenza viral pathogenesis and associated early inflammatory response in chickens and ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Vervelde, L.; Post, J.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the immunological responses in the lung, brain and spleen of ducks and chickens within the first 7 days after infection with H7N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Infection with HPAI caused significant morbidity and mortality in chickens, while in ducks the infection was

  17. "We Decided to Call It Quits": An Exercise in Applying Duck's Dissolution Model to Students' Breakup Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Matthew H.; Turman, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    Steve Duck's scholarship has made a noticeable impact on the study of interpersonal communication. Of his works, one of the most noteworthy is the explanatory model of relationship disengagement and dissolution. Duck's Dissolution Model (DDM) explains the stages that relationships pass through when they encounter stress resulting in two…

  18. The birth of a research animal : Ibsen's The Wild Duck and the origin of a new animal science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.A.E.

    2000-01-01

    What role does the wild duck play in Ibsen's famous drama? I argue that, besides mirroring the fate of the human cast members, the duck is acting as animal subject in a quasi-experiment, conducted in a private setting. Analysed from this perspective, the play allows us to discern the epistemological

  19. Serological survey and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in domestic ducks and geese in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    To obtain estimates for the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ducks and geese in Germany, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were established based on affinity-purified T. gondii tachyzoite surface antigen 1 (TgSAG1) and used to examine duck and goose sera for T. gondii -specific ...

  20. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinheng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Zhang, Huanmin [USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Feng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Chen, Weiguo [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Xie, Qingmei, E-mail: qmx@scau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  1. Vic Lockman and the Carl Barks Universe of Disney Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The universe of Comics has become a place for multiple gatherings, like that of literature. The imagination of the reader - more and more often common to both – can move in many directions, and the profile of the heroes drawn on paper has become in many cases archetypal as it happened to many heroes written on paper. The two forms - literature and comics - have sometimes met in forums, rewrites, parodies, forms of mutual illustration and, lately, in the graphic novel medium; the readers’ interest in this latest undertaking demonstrates the metamorphic ability of the comics universe. We might as well open the way to a kind of semiotic of the comics and – this said with irony - to its archeology. As in the novelistic narratives, comics show great potential for describing the everyday needs of each country, and, by examining the structure that forms the social imaginary of modern times, after adjusting in the transmigration process, for highlighting the sophistication that exists behind the work of authors and writers, often top class artists. With these pages we start a simple journey through the Disney universe between the US and Italy, origin and destination, with possible reversals of direction and demographic contributions that Italy has given to the people of the great metropolis Of Mice and Ducks.

  2. Red fox prey demands and implications to prairie duck production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during spring and summer with 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to determine prey demands, feeding characteristics, and growth rates using natural foods. Pups began eating prey the 4th week after birth. Then, prey consumption averaged 1.38 and 1.90 kg/pup/week for weeks 5-8 and 9-12 of the denning season respectively, and 2.54 kg/pup/week for the postdenning period. Feeding by adults averaged 2.25 kg/adult/week. Free water was not needed by either pups or adults. About 90 percent of the prey offered to pups on simulated natural diets was consumed, remains varied with prey availability and prey type. Prey biomass required by a typical fox family was estimated at 18.5 kg/km2 for the 12-week denning season and 2.4 kg/km2/week for the postdenning period. Because of the large prey demands, ducks could represent a small part of the foxes' diet and yet be of consequence to the productivity of particular species. An example is provided for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

  3. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  4. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent (Shoshone-Paiute Nation, Duck Valley Indian Reservation, Owyhee, NV)

    2000-01-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservations' Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect the critical riparian areas, natural springs, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project was begun in 1997 with the hiring of a fisheries biologist and the creation of a new department for the Tribes. The project's goals are to protect and enhance the springs, Owyhee River, its tributaries, and to develop a database that can be used by other fisheries professionals which includes information on water quality and fish composition, health, abundance, and genetic makeup. One habitat portion of the project is a focus on protection the numerous springs that provide clean, cool water to the Owyhee River. This will be accomplished through enclosure fences of the spring heads and water troughs to provide clean cool drinking water for wildlife and livestock. Another habitat portion of the project involves protecting headwater areas of streams with native fish populations. This is accomplished through enclosure fencing and riparian plantings on any eroded or degraded banks in the enclosure area. Finally, we monitor and evaluate the areas protected and enhanced. This is accomplished through biological sampling for temperature, Oxygen, sedimentation, and measurements of water depth, bank height and undercut, and width of stream. With the habitat and biological indices we will be able to evaluate how well protective measures are doing, and where to focus future efforts.

  5. Molecular genotyping of duck hepatitis A viruses (DHAV) in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Le, Xuyen Thi Kim; Do, Roan Thi; Hoang, Chau Thi Minh; Nguyen, Khue Thi; Le, Thanh Hoa

    2016-09-30

    The aim of this study was to identify the genetic characteristics and molecular genotyping of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) isolated in Vietnam during 2009-2013. Thirty duckling livers from outbreaks between 2009 and 2013 in seven provinces were collected and identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then, VP1 genes of eleven positive samples and two attenuated vaccine strains were sequenced and analyzed. Genotypic and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the 13 Vietnamese isolates were classified into two genotypes, DHAV-1 and DHAV-3. The rate of identity and homology was 91%-100% between the 10 Vietnamese and 26 global strains of DHAV-3, and 92%-100% between 3 Vietnamese and 16 strains of DHAV-1. Between the DHAV-3 and DHAV-1 strains, the divergence reached 30%. At the C-terminal of VP1 for the different strains, a hypervariable region was observed, and notably, six of the Vietnamese DHAV-3 strains in this study showed four consistent differences (at positions T184M, Q200H, K207N, and K214R) within this group that were distinct from all other DHAV-3 strains. This is the first report of molecular characterization of DHAVs in Vietnam. At least two genotypes were identified, DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, with diversified clades within and between genotypes. DHAV-3 seemed to be dominant in Vietnam.

  6. Survival and reproductive success of black ducks fed methyl mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, M.T.; Stendell, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A diet containing 3 ppm mercury was fed to black ducks (Anas rubripes) for periods of 28 weeks during two consecutive breeding seasons. Clutch size, egg production, number of eggs incubated, hatchability and survival of ducklings were lower during both years in hens fed mercury. Reduced hatchability and poor duckling survival were the most harmful effects. During 2 years, 13 pairs of breeders fed mercury produced only 16 ducklings that survived 1 week compared with 73 ducklings from 13 pairs of controls. Mercury residues in eggs, embryos and ducklings averaged about 30% lower during the second breeding season compared with first year results. Third eggs laid by treated hens contained a mean of 6?14 and 3?86 ppm mercury during the first and second years. Whole embryos that failed to hatch contained means of 9?62 and 6?08 ppm mercury during the first and second years. Brains of dead ducklings contained between 3?25 and 6?98 ppm mercury and exhibited lesions characteristic of mercury poisoning. Relative tissue mercury levels for treated adult breeders were: feathers > liver > kidney > breast muscle > brain. Mercury levels in males and females did not differ.

  7. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of ducks in Nineveh governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of examining 100 fecal samples of ducks from different locations of Nineveh governorate revealed 77% infection with Cryptosporidium by using modified acid fast (hot stain, whereas the percentages of infection were 63% and 56% by staining with iodine and flotation with sugar solution technique, respectively. The dimensions of the oocysts of the parasite were 1.9-6.6 (4.7 m length and 1.9-5.7 (3.8 m width. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between females and males and the percentage of infection appeared in high rate in female ducks (87.6%. No significant difference appeared between seasons. The percentage of infection with Cryptosporidium in ducks appeared in high rate in Al-Rashidiah and Quban region (90%.

  8. [Effects of rice-duck farming on paddy field water environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Guo-Ming; Zhang, Jia-En; Chen, Rui; Xu, Rong-Bao

    2008-09-01

    Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rice-duck farming on the water environment in paddy field. The results showed that under rice-duck farming, the temperature and pH value of the surface water in paddy field decreased, and the electrical conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, turbidity, and the contents of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) increased. The total N, P, and K increased by 1.85-5.06 times, 2.01-8.70 times, and 42.79%-109.18%, respectively, as compared to those in conventional rice farming. All of these illustrated that rice-duck farming improved the paddy field water environment and nutrient supply, optimized the ecological environment of paddy field, and promoted the growth and development of rice.

  9. Histopathologic effects of dietary cadmium on kidneys and testes of mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Finley, M.T.; Ferrell, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Mallard ducks fed 2, 20, or 200 ppm cadmium chloride were sacrificed at 30, 60, and 90 d. No mortality occured during the study and body weights remained unchanged. Kidney weights of the 200-ppm group were significantly greater after 60 and 90 d than those of controls; also, testis weights were significantly lower after 90 d. Kidneys of ducks fed 2 and 20 ppm cadmium were relatively unaffected; however, slight to severe kidney lesions were found in the 200-ppm group after 60 d of treatment. No significant lesions were found in mallard testes after feeding 2 ppm cadmium in the diet, and only a few birds in the 20-ppm group showed slight to moderate gonad alterations. After 90 d of treatment, however, testes of males fed 200 ppm had atrophied and the spermatogenic process had ceased. This study should provide important information for the interpretation of cadmium levels found in kidneys and testes of wild ducks.

  10. Studi Perancangan Prototype Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Gelombang Laut Tipe Salter Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfi Prasetya Kurniawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia adalah negara kepulauan terbesar di dunia dengan luas lautan mencakup ¾ dari wilayah negara.Lautan menyimpan banyak energi yang tidak diketahui, diantaranya adalah gelombang laut yang bisa dimanfaatkan menjadi sumber daya listrik.Banyak metode untuk mengubah energi gelombang menjadi energi listrik. Salah satunya adalah salter duck, alat ini akan mengangguk ketika paruhnya terkena gelombang. Gerakan anggukan ini yang dapat menghasilkan listrik. Dalam penelitian ini akan dibuat prototype dari salter duck dengan lebar 0.4 m. Setelah itu akan dilakukan pengujian besarnya daya listrik yang bisa dihasilkan. Dari hasil pengujian terlihat daya listrik yang disupply oleh salter duck berbeda dengan perhitungan yang telah dibuat. Dalam perhitungan rata-rata daya yang bisa dikeluarkan sebesar 7.89 Watt.Sedangkan pada saat uji coba daya yang didapatkan sebesar 0.4 mWatt.

  11. The Effect of Zingiber Officinale Rosc in The Diets of Performance in Culled Layer Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjokorda Gede Belawa Yadnya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was design using a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four treatments. Treatment were diets without Zingiber officinale rosc (A, diets contain 2,91% Zingiber officinale Rosc  (B, diets contain 5,66%. Zingiber officinale Rosc (C, and diets contain 8,26% Zingiber officinale Rosc (D. Each treatment with five replicates, and each replicate consist four culled layer ducks. Variable observed were feed conversation ratio, carcass physical composition, and meat quality. It was concluded that present  Zingiber officinale Rosc in the diets could be improved of performance in culled layer ducks.   Keywords : Zingiber officinale Rosc, Culled layer ducks, and  meat qualit

  12. Description and identification of American Black Duck, Mallard, and hybrid wing plumage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Ronald E.; Reed, Austin; Dupuis, Pierre; Obrecht, Holliday H.; Quist, Walter J.

    2000-01-01

    We developed a key to identify wings of hybrids between American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) and Mallards (A. platyrhynchos). Material for analysis included review of historical descriptions dating from the late 1700's, older museum collections in Europe and North America, wings collected from hunters in North America and Great Britain, birds banded in Canada and the United States, and a flock of propagated hybrids. All first filial generation (F1) American Black Duck - Mallard hybrids were identified correctly with the key. A lower proportion of other hybrid cohorts (i.e., backcrosses of F1 to parental forms (P1), and second and third filial generations (F2, F3, etc.) were identified. We successfully identified a larger portion of male than female hybrids for all hybrid progeny cohorts examined except F1. The new key identified 2.37 times more hybrids in the 1977 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Parts Collection Survey (annual determination of the species, age, and sex composition of the waterfowl harvest using detached wings contributed by hunters) than were identified by standard techniques. The proportion of American Black Duck - Mallard hybrids to the American Black Duck parental population (the ratio: hybrids/[hybrids + American Black Ducks]) may therefore be closer to 0.132 than 0.056, the historically reported value. The hybrid key is suggested for use from North Carolina north in the Atlantic Flyway and Arkansas and Tennessee north in the Mississippi Flyway (areas where other members of the Mallard group will not confound assessment). We provide suggestions for further research that would assist identification of wings in parts collection surveys and permit estimation of the proportional representation of Mallard genes in the American Black Duck gene pool.

  13. Duck plague in free-flying waterfowl observed during the Lake Andes epizootic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, S.J.; Pearson, G.L.; Leibovitz, Louis

    1975-01-01

    The first major epizootic of duck plague in free-flying waterfowl occurred at Lake Andes, South Dakota, in January and February, 1973. Duck plague was diagnosed in black ducks, mallards, pintail-mallard hybrids, redheads, common mergansers, common golden eyes, canvasbacks, American widgeon, wood ducks, and Canada geese, indicating the general susceptibility of ducks to duck plague. Clinical signs observed in mallards were droopiness, polydipsia, lethargy, reduced wariness, weakness, reluctance to fly, swimming in circles, bloody diarrhea, bloody fluid draining from the nares and bill, and terminal convulsions.Because the mallard was the most numerous and heavily infected species during the Lake Andes epizootic, gross and microscopic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, heart, lung, bone marrow, pancreas, and ovaries were described. Lesions of the esophagus and cloaca were in the stratified submucosal glands. In the small and large intestine, lesions were located in lymphocytic aggregates, lamina propria, and crypt epithelium. Hemorrhages and necrosis of hepatocytes and bile duct epithelium were noted in the liver. Diffuse necrosis of lymphocytic and reticuloendothelial tissue were evident in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus. Hemorrhages in other tissues such as the lung and heart were often associated with lymphoid nodules, while those in organs such as the pancreas were associated with acinar necrosis. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus and cloaca, crypt epithelium of the intestine, hepatocytes, bile duct epithelium, cells of Hassel's corpuscles, splenic periarteriolar reticular cells, and epithelial cells in the bursa of Fabricius.

  14. Effects of Microbial Aerosol in Poultry House on Meat Ducks' Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guanliu; Wang, Yao; Wang, Shouguo; Duan, Changmin; Wei, Liangmeng; Gao, Jing; Chai, Tongjie; Cai, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of microbial aerosols on immune function of ducks and shed light on the establishment of microbial aerosol concentration standards for poultry. A total of 1800 1-d-old cherry valley ducks were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E) with 360 ducks in each. To obtain objective data, each group had three replications. Concentrations of airborne bacteria, fungi, endotoxin in different groups were created by controlling ventilation and bedding cleaning frequency. Group A was the control group and hygienic conditions deteriorated progressively from group B to E. A 6-stage Andersen impactor was used to detect the aerosol concentration of aerobes, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and AGI-30 microbial air sampler detect the endotoxin, and Composite Gas Detector detect the noxious gas. In order to assess the immune function of meat ducks, immune indicators including H5 AIV antibody titer, IgG, IL-2, T-lymphocyte transformation rate, lysozyme and immune organ indexes were evaluated. Correlation coefficients were also calculated to evaluate the relationships among airborne bacteria, fungi, endotoxin, and immune indicators. The results showed that the concentration of airborne aerobe, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, endotoxin have a strong correlation to H5 AIV antibody titer, IgG, IL-2, T-lymphocyte transformation rate, lysozyme, and immune organ indexes, respectively. In addition, when the concentration of microbial aerosol reach the level of group D, serum IgG (6-8 weeks), lysozyme (4 week) were significantly higher than in group A (P transformation rate, lysozyme (7 and 8 weeks), spleen index (6 and 8 weeks), and bursa index (8 week) were significantly lower than in group A (P meat ducks. The microbial aerosol values in group D provide a basis for recommending upper limit concentrations of microbial aerosols for healthy meat ducks.

  15. Analysis of miRNAs and their target genes associated with lipid metabolism in duck liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Wang, Weiqun; Lu, Lizhi; Tian, Yong; Niu, Dong; Ren, Jindong; Dong, Liyan; Sun, Siwei; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Li; Shen, Jianliang; Li, Xiuhong

    2016-06-08

    Fat character is an important index in duck culture that linked to local flavor, feed cost and fat intake for costumers. Since the regulation networks in duck lipid metabolism had not been reported very clearly, we aimed to explore the potential miRNA-mRNA pairs and their regulatory roles in duck lipid metabolism. Here, Cherry-Valley ducks were selected and treated with/without 5% oil added in feed for 2 weeks, and then fat content determination was performed on. The data showed that the fat contents and the fatty acid ratios of C17:1 and C18:2 were up-regulated in livers of oil-added ducks, while the C12:0 ratio was down-regulated. Then 21 differential miRNAs, including 10 novel miRNAs, were obtain from the livers by sequencing, and 73 target genes involved in lipid metabolic processes of these miRNAs were found, which constituted 316 miRNA-mRNA pairs. Two miRNA-mRNA pairs including one novel miRNA and one known miRNA, N-miR-16020-FASN and gga-miR-144-ELOVL6, were selected to validate the miRNA-mRNA negative relation. And the results showed that N-mir-16020 and gga-miR-144 could respectively bind the 3'-UTRs of FASN and ELOVL6 to control their expressions. This study provides new sights and useful information for future research on regulation network in duck lipid metabolism.

  16. Lead in tissues of mallard ducks dosed with two types of lead shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were sacrificed one month after ingesting one number 4 all-lead shot or one number 4 lead-iron shot. Livers, kidneys, blood, wingbones, and eggs were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption. Necropsy of sacrificed ducks failed to reveal any of the tissue lesions usually associated with lead poisoning in waterfowl. Lead levels in ducks given all-lead shot averaged about twice those in ducks given lead-iron shot, reflecting the amount of lead in the two types of shot. Lead in the blood of ducks dosed with all-lead shot averaged 0.64 ppm, and 0.28 ppm in ducks given lead-iron shot. Lead residues in livers and kidneys of females given all-lead shot were significantly higher than in males. In both dosed groups, lead levels in wingbones of females were about 10 times those in males, and were significantly correlated with the number of eggs laid after dosage. Lead levels in contents and shells of eggs laid by hens dosed with all-lead shot were about twice those in eggs laid by hens dosed with lead-iron shot. Eggshells were found to best reflect levels of lead in the blood. Our results indicate that mallards maintained on a balanced diet and dosed with one lead shot may not accumulate extremely high lead levels in the liver and kidney. However, extremely high lead deposition may result in the bone of laying hens after ingesting sublethal amounts of lead shot as a result of mobilization of calcium from the bone during eggshell formation.

  17. Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.

    1968-01-01

    In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

  18. Immunotargeting with CD154 (CD40 Ligand) Enhances DNA Vaccine Responses in Ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Sheryl L. Gares; Karl P Fischer; Congly, Stephen E.; Lacoste, Stacey; Addison, William R.; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Gutfreund, Klaus S.

    2006-01-01

    Engagement of CD154 on activated T cells with CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) potentiates adaptive immune responses in mammals. Soluble multimeric forms of CD154 have been used as an adjuvant or in immunotargeting strategies to enhance vaccine responses. The objective of our study was to examine the ability of duck CD154 (DuCD154) to enhance DNA vaccine responses in the duck hepatitis B model. Constructs were generated to express the functional domain of DuCD154 (tCD154), truncated du...

  19. Fresh-water Green Algae (Chlorophyta) as a Natural Pigment for Mojosari Ducks

    OpenAIRE

    B. Indarsih; Asnawi, A; D.K. Purnamasari

    2015-01-01

    An experiment in a completely randomize design was undertaken to study the use of fresh-watergreen algae as a yolk coloring agent in Mojosari ducks during a laying period on productiveperformance and egg quality from 36 to 44 wk of age. A total of 80 thirty-six wk–old laying ducks weredivided into four dietary treatments and each of four replicates with 5 birds. Diets were formulated witha commercial concentrate, rice bran and yellow corn (2:4:4) according to a commercial standard diet asa co...

  20. FRESH-WATER GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYTA) AS A NATURAL PIGMENT FOR MOJOSARI DUCKS

    OpenAIRE

    B. Indarsih; Asnawi, A; D.K. Purnamasari

    2015-01-01

    An experiment in a completely randomize design was undertaken to study the use of fresh-watergreen algae as a yolk coloring agent in Mojosari ducks during a laying period on productiveperformance and egg quality from 36 to 44 wk of age. A total of 80 thirty-six wk–old laying ducks weredivided into four dietary treatments and each of four replicates with 5 birds. Diets were formulated witha commercial concentrate, rice bran and yellow corn (2:4:4) according to a commercial standard diet asa co...

  1. Widespread horizontal genomic exchange does not erode species barriers among sympatric ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus Robert HS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of speciation and maintenance of species barriers is at the core of evolutionary biology. During speciation the genome of one population becomes separated from other populations of the same species, which may lead to genomic incompatibility with time. This separation is complete when no fertile offspring is produced from inter-population matings, which is the basis of the biological species concept. Birds, in particular ducks, are recognised as a challenging and illustrative group of higher vertebrates for speciation studies. There are many sympatric and ecologically similar duck species, among which fertile hybrids occur relatively frequently in nature, yet these species remain distinct. Results We show that the degree of shared single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between five species of dabbling ducks (genus Anas is an order of magnitude higher than that previously reported between any pair of eukaryotic species with comparable evolutionary distances. We demonstrate that hybridisation has led to sustained exchange of genetic material between duck species on an evolutionary time scale without disintegrating species boundaries. Even though behavioural, genetic and ecological factors uphold species boundaries in ducks, we detect opposing forces allowing for viable interspecific hybrids, with long-term evolutionary implications. Based on the superspecies concept we here introduce the novel term "supra-population" to explain the persistence of SNPs identical by descent within the studied ducks despite their history as distinct species dating back millions of years. Conclusions By reviewing evidence from speciation theory, palaeogeography and palaeontology we propose a fundamentally new model of speciation to accommodate our genetic findings in dabbling ducks. This model, we argue, may also shed light on longstanding unresolved general speciation and hybridisation patterns in higher organisms, e.g. in other bird

  2. Experimental reintroduction reveals novel life-history variation in Laysan Ducks (Anas laysanensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jeffrey R.; Reynolds, Michelle H.

    2013-01-01

    Subfossil remains indicate that the Laysan Duck (Anas laysanensis) formerly occurred throughout the Hawaiian archipelago, but for more than 150 years it has been confined to a single, small atoll in the northwestern chain, Laysan Island. In 2004–2005, 42 ducks were reintroduced from Laysan to Midway Atoll, where they exhibited variation in life history never observed on Laysan. On Laysan, females have never been observed to breed successfully at age 1 year and few attempt it, whereas on Midway, females routinely raised young at reintroductions of this species may provide opportunities to test hypotheses about mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity.

  3. Functional Characteristics of Spent Duck Meat for Use in Emulsion-Type Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Sumarmono

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thoroughly and ground using a 5 mm diameter grinding plate. The ground meat was divided into 4 batches (group of treatments; one batch was treated with iced tap water (M1, one batch with 0.1% NaCl solution (M2, one batch with 0.5% NaHCO3 solution (M3, and one batch was left as is as control (M4. Variables measured were water holding capacity (WHC, pH, emulsion capacity and stability of the meat; and firmness and tenderness of the meat gel. Results showed that M1 meat has significantly higher WHC (less percentage of free water than control (M4, whereas M2 and M3 meat has similar WHC to control. Processing caused the ground duck meat to have significantly higher pH than control. The highest meat pH was observed in M3, followed by M2, M1 and control. Processing duck meat with iced tap water, NaCl or NaHCO3 produced significantly more tender meat gel compared to untreated meat (as is. Tenderness of meat gel of M3 was the most tender followed by M2 and M1. Similar results for meat gel firmness were observed. No significant differences were observed in term of emulsion capacity (expressed as ml oil/gr protein and ml oil/gr fresh meat, emulsion stability (expressed as ml oil and total liquid released per 100 gr emulsion, and cooking recovery (%. The study reported in this paper offers simple processing technologies to improve functional characteristics of spent duck meat to be use as raw material for the production of emulsion type meat products. (Animal Production 12

  4. Is there avoidance of the force feeding procedure in ducks and geese?

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, J.M.; Guémené, D; G. Guy

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The debate on welfare issues related to the force feeding of ducks and geese involves understanding the reactions of the animals to the force feeding process. Two types of experiment were performed. Ducks and geese were trained to be fed in a pen 8 metres away from their rearing pen and were then force fed in the feeding pen. The hypothesis was that if force feeding caused aversion, the animals would not spontaneously go to the test pen. There were some signs of aversi...

  5. Effects of Dietary Methionine Levels on Choline Requirements of Starter White Pekin Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. Wen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 2×5 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary methionine levels (0.28% and 0.48% and 5 dietary choline levels (0, 394, 823, 1,239, and 1,743 mg/kg, was conducted to study the effects of dietary methionine status on choline requirements of starter white Pekin ducks from 7 to 28 days of age. Four hundred eighty 7-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to ten dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 28 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured and the legs of all ducks from each pen were examined for incidence of perosis. Perosis and growth depression were observed in choline-deficient ducks and supplementation of choline reduced perosis and significantly increased weight gain and feed intake regardless of dietary methionine levels (p<0.05. In addition, significant positive effects of dietary methionine supplementation on weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were observed at any choline level (p<0.05. Supplementation of 1,743 mg/kg choline in diets alleviated the depression of weight gain and feed intake caused by methionine deficiency at 0.28% methionine level. The interaction between choline and methionine influenced weight gain and feed intake of ducks (p<0.05. At 0.28% methionine level, 1,743 mg/kg choline group caused 4.92% and 3.23% amount of improvement in weight gain and feed intake compared with 1,239 mg/kg choline group, respectively. According to the broken-line regression, the choline requirements of starter Pekin ducks for weight gain and feed intake were 1,472 and 1,424 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 946 and 907 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. It suggested the choline recommendations of starter Pekin ducks on a semi-purified diet were 1448 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 927 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. Compared with the adequate methionine level, menthionine deficiency markedly increased the choline requirements of

  6. Feeding ecology of long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis wintering on the Nantucket Shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Timothy P.; Veit, Richard R.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2009-01-01

    A substantial proportion, perhaps 30%, of the North American breeding population of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) winter in the vicinity of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. These birds spend the night on Nantucket Sound and commute during daylight hours to the Nantucket Shoals, which extend about 65 km offshore from the southeastern corner of Nantucket. Strip transects done from a single-engine plane in 1997 and 1998 indicated that Long-tailed Ducks foraged over the shallower (fish and marine mammals. Our findings emphasize the importance of conservation of the Nantucket Shoals and the prevention of oil spills or other potentially harmful accidents.

  7. The value of Inuit participation when conserving the common eider duck in Arctic Canada and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilchrist, Grant; Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Sonne, Christian

    The northern common eider duck nests in the eastern Canadian Arctic and west Greenland, and migrates to winter in Atlantic Canada and southwest Greenland. The eider is harvested for its meat, feather down and eggs and its ongoing conservation is the shared responsibility of Canada, Greenland......, Denmark, and northerners. This presentation will review the meaningful involvement and direct participation of Inuit during many aspects of historical and ongoing eider duck conservation efforts. These include studies that examined the sustainability of harvest, the establishment of new harvest...

  8. Selection and Crossbreeding in Relation to Plumage Color Inheritance in Three Chinese Egg Type Duck Breeds (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In China and South East Asia, the duck (common duck is important in egg production for human consumption. Plumage color is a breed characteristic and of economic importance, together with egg production. Our aim in this study was to investigate the inheritance of plumage color in three Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds, Shan Ma (S, Putian White (F and Putian black (P, and some of their crossbreds. These three breeds have different plumage color and are used in crossbreeding. The crossbred laying ducks F×(P×S and F×(S×P showed highly improved laying ability but heterogeneous plumage color. Genotypes at four relevant loci were investigated by studying down color and pattern in ducklings after crossbreeding. F1 ducklings from the matings F×S and S×F, P×S, and S×P were classified into four classes of plumage color (the Shan Ma plumage color, black, white, or multicolored over three generations. Parents were selected for the Shan Ma plumage color of their progeny. In the fourth generation, P male and P female ducks were selected according to the frequency of the desired class of plumage color (Shan Ma of their F1 progeny to obtain the so-called “Brown Putian Ma duck”. The Shan Ma duck genotype was identified as having the restricted mallard color pattern (MRMR, full expression of any of the patterns or colors (CC, no extended black (ee and no brown dilution D (D. The Putian White genotype was recessive white (cc, no extended black (ee and no brown dilution D (D. The Putian Black genotype exhibited full expression of extended black (E gene and no brown dilution (CCEE D [D]. It was shown that F×S and S×F tests should be implemented to eliminate the recessive white c allele in the S line and the dominant extended black E allele in the F line. It was also shown that the Brown Putian Ma obtained from Putian Black, with no extended black genotype (ee, could be used to get rid of the black plumage (E gene in the crossbred ducks. This

  9. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Analysis of South-East Asian Duck Populations Based on the mtDNA D-loop Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sultana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA D–loop region is widely used for exploring genetic relationships and for investigating the origin of various animal species. Currently, domestic ducks play an important role in animal protein supply. In this study, partial mtDNA D–loop sequences were obtained from 145 samples belonging to six South-East Asian duck populations and commercial duck population. All these populations were closely related to the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos, as indicated by their mean overall genetic distance. Sixteen nucleotide substitutions were identified in sequence analyses allowing the distinction of 28 haplotypes. Around 42.76% of the duck sequences were classified as Hap_02, which completely matched with Anas platyrhynchos duck species. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree also revealed that South-East Asian duck populations were closely related to Anas platyrhynchos. Network profiles were also traced using the 28 haplotypes. Overall, results showed that those duck populations D-loop haplotypes were shared between several duck breeds from Korea and Bangladesh sub continental regions. Therefore, these results confirmed that South-East Asian domestic duck populations have been domesticated from Anas platyrhynchos duck as the maternal origins.

  10. Establishment of a rice-duck integrated farming system and its effects on soil fertility and rice disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-Qing; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    Rice-duck integrated farming is an ecological farming system newly established in some areas of southern China . It was reported that the ducks walking around the paddy fields is beneficial to control weed hazards and reduce rice pests and diseases. To study and evaluate the effects of the rice-duck integrated farming on soil fertility and rice disease control, a field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai in 2014. It includes a treatment of raising ducks in the fields and a control without ducks. The treatment was implemented by building a duck coop nearby the experimental fields and driving 15 ducks into a plot at daytime since the early stage of rice growth. Each plot is 667 m2 in area. The treatment and control were replicated for three times. No any herbicides, pesticides, fungicides and chemical fertilizers were applied during the experiment to prevent any disturbance to duck growing and rice weed hazards and disease incidences from agrochemicals. The results are as follows: (1) The incidences of rice leaf rollers (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and stem borers treated with ducks, 0.45%and 1.18% on average, respectively, are lower than those of the control, 0.74% and 1.44% on average, respectively. At the late stage of rice growth, the incidence of rice sheath blight treated with ducks, 13.15% on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 16.9% on average; and the incidence of rice planthoppers treated with ducks, 11.3 per hill on average, is also significantly lower than that of the control, 47.4 per hill on average. (2) The number of weeds in the plots treated with ducks, 8.3 per m2 on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 87.5 m2 on average. (3) Raising ducks in the fields could also enhance soil enzyme activity and nutrient status. At the late stage of rice growth, the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in the soils treated with ducks are 1.39 times, 1.40 times, 1

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphism of prolactin gene exon two in ducks of Pekin, Mojosari and Pekin Mojosari crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin gene plays crucial role in the reproduction and egg production of birds. The objectives of this study were to characterize single nucleotide polymorphism in partial intron and coding region of duck prolactin gene. Blood samples were collected from 168 ducks consisted of 19 Pekin, 36 Mojosari, and 113 of their crossbreds collected from Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP. Primer pairs for the coding regions in prolactin gene were self designed based on the duck genomic sequence database (GeneBank: AB158611.1. PCR products based on DNA of prolactin gene exon two was amplified approximately 400 bp. There is one base insertion of Adenin at the position of 2001 bp intron two region of duck prolactin. Homology test based on BLAST method indicated 99% identity with duck refference (Code Access GeneBank: AB158611.1. Adenin composition in all of duck samples was higher than refference. Triplet hydrogen bonds between Guanine and Cytosin pairs was higher than those at duplet hydrogen bonds between Adenine and Thymine. All duck samples were homozigous and monomorphyc.

  12. Isolation and Genomic Characterization of a Duck-Origin GPV-Related Parvovirus from Cherry Valley Ducklings in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    Full Text Available A newly emerged duck parvovirus, which causes beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS in Cherry Valley ducks, has appeared in Northern China since March 2015. To explore the genetic diversity among waterfowl parvovirus isolates, the complete genome of an identified isolate designated SDLC01 was sequenced and analyzed in the present study. Genomic sequence analysis showed that SDLC01 shared 90.8%-94.6% of nucleotide identity with goose parvovirus (GPV isolates and 78.6%-81.6% of nucleotide identity with classical Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of 443 nucleotides (nt of the fragment A showed that SDLC01 was highly similar to a mule duck isolate (strain D146/02 and close to European GPV isolates but separate from Asian GPV isolates. Analysis of the left inverted terminal repeat regions revealed that SDLC01 had two major segments deleted between positions 160-176 and 306-322 nt compared with field GPV and MDPV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of Rep and VP1 encoded by two major open reading frames of parvoviruses revealed that SDLC01 was distinct from all GPV and MDPV isolates. The viral pathogenicity and genome characterization of SDLC01 suggest that the novel GPV (N-GPV is the causative agent of BADS and belongs to a distinct GPV-related subgroup. Furthermore, N-GPV sequences were detected in diseased ducks by polymerase chain reaction and viral proliferation was demonstrated in duck embryos and duck embryo fibroblast cells.

  13. Influence of plastic slatted floors compared with pine shaving litter on Pekin Duck condition during the summer months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S; Karcher, D M; Makagon, M M; Lilburn, M S

    2013-07-01

    The management and well-being of commercial Pekin ducks has been studied in the European Union where straw is the predominant litter source. In the United States, however, the most prevalent litter is wood shavings, with a recent trend toward using plastic slatted flooring. A previous study in the United States evaluated the relationship between flooring type (litter, slats) and duck condition during winter months and found very few differences between the 2 in terms of overall duck condition. The purpose of the current study was to reevaluate the 2 flooring systems during the summer months to determine if seasonal differences would interact with flooring type to have an impact on duck condition. Eighteen commercial barns that produce Pekin ducks for Maple Leaf Farms Inc. (Leesburg, IN), located in northern Indiana and southern Wisconsin (n = 9 litter; n = 9 raised slatted floor), were used for this study. Twenty ducks were randomly selected from 5 predetermined areas within each house (n = 100 total) and scored for eye condition, nostril and feather cleanliness, and feather and foot pad quality at 7, 21, and 32 d of age. Environmental data, including carbon monoxide, ammonia, RH, and temperature, were also obtained at each collection day. The only statistical differences in body condition occurred at 7 d; there were more ducks with clear eyes and eye rings on the litter flooring, whereas average nostril scores were better on the plastic slatted floors. Live weight, weight gain per day, flock mortality, and condemnations at the plant were collected, and the only statistical difference was a higher gain per day for ducks reared on slatted floors compared with litter (P < 0.05). There were no differences between flooring systems in the environmental parameters measured within the barns. In summary, there were very few differences between the litter and slatted flooring systems, indicating that there may not be clear advantages for one particular flooring system over

  14. Ducks as a potential reservoir for Pasteurella multocida infection detected using a new rOmpH-based ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Cuiteng; Cheng, Longfei; Lu, Ronghui; Fu, Guanghua; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Lin, Jiansheng; Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu

    2017-07-28

    Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen of numerous domestic poultry and wild animals and is associated with a variety of diseases including fowl cholera. The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant outer-membrane protein H (rOmpH) for detection of anti-P. multocida antibodies in serum to determine their prevalence in Chinese ducks. The P. multocida ompH gene was cloned into pET32a, and rOmpH was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blotting revealed that purified rOmpH was recognized by duck antisera against P. multocida, and an indirect ELISA was established. During analysis of serum samples (n=115) from ducks, the rOmpH ELISA showed 95.0% specificity, 100% sensitivity and a 92.0% κ coefficient (95% confidence interval 0.844-0.997) as compared with a microtiter agglutination test. Among 165 randomly selected serum samples, which were collected in 2015 and originated from six duck farms across Fujian Province, China, anti-P. multocida antibodies were detected in 22.42% of apparently healthy ducks, including 25 of 90 sheldrakes (27.8%), eight of 50 Peking ducks (16.0%) and four of 25 Muscovy ducks (16%). Overall, the data suggest that rOmpH is a suitable candidate antigen for the development of an indirect ELISA for detection of P. multocida in ducks; moreover, our results showed that ducks could serve as a potential reservoir for P. multocida infection.

  15. Gambaran Sitologi Cairan Peritoneal dan Sinovial Itik Bali (CYTOLOGIC FIGURES OF PERITONEAL AND SYNOVIAL FLUIDS IN BALI DUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Harjono Utama

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aim was to observe cellular composition and morphology in peritoneal and synovial fluids ofbali ducks. This study used 50 ducks, which were composed of 21 males and 29 females aged 8 to 12 weeks.After being declared clinically healthy, the sample ducks were slaughtered and peritoneal fluid specimenfrom the abdominal cavity and the synovial fluid of joints tibiotarsal were collected. Then, in preparationfor the specimen, each of fluid was smeared and stained with Giemsa. Observations were made under amicroscope with a magnification of 1000 times and observations expressed in the average number of cellsper field of view observation. The results showed (duck population that most of the observed sample: inthe peritoneal fluid there was 36% eosinophils observed and 38% had heterophile cells with 0-3 cells perfield of magnification 1000x view. Similarly, 28% ducks had lymphocytes with 13-16 cells, and as much as28% of ducks had macrophage cells with 5- 8 cells in observation . In the synovial fluid, however, 64%sample ducks had monocytes, while 72% having lymphocytes with 1-18 cells each of view field withmagnification 1000x. In addition, in the synovial fluid, as much as 62% of ducks also observed had 1 to 3cells heterophiles and 60% ducks had eosinophils (polimorphonuclear cells per view field observation.Macrophage cells that were found in the peritoneal fluid were mainly hyper granulated. It can be concludedthat the amount of mononuclear cells in both types of body fluids is likely more dominant compared to thenumber of polymorphonuclear cells.

  16. Distribution and diagenesis of microfossils from the lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Strother, P. K.; Rossi, S.

    1988-01-01

    Two distinct generations of microfossils occur in silicified carbonates from a previously undescribed locality of the Lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia. The earlier generation occurs in discrete organic-rich clasts and clots characterized by microquartz anhedra; it contains a variety of filamentous and coccoidal fossils in varying states of preservation. Second generation microfossils consist almost exclusively of well-preserved Gunflintia minuta filaments that drape clasts or appear to float in clear chalcedony. These filaments appear to represent an ecologically distinct assemblage that colonized a substrate containing the partially degraded remains of the first generation community. The two assemblages differ significantly in taxonomic frequency distribution from previously described Duck Creek florules. Taken together, Duck Creek microfossils exhibit a range of assemblage variability comparable to that found in other Lower Proterozoic iron formations and ferruginous carbonates. With increasing severity of post-mortem alteration, Duck Creek microfossils appear to converge morphologically on assemblages of simple microstructures described from early Archean cherts. Two new species are described: Oscillatoriopsis majuscula and O. cuboides; the former is among the largest septate filamentous fossils described from any Proterozoic formation.

  17. Expression of Immune-Related Genes of Ducks Infected with Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Jinzhou; Wang, Yao; Liu, Jiyuan; Cai, Yumei; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-01-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can cause severe disease in ducks, characterized by perihepatitis, pericarditis, and airsacculitis. Although the studies of bacteria isolation and methods of detection have been reported, host immune responses to APEC infection remain unclear. In response, we systemically examined the expression of immune-related genes and bacteria distribution in APEC-infected ducks. Results demonstrated that APEC can quickly replicate in the liver, spleen, and brain, with the highest bacteria content at 2 days post infection. The expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), avian β-defensins (AvBDs) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were tested in the liver, spleen, and brain of infected ducks. TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR15 showed different expression patterns, which indicated that they all responded to APEC infection. The expression of AvBD2 was upregulated in all tested tissues during the 3 days of testing, whereas the expression of AvBD4, AvBD5, AvBD7, and AvBD9 were downregulated, and though MHC-I was upregulated on all test days, MHC-II was dramatically downregulated. Overall, our results suggest that APEC can replicate in various tissues in a short time, and the activation of host immune responses begins at onset of infection. These findings thus clarify duck immune responses to APEC infection and offer insights into its pathogenesis.

  18. Weather-related indices of autumn–winter Dabbling Duck abundance in Middle North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. Schummer; Richard Kaminski; Andrew H. Raedeke; David A. Graber

    2010-01-01

    Research on effects of key weather stimuli influencing waterfowl migration during autumn and winter is limited. We investigated relationships between changes in relative abundances of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and other dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) and weather variables at midlatitude locations in North America. We used waterfowl survey data from Missouri Conservation...

  19. Chlorfenapyr and mallard ducks: overview, study design, macroscopic effects, and analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Peter H; Klein, Patrice N; Green, David E; Melancon, Mark J; Bradley, Brian P; Noguchi, George

    2006-02-01

    The first commercial pesticide derived from a class of compounds known as halogenated pyrroles was registered for use in the United States in 2001. Chlorfenapyr degrades slowly in soil, sediment, and water and is highly toxic to birds. Information on biochemical or histological endpoints in birds is lacking; therefore, a two-year study was conducted to provide information needed to develop diagnostic criteria for chlorfenapyr toxicosis. In the first year, male mallard ducks were fed concentrations of 0, 2, 5, or 10 ppm technical chlorfenapyr or 5 ppm of a formulated product in their diet during a 10-week chronic exposure study. Survival, body weight, feed consumption (removal), behavior, and molt progression were monitored. Feed and liver were analyzed for chlorfenapyr and two metabolites. Five of 10 ducks in the 10-ppm group died, and neurotoxic effects were observed in the 5- and 10-ppm groups. Feed removal increased for ducks receiving chlorfenapyr and body weights of 5- and 10-ppm ducks were reduced. Loss of body fat, muscle atrophy, and bile retention were suggestive of metabolic disruption or a decreased ability to digest and absorb nutrients. Liver and kidney weights and liver and kidney weight/body weight ratios exhibited a positive response to concentrations of chlorfenapyr in the diet. Emaciation and elevated organ weight/body weight ratios are candidates for a suite of indicators of chronic chlorfenapyr exposure. Liver is the preferred tissue for chemical confirmation of exposure.

  20. Dynamic Emission of CH4 from a Rice-Duck Farming Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-En Zhang; Ying Ouyang; Zhao-Xiang Huang Huang; Guo-Ming Quan

    2011-01-01

    Global climatic change induced by emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities is an issue of increasing in-ternational environmental concerns, and agricultural practices and managements are the important contributors for such emissions. This study investigated dynamic emission of methane (CH4) from a paddy field in a rice-duck farming ecosystem. Three different...

  1. Black Duck Mortality in the Parker River Region, Winter 1949-1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the first 10 days of- March, 1950;, after a period of cold weather had sheathed: the tidal flats in ice, there was a moderate loss of wintering Black Ducks in...

  2. Comparative Study on Compositions and Functional Properties of Porcine, Chicken and Duck Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Narunatsopanon, Supawadee

    2017-01-01

    Hematological, chemical and functional characteristics of porcine, chicken and duck blood were evaluated. A porcine blood sample showed the most abundant red blood cell, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and plasma protein content as well as its freeze-dried blood possessed the highest contents of protein, fat, Cu and Cr with the highest percentage of heme iron (p

  3. Inositol-P 6 induced structural changes in duck major haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactivities of 5,5'-Dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoate) with the sulphydryl groups of major haemoglobin of duck (Anas platyrhinchos) have been carried out in the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate, inositol-P6. The time course of the reaction is biphasic. The addition of inositol-P6 changed the pH dependence profile of the ...

  4. Expression of Immune-Related Genes of Ducks Infected with Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC can cause severe disease in ducks, characterized by perihepatitis, pericarditis and airsacculitis. Although the studies of bacteria isolation and methods of detection have been reported, host immune responses to APEC infection remain unclear. In response, we systemically examined the expression of immune-related genes and bacteria distribution in APEC-infected ducks. Results demonstrated that APEC can quickly replicate in the liver, spleen and brain, with the highest bacteria content at 2 day post infection. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs, avian β-defensins (AvBDs and major histocompatibility complex (MHC were tested in the liver, spleen and brain of infected ducks. TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR15 showed different expression patterns, which indicated that they all responded to APEC infection. The expression of AvBD2 was upregulated in all tested tissues during the 3 days of testing, whereas the expression of AvBD4, AvBD5, AvBD7 and AvBD9 were downregulated, and though MHC-I was upregulated on all test days, MHC-II was dramatically downregulated. Overall, our results suggest that APEC can replicate in various tissues in a short time, and the activation of host immune responses begins at onset of infection. These findings thus clarify duck immune responses to APEC infection and offer insights into its pathogenesis.

  5. Inositol-P6 induced structural changes in duck major haemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamiji Babalola

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... The reactivities of 5,5'-Dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoate) with the sulphydryl groups of major haemoglobin of duck (Anas platyrhinchos) have been carried out in the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate, inositol-P6. The time course of the reaction is biphasic. The addition of inositol-P6 changed the pH.

  6. Thermodynamics and NMR studies on Duck, Heron and Human HBV encapsidation signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girard, F.C.; Ottink, O.M.; Ampt, K.A.; Tessari, M.; Wijmenga, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication is initiated by binding of its reverse transcriptase (P) to the apical stem-loop (AL) and primer loop (PL) of epsilon, a highly conserved RNA element at the 5'-end of the RNA pregenome. Mutation studies on duck/heron and human in vitro systems have shown

  7. Artificial incubation of muscovy duck eggs : Why some eggs hatch and others do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M

    This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic

  8. Physico-chemical analysis of eggs of native fowl, duck and goose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 135 eggs (50 chicken, 50 duck and 35 goose eggs) were collected from farmers' doors from adjoining rural areas of Bhubaneswar for egg quality traits and chemical analysis. The mean values of quality traits of egg weight, volume, albumin weight, yolk weight, shell weight, shell thickness, shape index, albumin ...

  9. Seed dispersal potential by wild mallard duck as estimated from digestive tract analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Soons, Merel B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dispersal of plant seeds by ducks and other waterbirds is of great importance to the ecology of freshwater habitats. To unravel the mechanisms of waterbird-mediated seed dispersal, numerous laboratory experiments have been conducted, but effects of seed and waterbird traits on dispersal

  10. The gastrointestinal helminth fauna of the eider duck (Somateria mollissima L.) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Okulewicz, A.; Zoun, P.E.F.; Okulewicz, J.

    2005-01-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 25 eider ducks (Somateria mollissima L.) in the Netherlands has been described and number of worms counted or estimated. For the most common species maximum worm numbers are given. Five nematode species were found: Amidostomum acutum (max. intensity 1500).

  11. Temperature does not dictate the wintering distributions of European dabbling duck species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Fox, Anthony David; Petersen, Ib Krag

    2013-01-01

    To predict future changes in wintering dabbling duck (Anas sp.) distributions in response to climate change, it is necessary to understand their response to temperature at a continental scale. Food accessibility, competition and thermoregulatory costs are likely to play a major role in determinin...

  12. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in frozen duck carcasses, Germany, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Timm C; Teuffert, Jürgen; Starick, Elke; Gethmann, Jörn; Grund, Christian; Fereidouni, Sasan; Durban, Markus; Bogner, Karl Heinz; Neubauer-Juric, Antonie; Repper, Reinhard; Hlinak, Andreas; Engelhardt, Andreas; Nöckler, Axel; Smietanka, Krzysztof; Minta, Zenon; Kramer, Matthias; Globig, Anja; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Conraths, Franz J; Beer, Martin

    2009-02-01

    We conducted phylogenetic and epidemiologic analyses to determine sources of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), subtype H5N1, in poultry holdings in 2007 in Germany, and a suspected incursion of HPAIV into the food chain through contaminated deep-frozen duck carcasses. In summer 2007, HPAIV (H5N1) outbreaks in 3 poultry holdings in Germany were temporally, spatially, and phylogenetically linked to outbreaks in wild aquatic birds. Detection of HPAIV (H5N1) in frozen duck carcass samples of retained slaughter batches of 1 farm indicated that silent infection had occurred for some time before the incidental detection. Phylogenetic analysis established a direct epidemiologic link between HPAIV isolated from duck meat and strains isolated from 3 further outbreaks in December 2007 in backyard chickens that had access to uncooked offal from commercial deep-frozen duck carcasses. Measures that will prevent such undetected introduction of HPAIV (H5N1) into the food chain are urgently required.

  13. Chlorfenapyr and mallard ducks: overview, study design, macroscopic effects, and analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Klein, P.N.; Green, D.E.; Melancon, M.J.; Bradley, B.P.; Noguchi, G.

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial pesticide derived from a class of compounds known as halogenated pyrroles was registered for use in the United States in 2001. Chlorfenapyr degrades slowly in soil, sediment, and water and is highly toxic to birds. Information on biochemical or histological endpoints in birds is lacking; therefore, a two-year study was conducted to provide information needed to develop diagnostic criteria for chlorfenapyr toxicosis. In the first year, male mallard ducks were fed concentrations of 0, 2, 5, or 10 ppm technical chlorfenapyr or 5 ppm of a formulated product in their diet during a 10-week chronic exposure study. Survival, body weight, feed consumption (removal), behavior, and molt progression were monitored. Feed and liver were analyzed for chlorfenapyr and two metabolites. Five of 10 ducks in the 10-ppm group died, and neurotoxic effects were observed in the 5- and 10-ppm groups. Feed removal increased for ducks receiving chlorfenapyr and body weights of 5- and 10-ppm ducks were reduced. Loss of body fat, muscle atrophy, and bile retention were suggestive of metabolic disruption or a decreased ability to digest and absorb nutrients. Liver and kidney weights and liver and kidney weight/body weight ratios exhibited a positive response to concentrations of chlorfenapyr in the diet. Emaciation and elevated organ weight/body weight ratios are candidates for a suite of indicators of chronic chlorfenapyr exposure. Liver is the preferred tissue for chemical confirmation of exposure.

  14. QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE EVALUATION OF NUGGETS PREPARED FROM SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar; Biswas, S.; V Singh; M. Ram

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the quality of nuggets prepared from spent hen and duck meat. The cooked nuggets were analyzed for pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), moisture, fat, protein, total plate count (TPC) and sensory evaluations. Nuggets prepared from spent hen meat showed significantly higher (p

  15. Perception of poultry farmers on duck farming in Kwara State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the perception of poultry farmers on duck farming in Kwara state, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was employed in selecting 80 poultry farmers used in the study. Analytical tools used include frequency counts, charts, mean, percentage and Pearson Product moment correlation. Results showed ...

  16. Functional characterization of duck LSm14A in IFN-β induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kexin; Li, Huilin; Chen, Huanchun; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Luo, Rui; Jin, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Human LSm14A is a key component of processing body (P-body) assembly that mediates interferon-β (IFN-β) production by sensing viral RNA or DNA. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report duck LSm14A (duLSm14A) cloning from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). Full-length duLSm14A encoded 461 amino acids and was highly homologous with chicken and swan goose sequences. More interestingly, the duLSm14A mRNA was extensively expressed in all the studied tissues. In DEFs, duLSm14A was localized in the cytoplasm as P-body-like dots. Expression of duLSm14A induced IFN-β through the activation of interferon regulatory factor-1 and nuclear factor-κB in DEFs. Furthermore, knockdown of duLSm14A by small interfering RNA notably decreased poly(I:C)- or duck reovirus-induced IFN-β production. The present study results indicate that the duLSm14A is an essential sensor that mediates duck innate immunity against viral infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wavelength of ocean waves and surf beat at duck from array measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Menon, H.B.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Jog, P.D.; Almeida, A.M.

    Wavelength of ocean waves and surf beat (infra gravity waves) has for the first time been computed as a function of frequency from different combinations of non-collinear 3-gauge arrays. Data at the 15-gauge polygonal array at 8 m depth at Duck...

  18. The sighting of Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata (Linnaeus (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae after a gap of 112 years in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A female Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata was sighted in Saatvoini Beel on February 10, 2014. The female of this species was characterized by grey head, with a white ring around the eye which continued as a streak behind it. In India Mandarin Duck is vagrant and there were very few reported records from India. In 1902, Baker reported six individuals Mandarin Duck on the Subansiri River, Assam. The present sighting of this species from Baksa district is the first reliable record of this species in Assam after a gap of 112 years. 

  19. Yacon meal (Smallanthus sonchifolius) as prebiotic in rations of Muscovy (Cairina moschata) ducks during the fattening phase

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes N., Nadia; Laboratorio de Producción Avícola y Especies Menores, Faculta de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Figueroa T., Edgardo; Laboratorio de Producción Avícola y Especies Menores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Carcelén C., Fernando; Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Nutrición y Alimentación Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Arbaiza F., Teresa; Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Nutrición y Alimentación Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of yacon meal as a prebiotic in rations for Muscovy ducks. One hundred and fifty male ducks of seven weeks of age were used. The ducks were grouped in five treatments: T0, control (without yacon and antibiotic); T1, zinc bacitracin 0.035%; T2, T3 and T4, yacon meal at 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75% respectively. Treatments T1, T2 and T4 resulted in higher body weight gain as compared to T0 (p<0.05). No differences were observed between treated grou...

  20. Ovarian transcriptomic analysis of Shan Ma ducks at peak and late stages of egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiMing Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the differences in ovarian transcriptomes in Shan Ma ducks between their peak and late stages of egg production, and to obtain new transcriptomic data of these egg-producing ducks. Methods The Illumina HiSeq 2000 system was used for high throughput sequencing of ovarian transcriptomes from Shan Ma ducks at their peak or late stages of egg production. Results Greater than 93% of the sequencing data had a base quality score (Q score that was not less than 20 (Q20. From ducks at their peak stage of egg production, 42,782,676 reads were obtained, with 4,307,499,083 bp sequenced. From ducks at their late stage of egg production, 45,316,166 reads were obtained, with 4,562,063,363 bp sequenced. A comparison of the two datasets identified 2,002 differentially expressed genes, with 790 upregulated and 1,212 downregulated. Further analysis showed that 1,645 of the 2,002 differentially expressed genes were annotated in the non-redundant (NR database, with 646 upregulated and 999 downregulated. Among the differentially expressed genes with annotations in the NR database, 696 genes were functionally annotated in the clusters of orthologous groups of proteins database, involving 25 functional categories. One thousand two hundred four of the differentially expressed genes with annotations in the NR database were functionally annotated in the gene ontology (GO database, and could be divided into three domains and 56 categories. The three domains were cellular component, molecular function, and biological process. Among the genes identified in the GO database, 451 are involved in development and reproduction. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes with annotations in the NR database against the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database revealed that 446 of the genes could be assigned to 175 metabolic pathways, of which the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, fructose and

  1. Factors affecting breeding dispersal of European ducks on Engure Marsh, Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Lindberg, M.S.; Hines, J.E.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 35 years of capture-recapture data from nearly 3300 individual female ducks nesting on Engure Marsh, Latvia, and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on breeding dispersal probability within the marsh. 2. Analyses based on observed dispersal distances of common pochards and tufted ducks provided no evidence that breeding success in year t influenced dispersal distance between t and t + 1. 3. Breeding dispersal distances (year t to t + 1) of pochards and tufted ducks were associated with a delay in relative nest initiation dates in year t + 1. The delay was greater for pochards (c. 4 days) than for tufted ducks (c. 2 days) when females dispersed > 0.8 km. 4. Northern shovelers and tufted ducks moved from a large island to small islands at low water levels and from small islands to the large island at high water levels before the construction of elevated small islands (1960-82). Following this habitat management (1983-94). breeding fidelity was extremely high and not influenced by water level in the marsh for either species. 5. Because pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period, nesting females moved into and out of colonies with similar probabilities. Local survival probabilities and incubation body masses were higher for both yearlings (SY) and adults (ASY) nesting within gull colonies, suggesting that these females were of better quality than females nesting outside of the colonies. 6. Tufted ducks showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. However, rates of movement for a given water level were higher during the period before management than after. 7. Both pochards and tufted ducks exhibited asymmetric movement with respect to proximity to water, with higher movement probabilities to near-water nesting locations than

  2. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Gao, Yahui; Lin, Fangbin; Hao, Jinping; Yang, Fangxi; Hou, Zhuocheng

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI) levels. We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36). Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15). The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  3. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  4. Evaluation of isoflurane and propofol anesthesia for intraabdominal transmitter placement in nesting female canvasback ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, K L; Caulkett, N A

    2000-04-01

    Heart rate, occurrence of apnea, body temperature, quality of anesthesia and nest abandonment were compared during either propofol or isoflurane anesthesia of nesting female canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria) at 15 to 18 days of incubation. One hundred eighteen canvasbacks were assigned randomly to three treatments so that nest abandonment could be compared among treatments from May to July 1995 and 1996. Sterile dummy silicone implants were placed during an abdominal laparotomy while ducks were anesthetized with either propofol or isoflurane, or ducks were flushed from the nest but not captured (control). Propofol was delivered through an intravenous catheter, while isoflurane was delivered in oxygen. Propofol provided smooth, rapid induction and recovery, whereas ducks recovering from isoflurane tended to struggle. At the nest, ducks in the propofol group were given additional boluses until they were lightly anesthetized, whereas birds that received isoflurane were released. All birds survived surgery but one death occurred prior to surgery in 1995 using propofol during a period without ventilation and monitoring. Adequate artificial ventilation is recommended to prevent complications. Heart rate declined significantly in both years during isoflurane anesthesia and in 1995 during propofol anesthesia but not 1996. During both isoflurane and propofol anesthesia, body temperature declined significantly over time. Nest abandonment was significantly different among treatments and occurred in all treatment groups in both years, but propofol (15%) and control groups (8%) had lower than expected abandonment compared to isoflurane (28%). Propofol offers several advantages over isoflurane for field use; equipment is easily portable, lower anesthetic cost, and ambient temperature does not alter physical characteristics of the drug. Advantages over isoflurane, including lower nest abandonment following intraabdominal radio transmitter placement, make propofol a good

  5. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Cherry, P; Doster, A; Murdoch, R; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (Penergy and crude protein (CP) on body weight (BW) gain and feed intake, wherein BW gain increased more to increasing dietary CP as dietary metabolizable energy increased. However, feed intake was only influenced by dietary crude protein at 11.8 MJ ME/kg and not 12.8 or 13.8 MJ/kg. As dietary CP increased from 15 to 19%, breast meat yield increased by 10.8% on d 35 (Penergy from 11.8 to 13.8 MJ/kg increased dressing percentage, breast skin, and subcutaneous fat, but decreased breast meat yield (% but not weight) on d 35 (Penergy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth performance and carcass components. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  6. Drag-based 'hovering' in ducks: the hydrodynamics and energetic cost of bottom feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ribak

    Full Text Available Diving ducks use their webbed feet to provide the propulsive force that moves them underwater. To hold position near the bottom while feeding, ducks paddle constantly to resist the buoyant force of the body. Using video sequences from two orthogonal cameras we reconstructed the 3-dimensional motion of the feet through water and estimated the forces involved with a quasi-steady blade-element model. We found that during station holding, near the bottom, ducks use drag based propulsion with the webbed area of the foot moving perpendicular to the trajectory of the foot. The body was pitched at 76+/-3.47 degrees below the horizon and the propulsive force was directed 26+/-1.9 degrees ventral to the body so that 98% of the propulsive force in the sagittal plane of the duck worked to oppose buoyancy. The mechanical work done by moving both feet through a paddling cycle was 1.1+/-0.2 J which was equivalent to an energy expenditure of 3.7+/-0.5 W to hold position while feeding at 1.5 m depth. We conclude that in shallow water the high energetic cost of feeding in ducks is due to the need to paddle constantly against buoyancy even after reaching the bottom. The mechanical energy spent on holding position near the bottom, while feeding, is approximately 2 fold higher than previous estimates that were made for similar bottom depths but based on the presumed motion of the body instead of motion of the feet.

  7. Identification of polymorphisms in and genes and their associations with plumage colors in Asian duck breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Sultana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the melanogenesis associated transcription factor (MITF and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT genes on plumage coloration in Asian native duck breeds. MITF encodes a protein for microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, which regulates the development and function of melanocytes for pigmentation of skin, hair, and eyes. Among the tyrosinase-related family genes, DCT is a pigment cell-specific gene that plays important roles in the melanin synthesis pathway and the expression of skin, feather, and retina color. Methods Five Asian duck varieties (black Korean native, white Korean native, commercial Peking, Nageswari, and Bangladeshi Deshi white ducks were investigated to examine the polymorphisms associated with plumage colors. Among previously identified SNPs, three synonymous SNPs and one indel of MITF and nine SNPs in exon regions of DCT were genotyped. The allele frequencies for SNPs of the black and white plumage color populations were estimated and Fisher’s exact test was conducted to assess the association between the allele frequencies of these two populations. Results Two synonymous SNPs (c.114T>G and c.147T>C and a 14-bp indel (GCTGCAAAC AGATG in intron 7 of MITF were significantly associated with the black- and white-colored breeds (pG (p.His313Arg] in DCT, was highly significantly associated (pG was significantly associated (p<0.05 with black and white color plumage in the studied duck populations. Conclusion The results of this study provide a basis for further investigations of the associations between polymorphisms and plumage color phenotypes in Asian duck breeds.

  8. Does limited virucidal activity of biocides include duck hepatitis B virucidal action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used, information is necessary whether disinfectants with limited virucidal activity also inactivate DHBV. In general, disinfectants with limited virucidal activity are used for skin and sensitive surfaces while agents with full activity are more aggressive. The present study compares the activity of five different biocides against DHBV and the classical test virus for limited virucidal activity, the vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV or the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA. Methods Virucidal assay was performed as suspension test according to the German DVV/RKI guideline. Duck hepatitis B virus obtained from congenitally infected Peking ducks was propagated in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes and was detected by indirect immunofluorescent antigen staining. Results The DHBV was inactivated by the use of 40% ethanol within 1-min and 30% isopropanol within 2-min exposure. In comparison, 40% ethanol within 2-min and 40% isopropanol within 1-min exposure were effective against VACV/MVA. These alcohols only have limited virucidal activity, while the following agents have full activity. 0.01% peracetic acid inactivated DHBV within 2 min and a concentration of 0.005% had virucidal efficacy against VACV/MVA within 1 min. After 2-min exposure, 0.05% glutardialdehyde showed a comparable activity against DHBV and VACV/MVA. This is also the case for 0.7% formaldehyde after a contact time of 30 min. Conclusions Duck hepatitis B virus is at least as sensitive to limited virucidal activity as VACV/MVA. Peracetic acid is less effective against DHBV, while the alcohols are less effective against VACV/MVA. It can be expected that in absence of more direct tests the results may be extrapolated to HBV.

  9. Detection of Egg Production of Tegal Duck by Blood Protein Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismoyowati Ismoyowati

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of transfferine, albumine, and haemoglobine loci to egg production characteristic of Tegal duck.  100 lying of Tegal ducks keeping by batteray-pen were used in this study.  Individual egg production was recorded until period of 120 days. Blood protein polymorphism analysed by electrophoresis method, and blood sample taken from each ducks.. Egg production and transfferine albumine, and haemoglobine phenotipe on electrophoresis gel were observed in this study.  Genotipe and gene frequencies and genetic variant were applied in data analysis. The result showed that (1 in the transferine locus were identified 3 aleles forming 4 genotipes (TfAA,TfAB, TfBB, and TfBC, (2 in albumine were identified 3 aleles forming 5 genotipes (AlbAA, AlbAB, AlbAC, AlbBB and AlbBC and (3 haemoglobine locus were identified 6 aleles forming 4 genotipes ((HbAA, HbAB, HbAC, HbBB, HbBC dan HbCC.  This study demostrated that B gene frequenci in transfferine, albumine and haemoglonine loci was highest than A and C gene frequency.  Tegal Duck with AA genotipe on all loci had higher egg production than BB and CC homozigote.  This research revealed that the most efective of selection method by haemoglobine protein polymorphism. (Animal Production 10(2: 122-128 (2008   Key Words: Tegal duck, egg production, selection, blood protein polymorphism

  10. Application of line-transect sampling to estimate wintering wood ducks and mallards and availability of natural cavities and nesting success of wood ducks in stands of bald cypress and tupelo gum

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Line-transect sampling, flying-duck counts at dusk, and aerial surveys from fixed-winged aircraft and a helicopter were evaluated for estimating densities of...

  11. An Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options for the Duck Creek / Mingo Basin Area of Southeast Missouri

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An overview of past and current conditions of the Duck Creek/ Mingo Basin and an evaluation of proposed restoration and management options.

  12. Effects of Gaseous Ozone Exposure on Bacterial Counts and Oxidative Properties in Chicken and Duck Breast Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin, Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    The effects of gaseous ozone exposure on the bacterial counts and oxidative properties were evaluated in duck and chicken breast fillets, which were stored under a continuous flux of gaseous ozone (10×10(-6) kg O3/m(3)/h) at 4±1℃ for 4 d. The ozone generator was set to on for 15 min and off for 105 min, and this cyclic timer was set during storage. Ozone effectively reduced the growth of coliform, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in both chicken and duck breast. However, lipid oxidation occurred faster in duck breast than chicken breast with higher degree of discoloration, TBARS value, and antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase and catalase) activity decline rates. It is concluded that ozone effectively controlled the growth of bacteria in both chicken and duck breast with less effects on oxidative deterioration in chicken breast.

  13. Effects of Haying and Grazing on Duck Production in the Blitzen Valley (Unit 12) of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about a study that was done at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge to determine the effects that haying and grazing have on duck production. Three...

  14. Environmental assessment for an experimental skunk removal program to increase duck production on Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge is duck production; specifically, waterfowl maintenance, preservation and enhancement of diversity of...

  15. Final Report : Relative Effectiveness of No. 4 Steel and No. 6 Lead Shot for Hunting Ducks : The Lacassine Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report analyzes the effectiveness of No. 4 and No. 6 lead shot for hunting ducks on Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge between 1980 and 1982. Relative...

  16. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bodkin, James L; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  17. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  18. Moulting patterns of Alabio and Mojosari ducks and their relation on blood lipids (tryglycerides, egg production and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Moulting is a biological condition that can happen in poultry. It is resulted from the complex interaction which involves the function of thyroxine hormone. Moulting can reduce or even stop the egg production. A study was conducted to observe the moulting patterns of local ducks (Alabio and Mojosari and to determine the relation of moulting with blood lipids (triglycerides, egg production and quality. Each breed consisted of ten female dukcs were observed for moulting pattern, blood triglycerides, egg production and quality. Fourty ducks were used for simulation of egg production. Data from moulting patterns,egg production and quality were analyzed using t-based on Least Square means with Statistical Analysis System. The relation of breeds and moulting patterns with triglycerides were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. The main factor was kind of breeds, while the subfactor was the period of moulting, before and during moulting. There were not interaction in every variables between both factors. The average moulting periode of Alabio was significantly (P<0.05 shorter than that of Mojosari (69 vs 76 days. There were 40% of Alabio ducks moulting for 61-70 days, while 40% of Mojosari ducks moulting for 71-80 days. Egg production of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were higher than those Mojosari ducks. The triglycerides content of Alabio and Mojosari ducks was decreased during moulting, in Alabio ducks they were 32.02 and 27.64 μg/ml before and during moulting, while in Mojosari ducks they were 32.83 and 29.32 μg/ml respectively. Egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, and haugh unit of the two breeds increased after moulting, while yolk colour decreased. The average yolk colour of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were 6.90 and 5.11, while in Mojosari ducks they were 7.90 and 4.60 respectively.

  19. The effect of current intensity during 'head-only' electrical stunning on brain function in force-fed ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Beyssen, Clotilde; Babilé, René; Fernandez, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    International audience; A preliminary study was carried out to determine the minimum current required for head-only electrical stunning of force-fed ducks. Forty-five force-fed ducks were implanted with electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording electrodes, and the changes occurring in the ECoG frequencies were quantitatively evaluated with Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) to determine the effectiveness of a range of electrical stunning currents. A 50 Hz alternating current (AC) was used to apply ...

  20. Movement and contact patterns of long-distance free-grazing ducks and avian influenza persistence in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Tung Xuan; Nhu, Thu Van; Pham, Long Thanh; Newman, Scott; Nguyen, Thuy Thi Thanh; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Vergne, Timothée

    2017-01-01

    Presence of ducks, and in particular of free-grazing ducks, has consistently been shown to be one of the most important risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks which has compromised poultry production in South-East Asia since the early 2000s and continues to threaten public health, farmers’ livelihood and food security. Although free-grazing duck production has been practised for decades in South-East Asia, there are few published studies describing this production system, which is suspected to play an important role in the maintenance of avian influenza viruses. This study aimed at describing quantitatively the long-distance free-grazing duck production system in South Vietnam, characterising the movement and contact patterns of the duck flocks, and identifying potential associations between farming practices, movement and contact patterns and the circulation of avian influenza viruses. We conducted interviews among stakeholders involved in the free-grazing duck production system (duck farmers, transporters and rice paddy owners) in combination with a virological cross-sectional survey in South Vietnam. Results show that both direct and indirect contacts between free-grazing duck flocks were frequent and diverse. The flocks were transported extensively across district and province boundaries, mainly by boat but also by truck or on foot. A third of the investigated flocks had a positive influenza A virology test, indicating current circulation of avian influenza viruses, but none were positive for H5 subtypes. The age and size of the flock as well as its location at the time of sampling were associated with the risk of influenza A circulation in the flocks. These findings should be considered when developing risk assessment models of influenza virus spread aimed at informing the development of improved biosecurity practices leading to enhanced animal health, sustainable animal production and reliable income for farmers. PMID:28632789

  1. Estimating population abundance and mapping distribution of wintering sea ducks in coastal waters of the mid-Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J. Andrew; Forsell, D.J.; Wortham, J.S.; Boomer, G.S.; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Survey design for wintering scoters (Melanitta sp.) and other sea ducks that occur in offshore waters is challenging because these species have large ranges, are subject to distributional shifts among years and within a season, and can occur in aggregations. Interest in winter sea duck population abundance surveys has grown in recent years. This interest stems from concern over the population status of some sea ducks, limitations of extant breeding waterfowl survey programs in North America and logistical challenges and costs of conducting surveys in northern breeding regions, high winter area philopatry in some species and potential conservation implications, and increasing concern over offshore development and other threats to sea duck wintering habitats. The efficiency and practicality of statistically-rigorous monitoring strategies for mobile, aggregated wintering sea duck populations have not been sufficiently investigated. This study evaluated a 2-phase adaptive stratified strip transect sampling plan to estimate wintering population size of scoters, long-tailed ducks (Clangua hyemalis), and other sea ducks and provide information on distribution. The sampling plan results in an optimal allocation of a fixed sampling effort among offshore strata in the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast region. Phase I transect selection probabilities were based on historic distribution and abundance data, while Phase 2 selection probabilities were based on observations made during Phase 1 flights. Distance sampling methods were used to estimate detection rates. Environmental variables thought to affect detection rates were recorded during the survey and post-stratification and covariate modeling were investigated to reduce the effect of heterogeneity on detection estimation. We assessed cost-precision tradeoffs under a number of fixed-cost sampling scenarios using Monte Carlo simulation. We discuss advantages and limitations of this sampling design for estimating wintering sea duck

  2. Effect of high-pressure treatment on taste and metabolite profiles of ducks with two different vinasse-curing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiaowei; Ye, Yangfang; Wang, Ying; Sun, Yangying; Pan, Daodong; Cao, Jinxuan

    2018-03-01

    The effect of high-pressure (HP) (0.1, 150 and 300MPa, 15min) on taste profiles of vinasse-cured ducks was investigated; the metabolite profiles were determined using 1 H NMR. HP at 150MPa increased the taste intensity of products compared with the controls, while HP at 300MPa did not further improve their taste compared with 150MPa treated samples. The metabonome of vinasse-cured ducks was dominated by 27 metabolites. HP increased amino acids, glucose, alkaloids and organic acids, but decreased inosine monophosphate and its derivatives, compared with the controls. The increments of metabolites in vinasse-dry-cured duck were higher than those in vinasse-wet-cured duck. The change of metabolites could be related to the enzyme activity, the degradations of proteins, sugars and nucleotides, and the permeation from vinasse-curing agents to duck meat. These findings suggest that 150MPa treatment was effective to improve the taste of vinasse-cured duck. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. STUDY ON THE TEMPERATURE REGIME IN INCUBATION OF MUSCOVY DUCK EGGS I. STUDY ON TEMPERATURE REGIME IN NATURAL HATCHED MUSCOVY DUCK EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matina NICKOLOVA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Study was carried out on the temperature regime on the surface of naturally hatched Muscovy duck eggs with the aim of its specifying during artificial incubation. Egg fertility and hatchability during the whole period of study were reported in the experimental hatches. Depending on the period of the embryo development, on the ambient temperature and the egg position in the nest, the surface temperature of the naturally hatched Muscovy duck eggs varied between 35.78 and 38.87о С. The temperature increase of the upper egg surface after the 20th – 23st day of the embryonic development to 37.92 - 38.87о С was due to the use of yolk fats by the embryos leading to the release of more heat. As a result of the observations on the temperature regime of the surface of naturally hatched Muscovy duck eggs, we recommend that during artificial hatching of eggs from the same waterfowl species the following temperature should be maintained: – until closing of the allantois - 37.6 – 37.8 о С. – from closing of the allantois until the transfer into the hatchery - 37.2 – 37.5 оС. – in the hatchery - 36.7 – 37.0 оС. – water cooling of eggs by it twofold per day sprying with distilled water at 18–20°С, since 20th, instead of 8th or 16th day of embryonary development, or accomplish it in hatchery only.

  4. delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase: inhibition in ducks dosed with lead shot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-10-01

    Lead concentration in blood and erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was measured in mallard ducks dosed with one all-lead shot or one lead--iron combination shot. For 2 weeks after dosage, lead in blood of ducks given an all-lead shot was fourfold higher than in those dosed with lead--iron shot. At 3 and 4 weeks, the differences in lead residues were directly proportional to lead content of the shots. ALAD activities measured at these intervals were inversely correlated (P less than 0.01) with the concentration of lead in the blood, suggesting that biochemical responses to the two types of shot were dependent upon the quantity of lead present.

  5. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, Mark D.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Dwyer, Chris P.; Fleming, Kathleen K.; Padding, Paul I.; Devers, Patrick K.; Johnson, Fred A.; Runge, Michael C.; Roberts, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  6. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Koneff

    Full Text Available Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini. Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits, and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri, eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana and surf scoter (M. perspicillata, and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis. We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax, and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared

  7. Long-Term Changes in Beach Fauna at Duck, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Parahaustorius longimerus as the common haustorid. In the present study, there are three morphologically very similar haustorids common in the collections...informative. & nerita taZpoida was in a group by itself and was the only species characteristic of the shallow nearshore sites. Edotea spp. was also in a...These three taxa were also dominant at Duck, accounting for 33 percent of all taxa and 71 percent -. of all occurrences (Table 10). _ nerita ta7poida was

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and mRNA expression of duck interleukin-17F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length duck IL-17F (duIL-17F) cDNA with a 501-bp coding region was identified in ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes. duIL-17F is predicted to encode 166 amino acids, including a 26-amino ...

  9. Effects of wetland management on carrying capacity of diving ducks and shorebirds in a coastal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Arianna L.; Takekawa, John; Shinn, Joel; Graham, Tanya R.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Gustafson, K. Ben; Smith, Lacy M.; Spring, Sarah E.; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    With global loss of natural wetlands, managed wetlands increasingly support energy requirements for wintering shorebirds and waterfowl. Despite numerous studies of avian bioenergetics in freshwater systems, less is known of the energetic capacity of estuarine systems. In San Francisco Bay, managed saline ponds converted from former commercial salt evaporation ponds form part of the largest wetland restoration project on the Pacific coast of North America. A daily-ration model was applied to assess carrying capacity for diving ducks and shorebirds during four winter seasons (2007–2010) in seasonal and circulation ponds, each in two salinity classes. Diving ducks comprised an estimated 35,450 ± 1,559 ( ± SE) in average years and 45,458 ± 1,653 in peak years with > 95% in circulation ponds. Shorebirds comprised 64,253 ± 14,838 ( ± SE) in average years and 108,171 ± 4,854 in peak years with > 64% in seasonal ponds. Macroinvertebrate energy density was highest in mesohaline (5–30 ppt) circulation ponds and lowest in seasonal ponds for both guilds. Energy requirements for diving ducks in mesohaline followed by low-hyperhaline (30–80 ppt) circulation ponds were mostly met by available prey energy. Available energy for shorebirds was substantially less than they required in seasonal ponds but exceeded their needs in mesohaline circulation ponds. Mesohaline circulation ponds supported 9,443 ± 1,649 ( ± SE) shorebird use-days·ha-1 of accessible habitat and 2,297 ± 402 diving duck use-days·ha-1 of accessible habitat, twice the capacity of low-hyperhaline circulation ponds and greater than five times that of seasonal ponds for both guilds. Our results indicated that reducing salinity to mesohaline levels and altering water depth to increase accessibility substantially increased energy available for these species in estuarine managed ponds.

  10. Transmission of MRSA between humans and animals on duck and turkey farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijkeren, E; Hengeveld, P; Zomer, T P; Landman, F; Bosch, T; Haenen, A; van de Giessen, A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of MRSA on duck and turkey farms, identify risk factors for human carriage and study transmission between animals and humans. On 10 duck and 10 turkey farms, samples were taken from animals, poultry houses, home residences and humans and cultured using pre-enrichment and selective enrichment. MRSA isolates were typed by spa typing and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) typing. A subset of isolates from animals and humans was investigated using whole-genome mapping. MRSA was found on one duck farm and three turkey farms. On duck farms, all humans were MRSA negative. On turkey farms, 5 of 11 farmers, 2 of 32 family members and 15 of 49 samples from the home residences were MRSA positive. Individuals with daily contact with turkeys were significantly more often MRSA positive than individuals without daily contact. All MRSA isolates belonged to livestock-associated MLVA complex 398, belonged to spa type t011, were negative for Panton-Valentine leucocidin, were mecC negative and were mecA positive. Whole-genome mapping proved a valuable tool to study the transmission of livestock-associated MRSA and showed that on two turkey farms the isolates from the animals and humans were indistinguishable or closely related, indicating transmission. MRSA carriage in individuals in daily contact with turkeys was significantly higher than that in individuals only living on the farms or than in the general Dutch population. Therefore, persons with a high degree of contact with turkeys have an increased risk of MRSA carriage, and we propose that they should be screened prior to hospitalization in order to decrease the risk of nosocomial transmission. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Behavioural adjustment in response to increased predation risk: a study in three duck species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Zimmer

    Full Text Available Predation directly triggers behavioural decisions designed to increase immediate survival. However, these behavioural modifications can have long term costs. There is therefore a trade-off between antipredator behaviours and other activities. This trade-off is generally considered between vigilance and only one other behaviour, thus neglecting potential compensations. In this study, we considered the effect of an increase in predation risk on the diurnal time-budget of three captive duck species during the wintering period. We artificially increased predation risk by disturbing two groups of 14 mallard and teals at different frequencies, and one group of 14 tufted ducks with a radio-controlled stressor. We recorded foraging, vigilance, preening and sleeping durations the week before, during and after disturbance sessions. Disturbed groups were compared to an undisturbed control group. We showed that in all three species, the increase in predation risk resulted in a decrease in foraging and preening and led to an increase in sleeping. It is worth noting that contrary to common observations, vigilance did not increase. However, ducks are known to be vigilant while sleeping. This complex behavioural adjustment therefore seems to be optimal as it may allow ducks to reduce their predation risk. Our results highlight the fact that it is necessary to encompass the whole individual time-budget when studying behavioural modifications under predation risk. Finally, we propose that studies of behavioural time-budget changes under predation risk should be included in the more general framework of the starvation-predation risk trade-off.

  12. Prolactin as a Candidate Gene Controlling Molting and Egg Production of Duck

    OpenAIRE

    Triana Susanti

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of molting is a crucial problem in the local ducks that need to be handled from many aspects including genetic aspect. Handling of molting genetically can be done quickly and accurately when the control genes have been found. The search for marker genes of molting can be conducted in poultry through broodiness naturally, because its physiological processes are related to the continuity of egg production. This paper describes the mechanism of molting, the relationship of molting with...

  13. Effects of food supplementation on depredation of duck nests in prairies by striped skunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, R.J.; Pietruszewski, D.G.; Crawford, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    We examined provision of supplemental food as a method for reducing depredation of upland-duck nests, especially by striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Predators negatively influence duck recruitment in grassland ecosystems. Managers are in search of methods, particularly nonlethal methods, for reducing nest depredation. We conducted this study on 24 areas managed for wildlife production in the Prairie Pothole Region of central North Dakota during 1993-1994. We provided a mix of fish offal and sunflower seeds on 12 areas; no food was provided on the remaining 12 control areas. Although we observed a tendency during both years for higher nest success rates on provisioned areas ( = 46%, 1993; 36%, 1994) than on control areas ( = 27%, 1993; 31%, 1994), mean nest success rates (Mayfield 1961) overall did not differ significantly between food-provisioned areas ( = 41%) and control areas ( = 29%). Striped skunk depredation rate was lower on food-provisioned areas (11%) than on control areas (24%), suggesting that skunks reduced their consumption of eggs when provided with a food supplement. In 1994, habitat conditions were optimal, and ducks nested persistently into the summer when nest success rates of food-provisioned areas and control areas differed by only 5 percentage points. That year American badgers (Taxidea taxus) and Franklin's ground squirrels (Spermophilus franklinii) apparently compensated for reduced depredation by skunks. Thus, although skunks and other mammalian predators seem to have responded positively to food provisioning, nest depredations overall did not change. Provision of supplemental food apparently has limited value for managing depredation of upland duck nests in the Prairie Pothole Region where predator communities are complex.

  14. Survival of captive and free-ranging Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) following surgical liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Esler, Daniel N.

    2010-01-01

    We measured intra- and postoperative mortality rates of captive and free-ranging Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) undergoing surgical liver biopsy sampling for determination of the induction of cytochrome P4501A, a biomarker of oil exposure. Liver biopsies were taken from and radio transmitters were implanted into 157 free-ranging Harlequin Ducks over three winters (55 in 2000, 55 in 2001, and 47 in 2002). No birds died during surgery, but seven (4.5%) died during recovery from anesthesia (three in 2001 and four in 2002). None of the deaths could be attributed directly to the liver biopsy. Four of the 150 (2.7%) birds that were released died in the 2 wk period after surgery. All post-release deaths occurred in 2001; no birds died after release in 2000 or 2002. No mortalities of 36 captive birds occurred during surgery or recovery or in the 2 wk period following surgery. Hemorrhage was a minor problem with one captive bird. Surgical liver biopsies appear to be a safe procedure, but anesthetic complications may occur with overwintering ducks.

  15. Cortisol decreases 2[[sup 125]I] iodomelatonin binding sites in the duck thymus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, A.M.S.; Liu, Z.M.; Tang, F.; Pang, S.F. (Univ. of Hong Kong (China))

    1994-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effect of chronic glucocorticoid treatment on 2[[sup 125]I] iodomelatonin binding in the duck thymus was studied. Two-week-old ducks were injected intraperitoneally with either 1 mg of cortisol per day (experimental group) or an equivalent volume of vehicle (control group) in the middle of the light period for seven days. 2[[sup 125]I] iodomelatonin binding assays were performed on thymic membranes. Cortisol injection reduced the body weight gain, size of the bursa of Fabricius and absolute weights of the primary lymphoid organs but had no effect on the spleen weights. The relative weights of the spleen were increased while those of the primary lymphoid organs were unchanged. The density of the thymus 2[[sup 125]I] iodomelatonin binding sites was decreased while the affinity was not affected. The modulation of the thymic 2[[sup 125]I] iodomelatonin binding sites by changes in the immune status of the duck suggests that these binding sites represent physiologically relevant melatonin receptors and that melatonin exerts its action on the lymphoid tissues directly. The authors findings support the hypothesis that the thymus is the target site for the immunomodulatory interactions between the pineal melatonin and the adrenal steroids. A possible inhibitory influence of adrenal steroids on the immuno-enhancing effect of melatonin is also suggested. 34 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC PREPARATES WITH DIFFERENT STRAIN ON MEAT PRODUCTION OF BROILER DUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. WEIS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of the probiotic preparates with different probiotic strain on the meat production of broiler duck females. The experiment realised in half-operation conditions experimental base of Department of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in three-floor cage technology. Totally 45 one day broiler duck females hybrid PKR divided into three groups: control group - without addition of probiotic preparate, experimental group 1 - addition of probiotic preparate Propoul with strain Lactobacillus fermentum in powder form at drinking water in dose 0.40 g daily during all experiment, experimental group 2 - addition of probiotic preparate Protexin Concentrate with strain Enterococcus faecium in powder form at drinking water in dose 0.24 g daily during all experiment. The results from this study showed that supplementation of probiotic preparates Propoul and Protexin Concentrate in drinking water caused improvement of meat production of broiler ducks. Probiotic preparate Propoul manifested as a preparate with higher effect on meat production in comparison with probiotic Protexin Concentrate.

  17. Performance of the Broiler Duck Males after Application of Two Different Probiotic Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Weis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of the probiotic preparations with different probiotic strain on the basic fattening parameters of broiler duck males. The experiment was carried out in halfoperation conditions experimental base of Department of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in three-floor cage technology. Totally 45 one day broiler duck males of hybrid PKB divided into three groups: control group - without addition of probiotic preparation, experimental group 1 - addition of probiotic preparation of Propoul with strain Lactobacillus fermentum in powder form into drinking water in dose of 0,90 g daily during all experiment, experimental group 2 - addition of probiotic preparation Protexin Concetrate with strain Enterococcus faecium in powder form into drinking water in dose of 0,24 g daily during all experiment. The results from this study showed that supplementation of pro-biotic Propoul and Protexin Concentrate in drinking water caused improvement of basic fattening parameters of broiler duck males. Probiotic preparation Propoul manifested as prepared with higher effect on fattening parameters (live weight, average daily weight gain, feed consumption, mortality in comparison with probiotic Protexin Concentrate.

  18. Overgeneration from Solar Energy in California. A Field Guide to the Duck Chart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the California Independent System Operator published the 'duck chart,' which shows a significant drop in mid-day net load on a spring day as solar photovoltaics (PV) are added to the system. The chart raises concerns that the conventional power system will be unable to accommodate the ramp rate and range needed to fully utilize solar energy, particularly on days characterized by the duck shape. This could result in 'overgeneration' and curtailed renewable energy, increasing its costs and reducing its environmental benefits. This paper explores the duck chart in detail, examining how much PV might need to be curtailed if additional grid flexibility measures are not taken, and how curtailment rates can be decreased by changing grid operational practices. It finds that under "business-as-usual"" types of assumptions and corresponding levels of grid flexibility in California, solar penetrations as low as 20% of annual energy could lead to marginal curtailment rates that exceed 30%. However, by allowing (or requiring) distributed PV and storage (including new installations that are part of the California storage mandate) to provide grid services, system flexibility could be greatly enhanced. Doing so could significantly reduce curtailment and allow much greater penetration of variable generation resources. Overall, the work described in this paper points to the need to fully integrate distributed resources into grid system planning and operations to allow maximum use of the solar resource.

  19. Fungal Fermented Protein (FFP : Alternative Ingredient to be Used in Muscovy Duck Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usaneeporn Soipeth

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal fermented protein (FFP was the alternative feedstuff from Aspergillus niger and can be an interesting choice in poultry diets because these product was containing 20.49 % of crude protein and high leucine (0.58 %, phenylalanine (0.58 % and lysine (0.38 % and contained no aflatoxin. The experiments were performed using a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 3 replications employing eight 1-day-old, mixed sex muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata per experimental unit. The control birds were fed with a basal diet whereas the test birds were fed with FFP at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % of diet. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The feed intake of the starter showed no significant difference while the grower and finisher had higher feed intake with higher levels of FFP. In contrast, the high level of FFP yielded the lower final body weight and body weight gain, resulting in the high feed conversion ratio (4.38. For the performance of overall period, the ducks fed with 20 % FFP had higher average daily gain (29.40 g/b/d, body weight gain (2,471 g/b and feed conversion ratio (3.63. No deaths were found in any pens and the ducks remained in good health.

  20. The Effect of Soy Sauce Waste in Ration on Performance of Mojosari Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. A. Larasati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to determined the effect of soy sauce waste in ration in the ration on the performance of Mojosari duck. The materials used were 240 of Mojosari which are 20 weeks olds with average body weight 1,385.0 ± 130.85 grams (CV = 9.44%. Feed ingredients used were, rice bran, soybean meal, yellow corn, fish meal, pollard and premix. The design that used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 4 treatments and 6 replications.The treatment applied soy sauce waste at level 5, 7,5 and 10%. The parameters observed were consumption, egg production, feed conversion. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance with F test. The results showed that soy sauce waste did not effected on performance (consumption of ration, egg production, ration conversion of Mojosari duck. The conclusion of this research is soy sauce waste be used as feed stuff of Mojosari duck ration until level 10%.

  1. Histopathologic effects of dietary cadmium on kidneys and tests of mallard ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Victoria, TX); Finley, M.T.; Ferrell, J.F.

    1978-07-01

    Mallard ducks fed 2, 20, or 200 ppM cadmium chloride were sacrificed at 30, 60, and 90 d. No mortality occurred during the study and body weights remained unchanged. Kidney weights of the 200-ppM group were significantly greater after 60 and 90 d than those of controls; also, testis weights were significantly lower after 90 d. Kidneys of ducks fed 2 and 20 ppM cadmium were relatively unaffected; however, slight to severe kidney lesions were found in the 200-ppM group after 60 d of treatment. No significant lesions were found in mallard testes after feeding 2 ppM cadmium in the diet, and only a few birds in the 20-ppM group showed slight to moderate gonad alterations. After 90 d of treatment, however, testes of males fed 200 ppM had atrophied and the spermatogenic process had ceased. This study should provide important information for the interpretation of cadmium levels found in kidneys and testes of wild ducks.

  2. Overgeneration from Solar Energy in California - A Field Guide to the Duck Chart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul; Brinkman, Gregory; Jorgenson, Jennie

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, the California Independent System Operator published the "duck chart,"" which shows a significant drop in mid-day net load on a spring day as solar photovoltaics (PV) are added to the system. The chart raises concerns that the conventional power system will be unable to accommodate the ramp rate and range needed to fully utilize solar energy, particularly on days characterized by the duck shape. This could result in "overgeneration"" and curtailed renewable energy, increasing its costs and reducing its environmental benefits. This paper explores the duck chart in detail, examining how much PV might need to be curtailed if additional grid flexibility measures are not taken, and how curtailment rates can be decreased by changing grid operational practices. It finds that under business-as-usual types of assumptions and corresponding levels of grid flexibility in California, solar penetrations as low as 20 percent of annual energy could lead to marginal curtailment rates that exceed 30 percent. However, by allowing (or requiring) distributed PV and storage (including new installations that are part of the California storage mandate) to provide grid services, system flexibility could be greatly enhanced. Doing so could significantly reduce curtailment and allow much greater penetration of variable generation resources in achieving a 50 percent renewable portfolio standard. Overall, the work described in this paper points to the need to fully integrate distributed resources into grid system planning and operations to allow maximum use of the solar resource.

  3. An outbreak of salmonellosis associated with duck prosciutto at a Northern Territory restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Anthony Dk; Morton, Claire N; Heath, Joshua Ni; Lim, Justin A; Schiek, Anninka I; Davis, Stephanie; Krause, Vicki L; Markey, Peter G

    2017-03-31

    In June 2015, an outbreak of salmonellosis occurred among people who had eaten at a restaurant in Darwin, Northern Territory over 2 consecutive nights. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of diners who ate at the restaurant on 19 and 20 June 2015. Diners were telephoned and a questionnaire recorded symptoms and menu items consumed. An outbreak case was defined as anyone with laboratory confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium PT9 (STm9) or a clinically compatible illness after eating at the restaurant. Environmental health officers inspected the premises and collected food samples. We contacted 79/83 of the cohort (response rate 95%); 21 were cases (attack rate 27%), and 9 had laboratory confirmed STm9 infection. The most commonly reported symptoms were diarrhoea (100%), abdominal pain (95%), fever (95%) and nausea (95%). Fifteen people sought medical attention and 7 presented to hospital. The outbreak was most likely caused by consumption of duck prosciutto, which was consumed by all cases (OR 18.6, CI 3.0-∞, P < 0.01) and was prepared on site. Salmonella was not detected in any food samples but a standard plate count of 2 x 107 colony forming units per gram on samples of duck prosciutto demonstrated bacterial contamination. The restaurant used inappropriate methodology for curing the duck prosciutto. Restaurants should consider purchasing pre-made cured meats, or if preparing them on site, ensure that they adhere to safe methods of production.

  4. Mysterious bio-duck sound attributed to the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Denise; Gales, Nicholas J; Gedamke, Jason; Kindermann, Lars; Nowacek, Douglas P; Read, Andrew J; Siebert, Ursula; Van Opzeeland, Ilse C; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Friedlaender, Ari S

    2014-01-01

    For decades, the bio-duck sound has been recorded in the Southern Ocean, but the animal producing it has remained a mystery. Heard mainly during austral winter in the Southern Ocean, this ubiquitous sound has been recorded in Antarctic waters and contemporaneously off the Australian west coast. Here, we present conclusive evidence that the bio-duck sound is produced by Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). We analysed data from multi-sensor acoustic recording tags that included intense bio-duck sounds as well as singular downsweeps that have previously been attributed to this species. This finding allows the interpretation of a wealth of long-term acoustic recordings for this previously acoustically concealed species, which will improve our understanding of the distribution, abundance and behaviour of Antarctic minke whales. This is critical information for a species that inhabits a difficult to access sea-ice environment that is changing rapidly in some regions and has been the subject of contentious lethal sampling efforts and ongoing international legal action.

  5. Latching and Declutching Control of the Solo Duck Wave-Energy Converter with Different Load Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The solo duck wave-energy converter (WEC captures power in a point absorber manner, hence it exhibits high power-capture efficiency within only a narrow bandwidth. Passive control is characterized by a unidirectional power flow, and thus its engineering implementation can be simplified. In this paper, two typical passive control strategies, latching and declutching control, are applied to the solo duck WEC to improve its power-capture performance at wave periods larger and smaller than the natural period of the WEC, respectively. Special attention is paid to the peak value of instantaneous WEC performance parameters, including the peak motion excursion, the peak power take-off (PTO moment, and the peak-to-average power ratio, when the captured power is maximized. Performance differences between the linear and coulomb loads are also investigated. Results show that both latching and declutching control can effectively improve captured power, but also incidentally increase the peak motion excursion and peak-to-average power ratio. When under latching and declutching control, the coulomb load leads to the same maximum relative capture width and peak motion excursion as the linear load, but presents smaller peak PTO moment and peak-to-average power ratio than the linear load, hence making the coulomb load the better choice for the solo duck WEC.

  6. Genomic Analysis and Surveillance of the Coronavirus Dominant in Ducks in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ye Zhuang

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of some coronaviruses dominant in birds other than chickens remain enigmatic. In this study we sequenced the genome of a newly identified coronavirus dominant in ducks (DdCoV, and performed a large-scale surveillance of coronaviruses in chickens and ducks using a conserved RT-PCR assay. The viral genome harbors a tandem repeat which is rare in vertebrate RNA viruses. The repeat is homologous to some proteins of various cellular organisms, but its origin remains unknown. Many substitutions, insertions, deletions, and some frameshifts and recombination events have occurred in the genome of the DdCoV, as compared with the coronavirus dominant in chickens (CdCoV. The distances between DdCoV and CdCoV are large enough to separate them into different species within the genus Gammacoronavirus. Our surveillance demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs belong to different lineages and occupy different ecological niches, further supporting that they should be classified into different species. Our surveillance also demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs are prevalent in live poultry markets in some regions of China. In conclusion, this study shed novel insight into the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of the coronaviruses circulating in chickens and ducks.

  7. FRESH-WATER GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYTA AS A NATURAL PIGMENT FOR MOJOSARI DUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in a completely randomize design was undertaken to study the use of fresh-watergreen algae as a yolk coloring agent in Mojosari ducks during a laying period on productiveperformance and egg quality from 36 to 44 wk of age. A total of 80 thirty-six wk–old laying ducks weredivided into four dietary treatments and each of four replicates with 5 birds. Diets were formulated witha commercial concentrate, rice bran and yellow corn (2:4:4 according to a commercial standard diet asa control, and three other dietary treatments with 2, 4 or 8% of green algae were included. Fresh watergreen algae had a significant effect on the feed uptake, egg production, and feed conversion ratio (FCR(p<0.05. Egg production and FCR improved at added 2 and 4% green algae. No differences wereobserved in egg yolk index, albumen index, Haugh Unit, and egg shell thickness (P>0.05 except eggyolk color. The yolk color increased within 7 days after feeding with the test diets. The present studyindicated that fresh-water green algae could be used as a natural coloring agent in laying ducks and at8% of green algae showed the highest score of (Roche Yellow Color-15.

  8. Some Haematological and Biochemical Investigations on Duck Virus Hepatitis following Administration of Glycyrrhizin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okda, Faten A; Yassein, Safaa; Ahmed, Alaa R; Soufy, Hamdy; Nasr, Soad M

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizin (locally isolated and purified from licorice root) against duck hepatitis virus through the assessment of some hematological and biochemical parameters. One hundred and sixty white Pekin ducklings-one day old-were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group (1) was kept as normal control. Group (2) was inoculated I/P with 10 mg glycyrrhizin/kg BW, three times per week for four weeks. Group (3) was inoculated I/M with 0.5 ml of live attenuated DHV vaccine. Group (4) was inoculated with both glycyrrhizin (10 mg/kg BW I/P, three times per week for four weeks) and live attenuated DHV vaccine (0.5 ml, I/M). Then, all groups of treatment were challenged using virulent DHV except for 20 ducklings from the normal control group which were continued to be kept as negative control. The results revealed that duck hepatitis virus (DHV) caused macrocytic hypochromic anemia, leukopenia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and marked elevation of liver enzymes and renal parameters. In conclusion, glycyrrhizin injected alone or in combination with DHV vaccine protected or ameliorated the deteriorating effects induced by DHV vaccine and/or duck hepatitis virus infection by improvement of erythrogram and leukogram, as well as liver and kidney functions.

  9. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of duck nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huilin; Jin, Hui; Li, Yaqian; Liu, Dejian; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Jiang, Yunbo; Luo, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is an imperative cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and considered as a key member of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family which plays a critical role in innate immunity through sensing microbial components derived from bacterial peptidoglycan. In the current study, the full-length of duck NOD1 (duNOD1) cDNA from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) was cloned. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that duNOD1 exhibited a strong evolutionary relationship with chicken and rock pigeon NOD1. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that duNOD1 was widely distributed in various organs, with the highest expression observed in the liver. Furthermore, duNOD1 overexpression induced NF-κB activation in DEFs and the CARD domain is crucial for duNOD1-mediated NF-κB activation. In addition, silencing the duNOD1 decreased the activity of NF-κB in DEFs stimulated by iE-DAP. Overexpression of duNOD1 significantly increased the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and RANTES in DEFs. These findings highlight the crucial role of duNOD1 as an intracellular sensor in duck innate immune system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptation and growth kinetics study of an Indian isolate of virulent duck enteritis virus in Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, S; Kamble, Nitin M; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

    2015-01-01

    Duck virus enteritis, also known as duck plague, is a viral infection of ducks caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV). The control of the disease is mainly done by vaccination with chicken embryo adapted live virus that is known to be poorly immunogenic and elicits only partial protection. Further, the embryo propagated vaccine virus pose a threat of harboring other infectious agents. Seeing these limitations, the present study reports for the first time regarding propagation and adaptation of a virulent Indian isolate of duck enteritis virus in Vero cell line. In this study isolation of an outbreak virus from Kerala state was done in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEF). Then adapted the DEV isolate in the Vero cell line. The characteristic cytopathic effects (CPE) of clumping and fusion of Vero cells were observed starting from the 7th passage onwards. The presence of the virus and its multiplication in Vero cells was confirmed by detection of viral specific DNA and antigen by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immuno fluorescent assay (IIFA), respectively. PCR detection of DEV using self designed primers for US4 (gD) and UL30 (DNA Polymerase) gene has been reported for the in the present study. The kinetics of DEV in Vero cells revealed a maximum infectivity titer of 10(5.6) TCID 50/ml after 48hr of viral infection. Compared to chicken embryo adapted DVE vaccine virus, the Vero cell culture system is free from other infectious agents. So it will be a good candidate for cultivation and propagation of duck enteritis virus vaccine strain. Further research studies are suggested to explore the feasibility of utilizing this Vero cell culture adapted DEV isolate for developing an attenuated vaccine virus against duck virus enteritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stepwise colonization of the Andes by ruddy ducks and the evolution of novel β-globin variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Fuentes, V; Cortázar-Chinarro, M; Lozano-Jaramillo, M; McCracken, K G

    2013-03-01

    Andean uplift played a key role in Neotropical bird diversification, yet past dispersal and genetic adaptation to high-altitude environments remain little understood. Here we use multilocus population genetics to study population history and historical demographic processes in the ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), a stiff-tailed diving duck comprising three subspecies distributed from Canada to Tierra del Fuego and inhabiting wetlands from sea level to 4500 m in the Andes. We sequenced the mitochondrial DNA, four autosomal introns and three haemoglobin genes (α(A), α(D), β(A)) and used isolation-with-migration (IM) models to study gene flow between North America and South America, and between the tropical and southern Andes. Our analyses indicated that ruddy ducks dispersed first from North America to the tropical Andes, then from the tropical Andes to the southern Andes. While no nonsynonymous substitutions were found in either α globin gene, three amino acid substitutions were observed in the β(A) globin. Based on phylogenetic reconstruction and power analysis, the first β(A) substitution, found in all Andean individuals, was acquired when ruddy ducks dispersed from low altitude in North America to high altitude in the tropical Andes, whereas the two additional substitutions occurred more recently, when ruddy ducks dispersed from high altitude in the tropical Andes to low altitude in the southern Andes. This stepwise colonization pattern accompanied by polarized β(A) globin amino acid replacements suggest that ruddy ducks first acclimatized or adapted to the Andean highlands and then again to the lowlands. In addition, ruddy ducks colonized the Andean highlands via a less common route as compared to other waterbird species that colonized the Andes northwards from the southern cone of South America. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. in duck eggs on sale at retail or from catering in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M; Jorgensen, F; Willis, C; McLauchlin, J; Elviss, N; Aird, H; Fox, A; Kaye, M; Lane, C; de Pinna, E

    2016-11-01

    Since 2010, human salmonellosis outbreaks in the UK have been detected as associated with the consumption of duck eggs. Little data are available on the rate of occurrence of Salmonella in duck eggs. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in duck eggs on sale and from catering in England during 2011, particularly those from small-scale production. All samples were collected independently of human salmonellosis outbreak investigations. Composite samples of 6-10 eggs (shells and contents were examined separately) were examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. using the ISO 6579:2002 method. Salmonella spp. was recovered from two of 145 samples (1·4%). In one sample, Salmonella Typhimurium DT 8 was isolated from the shells while Salm. Typhimurium DT 8 and Salm. Typhimurium DT30 were isolated from the contents. Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 was isolated from the egg shells only in the second contaminated sample. This study provides baseline data for risk assessors, regulators and the food industry and may be helpful in communicating risks associated with the consumption of this product as well as evaluating risk management options to control food safety including vaccination of ducks. Human salmonellosis outbreaks in England and Northern Ireland due to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 8 have been identified as associated with the consumption of duck eggs since 2010. This study has shown that Salmonella spp. was detected in 1·4% of ducks egg samples providing baseline data for risk assessors, regulators and the food industry. This may be helpful in communicating risks associated with the consumption of this product as well as evaluating risk management options to control food safety including vaccination of ducks. © 2016 Crown copyright. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Shim, K S

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  14. Histomorphological study of the parathyroid gland in female Kuttanad ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdous Ahmad Dar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work was targeted to form the baseline data of normal morphological and histological picture of parathyroid gland in female Kuttanad ducks.Materials and Methods: A Histomorphological study of the parathyroid gland was carried out in twelve adult female Kuttanad ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus of 20 weeks of age. Birds reared semintensively were procured from Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Poultry and Duck Farm and sacrificed humanely. Glands were collected and gross parameters were recorded. The glands were fixed in 10 percent neutral buffered formalin. The small sized glands were processed as such by routine histological methods, paraffin blocks were prepared and sectioned to a thickness of 5µ. The tissues were stained by Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E for routine histological studies and Gomori's rapid one step trichrome method for connective tissue fibres. Micrometric parameters were recorded using ocular micrometer. Results: Parathyroid glands in Kuttanad ducks lay just caudal to the division of the innominate artery into the subclavian and common carotid arteries. Parathyroids were oval to spherical in shape, yellow in colour and smaller than thyroid gland of the representative sides. The arterial blood supply was from common carotid artery and blood from gland was drained directly into jugular vein. Although it lied close to the thyroid, thymus and ultimobranchial gland, parathyroid tissue did not merge to any of the above mentioned three glands. Parenchyma was composed irregular anatomizing cords of cells supplied by connective tissue stroma penetrated by blood capillaries. Parenchyma was predominantly made of lightly stained cell, the chief cell. The nuclei were round and contain one or two nucleoli. Oxyphil cells present in parathyroid glands of other mammals were not seen in the present study. Conclusion: Histomorphological features or characteristics of Parathyroid gland in Kuttanad duck were

  15. Differences in distribution of modified basins and ducks relative to roadside transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Sklebar, H. Thomas; Buhl, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    Wetland basins in the Prairie Pothole Region of the U.S. are commonly modified by excavation (e.g., roadside ditches, stock dugouts), partial drainage (ditching), and diking. Differences in the distribution of modified wetlands may affect the predictive accuracy of waterfowl survey data if such wetlands are not distributed randomly in the landscape and if waterfowl are not distributed equally among them. We used data collected on thirty-eight 40-km2 plots in North Dakota to examine the distribution of modified basins relative to roadside transects and their use by five species of dabbling ducks in 1995. The 800-m-wide transects were subdivided into an inner 400-m transect, centered on the road, and the remaining outer transect area. We compared the distribution of modified and natural wetland basins among three sample areas: 1) the inner 400-m wide roadside transect area, 2) the outer transect area, and 3) the remaining area within the 40-km2 plot that was outside of the transects (outer plot). Duck use was compared between the two transect areas. The plots contained 20,582 basins, of which 88.5% were unmodified, 7.5% were excavated, 3.7% were partially drained, and 0.2% were diked. Nearly all excavated temporary (89%) and seasonal (90%) basins occurred in the inner transect area, reflecting the high proportion of basins that would be defined as roadside ditches. Excavated semipermanent basins were more evenly distributed among the outer plot and two transect widths; these basins often were dugouts but also included roadside ditches. Partially drained and diked basins also were fairly evenly distributed among the three sample areas. Semipermanent basins had greater use by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintails (A. acuta) when they were partially drained than when they were excavated or unmodified; pintails also had greater use of partially drained seasonal basins. Use of wetland basins by gadwall (A. strepera), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and

  16. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  17. Development of nested polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of duck enteritis virus and detection of DNA polymerase gene from non-descriptive duck breeds of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sarathi Mandal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to detect the clinical signs, postmortem lesions of embryonated duck plague (DP infected eggs, and histopathological changes of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM in non-descriptive ducks of West Bengal with special reference to standardize nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: After postmortem of suspected carcasses, samples were collected for virus isolation and identification through specific pathogen free (Khaki Campbell embryonated duck eggs. PCR was also done as confirmatory test after doing postmortem of duck embryos. DP specific nested PCR was standardized for better confirmation of the disease. Sensitivity of nested primers was also tested for DP virus. Results: Gross, postmortem and histopathological changes were prominent in dead embryos. First set of primer was able to detect 602 bp fragments of DNA polymerase gene of duck enteritis virus from infected CAM. Subsequently, a DP specific nested PCR which was very much sensitive for very small amount of viral genome was successfully standardized. After NCBI blast nucleotide sequence of nested PCR product (Accession No. HG425076 showed homology with the sequences data available in GenBank. Conclusion: The study concludes that PCR assay is very much helpful to diagnose DP disease and developed nested PCR is a double confirmatory diagnostic tool for DP.

  18. Effectivity of santoquin and vitamin E suplementation on fat value, fatty acid composition and sensory quality of local duck meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purba M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to identify the effectivity of antioxidant supplemented in ration for fat and fatty acid consentration and sensory quality of male local duck meat. Two hundred and eighty day old ducks (dod reared for ten weeks were allotted to either one of 10 treatments in 4 replications with 7 ducks/replication for each treatment. The treatments were: (R0 basal-diet (RB without antioxidant (control; (R1 RB+50 ppm santoquin (Sq+100 IU vitamin E (VE; (R2 RB+50 ppm Sq+200 IU VE; (R3 RB+50 ppm Sq+300 IU VE; (R4 RB+100 ppm Sq+100 IU VE; (R5 RB+100 ppm Sq+200 IU VE; (R6 RB+100 ppm Sq+300 IU VE; (R7 RB+150 ppm Sq+100 IU VE; (R8 RB+150 ppm Sq+200 IU VE; (R9 RB+150 ppm Sq+300 IU VE. The experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with one of the treatments as a control and the others were with antioxidants supplementations. The variables observed were: fat concentration, fatty acid composition and concentration, as well as sensory quality (off odor intensity and description values in male duck meat. Result showed that Sq+VE supplementation could reduce fat content in duck meat. R1 and R4 were the best level to reduce fat contents in fresh meat, but in boiled meat R8 and R9 treatment was the best. Total composition and the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids were higher then those of saturated fatty acids. The fatty acid concentrations of linoleat (C18:2 and arakidonat (C20:4 increased parareled with the antioxidant supplementations in fresh and boiled duck meat. Sq and VE supplementations significantly decreased (P<0,05 intensity off odor (fishy odor in fresh or boiled duck meat, and 50 ppm Sq+100 IU VE or 100 ppm Sq+100 IU VE was the best treatment to reduce the intensity off odor (fishy odoron fresh meat, while 150 ppm Sq+200 IU VE or 150 ppm Sq+300 IU VE was on boiled duck meat. It is concluded that lipid oxidation was effectively protected by Sq+VE supplementations resulted is reduced intensity off odor, while the

  19. The Effect of Addition Pineapple Peel Meal (Ananas comosus (L Merr in Diet on Total Egg and Egg Duck Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharlien Muharlien

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of addition pinneapple peel meal in diet on total egg and egg quality duck. Materials of the research were 60 mojosari ducks at seven months old. The treatment of pineapple peel meal addition in diet were treatment on level of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%. Variable were numbers of egg, egg shell thickness, fat and cholesterol egg yolk. The datas were analyzed using ANOVA from Randomized Block Design (RBD, if the result had significant effect, would be continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result showed that an addition pineapple peel meal in  duck diet had no effect (P>0,05 on numbers of egg and thick of egg shell, however, it had  highly significant effect (P<0,01 on fat  and  cholesterol  egg  yolk . The concluded showed that the addition of pineaple peel meal  in ducks diet can be decreasing fat and cholesterol egg yolk and can not decreasing numbers of egg and egg shell tick. Keywords: Mojosari ducks, total egg, egg shell thick, egg yolk fat, and egg yolk cholesterol

  20. Duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA appears to survive hepatocyte mitosis in the growing liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaiche-Miller, Georget Y.; Thorpe, Michael; Low, Huey Chi; Qiao, Qiao; Scougall, Catherine A. [School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Mason, William S.; Litwin, Samuel [Institute for Cancer Research, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States); Jilbert, Allison R., E-mail: allison.jilbert@adelaide.edu.au [School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues that inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication are typically used as monotherapy for chronically infected patients. Treatment with a nucleos(t)ide analogue eliminates most HBV DNA replication intermediates and produces a gradual decline in levels of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the template for viral RNA synthesis. It remains uncertain if levels of cccDNA decline primarily through hepatocyte death, or if loss also occurs during hepatocyte mitosis. To determine if cccDNA survives mitosis, growing ducklings infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were treated with the nucleoside analogue, Entecavir. Viremia was suppressed at least 10{sup 5}-fold, during a period when average liver mass increased 23-fold. Analysis of the data suggested that if cccDNA synthesis was completely inhibited, at least 49% of cccDNA survived hepatocyte mitosis. However, there was a large duck-to-duck variation in cccDNA levels, suggesting that low level cccDNA synthesis may contribute to this apparent survival through mitosis. - Highlights: • The hepatitis B virus nuclear template is covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). • cccDNA was studied during liver growth in duck hepatitis B virus infected ducks. • Virus DNA replication and new cccDNA synthesis were inhibited with Entecavir. • At least 49% of cccDNA appeared to survive hepatocyte mitosis. • Low level virus DNA synthesis may contribute to survival of cccDNA through mitosis.

  1. THE USE OF Pomacea canaliculata SNAILS IN FEED TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF ALABIO DUCK (Anas plathyrinchos Borneo MEAT

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    A. Subhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments  included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.

  2. Effect of various dietary nutrient density on the growth performance of local male ducks and their crosse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.K Bintang

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred day-old male ducklings were allocated randomly into 12 treatment combinations in 3 x 4 factorial design . Three levels of dietary density ration i.e : Low(12% /2,000 kcal, medium (16%/2,500 kcal and high (20%/3,000 kcal and 2 breeds of local ducks Tegal (TT and Mojosari (MM and their crossbreds (Tegal x Mojosari (TM and Mojosari x Tegal (MT were applied. Each treatment combination consisted of5 replicates, each of 5 birds. The experiment was carried out for 8 weeks and measurements were weekly feed intake, body weight, weight and/or percentage of carcass, internal organs and abdominal fat. Results indicated that no significant interaction was detected between dietary nutrient density and the breeds of ducks on all parameters measured . Breeds of duck, as well as their crosses did not affect growth performance and other parameters . On the other hand, nutrient density influenced growth performance significantly, except for percentage of carcass and internal organs . In general, feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, carcass weight and abdominal fat of ducks fed low density ration were significantly lower than those fed medium density, which were also lower than those fed high nutrient density diet . Weghtand length of intestine and kidney weight, of ducks fed low density diet however, were higher than the two other treatments .

  3. Investigation and management of an outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 associated with duck eggs, Ireland 2009 to 2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, P

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 was a very rare cause of human illness in Ireland between 2000 and 2008, with only four human isolates from three patients being identified. Over a 19-month period between August 2009 and February 2011, 34 confirmed cases and one probable case of Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 were detected, all of which had an MLVA pattern 2-10-NA-12-212 or a closely related pattern. The epidemiological investigations strongly supported a linkbetween illness and exposure to duck eggs. Moreover, S. Typhimurium with an MLVA pattern indistinguishable (or closely related) to the isolates from human cases, was identified in 22 commercial and backyard duck flocks, twelve of which were linked with known human cases. A range of control measures were taken at farm level, and advice was provided to consumers on the hygienic handling and cooking of duck eggs. Although no definitive link was established with a concurrent duck egg-related outbreak of S. Typhimurium DT8 in the United Kingdom, it seems likely that the two events were related. It may be appropriate for other countries with a tradition of consuming duck eggs to consider the need for measures to reduce the risk of similar outbreaks.

  4. SIZE SELECTION IN DIVING TUFTED DUCKS AYTHYA-FULIGULA EXPLAINED BY DIFFERENTIAL HANDLING OF SMALL AND LARGE MUSSELS DREISSENA-POLYMORPHA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DELEEUW, JJ; VANEERDEN, MR

    1992-01-01

    We studied prey size selection of Tufted Ducks feeding on fresh-water mussels under semi-natural conditions. In experiments with non-diving birds, we found that Tufted Ducks use two techniques to handle mussels. Mussels less than 16 mm in length are strained from a waterflow generated in the bill

  5. Wintering Tufted Ducks Aythya fuligula diving for zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha balance feeding costs within narrow margins of their energy budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.; Eerden, van M.R.; Visser, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    Diving ducks face the strongly cooling properties of aquatic environments. In experiments with Tufted Ducks Aythya fuligula feeding on zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha in outdoor cages, we measured changes in food consumption and diving behaviour in relation to water temperature (3-22°C). Water

  6. Wintering Tufted Ducks Aythya fuligula diving for zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha balance feeding costs within narrow margins of their energy budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, JJ; van Eerden, MR; Visser, GH

    Diving ducks face the strongly cooling properties of aquatic environments. In experiments with Tufted Ducks Aythya fuligula feeding on zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha in outdoor cages, we measured changes in food consumption and diving behaviour in relation to water temperature (3-22 degrees C).

  7. Susceptibility of Muscovy (Cairina Moschata) and mallard ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos) to experimental infections by different genotypes of H5N1 avian influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Do Quy; Dung, Nguyen Tien; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2011-01-01

    It is a fact that in Viet Nam, Muscovy ducks are raised in large populations (approximately 8 million), usually kept in small flocks together with mallards and chickens. As a result, it is a great concern for epidemiologists to elucidate possible differences in relation to these species being...... exposed to infection with H5N1. To do this, an experimental study on infections with different genotypes of H5N1 in mallards and Muscovy ducks have been conducted, where it was found that the mortality of the inoculated Muscovy ducks was at least 80%, regardless of the virus strain employed. In contrast......, the mortality of the mallards ranged from nil to 100%, which suggests that Muscovy ducks are more susceptible to HPAIV H5N1 infection in terms of disease development and mortality. It was also found that higher virus titers developed in vital organs of Muscovy ducks compared to mallards, particularly...

  8. Bilateral testicular germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor in a pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Stacey; Heatley, J Jill; Pool, Roy Ransom; Spaulding, Kathy

    2008-12-01

    An intact male white pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) was presented for examination because of respiratory distress and 2- to 3-month history of lameness and lethargy. Results of radiography, ultrasonography, and cytologic examination revealed a large neoplastic mass in the coelom. The duck was euthanatized, and results of necropsy revealed 2 large, lobulated masses in the coelom and a small nodule on the liver. Histopathologic examination of the large masses revealed a collision pattern testicular tumor consisting of Sertoli, seminoma, and interstitial cell components. The hepatic nodule was a metastatic lesion consistent with a Sertoli cell testicular tumor. This is the first reported case of a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor in a duck.

  9. A blood survey of elements, viral antibodies, and hemoparasites in wintering Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) and Barrow's Goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, D.J.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Iverson, S.A.; Rizzolo, D.J.; Greiner, E.C.; Hall, J.; Ip, H.; Esler, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-eight Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) and 26 Barrow's Goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica) were captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1 and 15 March 2005. Blood was collected for quantification of element concentrations, prevalence of antibodies to several viruses, and hemoparasite prevalence and identification. Although we found selenium concentrations that have been associated with selenosis in some birds (???.0 ppm ww), our findings contribute to a growing literature describing relatively high selenium in apparently healthy birds in marine environments. Avian influenza virus antibodies were detected in the plasma of 28% of the ducks. No antibodies against adenovirus, reovirus, or paramyxovirus 1 were detected. Several hemoparasite species were identified in 7% of ducks. Our findings are similar to those in other free-living marine waterfowl and do not indicate unusual concerns for the health of these species in this area in late winter. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  10. De novo lipogenesis in the liver and adipose tissues of ducks during early growth stages after hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fang; Pan, Zhixiong; Kou, Jie; Li, Le; Xia, Lu; Hu, Shenqiang; Liu, Hehe; Wang, Jiwen

    2012-09-01

    In vivo de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in the liver and adipose tissues of ducks during early developmental stages after hatching has not previously been investigated. In this study, female Peking ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) at weeks 1 to 8 post-hatching were selected for experimentation. We measured the mRNA levels of 6 DNL-related genes in the duck liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue and abdominal adipose tissue by real-time PCR during the 8 weeks. Correlations of the plasma triacylglycerol (TG) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentrations with fat deposition at these sites were also detected during growth. Our results showed that fat content was highest in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and lowest in the liver during the growth period we studied. Additionally, plasma VLDL and TG were significantly associated with lipid content in adipose tissue (Plipogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. COMPARATIVE HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE THYMUS WITH REFERENCE TO ITS IMMUNOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE IN QUAIL, CHICKEN AND DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Senapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative histomorphological study was conducted on thymus of broiler chicken, duck and quail. The thymus of all three species of post-hatch (adult birds showed a thin connective tissue capsule. However, fine septa originating from the capsule divided the organ into incomplete but distinct lobules in chicken, whereas lobules were ill defined in both quail and duck. Each lobule, in turn, was composed of a peripheral cortex, densely studded with lymphocytes and a central medulla that was enriched with epithelial reticular cells. So, the cortex appeared more basophilic than that of medulla. But the concentration of lymphocyte, an immune competent cell was highest in chicken followed by duck and quail. Hassall’s corpuscles like structures were found inside the medulla as pale stained diffuse body. General histo-architecture was almost similar in all the birds.

  12. Effect of duck meat consumption on thyroid hormone concentrations and energy metabolism of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xianchao; Chen, Lin; Zhuang, Su; Li, Chunbao; Yan, Zhenguo; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2013-10-01

    The two diets, a duck meat diet (DMD) and a control casein diet (CD) were isocaloric (15.9 kJ/g dry matters), and contained 18.3% protein, 7.4% fat, 60.0% carbohydrate. The selenium contents in casein, duck meat powder, CD and DMD were 0.061, 0.549, 0.123 and 0.225 mg/kg. Rats in the DMD group had higher serum selenium concentrations (pmeat consumption increased serum tri-iodothryonine (T3) concentrations (pmeat powder compared to casein (7.72 vs 10.13). Compared to casein, duck meat powder had higher total content of glutamic acid, leucine, aspartic acid, serine, and alanine (44.68 vs 49.21), which led to higher serum TBG concentrations (pmeat consumption decreased the energy metabolism of rats by multiple-step regulation of THs. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Geographic and temporal patterns of variation in total mercury concentrations in blood of harlequin ducks and blue mussels from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Lucas; Flint, Paul L.; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Brant, Heather; Perkins, Christopher R.; Taylor, Robert J.; Lane, Oksana P.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Evers, David C.; Schamber, Jason

    2017-01-01

    We compared total mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole blood of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) sampled within and among two geographically distinct locations and across three years in southwest Alaska. Blue mussels were collected to assess correlation between Hg concentrations in locally available forage and birds. Mercury concentrations in harlequin duck blood were significantly higher at Unalaska Island (0.31 ± 0.19 mean ± SD, μg/g blood) than Kodiak Island (0.04 ± 0.02 mean ± SD, μg/g blood). We found no evidence for annual variation in blood Hg concentration between years at Unalaska Island. However, blood Hg concentration did vary among specific sampling locations (i.e., bays) at Unalaska Island. Findings from this study demonstrate harlequin ducks are exposed to environmental sources of Hg, and whole blood Hg concentrations are associated with their local food source.

  14. Experimentally infected domestic ducks show efficient transmission of Indonesian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, but lack persistent viral shedding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Wibawa

    Full Text Available Ducks are important maintenance hosts for avian influenza, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. A previous study indicated that persistence of H5N1 viruses in ducks after the development of humoral immunity may drive viral evolution following immune selection. As H5N1 HPAI is endemic in Indonesia, this mechanism may be important in understanding H5N1 evolution in that region. To determine the capability of domestic ducks to maintain prolonged shedding of Indonesian clade 2.1 H5N1 virus, two groups of Pekin ducks were inoculated through the eyes, nostrils and oropharynx and viral shedding and transmission investigated. Inoculated ducks (n = 15, which were mostly asymptomatic, shed infectious virus from the oral route from 1 to 8 days post inoculation, and from the cloacal route from 2-8 dpi. Viral ribonucleic acid was detected from 1-15 days post inoculation from the oral route and 1-24 days post inoculation from the cloacal route (cycle threshold <40. Most ducks seroconverted in a range of serological tests by 15 days post inoculation. Virus was efficiently transmitted during acute infection (5 inoculation-infected to all 5 contact ducks. However, no evidence for transmission, as determined by seroconversion and viral shedding, was found between an inoculation-infected group (n = 10 and contact ducks (n = 9 when the two groups only had contact after 10 days post inoculation. Clinical disease was more frequent and more severe in contact-infected (2 of 5 than inoculation-infected ducks (1 of 15. We conclude that Indonesian clade 2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus does not persist in individual ducks after acute infection.

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of the hepatic response to heat stress in Muscovy and Pekin ducks: insight into thermal tolerance related to energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zeng

    Full Text Available The Pekin duck, bred from the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos in china, is one of the most famous meat duck species in the world. However, it is more sensitive to heat stress than Muscovy duck, which is believed to have originated in South America. With temperature raising, mortality, laying performance, and meat quality of the Pekin duck are severely affected. This study aims to uncover the temperature-dependent proteins of two duck species using comparative proteomic approach. Duck was cultured under 39°C ± 0.5°C for 1 h, and then immediately returned to 20°C for a 3 h recovery period, the liver proteins were extracted and electrophoresed in two-dimensional mode. After analysis of gel images, 61 differentially expressed proteins were detected, 54 were clearly identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Of the 54 differentially expressed protein spots identified, 7 were found in both species, whereas 47 were species specific (25 in Muscovy duck and 22 in Pekin duck. As is well known, chaperone proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP 70 and HSP10, were abundantly up-regulated in both species in response to heat stress. However, we also found that several proteins, such as α-enolase, and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, showed different expression patterns in the 2 duck species. The enriched biological processes were grouped into 3 main categories according to gene ontology analysis: cell death and apoptosis (20.93%, amino acid metabolism (13.95% and oxidation reduction (20.93%. The mRNA levels of several differentially expressed protein were investigated by real-time RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide insights into the differential expression of proteins following heat stress in ducks and enables better understanding of possible heat stress response mechanisms in animals.

  16. Enrichment and verification of differentially expressed miRNAs in bursa of Fabricius in two breeds of duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The bursa of Fabricius (BF is a central humoral immune organ belonging specifically to avians. Recent studies had suggested that miRNAs were active regulators involved in the immune processes. This study was to investigate the possible differences of the BF at miRNA level between two genetically disparate duck breeds. Methods Using Illumina next-generation sequencing, the miRNAs libraries of ducks were established. Results The results showed that there were 66 differentially expressed miRNAs and 28 novel miRNAs in bursa. A set of abundant miRNAs (i.e., let-7, miR-146a-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-17~92 which are involved in immunity and disease were detected and the predicted target genes of the novel miRNAs were associated with duck high anti-adversity ability. By gene ontology analysis and enriching KEGG pathway, the targets of differential expressed miRNAs were mainly involved in immunity and disease, supporting that there were differences in the BF immune functions between the two duck breeds. In addition, the metabolic pathway had the maximum enriched target genes and some enriched pathways that were related to cell cycle, protein synthesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis. It indicted that the difference of metabolism may be one of the reasons leading the immune difference between the BF of two duck breeds. Conclusion This data lists the main differences in the BF at miRNAs level between two genetically disparate duck breeds and lays a foundation to carry out molecular assisted breeding of poultry in the future.

  17. DUCK (Anas platyrhincos Borneo CULTIVATIONIN HULU SUNGAI UTARA SOUTH KALIMANTAN (OVERVIEW OF MARKET, HUMAN RESOURCES AND FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riza Firdaus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Given Alabio ducks ( Anas platyrinchos Borneo is a commodity that can be developed on wetlands , the study aims to illustrate the potential and development of duck farms that can be relied upon by the provincial government in making policies for the advancement of this duck commodities , especially in the aspect of  markets  ,  human  resources  ,  and  fi nancial  aspects  .  These  three  aspects have been given the results of several previous studies that the three aspects mentioned  this  is  still  an  issue  in  the  development  of  duck  and  production results  .  Hulu  Sungai  Utara  as  duck  production  centers  serve  as  a  test  site  . Qualitative  analysis  of  the  domain  and  toksonomi  method  used  as  a  tool  in analyzing the data of this study . The results show : First , aspects of fi nancing shows that the business is viable and profi table , especially on a large scale . Second , the market requires a lot of innovation in creating related products. Third , explain aspects of human resource regeneration is still a problem and also the managerial constraints such as planning , standardization and quality in all phases . Keywords: Ducks  Alabio,  Financial  Aspects,  Aspects  of  Market  and  Marketing,  Human Resource Aspects

  18. Cessation of oil exposure in harlequin ducks after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Cytochrome P4501A biomarker evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Dickson, Rian D.; Henderson, John D.

    2017-01-01

    The authors quantified hepatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA), during 2011, 2013, and 2014 (22–25 yr following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill). Average EROD activity was compared between birds from areas oiled by the spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. The present study replicated studies conducted from 1998 to 2009 demonstrating that harlequin ducks using areas oiled in 1989 had elevated EROD activity, indicative of oil exposure, up to 2 decades post spill. In the present study, it was found that average EROD activity during March 2011 was significantly higher in wintering harlequin ducks captured in oiled areas relative to unoiled areas, which the authors interpret to indicate that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil up to 22 yr after the original spill. However, the 2011 results also indicated reductions in exposure relative to previous years. Average EROD activity in birds from oiled areas was approximately 2 times that in birds from unoiled areas in 2011, compared with observations from 2005 to 2009, in which EROD activity was 3 to 5 times higher in oiled areas. It was also found that average EROD activity during March 2013 and March 2014 was not elevated in wintering harlequin ducks from oiled areas. The authors interpret these findings to indicate that exposure of harlequin ducks to residual Exxon Valdez oil abated within 24 yr after the original spill. The present study finalizes a timeline of exposure, extending over 2 decades, for a bird species thought to be particularly vulnerable to oil contamination in marine environments

  19. A 4-year study of avian influenza virus prevalence and subtype diversity in ducks of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Wille, Michelle; Dobbin, Ashley; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

    2013-10-01

    The island of Newfoundland, Canada, is at the eastern edge of North America and has migratory bird connections with the continental mainland as well as across the North Atlantic Ocean. Here, we report a 4-year avian influenza virus (AIV) epidemiological study in ducks in the St. John's region of Newfoundland. The overall prevalence of AIV detection in ducks during this study was 7.2%, with American Black Ducks contributing the vast majority of the collected samples and the AIV positives. The juvenile ducks showed a significantly higher AIV detection rate (10.6%) compared with adults (3.4%). Seasonally, AIV prevalence rates were higher in the autumn (8.4%), but positives were still detected in the winter (4.6%). Preliminary serology tests showed a high incidence of previous AIV infection (20/38, 52.6%). A total of 43 viruses were characterized for their HA-NA or HA subtypes, which revealed a large diversity of AIV subtypes and little recurrence of subtypes from year to year. Investigation of the movement patterns of ducks in this region showed that it is a largely non-migratory duck population, which may contribute to the observed pattern of high AIV subtype turnover. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 H1N1 and one H5N4 AIVs showed these viruses were highly similar to other low pathogenic AIV sequences from waterfowl in North America and assigned all gene segments into American-avian clades. Notably, the H1N1 viruses, which were identified in consecutive years, possessed homologous genomes. Such detection of homologous AIV genomes across years is rare, but indicates the role of the environmental reservoir in viral perpetuation.

  20. Development of a blocking ELISA for detection of serum neutralizing antibodies against newly emerged duck Tembusu virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since April 2010, domesticated ducks in China have been suffering from an emerging infectious disease characterized by retarded growth, high fever, loss of appetite, decline in egg production, and death. The causative agent was identified as a duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV, a member of the Ntaya virus (NTAV group within the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. DTMUV is highly contagious and spreads rapidly in many species of ducks. More than 10 million shelducks have been infected and approximately 1 million died in 2010. The disease remains a constant threat to the duck industry; however, it is not known whether DTMUV can infect humans or other mammalians, despite the fact that the virus has spread widely in southeast China, one of the most densely populated areas in the world. The lack of reliable methods to detect the serum antibodies against DTMUV has limited our ability to conduct epidemiological investigations in various natural hosts and to evaluate the efficiency of vaccines to DTMUV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb 1F5 binding specifically to the E protein was developed. Based on the mAb, a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against DTMUV. The average value of percent inhibition (PI of 350 duck serum samples obtained from DTMUV-free farms was 1.0% ± 5.8% (mean ± SD. The selected cut-off PI values for negative and positive sera were 12.6% (mean +2SD and 18.4% (mean +3SD, respectively. When compared with a serum neutralizing antibody test (SNT using chicken embryonated eggs, the rate of coincidence was 70.6% between the blocking ELISA and SNT, based on the titration of 20 duck DTMUV-positive serum samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The blocking ELISA based on a neutralizing mAb allowed rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of neutralization-related antibodies against DTMUV.

  1. Sexual size dimorphism and sex determination by morphometric measurements in locally adapted muscovy duck (Cairina moschata in Nigeria

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    Abel Olusegun OGUNTUNJI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism (SSD is a common phenomenon in most mammalian and poultry species. This study was undertaken to investigate SSD in nondescript locally adapted Muscovy ducks in Nigeria by applying descriptive analysis, sexual dimorphism index (SDI, sexual size dimorphism index (SSDI and Principal Component analysis to morphological variables. Besides, attempt was made to identify best morphological predictors of sex using Stepwise Discriminant analysis. Data on ten morphological traits; body weight, body girth, body length, wing length, shank length, shank circumference, thigh length, total leg length, bill length and bill width were taken from 1,020 extensively managed adult Muscovy ducks comprising 287 males and 733 females. These birds were randomly sampled from Rain Forest, Derived Savanna and Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. Sex significantly (P < 0.001 affected all morphometric measurements in favour of males. Assessment of relative contribution of morphological traits to SSD through SDI and SSDI revealed that body weight followed by skeletal frame-related variables (body length and wing length were the most dimorphic traits. Three Principal Components were generated for each sex; accounting for 62.70 % and 54.24 % of the total variance explained of male and female ducks, respectively. In tandem with the SDI and SSDI results, Stepwise Discriminant analysis indicated body weight as the best predictor of sex of adult Muscovy ducks followed by wing length and body length; correctly classifying 98.5 % of ducks and are reliable for sex determination in the field. The established SSD in this study could be employed for description, utilization, selection and planning of improvement programs of male and female Muscovy ducks.

  2. Bacteriologica acteriological examinations of ducklings, duck's eggs, feed, and rice bran collected from Alibio market, South Kalimantan

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    Istiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bakteriological examinations of samples consisted of ducklings, duck's eggs feed and rice bran collected from Alabio market, South Kalimantan were conducted in the laboratory during the year 1992 and 1993 . Result of the examinations showed that 22 isolates of Salmonella Hadar, were isolated from 180 internal organ of ducklings (12 .2%, while 1 isolate of Salmonella Typhimurium (0 .5%, and 1 isolate of Salmonella Virchow (0 .5% was isolated respectively from 180 duck's eggs. Besides, other bacteria were also isolated namely Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp ., Citrobacter sp . Enterobacter sp, Proteus sp., and Serratia sp . No pathogenic bacteria were isolated from feed as well as from rice bran .

  3. Effect Of Fish Oil Alone or In Combination With Tomato Powder Supplementation In Feed On Egg Quality of Local Ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Faizal Andri; Eko Widodo; Osfar Sjofjan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg quality of local ducks. Fivety 28-weeks old female local ducks with initial egg production of 4 days before research was 55.00 + 4.08% (coefficient of variation 7.42%) were randomly distributed to five treatments with 2 repetition and 5 birds of each. The treatmens were T0: basal feed (control); T1: basal feed + 1500 ppm fish oil ; T2: basal feed + 3...

  4. Duck hepatitis B virus can tolerate insertion, deletion, and partial frameshift mutation in the distal pre-S region.

    OpenAIRE

    J.S. Li; Cova, L; Buckland, R.; Lambert, V; Deléage, G; Trépo, C

    1989-01-01

    In-frame and frameshift mutations were introduced into the pre-S region (1,212 base pairs) of duck hepatitis B virus. The in-frame mutants retained the inserted 12 nucleotides, while the frameshift mutants either reverted to wild type or exhibited a 10-nucleotide compensatory deletion downstream of the original mutation site. Thus, although duck hepatitis B virus has a compact and highly economical genome organization, it can replicate despite alterations of up to 9 amino acid codons in the p...

  5. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Flint, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 μg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  6. Effects of molybdenum and cadmium on the oxidative damage and kidney apoptosis in Duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lele; Cao, Huabin; Luo, Junrong; Liu, Ping; Wang, Tiancheng; Hu, Guoliang; Zhang, Caiying

    2017-11-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential element for human beings and animals; however, high dietary intake of Mo can lead to adverse reactions. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major transitional metals which has toxic effects in animals. To investigate the co-induced toxic effects of Mo and Cd on oxidative damage and kidney apoptosis in duck, 120 ducks were randomly divided into control group and 5 treatment groups which were treated with a commercial diet containing different dosages of Mo and Cd. Kidney samples were collected on the 60th and 120th days to determine the mRNA expression levels of ceruloplasmin (CP), metallothionein (MT), Bak-1, and Caspase-3 by quantitative RT-PCR. Additionally, we also determined the antioxidant activity indexes and contents of Mo, Cd, copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in serum. Meanwhile, ultrastructural changes of the kidney were observed. The results showed that glutathione reductase (GR) activity and CP level in serum were decreased in combination groups. In addition, the antioxidant indexes were decreased in co-treated groups compared with single treated groups. The mRNA expression levels of Bak-1 and Caspase-3 increased in co-treated groups. The mRNA expression level of CP in high-dose combination group was downregulated, while the mRNA expression of MT was upregulated except for low-dose Mo group. Additionally, in the later period the content of Cu in serum decreased in joint groups while the contents of Mo and Cd increased. In addition, ultrastructural changes showed mitochondrial crest fracture, swelling, deformed nuclei, and karyopyknosis in co-treated groups. Taken together, it was suggested that dietary Mo and Cd might lead to oxidative stress, kidney apoptosis and disturb homeostasis of trace elements in duck, and it showed a possible synergistic relationship between the two elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Replication, neurotropism, and pathogenicity of avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1-9 in chickens and ducks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Avian paramyxovirus (APMV serotypes 1-9 have been isolated from many different avian species. APMV-1 (Newcastle disease virus is the only well-characterized serotype, because of the high morbidity, mortality, and economic loss caused by highly virulent strains. Very little is known about the pathogenesis, replication, virulence, and tropism of the other APMV serotypes. Here, this was evaluated for prototypes strains of APMV serotypes 2-9 in cell culture and in chickens and ducks. In cell culture, only APMV-1, -3 and -5 induced syncytium formation. In chicken DF1 cells, APMV-3 replicated with an efficiency approaching that of APMV-1, while APMV-2 and -5 replicated to lower, intermediate titers and the others were much lower. Mean death time (MDT assay in chicken eggs and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI test in 1-day-old SPF chicks demonstrated that APMV types 2-9 were avirulent. Evaluation of replication in primary neuronal cells in vitro as well as in the brains of 1-day-old chicks showed that, among types 2-9, only APMV-3 was neurotropic, although this virus was not neurovirulent. Following intranasal infection of 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, replication of APMV types 2-9 was mostly restricted to the respiratory tract, although APMV-3 was neuroinvasive and neurotropic (but not neurovirulent and also was found in the spleen. Experimental intranasal infection of 3-week-old mallard ducks with the APMVs did not produce any clinical signs (even for APMV-1 and exhibited restricted viral replication of the APMVs (including APMV-1 to the upper respiratory tract regardless of their isolation source, indicating avirulence of APMV types 1-9 in mallard ducks. The link between the presence of a furin cleavage site in the F protein, syncytium formation, systemic spread, and virulence that has been well-established with APMV-1 pathotypes was not evident with the other APMV serotypes.

  8. Factors affecting fat content in mottled ducks on the Upper Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Brian; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick; Conway, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Body condition, or an individual's ability to address metabolic needs, is an important measure of organism health. For waterfowl, body condition, usually some measure of fat, provides a useful proxy for assessing energy budgets during different life history periods and potentially is a measure of response to ecosystem changes. The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is relatively poorly studied in respect to these dynamics and presents a unique case because its non-migratory life-history strategy releases it from metabolic costs experienced by many related migratory waterfowl species. Additionally, as a species in decline and of conservation concern in many parts of its range, traditional methods of fat content estimation that involve destructive sampling are less viable. The goal of this study was to produce an equation for estimating fat content in mottled ducks using birds (n = 24) donated at hunter-check stations or collected by law enforcement efforts on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge Complex from 2005 - 2007. Morphometric measurements were taken, and ether extraction and fat removal was used to estimate percent body fat content and abdominal fat mass, respectively. A hierarchical simple linear regression modeling approach was used to determine external morphometrics that best predicted abdominal fat content. A ratio model based on body mass and a length metric (keel and wing chord length possessed equal model support) provided the best relationship with abdominal fat in sampled individuals. We then applied the regression equation to historical check station data to examine fluctuations in fat content over time; fat content or condition varied relatively little with the exception of years characterized by major disturbances. The mottled duck condition model created here can be used to better monitor population status and health without destructively sampling individuals.

  9. Evidence of the trade-off between starvation and predation risks in ducks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Zimmer

    Full Text Available The theory of trade-off between starvation and predation risks predicts a decrease in body mass in order to improve flight performance when facing high predation risk. To date, this trade-off has mainly been validated in passerines, birds that store limited body reserves for short-term use. In the largest avian species in which the trade-off has been investigated (the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, the slope of the relationship between mass and flight performance was steeper in proportion to lean body mass than in passerines. In order to verify whether the same case can be applied to other birds with large body reserves, we analyzed the response to this trade-off in two other duck species, the common teal (Anas crecca and the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula. Predation risk was simulated by disturbing birds. Ducks within disturbed groups were compared to non-disturbed control birds. In disturbed groups, both species showed a much greater decrease in food intake and body mass during the period of simulated high risk than those observed in the control group. This loss of body mass allows reaching a more favourable wing loading and increases power for flight, hence enhancing flight performances and reducing predation risk. Moreover, body mass loss and power margin gain in both species were higher than in passerines, as observed in mallards. Our results suggest that the starvation-predation risk trade-off is one of the major life history traits underlying body mass adjustments, and these findings can be generalized to all birds facing predation. Additionally, the response magnitude seems to be influenced by the strategy of body reserve management.

  10. Compass gait mechanics account for top walking speeds in ducks and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usherwood, James R; Szymanek, Katie L; Daley, Monica A

    2008-12-01

    The constraints to maximum walking speed and the underlying cause of the walk-run transition remains controversial. However, the motions of the body and legs can be reduced to a few mechanical principles, which, if valid, impose simple physics-based limits to walking speed. Bipedal walking may be viewed as a vaulting gait, with the centre of mass (CoM) passing over a stiff stance leg (an 'inverted pendulum'), while the swing leg swings forward (as a pendulum). At its simplest, this forms a 'compass gait' walker, which has a maximum walking speed constrained by simple mechanics: walk too fast, or with too high a step length, and gravity fails to keep the stance foot attached to the floor. But how useful is such an extremely reductionist model? In the present study, we report measurements on a range of duck breeds as example unspecialized, non-planar, crouch-limbed walkers and contrast these findings with previous measurements on humans, using the theoretical framework of compass gait walking. Ducks walked as inverted pendulums with near-passive swing legs up to relative velocities around 0.5, remarkably consistent with the theoretical model. By contrast, top walking speeds in humans cannot be achieved with passive swing legs: humans, while still constrained by compass gait mechanics, extend their envelope of walking speeds by using relatively high step frequencies. Therefore, the capacity to drive the swing leg forward by walking humans may be a specialization for walking, allowing near-passive vaulting of the CoM at walking speeds 4/3 that possible with a passive (duck-like) swing leg.

  11. Eleven generations of selection for the duration of fertility in the intergeneric crossbreeding of ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tai Jui-Jane

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 12-generation selection experiment involving a selected line (S and a control line (C has been conducted since 1992 with the aim of increasing the number of fertile eggs laid by the Brown Tsaiya duck after a single artificial insemination (AI with pooled Muscovy semen. On average, 28.9% of the females and 17.05% of the males were selected. The selection responses and the predicted responses showed similar trends. The average predicted genetic responses per generation in genetic standard deviation units were 0.40 for the number of fertile eggs, 0.45 for the maximum duration of fertility, and 0.32 for the number of hatched mule ducklings' traits. The fertility rates for days 2–8 after AI were 89.14% in the S line and 61.46% in the C line. Embryo viability was not impaired by this selection. The largest increase in fertility rate per day after a single AI was observed from d5 to d11. In G12, the fertility rate in the selected line was 91% at d2, 94% at d3, 92% at days 3 and 4 then decreased to 81% at d8, 75% at d9, 58% at d10 and 42% at d11. In contrast, the fertility rate in the control line showed an abrupt decrease from d4 (74%. The same tendencies were observed for the evolution of hatchability according to the egg set rates. It was concluded that selection for the number of fertile eggs after a single AI with pooled Muscovy semen could effectively increase the duration of the fertile period in ducks and that research should now be focused on ways to improve the viability of the hybrid mule duck embryo.

  12. Genetic parameters for residual feed intake in a random population of Pekin duck

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    Yunsheng Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The feed intake (FI and feed efficiency are economically important traits in ducks. To obtain insight into this economically important trait, we designed an experiment based on the residual feed intake (RFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR of a random population Pekin duck. Methods Two thousand and twenty pedigreed random population Pekin ducks were established from 90 males mated to 450 females in two hatches. Traits analyzed in the study were body weight at the 42th day (BW42, 15 to 42 days average daily gain (ADG, 15 to 42 days FI, 15 to 42 days FCR, and 15 to 42 days RFI to assess their genetic inter-relationships. The genetic parameters for feed efficiency traits were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (REML methodology applied to a sire-dam model for all traits using the ASREML software. Results Estimates heritability of BW42, ADG, FI, FCR, and RFI were 0.39, 0.38, 0.33, 0.38, and 0.41, respectively. The genetic correlation was high between RFI and FI (0.77 and moderate between RFI and FCR (0.54. The genetic correlation was high and moderate between FCR and ADG (−0.80, and between FCR and BW42 (−0.64, and between FCR and FI (0.49, respectively. Conclusion Thus, selection on RFI was expected to improve feed efficiency, and reduce FI. Selection on RFI thus improves the feed efficiency of animals without impairing their FI and increase growth rate.

  13. Morphogenesis and morphometric scaling of lung airway development follows phylogeny in chicken, quail, and duck embryos

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    Daniel Tzou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New branches within the embryonic chicken lung form via apical constriction, in which epithelial cells in the primary bronchus become trapezoidal in shape. These branches form at precise locations along the primary bronchus that scale relative to the size of the organ. Here, we examined the extent to which this scaling relationship and branching mechanism are conserved within lungs of three species of birds. Findings Analyzing the development of embryonic lungs from chicken, quail, and duck, as well as lungs explanted and cultured ex vivo, revealed that the patterns of branching are remarkably conserved. In particular, secondary bronchi form at identical positions in chicken and quail, the patterns of which are indistinguishable, consistent with the close evolutionary relationship of these two species. In contrast, secondary bronchi form at slightly different positions in duck, the lungs of which are significantly larger than those of chicken and quail at the same stage of development. Confocal analysis of fixed specimens revealed that each secondary bronchus forms by apical constriction of the dorsal epithelium of the primary bronchus, a morphogenetic mechanism distinct from that used to create branches in mammalian lungs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that monopodial branching off the primary bronchus is driven by apical constriction in lungs of chicken, quail, and duck. The relative positions at which these branches form are also conserved relative to the evolutionary relationship of these species. It will be interesting to determine whether these mechanisms hold in more distant species of birds, and why they differ so significantly in mammals.

  14. Intestinal lactic acid bacteria from Muscovy duck as potential probiotics that alter adhesion factor gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z L; Bai, D P; Xie, L N; Zhang, W N; Huang, X H; Huang, Y F

    2015-10-09

    The purpose of this study was to assess the suitability of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) isolated from Muscovy duck as a potential probiotic. Isolates were identified by targeted polymerase chain reaction and assessed in vitro for probiotic characteristics such as autoaggregation; surface-charge; hydrophobicity; tolerance to acidic pH, bile salts and protease; and expression of genes involved in Caco-2 cell adhesion. The LAB isolates exhibited strong resistance to high bile concentration and acidic pH, produced lactic acid, and bacteriostatic (P probiotic bacteria and can facilitate the establishment of criteria to select probiotic strains for the prevention of diarrhea.

  15. A Gunflint-type microbiota from the Duck Creek dolomite, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Barghoorn, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Two-billion-year-old black chert lenses from the Duck Creek formation, northwestern Western Australia, contain abundant organically preserved microorganisms which are morphologically similar to fossils of approximately the same age from the Gunflint formation, Ontario. Entities include a relatively small (5-15 micron) coccoid taxon morphologically comparable to Huroniospora Barghoorn, a larger coccoid form comparable to an apparently planktonic alga from the Gunflint, Gunflintia Barghoorn, and Eoastrion Barghoorn (Metallogenium Perfil'ev). Gunflint-type assemblages had a wide geographic distribution in middle Precambrian times, and these assemblages may eventually prove useful as biostratigraphic indices.

  16. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouilhet, L; Monteville, R; Molette, C; Lague, M; Cornuez, A; Canario, L; Ricard, E; Gilbert, H

    2016-09-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (-5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (-5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (-0.08, P = 0.03 and -0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter. © The

  17. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Drouilhet, L.; Monteville, R.; Molette, C.; Lague, M.; Cornuez, A.; Canario, L; Ricard, E.; Gilbert, H.

    2016-01-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. F...

  18. Sequence-specific inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robaczewska, Magdalena; Narayan, Ramamurthy; Seigneres, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) appear as promising new antisense agents, that have not yet been examined as hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibitors. Our aim was to study the ability of PNAs targeting the duck HBV (DHBV) encapsidation signal epsilon to inhibit reverse transcription (RT...... inhibitor than the PNA targeting only the bulge. Importantly, the inhibition was highly sequence-specific since double-mismatched PNA had no effect on the RT reaction. Moreover, in PDH the PNA coupled to Arg(7) cationic delivery peptide decreased DHBV replication. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first evidence...

  19. Gold Temporal Rings with a Small Duck from the Perm Cis-Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belavin Andrey M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The author examines a typical Bulgarian precious adornment – gold temple rings with a fi ligree duck fi gurine. He considers their area, manufacturing technology, issues of origin, dating and semantics. Such pendants are thought to be an ethno-social marker of the Volga Bulgaria nobility. Findings of such rings outside Bulgaria, including imported items, are known only in the Perm Cis-Urals, which is thought to be their local manufacturing center. This suggests that representatives of the Bulgarian nobility lived there and possibly married the elite of the Cis-Uralic Finno-Ugrians, who were in the process of their feudalization.

  20. STUDY ON THE ENERGY NUTRITION VALUES OF HULL-LESS BARLEY IN EXPERIMENTS WITH MUSCOVY DUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimo PENKOV

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Using adapted methods for balanced experiments with waterfowl, the apparent (AMEn-0 and the true (TMEn-0 metabolizable energy of hull-less barley have been established. Despite the lower content of crude fi ber, the energy values were similar to the common barley (Hordeum sativa L.. The AMEn-0 and the TMEn-0 of the forage for Muscovy ducks were 12.29 MJ/kg DM and 13.28 MJ/kg DM, and the coeffi cients of the gross energy transformation - 68.97 and 74.52, respectively.

  1. Fitting statistical distributions to sea duck count data: implications for survey design and abundance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Leirness, Jeffery B.; Kinlan, Brian P.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Silverman, Emily D.

    2014-01-01

    Determining appropriate statistical distributions for modeling animal count data is important for accurate estimation of abundance, distribution, and trends. In the case of sea ducks along the U.S. Atlantic coast, managers want to estimate local and regional abundance to detect and track population declines, to define areas of high and low use, and to predict the impact of future habitat change on populations. In this paper, we used a modified marked point process to model survey data that recorded flock sizes of Common eiders, Long-tailed ducks, and Black, Surf, and White-winged scoters. The data come from an experimental aerial survey, conducted by the United States Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) Division of Migratory Bird Management, during which east-west transects were flown along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida during the winters of 2009–2011. To model the number of flocks per transect (the points), we compared the fit of four statistical distributions (zero-inflated Poisson, zero-inflated geometric, zero-inflated negative binomial and negative binomial) to data on the number of species-specific sea duck flocks that were recorded for each transect flown. To model the flock sizes (the marks), we compared the fit of flock size data for each species to seven statistical distributions: positive Poisson, positive negative binomial, positive geometric, logarithmic, discretized lognormal, zeta and Yule–Simon. Akaike’s Information Criterion and Vuong’s closeness tests indicated that the negative binomial and discretized lognormal were the best distributions for all species for the points and marks, respectively. These findings have important implications for estimating sea duck abundances as the discretized lognormal is a more skewed distribution than the Poisson and negative binomial, which are frequently used to model avian counts; the lognormal is also less heavy-tailed than the power law distributions (e.g., zeta and Yule–Simon), which are

  2. Identification of a recombinant Muscovy Duck parvovirus (MDPV) in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yumin; Zhou, Zongqing; Huang, Yu; Yu, Ruisong; Dong, Shijuan; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2014-12-05

    The full-length genome of strain SAAS-SHNH, a MDPV isolated from Muscovy Duck in Shanghai, has been sequenced and shown to share 93.7% nucleotide identity with MDPV strain FM (NC_006147). Two putative genetic recombination events were identified as occurring within the 419-610 nt and 3113-4241 nt regions of the SAAS-SHNH genome which, for the first time, provide evidence of recombination between MDPVs and GPVs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2001-2002 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Mattie H.; Sellman, Jake (Shoshone-Paiute Nation, Duck Valley Indian Reservation, Owyhee, NV)

    2003-03-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservation's Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect critical riparian areas, natural springs, the Owhyee River and its tributaries, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project commenced in 1997 and addresses the Northwest Power Planning Council's measures 10.8C.2, 10.8C.3, and 10.8C.5 of the 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The performance period covers dates from April 2001 through August 2002.

  4. Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Salem, F. M.; Abu Arab, E. A.

    2010-07-01

    Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning fatty liver, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras). Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras) changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras) manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA) or sorbic acid (SA) and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 degree centigrade were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 degree centigrade. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras) from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 degree centigrade could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile nitrogen (TVN), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 degree centigrade). This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras). A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of

  5. Survival of American Black Ducks radiomarked in Quebec, Nova Scotia and Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Clugston, D.A.; Bunck, C.M.; Giroux, J.-F.; Ouellet, C.; Parker, G.R.; Dupuis, P.; Stotts, D.B.; Goldsberry, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    We monitored survival of 397 radiomarked juvenile American black ducks (Anas rubripes) distributed among Les Escoumins (n = 75) and Kamouraska, Quebec (n = 84), Amherst Point, Nova Scotia (n = 89), and a site on the Vermont-Quebec border (n = 149) during autumn 1990 and 1991. Eighty-six percent (215 of 250) of all confirmed mortalities during the study was from hunting; 72% of marked ducks were shot and retrieved and 14% were shot and unretrieved. We tested for differences in survival in relation to sex, body mass, year (1990-91, 1991-92), and among the 4 locations for each of 2 monitoring periods (early, EMP; late, LMP). With data from the EMP for Vermont-Quebec in 1990 and 1991, Les Escoumins in 1990, and Amherst Point in 1991, survival of hatching-year (HY) males and females did not differ (P = 0.357). For sexes combined for the EMP, survival of ducks was greater in 1991 than 1990 (P = 0.086), and differed among locations (P = 0.013). Survival (years combined) was greater at Amherst Point than at Kamouraska (P = 0.003) and Vermont-Quebec (P = 0.002) during the EMP. The highest survival rate at Amherst Point (0.545 ? 0.056 [SE]) was associated with the latest date (8 Oct) of season opening; the lowest survival rate (0.395 ? 0.043) was at the Vermont-Quebec border, where hunter numbers and activity were greatest. For the LMP, no interaction between years and locations was detected (P = 0.942), and no differences in survival existed between years (P = 0.102) and among locations (P = 0.349). No association was detected between body mass at capture and survival of combined males and females during the EMP (P = 0.572) or during the LMP (P = 0.965). When we censored hunting losses for combined years for each period, EMP or LMP, all survival estimates exceeded 0.800 (0.809-0.965). These data emphasize need for an improved harvest strategy for American black ducks in North America to allow for increases in breeding populations to achieve population goals.

  6. The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Papp

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. across Canada. Generalized linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that risk of AIV infection was higher in hatch-year birds compared to adults, and was positively associated with a high proportion of hatch-year birds in the population. Males were more likely to be infected than females in British Columbia and in Eastern Provinces of Canada, but more complex relationships among age and sex cohorts were found in the Prairie Provinces. A species effect was apparent in Eastern Canada and British Columbia, where teal (A. discors and/or A. carolinensis were less likely to be infected than mallards (A. platyrhynchos. Risk of AIV infection increased with the density of the breeding population, in both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces, and lower temperatures preceding sampling were associated with a higher probability of AIV infection in Eastern Canada. Our results provide new insights into the ecological and demographic factors associated with AIV infection in waterfowl.

  7. Identification and characterization of functional CD154 (CD40 ligand) in the Pekin duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karl P; Gares, Sheryl L; Wang, Dakun; Lorne Tyrrell, D; Gutfreund, Klaus S

    2007-01-01

    Binding of CD154, a member of the TNF ligand superfamily, to its receptor CD40 is essential for the development and regulation of adaptive immune responses in mammals. The duck CD154 (DuCD154) encoding gene was isolated from activated splenocytes using RT-PCR. Sequence analysis of the cloned DuCD154 gene revealed an open reading frame of 819 base pairs encoding a 272 amino acid protein. The extracellular domain of DuCD154 was identified and expressed for characterization and generation of antibodies. DuCD154 mRNA was predominantly expressed in spleen, thymus and duodenum. DuCD154 protein generated in cell culture was secreted and formed dimers. DuCD154 markedly enhanced proliferative responses in duck splenocytes when used alone or in conjunction with LPS or PHA. These observations suggest that DuCD154 has functional equivalence with mammalian CD154 and that the central role of CD154 as an immunoregulatory protein had already evolved before the divergence of birds and mammals.

  8. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  9. Observations on Salmonella contamination of commercial duck farms before and after cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J; Callaby, Rebecca; Davies, Rob

    2017-04-01

    In the European Union, statutory control of Salmonella is in place in the chicken and turkey sectors, but not in the duck sector. In this study, 14 Salmonella-positive duck farms were sampled before and after cleaning and disinfection, and once the houses had been restocked with a new flock. The cleaning and disinfection programmes used were subdivided into two main categories: ones in which a final formaldehyde disinfection step was included (1) and ones in which it was not included (2). Several types of samples were collected during the study, and faecal samples were those more frequently positive (62% of faecal samples were positive for Salmonella in comparison to 2-23% of samples from all the other sample categories) (P Salmonella-positive samples between before cleaning and disinfection (41.1%) and after cleaning and disinfection (3.1%). After restocking, the number of Salmonella-positive samples increased significantly (P Salmonella. Farms in which disinfection programme 1 was used were 5.34 times less likely to have samples positive for Salmonella after cleaning and disinfection than farms which implemented programme 2. Formaldehyde acts effectively against Salmonella even in the presence of some residual organic matter. Limited residual contamination on farms after cleaning and disinfection represents a risk of infection for young ducklings, and thorough cleaning and disinfection procedures should be implemented to reduce the carry-over of infection between flocks.

  10. Experimental lead toxicity in the ring-necked duck. [Aythya collaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mautino, M.; Bell, J.U.

    1985-12-01

    Ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) were administered a single lead shot by gastric intubation. At weekly intervals over a 7-week period, the birds were weighed and blood samples obtained for measurement of hematocrit, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), blood lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ADAD) activity. The birds were fluoroscoped weekly to ensure that the pellets had been retained. Blood lead concentrations peaked 1 week after dosing at a concentration of 7.75 ..mu..g/ml and then fell to control levels by Week 4. FEP concentrations in the treated ducks also peaked 1 week after dosing at levels which were roughly 1200% of control concentrations. The return of FEP concentrations to normal paralleled blood lead. ALAD activity was inhibited by approximately 85% by Week 1; however, there was a gradual but steady recovery of ALAD activity through Week 7. Four of the treated birds died within 2 to 3 weeks of lead administration. Physical signs of lead toxicity were maximal 7 to 10 days postdosing and included ataxia, loss of body weight, impaction of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and bile green diarrhea. In surviving birds, overt signs of toxicity declined with time and all birds appeared normal by Week 7.

  11. Mycoplasmas and acholeplasmas isolated from ducks and their possible association with pasteurellas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, S K

    1990-07-21

    Two hundred and sixty-three cases of clinically diseased ducks of all ages were examined for the presence of mycoplasmas. Mycoplasmas and acholeplasmas belonging to more than eight serogroups were cultured from 68 of them, and comprised 12 M anatis, one M columbinasale, two M gallinaceum, two M gallinarum, nine M synoviae, three unidentified Mycoplasma species, 37 Acholeplasma laidlawii and one unclassified acholeplasma belonging to each of serogroups 7 and 8. They were identified by biochemical characterisation, disc growth inhibition and agar gel diffusion tests. Fifty-three (78 per cent) of the isolates occurred with species of Pasteurella: 33.8 per cent with Pasteurella anatipestifer, 32.4 per cent with P multocida and 11.8 per cent with both P anatipestifer and P multocida. Nine of the isolates (13.2 per cent) were in pure culture and six (8.8 per cent) with other agents. Of the ducks negative for mycoplasmas 33.3 per cent were infected with P anatipestifer, 25.1 per cent with P multocida and 14.4 per cent with both P anatipestifer and P multocida. There was no correlation between the infections with mycoplasmas and P anatipestifer but there was a weak association between the infections with mycoplasmas, especially M anatis and P multocida.

  12. Explosive eversion and functional morphology of the duck penis supports sexual conflict in waterfowl genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Patricia L. R.; Clark, Christopher J.; Prum, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Coevolution of male and female genitalia in waterfowl has been hypothesized to occur through sexual conflict. This hypothesis raises questions about the functional morphology of the waterfowl penis and the mechanics of copulation in waterfowl, which are poorly understood. We used high-speed video of phallus eversion and histology to describe for the first time the functional morphology of the avian penis. Eversion of the 20 cm muscovy duck penis is explosive, taking an average of 0.36 s, and achieving a maximum velocity of 1.6 m s−1. The collagen matrix of the penis is very thin and not arranged in an axial-orthogonal array, resulting in a penis that is flexible when erect. To test the hypothesis that female genital novelties make intromission difficult during forced copulations, we investigated penile eversion into glass tubes that presented different mechanical challenges to eversion. Eversion occurred successfully in a straight tube and a counterclockwise spiral tube that matched the chirality of the waterfowl penis, but eversion was significantly less successful into glass tubes with a clockwise spiral or a 135° bend, which mimicked female vaginal geometry. Our results support the hypothesis that duck vaginal complexity functions to exclude the penis during forced copulations, and coevolved with the waterfowl penis via antagonistic sexual conflict. PMID:20031991

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia species isolates in ducks and geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. isolated from duck and goose intestinal contents. A total of 471 samples, including 291 duck and 180 goose intestinal contents, were purchased from wet markets between November 2008 and July 2010. Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. were isolated from 58 (12.3%), 107 (22.7%), and 80 (17%) of the samples, respectively. It was concluded that Listeria ivanovii, Salmonella Thompson, and Yersinia enterocolitica were the predominant serovars among Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp., respectively. Moreover, resistance to tetracycline was common in Listeria (48.3%) and Salmonella spp. (63.6%), whereas 51.3% of the Yersinia spp. isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Therefore, continued surveillance of the prevalence of the pathogens and also of emerging antibiotic resistance is needed to render possible the recognition of foods that may represent risks and also ensure the effective treatment of listeriosis, salmonellosis, and yersiniosis.

  14. An individual-based, spatial foraging model for cadmium accumulation in diving ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovvorn, J.R.; Gillingham, M.P. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Zoology and Physiology

    1994-12-31

    Contaminant studies of migratory birds include two main approaches: (1) collecting wild birds and analyzing their tissues, and (2) toxicity assays with captive birds. The first approach has shortcomings for these highly mobile animals--one seldom knows their length of stay in the area, and sites are often in urban environments where shooting is problematic. The second approach with captive birds ignores changes in food intake with varying activity and weather experienced by wild birds, and greater toxic consequences under multiple environmental stresses. Neither of these approaches alone can predict maximum allowable contaminant levels in foods that preclude toxic effects under different field conditions, or what body burdens accumulate during varying lengths of stay and affect the birds` biology at other places and times. To allow such predictions, the authors developed an individual-based model for intake of benthic foods by diving ducks for varying weather, water depth, food dispersion, and nutrient content of food. Food-intake estimates are combined with laboratory data on contaminant uptake as a function of food consumption and contaminant content. As an example, the authors estimate cadmium uptake by canvas back ducks foraging on below ground tubers of the submerged plant Vallisneria americans. They then show how their model can be used to include avian benthiovores in aquatic food web models for ecological risk assessment.

  15. Long-term monitoring of endangered Laysan ducks: Index validation and population estimates 1998–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen; Brinck, Kevin W.; Rehkemper, Cynthia; Hatfield, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring endangered wildlife is essential to assessing management or recovery objectives and learning about population status. We tested assumptions of a population index for endangered Laysan duck (or teal; Anas laysanensis) monitored using mark–resight methods on Laysan Island, Hawai’i. We marked 723 Laysan ducks between 1998 and 2009 and identified seasonal surveys through 2012 that met accuracy and precision criteria for estimating population abundance. Our results provide a 15-y time series of seasonal population estimates at Laysan Island. We found differences in detection among seasons and how observed counts related to population estimates. The highest counts and the strongest relationship between count and population estimates occurred in autumn (September–November). The best autumn surveys yielded population abundance estimates that ranged from 674 (95% CI = 619–730) in 2003 to 339 (95% CI = 265–413) in 2012. A population decline of 42% was observed between 2010 and 2012 after consecutive storms and Japan’s To¯hoku earthquake-generated tsunami in 2011. Our results show positive correlations between the seasonal maximum counts and population estimates from the same date, and support the use of standardized bimonthly counts of unmarked birds as a valid index to monitor trends among years within a season at Laysan Island.

  16. Effect of Ginger Extract and Citric Acid on the Tenderness of Duck Breast Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ginger extract (GE) combined with citric acid on the tenderness of duck breast muscles. Total six marinades were prepared with the combination of citric acid (0 and 0.3 M citric acid) and GE (0, 15, and 30%). Each marinade was sprayed on the surface of duck breasts (15 mL/100 g), and the samples were marinated for 72 h at 4℃. The pH and proteolytic activity of marinades were determined. After 72 h of marination, Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), pH, cooking loss, moisture content, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protein solubility were evaluated. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in moisture content or cooking loss among all samples. However, GE marination resulted in a significant (pcitric acid) and WC (with citric acid) conditions were significantly (pcitric acid may be attributed to various mechanisms such as increased MFI and myofibrillar protein solubility. PMID:26877631

  17. Isolation and polymerase chain reaction-based identification of Riemerella anatipestifer from ducks in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Soman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to isolate and characterize Riemerella anatipestifer organisms from disease outbreaks in ducks in Kerala. Materials and Methods: Ducklings, suspected of Riemerella infection, were sacrificed and subjected to post-mortem examination. Heart blood smears and impression smears from liver and spleen were examined for the presence of pathogenic organisms. Heart blood, lung, liver, and spleen collected aseptically from the birds were subjected to isolation trials in brain heart infusion agar and 10% bovine blood agar. The isolates were characterized based on morphology, cultural characteristics and biochemical tests, and their identity were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the PCR amplified DNA was sequenced. The antibiotic sensitivity testing of the isolates were carried out using six antibiotics viz ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, and gentamicin. Results: Colonies suggestive of Riemerella organisms could be isolated on blood agar. Biochemical characterization and PCR confirmed the identity of isolates as R. anatipestifer. The nucleotide sequence of the PCR product showed 99% homology to the R. anatipestifer sequences in the NCBI. The antibiogram revealed that the organisms were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the PCR assay can facilitate fast and proper identification of R. anatipestifer infection in ducks. The assay can also differentiate between R. anatipestifer and Pasteurella multocida and can replace the traditional methods of differentiation which are cumbersome and time-consuming.

  18. A photonic heterostructure produces diverse iridescent colours in duck wing patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Chad M; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2012-09-07

    The colours of birds are diverse but limited relative to the colours they can perceive. This mismatch may be partially caused by the properties of their colour-production mechanisms. Aside from pigments, several classes of highly ordered nanostructures (thin films, amorphous three-dimensional arrays) can produce a range of colours. However, the variability of any single nanostructural class has rarely been explored. Dabbling ducks are a speciose clade with substantial interspecific variation in the iridescent coloration of their wing patches (specula). Here, we use electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, polarization and refractive index-matching experiments, and optical modelling to examine these colours. We show that, in all species examined, speculum colour is produced by a photonic heterostructure consisting of both a single thin-film of keratin and a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of melanosomes in feather barbules. Although the range of possible variations of this heterostructure is theoretically broad, only relatively close-packed, energetically stable variants producing more saturated colours were observed, suggesting that ducks are either physically constrained to these configurations or are under selection for the colours that they produce. These data thus reveal a previously undescribed biophotonic structure and suggest that both physical variability and constraints within single nanostructural classes may help explain the broader patterns of colour across Aves.

  19. The body size-dependent diet composition of north american sea ducks in winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Ouellet

    Full Text Available Daily food requirements scale with body mass and activity in animals. While small species of birds have higher mass-specific field metabolic rates than larger species, larger species have higher absolute energy costs. Under energy balance, we thus expect the small species to have a higher energy value diet. Also the weight and time constraints for flighted and diurnal foragers should set a maximum to the amount of prey items taken in one meal and to the daily number of meals, respectively. Further, avoidance of competition causes the species to reduce the amount of shared prey in their diet. Some diet segregation is therefore to be expected between species. We tested these hypotheses and investigated the role of body mass in the diet composition of 12 sea duck species (Somateria mollissima, Somateria spectabilis, Somateria fischeri, Polysticta stelleri, Bucephala clangula, Bucephala islandica, Bucephala albeola, Melanitta nigra, Melanitta perspicillata, Melanitta deglandi, Histrionicus histrionicus and Clangula hyemalis wintering in North America. This study was based on a literature survey with special emphasis given to the diet data from the former US Bureau of Biological Survey. The data supported our hypothesis that the energy value of winter diet of sea ducks scales negatively with body mass. Diet diversity also scaled negatively with body mass. Our results suggest the existence of a minimum for the energy value of avian diets.

  20. Comparison of physicochemical and functional properties of duck feet and bovine gelatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yau-Hoong; Nafchi, Abdorreza Mohammadi; Huda, Nurul; Ariffin, Fazilah; Karim, Alias A

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that duck feet are a rich source of gelatin extractable from avian sources. In this study, the physicochemical and functional properties of avian gelatin extracted from duck feet (DFG) with acetic acid were compared with those of commercial bovine gelatin (BG). The yield of DFG obtained in this study was 7.01 ± 0.31%. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the imino acid content was slightly lower for DFG compared with BG (P < 0.05). Differences in molecular size and amino acids between DFG and BG were also observed. The isoelectric points of DFG and BG were at pH 8 and 5 respectively, and the overall protein solubility of BG was higher than that of DFG. Gels prepared from BG exhibited higher bloom strength, viscosity and clarity and were darker in colour compared with DFG gels (P < 0.05). The gelling and melting points of BG were 21.8 and 29.47 °C respectively, while those of DFG were 20.5 and 27.8 °C respectively. BG exhibited slightly better emulsifying and foaming properties compared with DFG. Although some differences between DFG and BG were observed, the disparities were small, which indicates that DFG could be exploited commercially as an alternative source of gelatin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Node Enabled by a Duck-Shaped Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Water Wave Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam

    2016-12-08

    This paper presents a fully enclosed duck-shaped triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) for effectively scavenging energy from random and low-frequency water waves. The design of the TENG incorporates the freestanding rolling mode and the pitch motion of a duck-shaped structure generated by incident waves. By investigating the material and structural features, a unit of the TENG device is successfully designed. Furthermore, a hybrid system is constructed using three units of the TENG device. The hybrid system achieves an instantaneous peak current of 65.5 µA with an instantaneous output power density of up to 1.366 W m−2. Following the design, a fluid–solid interaction analysis is carried out on one duck-shaped TENG to understand the dynamic behavior, mechanical efficiency, and stability of the device under various water wave conditions. In addition, the hybrid system is experimentally tested to enable a commercial wireless temperature sensor node. In summary, the unique duck-shaped TENG shows a simple, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, light-weight, and highly stable system. The newly designed TENG is promising for building a network of generators to harvest existing blue energy in oceans, lakes, and rivers.

  2. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on nesting wood ducks (Aix sponsa) at Bayou Meto, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D H; Hoffman, D J

    1995-05-01

    Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) nesting along Bayou Meto downstream from a hazardous waste site in central Arkansas were contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Residues in eggs, based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), ranged up to 611 parts per trillion (ppt), and egg arithmetic means were 90-fold higher at the site nearest the point source compared with a reference site. We monitored productivity of wood ducks in artificial nest boxes at three sites on the bayou and at a reference site on a separate drainage during 1988-1990. Productivity was suppressed (p nests. The threshold range of toxicity, where reduced productivity was evident in wood ducks (based on TCDD-EQs), was > 20 to 50 ppt. Oxidative stress and teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting sites nearest the point source. These findings suggest that wood ducks may be more sensitive to PCDD and PCDF contamination than some other aquatic birds and could serve as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants.

  3. Atypical feeding behavior of Long-tailed Ducks in the wake of a commercial fishing boat while clamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Matthew; Osenton, Peter C.; White, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    A foraging group of Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Duck) was observed on 10 February 2010 diving behind a commercial boat that was clamming near Monomoy Island, Nantucket Sound, MA. We used a shotgun to collect 9 of the ducks, and our analyses of gizzard and gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) revealed 37 food items in the gizzard and 16 in the gullet. Mollusca were the dominant food in the gizzard (49%), whereas Crustacea were dominant in the gullet (57%). Crustacea were the second most important food in the gizzard (38%), whereas Mollusca were the second most important food in the gullet (31%). Relatively high volumes of the Amphipoda Caprella sp. (skeleton shrimp) and the Decopoda Crangon septemspinosa (Sand Shrimp) were recorded in the gullet and gizzard. Ensis directus (Atlantic Jackknife Clam) formed the greatest volume of Mollusca in the gizzard (15%) and in the gullet (15%). Long-tailed Ducks had fed on this Bivalvia and several other species of Mollusca that had no shell or broken shell when consumed. Many of the food organisms were apparently dislodged and some damaged by the clamming operation creating an opportunistic feeding strategy for the Long-tailed Ducks.

  4. Assessing the Impact of the Tunø Knob Wind Park on Sea Ducks : the Influence of Food Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemette, M.; Larsen, J. K.; Clausager, I.

    Abstract This study deals with the influence of benthos abundance when assessing the potential impact of a small wind park on wintering sea ducks. Using the Before-After-Control-Impact design, it was suggested in a recent study (Guillemette et al. 1998) that the wind park provoked a decline...

  5. HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDAANCE OF HISTRIONICUS HISTRIONICUS (HARLEQUIN DUCKS)WINTERING IN SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlequin ducks that winter along the east coast of North America are listed as an endangered population in Canada, and they use several coastal wintering sites in southern New England, USA that are subject to varying degrees of urbanization. We studied patterns of habitat use b...

  6. Effect Of Fish Oil Alone or In Combination With Tomato Powder Supplementation In Feed On Egg Quality of Local Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizal Andri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg quality of local ducks. Fivety 28-weeks old female local ducks with initial egg production of 4 days before research was 55.00 + 4.08% (coefficient of variation 7.42% were randomly distributed to five treatments with 2 repetition and 5 birds of each. The treatmens were T0: basal feed (control; T1: basal feed + 1500 ppm fish oil ; T2: basal feed + 3000 ppm fish oil; T3: basal feed + 1500 ppm fish oil + 150 ppm tomato powder; T4: basal feed + 3000 ppm fish oil + 150 ppm tomato powder. Variable observed in this research were egg shape index, egg shell weight, yolk weight, and albumen weight. Data were analyzed using one-way Anova based on Completely Randomized Design, if significant effect appear was then continued with Duncan Multiple Range Test. The result showed that there were no significant effect (P>0.05 of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg shape index, egg shell weight, yolk weight, and albumen weight of local ducks. The conclusion of this research is that there was no effect of fish oil alone or in combination with tomato powder supplementation in feed on egg quality of local ducks.

  7. Nematodes of the genus Amidostomum (Railliet et Henry, 1909) in wild ducks (Anatinae) of North-western Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavetska, K.M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The study was aimed to quantify infections with nematodes of the genus Amidostomum in wild ducks of north-western Poland. The birds examined (282 individuals re-presenting 16 species) belonged to three, ecologically different, tribes: the Anatini, Aythyini and Mergini. The 923 individuals of

  8. Food intake rates and habitat segregation of tufted duck Aythya fuligula scaup Aythya marila exploiting zebra mussels Dreissena Polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The foraging skills of Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula and Scaup Aythya marila feeding on Zebra Mussels Dreissena polymorpha were studied in experiments under semi-natural diving conditions with relevance to the IJsselmeer/Markermeer area (large lakes in the centre of The Netherlands, former Zuiderzee

  9. Food intake rates and habitat segregation of tufted duck Aythya fuligula and scaup Aythya marila exploiting zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, JJ

    1999-01-01

    The foraging skills of Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula and Scaup Aythya marila feeding on Zebra Mussels Dreissena polymorpha were studied in experiments under seminatural diving conditions with relevance to the IJssalmeer/Markermeer area (large lakes in the centre of The Netherlands, former Zuiderzee

  10. Adjustments in the diving time budgets of tufted duck and pochard : Is there evidence for a mix of metabolic pathways?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbone, C; DeLeeuw, JJ; Houston, AI

    Predictions of models for the optimal allocation of time over the dive cycle for divers using aerobic and anaerobic respiration, were tested experimentally on the tufted duck, Aythya fuligula, and pochard, A. ferina. Patterns in the dive cycle were highly correlated with water depth. In both

  11. Immuno disc assay for screening duck hepatitis B surface antigen in serum, liver tissue and cultured hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. de Wilde (G.); R.A. Heijtink

    1993-01-01

    textabstractAn immuno disc assay (IDA) for semi-quantitative analysis of the surface antigen (DHBsAg) of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is described. Unpurified antigen preparations were adsorbed onto punched-out nitrocellulose membrane discs. Rabbit antiserum raised against serum-derived

  12. Comparative study on histological structures of the vitelline membrane of hen and duck egg observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Hsin; Lai, Kung-Ming; Hsu, Kuo-chiang

    2010-02-10

    The histological structures of the vitelline membranes (VM) of hen and duck eggs were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), and the chemical characteristics were also compared. The outer layer surface (OLS) of duck egg VM showed networks constructed by fibrils and sheets (0.1-5.2 microm in width), and that of hen egg presented networks formed only by sheets (2-6 microm in width). Thicker fibrils (0.5-1.5 microm in width) with different arrangement were observed on the inner layer surface (ILS) of duck egg VM as compared to those (0.3-0.7 microm in width) of hen egg VM. Upon separation, the outer surface of the outer layer (OSOL) and the inner surface of the inner layer (ISIL) of hen and duck egg VMs were quite similar to fresh VM except that the OSOL of duck egg VM showed networks constructed only by sheets. Thin fibrils interlaced above a bumpy or flat structure were observed at the exposed surface of the outer layer (ESOL) of hen and duck egg VMs. The exposed surfaces of inner layers (ESIL) of hen and duck egg VMs showed similar structures of fibrils, which joined, branched, and ran in straight lines for long distances up to 30 microm; however, the widths of the fibrils shown in ESOL and ESIL of duck egg VM were 0.1 and 0.7-1.4 microm, respectively, and were greater than those (<0.1 and 0.5-0.8 microm) of hen egg VM. The continuous membranes of both hen and duck egg VMs were still attached to the outer layers when separated. The content of protein, the major component of VM, was higher in duck egg VM (88.6%) than in hen egg VM (81.6%). Four and six major SDS-soluble protein patterns with distinct localization were observed in hen and duck egg VMs, respectively. Overall, the different histological structures of hen and duck egg VMs were suggested to be majorly attributable to the diverse protein components.

  13. Accumulation and effects of lead and cadmium on wood ducks near a mining and smelting complex in Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L J; Henny, C J; Hoffman, D J; Grove, R A

    1993-06-01

    : A study of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) was conducted along the Coeur d'Alene River system in northern Idaho in 1986 and 1987. Most of this area has been subjected to severe contamination from lead and other metals from mining and smelting since the 1880s. In 1986, a preliminary study of wood duck nesting was conducted in the contaminated area; incubating hens captured in nest boxes were bled and weighed. Blood samples were used to determine lead and cadmium concentrations and physiological characteristics. In 1987, an intensive study of wood ducks involved trapping and monitoring nest boxes in the contaminated area. Blood and tissue samples were also taken from wood ducks from a reference area without known contamination from metals. Lead levels in blood and tissues of most wood ducks from the contaminated area frequently exceeded those considered hazardous to birds; maximum levels (wet weight) of lead were 8 μg g(-1) in blood and 14 μg g(-1) in liver. Changes in physiological characteristics constituted the only evidence of potentially adverse effects from lead. In the contaminated area, nesting success (55% unadjusted, 35% Mayfield estimate) was less than in other areas where predation was low and nest boxes were used; but lead concentrations and physiological characteristics of blood were similar in successful and unsuccessful hens.Values of ALAD, hemoglobin, and body mass were negatively correlated with blood concentrations of lead, whereas protoporphyrin was positively correlated with lead levels in the blood. Some of the protoporphyrin values (1,091 μg dl(-1) in a male and 756 μg dl(-1) in a female) equalled those associated with lead toxicosis in experimental birds. ALAD activity was low in most birds from the contaminated area; values of 0 were obtained from 11 birds. Lead levels in blood, ALAD, protoporphyrin, and hemoglobin were significantly different between birds from the contaminated and reference areas. Concentrations of lead in ingesta of wood

  14. Accumulation and effects of lead and cadmium on wood ducks near a mining and smelting complex in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    A study of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) was conducted along the Coeur d'Alene River system in northern Idaho in 1986 and 1987. Most of this area has been subjected to severe contamination from lead and other metals from mining and smelting since the 1880s. In 1986, a preliminary study of wood duck nesting was conducted in the contaminated area; incubating hens captured in nest boxes were bled and weighed. Blood samples were used to determine lead and cadmium concentrations and physiological characteristics. In 1987, an intensive study of wood ducks involved trapping and monitoring nest boxes in the contaminated area. Blood and tissue samples were also taken from wood ducks from a reference area without known contamination from metals. Lead levels in blood and tissues of most wood ducks from the contaminated area frequently exceeded those considered hazardous to birds; maximum levels (wet weight) of lead were 8 :g g?1 in blood and 14 :g g?1 in liver. Changes in physiological characteristics constituted the only evidence of potentially adverse effects from lead. In the contaminated area, nesting success (55% unadjusted, 35% Mayfield estimate) was less than in other areas where predation was low and nest boxes were used; but lead concentrations and physiological characteristics of blood were similar in successful and unsuccessful hens. Values of ALAD, hemoglobin, and body mass were negatively correlated with blood concentrations of lead, whereas protoporphyrin was positively correlated with lead levels in the blood. Some of the protoporphyrin values (1,091 :g dl?1 in a male and 756 :g dl?1 in a female) equalled those associated with lead toxicosis in experimental birds. ALAD activity was low in most birds from the contaminated area; values of 0 were obtained from 11 birds. Lead levels in blood, ALAD, protoporphyrin, and hemoglobin were significantly different between birds from the contaminated and reference areas. Concentrations of lead in ingesta of wood ducks ranged

  15. DNA vaccine-generated duck polyclonal antibodies as a postexposure prophylactic to prevent hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Brocato

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is the predominant cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in South America and the only hantavirus known to be transmitted person-to-person. There are no vaccines, prophylactics, or therapeutics to prevent or treat this highly pathogenic disease (case-fatality 35-40%. Infection of Syrian hamsters with ANDV results in a disease that closely mimics human HPS in incubation time, symptoms of respiratory distress, and disease pathology. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of two postexposure prophylaxis strategies in the ANDV/hamster lethal disease model. First, we evaluated a natural product, human polyclonal antibody, obtained as fresh frozen plasma (FFP from a HPS survivor. Second, we used DNA vaccine technology to manufacture a polyclonal immunoglobulin-based product that could be purified from the eggs of vaccinated ducks (Anas platyrhynchos. The natural "despeciation" of the duck IgY (i.e., Fc removed results in an immunoglobulin predicted to be minimally reactogenic in humans. Administration of ≥ 5,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU/kg of FFP-protected hamsters from lethal disease when given up to 8 days after intranasal ANDV challenge. IgY/IgYΔFc antibodies purified from the eggs of DNA-vaccinated ducks effectively neutralized ANDV in vitro as measured by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT. Administration of 12,000 NAU/kg of duck egg-derived IgY/IgYΔFc protected hamsters when administered up to 8 days after intranasal challenge and 5 days after intramuscular challenge. These experiments demonstrate that convalescent FFP shows promise as a postexposure HPS prophylactic. Moreover, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA vaccine technology coupled with the duck/egg system to manufacture a product that could supplement or replace FFP. The DNA vaccine-duck/egg system can be scaled as needed and obviates the necessity of using limited blood products obtained from a small number of HPS survivors. This

  16. Nidificação e forrageamento de Centris (Ptilotopus maranhensis Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini Nesting biology and foraging of Centris (Ptilotopus maranhensis Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ramos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas pertencentes à tribo Centridini possuem distribuição neotropical e são consideradas os principais polinizadores de diversas espécies vegetais em diferentes biomas. Apesar disso, dados sobre a biologia da maioria das espécies ainda são escassos. Este trabalho relata observações sobre a biologia de Centris (Ptilotopus maranhensis Ducke, 1910, uma espécie que ocorre no Nordeste do Brasil. O estudo foi conduzido em uma área de cerrado no Estado do Maranhão durante o período de atividade dos adultos. Fêmeas foram observadas nidificando em termiteiros epígeos e em visita às flores de Byrsonima umbellata Mart. (Malpighiaceae para coleta de óleo. O comportamento foi registrado diretamente e através de filmagens. Os ninhos foram escavados, raspando-se o substrato até as células serem encontradas. Um ninho completo foi aberto para exame das estruturas internas e análise do conteúdo das células. A estrutura geral apresentava um túnel principal com células descendentes dispostas linearmente. Foram encontradas células (n = 5 com larvas em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento e uma massa de pólen de consistência firme e pastosa formada por uma grande quantidade de grãos de Byrsonima.The bees belonging to the tribe Centridini possess distribution neotropical and are considered the main pollinators of different plant species in different biomas. Despite of this the biology data of the majority of species remain scarce. This work is about observations of biology of Centris (Ptilotopus maranhensis Ducke, 1910, specie that occurs in the Northeast of Brazil. The study was made in a cerrado area in the State of Maranhão during a period of adult activity. Females were seen nesting at epigeous termite nests and visiting Byrsonima umbellata Mart. (Malpighiaceae flowers for oil collection. The behavior was directly registered and shooted. The nests were excavated being scraped the substratum until the cells were found. A

  17. Spatial genetic structure of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) among Alaskan, Canadian, and Russian breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Gust, J R; Petersen, Margaret; Talbot, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are changing at an unprecedented rate. How Arctic species are able to respond to such environmental change is partially dependent on the connections between local and broadly distributed populations. For species like the Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis), we have limited telemetry and band-recovery information from which to infer population structure and migratory connectivity; however, genetic analyses can offer additional insights. To examine population structure in the Long-tailed Duck, we characterized variation at mtDNA control region and microsatellite loci among four breeding areas in Alaska, Canada, and Russia. We observed significant differences in the variance of mtDNA haplotype frequencies between the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) and the three Arctic locations (Arctic Coastal Plain in Alaska, eastern Siberia, and central Canadian Arctic). However, like most sea duck genetic assessments, our study found no evidence of population structure based on autosomal microsatellite loci. Long-tailed Ducks use multiple wintering areas where pair formation occurs with some populations using both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. This situation provides a greater opportunity for admixture across breeding locales, which would likely homogenize the nuclear genome even in the presence of female philopatry. The observed mtDNA differentiation was largely due to the presence of two divergent clades: (A) a clade showing signs of admixture among all breeding locales and (B) a clade primarily composed of YKD samples. We hypothesize that the pattern of mtDNA differentiation reflects some degree of philopatry to the YKD and isolation of two refugial populations with subsequent expansion and admixture. We recommend additional genetic assessments throughout the circumpolar range of Long-tailed Ducks to further quantify aspects of genetic diversity and migratory connectivity in this species.

  18. Breathing pattern and ventilatory chemosensitivity of the 1-day old Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) in relation to its metabolic demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Toro-Velasquez, Paula Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adult birds have a ventilatory equivalent (pulmonary ventilation-oxygen consumption ratio, V˙ E/ [Formula: see text] ) lower than mammals because of the superior gas exchange efficiency of their respiratory apparatus. In particular, adult Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) have been reported to have an extraordinary low ventilatory equivalent (~14mL STPD·mL BTPS(-1)). We asked if similar high efficiency was already apparent in duck hatchlings. Breathing pattern and V˙E were measured by the barometric technique and [Formula: see text] by an open-flow methodology in 1-day old Muscovy duck hatchlings (N=21); same measurements were performed on chicken hatchlings (N=21) for purpose of comparison. During air breathing V˙E/ [Formula: see text] was slightly, yet significantly, lower in ducklings (20.8) than in chicks (25.3), mostly because of a lower breathing frequency (f). The hatchlings of both species (N=14 per group) responded to inspired hypoxia (15 or 10% O2) or hypercapnia (2 or 4% CO2) with a clear hyperventilation; however, in ducklings the hypercapnic hyperventilation was smaller than in chicks because of a smaller increase in tidal volume and lower f. We conclude that duck and chicken hatchlings just a few hours old have the high ventilatory efficiency typical of birds, although possibly not as high as their adults. The low f and blunted V˙E response to hypercapnia of the newborn duck could be related to the aquatic habitat of the species. In such a case, it would mean that these characteristics are genetic traits, the phenotypic expression of which does not require diving experience. © 2013.

  19. Identification of polymorphisms in MITF and DCT genes and their associations with plumage colors in Asian duck breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Hasina; Seo, Dongwon; Choi, Nu-Ri; Bhuiyan, Md. Shamsul Alam; Lee, Seung Hwan; Heo, Kang-Nyeong

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the melanogenesis associated transcription factor (MITF) and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) genes on plumage coloration in Asian native duck breeds. MITF encodes a protein for microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, which regulates the development and function of melanocytes for pigmentation of skin, hair, and eyes. Among the tyrosinase-related family genes, DCT is a pigment cell-specific gene that plays important roles in the melanin synthesis pathway and the expression of skin, feather, and retina color. Methods Five Asian duck varieties (black Korean native, white Korean native, commercial Peking, Nageswari, and Bangladeshi Deshi white ducks) were investigated to examine the polymorphisms associated with plumage colors. Among previously identified SNPs, three synonymous SNPs and one indel of MITF and nine SNPs in exon regions of DCT were genotyped. The allele frequencies for SNPs of the black and white plumage color populations were estimated and Fisher’s exact test was conducted to assess the association between the allele frequencies of these two populations. Results Two synonymous SNPs (c.114T>G and c.147T>C) and a 14-bp indel (GCTGCAAAC AGATG) in intron 7 of MITF were significantly associated with the black- and white-colored breeds (pG (p.His313Arg)] in DCT, was highly significantly associated (pG) was significantly associated (p<0.05) with black and white color plumage in the studied duck populations. Conclusion The results of this study provide a basis for further investigations of the associations between polymorphisms and plumage color phenotypes in Asian duck breeds. PMID:28823136

  20. Sex impact on the quality of fatty liver and its genetic determinism in mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Etancelin, C; Retailleau, B; Alinier, A; Vitezica, Z G

    2015-09-01

    Recent changes to French regulations now allow farmers to produce "foie gras" from both male and female mule ducks. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of female fatty liver and to compare, from a phenotypic and genetic point of view, liver quality in males and females. A total of 914 mule ducks (591 males and 323 females), hatched in a single pedigree batch, were reared until 86 d of age and then force-fed for 12 d, before being slaughtered. Carcasses and livers were weighed and liver quality was assessed by grading the extent of liver veining and measuring the liver melting rate, either after sterilization of 60 g of liver or pasteurization of 180 g of liver. Sexual dimorphism was observed in favor of males, with a difference of approximately 10% in carcass and liver weights and up to 54% for the liver melting rate. Moreover, one-third of female livers showed moderate to high veining, whereas this was not the case for male livers. The fatty livers of female mule ducks are, therefore, of poorer quality and could not be transformed into a product with the appellation "100% fatty liver." According to sex and parental line, heritability values ranged from 0.12 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.07 for fatty liver weight and from 0.09 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.05 for the 2 melting rate traits. The genetic correlations between the fatty liver weight and both melting rates were high (greater than +0.80) in the Muscovy population, whereas in the Pekin population, the liver weight and melting rates were less strongly correlated (estimates ranging from +0.36 ± 0.30 to +0.45 ± 0.28). Selection for lower liver melting rates without reducing the liver weight would, therefore, be easier to achieve in the Pekin population. Finally, as the 2 melting rate measurements are highly correlated (0.91 and over 0.95 for phenotypic and genetic correlations, respectively), we suggest using the easiest method, that is, sterilization of 60 g of liver.

  1. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinzhi [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Zhengyi, E-mail: zhyhu@ucas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Xingkai [State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Xiaoning [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Pan, Xubin [Institute of Plant Quarantine, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100029 (China); Kardol, Paul [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S 90183 Umeå (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, but had a marginal effect on CO{sub 2} emission. • NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO{sub 2} emission was increased by reed straw. • Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methane (CH{sub 4}), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg{sup −1} DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg{sup −1} DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Emission of CO{sub 2} was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH{sub 3} emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg{sup −1} DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and NH{sub 3} from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  2. Impact assessment of an off-shore wind park on sea ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemette, M.; Kyed Larsen, J.; Clausager, I.

    1998-03-01

    As part of the plan of the Danish government to expand off-shore wind energy production, The Ministry of Environment and Energy, in collaboration with ELSAM (an energy consortium), initiated a three-year study of the potential conflict between the Tunoe Knob off-shore wind park and aquatic birds in 1994-97. Danish coastal waters support very large, internationally important concentrations of moulting, migrating and wintering sea ducks which depend on shallow water areas as major feeding habitats. Denmark is committed, in relation to international conventions and EU directives, to protect and maintain these populations of aquatic birds and such shallow coastal areas are precisely the type of areas in which future wind parks are planned. Two general approaches were adopted for the investigation: the before-after-control-impact design (BACI) and After studies conducted around the wind park. The aim of the BACI studies was to compare bird abundance and distribution before and after the construction of the wind park and between the area presumably affected by the development and a control area. This was carried out on three spatial scales: (i) conducting aerial surveys in two large zones (about 5,000 ha), Tunoe Knob and Ringebjerg Sand, while controlling the total number of birds in Aarhus Bay (88,000 ha), (ii) conducting ground surveys of two areas of about 700-800 ha coverage at Tunoe Knob and Ringebjerg Sand, using the latter as a control area and (iii) within Tunoe using three sub areas (160-250 ha) as controls compared to the construction area. The after experiments were conducted around the wind park with the aim of controlling the confounding effect of food supply and to establish (a) the short-term possible effects of noise and rotor movements generated by the turbines on the distribution and abundance of sea ducks and (b) the long-term scaring effect of the wind park (the impact of revolving rotors and the presence of the standing towers). Finally, an

  3. Demographic variation, reintroduction, and persistence of an island duck (Anas laysanensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Weiser, Emily; Jamieson, Ian; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Population variation in life history can be important for predicting successful establishment and persistence of reintroduced populations of endangered species. The Laysan duck (Anas laysanensis) is an endangered bird native to the Hawaiian Archipelago that was extirpated from most islands after the introduction of mammalian predators. Laysan ducks were restricted to a single remote island, Laysan Island (4.1 km2), for nearly 150 years. Since the species is not known to disperse between distant Hawaiian Islands today, 42 wild birds from Laysan Island were translocated to another mammalian predator-free low-lying atoll (Midway Atoll; 6.0 km2) to reduce extinction risk. We explored how variation in demography influences establishment and longer-term retention of genetic diversity (rare alleles) for reintroductions of this species. We observed dramatic differences in population growth between the source (λ = 1.18) and reintroduced (λ = 3.28) population. The number of eggs hatched at Midway Atoll was greater than at Laysan Island, however, we found no difference in hatching success (proportion of clutch hatched) between populations. Adult females produced 3 times as many fledglings per breeding year on Midway Atoll compared to Laysan Island. We estimated population abundance of both populations until 2010 and applied a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer density dependence, process variation, observation error, and carrying capacity for the Laysan Island and Midway Atoll populations. The carrying capacity from the Gompertz model for Midway Atoll (K = 883 ± 210 SD) was estimated to be greater than that of Laysan Island (K = 598 ± 76 SD). Translocations with small numbers of founders and no immigration can create population bottlenecks, leading to loss of genetic variation over time, and potentially reducing the reintroduced population's viability or its potential to serve as a source for future translocations. Therefore, we

  4. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Raw data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Example of raw data submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks...

  5. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Batch 324NC Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Batch summaries from the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin...

  6. Habitat Selection by Black Ducks and Use of Open Marsh Water Management as a Habitat Improvement Tool on the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) are an important game species in the northeastern United States but their numbers have declined greatly in the last three decades....

  7. An epidemiological study of avian influenza A (H5) virus in nomadic ducks and their raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Shamim; Khan, Salah Uddin; Mikolon, Andrea; Rahman, Mohammad Ziaur; Abedin, Jaynal; Zeidner, Nord; Sturm-Ramirez, Katherine; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-05-01

    In Bangladesh, nomadic duck flocks are groups of domestic ducks reared for egg production that are moved to access feeding sites beyond their owners' village boundaries and are housed overnight in portable enclosures in scavenging areas. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of influenza A virus RNA and H5-specific antibodies in nomadic ducks and to characterize nomadic duck raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh. We tested duck egg yolk specimens by competitive ELISA to detect antibodies against avian influenza A (H5) and environmental fecal samples by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect influenza A virus RNA and H5 subtype. The median age of the ducks was 24 months (range: 8-36 months) and the median flock size was 300 ducks (range: 105-1100). Of 1860 egg yolk samples, 556 (30%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 28-32) were positive for antibodies against H5 and 58 flocks (94%) had at least one egg with H5-specific antibodies. Of 496 fecal samples, 121 (24%, 95% CI: 22-29) had detectable influenza A RNA. Thirty-three flocks (53%) had at least one fecal sample positive for influenza A RNA. Nomadic ducks in Bangladesh are commonly infected with avian influenza A (H5) virus and may serve as a bridging host for transmission of avian influenza A (H5) virus or other avian influenza A viruses subtypes between wild waterfowl, backyard poultry, and humans in Bangladesh. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Nest Success of Dabbling Ducks in a Human-Mod ified Prairie : Effects of Predation and Habitat Variables at Different Spatial Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Jaime E.

    1999-01-01

    Nest success of dabbling ducks in the Prairie Pothole region of North America has been declining for the past 40 years in parallel with declines in duck populations. Low nest success seems to result from the combination of an extremely fragmented breeding ground in a human-dominated landscape with an abundant and expanding ii community of generalist nest predators. Studies that examined variables associated with nest vulnerability to predation have produced contradictory results, likely becau...

  9. Serological evidence of widespread West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infection in native domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in Kuttanad region, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Mishra, Niranjan; Khetan, Rohit Kumar; Singh, Vijendra Pal

    2016-10-01

    Birds can act as reservoirs of West Nile virus (WNV) with a key role in its epidemiology. WNV lineage 1 associated fatal cases of human encephalitis in 2011 and acute flaccid paralysis in 2013 were reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India. But no information is available on WNV circulation in domestic ducks, which are abundant, cohabit with humans and occupy wetlands and water bodies in the region. To determine the extent of WNV infection, we investigated 209 sera, 250 oral and 350 cloacal swab samples from local Chara and Chemballi domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in the districts of Alappuzha, Kottayam, Kollam and Pathanamthitta collected during January and March 2015. The serum samples were tested for WNV antibodies first by a competition ELISA and then by a micro virus neutralization test (micro-VNT), while oral and cloacal swabs were subjected to WNV real-time RT-PCR. Ninety five ducks showed evidence of flavivirus antibodies by ELISA. End point neutralizing antibody titre against WNV and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) revealed WNV specific antibodies in 24 (11.5%) ducks in 3 districts, JEV specific antibodies in 21 (10%) ducks in 2 districts and flavivirus specific antibodies in 19 (9%) ducks. However, no WNV genomic RNA could be detected. The results of this study demonstrate evidence of widespread WNV and JEV infection in domestic ducks in Kuttanad region, Kerala with a higher seroprevalence to WNV than JEV. Additionally, it highlights the utility of domestic ducks as a surveillance tool to detect WNV/JEV circulation in a region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nesting of Lesser Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna javanica (Horsfield, 1821 (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae and broken-wing distraction display at Kamrup District, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin P. Ranade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We observed 13 nesting attempts of the Lesser Whistling-Duck during 2011–2014 at Rani, Kamrup District in Assam, India.  Failure in egg laying by the ducks and nest raiding by Grey Mongoose were recorded, while the breeding success was 38.5%.  For the first time we witnessed broken wing distraction display exhibited by this species as an anti-predator strategy, which we have recorded here.  

  11. Association analysis between feed efficiency studies and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T; Chen, L; Du, X; Lai, S J; Huang, S P; Liu, Y L; Lu, L Z

    2016-10-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is now considered a more reasonable metric to evaluate animal feed efficiency. In this study, the correlation between RFI and other feed efficiency traits was investigated and gene expression within the hypothalamus was determined in low RFI (LRFI) and high RFI (HRFI) ducks. Further, several hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mean feed intake value was 160 g/day, whereas the egg mass laid (EML) and body weight were approximately 62.4 g/day and 1.46 kg respectively. Estimates for heritability of RFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake were 0.26, 0.18 and 0.23 respectively. RFI is phenotypically positively correlated with feed intake and FCR (P feed intake without significant changes in EML, whereas selection on FCR will increase EML. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Effect of different chilling rates on the quality parameters of mule duck fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awde, S; Marty-Gasset, N; Sandri, G; Zotte, A Dalle; Rémignon, H

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of chilling rates on the quality features of fatty livers. Three different chilling rates were applied: ultra-fast (UF), fast (FA), and slow (SL). Technological and proteomic results were compared at time T1 when the internal temperature of livers reached 10°C and at time T2=24 h post mortem. Samples from the UF group reached the T1 temperature at 50 min post mortem and had the least hard livers and the lowest cooking loss percentage (25±9%) at time T2=24 h post mortem (P-value of Effects of the different chilling rates were mainly significant at time T2 (24 h post mortem). As a conclusion we were able to highlight an indirect positive relation between proteolysis and melting yield in ducks' fatty liver. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Desalted Duck Egg White Peptides: Promotion of Calcium Uptake and Structure Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tao; Wang, Chi; Ma, Zhili; Shi, Wen; Weiwei, Lui; He, Hui

    2015-09-23

    The effects of desalted duck egg white peptides (DPs) on calcium absorption were investigated in three models: Caco-2 cell monolayer model, Caco-2 cell population model, and everted intestinal sac model. DPs were found to enhance calcium transport and may do so by acting as calcium carriers and interacting with the cell membrane to open a special Ca(2+) channel, whereas the paracellular pathway may make only a minor contribution. Structure characterization demonstrated the important roles of seven crucial peptides, such as VSEE and LYAEE, in binding calcium and promoting calcium uptake. Three synthetic peptides (VHSS, VSEE, and VHS(p)S(p)) potently induced calcium transport in Caco-2 monolayers, with VHS(p)S(p) being the most effective. This research expands the understanding of the mechanism of cellular calcium uptake by DPs as well as highlights an opportunity for recycling an otherwise discarded processing byproduct.

  14. Long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) microsatellite DNA data; Alaska, Canada, Russia, 1994-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    This data set describes nuclear microsatellite genotypes derived from twelve autosomal loci (6AB, Aph02, Aph08, Aph19, Aph23, Bca10, Bca11, Hhi5, Sfi11, Smo07, Smo09, and CRG), and two Z-linked microsatellite loci (Bca4 and Smo1). A total of 111 Long-tailed Ducks were examined for this genotyping with samples coming from the two primary breeding locales within Alaska (Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska and the Yukon Delta, Western Alaska) and a representative locale in the central Canadian Arctic (Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary, Nunavut, Canada). The sex of most samples was determined in the field by plumage and later confirmed by using the CHD molecular sexing protocol (Griffiths et al., 1998).

  15. Bone growth in ducks through mathematical models with special reference to the Janoschek growth curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, U; Salomon, F V

    1995-01-01

    The Janoschek growth curve was reviewed and a reparameterized form was presented which includes 4 biologically interpretable parameters: the weight at hatching/birth (W0), asymptotic (adult) weight (A), the time to grow to half of the final weight (t50) and a shape parameter (p) adjusting the degree of maturity when growth rate peaks. The model obtained was compared to the Richards, Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Logistic growth curve using bone weight data in White Pekin ducks. The Janoschek yielded least residual sums of squares for humerus mass and the Richards model for femur mass with only minor differences between both equations. All 3-parameter models failed to give reasonable estimations of the weight at hatching; in some cases further growth curve characteristics were unrealistic. The femur showed a higher degree of maturity at hatching, an earlier growth rate peak and its development preceded that of the humerus. This differential growth is an evolutionary feature first seen in birds.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Riemerella anatipestifer strains isolated from geese and ducks in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuris, Éva; Wehmann, Enikő; Czeibert, Katalin; Magyar, Tibor

    2017-06-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer causes anatipestifer disease in many avian species. A total of 185 R. anatipestifer strains isolated in Hungary between 2000 and 2014 from geese and ducks were tested against 13 antibiotics (ampicillin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, sulphonamide compounds, and tetracycline) by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The majority of the strains were susceptible to florfenicol (97.9%), ampicillin (95.1%), penicillin (93%), sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (92.4%), and spectinomycin (86.5%). The highest resistance rates were observed for flumequine, tetracycline, erythromycin and streptomycin (94%, 91.4%, 75.1% and 71.4% resistance, respectively). The resistance patterns showed some variation depending on the geographical origin of the strains. The average rate of extensive drug resistance was 30.3%, and its proportion tended to increase in the period examined.

  17. Impact Assessment of an Off-Shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemette, M.; Larsen, J. K.; Clausager, I.

    As part of the plan of the Danish government to expand off-shore wind energy production, The Ministry of Environment and Energy, in collaboration with ELSAM (an energy consortium), initiated a three-year study of the potential conflict between the Tunø Knob off-shore wind park and aquatic birds...... in 1994-97. Danish coastal waters support very large, internationally important concentrations of moulting, migrating and wintering sea ducks which depend on shallow water areas as major feeding habitats. Denmark is committed, in relation to international conventions and EU directives, to protect...... and maintain these populations of aquatic birds and such shallow coastal areas are precisely the type of areas in which future wind parks are planned. Two general approaches were adopted for the investigation: the before-after-control-impact design (BACI) and After studies conducted around the wind park...

  18. An outbreak of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 infection in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamomae, Masahiro; Kameyama, Mamoru; Ishii, Jun; Nabe, Mikoto; Ogura, Yuji; Iseki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yu; Mase, Masaji

    2017-05-23

    In June 2015, a highly fatal and acute disease broke out in a duckling farm in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The birds exhibited poor growth, reduced movement, lying in a dorsal recumbent position, depression, lethargy, ataxia and opisthotonus, with a high mortality rate of approximately 76%. By performing a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers specific for duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1), we obtained the PCR products of a predicted size. The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products showed a >96% identity with that of the DHAV-1, HB02 strain, which was isolated in China. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the DHAV-1 virus has been isolated since its outbreak in Japan in 1963.

  19. Identification of two functional nuclear localization signals in the capsid protein of duck circovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Qi-Wang; Zou, Jin-Feng; Wang, Xin [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Sun, Ya-Ni [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Shanxi, Yangling 712100 (China); Gao, Ji-Ming; Xie, Zhi-Jing [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Wang, Yu [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Taishan Medical College, Shandong, Taian 271000 (China); Zhu, Yan-Li [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Jiang, Shi-Jin, E-mail: sjjiang@sdau.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China)

    2013-02-05

    The capsid protein (CP) of duck circovirus (DuCV) is the major immunogenic protein and has a high proportion of arginine residues concentrated at the N terminus of the protein, which inhibits efficient mRNA translation in prokaryotic expression systems. In this study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of DuCV CP expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in Sf9 cells and the DNA binding activities of the truncated recombinant DuCV CPs. The results showed that two independent bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) situated at N-terminal 1-17 and 18-36 amino acid residue of the CP. Moreover, two expression level regulatory signals (ELRSs) and two DNA binding signals (DBSs) were also mapped to the N terminus of the protein and overlapped with the two NLSs. The ability of CP to bind DNA, coupled with the karyophilic nature of this protein, strongly suggests that it may be responsible for nuclear targeting of the viral genome.

  20. Biogeochemical behavior of Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke in the Pitinga mining district, Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima E Cunha, M. C.; Pereira, V. P.; Menegotto, E.; Bastos Neto, A. C.; Oliveira, L. D.; Formoso, M. L. L.

    2008-09-01

    The vegetal species Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke (Rhamnaceae Family) was chosen as a sampling medium for the lateritic surfaces of the Pitinga Mine in the Amazon region, in order to study the biogeochemical behavior of this species and compare it with the chemical composition of a reference plant. The Pitinga mining district is one of the largest producers of tin in the world. This district contains unique deposits of cryolite and rare metals such as Zr, Nb, Ta, Y and REEs related to granitic bodies that intrude into the volcanic and acid pyroclastic rocks. The results showed that the species A. amazonicus predominantly concentrates significant levels of Zr, Nb, Ta, Th, Be, Sc over U, Hf, Ga and In. These elements are characteristic of the mineral paragenesis for the region, suggesting that this plant can provide a representative sampling medium future geochemical exploration programs in the region.

  1. Prolactin as a Candidate Gene Controlling Molting and Egg Production of Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Susanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of molting is a crucial problem in the local ducks that need to be handled from many aspects including genetic aspect. Handling of molting genetically can be done quickly and accurately when the control genes have been found. The search for marker genes of molting can be conducted in poultry through broodiness naturally, because its physiological processes are related to the continuity of egg production. This paper describes the mechanism of molting, the relationship of molting with prolactin hormone and the association of prolactin gene polymorphism with molting and egg production. Molting and egg production were influenced by the prolactin hormone, that may be controlled by the prolactin gene. High concentration of prolactin hormone will inhibit the function of pituitary gland, decreasing production of gonadotrophin hormone (follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone hence ovulation ceased. This will stop egg production and at the same time molting proccess occurred.

  2. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Muscovy duck reovirus σB protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Nan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The σB protein of Muscovy duck reovirus (DRV, one of the major structural proteins, is able to induce neutralizing antibody in ducks, but the monoclonal antibody (MAb against σB protein has never been characterized. Results Four hybridoma cell lines secreting anti-DRV σB MAbs were obtained, designated 1E5, 2F7, 4E3 and 5D8. Immunoglobulin subclass tests differentiated them as IgG2b (1E5 and 4E3 and IgM (2F7 and 5D8. Dot blot and western blotting assays showed that MAbs reacted with His-σB protein in a conformation-independent manner. Competitive binding assay indicated that the MAbs delineated two epitopes, A and B of σB. Immunofluorescence assay indicated that the four MAbs could specifically bind to Vero cells infected with DRV and σB was distributed diffusely in the cytoplasma of infected cells. MAbs had universal reactivity to all DRVs tested in an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conclusion Results of this research provide important information about the four monoclonal antibodies and therefore the MAbs may be useful candidate for the development of a MAb capture ELISA for rapid detection of DRVs. In addition, it showed that the σB protein was located in the cytoplasma of infected cells by immunofluorescence assay with MAbs. Virus isolation and RT-PCR are reliable way for detection of DRV infection, but these procedures are laborious, time consuming, and requiring instruments. These obvious diagnosis problems highlight the ongoing demand of rapid, reproducible, and automatic methods for the sensitive detection of DRV.

  3. TRANSLATORS’ CENSORSHIP IN ENGLISH-INDONESIAN TRANSLATION OF DONALD DUCK COMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issy Yuliasri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Not all aspects of Western culture, reflected in the language used in Walt Disney’s Donald Duck comics, are acceptable in Indonesia. So, in translating the comics, the translators have to manipulate the text for it to be acceptable by the target readers and parents. This research aims at finding out censorship through the translation techniques used by the translators in translating the English humorous texts in the Walt Disney’s Donald Duck comics into Indonesian and the reasons underlying the translators’ choice of the translation techniques. It also aims at analysing whether or not the choice of the translation techniques affects the rendering of meaning, maintenance of humour, and acceptability of the translation. For these purposes a qualitative method was employed with content analysis technique and reader response analysis. Content analysis was used in comparing the source text (ST and target text (TT to find out the translation techniques used as a means of censorship and to find out the translators’ reasons for choosing the techniques. Reader-response analysis was done to find out the readers’ response to the rendering of meaning and maintenance of humour in the translation. The research findings discovered that the translators performed censorship through the dominant use of reduction and generalisation techniques so as to reduce sarcasm and insults. The interview with the publisher’s Senior Editor also revealed that “decency” was the first priority in the translation decision making, followed by clarity of meaning and maintenance of humour.  Further research to investigate other elements censored, and compared with other translated comics is recommended.

  4. EFFECT OF THE SEX RATIO ON THE EGG FERTILITY OF MUSCOVY DUCK (CAIRINA MOSHCATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matina NICKOLOVA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Study was carried out for establishing the optimal sex ratio in Muscovy duck breeding. Four variants of the ratio of the male to the female individuals were tested: 1:5(I, 1:6(II, 1:7(III and 1:8(IV. In the frames of each sex ratio (variant, two subgroups (sub-variants were formed with the aim of establishing the effect of the hierarchy relations among the drakes on egg fertility: with one male in a group (A and with more than one male in a group (B. The highest egg fertility – 97.09 % was achieved at 1:5 sex ratio (with more than one drake in a group and the lowest – 93.41 % at 1:8 sex ratio (with a single male in a group. Signifi cant decrease in egg fertility was registered when increasing the sex ratio to 1:8, that effect being displayed more weakly at more than one male in the group. When increasing the ratio, the presence of more than one drake in the family group exerted a positive infl uence on egg fertility, due to the preference of the males to certain females and the distribution of the rest of the females among the drakes placed in the hierarchy below the “alpha”, depending on their grade in the hierarchy order. The most appropriate sex ratio for Muscovy duck species was 1:5, and, when there was shortage of the male reproduction material, 1:6 ratio was also acceptable, especially if more than one drakes were placed in the family group (effect of supporting the alpha.

  5. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg(-)(1) DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg(-1) DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Harlequin Duck population injury and recovery dynamics following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Samuel A; Esler, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill caused significant injury to wildlife populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) were particularly vulnerable to the spill and have been studied extensively since, leading to one of the most thorough considerations of the consequences of a major oil spill ever undertaken. We compiled demographic and survey data collected since the spill to evaluate the timing and extent of mortality using a population model. During the immediate aftermath of the spill, we estimated a 25% decrease in Harlequin Duck numbers in oiled areas. Survival rates remained depressed in oiled areas 6-9 years after the spill and did not equal those from unoiled areas until at least 11-14 years later. Despite a high degree of site fidelity to wintering sites, immigration was important for recovery dynamics, as the relatively large number of birds from habitats outside the spill zone provided a pool of individuals to facilitate numerical increases. On the basis of these model inputs and assumptions about fecundity rates for the species, we projected a timeline to recovery of 24 years under the most-likely combination of variables, with a range of 16 to 32 years for the best-case and worst-case scenarios, respectively. Our results corroborate assertions from other studies that the effects of spilled oil on wildlife can be expressed over much longer time frames than previously assumed and that the cumulative mortality associated with chronic exposure to residual oil may actually exceed acute mortality, which has been the primary concern following most oil spills.

  7. Harlequin Duck recovery from the Exxon Valdez oil spill: A population genetics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctot, R.; Goatcher, B.; Scribner, K.; Talbot, S.; Pierson, B.; Esler, Daniel; Zwiefelhofer, D.

    1999-01-01

    Concerns about Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill led biologists to ask whether birds located in different molting and wintering areas belong to genetically distinct and, thus, demographically independent populations. Owing to the lack of direct observations of movements among marine areas, three classes of genetic markers that differed in mode of inheritance were used to evaluate the degree of genetic differentiation among wintering areas within Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Archipelago (APKA). We could not reject the null hypothesis that the wintering aggregations within each region are composed of a single genetically panmictic population. Differences in genotype frequencies among wintering locations within PWS and APKA were low and nonsignificant for all three classes of markers. Furthermore, we saw no evidence for deviations in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or gametic disequilibrium between loci within a winter collection site as would be expected if these locales were composed of individuals from reproductively isolated (and genetically distinct) breeding locales. Finally, no evidence for significant structuring was noted between PWS and APKA. Lack of spatial genetic structuring could be due to the cumulative effects of low levels of gene flow over long time periods, low levels of gene flow by immature birds moving between marine habitats, or to episodic dispersal caused by habitat alteration (e.g. volcanic eruptions). Harlequin Ducks are likely to recolonize or enhance populations in areas recovering from environmental damage via emigration of birds from non-affected areas. Demographic studies suggest, however, that levels of movements are low, and that population recovery by emigration is a long-term process.

  8. Duck productivity in restored species-rich native and species-poor non-native plantings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Haffele

    Full Text Available Conservation efforts to increase duck production have led the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to restore grasslands with multi-species (3-5 mixtures of introduced cool season vegetation often termed dense nesting cover (DNC. The effectiveness of DNC to increase duck production has been variable, and maintenance of the cover type is expensive. In an effort to decrease the financial and ecological costs (increased carbon emissions from plowing and reseeding of maintaining DNC and provide a long-term, resilient cover that will support a diversity of grassland fauna, restoration of multi-species (16-32 plantings of native plants has been explored. We investigated the vegetation characteristics, nesting density and nest survival between the 2 aforementioned cover types in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA from 2010-2011 to see if restored-native plantings provide similar benefits to nesting hens as DNC. We searched 14 fields (7 DNC, 271 ha; and 7 restored native, 230 ha locating 3384 nests (1215 in restored-native vegetation and 2169 in DNC in 2010-2011. Nest survival was similar between cover types in 2010, while DNC had greater survival than native plantings in 2011. Densities of nests adjusted for detection probability were not different between cover types in either year. We found no structural difference in vegetation between cover types in 2010; however, a difference was detected during the late sampling period in 2011 with DNC having deeper litter and taller vegetation. Our results indicate restored-native plantings are able to support similar nesting density as DNC; however, nest survival is more stable between years in DNC. It appears the annual variation in security between cover types goes undetected by hens as hens selected cover types at similar levels both years.

  9. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Primary Duck Hepatocytes Provides Insight into Differential Susceptibility to DHBV Infection.

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    Liang Yan

    Full Text Available Primary duck hepatocytes (PDH displays differential susceptibility to duck hepatitis B virus when maintained in the media supplemented with fetal bovine serum or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO which has been widely used for the maintenance of hepatocytes, and prolonging susceptibility to hepadnavirus. However the mechanism underlying maintenance of susceptibility to hepadnavirus by DMSO treatment remains unclear. In this study, a global transcriptome analysis of PDHs under different culture conditions was conducted for investigating the effects of DMSO on maintenance of susceptibility of PDH to DHBV in vitro. The 384 differential expressed genes (DEGs were identified by comparisons between each library pair (PDHs cultured with or without DMSO or fresh isolated PDH. We analyzed canonical pathways in which the DEGs were enriched in Hepatic Fibrosis / Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation, Bile Acid Biosynthesis and Tight Junction signaling. After re-annotation against human genome data, the 384 DEGs were pooled together with proteins belonging to hepatitis B pathway to construct a protein-protein interaction network. The combination of decreased expression of liver-specific genes (CYP3A4, CYP1E1, CFI, RELN and GSTA1 et al with increased expression of hepatocyte-dedifferentiation-associated genes (PLA2G4A and PLCG1 suggested that in vitro culture conditions results in the fading of hepatocyte phenotype in PDHs. The expression of seven DEGs associated with tight junction formation (JAM3, PPP2R2B, PRKAR1B, PPP2R2C, MAGI2, ACTA2 and ACTG2 was up-regulated after short-term culture in vitro, which was attenuated in the presence of DMSO. Those results could shed light on DHBV infection associated molecular events affected by DMSO.

  10. Population demographics and life history of the round hickorynut (Obovaria subrotunda) in the Duck River, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlo, Chase A.; Layzer, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Population characteristics and life history aspects of healthy mussel populations are poorly understood. The reproductive cycle, age and growth, and population structure of Obovaria subrotunda were examined at four sites in the middle Duck River, Tennessee. Obovaria subrotunda was confirmed to be a bradytictic species, spawning in the late summer and holding glochidia in the gills for 11 mo until the following summer. Fecundity was positively related to mussel length (R2  =  0.75) and ranged from 7122 to 76,584 glochidia. Fourteen species of fish found in the Duck River, in the families Percidae, Cyprinidae, and Cottidae, were infested with glochidia in the laboratory to examine potential hosts. Juveniles transformed onEtheostoma blennioides (greenside darter), E. obama (spangled darter), E. flabellare (fantail darter), and Cottus carolinae (banded sculpin). Analyses of shell thin-sections indicated that males grew faster and obtained a larger size than females. Individuals live to at least 14 y old. Females became sexually mature at age one. Four sites were quantitatively sampled using a systematic design with three random starts. The observed ratio of adult males to females (0.9∶1) did not differ significantly from 1∶1. Results of the quantitative sampling showed an increase in density compared to earlier studies and a high proportion of 1 to 5 y old O. subrotunda.

  11. Newcastle Disease Virus infection study on duck and chicken in Subang district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprizal Panus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV infection in Subang area and to examine the diversity of the circulating NDV. Swabs of cloacal and oropharynx, and serum were sampled from total of 393 chickens and 149 ducks in backyard farms and live bird markets located in 10 subdistricts. Screening of NDV in pool of 5-7 samples by real-time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR matrix (M showed 19/67 (28.3% cloacal and 8/67 (11.9% pharyngeal pools of chicken samples; 18/67 (26.9% of the pools excreted virus via cloaca and oropharynx, while the duck pools of 8/30 (26.7% shed virus from cloaca. Virus isolation attempted on individual sample from positive pools yielded 18 isolates which the majority of the isolates showed homogeneous antigenic character, only some of these showed variations up to 2 Log2 with Lasota and 4 Log2 with Komarov antisera. Majority of isolates had a higher affinity to Komarov indicating their propencity to virulent strains. Pathogenicity examination using elution test showed 3 isolates virus were grouped to mesogenic strains and 15 isolates to velogenic strain, in agreement with rRT-PCR fusion results. HI test on 408 sera showed that NDV antibody was detected in 48 (12% birds with titres ranging from 1 to 8 Log2; only about 13% of vaccinated chickens demonstrated protective antibody titre (≥3 Log2. Newcastle disease is still endemic in Subang with relatively low antigenic variation among circulating strains.

  12. Seasonal carcass composition and energy balance of female black ducks in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, K.J.; Stone, T.L.; Owen, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Female Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) collected in Maine during the summer, fall, and winter of 1974-1976 showed significant seasonal variation in body weight, nonfat dry weight, gizzard and pectoral muscle weight, and fat, moisture, and protein content. Variation of body weight within and among seasons was correlated more strongly with carcass protein content, and with fat content during seasons of heavy lipid deposition, than with three structural size variables (culmen, tarsus, and sternum). Regression equations including fat and protein as independent variables accounted for 80-90% of the annual and seasonal variation in body weight; structural size variables alone accounted for less than 30%. Immature females averaged 54 and 99 g lighter, and carried 54 and 59 g less fat than adults during the fall and winter. Ducks of both age classes lost weight in December and January. Adult and immature females metabolized 59 and 64 g of fat and 17 and 25 g of protein in winter compared with 46 g of fat during the nesting season. Nutrient reserves are thus equally as important for the winter survival of these birds as for successfurl eproduction. Seasonal changes in carcass composition suggest that (1) fat deposited in late fall provides an energy reserve during winter, (2) a reduction in lean weight during winter may lower daily energy requirements and increase the effective amount of energy reserves, and (3) declining body weights during late winter may be an endogenous rhythm that reflects a shift in the expected benefits of an energy reserve compared to the costs of carrying additional weight,

  13. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, Dennis G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  14. Assessing the impact of the Tunoe Knob wind park on sea ducks: the influence of food resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, K.; Guillemette, M.; Kyed larsen, J.; Clausager, I.

    1999-02-01

    This study deals with the influence of benthos abundance when assessing the potential impact of a small wind park on wintering sea ducks. Using the Before-After-Control-Impact design, it was suggested in a recent study that the wind park provoked a decline in the abundance and a change in the distribution of common eiders Somateria mollissima and common scoters Melanitta nigra. However, the observed decline in sea duck abundance occurred concomitantly with a decline of benthic food supplies. We measured concomitant food and common eider abundance for a fourth year at Tunoe Knob to test the hypothesis that, if food abundance increases again, we should also observe an increase in duck abundance. The methods used in this study are similar to those applied in the aforementioned study. The results showed that the average number of common eiders increased considerably in 1997-98 (3,361 individuals) compared to 1996-97 (458), even surpassing the level observed during the baseline years in 1994-95 (1,821). A significant increase in the abundance of common scoters occurred in 1997-98 compared to 1995-96 and 1996-97, but not in relation to the baseline year. The abundance of food for sea ducks also increased in 1997-98 where the frequency of occurrence of most potential prey reached the level observed during the baseline year. The density of blue mussels, a preferred prey species, was 1,113 individuals m{sup -2} in 1997-98 compared to 11,111 individuals m{sup -2} during the baseline year and only 100 individuals m{sup -2} in 1996-97. Computations of the amount of food supply eaten by wintering common eiders suggest that, during the baseline year, prey were superabundant. This may explain why we observed a great abundance of common eiders in 1997-98 despite the fact that mussel abundance did not reach the level observed during the baseline year. Finally, the distribution of common eiders in 1997-98 on the study site as a whole was very similar to the distribution observed

  15. Cessation of oil exposure in harlequin ducks after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Cytochrome P4501A biomarker evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Dickson, Rian D; Henderson, John D

    2017-05-01

    The authors quantified hepatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA), during 2011, 2013, and 2014 (22-25 yr following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill). Average EROD activity was compared between birds from areas oiled by the spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. The present study replicated studies conducted from 1998 to 2009 demonstrating that harlequin ducks using areas oiled in 1989 had elevated EROD activity, indicative of oil exposure, up to 2 decades post spill. In the present study, it was found that average EROD activity during March 2011 was significantly higher in wintering harlequin ducks captured in oiled areas relative to unoiled areas, which the authors interpret to indicate that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil up to 22 yr after the original spill. However, the 2011 results also indicated reductions in exposure relative to previous years. Average EROD activity in birds from oiled areas was approximately 2 times that in birds from unoiled areas in 2011, compared with observations from 2005 to 2009, in which EROD activity was 3 to 5 times higher in oiled areas. It was also found that average EROD activity during March 2013 and March 2014 was not elevated in wintering harlequin ducks from oiled areas. The authors interpret these findings to indicate that exposure of harlequin ducks to residual Exxon Valdez oil abated within 24 yr after the original spill. The present study finalizes a timeline of exposure, extending over 2 decades, for a bird species thought to be particularly vulnerable to oil contamination in marine environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1294-1300. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America

  16. Winter survival of adult female harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Schmutz, J.A.; Jarvis, R.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) life-history characteristics make their populations particularly vulnerable to perturbations during nonbreeding periods. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill was a major perturbation to nonbreeding habitats of harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, which resulted in population injury. To assess the status of population recovery from the oil spill and to evaluate factors potentially constraining full recovery, we used radiotelemetry to examine survival of adult female harlequin ducks during winters of 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98. We implanted 294 harlequin ducks (154 and 140 in oiled and unoiled areas, respectively) with transmitters and tracked their signals from aircraft during October through March. We examined variation in survival rates relative to area and season (early, mid, and late winter) through comparisons of models using Akaike's information criterion (AIC(c)) values. The 3 models best supported by the data indicated that survival of birds in oiled areas was lower than in unoiled areas. Inclusion of standardized body mass during wing molt in the 3 best models did not improve their fit, indicating that body mass during wing molt did not affect subsequent winter survival. In the model that best fit our data, survival was high in early winter for both areas, lower during mid and late winter seasons, and lowest in oiled areas during mid winter. Cumulative winter survival estimated from this model was 78.0% (SE = 3.3%) in oiled areas and 83.7% (SE = 2.9%) in unoiled areas. We determined that area differences in survival were more likely related to oiling history than intrinsic geographic differences. Based on a demographic model, area differences in survival offer a likely mechanism for observed declines in populations on oiled areas. Concurrent studies indicated that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil as much as 9 years after the spill. We suggest that oil exposure

  17. Assessment of Microbial and Radioactive Contaminations in Korean Cold Duck Meats and Electron-Beam Application for Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kyung-A; Jo, Yunhee; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Kim, Gui-Ran; Jo, Cheorun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Animal-origin food products pose serious threat to public food safety due to high microbial loads. The microbial and radioactive contaminations in commercial cold duck meat products were evaluated. Ten different lots of commercial samples (C1-C10) were classified based on type and smoking process. All samples were highly contaminated (smoked samples were positive showing DEFT/APC ratios higher than 4. Notably, the samples showed a serious threat to microbial safety, thus were irradiated with electron-beam (e-beam). The D10 values for S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes were 0.65 and 0.42 kGy, respectively. E-beam application at 3 and 7 kGy resulted in reduction of initial TAB, Y&M, and coliform populations by 3 and 6 log cycles, respectively. Thus, e-beam was proven to be a good decontamination approach to improve the hygiene of cold duck meat.

  18. THE USE OF THE ANTI-VENOM SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM DUCK EGGS FOR INACTIVATION OF THE VIPER VENOM

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    ADRIANA CRISTE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The activity of specific anti-venom can be demonstrated using protection test in laboratory mice. Our study aimed to emphasize the possibility of viper venom inactivation by the antibodies produced and isolated from duck eggs and also to the activation concentration of these antibodies. The venom used for inoculation was harvested from two viper species (Vipera ammodytes and Vipera berus. The immunoglobulin extract had a better activity on the venom from Vipera berus compared to the venom from Vipera ammodytes. This could be the result of a better immunological response, as consequence of the immunization with this type of venom, compared to the response recorded when the Vipera ammodytes venom was used. Besides the advantages of low cost, high productivity and reduced risk of anaphylactic shock, the duck eggs also have high activity up to dilutions of 1/16, 1/32, respectively, with specific activity and 100 surviving in individuals which received 3 x DL50.

  19. Identification of a conserved B-cell epitope on duck hepatitis A type 1 virus VP1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoying; Li, Xiaojun; Zhang, Qingshan; Wulin, Shaozhou; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Yue; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The VP1 protein of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is a major structural protein that induces neutralizing antibodies in ducks; however, B-cell epitopes on the VP1 protein of duck hepatitis A genotype 1 virus (DHAV-1) have not been characterized. To characterize B-cell epitopes on VP1, we used the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2D10 against Escherichia coli-expressed VP1 of DHAV-1. In vitro, mAb 2D10 neutralized DHAV-1 virus. By using an array of overlapping 12-mer peptides, we found that mAb 2D10 recognized phages displaying peptides with the consensus motif LPAPTS. Sequence alignment showed that the epitope 173LPAPTS178 is highly conserved among the DHAV-1 genotypes. Moreover, the six amino acid peptide LPAPTS was proven to be the minimal unit of the epitope with maximal binding activity to mAb 2D10. DHAV-1-positive duck serum reacted with the epitope in dot blotting assay, revealing the importance of the six amino acids of the epitope for antibody-epitope binding. Competitive inhibition assays of mAb 2D10 binding to synthetic LPAPTS peptides and truncated VP1 protein fragments, detected by Western blotting, also verify that LPAPTS was the VP1 epitope. We identified LPAPTS as a VP1-specific linear B-cell epitope recognized by the neutralizing mAb 2D10. Our findings have potential applications in the development of diagnostic techniques and epitope-based marker vaccines against DHAV-1.

  20. Transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular mechanism of hepatic fat metabolism disorder caused by Muscovy duck reovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanxi; Liu, Mengxi; Xu, Lihui; Wu, Yijian; Huang, Yifan

    2017-10-10

    The aim of this work was to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying the fatty degeneration of livers infected with Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV), which produces obvious white necrotic foci in the liver. Transcriptome data for MDRV-infected Muscovy duck livers and control livers were sequenced, assembled, and annotated with Illumina(®) HiSeq 2000. The differentially expressed genes were screened and their functions were analysed. We also determined and confirmed the molecular mechanism of the hepatic fat metabolism disorder caused by MDRV infection. The expression of 4190 genes was higher in the infected livers than in the control livers, and the expression of 1113 genes was reduced. A Gene Ontology analysis showed that these genes were involved in 48 biological functions, and were significantly enriched in 237 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The free fatty acid content was significantly higher in the livers of infected Muscovy ducks than in the control livers (P enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 2; EHHADH: enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; FDR: false discovery rate; GCDH: Pseudopodoces humilis glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase; GO: Gene Ontology; HADHA: hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), alpha subunit; I-FABP: intestinal fatty acid binding protein; KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes; L-FABP: liver fatty acid binding protein; MDRV: Muscovy duck reovirus; MOI: multiplicity of infection; NPC1L1: Niemann-Pick C1-like 1; qPCR: real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; RNA: ribonucleic acid; RNase: ribonuclease; RNA-seq: RNA sequencing technology; RPKM: reads per kilobase per million mapped reads; SR-B1: scavenger receptor class b type 1.

  1. First report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in northwest China

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    Cong Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii infection is a global concern, affecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals and humans worldwide, including poultry. Domestic and companion birds are considered to play an important role in the transmission of T. gondii to humans and other animals. However, little information on T. gondii infection in domestic birds in Lanzhou, northwest China was available. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in domestic birds in Lanzhou, northwest China. Methods In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in 413 (305 caged and 108 free-range adult chickens, 334 (111 caged and 223 free-range adult ducks and 312 adult pigeons in Lanzhou, northwest China, were examined using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results 30 (7.26% chickens, 38 (11.38% ducks and 37 (11.86% pigeons were found to be positive for T. gondii antibodies at the cut-off of 1:5. The prevalences in caged and free-range chickens were 6.23% and 10.19% respectively, however, statistical analysis showed that the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. The seroprevalences in caged and free-range ducks were 6.31% and 13.90% respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in adult chickens, ducks and pigeons sold for meat in poultry markets in Lanzhou, northwest China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and other animals in this region. This is the first seroprevalence study of T. gondii infection in domestic birds in this region.

  2. Detection of airborne bacteria in a duck production facility with two different personal air sampling devices for an exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elena; Dziurowitz, Nico; Jäckel, Udo; Schäfer, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Prevalent airborne microorganisms are not well characterized in industrial animal production buildings with respect to their quantity or quality. To investigate the work-related microbial exposure, personal bioaerosol sampling during the whole working day is recommended. Therefore, bioaerosol sampling in a duck hatchery and a duck house with two personal air sampling devices, a filter-based PGP and a NIOSH particle size separator, was performed. Subsequent, quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out with" culture independent methods. Total cell concentrations (TCC) determined via fluorescence microscopy showed no difference between the two devices. In average, 8 × 10(6) cells/m(3) were determined in the air of the duck hatchery and 5 × 10(7) cells/m(3) in the air of the duck house. A Generated Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) pattern revealed deviant bacterial compositions comparing samples collected with both devices. Clone library analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis from the hatchery's air showed 65% similarity between the two sampling devices. Detailed 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed the occurrence of bacterial species like Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia sp., and Shigella sp.; and a group of Staphylococcus delphini, S. intermedius, and S. pseudintermedius that provided the evidence of potential exposure to risk group 2 bacteria at the hatchery workplace. Size fractionated sampling with the developed by the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA) device revealed that pathogenic bacteria would deposit in the inhalable, the thorax, and possibly alveolar dust fraction according to EN481. TCC analysis showed the deposition of bacterial cells in the third stage (device which implies that bacteria can reach deep into the lungs and contaminate the alveolus after inhalation. Nevertheless, both personal sampling devices could be recommended for

  3. The use of Emeraid Exotic Carnivore Diet improves postsurgical recovery and survival of long-tailed ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.; Ford, Scott; Perry, Matthew C.; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    Gavage feeding is a commonly used technique in wildlife rehabilitation. While implanting satellite transmitters in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis), a need for extra postsurgical nutritional support was identified. A new product, Emeraid Exotic Carnivore Diet, has proven effective in maintaining and even increasing the birds' body weights while in captivity. This has resulted in a 54-g increase in weight at release and better survival postrelease. Tips for mixing and using the new diet are included.

  4. Six1 induces protein synthesis signaling expression in duck myoblasts mainly via up-regulation of mTOR

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    Haohan Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a critical transcription factor, Six1 plays an important role in the regulation of myogenesis and muscle development. However, little is known about its regulatory mechanism associated with muscular protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of overexpression ofSix1 on the expression of key protein metabolism-related genes in duck myoblasts. Through an experimental model where duck myoblasts were transfected with a pEGFP-duSix1 construct, we found that overexpression of duckSix1 could enhance cell proliferation activity and increase mRNA expression levels of key genes involved in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, while the expression of FOXO1, MuRF1and MAFbx was not significantly altered, indicating thatSix1 could promote protein synthesis in myoblasts through up-regulating the expression of several related genes. Additionally, in duck myoblasts treated with LY294002 and rapamycin, the specific inhibitors ofPI3K and mTOR, respectively, the overexpression of Six1 could significantly ameliorate inhibitive effects of these inhibitors on protein synthesis. Especially, the mRNA expression levels of mTOR and S6K1 were observed to undergo a visible change, and a significant increase in protein expression of S6K1 was seen. These data suggested that Six1plays an important role in protein synthesis, which may be mainly due to activation of the mTOR signaling pathway.

  5. Characterization of 35 novel microsatellite DNA markers from the duck (Anas platyrhynchos genome and cross-amplification in other birds

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    Xu Ke

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study duck microsatellites, we constructed a library enriched for (CAn, (CAGn, (GCCn and (TTTCn. A total of 35 pairs of primers from these microsatellites were developed and used to detect polymorphisms in 31 unrelated Peking ducks. Twenty-eight loci were polymorphic and seven loci were monomorphic. A total of 117 alleles were observed from these polymorphic microsatellite markers, which ranged from 2 to 14 with an average of 4.18 per locus. The frequencies of the 117 alleles ranged from 0.02 to 0.98. The highest heterozygosity (0.97 was observed at the CAUD019 microsatellite locus and the lowest heterozygosity (0.04 at the CAUD008 locus, and 11 loci had heterozygosities greater than 0.50 (46.43%. The polymorphism information content (PIC of 28 loci ranged from 0.04 to 0.88 with an average of 0.42. All the above markers were used to screen the polymorphism in other bird species. Two markers produced specific monomorphic products with the chicken DNA. Fourteen markers generated specific fragments with the goose DNA: 5 were polymorphic and 9 were monomorphic. But no specific product was detected with the peacock DNA. Based on sequence comparisons of the flanking sequence and repeat, we conclude that 2 chicken loci and 14 goose loci were true homologous loci of the duck loci. The microsatellite markers identified and characterized in the present study will contribute to the genetic map, quantitative traits mapping, and phylogenetic analysis in the duck and goose.

  6. The Supplementation of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO in The Ration To Increase Carcass Weight and Decrease Duck Meat Cholesterol

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    Ni Wayan Siti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at Kediri, Tabanan Regency and Animal Nutrition Laboratory to study the effect of the supplementation VCO in the ration to increase carcass weight and decrease duck meat cholesterol. The experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD with five treatments and four replicates. Each of the replicate used five male Balinese ducks with the same weight. The five treatments were diets without VCO as a control (A, ration with 1% VCO (B, ration with 2% VCO (C, ration with 3% VCO (D and ration with 4% VCO (E respectively. Ration and water offered ad libitum. The variables measured were carcass weight, physical carcass composition and meat cholesterol. The result of this experiment showed that the carcass weight, the carcass percentage, the percentage of carcass meat in the B, C, D and E treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 higher than the control, so the percentage of fat carcass subcutan (including skin and carcass bone percentage were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. Triglyceride in treatment 3% VCO in diets (D was significantly (P0.05 higher than the control. The total cholesterol content and LDL in those four treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that the supplementation of 1-4% VCO in the ration has not increased to the carcass weight and decreased the duck meat cholesterol.   Keywords : VCO, duck, carcass weight, and  meat cholesterol

  7. Immunologic cross-reactivity between Muscovy duck parvovirus and goose parvovirus on the basis of epitope prediction

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    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through bioinformatic prediction, between Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV and goose parvovirus (GPV, there were one epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE on non-structural protein and three epitopes AA426-430 (SQDLD, 540-544 (DPYRS, 685-691 (KENSKRW on structural protein might cross-react with each other. Furthermore, the four epitops were expressed in Escherichia coli. All the four recombinant proteins could react with GPV-antisera and MDPV-antisera in Western blot.

  8. Development of skeletal muscle and expression of myogenic regulatory factors during embryonic development in Jinding ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunhong; Gi, Gaige; Tao, Zhiyun; Song, Chi; Zhu, Wenqi; Song, Weitao; Li, Huifang

    2014-05-01

    The important roles of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) in mammalian skeletal myogenesis have been well studied, but few equivalent studies have been performed in poultry. The expression pattern of MRF during the embryonic development of skeletal muscle in ducks remains unknown. In this study, we identified Myf5, Myf6, MyoD, and myogenin genes in Jinding ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) and quantified their expression levels in breast muscle (BM) and leg muscle (LM) at embryonic d 13, 17, 21, 25, and 27 by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Body weight and muscle weight show different developmental patterns. The MRF genes were expressed in both BM and LM, but with different expression patterns. The MyoD gene showed lower expression levels in BM before embryonic d 21 compared with LM, whereas the opposite pattern was found later. The higher expression level of MyoD, as well its lagged expression pattern in BM, suggest that the MyoD gene may be involved in maintaining the development of different muscles. Correlation analysis showed that myogenin gene expression levels were significantly negatively correlated with BW and muscle weight in both BM and LM (P skeletal muscle-dependent manners, and provide a foundation for understanding the molecular control of skeletal muscle growth in duck breeds.

  9. Study on Detection and Classification of Tetracycline Residue in Duck Meat Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra and Support Vector Machine

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    Haibin Xiao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To the rapid detection of whether the tetracycline residues are excess in duck meat, the optimum characteristic wavelength difference λ was determined by synchronous fluorescence analytical method. The recognition model of different residual levels of tetracycline was established by using support vector machine classification algorithm. Firstly, the optimum wavelength difference λ for duck meat samples was determined as 70nm, and synchronous fluorescence spectra of different samples under the condition of λ 70nm were collected. Secondly, original synchronous fluorescence spectra were preprocessed by using standard normal variables change (SNV. Finally, 18 wavelength variables were selected from 121 wavelength variables of pretreatment spectra by using competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS. Then the radial basis function (RBF was selected as the kernel function of support vector classification (SVC, and the optimal kernel function factor C and g were determined as 2.83 and 1, respectively, which were obtained by using grid searching combined with 5-fold cross validation. The classification model of SNV-CARS-SVC was established, and the classification accuracy rate of the model was 95.7% for prediction sets samples. The results showed that the synchronous fluorescence analysis method could identify tetracycline different residual levels quickly and accurately, and a feasible method was provided for identifying the quality of duck meat.

  10. Duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA appears to survive hepatocyte mitosis in the growing liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaiche-Miller, Georget Y; Thorpe, Michael; Low, Huey Chi; Qiao, Qiao; Scougall, Catherine A; Mason, William S; Litwin, Samuel; Jilbert, Allison R

    2013-11-01

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues that inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication are typically used as monotherapy for chronically infected patients. Treatment with a nucleos(t)ide analogue eliminates most HBV DNA replication intermediates and produces a gradual decline in levels of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the template for viral RNA synthesis. It remains uncertain if levels of cccDNA decline primarily through hepatocyte death, or if loss also occurs during hepatocyte mitosis. To determine if cccDNA survives mitosis, growing ducklings infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were treated with the nucleoside analogue, Entecavir. Viremia was suppressed at least 10(5)-fold, during a period when average liver mass increased 23-fold. Analysis of the data suggested that if cccDNA synthesis was completely inhibited, at least 49% of cccDNA survived hepatocyte mitosis. However, there was a large duck-to-duck variation in cccDNA levels, suggesting that low level cccDNA synthesis may contribute to this apparent survival through mitosis. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Habitat use and foraging patterns of molting male Long-tailed Ducks in lagoons of the central Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Reed, John; Deborah Lacroix,; Richard Lanctot,

    2016-01-01

    From mid-July through September, 10 000 to 30 000 Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) use the lagoon systems of the central Beaufort Sea for remigial molt. Little is known about their foraging behavior and patterns of habitat use during this flightless period. We used radio transmitters to track male Long-tailed Ducks through the molt period from 2000 to 2002 in three lagoons: one adjacent to industrial oil field development and activity and two in areas without industrial activity. We found that an index to time spent foraging generally increased through the molt period. Foraging, habitat use, and home range size showed similar patterns, but those patterns were highly variable among lagoons and across years. Even with continuous daylight during the study period, birds tended to use offshore areas during the day for feeding and roosted in protected nearshore waters at night. We suspect that variability in behaviors associated with foraging, habitat use, and home range size are likely influenced by availability of invertebrate prey. Proximity to oil field activity did not appear to affect foraging behaviors of molting Long-tailed Ducks.

  12. Isolation of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus from meat and intestine of native ducks of Tabriz area

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    A Javadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus is introduced as the third major source of animal origin food borne disease. This bacterium can proliferate and produce toxin in protein and carbohydrate foods leading to food-poisoning. The aim of this study was isolation, identification and enumerating of S. aureus in meat as well as intestinal contents of native duck around Tabriz area. For this purpose, a total number of 35 native ducks randomly was purchased in the nearby villages of Tabriz. Fifty g of thigh meat together with 10 g of intestinal content of each carcass were sampled and analyzed according to the ISIRI protocols. The isolates were confirmed by PCR technique. Results showed that 17.14% of meat and fecal samples were found contaminated with S. aureus. Mean values of S. aureus load in meat and feces were estimated at 87 CFU/g and 64 CFU/g, respectively. It was assumed that contamination of duck meat with S. aureus can be occurred through non-hygienic practices during slaughter as well as contamination with intestinal contents and/or skin of the carcass.

  13. Year-to-year correlations in blood metal levels among individuals of two species of North American sea ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, M. [Environment Canada, Prairie and Northern Region, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada)], E-mail: mark.wayland@ec.gc.ca; Alisauskas, R.T. [Environment Canada, Prairie and Northern Region, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Kellett, D. [Environment Canada, Prairie and Northern Region, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Traylor, J.; Swoboda, C. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Neugebauer, E. [National Wildlife Research Centre, 1125 Colonel By Dr., Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6 (Canada); Mehl, K. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    Sea duck populations have declined in North America. Contaminants, especially metals, have been listed as possible contributing factors. Sea ducks are long-lived. Thus, individuals chronically exposed to elevated metal levels may be at greatest risk. Information about long-term exposure ({>=}1 year) of individuals to metals is absent. To address this information gap, we examined year-to-year correlations among individual White-Winged Scoters and King Eiders in levels of blood cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium. Positive correlations (r {>=} 0.43), were found in six, five, five and two of seven correlations for cadmium, selenium, lead and mercury. Thus, certain individuals of these species may be exposed over two or more years to higher levels of cadmium, selenium and lead (but apparently not mercury) than other individuals. Single blood samples are appropriate metrics of exposure for studies that examine long-term effects of certain metals on these birds. - Some individuals of two species of sea ducks experience greater long-term ({>=}1 year) exposure to cadmium, selenium and lead compared to other individuals.

  14. Gait in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos and chickens (Gallus gallus – similarities in adaptation to high growth rate

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    B. M. Duggan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for increased growth rate and muscle mass in broiler chickens has been accompanied by mobility issues and poor gait. There are concerns that the Pekin duck, which is on a similar selection trajectory (for production traits to the broiler chicken, may encounter gait problems in the future. In order to understand how gait has been altered by selection, the walking ability of divergent lines of high- and low-growth chickens and ducks was objectively measured using a pressure platform, which recorded various components of their gait. In both species, lines which had been selected for large breast muscle mass moved at a slower velocity and with a greater step width than their lighter conspecifics. These high-growth lines also spent more time supported by two feet in order to improve balance when compared with their lighter, low-growth conspecifics. We demonstrate that chicken and duck lines which have been subjected to intense selection for high growth rates and meat yields have adapted their gait in similar ways. A greater understanding of which components of gait have been altered in selected lines with impaired walking ability may lead to more effective breeding strategies to improve gait in poultry.

  15. Production, purification and characterization of polyclonal antibody against the truncated gK of the duck enteritis virus

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    Zhang Shunchuan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Duck virus enteritis (DVE is an acute, contagious herpesvirus infection of ducks, geese, and swans, which has produced significant economic losses in domestic and wild waterfowl. With the purpose of decreasing economic losses in the commercial duck industry, studying the unknown glycoprotein K (gK of DEV may be a new method for preferably preventing and curing this disease. So this is the first time to product and purify the rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody. Through the western blot and ELISA assay, the truncated glycoprotein K (tgK has good antigenicity, also the antibody possesses high specificity and affinity. Meanwhile the rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody has the potential to produce subunit vaccines and the functions of neutralizing DEV and anti-DEV infection because of its neutralization titer. Indirect immunofluorescent microscopy using the purified rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody as diagnostic antibody was susceptive to detect a small quantity of antigen in tissues or cells. This approach also provides effective experimental technology for epidemiological investigation and retrospective diagnose of the preservative paraffin blocks.

  16. Molecular Characterization of the Ghrelin and Ghrelin Receptor Genes and Effects on Fat Deposition in Chicken and Duck

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    Q. Nie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin (GHRL and its receptor (GHSR are involved in various bioactivities. In this study, the complete cDNA and 5′ flanking region of the duck GHRL (dGHRL gene and a 3717 bp fragment of the duck GHSR (dGHSR gene were obtained. A total of 19, 8, 43, and 48 SNPs identified in 2751, 1358, 3671, and 3567 bp of the chicken GHRL (cGHRL, chicken GHSR (cGHSR, dGHRL, and dGHSR genes, respectively. Both cGHRL and dGHRL were expressed predominantly in the proventriculus, whereas the highest mRNA levels of cGHSR and dGHSR were detected in the breast muscle and pituitary. Association analysis showed that C-2047G, A-2355C, and A-2220C of the cGHRL gene were significantly associated with abdominal fat weight (AFW; P=.01, crude protein content of leg muscle (CPCLM; P=.02, and CPCLM (P=.0009, respectively. C-1459T of the cGHSR gene was also significantly associated with CPCLM (P=.0004. C-729T of dGHRL and A3427T of dGHSR were both significantly associated with subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT; P=.04. It was indicated by this study that the GHRL and GHSR genes were related to fat deposition in both chicken and duck.

  17. Interspecific hybridization contributes to high genetic diversity and apparent effective population size in an endemic population of mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula maculosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeffrey L.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Lavretsky, Philip; Rezsutek, Michael; Johnson, William P.; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Under drift-mutation equilibrium, genetic diversity is expected to be correlated with effective population size (Ne). Changes in population size and gene flow are two important processes that can cause populations to deviate from this expected relationship. In this study, we used DNA sequences from six independent loci to examine the influence of these processes on standing genetic diversity in endemic mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) and geographically widespread mallards (A. platyrhynchos), two species known to hybridize. Mottled ducks have an estimated census size that is about two orders-of-magnitude smaller than that of mallards, yet these two species have similar levels of genetic diversity, especially at nuclear DNA. Coalescent analyses suggest that a population expansion in the mallard at least partly explains this discrepancy, but the mottled duck harbors higher genetic diversity and apparent N e than expected for its census size even after accounting for a population decline. Incorporating gene flow into the model, however, reduced the estimated Ne of mottled ducks to 33 % of the equilibrium Ne and yielded an estimated Ne consistent with census size. We also examined the utility of these loci to distinguish among mallards, mottled ducks, and their hybrids. Most putatively pure individuals were correctly assigned to species, but the power for detecting hybrids was low. Although hybridization with mallards potentially poses a conservation threat to mottled ducks by creating a risk of extinction by hybridization, introgression of mallard alleles has helped maintain high genetic diversity in mottled ducks and might be important for the adaptability and survival of this species.

  18. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins

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    Liyuan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize, M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize, M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060. The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB1 (M0 exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB1 and AFM1 compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks (p > 0.05, significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  19. Morphometrical and ecological analysis of nematodes of the family Capillariidae (Neveu-Lemaire, 1936) in wild ducks (Anatinae) from the north-western Poland.

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    Stapf, Agata N; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Ptak, Piotr P; Rzad, Izabella

    2013-01-01

    West Pomerania is located on the migratory route of many species of birds. Among them are many representatives of wild duck species (subfamily Anatinae), which are often the primary hosts of many helminths due to the fact of living in two different environments: terrestrial and aquatic. However, until the end of the 90s, research conducted in Poland on the helminth fauna of wild birds, including nematodes of the family Capillariidae, did not include the north-western region of the country. These first studies performed in 1999, aimed at the identification of the nematodes of wild ducks from the West Pomerania region, revealed the presence of three species belonging to family Capillariidae, i.e. Capillaria anatis (Schrank, 1790) Travassos, 1915, Eucoleus contortus (Creplin, 1839) Gagarin, 1951 and Pseudocapillaria mergi (Madsen, 1945). The purpose of the current study was to perform a comprehensive ecological analysis of C. anatis, E. contortus and P. mergi, including such factors as intensity, prevalence, relative density, index of fidelity and dominance index. The experimental material comprised 811 nematodes isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of 953 ducks. These 9 species of ducks belong to three different tribes of the Anatinae subfamily: Anatini (Anas clypeata, A. crecca, A. platyrhynchos), Aythyini (Aythya fuligula, A. marila) and Mergini (Bucephala clangula, Clangula hyemalis, Mergus merganseri, Somateria mollissima) and diverse in terms of their biology and ecology. The morphometric and morphological analyses fail to identify any significant differences in the body structures of nematodes of the species C. anatis, E. contortus and P. mergi of the West Pomerania region in comparison with those found in other regions of Poland and Europe. The ecological analysis of the Capillariidae family in the West Pomerania region revealed that ducks of the tribe Anatini (mainly A. platyrhynchos) are the most common hosts of E. contortus species, C. anatis is most

  20. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyuan; Ma, Qiugang; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Jianyun; Jia, Ru; Ji, Cheng; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-12-22

    Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize), M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize), M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060). The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB₁ (M0) exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB₁ and AFM₁ compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks ( p > 0.05), significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  1. Efficacy and duration of three residual insecticides on cotton duck and vinyl tent surfaces for control of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Abdel Baset B; Hoel, David F; Tageldin, Reham A; Fawaz, Emaldeldin Y; Furman, Barry D; Hogsette, Jerome A; Bernier, Ulrich R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity and duration of 3 residual insecticides against the Old World sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi, an important vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, on 2 types of tent material used by the US military in Afghanistan and the Middle East. Vinyl and cotton duck tent surfaces were treated at maximum labeled rates of lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand CS, Zeneca Inc, Wilmington, DE), bifenthrin (Talstar P Professional, FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA) and permethrin (Insect Repellent, Clothing Application, 40%), then subsequently stored in indoor, shaded spaces at room temperature (60%-70% relative humidity (RH), 22°C-25°C), and under sunlight and ambient air temperatures outdoors (20%-30% RH, 29°C-44°C). Insecticide susceptible colony flies (F110) obtained from the insectary of US Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt, were exposed to treated tent surfaces for 30-minute periods twice monthly for up to 5 months, then once monthly thereafter, using the World Health Organization cone assay. Lambda-cyhalothrin treated cotton duck tent material stored indoors killed P. papatasi for 8 months, while the complementary sun-exposed cotton duck material killed adult flies for 1 month before the efficacy dropped to less than 80%. Sand fly mortality on permethrin- and bifenthrin-treated cotton duck decreased below 80% after 2 weeks exposure to sunlight. Shade-stored permethrin and bifenthrin cotton duck material killed more than 80% of test flies through 5 months before mortality rates decreased substantially. Vinyl tent material provided limited control (less than 50% mortality) for less than 1 month with all treatment and storage regimes. Lambda-cyhalothrin-treated cotton duck tent material provided the longest control and produced the highest overall mortalities (100% for 8 months (shaded), more than 90% for 1 month (sunlight-exposed)) of both cotton duck and vinyl tents.

  2. Biométria de frutos e sementes de Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemão Ducke

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    Roberto Ferreira Barroso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Caatinga apresenta uma grande diversidade de espécies vegetais, dentre elas Luetzelburgia auriculata é uma das espécies predominantes no bioma, desempenhando papel fundamental para o ecossistema local. Este trabalho objetivou descrever as características biométricas de frutos e sementes de Luetzelburgia auriculata.  Para a descrição das características da semente foram coletados 200 frutos e 200 sementes de plantas nativas do município de Santa Helena, Paraíba. As amostras foram encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Nutrição Mineral de Plantas do Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural de Universidade Federal de Campina Grande para a realização das devidas aferições biométricas. Os frutos foram analisado pelo comprimento, espessura superior, mediana e inferior; largura superior, mediana e inferior. Para as sementes, foram analisados comprimento, espessura e a largura. Verificou-se que o comprimento dos frutos variou de 50,7 a 98,2 cm, a espessura de 6,00 a 17 mm e largura variando de 12,4 a 21,8 mm. Em relação às sementes, 46% se enquadraram na classe de comprimento com intervalo de 19,9 a 20,8 mm. A espécie Luetzelburgia auriculata apresentam variabilidade nas características biométricas de frutos e sementesBiometrics of fruit and seeds of Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemão DuckeAbstract: The Caatinga presents a great diversity of plant species, among them the woodpecker (Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemao Ducke. is one of the predominant species in the biome, playing a fundament al role for the local ecosystem. This work aimed to describe the biometric characteristics of fruits and seeds of Pau de Pedra. For the description of the characteristics of the Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemão Ducke seed, 200 fruits and 200 seeds of native plants of the municipality of Santa Helena, Paraíba state were collected for biometry and seed mass. Afterwards they were packed in plastic bags and properly identified and taken to Laboratório de

  3. Expression and characterization of UL16 gene from duck enteritis virus

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    Wang Mingshu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that the UL16 protein and its homologs from herpesvirus were conserved and played similar roles in viral DNA packaging, virion assembly, budding, and egress. However, there was no report on the UL16 gene product of duck enteritis virus (DEV. In this study, we analyzed the amino acid sequence of UL16 using bioinformatics tools and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3 induced by isopropy1-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG. The recombinant protein was produced, purified using a Ni-NTA column and used to generate the polyclonal antibody against UL16. The intracellular distribution of the DEV UL16 product was carried out using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Results In our study, UL16 gene of DEV was composed of 1089 nucleotides, which encoded 362 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment suggested that the UL16 gene was highly conserved in herpesvirus family. The UL16 gene was cloned into a pET prokaryotic expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli Rossetta (DE3 induced by IPTG. A 60kDa fusion protein band corresponding to the predicted size was produced on the SDS-PAGE, purified using a Ni-NTA column. Anti-UL16 polyclonal sera was prepared by immunizing rabbits, and reacted with a band in the IPTG induced cell lysates with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa. In vivo expression of the UL16 protein in DEV infected duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs was localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions The UL16 gene of DEV was successfully cloned, expressed and detected in DEV infected DEFs for the first time. The UL16 protein localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol in DEV infected DEFs. DEV UL16 shared high similarity with UL16 family members, indicating that DEV UL16 many has similar function with its homologs. All these results may provide some insight for further research about

  4. Cranial joint histology in the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos): new insights on avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Alida M; Witmer, Lawrence M; Holliday, Casey M

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes). Ducks belong to a diverse clade of galloanseriform birds, have derived adaptations for herbivory and kinesis, and are model organisms in developmental biology. Thus, new insights into their cranial functional morphology will refine our understanding of avian cranial evolution. A total of five specimens (two ducklings and three adults) were histologically sampled, and two additional specimens (a duckling and an adult) were subjected to micro-computed tomographic scanning. Five intracranial joints were sampled: the jaw joint (quadrate-articular); otic joint (quadrate-squamosal); palatobasal joint (parasphenoid-pterygoid); the mandibular symphysis (dentary-dentary); and the craniofacial hinge (a complex flexion zone involving four different pairs of skeletal elements). In both the ducklings and adults, the jaw, otic and palatobasal joints are all synovial, with a synovial cavity and articular cartilage on each surface (i.e. bichondral joints) ensheathed in a fibrous capsule. The craniofacial hinge begins as an ensemble of patent sutures in the duckling, but in the adult it becomes more complex: laterally it is synovial; whereas medially, it is synostosed by a bridge of chondroid bone. We hypothesize that it is chondroid bone that provides some of the flexible properties of this joint. The heavily innervated mandibular symphysis is already fused in the

  5. Expression and characterization of duck enteritis virus gI gene

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    Zhu Dekang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, alphaherpesviruses gI gene and its encoding protein have been extensively studied. It is likely that gI protein and its homolog play similar roles in virions direct cell-to-cell spread of alphaherpesviruses. But, little is known about the characteristics of DEV gI gene. In this study, we expressed and presented the basic properties of the DEV gI protein. Results The special 1221-bp fragment containing complete open reading frame(ORF of duck enteritis virus(DEV gI gene was extracted from plasmid pMD18-T-gI, and then cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a(+, resulting in pET-32a(+-gI. After being confirmed by PCR, restriction endonuclease digestion and sequencing, pET-32a(+-gI was transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3 competent cells for overexpression. DEV gI gene was successfully expressed by the addition of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside(IPTG. SDS-PAGE showed that the recombinant protein His6-tagged gI molecular weight was about 61 kDa. Subsequently, the expressed product was applied to generate specific antibody against gI protein. The specificity of the rabbit immuneserum was confirmed by its ability to react with the recombinant protein His6-tagged gI. In addition, real time-PCR was used to determine the the levels of the mRNA transcripts of gI gene, the results showed that the DEV gI gene was transcribed most abundantly during the late phase of infection. Furthermore, indirect immunofluorescence(IIF was established to study the gI protein expression and localization in DEV-infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs, the results confirmed that the protein was expressed and located in the cytoplasm of the infected cells, intensively. Conclusions The recombinant prokaryotic expression vector of DEV gI gene was constructed successfully. The gI protein was successfully expressed by E.coli BL21(DE3 and maintained its antigenicity very well. The basic information of the transcription and intracellular

  6. Expression and characterization of the UL31 protein from duck enteritis virus

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    Zhu Dekang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate that the UL31 protein and its homology play similar roles in nuclear egress of all herpesviruses. However, there is no report on the UL31 gene product of DEV. In this study, we expressed and presented the basic properties of the DEV UL31 product. Results The entire ORF of the UL31 was cloned into pET 32a (+ prokaryotic expression vector. Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 competent cells were transformed with the construct followed by the induction of protein expression by the addition of IPTG. Band corresponding to the predicted sizes (55 kDa was produced on the SDS-PAGE. Over expressed 6×His-UL31 fusion protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The DEV UL31 gene product has been identified by using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum raised against the purified protein. A protein of approximate 35 kDa that reacted with the antiserum was detected in immunoblots of DEV-infected cellular lysates, suggesting that the 35 kDa protein was the primary translation product of the UL31 gene. RT-PCR analyses revealed that the UL31 gene was transcribed most abundantly during the late phase of replication. Subsequently, Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the protein was widespread speckled structures in the nuclei of infected cells. Western blotting of purified virion preparations showed that UL31 was a component of intracellular virions but was absent from mature extracellular virions. Finally, an Immunofluorescence assay was established to study the distribution of the UL31 antigen in tissues of artificially DEV infected ducks. The results showed that the UL31 antigen was primarily located in the cells of digestive organs and immunological organs. Conclusion In this work, we present the basic properties of the DEV UL31 product. The results indicate that DEV UL31 shares many similarities with its HSV or PRV homolog UL31 and suggest that functional cross-complementation is possible between members of the

  7. Low-pathogenic influenza A viruses in North American diving ducks contribute to the emergence of a novel highly pathogenic influenza A(H7N8) virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifei; Ramey, Andrew M.; Bowman, Andrew S; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Killian, Mary Lea; Krauss, Scott; Nolting, Jacqueline M.; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Reeves, Andrew B.; Webby, Richard J.; Stallknecht, David E.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Introductions of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 into poultry from wild birds have the potential to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, but such viruses' origins are often unclear. In January 2016, a novel H7N8 HPAI virus caused an outbreak in turkeys in Indiana, USA. To determine the virus's origin, we sequenced the genomes of 441 wild-bird origin influenza A viruses (IAVs) from North America and subjected them to evolutionary analyses. The results showed that the H7N8 LPAI virus most likely circulated among diving ducks in the Mississippi flyway during autumn 2015 and was subsequently introduced to Indiana turkeys, in which it evolved high pathogenicity. Preceding the outbreak, an isolate with six gene segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NA, and NS) sharing >99% sequence identity with those of H7N8 turkey isolates was recovered from a diving duck sampled in Kentucky, USA. H4N8 IAVs from other diving ducks possessed five H7N8-like gene segments (PB2, PB1, NA, MP, and NS; >98% sequence identity). Our findings suggest that viral gene constellations circulating among diving ducks can contribute to the emergence of IAVs that affect poultry. Therefore, diving ducks may serve an important and understudied role in the maintenance, diversification, and transmission of IAVs in the wild-bird reservoir.

  8. Lipid profiles of blood serum and fatty acid composition of meat of hybrid duck fed diet supplemented with Noni (Morinda citrifolia fruit meal

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    David Kurniawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Noni fruit is a medicinal plant with biological activity like antioxidant that could potentially be used as a feed additive in poultry. This research investigated the effect of noni fruit powder as feed additive on lipid profiles of blood and meat fatty acid compositions of meat of hybrid duck. One hundred twenty 2-week-old hybrid ducks crossing between Peking and Khaki Campbell duck were subjected. They were randomly allotted to 24 experimental units. Each experimental unit was 70x80x40 cm in size and it was used for 5 ducks up to they reached 56 days of age. Each unit was equipped with waterer and feeder. The ducks were raised on litter-type floor. The basal experimental diet was formulated according to the standards of National Research Council (1994. The method used for this study was experimental with 4 different treatments in 6 replications. The treatments were as follow: P0: basal feed without supplementation of noni fruit powder as control; P1: basal feed + 1 % noni fruit powder; P2: basal feed + 2 % noni fruit powder; P3: basal feed + 3 % noni fruit powder. Data were analyzed by one-way of Completely Randomized Design ANOVA and if there was significant effect followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Result showed that using noni fruit powder as feed additive had no significant effect (P>0.05 on lipid profiles of blood and fatty acid composition of meat.

  9. Effects of naturally mycotoxin-contaminated corn on nutrient and energy utilization of ducks fed diets with or without Calibrin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z B; Wan, X L; Yang, W R; Jiang, S Z; Zhang, G G; Johnston, S L; Chi, F

    2014-09-01

    One hundred sixty-two 21-d-old ducks were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 3 levels of mycotoxin-contaminated corn (0, 50, and 100% M) and 2 levels of Calibrin-A (CA, a clay mycotoxin adsorbent, 0 and 0.1%) to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of mycotoxin-contaminated corn on nutrient utilization in ducks fed diets with or without CA. Endogenous losses were obtained from another 27 ducks. Excreta samples were collected to determine DM, OM, CP, amino acids, and gross energy. Gross energy was analyzed for computation of AME and TME. The apparent digestibility (AD) and true digestibility (TD) of the nutrients in all treatments with and without CA had common (P > 0.05) intercepts and slopes except Pro (P TD of DM, OM, Phe, and Gly were linearly (P TD of Gly compared with the 100% M diet, and ducks fed 50 and 100% M diet supplemented with 0.1% CA increased AD and TD of Pro compared with 50% M and 100% M diet, respectively. In the present study, ducks fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn decreased nutrient digestibility in dose-dependent manner, and 0.1% CA supplementation improved AD and TD of Gly and Pro. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Projected Influences of Changes in Weather Severity on Autumn-Winter Distributions of Dabbling Ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways during the Twenty-First Century.

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    Michael Notaro

    Full Text Available Projected changes in the relative abundance and timing of autumn-winter migration are assessed for seven dabbling duck species across the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways for the mid- and late 21st century. Species-specific observed relationships are established between cumulative weather severity in autumn-winter and duck population rate of change. Dynamically downscaled projections of weather severity are developed using a high-resolution regional climate model, interactively coupled to a one-dimensional lake model to represent the Great Lakes and associated lake-effect snowfall. Based on the observed relationships and downscaled climate projections of rising air temperatures and reduced snow cover, delayed autumn-winter migration is expected for all species, with the least delays for the Northern Pintail and the greatest delays for the Mallard. Indeed, the Mallard, the most common and widespread duck in North America, may overwinter in the Great Lakes region by the late 21st century. This highlights the importance of protecting and restoring wetlands across the mid-latitudes of North America, including the Great Lakes Basin, because dabbling ducks are likely to spend more time there, which would impact existing wetlands through increased foraging pressure. Furthermore, inconsistency in the timing and intensity of the traditional autumn-winter migration of dabbling ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways could have social and economic consequences to communities to the south, where hunting and birdwatching would be affected.

  11. Metal levels in the bones and livers of globally threatened marbled teal and white-headed duck from El Hondo, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Mark A; Green, Andy J; Mateo, Rafael; Svanberg, Fredrik; Hillström, Lars; Meharg, Andy A

    2009-01-01

    El Hondo is a key area for marbled teal and white-headed duck. We present Pb, Cu, Zn, Se, and As data for bone and liver in birds found dead between 1996 and 2001. Several metals were higher in adult white-headed ducks than in marbled teal. They were higher in female than in male white-headed ducks, and did not differ with sex in marbled teal, but did by age. Lead in liver of adults was influenced by Pb shot ingestion, which was detected in 21% of marbled teal and in 71% of white-headed duck. No marbled teal had liver levels indicative of Pb poisoning, while 86% of white-headed ducks did. Selenium, Zn, and Cu were elevated in 13%, 7%, and 39% of birds, respectively. Whilst Pb shot poses the greatest threat to these species, further work should assess exposure via plants, invertebrates, water, and sediments for other metals, and investigate possible sub-lethal effects.

  12. Supplementation of Vitamin E and C in the Feed to Meat Quality of Muscovy Ducks Stored in a Temperature Chamber, Refrigerator and Freezer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Tugiyanti

    2015-05-01

    Muscovy duck meat that vitamin E-supplemented feed brightness levels did not differ (P> 0.05 with non-supplemented,  otherwise Muscovy duck meat that feed supplemented vitamin C or a combination of vitamin E and C levels of brightness up to 3 days either at room temperature or stored the refrigerator is still high.  Supplementation of vitamin E and C was highly significant (P 0.05 between the age of 0 hours with that stored in the refrigerator or freezer. B * value of Muscovy duck meat that feed not given vitamin E and C as well as different combinations (P <0.05 with Muscovy duck meat that feed supplemented with vitamin C or a combination of vitamins E and C. The Muscovy duck meat that feed supplemented vitamin E, C or a combination of vitamins E and C if stored at room temperature or refrigerator up to 3 days the value of L* and a* is still high, but the b * low.

  13. Mitochondrial physiology in the skeletal and cardiac muscles is altered in torrent ducks, Merganetta armata, from high altitudes in the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Neal J; Ivy, Catherine M; Alza, Luis; Cheek, Rebecca; York, Julia M; Chua, Beverly; Milsom, William K; McCracken, Kevin G; Scott, Graham R

    2016-12-01

    Torrent ducks inhabit fast-flowing rivers in the Andes from sea level to altitudes up to 4500 m. We examined the mitochondrial physiology that facilitates performance over this altitudinal cline by comparing the respiratory capacities of permeabilized fibers, the activities of 16 key metabolic enzymes and the myoglobin content in muscles between high- and low-altitude populations of this species. Mitochondrial respiratory capacities (assessed using substrates of mitochondrial complexes I, II and/or IV) were higher in highland ducks in the gastrocnemius muscle - the primary muscle used to support swimming and diving - but were similar between populations in the pectoralis muscle and the left ventricle. The heightened respiratory capacity in the gastrocnemius of highland ducks was associated with elevated activities of cytochrome oxidase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). Although respiratory capacities were similar between populations in the other muscles, highland ducks had elevated activities of ATP synthase, lactate dehydrogenase, MDH, hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in the left ventricle, and elevated MDH activity and myoglobin content in the pectoralis. Thus, although there was a significant increase in the oxidative capacity of the gastrocnemius in highland ducks, which correlates with improved performance at high altitudes, the variation in metabolic enzyme activities in other muscles not correlated to respiratory capacity, such as the consistent upregulation of MDH activity, may serve other functions that contribute to success at high altitudes. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Projected Influences of Changes in Weather Severity on Autumn-Winter Distributions of Dabbling Ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways during the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaro, Michael; Schummer, Michael; Zhong, Yafang; Vavrus, Stephen; Van Den Elsen, Lena; Coluccy, John; Hoving, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Projected changes in the relative abundance and timing of autumn-winter migration are assessed for seven dabbling duck species across the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways for the mid- and late 21st century. Species-specific observed relationships are established between cumulative weather severity in autumn-winter and duck population rate of change. Dynamically downscaled projections of weather severity are developed using a high-resolution regional climate model, interactively coupled to a one-dimensional lake model to represent the Great Lakes and associated lake-effect snowfall. Based on the observed relationships and downscaled climate projections of rising air temperatures and reduced snow cover, delayed autumn-winter migration is expected for all species, with the least delays for the Northern Pintail and the greatest delays for the Mallard. Indeed, the Mallard, the most common and widespread duck in North America, may overwinter in the Great Lakes region by the late 21st century. This highlights the importance of protecting and restoring wetlands across the mid-latitudes of North America, including the Great Lakes Basin, because dabbling ducks are likely to spend more time there, which would impact existing wetlands through increased foraging pressure. Furthermore, inconsistency in the timing and intensity of the traditional autumn-winter migration of dabbling ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways could have social and economic consequences to communities to the south, where hunting and birdwatching would be affected.

  15. Use of beluntas, vitamin C and E as an antioxidant for reducing off-odor of Alabio and Cihateup duck meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukmiasih

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides chewy, red in color, duck meat also have a distorted smell (fishy/off-odor. For consumers who are not familiar, the smell is not preferred. Duck meat contains high unsaturated fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acid is an ingredient which is prone to oxidation. Two strains: Alabio and Cihateup ducks were used in this study, each consist of 3 replications. Four treatments were: 1. Commercial diet without antioxidant (control = K0; 2. Beluntas leaf meal (0.5% + commercial diet (KB 3. Beluntas leaf meal (0.5% + commercial diet + Vitamin C 250 mg / kg (KBC, 4. Beluntas leaf meal (0.5% + commercial diet + vitamin E 400 IU/kg (KBE. This experiment was designed in Completely Randomized Design. The result showed that response of Alabio and Cihateup duck to feed treatment in saturated fatty acid content and unsaturated fatty acids in meat and skin of the same, namely the feed treatment of KBE high and low of KBC. Beluntas leaf meal as much as 0.5% + vitamin E in the feed could be reduced the intensity of off-odor and maintain good performance of duck.

  16. Foods of juvenile ring-necked ducks: Relationship to wetland pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, D.G.; Longcore, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Foods of 37 juvenile ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) from 16 different wetlands were examined in eastcentral Maine in 1983-85. Invertebrates made up 70% aggregate dry weight (100% occurrence) of the foods of Class Ia-lla ( 24 days old) ducklings and 32% (86% occurrence) of Class lIb-III ( 25 days old) ducklings. These percentages may be as high as 85% for Ia-lla ducklings and 47% for lIb-III ducklings after adjusting for insect sclerites. Ducklings ate invertebrates from 44 taxa and seeds or fibers from 23 plant taxa. Freshwater sponges (Porifera) were the most important invertebrate and constituted 23% of the foods of all ducklings. Seeds of pondweeds (Potamogeton spp.) were the most important plant foods. Diets of ducklings from high-pH (>6.1) wetlands were more diverse (t = 2.54, P = 0.021) than those from low-pH (invertebrate taxa. Only 17 taxa occurred in ducklings from low-pH ponds. Class Ia-lla ducklings from high-pH wetlands ate more invertebrates (77%) than ducklings from lower-pH wetlands (61%), although the difference was not significant (P = 0.21). Sponges made up the largest percentage of the diets and occurred in similar amounts in high- (34%) and low- (31.5%) pH wetlands.

  17. Heavy rainfall triggers increased nocturnal flight in desert populations of the Pacific black duck (Anas superciliosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, J F; Ribot, R F H; Wingfield, J C; Bennett, A T D

    2017-12-14

    Understanding of avian nocturnal flight comes mainly from northern hemisphere species in seasonal temperate ecosystems where nocturnal flight is often precisely timed and entrained by annual photoperiod. Here we investigate patterns of nocturnal flight in waterbirds of Australian desert ecosystems that fly considerable distances to find temporary water bodies formed from rainfall which is highly unpredictable seasonally and spatially, and when there is sufficient water, they then breed. How they perform these feats of navigation and physiology remain poorly known. Using GPS tracking of 38 satellite tagged Pacific black ducks (Anas superciliosa) in two contrasting ecosystems, before and after heavy rainfall we revealed a key role for facultative nocturnal flight in the movement ecology of this species. After large rainfall events, birds rapidly increased nocturnal flight activity in the arid aseasonal ecosystem, but not in the mesic seasonal one. Nocturnal flights occurred throughout the night in both ecosystems. Long range flights (>50 km in 2 hours) occurred almost exclusively at night; at night the distance flown was higher than during the day, birds visited more locations, and the locations were more widely dispersed. Our work reveals that heavy rainfall triggers increased nocturnal flight activity in desert populations of waterbirds.

  18. Intermittent feeding in a migratory omnivore: Digestion and body composition of American Black Duck during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, Dennis G.

    2001-01-01

    Birds fast intermittently during weather disturbances and migration. We tested responses of black duck to lost feeding days during autumn mass gain. Nine adult males were fed a pelleted diet (1.5% fat, 15.8% protein, and 18.3% neutral detergent fiber) and caged indoors during September and October (12 h light; 17? -24? C) to measure balances over 14 d when fed ad lib. each day and fasted intermittently for 2 d wk-1 (short fast) or 4 d wk-1 (long fast). Body mass (1,081 g), body water content, and metabolizable intakes of energy and protein were maintained as daily intakes of dry matter increased to 1.65 (short fast) and 2.35 (long fast) times the unfasted level. Intermittent feeding reduced metabolizability of dry matter, energy, protein, and acid detergent fiber. Concentrations of Mn provided similar estimates of metabolizability to direct measures in unfasted birds but underestimated measures of birds on long fasts. Fasting regimes continued outdoors for 9 wk when temperatures declined to -9? C. Birds on short fasts were heavier (1,373 vs. 1,241 g) and fatter (159 vs. 58 g) than those on long fasts, while body water (894 g) and protein (316 g) were similar between groups after 5 wk. Birds on long fasts subsequently gained mass when fed daily, but those on short fasts lost mass when fed each day. Omnivorous waterfowl combine ingestive and digestive flexibility with plasticity of body lipid to contend with uncertain food availability.

  19. Establishment of anin vitroculture model of theca cells from hierarchical follicles in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiang; Chen, Da; Deng, Yan; Yuan, Jusong; Kang, Bo; Qiu, Jiamin; Sun, Wenqiang; Han, Chunchun; Hu, Jiwei; Li, Liang; Wang, Jiwen

    2017-06-30

    Theca cells, including theca interna cells and theca externa cells, are vital components of ovarian follicles. The aim of the present study is to identify a reliable method for the in vitro culture of theca cells from duck ovarian hierarchical (F4-F2) follicles. We improved the method for cell separation by using trypsin to further remove granular cells, and we increased the concentration of fetal bovine serum used in in vitro culture to improve cytoactivity. Cell antibody immunofluorescence (IF) showed that all inoculated cells could be stained by the CYP17A1/19A1 antibody but not by the FSHR antibody, which could stain granulosa cells. Furthermore, morphological differences were observed between the outlines of theca interna and externa cells and in their nuclei. Growth curve and CYP17A1/19A1 mRNA relative expression analyses suggested that the growth profile of theca interna cells may have been significantly different from that of theca externa cells in vitro Theca interna cells experienced the logarithmic phase on d1-d2, the plateau phase on d2-d3, and the senescence phase after d3, while theca externa cells experienced the logarithmic phase on d1-d3, the plateau phase on d3-d5, and the senescence phase after d5. Taken together, these results suggested that we have successfully established a reliable theca cell culture model and further defined theca cell characteristics in vitro . © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Inclusion of phytogenic blends in different nutrient density diets of meat-type ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheisar, Mohsen Mohammadi; Im, Yong Woon; Lee, Hae Hyoung; Choi, Yang Il; Kim, In Ho

    2015-12-01

    A total of 160 1-day-old ducklings (average initial body weight of 53 g), were used in a 42-d feeding trial to evaluate the effects of reducing nutrient density of diets, and supplementing the diets with a phytogenic blend (quillaja, anise, and thyme) on their growth, carcass quality, and nutrient digestibility. After checking body weight on d 1, the birds were sorted into pens with 5 birds/pen and 8 pens/treatment. The treatments were: T1, Basal diet; T2, T1+150 ppm phytogenic blend; T3, T1-(1% CP, 0.04% Lys, 0.05% Met+Cys, 0.02% Ca, and 0.02% P, and 50 kcal ME); T4, T3+150 ppm phytogenic blend. The results indicated that reducing nutrient density of the diets had an adverse effect (Pmeat. Supplementing the diets with the phytogenic blend decreased (Pmeat. The percentage of drip loss was influenced (Pmeat, abdominal fat, gizzard, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius, pH, and TBARS values were not affected by the treatments. The digestibility of dry matter, energy, nitrogen, ADF, and NDF was decreased (Pnegative effects of lowering the nutrient density. The results indicated that the ducks fed high nutrient density diets supplemented with the phytogenic blend showed higher BWG and nutrient digestibility and lower FCR, cooking loss, drip loss, and TBARS value, without any negative effect on meat quality and relative organs weights. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.