WorldWideScience

Sample records for cemeteries

  1. New Mexico National Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The United States Department of Veterans Affairs National Cemetery Administration maintains 2 national cemeteries in the state of New Mexico; the Fort Bayard...

  2. Iowa Historic Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  3. Allegheny County Cemetery Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Outlines of public and private cemeteries greater than one acre in size. Areas were delineated following a generalized line along the outside edge of the area....

  4. Hybrid Cemetery Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Rodil, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    mediations of historic heritage information and cultural practices of remembrance. The paper concludes, that an augmentation of the urban cemetery culture points to a high significance amongst citizens, and that experience design through mobile technologies promises an enhanced meaning in an often overlooked...

  5. Hybrid Cemetery Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Rodil, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the urban cemetery as a site of intangible cultural practices and ubiquitous computing as an approach to enhance heritage sites. The paper introduces an experience assessment tool as a mobile phone application that audio-visually augments a heritage interpretation programme...... mediations of historic heritage information and cultural practices of remembrance. The paper concludes, that an augmentation of the urban cemetery culture points to a high significance amongst citizens, and that experience design through mobile technologies promises an enhanced meaning in an often overlooked...... urban site. Due to the sensitive subject matter of death and mourning, the participation of the public in general faces challenges that need attention when planning a cultural heritage programme....

  6. Cemeteries - organisation, management and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Christian Philip

    Through the use of qualitative methods and various theoretical perspectives the implementation of maintenance specifications for Danish cemeteries is analysed and in parallel the cemeteries are described and characterised. Cemeteries and their management is complex due to the duality of the servi...... and thus likely to be part of future innovation and learning processes. Study findings contribute to the field of Danish cemeteries, as well as the knowledge base on cemeteries, public green spaces and of organisational change....... and due to frequent ad hoc approaches. The new tool represents a divergent change of current practices, and implementation is subsequently ambiguous, with adaptations of both tool and organisations. The tool is however addressing aspects of emerging challenges in the field of cemetery administrations...

  7. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerasimyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis Keywords: cemeteries, Odessa, flora, plants, ekobiomorphs.

  8. Tranquebar - cemeteries and grave monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karin; Gasparski, Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    Danish and Norwegian tradesmen and officials, military personnel, German missionaries and British officers with their wives and children-a motley assortment of people-all found their last resting place in the former Danish trading station of Tranquebar in southern India. The bereaved relatives...... and their hopes. In 1935 Knud Heilberg, a missionary, registered some of the inscriptions in the old Danish cemeteries. In 1999 the art historian Karin Kryger and the archtect Lisbeth Gasparski completed this registration work. This book presents complete documentation of the stillexisting gravestones...

  9. Soledade. The first cemetery of the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rabelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The origins of cemeteries occurred because of a change in funeral habits, when burials were transferred from the church to saint fields. In 1850, the first public cemetery was inaugurated in the city of Belem, Brazil. The Cemetery Nossa Senhora da Soledade (CNSS has a strong symbolic representation. Although its burials have ceased 30 years after its opening, the place is still visited for religious purpose, expressed in the practice souls and popular saints cults, held every Monday when the cemetery is open to the public. Hundreds of people come to the CNSS for pray near the graves. They deposit candies, soft drinks, flowers, and some sculptures adorned with shirts and ribbons, as a signal of gratitude for the graces received, attributed to the souls represented by the saints. Summed to the offerings, the tombs abandon, dirty plus graffiti, the cemetery is in a bad condition.

  10. National Cemetery Administration Memorial Inventory, August 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This is the most recent list all monuments cataloged by the History Program, as required. The objects are provided alphabetically by cemetery name; other formats are...

  11. Study on the Intensive Use of Rural Cemetery Lands from the Perspective of Multiple Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Mingping; Yu; Zhongxiang

    2014-01-01

    According to the investigation and study on the land use of different cemeteries in rural areas,the intensive land use of four cemeteries,including the public cemetery,traditional cemetery,vertical cemetery,and ecological cemetery,was evaluated.According to the data analysis,it is suggested to choose right cemetery according the practical conditions of each area,to take full use the multiple functions of cemetery lands and improve the intensive use.

  12. Analysis on Establishing Urban Cemetery Planning and Compiling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun; YANG; Xiaogang; CHEN

    2015-01-01

    Currently,there are many problems in construction of urban cemetery like improper location,low land utilization,backward greening facilities and imperfect cemetery management,which have greatly affected people’s normal production and life. This article discusses the establishment of a sustainable city cemetery planning and compiling system from three levels of " macro-view,medium-view and micro-view" in order to perfect the present cemetery system.

  13. 32 CFR 553.7 - Design and layout of Army national cemeteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Design and layout of Army national cemeteries... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.7 Design and layout of Army national cemeteries. (a) General cemetery layout plans, landscape planting plans and gravesite layout plans for...

  14. 77 FR 9633 - Army National Cemeteries Advisory Commission (ANCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Department of the Army Army National Cemeteries Advisory Commission (ANCAC) AGENCY: Department of the Army... Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army National Cemeteries Advisory...: Lieutenant Colonel Renea Yates; renea-yates@us.army.mil or 571.256.4325. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  15. STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF THE MIDDLE HELLADIC POPULATION FROM TWO CEMETERIES AT ASINE : BARBOUNA AND THE EAST CEMETERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingvarsson-Sundstrom, A.; Richards, M. P.; Voutsaki, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of humans from two Middle Bronze Age cemeteries at Asine, Greece: Barbouna (n=6) and the East Cemetery (n=13). In general, the dietary pattern of adults and juveniles shows a heavy reliance on mainly terrestrial f

  16. Microbiological Analysis of Necrosols Collected from Urban Cemeteries in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Całkosiński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of organic matter is the primary function in the soil ecosystem, which involves bacteria and fungi. Soil microbial content depends on many factors, and secondary biological and chemical contaminations change and affect environmental feedback. Little work has been done to estimate the microbiological risk for cemetery employees and visitors. The potential risk of infection for people in the cemetery is primarily associated with injury and wound contamination during performing the work. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiota of cemetery soil obtained from cemeteries and bacterial composition in selected soil layers encountered by gravediggers and cemetery caretakers. The most common bacterial pathogens were Enterococcus spp. (80.6%, Bacillus spp. (77.4%, and E. coli (45.1%. The fungi Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from 51% and 6.4% of samples, respectively. Other bacterial species were in the ground cemetery relatively sparse. Sampling depth was not correlated with bacterial growth (p>0.05, but it was correlated with several differences in microbiota composition (superficial versus deep layer.

  17. Using Vertical Panoramic Images to Record a Historic Cemetery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Polidori, L.; Hasegawa, J. K.; Camargo, P. O.; Hirao, H.; Moraes, M. V. A.; Rissate, E. A., Jr.; Henrique, G. R.; Abreu, P. A. G.; Berveglieri, A.; Marcato, J., Jr.

    2013-07-01

    In 1919, during colonization of the West Region of São Paulo State, Brazil, the Ogassawara family built a cemetery and a school with donations received from the newspaper Osaka Mainichi Shimbum, in Osaka, Japan. The cemetery was closed by President Getúlio Vargas in 1942, during the Second World War. The architecture of the Japanese cemetery is a unique feature in Latin America. Even considering its historical and cultural relevance, there is a lack of geometric documentation about the location and features of the tombs and other buildings within the cemetery. As an alternative to provide detailed and fast georeferenced information about the area, it is proposed to use near vertical panoramic images taken with a digital camera with fisheye lens as the primary data followed by bundle adjustment and photogrammetric restitution. The aim of this paper is to present a feasibility study on the proposed technique with the assessment of the results with a strip of five panoramic images, taken over some graves in the Japanese cemetery. The results showed that a plant in a scale of 1 : 200 can be produced with photogrammetric restitution at a very low cost, when compared to topographic surveying or laser scanning. The paper will address the main advantages of this technique as well as its drawbacks, with quantitative analysis of the results achieved in this experiment.

  18. 32 CFR 553.22 - Visitors' rules for the Arlington National Cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activity conducted within the Arlington National Cemetery grounds intended to honor the memory of a person..., gravestone, structure, tree, shrub, plant or other property located within the Cemetery grounds. (f) Conduct... dedicated only to the memory of all those interred in the Cemetery, to all those dying in the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.642(i)-1 - Certain distributions by cemetery perpetual care funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain distributions by cemetery perpetual care... Certain distributions by cemetery perpetual care funds. (a) In general. Section 642 (i) provides that amounts distributed during taxable years ending after December 31, 1963, by a cemetery perpetual care...

  20. 36 CFR 12.2 - Purpose of National Cemeteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of National Cemeteries. 12.2 Section 12.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... United States. Such areas are protected, managed and administered as suitable and dignified...

  1. The emergence of mound cemeteries in Early Dilmun:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    the later Dilmun seals. Together with the introduction of a broad variety of imported vessels from Mesopotamia, SW Iran and the Indus, the evolution in local pottery is taken to reflect a fundamental restructuration of Dilmun's network of exchange at the time of the emerging cemeteries. The proto...

  2. MAGIC Day: The Cemetery in a Dual Classroom Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Guy O.; And Others

    Activities for a field experience program involving 50-60 methods students and as many sixth graders is described; the program explores the cemetery as a place to pull together skills and concepts from subjects like reading, mathematics, language arts, science, and social studies. Activities involve tombstone rubbings, family trees, writing poetry…

  3. The Crematorium Temple in the Monumental Cemetery in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Boi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Crematorium Temple of Milan, first in Italy and among the first in Europe, has played a key role in the revival of cremation, already used by the ancient classical civilizations, becoming a model soon imitated by other cities. Its construction is due to the generosity of the industrialist Albert Keller who worked to introduce the practice of cremation in Milan as an alternative to burial and as solution to the unrelenting settlement expansion of cemeteries, too close to the cities. In 1876 the crematorium was inaugurated with the first implementation of a design by Carlo Maciachini, author of the Monumental Cemetery where the crematorium is located, presented in grecian Doric style in memory of the purifying rituals of classical ideas.

  4. AMS radiocarbon dating of cemetery of Jin Marquises in China

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X; Wang, J; Guo, Z; Liu, K; Lü, X; Ma, H; Li, K; Yuan, J; Cai, L

    2000-01-01

    Bones are very important samples to determine the hosts of the cemetery of Jin Marquises which were excavated at Tianma-Qucun site in Shanxi Province in China. In order to obtain accurate AMS radiocarbon dates, bones were pretreated by two kinds of methods, the gelatin-extraction method and the amino-acid method. Charcoals collected from the same sites were also used. The measured dates agree with historical record.

  5. Guidelines and Requirements for Review and Acceptance of Memorials at National Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This documents provides guidance on the appropriate design, size, and procedures for the acceptance of donations of memorials to the National Cemetery Administration

  6. The Cemetery, the State and the Exiles: A Study of Cementerio Colón, Havana, and Woodlawn Cemetery, Miami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivic Wyndham

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the unsuspected costs of exile is the inability to care for the family tombs for which, especially in Latin American countries, one may feel a sharp personal responsibility. The desecration of such tombs renders the pain of exile sharper still. We examine the ways in which the Cuban State has abandoned responsibility for the care of the tombs of the exiles in the island’s largest cemetery, Cementerio Cristóbal Colón in Havana. Many exiles hope and plan to return to resume life in their former birthland. Perhaps to show their intentions, their cemeteries in the new countries are piecemeal and temporary. Little by little it becomes apparent that their state of exile has passed from medium term to long term to permanence. In Woodlawn Cemetery, Miami, some of the exiles’ dead remain in unworthy graves while the inscriptions on their tombs remind their descendants of the promise of permanent return which they never now will keep.

  7. Flora of vascular plants of selected Poznań cemeteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Czarna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of 395 species of vascular flora at four rarely used cemeteries within the Poznań city was confirmed in 2010. Apart from naturally occurring species, cultivated species were noted equally. Among species appearing spontaneously between the graves, species new for the flora of Poland: Chionodoxa forbesii, Ch. luciliae, Puschkinia scilloides, new for the flora of Wielkopolska: Bidens ferulifolius, Hyacinthoides hispanica and new for the flora of Poznań: Erigeron ramosus, Lilium bulbiferum, Pimpinella nigra, Poa subcaerulea, Veronica hederifolia s.s., were recorded. Names of taxa originating from cultivation are underlined.

  8. Anomalous values of heavy metals in soil of cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Balestrin Flores

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The necro chorume generated by the decomposition of human bodies has a high pollution load and depending on its location, it may reach and contaminate the soil, the surface and underground water resources. The problem is critical because the analyzed cemetery is located in a vulnerable area and the surrounding population makes use of the water under the influence of the necro chorume, and therefore, subjected to water carrying diseases. This study aimed to analyze the concentrations of heavy metals barium, copper, chromium and zinc in soil occupied by necropolis. An auger was used to collect soil samples in 10 different sites and depths. For determining the concentration of metals, the technique of fluorescence X-ray Energy Dispersive with the support of the software Surfer 10 was used to spatially generate concentration data maps. The concentrations of barium and copper indicated contamination of the soil in all sampled sites, while the chrome showed evidence of contamination at various depths between 0 and 300 cm. The lowest topographic point was the only one to have zinc concentration above reference values, indicating a contamination by this element in the surface flow and sub-surface water. With these results we can confirm the potential of metal contamination in soil occupied by the cemetery.

  9. Book Review: Haochuan Cemetery%读《好川墓地》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉

    2002-01-01

    The Haochuan Cemetery is the excavation report of the Neolithic Haochuan cemetery in Suichang,Zhejiang.It makes great efforts to reach the fullness and systematicness of material publication,and the author′s research conclusion on the periodization and cultural attribution of the cemetery is worthy of agreement.One of the important contributions of the excavation on the site is that,by using the material it provides,the contemporary archaeological cultures in the Zhejiang,Fujian and Jiangxi regions can be linked up.This makes for the first time the basic condition for integrate research into the Neolithic culture in southeastern China.On the other hand,the author′s determination of absolute dates for the phases of the Haochuan remains needs further discussion,and the social organization reflected in the structure of the cemetery,an issue remaining beyond the coverage of the report,deserves close attention from researchers.

  10. Guidance on the Use of Historic Human Remains Detection Dogs for Locating Unmarked Cemeteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    area properly. The conclusion is that while both the dogs and handlers are identifying visual cues at study locations, the teamwork between dog and...human buri- als. The location of many cemeteries, however, is unknown due to a lack of recognizable visual cues such as grave markers. Because the...unknown due to a lack of recognizable visual cues such as grave markers. Identification and verification of historic and prehistoric cemeteries through

  11. "The last thing that tells our story": the Roodepoort West Cemetery, 1958-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to capture some of the complexity in the way that memory, meaning and agenda interact in the history of the cemetery of Roodepoort West. Roodepoort West was the 'old location' where Africans and others lived until 1955, after which a gradual process of removals took place until 1967, when it was finally destroyed. However, not everything was lost of the old location. The cemetery remained, after unrest caused by the proposed removal of the local cemetery during the late 1950s persuaded the authorities to leave it alone. More recently, the cemetery has played a part in land restitution, becoming both a site of tension and remembrance. This article explores the many meanings attached to the old cemetery, and funerals more broadly, over a period of time beginning from the 1950s to 2005. By looking at the history of funerals, and the cemetery, new insights and an alternative understanding of what it meant to live in an urban area in Apartheid South Africa can be gained.

  12. Environmental characteristics of the cemeteries of Buenos Aires City (Argentina and infestation levels of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezzani Darío

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cemeteries with many water-filled containers, flowers, sources of human blood, and shade are favorable urban habitats for the proliferation of Aedes aegypti, a vector of yellow fever and dengue. A total of 22,956 containers was examined in the five cemeteries of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The vector was found in four cemeteries that showed an average infestation level of 5.5% (617 positive out of 11,196 water-filled containers. The four cemeteries positive for Ae. aegypti showed significantly different (p<0.01 infestation levels. Vegetation cover and percentage of infestation were significantly correlated (p<0.01, but neither cemetery area nor number of available containers were significantly related to the proportion of positive vases. Our results suggest that the cemeteries of Buenos Aires represent a gradient of habitat favorableness for this vector species, some of which may act as foci for its proliferation and dispersal.

  13. Assessment of trace metal air pollution in Paris using slurry-TXRF analysis on cemetery mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Marco; Zanella, Augusto; Rankovic, Aleksandar; Banas, Damien; Cantaluppi, Chiara; Abbadie, Luc; Lata, Jean -Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Mosses are useful, ubiquitous accumulation biomonitors and as such can be used for biomonitoring surveys. However, the biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution can be compromised in urban contexts if the targeted biomonitors are regularly disturbed, irregularly distributed, or are difficult to access. Here, we test the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled mosses growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. We focused on Grimmia pulvinata (Hedwig) Smith, a species abundantly found in all studied cemeteries and very common in Europe. The concentration of Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ti, and Zn was determined by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique coupled with a slurry sampling method (slurry-TXRF). This method avoids a digestion step, reduces the risk of sample contamination, and works even at low sample quantities. Elemental markers of road traffic indicated that the highest polluted cemeteries were located near the highly frequented Parisian ring road and under the influence of prevailing winds. The sites with the lowest pollution were found not only in the peri-urban cemeteries, adjoining forest or farming landscapes, but also in the large and relatively wooded cemeteries located in the center of Paris. Our results suggest that (1) slurry-TXRF might be successfully used with moss material, (2) G. pulvinata might be a good biomonitor of trace metals air pollution in urban context, and (3) cemetery moss sampling could be a useful complement for monitoring urban areas. Graphical abstract We tested the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled 110 moss cushions (Grimmia pulvinata) growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. The concentration of 20

  14. Medieval monastic mortality: hazard analysis of mortality differences between monastic and nonmonastic cemeteries in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N; Boulware, Jessica C; Redfern, Rebecca C

    2013-11-01

    Scholarship on life in medieval European monasteries has revealed a variety of factors that potentially affected mortality in these communities. Though there is some evidence based on age-at-death distributions from England that monastic males lived longer than members of the general public, what is missing from the literature is an explicit examination of how the risks of mortality within medieval monastic settings differed from those within contemporaneous lay populations. This study examines differences in the hazard of mortality for adult males between monastic cemeteries (n = 528) and non-monastic cemeteries (n = 368) from London, all of which date to between AD 1050 and 1540. Age-at-death data from all cemeteries are pooled to estimate the Gompertz hazard of mortality, and "monastic" (i.e., buried in a monastic cemetery) is modeled as a covariate affecting this baseline hazard. The estimated effect of the monastic covariate is negative, suggesting that individuals in the monastic communities faced reduced risks of dying compared to their peers in the lay communities. These results suggest better diets, the positive health benefits of religious behavior, better living conditions in general in monasteries, or selective recruitment of healthy or higher socioeconomic status individuals.

  15. mtDNA analysis of human remains from an early Danish Christian cemetery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Lars; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2005-01-01

    general questions of population affinity, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA extracted from nine individuals excavated in two different areas within the cemetery: one male and four females from Area 1, and one male and three females from Area 2. Using stringent laboratory protocols, each individual...

  16. Biological and spatial structure of an early classic period cemetery at Charco Redondo, Oaxaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kathleen S; Stojanowski, Christopher M; Butler, Michelle M

    2013-10-01

    This article presents an analysis of biological and spatial patterning of an Early Classic (A.D. 250-500) Chatino cemetery at the archaeological site of Charco Redondo, located in the lower Río Verde Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico. The Early Classic was a time of political instability positioned between two phases of state-level centralization within the coastal valley. The communal cemetery at Charco Redondo adds significantly to the inventory of excavated graves from this time period and provides novel data on mortuary practices during a critical phase in the development of state level polities in the region. Cluster analysis of mortuary data is combined with intracemetery biodistance approaches to reconstruct how the Charco Redondo cemetery was organized with respect to biological relationships. Cluster analysis of mortuary data identified three groupings of burials. Multidimensional scaling of Euclidean distances and Gower coefficients based on 45 odontometric and 13 dental morphological variables suggests a strong relationship between grave characteristics and locations and phenotypic variation. In other words, the cemetery at Charco Redondo appears biologically kin-structured. The communal nature of the cemetery conflicts with the assumed "household" burial model for this time period. We propose the observed combination of features represents a transitional practice in which aspects of community, kin, and individual identity were signaled simultaneously within the funerary environment during a time of political transition in the Valley. This article highlights the utility of intracemetery biodistance analyses for examining dimensions of kinship, "house," and community throughout Mesoamerica where overarching models often mask regional variability.

  17. The Evolution of Chinese Graves at Burnaby's Ocean View Cemetery: From Stigmatized Purlieu to Political Adaptations and Cultural Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Guibord, Maurice Conrad

    2013-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the practice of racism against the Chinese community in Vancouver-area cemeteries, and how it was modified by trans-Pacific political and cultural forces. It shows how, at Burnaby's Ocean View cemetery, the Chinese community moved away from segregation in the burial place and progressed to burial designs that responded to its cultural and religious needs. It analyzes the abandonment by some Chinese immigrants of their tradition of disinterment and repatriation to China, w...

  18. Spontaneous vascular flora of selected cemeteries in Lublin and the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trzaskowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2011–2012. It included an analysis of the spontaneous flora of 7 cemeteries: 3 cemeteries located in the centre of Lublin (Lipowa Street, Unicka Street, and Kalina Street, 1 on the outskirts of the city (Majdanek, 1 located in a small town (Łęczna, 2 sites are rural cemeteries (Łuszczów, Ostrówek. An inventory was made of spontaneous vascular flora present at the investigated sites. The plants were described in respect of their affiliation to geographical-historical groups, life forms as well as the presence of honey species (polleniferous and nectariferous and protected species. Within the area of these 7 necropolises, the presence of 382 taxa was found. The number of taxa observed at the individual sites varied between 124 and 274 in the metropolitan zone, 146 in the urban zone, and between 110 and 146 in the rural areas. The area richest in terms of flora was Majdanek where 274 species of plants were found, while the cemetery in Łuszczów was the least rich – 110 species. The highest precentage of hemicryptophytes was observed in Ostrówek (50.7%, the lowest in Lublin – Kalina (40.3%. In the case of therophytes, the greatest variation was observed in the urban cemetery in Unicka Street (32.6%, while the least varied site was the cemetery in Ostrówek (23.3%. The average precentage of geophytes was 12.1%, with the greatest number in Łuszczów (16.4%, and the smallest one in Majdanek (8.4%. Chamaephytes were characterised by a small percentage (between 5.1% and 4.4 %, similarly to nanophanerophytes (6.2% to 2.7%, and megaphanerophytes (9.6%–1.8%. The investigated sites were dominated by apophytes, the percentage of which varied between 52.3% in the Lublin cemeteries on Lipowa and Unicka Streets, and 44.5% in Ostrówek. Among anthropophytes, there were mostly archeophytes (between 26.3% in Łuszczów and 13.1% on Lipowa St. in Lublin. The percentage of diaphytes varied between 16.5% in Ostrówek and

  19. Central Cemetery in Neiva (Huila: The setting where manifold memories are activated, reinterpreted and disputed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Lamilla Guerrero

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Through an ethnographic analysis of Central Cemetery in the city of Neiva (Huila, this text proposes to exemplify how cemeteries are privileged settings for the embodiment, organization and resignification of the manifold memories Neivan society collectively build and imagine in order to represent themselves in a dispute for identities and remembrance. They mirror what they are, have been, and aim at being. Those memories may be traced through the battle of signs, the persistence of hegemonies, the nation’s narrative, the bipartisan imprint, tenacity and the horror of the armed conflict, popular claims, the desire for a miracle, the vindication of affection, resistance, regional identity, the ephemeral, the transcendent and oblivion.

  20. A unique human-fox burial from a pre-Natufian cemetery in the Levant (Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Maher

    Full Text Available New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000-11,600 cal BP in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the Natufian (c. 14,500-11,600 cal BP. These features include sedentism, cemeteries, architecture, food production, including animal domestication, and burials with elaborate mortuary treatments. Our findings from the pre-Natufian (Middle Epipalaeolithic cemetery of 'Uyun al-Hammam demonstrate that joint human-animal mortuary practices appear earlier in the Epipalaeolithic. We describe the earliest human-fox burial in the Near East, where the remains of dogs have been found associated with human burials at a number of Natufian sites. This is the first time that a fox has been documented in association with human interments pre-dating the Natufian and with a particular suite of grave goods. Analysis of the human and animal bones and their associated artefacts provides critical data on the nature and timing of these newly-developing relationships between people and animals prior to the appearance of domesticated dogs in the Natufian.

  1. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  2. City Cemeteries as Cultural Attractions: Towards an Understanding of Foreign Visitors’ Attitude at the National Graveyard in Budapest

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    Brigitta Pécsek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to reposition urban cemeteries within the tourism supply and to showcase their values as cultural tourism products that can enrich visitors’ experiences. Although urban cemeteries as ritual meeting points of life and death have become an integral part of city tourism, contemporary tourism literature mostly embeds them in dark tourism or thanatourism, neglecting the experience-rich potentials of cemeteries as cultural products. This paper rectifies this by arguing that cemetery tourism makes a fascinating cultural display for tourists, offering both nature-based and cultural activities, therefore, it can be rightfully placed in heritage and cultural tourism. The paper investigates foreign visitors’ attitude at the National Graveyard in Budapest. During the empirical research 52 questionnaires were correctly filled in, followed by the same number of mini-interviews. The research findings confirmed the initial hypotheses: 1. Visitors regarded cemeteries as complex attractions representing both natural and cultural values, which added to the positive experiences of a Budapest city break. 2. There was no reference to the so called “dark aspects” of cemeteries in the answers. 3. Although the satisfaction rate was high, the lack of visitors is a clear indication that the cemetery in Budapest has been so far undervalued as an urban attraction. On the negative side, respondents criticized the lack of information sources available prior to visit, the inefficient marketing and the undesirable neighbourhood. The paper ultimately aims to provide stakeholders solid, preliminary data that might serve as a launching pad for further larger-scale research.

  3. The Usaquén Cemetery – A Case Study about the Spacial Manifestations of Society’s Hierarchical Order

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    Juan Camilo González Vargas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with an analysis of the spatial organization of the Usaquén Cemetery in Bogotá, this text proposes that the space of the cemetery functions like a scenario in which the hierarchical order of society is represented and reinforced. This order, however, is not admitted and interiorized totally by cemetery users. Through practices like the Cult to the Holy Souls the hierarchical social order is denied, in a cycle that repeats itself every week when this ritual is carried out. With the exploration of this case study it is proposed that investigations concerning social practices related to death are very useful for understanding the societies that produce them.

  4. Report to Congress on Implementation of Army Directive on Army National Cemeteries Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    Defense, as well as the U.S. Men’s and Women’s  Basketball   Teams in route to the London Olympics.  The Cemetery continues hosting annual events...calls during its first months of operation, at the time of the 2011 Congressional Report, calls had  tapered  off to less than ten per month, on average

  5. The Gallo-Roman cremation cemeteries of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg - intial findings of current research

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    Michel Polfer

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper will present the first results of a research project which aims at: ◦the elaboration of a complete corpus of all individual Gallo-Roman graves and cemeteries, including funerary monuments and inscriptions ◦the analysis of the structures and objects (typology, chronology etc. as well as the study of the religious, cultural and social attitudes and their evolution during the Roman period. The geographic area for the study is the modern Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, a major part of the ancient civitas treverorum. The project covers the period from the second half of the first century AD to the fifth century AD. The paper is divided into three main parts: 1.a short history of Gallo-Roman funerary archaeology in Luxembourg 2.a short presentation of some of the first results of the study related to: ◦the geographic distribution of the sites ◦the relationship between rural settlements, cemeteries and funerary monuments ◦the internal organisation of rural cemeteries ◦depositional practice and social differentiation in rural cemeteries ◦cremation types and the relationship between cremation and inhumation 3.a presentation (through maps and a database of the current state of the corpus (which currently has records of 300 different archaeological sites

  6. Lombards on the move--an integrative study of the migration period cemetery at Szolad, Hungary.

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    Kurt W Alt

    Full Text Available In 2005 to 2007 45 skeletons of adults and subadults were excavated at the Lombard period cemetery at Szólád (6th century A.D., Hungary. Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ(15N, δ(13C, (87Sr/(86Sr analyses. Skeletal stress markers as well as traces of interpersonal violence were found to occur frequently. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a heterogeneous spectrum of lineages that belong to the haplogroups H, U, J, HV, T2, I, and K, which are common in present-day Europe and in the Near East, while N1a and N1b are today quite rare. Evidence of possible direct maternal kinship was identified in only three pairs of individuals. According to enamel strontium isotope ratios, at least 31% of the individuals died at a location other than their birthplace and/or had moved during childhood. Based on the peculiar 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio distribution between females, males, and subadults in comparison to local vegetation and soil samples, we propose a three-phase model of group movement. An initial patrilocal group with narrower male but wider female Sr isotope distribution settled at Szólád, whilst the majority of subadults represented in the cemetery yielded a distinct Sr isotope signature. Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation. Population heterogeneity is furthermore supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope data. They indicate that a group of high-ranking men had access to larger shares of animal-derived food whilst a few individuals consumed remarkable amounts of millet. The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written

  7. Urban Insertions and Landscape Visions. Tension between Design and Place in the Cemeteries by Sigurd Lewerentz

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    Carlotta Torricelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing memorial places involves a reflection about the Origin. Starting from this premise, the paper illustrates some small cemeteries designed by Sigurd Lewerentz in the same years when he was working at the two celebrated sacred spaces of Enskede (Stockholm and East-Malmö. The work developed by the Swedish architect in Forsbacka, Valdemarsvik, Rud and Kvarnsveden shows a peculiar approach aiming to reveal the character of the place. Lewerentz, through the landscape design, gives the ground – seen as a factor of origin – an evocative value. Using signs that allude to archetypes of the relationship between man and the divine, Lewerentz deploys natural features along with artificial and abstract elements. The pursuit of a sense of origin settles the project into the place, and in this we can recognize a founding principle able to orient contemporary urban projects.

  8. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

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    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  9. The sex profile of skeletal remains from a cemetery of Chinese indentured labourers in South Africa

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    Paul Ruff

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available For a short period of time in the early 20th century, indentured labourers from China were imported to work on the South African gold mines. The Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons contains 36 skeletons sourced from a Chinese cemetery of this time period on the site of the old Witwatersrand Deep Gold Mine. An earlier morphometric study on this collection recorded a high number of female individuals. However, the general historical records from the early gold mining era conflict with the results of this study, stating that very few Chinese females were among those to arrive in South Africa. In this study, the sex profile of this collection was analysed using molecular sex identification through the amelogenin gene. Results were obtained for 13 (41.93% specimens, all of which were determined to be male – data that correspond well with the historical records.

  10. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  11. Dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions from a hospital and cemetery waste incinerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininni, Giuseppe; Sbrilli, Andrea; Maria Braguglia, Camilla; Guerriero, Ettore; Marani, Dario; Rotatori, Mauro

    An experimental campaign was carried out on a hospital and cemetery waste incineration plant in order to assess the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Raw gases were sampled in the afterburning chamber, using a specifically designed device, after the heat recovery section and at the stack. Samples of slags from the combustion chamber and fly ashes from the bag filter were also collected and analyzed. PCDD/Fs and PAHs concentrations in exhaust gas after the heat exchanger (200-350 °C) decreased in comparison with the values detected in the afterburning chamber. Pollutant mass balance regarding the heat exchanger did not confirm literature findings about the de novo synthesis of PCDD/Fs in the heat exchange process. In spite of a consistent reduction of PCDD/Fs in the flue gas treatment system (from 77% up to 98%), the limit of 0.1 ng ITEQ Nm -3 at the stack was not accomplished. PCDD/Fs emission factors for air spanned from 2.3 up to 44 μg ITEQ t -1 of burned waste, whereas those through solid residues (mainly fly ashes) were in the range 41-3700 μg ITEQ t -1. Tests run with cemetery wastes generally showed lower PCDD/F emission factors than those with hospital wastes. PAH total emission factors (91-414 μg kg -1 of burned waste) were in the range of values reported for incineration of municipal and industrial wastes. In spite of the observed release from the scrubber, carcinogenic PAHs concentrations at the stack (0.018-0.5 μg Nm -3) were below the Italian limit of 10 μg Nm -3.

  12. BANGLES, BEADS AND BEDOUIN: EXCAVATING A LATE OTTOMAN CEMETERY IN JORDAN (ABSTRACT

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    Bethany J. Walker

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Transjordan witnessed significant social and economic changes in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. With the loss of agriculturally-rich territory in Europe, the Ottomans sought to make up for their economic losses by regaining control of their Arab provinces, some regions of which had been autonomous for nearly three hundred years. The application of Tanzimat legislation to the Transjordan was a success, to a large degree, in that it secured tax revenues and contributed to the general security of the region.The application of the 1858 Land Law, in which land was registered in a proprietor’s name for tax purposes, was particularly effective in transforming grazing land to productive agricultural properties. It, moreover, had a significant impact on Transjordanian society which was tribal and largely nomadic. The introduction of direct rule in the region by the Ottoman government transformed traditional tribal life, resulting in the settlement of formerly nomadic groups, the transition to an agrarian way of life, and the opening up of markets formerly inaccessible to indigenous tribal groups. A variety of urban, manufactured goods became readily available to all sectors of society throughout this frontier zone.“Bangles, Beads and Bedouin: Excavating a Late Ottoman Cemetery inJordan” considers the transformation of tribal funerary practices in the Belqa’ of central Jordan. The paper highlights the burial ground of one Transjordanian tribe, identified as the Adwan, excavated at Tall Hisban in 1998. Dated to the late nineteenth century on the basis of coins, this mass grave was one of the last of its kind, as permanent cemeteries replaced seasonal burial grounds by the early twentieth century. The composition of theburial goods indicates that members of the tribe participated in an exchange network that embraced the Red Sea, Greater Syria, and Europe.

  13. Landscaping analysis of the non-catholic Cemetery in Rome and design of new elements to the cult of memory

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    Simone Rostellato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is understand the situation of the Non-catholic Cemetery in Rome, examined both in its historical and urban evolution, within the surrounding landscape. This was the basis to address, from a design point of view, today’s need to insert new burial elements in a reality characterized by a historical identity and evocative already deeply established, both from a spatial point of view collective imagery. It was necessary to read the meaning of the cult of the dead in contemporary society and deepen the knowledge of the different identity of the place, resulting from multiple interactions with its environment: cemetery and context, they are heavily contaminated-made to each other in terms of history and urban.

  14. Analyzing and Interpreting Lime Burials from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939): A Case Study from La Carcavilla Cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; García-Rubio, Almudena; Edwards, Howell G M; Munshi, Tasnim; Wilson, Andrew S; Ríos, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Over 500 victims of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) were buried in the cemetery of La Carcavilla (Palencia, Spain). White material, observed in several burials, was analyzed with Raman spectroscopy and powder XRD, and confirmed to be lime. Archaeological findings at La Carcavilla's cemetery show that the application of lime was used in an organized way, mostly associated with coffinless interments of victims of Francoist repression. In burials with a lime cast, observations made it possible to draw conclusions regarding the presence of soft tissue at the moment of deposition, the sequence of events, and the presence of clothing and other evidence. This study illustrates the importance of analyzing a burial within the depositional environment and taphonomic context.

  15. The ecological structure of the bryoflora of Wroclaw's parks and cemeteries in relation to their localization and origin

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    Ewa Fudali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological structure of the flora of 81 bryophytes found in 22 town parks and 6 cemeteries situated within the borders of the Wrocław town has been analyzed in relation to the localization of objects (within the center of the town and its suburbs and their origin (parks set up in the place of ruins, those built on the site of old cemeteries, objects established within former forests, and parks set up in open, previously rural areas, often as gardens of mansions. In general estimation, the bryoflora of parks and cemeteries appears to be rather ecologically highly specializated - more than 50% of species occurred only on one type of substratum. Epiphytes s.s. occurred rarely. More often bryophytes were noted at the bases and on the trunks of trees, up to 30 cm. Some of the mosses, described in literature as epiphytes, have adapted to terrestrial-epiphytic sites and have been found only at the base of trees. In parks, epigeits were found in abundance on the ground around the base of trees and in shaded lawns. The presence of specialized epixylics was insignificant, although some of the typical forest epixylics were noted, namely Aulacomnium androgynum, Herzogiella seligeri and Dicranum scoparium. However, only parks situated in the suburbs show a high ecological variety of bryoflora, while objects established within the center of the town do not differ in species composition of bryophytes from surrounding built-up areas, despite their origin. Only in the parks situated in the suburbs there was a pronounced presence of forest and meadow species. The factor of park's origin seems to influence the bryoflora's ecological structure and the species richness on objects situated in the suburbs. In the cemeteries a positive correlation between the high number of species, age of monuments and the dimensions of object areas was stated.

  16. The effectiveness of ground-penetrating radar surveys in the location of unmarked burial sites in modern cemeteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sabine; Illich, Bernhard; Berger, Jochen; Graw, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    Ground-penetration radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that is commonly used in archaeological and forensic investigations, including the determination of the exact location of graves. Whilst the method is rapid and does not involve disturbance of the graves, the interpretation of GPR profiles is nevertheless difficult and often leads to incorrect results. Incorrect identifications could hinder criminal investigations and complicate burials in cemeteries that have no information on the location of previously existing graves. In order to increase the number of unmarked graves that are identified, the GPR results need to be verified by comparing them with the soil and vegetation properties of the sites examined. We used a modern cemetery to assess the results obtained with GPR which we then compared with previously obtained tachymetric data and with an excavation of the graves where doubt existed. Certain soil conditions tended to make the application of GPR difficult on occasions, but a rough estimation of the location of the graves was always possible. The two different methods, GPR survey and tachymetry, both proved suitable for correctly determining the exact location of the majority of graves. The present study thus shows that GPR is a reliable method for determining the exact location of unmarked graves in modern cemeteries. However, the method did not allow statements to be made on the stage of decay of the bodies. Such information would assist in deciding what should be done with graves where ineffective degradation creates a problem for reusing graves following the standard resting time of 25 years.

  17. The emergence of mesolithic cemeteries in SW Europe: insights from the El Collado (Oliva, Valencia, Spain) radiocarbon record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaja, Juan F; Subirà, M Eulàlia; Terradas, Xavier; Santos, F Javier; Agulló, Lidia; Gómez-Martínez, Isabel; Allièse, Florence; Fernández-López de Pablo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Located on the Iberian Mediterranean coast, El Collado is an open-air site where a rescue excavation was conducted over two seasons in 1987 and 1988. The archaeological work excavated a surface area of 143 m2 where 14 burials were discovered, providing skeletal remains from 15 individuals. We have obtained AMS dates for 10 of the 15 individuals by means of the direct dating of human bones. The ranges of the probability distribution of the calibrated dates suggest that the cemetery was used during a long period of time (781-1020 years at a probability of 95.4%). The new dates consequently set back the chrono-cultural attribution of the cemetery from the initial proposal of Late Mesolithic to an older date in the Early Mesolithic. Therefore, El Collado becomes the oldest known cemetery in the Iberian Peninsula, earlier than the numerous Mesolithic funerary contexts documented on the Atlantic façade such as the Portuguese shell-middens in the Muge and Sado Estuaries or the funerary sites on the northern Iberian coast.

  18. The emergence of mesolithic cemeteries in SW Europe: insights from the El Collado (Oliva, Valencia, Spain radiocarbon record.

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    Juan F Gibaja

    Full Text Available Located on the Iberian Mediterranean coast, El Collado is an open-air site where a rescue excavation was conducted over two seasons in 1987 and 1988. The archaeological work excavated a surface area of 143 m2 where 14 burials were discovered, providing skeletal remains from 15 individuals. We have obtained AMS dates for 10 of the 15 individuals by means of the direct dating of human bones. The ranges of the probability distribution of the calibrated dates suggest that the cemetery was used during a long period of time (781-1020 years at a probability of 95.4%. The new dates consequently set back the chrono-cultural attribution of the cemetery from the initial proposal of Late Mesolithic to an older date in the Early Mesolithic. Therefore, El Collado becomes the oldest known cemetery in the Iberian Peninsula, earlier than the numerous Mesolithic funerary contexts documented on the Atlantic façade such as the Portuguese shell-middens in the Muge and Sado Estuaries or the funerary sites on the northern Iberian coast.

  19. Reconstructing Ancient Egyptian Diet through Bone Elemental Analysis Using LIBS (Qubbet el Hawa Cemetery

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    Ghada Darwish Al-Khafif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important advantages of LIBS that make it suitable for the analysis of archeological materials is that it is a quasi-nondestructive technique. Archeological mandibles excavated from Qubbet el Hawa Cemetery, Aswan, were subjected to elemental analysis in order to reconstruct the dietary patterns of the middle class of the Aswan population throughout three successive eras: the First Intermediate Period (FIP, the Middle Kingdom (MK, and the Second Intermediate Period (SIP. The bone Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios were significantly correlated, so the Sr/Ca ratios are considered to represent the ante-mortem values. It was suggested that the significantly low FIP Sr/Ca compared to that of both the MK and the SIP was attributed to the consumption of unusual sorts of food and imported cereals during years of famine, while the MK Sr/Ca was considered to represent the amelioration of climatic, social, economic, and political conditions in this era of state socialism. The SIP Sr/Ca, which is nearly the same as that of the MK, was considered to be the reflection of the continuity of the individualism respect and state socialism and a reflection of agriculture conditions amelioration under the reign of the 17th Dynasty in Upper Egypt.

  20. Vascular plant flora in the Cytadela cemeteries in Poznań (Poland

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    Aneta Czarna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the spontaneous vascular flora and the flora originating from old or contemporary plantations found in all six currently existing cemeteries located in immediate vicinity on the slopes of the Cytadela Park in Poznań. These studies were carried out in the years 2011–2014. Over this period, 255 species of vascular plants were found. The most interesting species include: Chionodoxa luciliae, Rumex rugosus, Aegopodium podagraria ‘Variegatum’, Ficaria verna f. plenifolia, Galanthus nivalis f. pleniflora, Ornithogalum boucheanum, Ranunculus repens ‘Plena’, and hybrids: Dactylis ×intercedens, Gagea ×pomeranica, Ornithogalum boucheanum × O. nutans, Viola cyanea × V. odorata. A great number of spring geophytes, namely 31 species, was also found. Among species occurring spontaneously outside the graves, some were new for Poland, e.g., Chionodoxa luciliae, Ornithogalum boucheanum × O. nutans, Viola cyanea × V. odorata, while others were new for the Wielkopolska region: Rumex rugosus, Dactylis ×intercedens, Gagea ×pomeranica, as well as new for Poznań: Erigeron ramosus, Lilium bulbiferum, Muscari armeniacus, M. neglectum, Pimpinella nigra, Poa subcaerulea, and Veronica hederifolia s. s.

  1. A bioarchaeological approach to prehistoric cemetery populations from western and central Greek Macedonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triantaphyllou, S

    1999-11-01

    The osteological material under study consists of 510 skeletal remains dating from the Early Neolithic (6000 BC) to the Early Iron Age (1100-700 BC). It comes from nine different cemeteries and burial locations extending from the coastal to the inland areas of the study region. The current thesis attempts to explore two major issues: (1) the reconstruction of aspects of life history and (2) the treatment and manipulation of the deceased as revealed by the human skeletal remains. With regard to the former, the investigation of demographic parameters, patterns of health and oral status as well as diet have been considered. In short, local conditions defined by environmental and social constraints probably affected the general quality of life reconstructed for the study populations. There is an overall tendency however, towards declining levels of health and oral status in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age populations, while certain assemblages provide high levels of infant and child mortality, possibly associated with a type of anaemia. There is also a substantial involvement of the upper skeleton in work patterns, possibly related to activities such as food acquisition, processing and preparation. Meanwhile, the evidence for dietary patterns from the Neolithic/Early Bronze Ages to the Late Bronze/Early Iron Ages is consistent with an overall shift from a high reliance on meat consumption to a diet base on carbohydrate foodstuffs. The evaluation of the manipulation of the deceased, alongside the evidence for mortuary differentiation through time, reveals a striking transformation from the practice of single inhumations in the Early Bronze Age to multiple/secondary burials in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age assemblages, suggesting a shift in emphasis from individual to lineage-group identity. Furthermore, the integration of biological inferences with the evidence of mortuary behaviour provides further insights into sex roles and the position of subadults

  2. Comments on the Yule Marble Haines block: potential replacement, Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Arlington National Cemetery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Marble for the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery was cut from the Colorado Yule Marble Quarry in 1931. Although anecdotal reports suggest that cracks were noticed in the main section of the monument shortly after its installation at the Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia, detailed documentation of the extent of cracking did not appear until 1963. Although debate continues as to whether the main section of the Tomb of the Unknowns monument should be repaired or replaced, Mr. John S. Haines of Glenwood Springs, Colorado, in anticipation of the permanent closing of the Yule Quarry, donated a 58-ton block of Yule Marble, the so-called Haines block, as a potential backup. The brief study reported here was conducted during mid-summer 2009 at the behest of the superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery. The field team entered the subterranean Yule Marble Quarry with the Chief Extraction Engineer in order to contrast the method used for extraction of the Haines block with the method that was probably used to extract the marble block that is now cracked. Based on surficial inspection and shallow coring of the Haines block, and on the nature of crack propagation in Yule Marble as judged by close inspection of a large collection of surrogate Yule Marble blocks, the team found the block to be structurally sound and cosmetically equivalent to the marble used for the current monument. If the Haines block were needed, it would be an appropriate replacement for the existing cracked section of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Monument.

  3. Isotopic investigation of human provenience at the eleventh century cemetery of Ndr. Grødbygård, Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Price, Douglas; Bennike, Pia;

    2013-01-01

    relations and potential places of origin of the inhabitants of the cemetery.Strontium and oxygen isotope ratios in human tooth enamel provide a signature of place of origin and can be compared to the ratios of the place of burial to determine local or non-local origins. In the case of Bornholm, the local...... geology is quite complex, with a variety of rocks of different age and composition, resulting in a wide range of strontium isotope sources on the island, complicating the issue of identifying migrants. At the same time, Grødbygård provides an important example of the application of such methods in less...

  4. Subeixi Site and Cemeteries in Shanshan County, Xinjiang%新疆鄯善县苏贝希遗址及墓地

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    新疆文物考古研究所; 吐鲁番地区博物馆

    2002-01-01

    The site and Cemeteries Nos. 1 and 3 at Subeixi in Shanshan County were excavated in 1999 by the Xinjiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and other institutions. Among the vestiges revealed are the foundations of three houses, two of which consist of three separate rooms each, arranged in a row, and were used as living rooms, livestock pens, etc. The unearthed objects are largely stone tools and household pottery. To the west of the site is the No. 3 cemetery, where 29 earth-pit tombs and a cave-curn-shaft grave were brought to light. In the No. 1 cemetery, four earth-pit tombs were discovered along with a cave-cum-shaft grave. The tombs are covered with pebble mounds on the surface. The grave goods unearthed from them include principally pottery and wooden wares for daily use, a small number of irons, stone tools, bone objects and horn artifacts, and also some woolen and leather articles in rather a good condition. Evidently there was a settlement consisting of a living area and several cemeteries at Subeixi. The finds and the results of C-14 dating show it to go back to the 5th~3rd centuries BC.

  5. Longtangang Cemetery of the Liangzhu Culture in Haiyan County,Zhejiang%浙江海盐县龙潭港良渚文化墓地

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浙江省文物考古研究所; 海盐县博物馆

    2001-01-01

    This cemetery lies on a high mound surrounded by a roughly ring-shaped section of a river course. Excavations were carried out near the center of the mound in 1997, which resulted in the revelation of a rather intact cemetery of the Liangzhu culture. At the center of the mound summit is an almost square zone of burnt clay, which may have been a place for sacrificial activities. A shallow north--south trench divides the cemetery into a western and an eastern parts, in which large tombs and small ones are arranged respectively in good order. The funeral objects unearthed include pottery, jades, stone tools and bone, horn and ivory ornaments, and distinct difference exists between the two categories of tombs in the type, number and quality of grave goods. The cemetery began to be used in the early Liangzhu culture, while its main part was shaped in an earlier stage of the late Liangzhu. Its discovery provides in many ways new material for studying this cultural complex.

  6. Paleodietary Analysis of Human Remains from a Hellenistic-Roman Cemetery at Camihöyük, Turkey

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    Yusuf İzci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of copper, zinc, magnesium, iron, lead, molybdenum, manganese and nickel was discovered on 22 human ribs in a Hellenistic-Roman cemetery located in the ancient city of Camihöyük, Turkey. The levels of each element found in the males were higher than those in females, except iron. Copper, magnesium, iron, molybdenum, and nickel levels were measured to be higher in the soil than in the skeletons, whereas the other elements were higher in the human skeletons. Lead was not traced in the soil, but on the skeletons. These individuals had probably been exposed to this element during their lives due to higher consumption of vegetables than meat.

  7. 新疆哈密市艾斯克霞尔墓地的发掘%Excavation of the Askchar Cemetery in Hami City, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    新疆文物考古研究所; 哈密地区文物管理所

    2002-01-01

    This cemetery lies about 30km southwest of Wubao Township in Hami City, and was excavated in 1999 by the Xinjiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology. The work resulted in the revelation of 32 earth-pit tombs, mostly single burials in a flexed sideways position. The human remains are wrapped in leather coats and covered with leather masks on the face. Among the unearthed and collected objects, pottery and wooden wares come first in quantity, stone tools and bronzes next, and bone and horn artifacts, woolen textiles and leather articles are still smaller in number. The burial ground is roughly identical with the Yanbulake and Wubao cemeteries in tomb form and grave goods, and must have been of the Yanbulake culture. The tombs date from 3000BP and belong to the Bronze Age.

  8. Dress and Social Identities: the role of GIS in mapping social structure in the central Italian Iron Age cemetery of Osteria dell'Osa

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    Lisa Cougle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the application of GIS technology to examination of the social significance of mortuary dress and personal ornament. Using published data from Phase II of the Iron Age Italian cemetery of Osteria dell'Osa (Bietti Sestieri 1992a, I aim to show how GIS can illuminate aspects of gender, kinship and status systems that might not emerge from traditional statistical analyses. The methodological challenges of analysing a large body of non-geo-referenced data are discussed, and one approach to presenting such data in a GIS environment is explored. Inference of social determinants for cemetery layout from spatial data presented in ArcMap is critically examined. Spatial patterning is identified that suggests social identity and kinship were both important factors in the selection of dress and personal ornaments for burial.

  9. The sage who divided Java in 1052: Maclaine Pont’s excavation of Mpu Bharada's hermitage-cemetery at Lĕmah Tulis in 1925

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    Peter Carey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Architect Henri Maclaine Pont’s personal papers indicate that he almost certainly excavated the medieval hermitage-cemetery of the eleventh-century sage, Empu Bharada, in 1925. Careful field study in the former royal capital of Majapahit, analysis of the relevant Old Javanese texts and interviews with local residents have enabled an accurate identification of Maclaine-Pont’s exacavation site at the former children’s cemetery of Lemah Tulis where Bharada lived as a hermit. The authors argue that the famous Joko Dolog (‘Fat Youth’ statue now in Surabaya depicts the Buddhist sage who divided Java between King Airlangga’s two sons in 1052, and conclude by urging a new excavation of this most significant historical site.

  10. Occurrence of ticks and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in three types of urban biotopes: forests, parks and cemeteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Meli, Marina L; Gönczi, Enikő; Halász, Edina; Takács, Nóra; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare different urban biotopes for the occurrence of ixodid tick species, for the population density of Ixodes ricinus and for the prevalence rates of two emerging, zoonotic pathogens. Altogether 2455 ticks were collected from the vegetation on 30 places (forests, parks, cemeteries) of Budapest, Hungary. I. ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna were collected in all three biotope types, but Dermacentor reticulatus only in parks and forests, and D. marginatus only in a forest. Highest population density of I. ricinus was observed in neglected parts of cemeteries. In females of this tick species the prevalence rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were significantly lower in cemeteries, than in parks or forests. In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability of tick hosts and pathogen reservoirs.

  11. 谈中国传统殡葬观在墓园景观中的应用%The application of Chinese traditional funeral view in cemetery landscape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊玲; 李雪

    2012-01-01

    对中国传统殡葬观与墓园景观的关系方面进行了研究,并提出传统殡葬观在墓园景观中的应用方法,分别从文化主题、地域特色和象征内涵三个方面进行了论述,从而为墓园景观园林化设计提供可行性的建议,对中国传统殡葬文化传承具有重要意义。%This paper researched the relationship of Chinese traditional funeral view and cemetery landscape,and put forward the application method of traditional funeral view in cemetery landscape,discussed from the cultural theme,regional characteristics and symbolic connotation three aspects,so as to provided feasible suggestion for the green design of cemetery landscape,had important significance to Chinese traditional funeral culture heritage.

  12. Radiocarbon dating of charred human bone remains preserved in urns excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: nakamura@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.j [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sagawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Tetsuya [Gangoji Institute for Research of Cultural Properties, Nakain, Nara 630-8392 (Japan); Kanehara, Masaaki [School of Science Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake, Nara 630-8528 (Japan); Tsuchimoto, Norio [Ichinomiya City Museum, Yamato, Ichinomiya 491-0922 (Japan); Minami, Masayo [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Okuno, Mitsuru [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Jonan, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Ohta, Tomoko [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    For a preliminary test of {sup 14}C dating of cremated human remains, we have collected charred bone and wood-charcoal fragments from cremated remains contained in cinerary urns that had been excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery at the Hoenji temple in Aichi prefecture, central Japan. More than 230 urn vessels were discovered from the excavated area of ca. 14 m wide and 14 m long. The identification of charred bone or charcoal fragments among the remains was performed by observation of surface appearance, inspection of fine structures by a microscope, bubble formation during the HCl treatments in preparing target material for AMS {sup 14}C dating, carbon and nitrogen contents, delta{sup 13}C and delta{sup 15}N values of the fragments. All {sup 14}C ages obtained for the samples that were identified as charred bone remains were almost consistent with the archeological age estimated based on typological analysis of respective urns. On the other hand, some {sup 14}C ages for the remains identified as wood charcoal, which had been produced from firewood or a wooden coffin during the cremation, were not consistent with archeological estimation, shifting toward older {sup 14}C ages, most probably as the result of old wood effect.

  13. Re-Meaning The Indigenous Muisca Cemetery 0f Usme, Colombia: Ethnography of Collaborative Project and Patrimonial Debate

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    Pablo F. Gómez-Montañez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper exposes an ethnographic view of a collaborative field work, made in Hacienda El Carmen in Usme, Colombia, a terrain where an indigenous muisca cemetery was found. The analysis focuses on the struggles between the named “authorized patrimonial discourse” and the “cultural process of patrimony”.  In the first part, I want to expose the processes that led us to purpose a current collaborative research project implemented by the Universidad Santo Tomás’ Group of Memory and the Indigenous Muisca Community of Bosa. Based on a situational analysis methodology, this part is the result of an ethnographic field work of some spaces of dialogue and encounter among different logics to understand the patrimony and the heritage. In middle of struggles with the public institutions, the academy and other social groups, the muisca people build and negotiate their ethnic identity as part of their cultural and political project. In the second part, the situational analysis will be applied in scenarios where the muisca people began to interpret the archaeological territory of Hacienda El Carmen. In this part, I will try to expose some epistemological reflections about alternative and inclusive ways of knowledge and remembering. The new senses and narratives, produced as a result of this exercise, let us thinking about the symbolic strategies used by the muisca people to occupy an important place in the present and the possibility of understanding and purposing current citizen visions from creative and original ways of incorporate ancestral memories.

  14. Excavation in the Gangouzi Cemetery in Changbai County,Jilin%吉林长白县干沟子墓地发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉林省文物考古研究所

    2003-01-01

    In May~July 2001, the Jilin Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeologysurveyed the Gangouzi cemetery in Changbai County and excavated there seven tombs. These are stoneburial pits each with several or dozen circular, semicircular or fan-like platforms structured of pebbles andconnected with each other. They contain secondary burials after cremation. Human bones are largelybroken. The funeral objects consist of pottery, jade and stone artifacts and bronzes. The excavation is ofimportant value to studying the origin of the tomb shape prevailing among the Kaoguryo people.

  15. The cartographic methods of presentation and GIS tool in analysis of historical data on the example of Great War cemeteries in southern Poland

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    Lisek Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of Geographic Information System software in cartographic data presentation in the field of historical data mining. Lists of soldiers buried in the I world war cemeteries near Jasło were used. The prepared database helped to create series of maps, mainly diagram maps, that serve as a useful statistical and demographic characteristics of the phenomena. The authors stressed advantages of the solution used and the usefulness of historical data in spatial database preparation process. The shortages of the GIS software itself were also pointed out, especially as long as cartographic editing and methodology principles are concerned.

  16. [Dietary behavior of the Middle Ages in Grenoble: application of isotopic biogeochemistry of the Saint-Laurent cemetery (XIIIth-XVth centuries, Isère, France)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrscher, E; Bocherens, H; Valentin, F; Colardelle, R

    2001-05-01

    Isotopic analysis of 13C and 15N of 47 bones from Saint-Laurent de Grenoble cemetery (Grenoble, Isère), from the end of medieval period (XIIIth-XVth centuries AD) allowed to define the food status of animals with regard to the humans and to discuss the variability amongst adults. Adults who died young and those with small stature may have had diets poor in animal protein. The consumption of animal proteins was more important in the XVth than in the XIVth century and could illustrate a typical urban food economy providing its population with a more diversified diet than in rural areas.

  17. 景面文心,从意出形--栖心墓园情志之境%Revelations of the Cemetery’s Emotional Spaces Design--Based on Poetic wisdom of the Chinese Traditional Cemetery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李程成

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese cemetery uses poetry as blueprint in landscape conception, and dewless subjective emotion into objective environment, humanizing the scenery of the cemetery. Taking article as media at the same time, the moving literature engraves memories of love for the tomb of people, so that the poetic content born from landscape and conversely continue the feeling of the scene. The poetic wisdom of the Chinese traditional cemetery can be used in today's cemetery design, which makes the scene more meaning, and aims to take the Chinese nation culture as the main body, and gives health rich cultural connotation to the cemetery of environment construction, and create the beautiful environment with charm and charisma.%中国传统墓园以诗作为构园置景的艺术蓝本,将主观情志寓于客观山水环境中,人化了自然。同时以文为媒,以情动人,铭刻对墓主的缅怀之情,进而“文因境生,景借文传”。诗心画眼、景面文心的艺术特质同样可运用在今天的墓园设计中,使景物更具深意,旨在以中华民族文化为主体,将健康丰富的文化内涵赋予墓园的环境建设中,创造“彰功育人,化悲为力”的优美环境。

  18. Lombards on the Move – An Integrative Study of the Migration Period Cemetery at Szólád, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Daniel; Müller, Wolfgang; Maurer, Anne-France; Kollig, Isabelle; Nicklisch, Nicole; Müller, Christiane; Karimnia, Sarah; Brandt, Guido; Roth, Christina; Rosner, Martin; Mende, Balász; Schöne, Bernd R.; Vida, Tivadar; von Freeden, Uta

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 to 2007 45 skeletons of adults and subadults were excavated at the Lombard period cemetery at Szólád (6th century A.D.), Hungary. Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ15N, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr) analyses. Skeletal stress markers as well as traces of interpersonal violence were found to occur frequently. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a heterogeneous spectrum of lineages that belong to the haplogroups H, U, J, HV, T2, I, and K, which are common in present-day Europe and in the Near East, while N1a and N1b are today quite rare. Evidence of possible direct maternal kinship was identified in only three pairs of individuals. According to enamel strontium isotope ratios, at least 31% of the individuals died at a location other than their birthplace and/or had moved during childhood. Based on the peculiar 87Sr/86Sr ratio distribution between females, males, and subadults in comparison to local vegetation and soil samples, we propose a three-phase model of group movement. An initial patrilocal group with narrower male but wider female Sr isotope distribution settled at Szólád, whilst the majority of subadults represented in the cemetery yielded a distinct Sr isotope signature. Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation. Population heterogeneity is furthermore supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope data. They indicate that a group of high-ranking men had access to larger shares of animal-derived food whilst a few individuals consumed remarkable amounts of millet. The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written sources. PMID:25369022

  19. Landscape planning and design research of Yusongyuan cemetery in Helinge'er%和林格尔县郁松园公墓景观规划设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车晓雨; 王燕龙; 王琦; 贾娜; 段汀龙

    2016-01-01

    为了改善当代城市公墓分布随意、形式简陋,且易对景观环境造成视觉污染的状况,采用实地勘察和文献研究的方法,对和林格尔县郁松园公墓景观进行详细的规划设计,以打造生态环保的感悟性空间为主导思想,通过合理化利用地形、带入当地人文元素、景观空间的情感化处理等园林设计手法,利用“一轴三点四区”的整体景观布局形式对全园进行结构性的区域划分,重点在于利用不同的竖向场地类型来塑造各具特色的现代化墓区景观,将景观与生态融为一体,旨在打造出符合“美丽中国”“生态文明”理念的新型墓园景观。%In order to improve the city cemetery situations of disorder distribution ,simple and crude forms ,and easy for causing the visual discomfort in modern cities ,this paper adopted the method of field investigation and literature research for the landscape planning of Yuso‐ngyuan cemetry in Helinge'er .With the main idea of creating an ecological feeling space ,the program was designed by using topography reasonably ,introducing the local culture ele‐ments and making an emotional landscape space .In this paper we used the form of “one axis , three points and four areas” as the structure of this garden ,and focused on using different types of vertical grounds to shape the modern cemetery landscape .We also combined the landscape and ecology together to create a new cemetery landscape w hich conformed to the theory of “Beautiful China” and“Ecological Civilization” in China .

  20. Neoclassicism and local artistic tradition in the sepulchral monuments of the Certosa cemetery in Bologna during the napoleonic era and the restoration

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    Emanuela Bagattoni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In advance of the edict of Saint-Cloud (1804 which forbade burials inside towns, the suppressed monastery of the Carthusians monks of Bologna was transformed into a vast cemetery in 1801 and complied with the most modern instances of sanitation. After a heated debate on whether to put all social classes together in one burial place extra moenia, the Municipality of Bologna resolved the dispute by overcoming the existing Enlightenment-Jacobin egalitarianism: the wide open fields were reserved for the burial of ordinary people, while the wealthy (nobility and the newly rich bourgeoisie were able to bury their dead in the costly monumental sepulchres in the arches of the Renaissance cloister. The growing number of monuments soon meant that the Bolognese cemetery became the richest exhibition of Italian Neoclassical art and consequently a destination for many Italian and foreign travellers. This situation promoted activities of writing and engraving which focused on the monumental works and their illustrious dedicatees. From 1815 on, the Municipality and the Academy of Fine Arts of Bologna promoted the prestige of their cemetery by enlarging and embellishing it and initiating a methodical quality control of the artistic work produced for its enrichment. The interest of these institutions also contributed to the evolution of techniques for executing the monuments. During the Napoleonic era, in line with the great local classical-naturalistic tradition of painting and “quadratura” of Bologna, the sepulchres were predominantly decorated by painters. This phenomenon, perhaps unique in the world, ended with scagliola and gypsum sculpture being favoured over painting in the middle of the 1810s. One reason for this reversal in trend can be found in the problems of conservation which the painted tombs, located outdoors, presented only a few years after they had been made. Another reason is evident in the slow change in taste of the Bolognese towards

  1. 内蒙古丰镇市十一窑子战国墓%Shiyiyaozi Cemetery of the Warring States Period in Fengzhen City,Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌兰察布盟博物馆

    2003-01-01

    This cemetery lies in Fengzhen City of Inner Mongolia, north of Shiyiyaozi Village of Heigedawa Township and east of the Yinma River. The eight tombs excavated are all rectangular earth pits, small in size and varying in direction. They are with or without coffins, and contain burials mostly in an extended supine position. A few human skeletons were found with bronze arrowheads inserted in them, and sheep bones were discovered as the remains of animal victims. The funeral objects are relatively small in number, with the pottery vessels belonging to the jar, pot, bowl, etc., all grey clay ware fired at a rather high temperature, and the bronzes including belt hooks, arrowheads and rings. These show quite typical features of the Central Plains culture. The tombs can be assigned to the Warring States period according to their shape and the characteristics of their objects.

  2. The association between periodontal disease and periosteal lesions in the St. Mary Graces cemetery, London, England A.D. 1350-1538.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Sharon N; Bekvalac, Jelena

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated significant associations between periodontal disease and many other diseases in living populations, and some studies have shown that individuals with periodontal disease are at elevated risks of mortality. Recent analysis of a medieval skeletal sample from London has also shown that periodontal disease was associated with increased risks of mortality in the past. This study examines whether periodontal disease is associated with periosteal lesions in a skeletal sample from the urban St. Mary Graces cemetery (n = 265) from medieval London. The results reveal a significant association between periodontal disease and periosteal lesions in the St. Mary Graces sample (i.e., individuals with periodontal disease were also likely to have periosteal lesions), and the association between the two is independent of age. The association between the two pathological conditions might reflect underlying reduced immune competence and thus heightened susceptibility to pathogens that cause periodontal disease or periosteal lesions, exposure to an environmental factor, or underlying heightened inflammatory responses.

  3. Methodological proposal for the volumetric study of archaeological ceramics through 3D edition free-software programs: the case of the celtiberians cemeteries of the meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez Climent

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the free-software programs have been converted into the ideal tools for the archaeological researches, reaching the same level as other commercial programs. For that reason, the 3D modeling tool Blender has reached in the last years a great popularity offering similar characteristics like other commercial 3D editing programs such as 3D Studio Max or AutoCAD. Recently, it has been developed the necessary script for the volumetric calculations of three-dimnesional objects, offering great possibilities to calculate the volume of the archaeological ceramics. In this paper, we present a methodological approach for the volumetric studies with Blender and a study case of funerary urns from several celtiberians cemeteries of the Spanish Meseta. The goal is to demonstrate the great possibilities that the 3D editing free-software tools have in the volumetric studies at the present time.

  4. XANES investigation of Chinese faience excavated from Peng State Cemetery site in Western Zhou Period (BC1046–BC771)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Wentao; Yang, Yimin [Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Jian, E-mail: jzhu@ucas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gu, Zhou [Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie, Yaoting [Institute of Archaeology of Shanxi Province, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Zhang, Jing [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Lihua [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed faience of Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty (BC1046–BC771). • We investigated the chemical composition and oxidation state by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), respectively. • The coloring element in both beads is copper in +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu{sup 2+}. • Chinese faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant. - Abstract: As a special kind of glazed ceramic, faience has an important role to play in the technological trajectory that eventually leads to the development of ancient glass. In China, faience products first emerged in early Western Zhou Dynasty (1046BC–771BC), and their great significance as well as brilliant colors varying between blue and green attracted a lot of scholars. However, scientific researches on the color source of Chinese faience in view of microstructure characterization are quite few. In the present work, analyses by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) were carried out on two faience beads with relatively blue and green color, respectively, both of which were excavated from Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty. The results show that the coloring element in both beads is copper with +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu{sup 2+}. It is suggested that the faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant in China.

  5. 新疆拜城县克孜尔吐尔墓地第一次发掘%The First Excavation of the Kiziltur Cemetery in Baicheng County, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    新疆文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    The Kiziltur cemetery discovered in 1998 is located in Kizil Township east of the seat of Baicheng County. It extends about 2kin from the north to the south. The tombs are distributed at the southern end, and an ancient city site and ruins of dwellings were brought to light in the middle. In 1990, the Xinjiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated here 27 earth-pit barrow-tombs, in which no coffins were found. The tombs contain single and couple or multiple joint burials of primary or secondary entombment, and some graves yielded human remains entombed in both ways. The funeral objects include mainly pottery, in which painted ware accounts for 74%, and bronzes, stone tools and bone artifacts were also unearthed. According to the finds and the results of C-14 dating, the cemetery can be dated to the Western Zhou and Spring-and-Autumn period.

  6. "Celtic migrations": fact or fiction? Strontium and oxygen isotope analysis of the Czech cemeteries of Radovesice and Kutná Hora in Bohemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, Mirjam; Knipper, Corina; Hauschild, Maya; Schönfelder, Martin; Siebel, Wolfgang; Pare, Christopher; Alt, Kurt W

    2014-12-01

    Strontium and oxygen isotope analysis of human remains from the early La Tène (fourth/third century BC) Czech cemeteries of Radovesice I (RAD I), Radovesice II (RAD II), and Kutná Hora were conducted to investigate the importance of residential changes during the period of the historic "Celtic migrations". In the initial phases (LT A/B), the grave goods of these cemeteries are typical for the core area of the La Tène culture, while around 300 BC (LT B2) an alteration occurs and typical Bohemian styles arise, and connections to Moravia and the Danubian region become visible. The strontium isotope ratios are highly varied with (87) Sr/(86) Sr values between 0.7062 and 0.7153 in Radovesice, and between 0.7082 and 0.7147 in Kutná Hora. The oxygen isotope data are more homogeneous and yield δ(18) Op ratios from 14.8‰ to 17.2‰ [mean: 16.2‰ ± 0.5 (1σ)] in Radovesice, and from 14.9‰ to 17.3‰ [mean: 16.5‰ ± 0.6 (1σ)] in Kutná Hora. Because the geological properties of the landscapes around the sites are variable and complex, most of the observed variations among the strontium isotope ratios may have been caused by agricultural practices, such as regularly changing farming land. Nevertheless, there are some individuals who differ completely from the regional isotopic baseline values. This suggests that at least a small part of the community migrated, which does not seem to be correlated with any particular phase of the La Tène period. Remarkably, it is mainly males who seem to be of nonlocal origin, and particularly those who were buried as warriors. Females, on the other hand, appear to have been more closely bonded to the Bohemian region. Whether the "foreign" individuals with differing isotopic compositions came from Moravia or the Danubian region remains debatable.

  7. 浅析哲学理论在现代墓园景观规划设计中的运用--以宜兴金鸡山墓地公园景观规划设计为例%Application of Theory of Philosophy in the Modern Landscape Planning and Design of Cemetery-- Taking the Landscape Planning and Design of Jinji Mountain Cemetery Park in Yixing City as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晶

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, through the analysis and the research of Chinese traditional philosophical theory which is related to funeral culture, the author found a combining point of philoso- phical theory and the landscape planning and design cemetery. The author combines the Chinese traditional philosophy into the landscape planning and design of modern cemetery, to ex- plore the landscape design of modern cemetery which can not only satisfy the modern life, but also can reflect the inheritance of Chinese culture.%本文通过分析和研究与殡葬文化相关的中国传统哲学理论,寻找哲学理论与墓园景观规划设计的契合点。将中国传统哲学思想融入现代墓园景观规划设计中,探索形成既能满足现代生活,又能体现中国文化传承的现代墓园景观设计。

  8. Chemical characterization of groundwater in the area occupied by the cemetery: use of fluorescence spectrometry X-ray energy dispersive (EDXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ernesto Ucker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the burial of human corpses can contribute to groundwater pollution by the contact of leachate generated from the decomposition of bodies in the unsaturated zone of the subsoil. This process has been investigated in this work that aimed to determine the overall quality of groundwater in the zone occupied by the cemetery. The fluorescence spectrometry X-ray Energy Dispersive (EDXRF technique was used for groundwater chemical characterization. Five monitoring wells were constructed according to Brazilian norms. The water level fluctuation, the potentiometric surface and the concentrations of the elements calcium, copper, iron, phosphorus and silicon were estimated. The water level appeared quite shallow, ranging between 0.48 to 0.95 m in the dry season. The concentrations range for calcium varied from 4.65 to 17.85 mg L-1, for copper 0.02 ± 0.29 mg L-1, iron 0.57 to 15.96 mg L-1, phosphorus 12.00 to 13.98 mg L-1, and silicon 35.55 to 79.12 mg L-1. It is concluded that the use of EDXRF techniques proved to be rapid and efficient for monitoring the constituents in the groundwater collected in wells under the influence of graveyard in silt-clay soil.

  9. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome-Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco-and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center.

  10. Systematic Contradiction Between Heritage Conservation and Tourism Development: Cleaning the Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Degang; Sun Wanzhen

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of the tourist industry, world heritage sites become more and more popular among tourists from home and abroad. Therefore, heritage tourism has become a new hotspot. However, while world heritage sites are making obvious economic benefit from tourism,they also bring various problems and contradictions, of which the most troublesome one is the contradiction between heritage conservation and tourism development. To discuss and analyze the root and the essence of the above contradiction and find a way to bring about harmony between them is an important program faced by our national heritage management practice and academic research. Based on the case of cleaning the Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu, this paper analyzes the reasons why our national world cultural heritage sites bring about the above contradiction in the process of tourism development and points out that the improper system and stakeholders' benefit imbroglio are respectively the root and the essence of the contraction. Then, it also puts forward corresponding solutions.

  11. 新疆尉犁县营盘墓地1999年发掘简报%Excavation of the Yingpan Cemetery in Yuli County, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    新疆文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    The Yingpan cemetery is situated lkm northeast of the Yingpan city-site. There are more than 300 tombs in disorder and largely with diversiform-leaved polar stakes on the surface. Of them 80 were excavated in 1999, and 8 of these are reported in the present paper. The earth-pit tombs contain wooden coffins in the shape of a trough or four-legged case, or only wooden frames or boards in some cases. The cave-cure-shaft graves have no wooden coffins and are blocked at the mouth. The dead were entombed by single or couple joint burial, largely in extended supine position or, in less cases, in extended prone or flexed position. The grave goods include pottery, wooden, straw-knitted and lacquered objects. They are varied according to the sex of the dead. The clothes are different in the condition of preservation. Their styles and materials were not or seldom seen previously. In date the tombs can be inferred to belong to the Wei-Jin period.

  12. Validation of the Earthquake Archaeological Effects methodology by studying the San Clemente cemetery damages generated during the Lorca earthquake of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Fidel; Martín-Velazquez, Silvia; Rodrigez-Pascua, Miguel Angel; Pérez-López, Raul; Silva, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The intensity scales determined the damage caused by an earthquake. However, a new methodology takes into account not only the damage but the type of damage "Earthquake Archaeological Effects", EAE's, and its orientation (e.g. displaced masonry blocks, conjugated fractures, fallen and oriented columns, impact marks, dipping broken corners, etc.) (Rodriguez-Pascua et al., 2011; Giner-Robles et al., 2012). Its main contribution is that it focuses not only on the amount of damage but also in its orientation, giving information about the ground motion during the earthquake. Therefore, this orientations and instrumental data can be correlated with historical earthquakes. In 2011 an earthquake of magnitude Mw 5.2 took place in Lorca (SE Spain) (9 casualties and 460 million Euros in reparations). The study of the EAE's was carried out through the whole city (Giner-Robles et al., 2012). The present study aimed to a.- validate the EAE's methodology using it only in a small place, specifically the cemetery of San Clemente in Lorca, and b.- constraining the range of orientation for each EAE's. This cemetery has been selected because these damage orientation data can be correlated with instrumental information available, and also because this place has: a.- wide variety of architectural styles (neogothic, neobaroque, neoarabian), b.- its Cultural Interest (BIC), and c.- different building materials (brick, limestone, marble). The procedure involved two main phases: a.- inventory and identification of damage (EAE's) by pictures, and b.- analysis of the damage orientations. The orientation was calculated for each EAE's and plotted in maps. Results are NW-SE damage orientation. This orientation is consistent with that recorded in the accelerometer of Lorca (N160°E) and with that obtained from the analysis of EAE's for the whole town of Lorca (N130°E) (Giner-Robles et al., 2012). Due to the existence of an accelerometer, we know the orientation of the peak ground acceleration

  13. Sugaring marble in the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy): characterization of naturally and artificially weathered samples and first results of consolidation by hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoni, Enrico; Franzoni, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    The so-called sugaring of marble is a very common degradation phenomenon, affecting both historical monuments and modern buildings, which is originated by environmental temperature fluctuations. Thermal cycles are indeed responsible for micro-cracks formation at the boundaries between calcite grains, so that marble is subjected to granular disintegration and can be reduced to a sugar-like powder of isolated calcite grains by just the pressure of a finger. Since no effective, compatible and durable treatment for sugaring marble consolidation is currently available, in this paper a novel consolidating treatment recently proposed for limestone, based on the formation of hydroxyapatite inside the stone, was investigated for weathered marble. To test the new treatment on suitably decayed marble samples, some naturally sugaring marbles from the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy, nineteenth century) were firstly characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurement. Then, artificially weathered samples were produced by heating fresh Carrara marble samples at 400 °C for 1 h. The effects of artificial weathering were characterized using the same techniques as above, and a very good agreement was found between microstructure and mechanical features of naturally and artificially weathered samples. Then, the hydroxyapatite-based treatment was tested on the so-obtained artificially weathered samples, and the treatment effects were characterized by UPV, MIP and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydroxyapatite-based treatment exhibited a remarkable ability of restoring marble cohesion and a good compatibility in terms of modifications in pore size distribution, which leads to regard this treatment as a very promising consolidant for weathered marble.

  14. [Analysis of the Decorated Silicate Beads Excavated from Tomb M4 of the Ma-Jia-Yuan Warring States Cemetery, Gansu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-juan; Yan, Jing; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the analysis results of 11 decorated silicate beads samples excavated from Ma Jia-yuan Warring State Cemetery, Gan Su Province with the portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, laser Raman spectrometer and X-ray diffraction spectrometer. It is includes 3 types among these samples on the basis of their chemical composition, NaO-CaO-SiO2, PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass system, and glassy faience. The blue part of the NaO-CaO-SiO2 glass sample was colored by Co2+, and Sb2O5 was discovered as opacifier. The results of Laser Raman analysis shows in some circle beads exits Chinese blue and Chinese purple. Combined with the existing research results the early cultural factors and technical exchange reflected from these samples are discussed. It shows that the material and craftsmanship of the beads contained Chinese blue and Chinese purple were affected by Qin Culture. But the composition of the Na-Ca-SiO2 glass eye bead is similar with those excavated from Xin Jiang area. It infers the technology of glass manufacture of the Xi Ron nationality was influenced by the Qin Culture and the grassland nationalities' culture simultaneously. The faience bead composed with the inner core and the outer glassy layer is possible a kind of transitional type between the faience and the real glass. This information offers a new reference for the research of the origin of the glass technology in the ancient China.

  15. 内蒙古敖汉旗柳南墓地综述%A Summary of the Liunan Cemetery in aohan banner of Inner Mongolia Yang Hu Lin Xiuzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨虎; 林秀贞

    2011-01-01

    A summary of the Liunan Cemetery in a ohan Banner of Inner Mongolia As a same clan buried together, the Liumnan Cemetery was discovered and unearthed in 1982 - 1983. 21 tombs were found and they were all vertical pits. The potteries were all hand made, most of them were plain, some were decorated with raised design or string - like design, few were decorated with red or black color. The culture was connected with those cultures we have type, dated to 3300 -3600 found, but they had a big difference from them. We should call it the Liunan years ago.%柳南墓地是青铜时代聚族而葬的墓地,1982~1983年发现并发掘,共计21座墓,均为土坑竖穴结构。随葬器物有陶器和石器,陶器均为手制。它与已知的考古学文化既有联系又有较大的差异。应立为“柳南类型”。

  16. A Study of the Human Skulls from the Sodungbrak Cemetery in Qapqal County, Xinjiang%新疆察布查尔县索墩布拉克墓地出土人头骨研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈靓

    2003-01-01

    The human skulls studied in the present paper come from the Sodungbrak cemetery of the 5th to 3rd centuries BC in Qapqal County, Xinjiang. Based on the tomb structure and pottery form, they are believed to have been concerned with the Saka nomadizing in this area for a long period. There are 13 males and 10 females among the 23 individuals that can be morphologically examined and measured. The research results suggest that this group of people can be divided into two subgroups according to their physical features. Subgroup Ⅰ is close to the Central Asian Mesopotamia type, and Subgroup Ⅱ to the Paleo-Europoid type. Compared with ancient populations in adjacent regions, Subgroup Ⅰ shows closeness to the Alay-Saka-Wusun, Shihezi-Nanshan and Tianshan-Saka-Wusun groups, while Subgroup Ⅱ to the Gumugou, Minusinsk-Andronovo and Yanbrak-C groups.

  17. Life history of the individuals buried in the St. Benedict Cemetery (Prague, 15th-18th centuries): insights from (14)C dating and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salesse, Kevin; Dufour, Élise; Castex, Dominique; Velemínský, Petr; Santos, Frédéric; Kuchařová, Hedvika; Jun, Libor; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2013-06-01

    Funerary practices and bioarchaeological (sex and age) data suggest that a mortality crisis linked to an epidemic episode occurred during the fifth phase of the St. Benedict cemetery in Prague (Czech Republic). To identify this mass mortality episode, we reconstructed individual life histories (dietary and mobility factors), assessed the population's biological homogeneity, and proposed a new chronology through stable isotope analysis (δ(13)C, δ(18)O and δ(15)N) and direct radiocarbon dating. Stable isotope analysis was conducted on the bone and tooth enamel (collagen and carbonate) of 19 individuals from three multiple graves (MG) and 12 individuals from individual graves (IG). The δ(15)N values of collagen and the difference between the δ(13)C values of collagen and bone carbonate could indicate that the IG individuals had a richer protein diet than the MG individuals or different food resources. The human bone and enamel carbonate and δ(18)O values suggest that the majority of individuals from MG and all individuals from IG spent most of their lives outside of the Bohemian region. Variations in δ(18)O values also indicate that all individuals experienced residential mobility during their lives. The stable isotope results, biological (age and sex) data and eight (14)C dates clearly differentiate the MG and IG groups. The present work provides evidence for the reuse of the St. Benedict cemetery to bury soldiers despite the funeral protest ban (1635 AD). The Siege of Prague (1742 AD) by French-Bavarian-Saxon armies is identified as the cause of the St. Benedict mass mortality event.

  18. An Osteological Analysis of Human Remains from the Heigouliang Cemetery in Hami, Xinjiang%新疆哈密黑沟梁墓地出土人骨的创伤、病理及异常形态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏东; 曾雯; 常喜恩; 朱泓

    2012-01-01

    本文是对出土于新疆哈密黑沟梁墓地古代人骨的病理、创伤及异常形态的综合研究.通过检查,笔者发现齿科疾病、关节疾病、创伤等病理现象在该人群中都有一定频率的出现.在对这些现象进行客观描述的基础上,本文对这些病理现象出现的原因以及反映出该批人群的生活状况做出推论.文中同时对骨骼形态与功能的关系做了尝试性分析和讨论.%Analyses of skeletal and dental pathologies in the human remains from Heigouliang cemetery, Hami, Xinjiang, were conducted to make inferences about the diet, life style and health of the once-living population. The permanent dentition reveals a special pattern of wear and oral pathology, and degenerative joint diseases and trauma have also been found in certain frequencies. Based on trauma and other nutritional stress indicators, the author suggests that significant amounts of strain were placed upon this population. The preliminary study of biomechanics on this skeletal assemblage has also been reported. The ancient pathology illustrated in the present article includes the missing teeth while living and abnormal abrasions possibly relating to the functions of teeth, inflammation in the joints and the distortion caused by the inflammation. The wounds presented include stab wounds, chopped wounds and fractures. Some anomalous forms which might be related to their specialized functions were found on the Long Bones. The article also analyzes the daily activities that might cause these symptoms based on sports anatomy. Among them, the distortion possibly caused by riding is reported firstly in China. Hopefully, this article could provide some help in displaying the life styles of the ancient people from this cemetery.

  19. 云南江川县李家山古墓群第二次发掘%Secondary Excavation in the Ancient Lijiashan Cemetery in Jiangchuan County,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云南省文物考古研究所; 玉溪市文物管理所; 江川县文化局

    2001-01-01

    In 1991, the Yunnan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, in co-operation with other institutions, carried out the secondary excavation in the Jiangchuan Lijiashan cemetery. The 60 excavated tombs are all earth-pit graves without clear data on coffins and fall into three types: large-, medium- and small-sized. Among the grave goods are bronzes, irons, gold- and silver-wares, jade, agate and other precious stone artifacts, bamboo articles and wooden objects. The bronzes and irons include mainly implements of production and weapons, and also instruments of funeral ritual. According to the stratigraphical evidence of the cemetery and changes in the combination of funeral objects, the tombs can be divided into four phases. The first phase contains 28 mediun and small-sized tombs with irons as the main grave goods and without bronze-and-iron compound objects, and goes back to the mid Western Han period, prior to Wudi's reign. The second phase is represented by Tombs M47 and MS1, both furnished with a second-tier platform and containing a two-person joint burial. The large-sized tomb yielded bronze weapons, hoes, spades, and a tomb-figurine of a male holding an umbrella. The medium and small tombs are furnished chiefly with bronzes, and also a few bronze-and-iron compound articles. They date from the mid and late Western Han period. The third phase is represented by Tomb M82 and features the increase of bronze-and-silver ware. The large-sized tomb contains less bronze-ware; in the medium and small graves, bronze-and-iron ware, irons, horse trappings and lacquer-ware occur commonly. They can be assigned to the time from the late Western Han to the early Eastern Han period. The fourth phase comprises only three tombs, M49 and other two. Their funeral objects feature the sharp discrease of Dian-style articles and the emergence of Han-style objects,such as fu cauldrons, zeng steamers and incense burners. They go back to the earlier Eastern Han period.

  20. 云南大理市凤仪镇大丰乐墓地的发掘%Excavation in the Dafengle Cemetery at Fengyi Town of Dali City,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云南省文物考古研究所; 大理市博物馆

    2001-01-01

    The Yunnan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and the Dali Municipal Museum carried out two seasons of excavation in the Dafengle cemetery at Fengyi Town, Dali City. They excavated 966 tombs of cremation and 21 burials in the ground. The former are round or oval,while the latter are rectangular earth shafts. The coffins are largely pottery, porcelain and bronze jars,and pottery vats and basins occur in very a few cases with the former used as double-vat coffins and the latter as coffin covers. Most of the funeral objects are pottery, and porcelain, irons and bronzes were also yielded. The tombs fall into three phases. The first phase embraces exclusively tombs of cremation and is represented by jars of Type A, with the remains of the dead buried in single-jar coffins and accompanied by rare grave goods. They go back to the time from the late Tang to the Early Northern Song period. The second phase comprises also tombs of cremation, and features the increase of coffin types and the emergence of double-jar coffins. They are dated to the time from the final stage of the Northern Song through the Yuan Dynasty. The third phase contain tombs of cremation, and burials in the ground occur at the middle stage. The former feature variety in coffin, the popularity of double-jar coffins and the appearance of burials in three or four combined jars. They can be assigned to the final stage of the Ming period.

  1. Dicrocoelium dendriticum found in a Bronze Age cemetery in western Iran in the pre-Persepolis period: The oldest Asian palaeofinding in the present human infection hottest spot region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Mokhtarian, Kobra; Makki, Mahsa Sadat; Mobedi, Iraj; Masoumian, Mohammad; Naseri, Reza; Hoseini, Ghasem; Nekouei, Parisa; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Dicrocoeliasis of animals and humans is caused by trematode species of the genus Dicrocoelium, mainly Dicrocoelium dendriticum in ruminants of the Holarctic region. D. dendriticum may be considered an old parasite, probably related to the appearance and diversification of Eurasian ovicaprines, occurred 14.7-14.5 million years ago. The oldest palaeoparasitological findings of Dicrocoelium in domestic animals and humans date from more than 5000 years BC in Europe. Eggs of D. dendriticum have been found in a burial of a Bronze Age cemetery (2600-2200 BC) close to Yasuj city, southwestern Iran. This is the oldest finding of D. dendriticum in the Near East, where present human infection reports are more numerous than in other world regions where human dicrocoeliasis is rare and sporadic. This palaeofinding in the Zagros mountainous chain area is of interest by its location close to Persepolis, suggesting a narrow relationship between humans and herbivorous animals in these highlands. Domestic ruminant populations of these highlands were following a repeated contact with those of the western flat lowlands of the Fertile Crescent thanks to annual altitudinal transhumance migrations of the nomadic pastoral tribes with their herds living throughout Zagros Mountains in the several millennium period BC. It is concluded that D. dendriticum spread together with sheep and goats westward throughout Europe from the Fertile Crescent during the 8000-6000 year BC period and somewhat later southward into Africa, both spreads facilitated by the low specificity of that trematode species regarding the snail and ant intermediate hosts.

  2. Al-qarāfa, la Città dei Morti del Cairo. Il circuito delle sette tombe sacre - Al-Qarāfa: the pilgrimage to the holy seven tombs in Cairene Muslim cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tozzi Di Marco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A key aspect of al-Qarāfa, the Muslim inhabitated cemetery in Cairo is the devotion to seven ancient sacred tombs and its relative pilgrimage. The Cairene graveyard was renowned for the local and interregional pilgrimages because of its high concentration of awliyā’s graves (literally friends of God, as holders of baraka, the divine grace. In particular, in the XIII century the famous circuit of the Seven tombs was formalized by the shaykh al- Fārsī who, according to the scholar El Kadi, also called it “pilgrimage of the seven sleepers”. Hence the multitude of Muslim pilgrims who spent the night on the holy spot without taking into account the social code about the separation between sexes. Nowadays some mausoleums of the circuit have disappeared and local people have no memories of them, whereas the most renowned holy men’ tombs are still venerated by a large crowd of devotees, even if the nightly practice of incubation is missing. The author, in considering the scholars’ studies on this issue, explores the current veneration and the contemporary pilgrims’ pattern of habits, comparing it with the Medieval ones.

  3. 重庆市奉节县桂井战国秦汉墓地%The Guijing Cemetery of the Warring-States Period to the Qin and Han Dynasties in Fengjie County,Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴林

    2011-01-01

    In the autumn 2005,Archaeology Specialty of Department of History,Nanjing University excavated the Guijing Cemetery in Fengjie County,Chongqing Municipality.The excavation revealed six earthen pit tombs and one brick-chamber tomb.Five of the earthen pit tombs were densely clustered together,the dates of which were from the late Warring-States Period to the early Western Han Dynasty;from them,willow leaf-shaped bronze swords of Ba Style and the pottery ding-tripods and pots and bronze huang-semicircular pendants of Chu Style were unearthed,showing the features of the infusion of Ba and Chu Styles and the Chu Culture as the mainstream.The two sets of ding-tripod legs,each of which represented seven pottery ding-tripods,were all of the Chu Style.Iron coffin nails were found in two earthen pit tombs.From the brick-chamber tomb of the Eastern Han Dynasty,pottery figurines,basin and rarely-seen money tree base were unearthed.This excavation is significantly meaningful for the research on the evolution of the regional cultures in Chongqing area.%奉节县桂井墓地共清理土坑墓6座、砖室墓1座。有5座土坑墓时代为战国晚期至西汉初期,出土巴式柳叶形剑和楚式陶鼎、陶壶、铜璜等,具有巴、楚文化交融又以楚文化为主的特色。东汉砖室墓出土陶俑、陶盆和陶摇钱树座等。本次发掘为研究重庆地域文化的演进具有重要意义。

  4. METODOLOGÍA PARA EL ESTABLECIMIENTO DE ÁREAS CEMENTERIO DE MADERAS EN LA REGIÓN DE COTOVÉ (ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA METHODOLOGY FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AREAS WOOD CEMETERY IN COTOVE REGION ( ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Fredy Herrera Builes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En el manejo de la madera, se debe tener en cuenta el control de los organismos xilófagos. La importancia económica de los degradadores de madera, se debe medir no solo por el verdadero daño que ocasionan, sino también por los costos en las medidas preventivas y de control. Cuando se intente planear y aplicar un método de preservación de la madera, el objetivo debe ser eficaz y seguro. Por lo cual su evaluación en el tiempo es muy relevante, y el establecimiento de áreas de cementerio, permitirá concluir si tal tratamiento aplicado en la madera es el adecuado. El documento muestra un método de campo para evaluar la durabilidad natural de la madera, así, como los tratamientos preservativos aplicados en ellas, el estudio se estableció en el Centro Agropecuario de Cotové (Santafé de Antioquia, Colombia.Control of xilophagous organisms is important in wood handling. The economic importance of wood degraders should be measured not only for the actual damage caused, but also for the costs of preventive measures and control. When attempting to plan and apply a wood preservation method, the objective should be effective and secure. Thus, its evaluation over time is very relevant, and the establishment of cemetery areas will allow evaluation of whether those treatments applied to the wood are appropriate. The document shows a field method for evaluating the natural durability of wood, as well as the preservative treatments applied. This study was conducted in the Cotové Farming Center of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia , Sede Medellín ( Santafé de Antioquia, Colombia .

  5. Reconstruction of methods of execution of the death penalty by shooting in the years 1949-1954 based on exhumation research of "prison fields" in Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw. Part I--Historical outline and results of research conducted prior to exhumations performed in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    In the period between October and December 2011, a series of exhumation research of the so-called prison quarters dating back to 1949-1954 was conducted in Osobowicki Cemetery in Wrocław. Among the buried there were political prisoners executed by shooting--genuine or alleged members of post-war independence organizations. It was a unique opportunity to determine the method of execution of the death penalty in that period because, according to historical data and the results of two test exhumations, this method considerably differed from instructions on the use of a firing squad during execution of the death penalty.

  6. En companía de los muertos: Ofrendas de animales en los cementerios de La Isla (Tilcara, Jujuy In the company of the dead: Animal offerings at the cemeteries of La Isla, Tilcara, Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R Belotti López de Medina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos aquí la identificación de los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos recuperados por Debenedetti en tres entierros de la necrópolis El Morro, del sitio La Isla de Tilcara (Jujuy, Argentina. Hay un consenso notable en torno a la peculiaridad de este cementerio, caracterizado por inhumaciones simples o dobles acompanadas de numerosas ofrendas, algunas de ellas suntuarias. Nuestro trabajo se organizó en torno a dos objetivos. Primero, la identificación taxonómica y etaria de los hallazgos. Se caracterizaron: 1 un cráneo y mandíbula de perro hallados en la Tumba 6, con una edad estimada superior a los siete meses; 2 los restos faunísticos de la Tumba 11, entre ellos el esqueleto casi completo de un guacamayo adulto, en el rango de tamaño del Ara chloroptera. 3 una mandíbula de félido pequeno de la Tumba 10, con una edad estimada superior a los seis meses. En el informe de Debenedetti los dos primeros conjuntos se reportan como esqueletos completos, lo que permite identificarlos como sacrificios. Nuestro segundo objetivo fue formular algunas interpretaciones plausibles sobre el contenido de las tumbas y el lugar de los animales en los ritos mortuorios.This paper presents an exhaustive analysis of the faunal remains recovered by Debenedetti from burials 6, 10 and 11 from El Morro cemetery at La Isla de Tilcara site, Jujuy, Argentina. There is a notable consensus about the importance of El Morro, since its burials contain no more than one or two individuals along with numerous offerings, some of them clearly sumptuary. In some of these tombs, among the diverse items, archaeofaunal remains were found that can be safely identified as sacrificed animals. The zooarchaeological analysis presented here was carried out on two of those offerings: the cranium and mandibles of a small to medium sized dog, estimated to be seven months old, found in Burial 6, and a faunal assemblage from Burial 11, among which an almost complete macaw skeleton was

  7. ¿MENOS O MÁS? LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DEL KIOSCO DE LEWERENTZ EN EL CEMENTERIO DE MALMO / Less or more? The construction of Lewerentz’s kiosk in the Malmo cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Campo-Ruiz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Este análisis se centra en el potencial de los detalles constructivos para transformar el espacio circundante a un edificio. Se analizan las puertas, las ventanas, la cubierta y otros elementos del kiosco de flores del Cementerio Este de Malmo y su repercusión en el espacio interior y exterior. Comparando los primeros bocetos y el resultado final de esta obra, realizada por Sigurd Lewerentz en 1969, se observan variaciones de centímetros en la posición relativa entre componentes y otras modificaciones. Se consideran las posibles razones que dan lugar a estos cambios, en relación a detalles constructivos similares empleados por el mismo arquitecto en otros edificios. El estudio de las ventanas se centra en la forma de sustentación en el muro, la relación entre su posición, las vistas que ofrecen y la iluminación que producen en el interior del pabellón. Se estudia la disposición de las puertas y cómo afectan al espacio. Se profundiza en la aparente sencillez de la cubierta, con un único plano inclinado. El kiosco de flores nos muestra cómo un elemento constructivo, por pequeño que parezca, puede afectar significativamente a la relación entre un proyecto y su entorno.SUMMARY This analysis focuses on the potential of construction details for transforming the surrounding space of a building. The doors, the windows, the roof, and other elements are analyzed regarding their impact on the inside and the surrounding space of the flower kiosk of Malmo Eastern Cemetery, designed by Sigurd Lewerentz in 1969. Variations of centimeters in the relative position between construction components and other changes can be noticed, comparing the first sketches of this project with its final result. The possible motivations leading to these variations are examined, and related to similar construction details used by the same architect in other buildings. The way windows are fixed to the walls is discussed, to further investigate the views

  8. 77 FR 4471 - Tribal Veterans Cemetery Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... selection, land acquisition, design and planning, earth moving, landscaping, construction, and provision of... State or Tribal Organization and the design team to provide a standard for preparation of drawings... architect, the true conditions. The following information will be covered in the report: * * * * *...

  9. 76 FR 28925 - Tribal Veterans Cemetery Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... site selection, land acquisition, design and planning, earth moving, landscaping, construction, and... guidance of the State or Tribal Organization and the design team to provide a standard for preparation of... of the architect, the true conditions. The ] following information will be covered in the...

  10. 75 FR 34004 - State Cemetery Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... as committal service shelters, crypts (preplaced grave liners), and columbaria, necessary for the... floodplain and source. (vi) The signature and certification of the Surveyor. (2) Soil investigation. The State shall provide a soil investigation of the scope necessary to ascertain site characteristics...

  11. Vascular cemeteries formed by biological nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Andrei P., E-mail: andrei.sommer@uni-ulm.de [University of Ulm, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials (Germany); Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki [Nagasaki University, Department of Macroscopic Anatomy, Graduate School of Biomedical Science (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    We report the discovery of dense colonies of globular structures ranging from 100 nm to 5 {mu}m in the tunica media of the femoral artery of an 89-year-old female cadaver. Systematic analysis using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and light microscopy reveals that the globular structures are surrounded by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and consist predominantly of calcium phosphate. Inspection of the images suggests the action of two complementary growth processes. The structures may grow both in size and in number locally by Ostwald ripening and a replicative route, respectively. Morphology in conjunction with the quality of their native growth niche suggests that they are different from nanocrystals released from apoptotic bodies. Their tendency to fill VSMC pockets leads to the speculation that they could represent an effort of the VSMC system to wall off cytotoxic nanocrystals liberated from apoptotic bodies. Alternatively, the structures may be equivalent with nanobacteria (NB)-a nomenclature which caused confusion. This is reflected by the multitude of names used by different authors for the nanoentities (living nanovesicles, nanobionta, calcifying nanoparticles, and nanons). Indeed, there is no clear definition in the literature as to what NB are. Considering that the calcium phosphate nanoparticles have been identified in the human body, we used in our study the descriptive name biological nanoparticles-the world's first nanoparticles.

  12. Analysis on the Planning Regulation Scheme of Jinpen Ridge Cemetery in the District of Binjiang Nanhu in Changsha%长沙市滨江南湖片区金盆岭墓区规划整治方案探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨靖

    2013-01-01

      长沙市金盆岭墓区改造是南湖片区改造提升的重点与难点,在通过规划手段取得城市发展需要与维护既得利益之间的平衡,并带动整个片区开发建设的探索尝试中,该方案是一个典型。在明确此次规划的作用与任务前提下,提出总体思路为对墓区实行控制,不再发展新的殡葬,建设地下宫殿,建立公园式生态景观墓园和生命科学展示区。展示区和生态景观墓园与其周边用地共同整合为生命科学主题公园。%The Reconstruction of Jin pen Ridge grave area in Changsha is the emphasis and difficulty of Nanhu District to promote.In the acquiring the balance between the needs of city development and maintenance of the vested interest by means of planning , and promoting the development of exploring the entire development attempts, this scheme is a typical. On the premise of defining the planning role and task condition, it puts forward the general idea is to control the tomb area, not to develop the new funeral, and to construct of the underground palace, and to built the park ecological landscape cemetery and life sciences exhibition area. The exhibition area, ecological landscape cemetery and the surrounding land together for park which is with the theme of life science.

  13. Effects of the earthquake of 11 May 2011 upon the historic family vaults in the San Clemente cemetery, the church of Santa Maria, the church of San Pedro and the Golden Fountain at Lorca in Murcia (SE Spain); Afecciones ocasionadas por el terremoto en el conjunto de panteones historicos del cementerio de San Clemente, iglesia de Santa Maria, iglesia de San Pedro y la Fuente del Oro de Lorca, Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Ballesteros, J. A.; Gallardo Carrillo, J.; Lopez Aguilera, V.

    2012-11-01

    This study forms a contribution to the record of deformations caused by the earthquake that occurred on 11 May 2011 in and around the city of Lorca, affecting a wide variety of its historic buildings. Our work has focused on the San Clemente cemetery, the churches of the Barrios Altos (the higher districts) and on the Fuente del Oro (the Golden Fountain). Our aim was to quantify the deformations and the numerous other effects using archaeological and architectural methods and retrieve as much of this information as possible before the works of structural consolidation and cleaning of the debris could begin. At the same time we tried to analyse the impact of the seismic shocks upon other historic buildings in the city. (Author) 9 refs.

  14. L’apport des analyses 14C à l’étude de la nécropole de l’âge du Bronze de“ La Croix de la Mission ” à Marolles-sur-Seine The contribution of radiocarbon dating in the study of the Bronze Age cemetery of Marolles-sur-Seine “ La Croix de la Mission ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Peake

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatorze des 41 sépultures de la nécropole de “ la Croix de la Mission ” à Marolles-sur-Seine ont récemment fait l’objet d’une datation par le radiocarbone aux laboratoires de Groningen (Pays-Bas et de Lyon (France. Les résultats obtenus mettent en évidence l'utilisation en continu de la nécropole pendant plus d’un millénaire entre 2000 et 800 av. n. è. La corrélation entre ces nouvelles dates et les données archéologiques permet de cerner, avec plus de précision, l’éventail des différentes étapes chrono-culturelles représentées à travers les sépultures de la nécropole. [Les analyses 14C ont été effectuées par les laboratoires de Groningen (Centrum voor Isotopen Onderzoek Rijksuniversiteit Groningen Nijenborgh 4 NL-9747 AG Groningen et Lyon (Centre de Datation par le Radiocarbone Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 43, bd du 11 Novembre 1918 F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex.]Fourteen of the 41 burials of the “ la Croix de la Mission ” Bronze Age cemetery at Marolles-sur-Seine have recently been carbon dated by the Lyon (France and Groningen (Netherlands laboratories. These new dates confirm the site’s occupation for more than 1000 years from 2000 BC to 800 BC and determine more precisely the different cultural and chronological phases of the cemetery illustrated by the great range of its burials.

  15. Environmental impact analysis and identification of vertical cemetery implantation and operation = Análise e identificação dos impactos ambientais da implantação e operação de cemitério vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Massulo Albertin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The vertical cemetery is a one or more pavement building equipped with compartments destined for burials, named locusts. This typology of cemetery is an tendency in the United States, Europe and Japan, and it has currently expanded in Brazil. Even so, publication of scientific work about this topic has been minimal, especially when it comes to environmental impact. Therefore, this present article’s objective is to analyze and classify the environmental impact derived from the vertical cemetery’s implementation phase and operation, utilizing a hypothetical situation. The methodology was based on the environmental impact templates, contemplating physical, biological and social-economical eeans. In turn, the environmental impacts arising from the operation phase are variable, and the largest magnitude that is related to the change in air quality through emissions from the decomposition of the bodies. Moreover, this hypothetical situation identified 17 environmental impacts of direct incidence, which 08 occur during the implementation phase and 09 during the operation phase; 03 will be of a positive nature and 14 negative; 12 are likely to real event and 05 only potential; 10 will be reversible and 7, at moment, will be irreversible. = Resumo - O cemitério vertical é um edifício de um ou mais pavimentos dotados de compartimentos destinados a sepultamentos, denominados de lóculos. Esta tipologia de cemitérios é uma tendência nos Estados Unidos, Europa e Japão e, atualmente, tem-se expandido no Brasil. Entretanto, os trabalhos científicos publicados sobre este tema ainda são poucos, principalmente no que se refere aos impactos ambientais. Diante disso, o presente artigo teve por objetivo analisar e classificar os impactos ambientais decorrentes das fases de implantação e operação de cemitérios verticais, utilizando para isso uma situação hipotética. A metodologia fundamentou-se na matriz de impactos ambientais

  16. Control of Aedes aegypti with temephos in a Buenos Aires cemetery, Argentina Control de Aedes aegypti con temefós en un cementerio de Buenos Aires, Argentina Controle de Aedes aegypti com temefós em cemitério de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Vezzani

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a larvicide, temephos, for controlling Ae. aegypti was evaluated in a cemetery in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Breeding sites decreased from 18.4% in the first study period (Nov 1998 to May 1999, without temephos to 2.2% in the second period (Nov 1999 to May 2000, two applications, and to 0.05% in the third one (Nov 2000 to May 2001, five applications. Ovitraps with eggs decreased from 17% in the first period to 5.8% in the second period, and to 2.9% in the third one. Results suggest that, in Buenos Aires, Ae. aegypti populations are highly susceptible to temephos. It is recommended to limit the use of temephos to prevent potential epidemics rather than for routine control.Se evaluó la eficacia de un larvicida, temefós, para controlar Ae. aegypti en un cementerio de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Los criaderos descendieron de 18,4% en el primer periodo de estudio (Nov 1998 a May 1999, sin temefos a 2,2% en el segundo (Nov 1999 a May 2000, dos aplicaciones, y a 0,05% en el tercero (Nov 2000 a May 2001, cinco aplicaciones. Las ovitrampas con huevos disminuyeron de 17% en el primer periodo a 5,8% en el segundo, y a 2,9% en el tercero. Los resultados sugieren que, en Buenos Aires, las poblaciones de Ae. aegypti son altamente susceptibles al temefós. Es recomendable limitar su uso para prevenir eventuales epidemias y no para el control rutinario.Avaliou-se a eficácia de um larvicida, temefós, para controlar Ae. aegypti em um cemitério de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Os criadouros reduziram de 18,4% no primeiro período de estudo (nov de 1998 a maio de 1999, sem temefós para 2,2% no segundo (nov de 1999 a maio de 2000, duas aplicações, e para 0,05% no terceiro (nov de 2000 a maio de 2001, cinco aplicações. As. ovitrampas com ovos diminuíram de 17% no primeiro período para 5,8% no segundo e para 2,9% no terceiro. Os resultados sugerem que, em Buenos Aires, as populações de Ae. aegypti são altamente susceptíveis ao temefós.

  17. La nécropole mérovingienne du “ Poteau ” à Richelieu (Indre-et-Loire : apports chrono-typologiques The merovingian cemetery at the “Poteau” at Richelieu (department of the Indre-et-Loire, France: new chronological and typological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Georges

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La fouille archéologique préventive du “ Poteau ”, menée en octobre 2002 à Richelieu (Indre-et-Loire, a principalement permis de sauver les vestiges d’un site funéraire mérovingien composé de 35 sépultures. Les observations de terrain ont certes permis de caractériser cet ensemble, tant d’un point de vue chronologique que spatial, mais aussi, voire surtout, de mettre en évidence différents types de sépultures : sarcophages, coffrages de bois, coffrages mixtes, voire un dispositif de transport du corps.Si les découvertes et les publications concernant cette période sont nombreuses, les sites bien documentés sur le sujet sont rares. La datation du mobilier retrouvé et les comparaisons avec d’autres sites régionaux et extra-régionaux, selon une approche chrono-typologique, permettent alors de mieux cerner les pratiques funéraires mérovingiennes de cette zone limitrophe du Poitou et de la Touraine.A rescue excavation in advance of road building near Richelieu (department of the Indre-et-Loire was carried out in October 2002. It brought to light some 35 graves belonging to a Merovingian cemetery. Observations made during the fieldwork allowed the understanding of the chronological and spatial organisation of the remains. They also showed the existence of several types of burials (sarcophagus, wood and mixed stone and wood-lined burial pits as well as a sort of stretcher used to carry the body.Although many sites of this period have been discovered and published, well studied examples are rare. The dating of the small finds and the comparison with other sites both within and outside of the region have given a better understanding of Merovingian burial practices in this area on the border of Poitou and Touraine.

  18. 20世纪30年代吉隆坡福建人的籍贯分布--以吉隆坡福建义山收据为中心的考察%The Distribution of Hokkien's Native Place in Kuala Lumpur during the 1 930s--An Investigation Revolving the Hokkien Cemetery Receipts in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋燕鹏; 潘碧华[马来西亚

    2014-01-01

    经过19世纪后期数十年的发展,吉隆坡由一个小城逐渐变成雪兰莪州的首府,来自中国的福建人的人数也逐渐增长。虽然并未能如广府人和客家人的数量之多,但也最终成为吉隆坡第三大方言社群。通过分析30年代福建义山收据,可以发现闽南方言群占福建籍人的八成以上。其中泉州下辖的安溪、南安、永春三县又分别成为其中占人数前三位的县份社群。20世纪上半叶安溪、南安、永春三县籍的成功“新客”就对吉隆坡福建人的形成和发展带来深远的影响。%Kuala Lumpur evolved from a small town to the capital of Selangor after decades of development in the late part of 1 9th century.The population of Hokkien from China also increased gradually.Though its number was not as large as Guangfu and Hakka people,it eventually became the third largest community that spoke a dialect.It can be revealed that the community which spoke Hokkien accounted for eighty percent of the people whose native place were Fujin,analyzing the Hokkien cemetery receipts in the 1 930s.Three counties (Anxi,Nanan and Yongchun)under the jurisdiction of Quanzhou ranked the top three communities in terms of population.In the first half of the 20th century,the successful“New guests”from the aforementioned three counties had a far-reaching impact on the establishment and development of the Hokkien community in Kuala Lumpur.

  19. Demographic Patterns Distinctive of Epidemic Cemeteries in Archaeological Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, Dominique; Kacki, Sacha

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of biological parameters such as age and sex is particularly relevant to the interpretation of ancient skeletal assemblages related to abrupt mortality crises, and more particularly epidemics. In such a context, the mechanisms of selection within a population or part of a population differ according to the pathogen involved. They may also vary depending on the period and location in which the population lived. Here, we illustrate the specificity of plague mortality through the study of several European burial sites contemporary with the first and second plague pandemics. The paleodemographic patterns obtained for different plague outbreaks from the 6th to the 16th centuries reveal some constant features over time and space as well as some differences that suggest a possible evolution in the epidemiological characteristics of the disease.

  20. 78 FR 53383 - National Cemeteries, Demonstration, Special Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... event, pageant, celebration, historical reenactment, entertainment, exhibition, parade, fair, festival.... * * * * * Special event means a sports event, pageant, celebration, historical reenactment,...

  1. 76 FR 70710 - Army National Cemeteries Advisory Commission (ANCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    .... Plans and strategies for addressing long-term governance challenges; c. Resource planning and allocation... CFR 102-3.140d, the Committee is not obligated to allow the public to speak; however,...

  2. 78 FR 66342 - Advisory Committee on Arlington National Cemetery (ACANC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... bereavement practices; b. Plans and strategies for addressing long-term governance challenges; c. Resource... speak; however, interested persons may submit a written statement or a request to speak...

  3. 甘肃马家塬战国墓地M4出土硅酸盐珠饰的科学分析研究%Analysis of the Decorated Silicate Beads Excavated f rom Tomb M4 of the Ma-Jia-Yuan Warring States Cemetery,Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓娟; 严静; 王辉

    2015-01-01

    结合X射线荧光光谱、拉曼光谱和X射线衍射分析,对甘肃马家塬战国墓地M 4出土的11件装饰性硅酸盐珠饰进行了无损分析研究。依据分析结果将这些样品划分为钠钙硅酸盐玻璃、铅钡硅酸盐玻璃和釉砂三种类型。化学成分分析结果表明:钠钙硅酸盐蜻蜓眼玻璃珠的蓝色眼珠部分采用Co2+着色。拉曼光谱分析在铅钡体系硅酸盐样品中检测到了人工合成的硅酸钡铜系中国蓝和中国紫颜料,在钠钙蜻蜓眼玻璃的白色区域检测到了锑酸钙(CaSb2 O6)乳浊剂/着色剂。结合已有的研究结果,探讨了所分析样品的可能来源及其反映的早期文化和技术交流状况。含有中国蓝、中国紫的装饰性珠子的制作材料和工艺应当是受到当时秦人的影响。而钠钙蜻蜓眼珠的成分特点,又与新疆等西北地区出土的同类珠子有相似之处。可见西戎人在玻璃制作技术方面同时受到北方草原民族文化和秦文化的共同影响。这批样品中以泥芯和玻璃化材料共同组成的装饰珠子,可能是从釉砂珠向玻璃珠的过渡类型,这对于研究我国玻璃的起源问题提供了新的参考资料。%This paper reports the analysis results of 11 decorated silicate beads samples excavated from Ma Jia‐yuan Warring State Cemetery ,Gan Su Province with the portable X‐ray fluorescence spectrometer ,laser Raman spectrometer and X‐ray dif‐fraction spectrometer .It is includes 3 types among these samples on the basis of their chemical composition ,NaO‐CaO‐SiO2 , PbO‐BaO‐SiO2 glass system ,and glassy faience .The blue part of the NaO‐CaO‐SiO2 glass sample was colored by Co2+ ,and Sb2O5 was discovered as opacifier .The results of Laser Raman analysis shows in some circle beads exits Chinese blue and Chinese purple .Combined with the existing research results the early cultural factors and technical exchange reflected from these

  4. Teores de metais pesados e caracterização mineralógica de solos do Cemitério Municipal de Santa Cândida, Curitiba (PR Heavy metal contents and mineralogical characterization of soils from the Santa Cândida Municipal Cemetery, in Curitiba (PR, brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Jurema Barros

    2008-08-01

    , em parte determinadas pelo material de origem, não apresentaram relação de causa e efeito com metais pesados nas áreas estudadas.The metal pieces of coffins, such as handles and adornments, are considered the main source of soil heavy metal contamination. Other sources of pollutants are the products used in the body embalming, wood preservatives and fluids released from body decomposition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clay fraction mineralogy and heavy metal contents of soils from Santa Cândida Municipal Cemetery, in Curitiba (PR, and estimate the contamination risk. The samples were collected at three depths (0-20, 20-80 and 80-120 cm at seven selected points, representing two parent materials (granite/gneiss and claystone and two burial modalities (unmarked graves and mausoleum area. The clay fraction was studied by X ray diffractometry and thermal analysis, and Fe and Al contents were determined, after acid ammonium oxalate (amorphous Fe and Al oxides and sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (crystalline Fe oxides extractions, by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The total and exchangeable heavy metal contents were determined by AAS, after sample digestion with concentrated HF and BaCl2 1 mol L-1 solution, respectively. The predominance of kaolinite and occurrence of vermiculite with Al-hydroxy interlayers and smectite determined the high values of soil CEC. Heavy metal contents were higher in the mausoleum area, where the highest Cr and Pb contents were found (516.3 and 260.2 mg kg-1, respectively. The lower metal contamination in the area of unmarked graves may be attributed to simpler burial practices, with less potential heavy metal sources, such as wood preservatives and metal parts of coffins. No cause-effect relation was observed between the chemical and mineralogical soil characteristics, in part determined by the parent material, and the heavy metal contents in the studied area.

  5. Archaeological excavations in the Põltsamaa old parish cemetery / Martin Malve, Juhani Kokamägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Malve, Martin, 1984-

    2014-01-01

    Kihelkonna kalmistule matmine algas tõenäoliselt 13. sajandi teisel veernadil. Kirikaeda kasutati aktiivselt ka pärast kiriku purustamist 1600. aastal ja matmine lõpetati alles 1773. aastal. Uuringute käigus avati kuus matust. Uuringute tulemusena täpsustusid kalmistuala idaosa piirid, väravakoht ja kasutamisaja lõpp

  6. Archaeometric study of glass beads from the 2nd century BC cemetery of Numantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Heras, Manuel

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent archaeologícalf ieldwork undertaken in the Celtiberian cremation necropolis of Numantia (Soria, Spain has provided a group of glass beads from the 2nd century BC. Such glass beads were part, together with other metallic and ceramic items, of the offerings deposited with the dead. They are ring-shaped in typology and deep-blue, amber, or semitransparent white in colour. This paper reports results derived from the chemical and microstructural characterization carried out on a representative sample set of this group of beads. The main goal of the research was to find out about their production technology to explore their probable provenance. In addítion, corrosion mechanisms were also assessed to determine the influence of crematíon on the beads' structure. The resulting data suggest that these blue and amber beads were made using soda-lime silicate glass, whereas semi-transparent white ones were manufactured from alumino-silicate glass. It has also determined that some transition metal oxides were used as chromophores, as well as lead oxide for decoration.

    La reciente excavación de la necrópolis celtibérica de Numancia (Garray, Soria ha permitido recuperar un conjunto de cuentas de vidrio del siglo II a.C. Las cuentas, junto con otros objetos de metaly cerámica, formaban parte de las ofrendas depositadas con el difunto, siendo de tipología anular y coloreadas en azul oscuro, ambar y blanco semitransparente. Este trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos en la caracterización química y microestructural de una muestra representativa de este conjunto. El objetivo principal de la investigación consistió en recabar información sobre su tecnología de manufactura y evaluar su posible procedencia. Asimismo, también se investigaron sus mecanismos de corrosión para determinar si la cremación había inducido cambios en su estructura. Los resultados indican que las cuentas azules y ámbar se realizaron con vidrio de silicato sódico cálcico y las blancas semitransparentes con vidrio de aluminosilicato, utilizando óxidos de metales de transición como cromóforos y óxido de plomo para la decoración.

  7. Mount Auburn Cemetery: A New American Landscape. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Janet; Breitkreutz, Cathleen Lambert

    Land was at a premium during the first quarter of the 19th century in the newly incorporated city of Boston (Massachusetts). Among the first priorities was the development of a safer, healthier city. Boston's burial grounds were seriously overcrowded, and additional space was no longer available within the city limits. Attitudes about death and…

  8. Assessment of Arlington and Soldiers’ and Airmen’s Home National Cemeteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    mature over time. Manpower Prior to 2010, no manpower studies had been conducted nor had a Table of Distribution and Allowances ( TDA ) been developed...Proponency office. The Proponency office would fulfill 11 The study’s results were incorporated into the February 27, 2013 TDA . Figure 11. ANC...routinely working up to 70 hour work-weeks in addition to personnel hired above and beyond the TDA limits (over-hires) supporting the ANC mission. The

  9. Taphonomic and anthropological analysis of unclaimed human remains from cemetery context in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Nociarová, Dominika

    2016-01-01

    Los objetivos de Antropología Forense son la interpretación del proceso de la descomposición de los restos humanos, elaboración de los perfiles biológicos, interpretación de los efectos tafonómicos en forma de descomposición diferencial, desarticulación y/o la pérdida de los elementos óseos, y la estimación del intervalo postmortem. La estimación del intervalo postmortem es una de las tareas más completas. En los casos de los restos en descomposición muy avanzada es aún más complicado por el ...

  10. Archaeological excavations on the cemetery of Kodasoo and the settlement site of Lagedi / Gurly Vedru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedru, Gurly, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Kodasoo kalme puhul oli tegu maa-aluste põletusmatustega. Tehti kindlaks, et Kodasoo kalme hõlmas algselt u. 50-70 m2 suuruse ala. Päästekaevamistel Lagedi asulakohal olid leidude hulgas ülekaalus uusaegne keraamika ja vanimateks leidudeks üksikud viikingiaegsed savinõud

  11. 32 CFR 553.15 - Persons eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). (3) Distinguished Service Medal. (4) Silver Star. (5) Purple Heart. (e) Persons who have held any of... injury incurred or aggravated in line of duty. (g) The spouse, widow or widower, minor child and, at the discretion of the Secretary of the Army, unmarried adult child of any of the persons listed above. (1)...

  12. 29 CFR 779.370 - Cemeteries may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or plots. (2) Annual tax or assessment levied on lot owners, and (3) Gifts or bequests. Interest from... lots or plots to a burial society or a fraternal organization for the use of the members are sales...

  13. The Mt. Gilead Cemetery Study: An Example of Biocultural Analysis from Western Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    acetabulum were extensively remodeled, and severe osteoarthritic lipping had formed on the lumbar vertebrae. All of the incisors were present and in...unreduced fracture of the left hip. The neck of the femur had broken and the leg had never healed properly due to insufficient immobilization after the

  14. The first archaeometric data metallurgy in the cemetery and settlement of Calvari del Molar (Priorat, Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armada Pita, Xosé-Lois

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Phoenician pottery along the course of the river Ebro has been linked to Phoenician interest in the mineral resources of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula in general and the Molar-Bellmunt-Falset area in particular, but until now this proposition has not been verified. In this article we present the first evidence of metalworking from the site of Calvari del Molar (Priorat, Tarragona excavations of 2002-2003, which consists of a tuyère of a type hitherto unknown in Catalonia, a millstone used to crush ore, and an Orientalizing arrowhead that can be interpreted as a local imitation of foreign prototypes. The archaeometallurgical study of four other bronzes found during the excavations by S. Vilaseca (1930 is also included. Publication of these archaeological and archaeometrical results enables us to set out our proposals for future research on the settlement, its mining/metallurgical area and its relationship with Phoenician traders. Special attention is paid to silver, which was obtained from ores of that metal, from native silver and from lead sulphide.

    La presencia de materiales fenicios en el curso del río Ebro se ha relacionado con su interés hacia los recursos mineros del nordeste peninsular en general y del área Molar- Bellmunt-Falset en particular, pero hasta la fecha esta propuesta no había sido adecuadamente contrastada. En este artículo presentamos las primeras evidencias de actividad metalúrgica procedentes del poblado de Calvari del Molar (Priorat, Tarragona (campañas 2002-2003, que consisten en una tobera de tipología desconocida hasta la fecha en Cataluña, un molino empleado para triturar el mineral y una punta de flecha orientalizante que puede interpretarse como una imitación local de modelos foráneos. Damos a conocer también el estudio arqueometalúrgico de otros cuatro bronces procedentes de las excavaciones de S. Vilaseca (1930. La publicación de los resultados arqueológicos y arqueométricos nos sirve para presentar las perspectivas de futuro de nuestra investigación acerca del poblado, de su área minero- metalúrgica y de su relación con los intereses comerciales fenicios. Se presta especial atención a la plata, obtenida a partir de minerales de este metal, plata nativa y galena argentífera, como un subproducto de la explotación de plomo.

  15. Los cementerios públicos como blanco de las disputas entre la Iglesia y el Estado durante la crisis del Imperio (1869-1891 Public cemeteries as targets of the disputes between the Church and State during the Empire crisis (1869-1891 - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v13i1.366 Os cemitérios públicos como alvo das disputas entre Igreja e Estado na crise do Império (1869-1891 - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v13i1.366

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Rodrigues

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende identificar de qué forma el tema de la muerte puede ser un canal de análisis de la acción ultramontana y romanizante de la jerarquía eclesiástica durante el período imperial, especialmente entre 1869 y 1889, cuando la cuestión de las sepulturas eclesiásticas se tornó el campo de una polémica exacerbada entre el episcopado de algunas capitales del Imperio y los defensores de las ideas liberales y anticlericales expresadas, por ejemplo, por los agentes defensores de la masonería y de la causa protestante. En el contexto de la jerarquía eclesiástica que buscaba afirmar su autonomía frente a las políticas regalistas del Estado, la defensa de la jurisdicción eclesiástica sobre los cementerios públicos se transformó en una importante arma de su política de romanización, en la búsqueda de afirmación de sus dogmas y de la manutención de su hegemonía sobre la sociedad.This article aims to identify how the theme of death can be a channel for the analysis of ultramontanist and romanizing actions of the ecclesiastic hierarchy during the Imperial period, especially between the years 1869 and 1889, when the issue of ecclesiastic burials became the object of a fierce controversy between the episcopate of some imperial capitals and the defenders of liberal and anti-clerical ideas, such as supporters of the Masonic order and the Protestant cause. In the
    context that the ecclesiastic hierarchy sought to affirm its autonomy from the royalist policies of the State, the defense of ecclesiastic jurisdiction over public cemeteries became an important weapon of its Romanization policy, in the search for affirmation of its dogmas and the maintenance of its hegemony over society.Este artigo pretende identificar de que forma o tema da morte pode ser um canal de análise da ação ultramontana e romanizante da hierarquia eclesiástica no período imperial, especialmente entre os anos de 1869 e 1889, quando a quest

  16. The Symbol and the Reason. Numbers, Shape and Measure in the Architecture of Parma’s Cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rossi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available  The introduction of the Decimal Measurement System in Enlichtened Europe is meant as an af fermation of reason and science to overlap the confusion of antropometrical systems with the  imposition of a unique reference from a cosmic measurement.  It get interesting to indagate the meaning and the role of the measurement in the Age of Reason  and how this change conditioned the architectural design. The Cimitero de La Villetta in Parma is an interesting case study because of its particular relationship among design and easurement system.The project develops a special model that melts together the rationality of the Metric Decimal System with strong symbolic references in shape, number and measure.

  17. Kaks luustikku Tartu toomkirikust: arheoloogia ja osteoloogia andmed / Two skeletons from the Tartu Cathedral Cemetery: archaeological and osteological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with two case studies based on the osteological obtained in the rescue excavations in the Cathedral of Tartu in 2001 and 2008 (fig. 1. The first case study focuses on the skeleton of the child who suffered from congenital syphilis. The grave has been dated to the end of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. The child had been buried in the eighth nave of the northern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave was, according to the Christian burial traditions, west-oriented with the head facing towards the east. A Swedish 1/6 öre, minted during the reign of King Charles XI (1600–1697, was recovered from the grave. The skeleton was relatively complete and well preserved (fig. 2. Based on the dental eruption, the age at death was 9 years ± 24 months. Sexually distinctive characteristics had not developed, and thus it was impossible to determine the sex of the child. Both the microscopical and radiological analyses revealed that the skeleton had indicators of congenital syphilis. Damage from gummatous osteomyelitis and periostitis were visible on the skull and on the axial and appendicular skeleton (fig. 6, while Hutchinson’s incisors and Mulberry molars were present among the teeth. Deformations and damage on the bones suggest that the child had suffered from the disease for quite a long time.The second case study discusses a beheaded man found from the eighth nave in the southern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave pit had a depth of 80 cm from the medieval floor surface of the church, which indicates that the burial dates from the Middle Ages. Also, the head of the deceased pointed to the west.The bones were well preserved (fig. 6. Sex was determined from the characteristics of the skull and the length of the right humerus. Calcification of the cranial sutures and cartilages suggests that the age of the man at death was probably 50+. Macroscopic examination of the skeleton revealed that the man had suffered from slight forms of various spinal diseases, which include Schmorl’s nodes, spondyloarthrosis, and spondylosis. The fourth and fifth cervical vertebrae had ankylosis, the cause of which is unknown. Signs of osteoartrosis, a joint disease, were also noticed. Traumas recorded in the skeleton include a healed fracture of a rib and vertebral compression. The man’s head was decapitated with a sharp blade between the sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae (fig. 7.

  18. Good for a national cemetery: questions of land use and an 1888 Botanical Expedition across Northern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, lumbermen logged the virgin pine forests of northern Michigan. The assumption was that the "plow would follow the axe," and agriculture would dominate the region as it did in the southern half of the state. When farming did not quickly take root, William James Beal and Liberty Hyde Bailey led an expedition of scientists and journalists on a trip across northern Michigan in June 1888 to collect botanical samples, to find a site for a state forest reserve, and to recommend appropriate farming enterprises. This essay contends that without a key reforestation advocate in charles Garfield the explorers focused too much on the questions related to botany and agriculture.While agriculture would ultimately thrive in some parts of the cutover, much of the region was unsuitable for intensive farming. The failure of the scientists to convey these limits adequately in newspaper articles and subsequent reports allowed for their work to be used by agricultural boosters throughout the region. The result was a cycle of erosion, fire, and farm abandonment that proved to be a political problem in Michigan for the first three decades of the twentieth century.

  19. Paradise in a Brazil nut cemetery : sustainability discourses and social action in Pará, the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2007-01-01

    This book is about sustainable development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. It explores how Amazonian settlers construct their life in a settlement project and how this process accompanies the landscape change in the southeast of Pará State. The book critically examines discourses of susta

  20. ANKARA’DA ERKEN BİZANS DÖNEMİ MEZAR ALANI KAZISI / EARLY BYZANTINE CEMETERY EXCAVATION IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut AYDIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Roma Dönemi’nde Galatia Eyaleti’nin başkentliğini yapan Ankyra kentinin anıtsal yapıları ve diğer çarpıcı kalıntıları ile olası nekropol alanları genellikle Ankara’nın Erken Cumhuriyet Dönemi imar faaliyetleri sırasında gerçekleşen hafriyat çalışmaları ile açığa çıkarılmıştır. Ankara Celal Bayar Bulvarı üzerindeki Gazi Üniversitesi Sıhhiye Kampüsünde inşa edilen Mühendislik ve Mimarlık Fakültesindeki yapılaşma faaliyetleri sırasında ortaya çıkarılan Maltepe Erken Bizans Dönemi Mezar Alanı olasılıkla Ankyra kentinin daha önce bir bölümü tespit edilen güney nekropolü’nün devamı niteliğindedir. Gerçekleştirilen kurtarma kazısı sonucunda bu alanda tahrip edilmiş olası bir kilisenin küçük bir kısmı ve kilise cemaatine ait olması muhtemel beşik tonozlu bir mezar yapısı ortaya çıkarılmıştır.

  1. An Archaeological an Bioarchaeological Perspective. The Tucker (41DT104) and Sinclair (41DT105) Cemeteries of Delta County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Sinclair 25/f Charles 8/u Son "George Nichols 17 Farmer Blanche Boren 16 Sister 101 Alexander Sinclair 53/m Farmer Mary A. 47/f Wife Travis 17/m Son...to the bodice of the dress or blouse and included numerous chain link fragments, a clasp, and the fob portion that fastened to the watch itself. In

  2. Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 B.P.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingsi; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Binghua; Wang, Changsui

    2013-07-01

    In the dry northern temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, the genus Ephedra comprises a series of native shrub species with a cumulative application history reaching back well over 2,000 years for the treatment of asthma, cold, fever, as well as many respiratory system diseases, especially in China. There are ethnological and philological evidences of Ephedra worship and utilization in many Eurasia Steppe cultures. However, no scientifically verifiable, ancient physical proof has yet been provided for any species in this genus. This study reports the palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China. The macro-remains were first examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for traits of residual biomarkers under the reference of modern Ephedra samples. The GC-MS result of chemical analysis presents the existence of Ephedra-featured compounds, several of which, including benzaldehyde, tetramethyl-pyrazine, and phenmetrazine, are found in the chromatograph of both the ancient and modern sample. These results confirm that the discovered plant remains are Ephedra twigs. Although there is no direct archaeological evidence for the indication of medicinal use of this Ephedra, the unified burial deposit in which the Ephedra was discovered is a strong indication of the religious and medicinal awareness of the human inhabitants of Gumugou towards this plant.

  3. Union Lake Bourbeuse River, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    27. Remmert Mine Area Old Iron Mine 28. Spring Creek School 29. Ahlemeyer Place Frame and Log Structure 30. Cemetery 31. Vallentine Cemetery 32...Site No. Name or I)escription 6 John Door Farm 9 Young’s Mill 12 Voss Place 25 Noser’s Mill 27 Remmert Mine Area 30 Cemetery 31 Vallentine Cemetery

  4. St George's Cemetery in Tartu - Medieval Burial Ground of the Leprosarium? / Martin Malve, Anti Lillak, Raido Roog, Mihkel Mäesalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Varasemad andmed Püha Jüri hospidalist Tartus pärinevad 1345. aastast. Asutus tegutses 17. sajandi esimese pooleni. Küsimus aga, kas korduvalt uuritud Püha Jüri kalmistu ja keskaegne hospidalikalmistu on üks ja sama objekt, jääb praeguses uurimisseisus kindla vastuseta

  5. From a Suburban Pasture to the Urban Cemetery - Recent Fieldwork in North-Western Corner of Medieval Haapsalu / Erki Russow, Raili Allmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Russow, Erki, 1974-

    2013-01-01

    Küsimustele, kas Ehte ja Wiedemanni tänava ristmiku piirkonnas võis asuda keskaegne linnamüür ja kas Mängu tänav võis pärineda keskajast, vastust ei saadud. Ehte tänaval enne Karja tänavale suubumist tulid ilmsiks luustikud. Arvestades topograafilist situatsiooni, võib oletada, et tegemist on hiliskeskaegse kalmistuga

  6. Rescue excavations at the pit grave cemetery of Järvküla / Gurly Vedru, Raili Allmäe, Heidi Luik, Liina Maldre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedru, Gurly, 1970-

    2015-01-01

    2014. aasta aprillis ning novembris-detsembris toimusid päästekaevamised Järveküla maa-alusel kalmistul. Selgus, et kohta oli matmiseks kasutatud erinevatel aegadel: rooma rauaajal, rahvasterännuajal ning muinasaja lõpusajanditel

  7. On Traditional Funeral Culture and Modern Cemetery Construction in China%我国的传统墓葬文化与现代墓园建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯震

    2009-01-01

    通过传统生死观、丧葬习俗的研究,来阐述民族情感诸种复杂因素;对传统土葬的哲学诠释及形制特点的研究,解析墓地与自然、社会甚至信仰间的桥梁作用,并呈现出它的多元特征:秉承传统墓葬文化的内涵及现代意义的重新定义,寻求我国现代墓地景观建设的基本策略,用于指导墓地园林化建设,是中国传统墓葬的文化传承及意义之所在.

  8. Scientific Investigation of the Materials and Techniques Used in a 19th Century Egyptian Cemetery Wall Painting (Hawsh Al-Basha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawsan Sayed DARWISH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research was carried out to obtain more information on materials and painting techniques used in Egyptian wall paintings during the 19th century. The Hawsh al-Basha courtyard, dating back to Mohammed Ali's family period (1805-1952, was studied for this purpose. The obtained results will be used to set up a scientific plan for restoration and preservation. Pigments, including white zincite, earth green, blue synthetic ultramarine, yellow massicot, black a mixture of magnetite & graphite, brownish red lead and brass were identified. The binding medium in the painting was identified as animal glue. Two preparation layers were identified: the inner coarse ground layer, composed of gypsum as a major component, with calcite and small amounts of quartz and the outer, fine ground layer, composed of calcite only. Optical Microscopy (OM, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (SEM-EDX, X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with Attenuation Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR were used in our study.

  9. The fifteen control the '' nuclear cemetery'' of Mourmansk; Les quinze inspectent le ''cimetiere nucleaire'' de Mourmansk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the ecological and political problems of the Kola peninsula, the most important radioactive wastes concentration in the world. On this site, near the nuclear power plant of Kola, more than hundred nuclear soviet submarines are derelict. To resolve this dangerous ecological problem, between 1,5 and 2 milliards of euros are necessary. (A.L.B.)

  10. 32 CFR 553.11 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement. 553.11 Section 553.11 National... CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.11 Procurement. Cemetery supplies and services will be procured in accordance with the provisions of the Armed Services Procurement Regulation (ASPR) and the Army...

  11. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places, points_of_interest, Feature data set contains historic points, churches and cemetery feature classes., Published in unknown, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Glynn County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as...

  12. En companía de los muertos: Ofrendas de animales en los cementerios de La Isla (Tilcara, Jujuy) In the company of the dead: Animal offerings at the cemeteries of La Isla, Tilcara, Jujuy

    OpenAIRE

    Belotti López de Medina, Carlos R.

    2012-01-01

    Presentamos aquí la identificación de los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos recuperados por Debenedetti en tres entierros de la necrópolis El Morro, del sitio La Isla de Tilcara (Jujuy, Argentina). Hay un consenso notable en torno a la peculiaridad de este cementerio, caracterizado por inhumaciones simples o dobles acompanadas de numerosas ofrendas, algunas de ellas suntuarias. Nuestro trabajo se organizó en torno a dos objetivos. Primero, la identificación taxonómica y etaria de los hallazgos. Se ...

  13. The Iron Age and 13th-18th century Cemetery and Chapel Site of Niklusmägi : Grave Looting and Archaeology / Heiki Valk, Pikne Kama, Riina Rammo ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    2011. aastal anti arheoloogilidele vihje Niklusmäe kalme lõhkumisest. 2012. aasta suvel leidsid projekti "Arheoloogia, võim ja ühiskond" raames aset arheoloogilised päästeuuringud. Ilmnes, et kalmet oli rüüstatud 4-5 aasta jooksul. Leitud luustikest, hauapanustest. Niklusmäest Läti Henriku kroonika andmetel. Tänini räägib pärimus Lätist tulnud, Niklusmäe metsa läbivast ja Sangaste poole suunduvast sõjateest. Leiud on tõstatanud küsimusi Eesti lõunaserva matmiskommete ja etnokultuuriliste olude kohta. Kuna kalmesüdamik on rüüstatud, jäävad küsimused vastuseta

  14. 由中国传统殡葬观分析城市墓园的生态化设计%Urban Cemetery Design based on Analysis of Chinese Traditional Funeral View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰; 李桂文; 陶恺

    2009-01-01

    本文针对城市墓园面临的生态问题,以中国传统的殡葬观分析城市生态墓园,探寻切实可行的生态化墓园的设计策略,为我国墓园的生态化设计提供借鉴,以契合城市可持续发展的全球共识.

  15. 中国殡葬文化及现代墓园景观规划设计初探%Research on Chinese Funeral Culture and Landscape Layout of Modern Cemetery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晟; 邓禧

    2007-01-01

    现代墓园是指在城市周边开发的,满足社会公众墓葬需要的,以企业性质经营的大众墓园.在我国现代墓园的景观规划设计和当代殡葬习俗一直受到传统殡葬文化的深刻影响.而殡葬文化发展到今天,应当使之人文化,泯灭对死亡与基地的恐惧.墓园设计者应使墓园公园化,倡导墓志文化.天津东华林陵墓园规划设计正反映了这一时代特征,为后辈儿孙营造了淡化生死、淡化贫富、淡化贵贱、净化灵魂、美化生活的胜地名区.

  16. The temple crematorium in the Monumental Cemetery in Milan Considerations on the project of the Memorial stone to the fallen in the forest of Cercina Edoardo Detti and Carlo Scarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mugnai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 60s Edoardo Detti and Carlo Scarpa design a memorial headstone in memory of seven supporters killed by the Germans in 1944, which was to be built in Cercina near Florence. The only remains of this small monument are some sketches by Scarpa and a finalized drawing by Detti, little known but very interesting, which document the compositional research of the laic expression, pluralistic of death and pain, as a universal answer, inclusive and non-dogmatic, the need to represent the wounds of the war and their cargo of political, ethnic and religious lacerations. The search for universal symbolism, capable of comprehending the different souls of modern society, also belongs to individual architectural production of the two architects and is inscribed in the contemporary architectural and cultural context.

  17. Special Taxing Districts, Lyon County Cemetery Districts, Library Districts, Recreation Districts, Watershed Districts. ., Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. It is described...

  18. The Performing Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    This audio-paper is a site-specific investigation into the relations between cemetery space, users, cultural history and public memory in Copenhagen. The chosen site is Vor Frelser (Our Saviour) Cemetery at Amagerbrogade 33-35, just next to Prags Boulevard. Urban cemeteries are unique places......, however recent developments in burial practice, urban densification, green space policy and societal attitudes towards death and dying Danish urban cemeteries have become spaces of contest and their everyday embodied spatial and cultural practices challenged. In the literature the cemetery is usually...... represented either as a cultivated metropolitan landscape of pause, fixity and estrangement, a necro-geographical deathscape (visual objects, symbols and meaning-making attributes) or in light of a socio-spatial-temporal framework. This paper explores the cemetery as an intricate locus of relations beneath...

  19. Managing green spaces of the deceased

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Christian Philip

    2012-01-01

    Cemeteries in Denmark are managed by the national church; they are green spaces of high standard, with an important role as burial places for members of the society. Previous studies elsewhere indicate that cemetery management operates with special approaches on the fringe of other public service...... the dissimilarity of cemetery administration from other public administrations and green space management in particular. Further research however is required....

  20. Secularizing funerary culture in nineteenth-century Belgium: A product of political and religious controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Spiegeleer, Christoph; Tyssens, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Modern historiography of collective attitudes, practices, and conflicts surrounding death often focuses on the institutional history of cemeteries and nonreligious funerals in 19th-century France. Institutional and cultural discussions concerning funerals and cemeteries also divided nineteenth-century Belgium. This article explores emblematic civil burials and the secularization of cemeteries in major Belgian cities. The article distinguishes different dimensions of the secularization of death and highlights the particular nature of Belgian funerary conflicts and burial reform within a broader European context.

  1. Death, Memory, text: reading the landscape of remembrance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Simon

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Victorian cemeteries are landscapes which can be 'read' both literally and metaphorically. In this paper, one particular Victorian cemetery, the Barbadoes St Cemetery in Christchurch, New Zealand is considered for the different meanings that can be found in its location, layout, vegetation, tombstones and written inscriptions. The discussion focuses on how these elements of the cemetery landscape relate to the burial traditions of Western Europe, how they expressed particular concerns about death and remembrance in the Victorian era, and how they can be 'read' in the present, in order to explore the relationship between interpretation and transformation in this highly symbolic landscape.

  2. Una sepultura con armas de baja época ibérica (o época romana republicana) en la necrópolis del «Cerro de las Balas» (Écija, Sevilla)

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Iberian Iron-Age weapons are extremely rare in western Andalusia, due mainly to the absence of the normative cremation cemeteries typical of other areas in the Peninsula, cemeteries where nearly all of the approximately six thousand Iron Age weapons that we know have been documented. In this paper we present one of the very few exceptions to this rule: a ‘warrior’ burial found in the Iron Age cemetery cemetery at ‘Cerro de las Balas’ (or «bullets’ hill», so known after the many sling projecti...

  3. 38 CFR 39.22 - Architectural design standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT OF VETERANS' CEMETERIES (Eff. until 7...) Mechanical requirements. The heating system, boilers, steam system, ventilation system and...

  4. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Environment Studies with Students with Special Education Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Randolph R., Jr., Ed.

    Developed by teachers, the curriculum guide provides information on environmental studies activities for use with handicapped students. Activities are divided into three areas: awareness level activities (aesthetics, cemeteries, water, soil, air, noise, and miscellaneous activities); transition level activities (playgrounds, cemeteries, wildlife,…

  5. 26 CFR 1.642(i)-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... perpetual care fund is created pursuant to local law if: (1) The governing law of the relevant jurisdiction...) The legally enforceable bylaws or contracts of a taxable cemetery corporation require a perpetual care... local law pursuant to which the cemetery perpetual care fund is created. If the applicable local...

  6. Cementerios en el altiplano cundiboyacense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo González.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a refection on feldwork notes made during trips to various cemeteries in towns of Cundinamarca and Boyacá during March and April, 2006. This exercise was an effort to observe how the physical space of the cemetery refects social practices related to death, thus furthering the study of the relationship between memory and space. The article recounts the observations made in each cemetery, and includes photographs to accompany the descriptions as well as drawings and maps to illustrate the spatial organization of the cemeteries. In the end, comparing the observations made in each town, it offers a brief analysis of the information gathered in order establish the relationship between the space of the cemetery and its social context.

  7. Drought-Related Changes in Two Hunter-Gatherer California Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2002-11-01

    Skeletal remains from two California cemeteries bracketing a severe drought that began around 1200 yr B.P. are analyzed to determine drought-related quality of life changes in Native Americans. Cemetery 1 predates the drought at 2895±160 yr B.P. to 1845±90 yr B.P. and Cemetery 2 dates it at 1100±90 yr B.P. to 1220±200 yr B.P. Quality of life was assessed through femoral computerized tomography scan measures of cortical thickness, age at adult death, and pathology/trauma frequency. After controlling for age and sex differences, changes from Cemetery 1 to Cemetery 2 showed decreases in cortical thickness and age at death and increases in pathology and trauma frequency.

  8. “Un cimetière et des avions” : argumentation et valeurs dans le courrier des lecteurs d’un journal local ‘Cemetery and Planes’: Argumentation and Values in the Letters to the Editor of a Local Newspaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Doury

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article interroge les lieux et modes d’intervention des valeurs dans les enchaînements argumentatifs. Pour l’ancienne rhétorique, la question des valeurs est centrale dans le genre épidictique, alors que le logos se déploie dans les contextes judiciaire ou délibératif. Pourtant, les données étudiées se révèlent bien souvent hybrides. Ce sont ces phénomènes de porosité entre genres épidictique et délibératif que met au jour l’analyse de lettres envoyées pour publication dans la rubrique « courrier des lecteurs » d’un quotidien régional à propos d’un débat concernant l’implantation d’un troisième aéroport en région parisienne. L’appel aux valeurs qui sous-tend les données les inscrit centralement dans le registre épidictique. Au-delà de sa fonction de consolidation de la cohésion sociale, cet appel est immédiatement réinvesti dans l’opposition au projet, l’imminence d’une prise de décision orientant les discours vers une finalité délibérative. Enfin, ces « envolées épidictiques » peuvent susciter des réactions intégrant l’appel aux valeurs dans un discours argumentatif critique où le logos reprend ses droits.This article studies the places and modes of intervention of values in argumentative discourse. In classical rhetoric, the question of values is central in the epideictic genre, whereas logos is privileged in the forensic or deliberative context. Nevertheless, the texts often appear to be a hybrid between the various genres. Such phenomena of “permeability” between the epideictic and deliberative genres are illuminated by the analysis of letters sent for publication in the “letters to the editor” section of a regional daily paper in a debate focusing on the construction of a third airport in the Parisian region. The appeal to values which underlies the texts places them primarily in the epideictic register. The function usually attributed to the epideictic species is that of consolidating social cohesion. Beyond that, such an appeal to values is also reinvested in the opposition to the project of the third airport, in view of the imminence of a decision-making that subordinates the speeches to a concrete deliberative purpose. Finally, these epideictic displays can arouse reactions mobilizing strategies deployed to escape the essentially oratorical tone of the appeal to values, and to integrate it into an argumentative critical speech where logos becomes central again.

  9. Special Taxing Districts, Special taxing unit districts derived from the taxunit coverage, include a layer for Improvement, Drainage, Watershed, Cemetery, Hospital, Redevelopment, Sewer and Industrial Districts. Primary attributes include district name, Election Office code, and, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. It is...

  10. Reconstruction of methods of execution of the death penalty by shooting in the years 1949-1954 based on exhumation research of "prison fields" in Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw. Part II--analysis of gunshot injuries and an attempt at reconstructing the course of execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Kawecki, Jerzy; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Swiatek, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of gunshot injuries in prisoners who were executed in Wroclaw penitentiary in the years 1949-1954 shows divergences from legal regulations describing the method of execution. This observation leads to the conclusion that the predominant method of execution of the death penalty was a gunshot or gunshots to the back of the head, which is analogous to the results of exhumation works on collective graves of war prisoners executed during World War II in the territory of the former Soviet Union.

  11. Redescription of Xiphinema americanum Cobb, 1913 with Comments on Its Morphometric Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, F; Golden, A M

    1984-04-01

    Xiphinema americanum is redescribed and illustrated from material collected from Arlington Cemetery, near Cobb's type locality (Falls Church, Virginia), Morphometric data showing variations within this species are given for three additional populations.

  12. 75 FR 53199 - Deceased Indebted Servicemembers and Veterans: Authority Concerning Certain Indebtedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... of law even though it was not codified). In light of the plain language of section 1303 and Congress... practice and procedure, Archives and records, Cemeteries, Courts, Crime, Flags, Freedom of...

  13. 78 FR 22291 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Moore, House, 1353 Cedar Rock Rd., Thomason, 13000241 IOWA Linn County Oak Hill Cemetery Historic... (Boundary Increase), Roughly bounded by 4th, 6th, 7th & Liberty Aves., former PRR tracks, Grant & Wood...

  14. Cirrhosis: A Patient's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They are explained in the list of terms. Definition of commonly used terms in cirrhosis These are ... Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery ...

  15. 32 CFR 553.21 - Monuments and inscriptions at private expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of simple design, dignified, and appropriate to a military cemetery. The name of the person(s) or the... maintenance of or damage of the monument. (b) Where a monument has been erected to an individual interred...

  16. Sonic journeys with the dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    This audio-paper is a site-specific investigation of relations between a gravesite at Vor Frelser Cemetery (Cemetery of Our Saviour), Copenhagen, Denmark, its cultural history and publicly co-constructed memories. The audio-paper follows a non-representational approach to sonic media and the meta......This audio-paper is a site-specific investigation of relations between a gravesite at Vor Frelser Cemetery (Cemetery of Our Saviour), Copenhagen, Denmark, its cultural history and publicly co-constructed memories. The audio-paper follows a non-representational approach to sonic media...... with friends and usergenerated online media based on Youtube. The sonic journey through the city is constructed from available digital material based on the author’s own subjective assessment. As potential experience design a well-established design framework as well as careful implementation of ethical...

  17. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    led to a number of insights into the social organization of the mound cemeteries that will be presented in the paper. It is obvious that there existed a close spatial relation between freshwater springs and the compact mounds cemeteries that emerged c.2050 BC. The mound cemeteries appear to have been...... flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  18. Health Programs for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Administration » Health Programs for Veterans Veterans Health Administration Health Programs for Veterans Beyond the doctors and nurses who ... Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ... Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery ...

  19. Euroopa Ajalooliste Kalmistute Assotsiatsioon : rahvusvahelised koostööprojektid / Ilme Mäesalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäesalu, Ilme

    2005-01-01

    ASCE (Assotiation of Significant Cemeteries in Europe) peaeesmärkidest, tegevusest. Muinsuskaitsameti esindaja Ilme Mäesalu on alates liidu asutamisest 2001. a. kuulunud ASCE juhatusse. 2004. a. ilmus Bolognas koguteos "Cemeteries of Europe. A Historical Heritage to Appreciate and Restore", kus leiduvad artiklid Tallinna surnuaedade ja Tartu Raadi kalmistu kohta. 2004. a. toimus Tartus seminar "Ajalooline kalmistu - kujunemine ja tänapäev"

  20. CONTEMPORARY FUNERAL AND MEMORIAL RITUALS OF CHINESE

    OpenAIRE

    E. G. Belaya

    2015-01-01

    In the article on the basis of the field material of author of 2015 a modern funeral-mention ceremony of the Chinese is examined in city Harbin, where questioning of respondents, workers of cemetery and columbarium was conducted. 21 peoples (8 women and 13 men) were polled. Except questioning of informants was conducted by a photo fixing of registration of columbarium, cemeteries and graves. In China always spared the special attention to the ceremony of funerals of relatives. In work of Conf...

  1. Schleswig: medieval leprosy on the boundary between Germany and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Riis, Thomas; Dittmar, Manuela; Weise, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy was a well-recognized and dreaded disease in medieval Europe. The disease is reported to have reached Germany with the Roman invasion and it was present in Scandinavia in the first centuries AD. This paper estimates and analyzes the frequency of leprosy among adult people buried in one of five medieval cemeteries in the city of Schleswig. Seven different dichotomous osteological lesions indicative of leprosy were analyzed, and it was possible to score at least one of these conditions on 350 adult skeletons (aged 15 or older). The scores were transformed to a statistic indicating the likelihood that the person to whom the skeleton belonged suffered from leprosy. It was found that the frequency of leprosy in the five cemeteries varied between 9 and 44%. Four of the five cemeteries showed frequencies ranging from 35 and 44% and with no statistically significant differences among them. The fifth cemetery showed a significantly lower frequency of leprosy (9%). The distribution of female age at death does not appear to be affected by leprosy status. This means that females experienced a considerably elevated risk of dying once they had contracted leprosy as the disease usually has a mid-adulthood age of onset. In four of the five cemeteries males with leprosy died in higher ages than men without leprosy--in two of the cemeteries the difference was statistically significant. This indicates that leprosy usually added less to the risk of dying among men than among women in medieval Schleswig.

  2. KEBUTUHAN MAKAM BAGI WARGA PERUMAHAN (Studi Kasus di Perumahan Wilayah Surabaya Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njo Anastasia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the components to build city is cemetery and this facility must build by developer. But the developer is not facilitated the cemetery in housing estate area. If inhabitant housing estate died, it is very difficult to reside because the inhabitant surrounded housing estate refused. The factor such as developer obligation, physiology, location, social economic, conviction and knowledge, cultural and religion are analyzed by factor analysis. The result showed that the inhabitant housing estate in West Surabaya necessary cemetery facility for the inhabitant but the location is outside housing estate area. The characteristic cemetery needed not so far from housing estate, general cemetery, and permanent cemetery. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Makam merupakan salah satu komponen pembentuk ruang kota dan salah satu fasilitas yang harus disediakan oleh pengembang. Namun pengembang tidak menyediakan makam di kawasan perumahan. Bila penghuni perumahan ada yang meninggal sulit dimakamkan di sekitar wilayah perumahan, sebab warga sekitar perumahan menolak. Faktor yang diteliti untuk menentukan kebutuhan makam adalah kewajiban pengembang, psikologi, lokasi, sosial ekonomi, keyakinan dan pengetahuan, budaya, serta agama, yang dianalisa menggunakan analisa faktor. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa warga perumahan di Surabaya Barat menyatakan perlunya fasilitas makam bagi penghuni namun lokasinya di luar wilayah perumahan. Karakteristik makam yang dibutuhkan adalah makam yang dekat tempat tinggal, jenis makam umum, serta bentuk bangunannya permanen (kijing, bong pai, atau rumah makam. Kata kunci: makam, kawasan perumahan, analisa faktor, makam umum, bangunan permanen.

  3. The Death and the Tomb of the Architect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sgarbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to discuss the funerary architecture of the body of the architect in its moment of transition between the space of the living to the space of the dead and in its more or less eternal final destination. The encompassing cemetery of those who design cemeteries for everybody else is fragmented in a myriad of differences and loci. Yet this space has its symbols and its imaginary. Who is the architect who designs the cemetery for all the others, and how does she/he see her/his own death and tomb? The ambition of this paper is to violate the intimate space of the “last desires” of the architect. Are there some expectations, some commonplaces, some appropriate or shared intents that might give to the architect a specific dignity in relation to the dignity we imagine for the death of the others?

  4. The art, history, and geoscience of hindustan whetstone gravestones in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Powell, R.L.; McNerney, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cemeteries can be intriguing places to people, in part because of a fascination with death but also because of the quiet solitude and artistic beauty found there. Many grave monuments are really works of art and can be appreciated on that basis alone. Cemeteries can also serve as teaching laboratories for geologists. Monument types, carving styles, ornamentation, and durability are all related, to some extent, to the type of rock used. The older the monument dates the more variability one can see in the character of the stones. Pioneer cemeteries in southern Indiana, some of which date back to the early 1800s, can be used to teach concepts in mineralogy, depositional environments, and paleoastronomy. This can be very useful to someone teaching some of the basic concepts of geology.

  5. The art, history, and geoscience of Hindostan whetstone gravestones in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Powell, R.L.; McNerney, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cemeteries can be intriguing places to people, in part because of a fascination with death but also because of the quiet solitude and artistic beauty found there. Many grave monuments are really works of art and can be appreciated on that basis alone. Cemeteries can also serve as teaching laboratories for geologists. Monument types, carving styles, ornamentation, and durability are all related, to some extent, to the type of rock used. The older the monument dates the more variability one can see in the character of the stones. Pioneer cemeteries in southern Indiana, some of which date back to the early 1800s, can be used to teach concepts in mineralogy, depositional environments, and paleoastronomy. This can be very useful to someone teaching some of the basic concepts of geology.

  6. Demography and pathology of an urban slave population from New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, D W; Orser, C E; Mann, R W; Moore-Jansen, P H; Montgomery, R L

    1987-10-01

    Twenty-nine skeletons from the first cemetery in New Orleans provide significant new information about urban slavery in America. Dating as early as 1720 and used perhaps as late as 1810, the cemetery provided an identifiable sample of two whites, 13 blacks, one individual of possible Indian-white ancestry, and two possibly mulatto individuals. Numerous skeletal and dental lesions were noted in the series, and historical information was used in conjunction with the physical data to draw conclusions about rates and patterns of mortality. Pathological changes indicate that the cemetery contained individuals representing two slave occupational groups, house servants and laborers. This research provides information in the expanding area of Afro-American biohistorical research.

  7. Convento di San Francesco a Folloni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torino, Marielva; Boldsen, Jesper L.; Tarp, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    two excavation campaigns conducted in 2007-2008 and 2010. The environs of the friary have remained rural since the foundation preventing much modern contamination. The state of preservation of the skeletons is fair to good making a suite of analyses worthwhile. Results: The skeletons have been...... with the historical sources and show that the cemetery in the cloister walk has been in uninterrupted use from the foundation of the friary in AD 1221-1222 and until the cemetery went out of use in AD 1524. The anthropological investigations show that the individuals interred at the friary would have been shorter...

  8. 長崎・興福寺唐人墓碑群の新発見区域に関する報告

    OpenAIRE

    姜, 楠

    2015-01-01

    Kōfukuji, a temple of the Ōbaku Zen Sect in Nagasaki, Japan, contains a Chinese Cemetery with gravestones dating from 1757 to 1887. Past research indicated the presence of 111 gravestones commemorating the deaths of 128 people, almost all seamen involved in the Japanese-Chinese trade. Previous maps grouped these 111 gravestones in eight sections designated by the letters A to H. The author discovered five new gravestones in the cemetery and added a new section “I” to the map. This is a report...

  9. 38 CFR 39.15 - Amount of grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., committal-service shelters, and administration/maintenance buildings. (3) In the case of an establishment... cost of non-fixed equipment such as grounds maintenance equipment, burial equipment, and office... in this part; (3) Improvements not on cemetery land, such as access roads or utilities;...

  10. Ritual plants of Muslim graveyards in northern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafni Amots

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article surveys the botanical composition of 40 Muslim graveyards in northern Israel, accompanied by an ethnobotanical study of the folkloristic traditions of the use of these plants in cemeteries. Three groups of plants were found to be repeated systematically and were also recognized for their ritual importance: aromatics herbs (especially Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis, white flowered plants (mainly Narcissus tazetta, Urginea maritima, Iris spp. and Pancratium spp. and Cupressus sempervirens as the leading cemetery tree. As endemic use we can indicate the essential role of S. fruticosa as the main plant used in all human rites of passage symbolizing the human life cycle. The rosemary is of European origin while the use of basil is of Indian influence. The use of white flowers as cemeteries plants reflects an old European influence and almost the same species are used or their congeners. Most of the trees and shrubs that are planted in Muslim cemeteries in Israel have the same use in ancient as well in modern European cultures. In conclusion, our findings on the occurrence of plants in graveyards reflect the geographic situation of Israel as a crossroads in the cultural arena between Asia and Europe. Most of the traditions are common to the whole Middle East showing high relatedness to the classical world as well as to the present-day Europe.

  11. Hector Garcia Middle School: A School's Design Aspires to Live Up to Its Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Brown discusses the history of Hector Garcia, a Mexican immigrant who, as U.S. Army captain, worked diligently to assist minority servicemen in navigating the Veterans Administration, and found the GI Forum. Dr. Garcia's activism, through the Forum, was instrumental in desegregating hospitals, swimming pools, schools and cemeteries. Brown's case…

  12. 36 CFR 12.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exercise, relaxation or enjoyment, including but not limited to the following: jogging, racing, skating... more persons, that has the intent, effect or likelihood to attract a crowd or onlookers. This term does... headstone placed in a memorial section of a national cemetery with the words “In Memory Of” inscribed...

  13. 75 FR 3539 - Agency Information Collection (NCA Customer Satisfaction Surveys (Headstone/Marker)) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (NCA Customer Satisfaction Surveys (Headstone/Marker)) Activity.... National Cemetery Administration Mail Surveys a. Next of Kin National Customer Satisfaction Survey (Mail to... National Customer Satisfaction Survey (Mail to 5,000 respondents/30 minutes per survey) = 2,500 hours. ]...

  14. 75 FR 15494 - Proposed Information Collection (Request for Disinterment) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... made in national cemeteries are permanent and final. All immediate family members of the decedent, including the person who initiated the interment, (whether or not he/she is a member of the immediate family.... Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records Service. BILLING CODE 8320-01-P...

  15. 77 FR 35114 - Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records Service (005R1B), Department of..., service members, and their eligible family members with planning for burial in a VA national cemetery... members, and their potentially eligible family members. Affected Public: Individuals or...

  16. 32 CFR 552.104 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. 552... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Firearms and Weapons § 552.104 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives or other devices defined...

  17. El Dia de los Muertos -- Libreto. (The Day of the Dead -- Notebook.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Delia; Lopez, Santiago, III

    On November 2, all Mexican Americans remember their dead as Mexico does on that same day. Called "El Dia de los Muertos" (Day of the Dead), the dead are remembered posthumously with flowers, candles, music, prayers, chants, and wreaths. The people go to cemeteries to clean tombs, lay fresh or artificial flowers on them, and pray for…

  18. A Sequential Developmental Field Defect of the Vertebrae, Ribs, and Sternum, in a Young Woman of the 12th Century AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Nørregaard; Usher, Bethany

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the vertebral column are often noted in skeletal material. Descriptions of these anomalies are often lacking, and their developmental origins are not often discussed. The skeleton of a young woman from the medieval cemetery of Tirup, in Denmark, has multiple defects of the axial skeleton...

  19. 32 CFR 552.90 - Permit office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Permit office. 552.90 Section 552.90 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.90 Permit office... non-training acess to the range complex. The office is open 0700-1900 hours, seven days a week,...

  20. 38 CFR 39.21 - Space criteria for support facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... position, and a defined complement of maintenance and service equipment. For cemeteries with less than one...) Administrative staff (lobby/office area); (4) Operations (file/office/equipment/work area); (5) Family/conference room; (6) Military honors team; (7) Refreshment unit; (8) Housekeeping aide's closet; and (9)...

  1. 75 FR 17407 - Service Corporation International and Keystone North America Inc.; Analysis of Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... promotion, marketing, sale, and provision of funeral services and goods, including, but not limited to... disposition of human remains. Cemetery services include all activities relating to the promotion, marketing... benefitted from the rivalry between SCI and KNA in the form of lower prices, improved products, and...

  2. 38 CFR 39.25 - Inspections, audits, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspections, audits, and reports. 39.25 Section 39.25 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... State will make an annual report on VA Form 40-0241 (“State Cemetery Data”) signed by the...

  3. Treasure Along the Parker River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ann-Marie; And Others

    Designed so that 100 to 125 heterogeneously grouped 7th and 8th grade students and a team of 5 core teachers might experience and discover the natural and historical "treasure" in the Parker River area of Massachusetts, this interdisciplinary unit centers on a hike to Parker River (6.7 miles) and visits to a cemetery, a monument, and Old Town…

  4. 75 FR 39623 - Advisory Committee on Women Veterans; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ..., Public Relations and Public Affairs, at (202) 745-4037. Members of the press planning to attend briefings...) gives notice under Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that the Advisory Committee on... Cemetery, Washington, DC. The meeting is open to the public. Those wishing to attend must have...

  5. Field Guide to Rock Weathering. Earth Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Robert E.

    Highlighted are the effects of weathering through field investigations of the environment, both natural rocks, and the urban environment's pavements, buildings, and cemeteries. Both physical weathering and chemical weathering are discussed. Questions are presented for post-field trip discussion. References and a glossary are provided. (Author/RE)

  6. 32 CFR 552.128 - Requirements for possession and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.128 Requirements for possession and use. All... installation, or after obtaining the weapon, except: (1) Firearms legally brought onto the installation for...

  7. Numancia: relación necrópolis-poblado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimeno Martínez, Alfredo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between the Celtiberian cemetery and the Numancia city sieged by Scipio (133 b.c.. A first part is dedicated to present the location problems of the Celtiberian cemetery during the present century, and the archaeological data of the cemetery are also analyzed. In the second part the stratigraphie questions and the problems to differentiate the city of the II century b.C. are explained. Finally the basis is established for the relationship between the city and the cemetery.Este trabajo estudia la relación entre la necrópolis celtibérica y la Numancia del cerco de Escipión (133 a. C.. En la primera parte se exponen las dificultades para la localización de la necrópolis a lo largo de este siglo y los datos arqueológicos que está aportando su excavación. En la segunda se abordan los problemas estratigráficos y la dificultad de diferenciar la ciudad del 133 a.C. Finalmente se establecen las bases de relación entre necrópolis y poblado.

  8. Ending an Insurgency Violently: The Samar and Batangas Punitive Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    after Balangiga, Chaffee stated, “they will start a few cemeteries for hombres in Southern Samar.” Confirming this mindset, the Philippine...General Henry C. Corbin Papers, and William H. Taft Papers); “ hombres ” comment also found in, correspondence, 30 Sep 1901, Chaffee to Corbin, Henry C

  9. 77 FR 68824 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Tongass National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... one of the primary villages inhabited by the Taku Tlingit until about 1926, with graves at the... territory of the Taku Tlingit, represented today by the Douglas Indian Association. Oral traditions confirm the affiliation of the Taku Tlingit with the Taku Village site and cemetery, and support...

  10. 76 FR 6157 - Meeting of the National Park System Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ..., Leavenworth, KS. Maine Olson House, Cushing, ME. Minnesota Grand Mound, Koochiching County, MN. Split Rock Light Station, Lake County, MN. New York Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, NY. North Dakota Lynch Quarry Site... Indian Agricultural School, Kay County, OK. Platt National Park, Murray County, OK. Oregon Aubrey...

  11. Visualisation of unbuilt buildings in their landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Robert; Petersen, Ernst Steffen

    1999-01-01

    Computer modelling can provide better information on building projects presented in two dimensional drawings but never built. A cemetery project in Denmark was formed as a solid model in its sloping landscape using Softimage. Boolean operations were used to position walls at a given height above...

  12. 27 CFR 9.53 - Alexander Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on the northeasterly line of “Olive Hill” Cemetery, lying on the easterly side of a light-duty road... most easterly point thereon; (17) Then southerly 3,000 feet along the meanders of the west fork of Wood... identified as Lytton Springs Road in T. 9 N., R. 9 W.; (21) Then easterly along Lytton Springs Road to...

  13. Cultural Resources Inventory of the Montz Freshwater Diversion Project Corridor, St. Charles Parish, Louisiana. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-23

    Ulmus) , and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) may occur at higher elevations, Predominant understory vegetation includes poison ivy, grape and trumpet...suggests that the trees surrounding the cemetery were not planted; all of the species identified, including pecan trees ( Carya illinoensis ), occur

  14. Visualisation of unbuilt buildings in their landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob; Petersen, Ernst Steffen

    1999-01-01

    Modelling the site and chapel for a new cemetery for Lyngby submitted to a competition in 1951 by the architect Alvar Aalto. Ir was not built but the computer model shows how he overestimated the steepness of the site and how his proposals for graves and chapel would have looked...

  15. Future Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    Today the dying and the bereaved attend memorialization both online and offline. Cemeteries, urns, coffins, graves, memorials, monuments, websites, social network sites, applications and software services, form technologies that are influenced by discourse, culture, public, professional and econo......Today the dying and the bereaved attend memorialization both online and offline. Cemeteries, urns, coffins, graves, memorials, monuments, websites, social network sites, applications and software services, form technologies that are influenced by discourse, culture, public, professional...... and economic power. They constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices and designs dealing with death, mourning, memorialization and remembrance. The paper presents findings from two research projects; the 2015 exhibition Death: The Human Experience at Bristol Museum and Art...... Gallery (bristolmuseums.org.uk) and the Future Cemetery Design Competition 2016 held by the Centre for Death and Society and Arnos Vale Cemetery in Bristol (futurecemetery.org). Grounded in sociological theory on death and memorialization technologies, ethnographic fieldwork and survey results (n=348...

  16. 78 FR 73881 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ...., Knoxville, 13000983 ] VIRGINIA Bath County Barton Lodge, 373 French's Hill Dr., Hot Springs, 13000984... Hills, 348 Three Hills Ln., Warm Springs, 13000986 Wesley, John, Methodist Episcopal Church and Cemetery... Increase), Elmwood Farm Dr., Boston, 13000988 Highland County Jones, C.P., House and Law Office, 144 &...

  17. 32 CFR 552.97 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Communications. 552.97 Section 552.97 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.97...

  18. The Marshall Plan as Strategic Analogy: Implications for Post-Conflict Reconstruction Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    lateralisation of payments, and achieve conditions for better utilization of labour .56 The Marshall Plan was designed to work through this institution...reconstruction project and program implementation and often caused contractors to manage their projects from afar.95 In addition, security affected...for Iraq Reconstruction, Lessons in Program and Project Management , Cyber Cemetery, March 2007, accessed September, 8 2014, http://cybercemetery

  19. 38 CFR 38.629 - Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Outer Burial Receptacle... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL CEMETERIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS § 38.629 Outer Burial Receptacle Allowance. (a) Definitions—Outer burial receptacle. For purposes of this section, an outer burial...

  20. 32 CFR 552.18 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administration. 552.18 Section 552.18 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Post Commander § 552.18 Administration. (a) Purpose... economical operation, administration, service, and supply of all individuals, units, and activities...

  1. Death in Design in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    diffuse field of 'death-in-design', highlighting the potentiality and problematics concerning the specific designs for a contemporary western death culture. The findings in this paper are contextualized through an qualitative ethnographic study of Danish designers, architects and cemetery users...... each constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices dealing with death, grief and memorialization. Design pioneering company IDEO'S recent failed attempt to 'redesign death' is an example of how delicate and difficult it is to work with material and symbolic 'death...... design'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites and services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by the discourses of economics, power, technology and culture. Furthermore many end-users do not recognize the need or potential of a certain death service...

  2. In bits, bytes and stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline. Combined, the cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites...... designs'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites, applications and software services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by discourses of publics, economics, power, technology and culture. Designers, programmers, stakeholders and potential end-users often...... do not recognize the need or potential of working with or using, specific 'death-services/products', since they find little or no comfort in contemplating, working or playing around with the concept of death and its life changing consequences. Especially not while being alive and well...

  3. 《陇县店子秦墓》读后

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵化成

    2000-01-01

    The Qin Tombs at Dianzi, Longxian County compiled by the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology is so far the first monographic report on the excavation of Qin tombs . It described 224 Qin tombs from the Spring-Autumn and Warring States period to the Qin dynasty. The book features scientificalness and completeness in the systematization of material and makes for the first time the periodization of a great number of Qin tombs belonging to the same cemetery. The Qin tombs at Dianzi are noteworthy in many aspects. For example, the catacombs are in a small number and of a relatively late date; the flexed burials account for the majority and the extended ones appeared in a later time; pottery li tripods with double ears and granary molds characteristic of the “Rong” people were discovered quite often; and pottery ritual vessels are combined in even numbers. These reflect the local features of the cemetery and enrich our understanding of the Qin culture.

  4. [FUNERARY RITUAL OF CREMATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannantonio, Stefania; Iorio, Andrea; Serafino, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In the area of Rome object of study, the cremations account for 10% of total burials (522 cremation burials of 4758), unlike the contemporary cemeteries of French and Cispadane areas where they are well over 30%. Detailed analysis of the cemeteries, confirms that the indirect cremations (urns and graves) represent over 85% of the sample, while direct cremations (busta sepulcra) are under-represented. For a selected sample of 69 cremations, demographic analysis was performed and it shows a discrete prevalence of women and an almost equal distribution of males and subadults. Quantitative analysis of burned bones was conducted on cremations found perfectly intact during excavation, it indicates that cremations are generally completed and that they have all the anatomical regions represented.

  5. 略说青海都兰出土的吐蕃石狮%On the Tubo Stone Lions Unearthed from Dulan,Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤惠生

    2003-01-01

    Tubo period stone lions similar to each other in style were unearthed from the Tubo cemetery at Kexiaotu in Dulan,Qinghai,and Tubo king tombs in Qionggyai and the Chamuqin cemetery in Lhaze,Tibet.In form and style they differ from the Tang period stone lions in the Central Plains,and,as is generally believed,seem to bear elements of the West Asian or Indian style.In the early Tubo period,there existed lion figures in two artistic styles,which were brought about under the influence of the Indian and the Six Dynasties and Tang period Central Plains styles respectively.The stone lions from Kexiaotu and other localities must belong to the latter category.

  6. Mural Tombs of the Liao Period at Haotehua in Jarud Banner,Inner Mongolia%内蒙古扎鲁特旗浩特花辽代壁画墓

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所内蒙古工作队; 内蒙古文物考古研究所

    2003-01-01

    The Haotehua cemetery in southern Jarud Banner of Inner Mongolia is a Qidan aristocratic burial ground of the Liao period. In 1999, the Inner Mongolian Archaeological Team, IA, CASS, and the Inner Mongolian Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated here three large-sized and two small-sized tombs. The No.1 Haotehua tomb of the mid Liao period is the larges tbrick-built mural tomb in the cemetery. It consists of a tomb-passage, a tomb-gate, a corridor, an ante-room, two side rooms, and a rear room, totaling 30.5m in length. The murals represent officials, acrobatic performance, music playing, cattle and sheep grazing, falcons and hunting dogs, processions, kitchens, etc. Rich in content, these paintings are of great academic value to the study of the history, culture and social customs of the Liao period as well as the history of Chinese art.

  7. Ancient DNA analysis of human remains from the Upper Capital City of Kublai Khan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuqin; Xie, Chengzhi; Xu, Xuelian; Li, Chunxiang; Zhang, Quanchao; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of DNA from human archaeological remains is a powerful tool for reconstructing ancient events in human history. To help understand the origin of the inhabitants of Kublai Khan's Upper Capital in Inner Mongolia, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms in 21 ancient individuals buried in the Zhenzishan cemetery of the Upper Capital. MtDNA coding and noncoding region polymorphisms identified in the ancient individuals were characteristic of the Asian mtDNA haplogroups A, B, N9a, C, D, Z, M7b, and M. Phylogenetic analysis of the ancient mtDNA sequences, and comparison with extant reference populations, revealed that the maternal lineages of the population buried in the Zhenzishan cemetery are of Asian origin and typical of present-day Han Chinese, despite the presence of typical European morphological features in several of the skeletons.

  8. Remembrance of Dutch War Dead in Southeast Asia, 1942-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridus Steijlen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the war experience in Southeast Asia in the Netherlands was not easy. The Indisch community, those who had to leave the Netherlands East Indies after decolonization, did not feel that their war experience was accepted. Following the story of one man, a former POW, this article shows how unorthodox ways of protesting were used to command respect and acknowledgement. The arena for these actions was not only the Indisch monument in the Netherlands, but also the War cemetery in Thailand. The former Dutch POW ended up in a dispute with the Australian caretaker of that cemetery over the specific location of a camp. Both men, however, were motivated by the same urge to find the exact locations of camps along the Burma railway. The story of this POW shows how important official recognition is on a personal level.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient Sampula population in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The archaeological site of Sampula cemetery was located about 14 km to the southwest of the Luo County in Xinjiang Khotan, China, belonging to the ancient Yutian kingdom. 14C analysis showed that this cemetery was used from 217 B.C. to 283 A.D.Ancient DNA was analyzed by 364 bp of the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region Ⅰ (mtDNA HVR-Ⅰ), and by six restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) sites of mtDNA coding region. We successfully extracted and sequenced intact stretches of maternally inherited mtDNA from 13 out of 16 ancient Sampula samples. The analysis of mtDNA haplogroup distribution showed that the ancient Sampula was a complex population with both European and Asian characteristics. Median joining network of U3 sub-haplogroup and multi-dimensional scaling analysis all showed that the ancient Sampula had maternal relationship with Ossetian and Iranian.

  10. Loyal wives or just concubines ..?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Gálvez, Marisa

    2007-01-01

    The well known Heroon at the Toumba cemetery consist of a shaft housing of two very rich and apparently simultaneous burials, a male cremation and a female inhumation, assumed as the woman being the warrior's consort probably sacrificed during his husband's funerals. In this paper I argue is that if we can trust the anthropological identification and the simultaneity of both depositions, then we can consider these women as concubines better than wives, if we compare this evidence with contemp...

  11. An invisible wall put up by ghosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>When I was a child, my grandmother would often tell me ghost stories. One of them was about an invisible wall that had been put up by ghosts.It was a winter night that was getting darker and darker, colder and colder. A lone farmer was driving his horse and cart along a country path. As he was getting close to his village, he could see the cemetery with the myriad tombs on both sides

  12. Races at War: Nationalism and Genocide in Twentieth Century Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    the Serbs, like the Nazis, still made the price of leaving very high. In one example, in the city of Banja Luka , Bosnian Muslims who wanted to...Diana Paul, a human rights worker in Banja Luka . 122 Naimark, p. 163. 59 namely to drive off non-Serb populations in order to create homogeneous Serb...locations. In Banja Luka , the Serbs destroyed 200 mosques out of 202 in 1993. Even non-Serb cemeteries were “routinely

  13. My life after death: connecting the field, the findings and the feelings

    OpenAIRE

    Woodthorpe, Kate

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an account of an emotional journey that took place alongside an ethnographic study of the contemporary cemetery landscape. It seeks to highlight the importance of conducting empirical research as a 'rite of passage', leading to the role of a researcher, by examining the connection between data, the human researcher, and the analysis. Furthermore, this paper argues that the emotionality of the research process needs to be incorporated into discussions of methodology and analysis ...

  14. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Antonietta Costa; Carney Matheson; Lucia Iachetta; Agustín Llagostera; Otto Appenzeller

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. METHODOLOGY: We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses...

  15. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    right in front of you: the gangs that dese - crated cemeteries and chiseled away every German word, even "Ruhe in Frieden" (Rest in Peace); the...a new investment policy, market research , a policy for establishing ties abroad, etc. It is expected that after all of this the enterprise’s...Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) and Joint Publications Research Service. (JPRS) pubSons contain political, military, economic

  16. Identification of the cranium of W.A. Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, P F; Puech, B; Tichy, G

    1989-01-01

    In 1801 at the cemetery in Vienna, Austria, the skull of W.A. Mozart was exhumed (La Chronique Médicale, 13 (1906) 423), and now it has been examined for identification. The osteometrical and osteological findings correspond with the available data of W.A. Mozart. Superimposition gives evidence that craniofacial distinctiveness of the cranium is consistent with the portrait. Additional individual particularities caused by the premature synostosis of the metopic suture (PSMS) and a bone lesion are described.

  17. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Habitat Preferences in South Texas, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Champion, Samantha R; Vitek, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The South Texas region has a historical record of occasional dengue outbreaks. The recent introduction of chikungunya virus to the Caribbean suggests that this disease may be a concern as well. Six different cities and three field habitat types (residential, tire shops, and cemeteries) were examined for evidence of habitat and longitudinal preference of two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A. aegypti was more prevalent in tire shop sites, while A. albopictus was more preval...

  18. Mortality risk and survival in the aftermath of the medieval Black Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon N DeWitte

    Full Text Available The medieval Black Death (c. 1347-1351 was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history. It killed tens of millions of Europeans, and recent analyses have shown that the disease targeted elderly adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. Following the epidemic, there were improvements in standards of living, particularly in dietary quality for all socioeconomic strata. This study investigates whether the combination of the selective mortality of the Black Death and post-epidemic improvements in standards of living had detectable effects on survival and mortality in London. Samples are drawn from several pre- and post-Black Death London cemeteries. The pre-Black Death sample comes from the Guildhall Yard (n = 75 and St. Nicholas Shambles (n = 246 cemeteries, which date to the 11th-12th centuries, and from two phases within the St. Mary Spital cemetery, which date to between 1120-1300 (n = 143. The St. Mary Graces cemetery (n = 133 was in use from 1350-1538 and thus represents post-epidemic demographic conditions. By applying Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Gompertz hazard model to transition analysis age estimates, and controlling for changes in birth rates, this study examines differences in survivorship and mortality risk between the pre- and post-Black Death populations of London. The results indicate that there are significant differences in survival and mortality risk, but not birth rates, between the two time periods, which suggest improvements in health following the Black Death, despite repeated outbreaks of plague in the centuries after the Black Death.

  19. Mortality risk and survival in the aftermath of the medieval Black Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2014-01-01

    The medieval Black Death (c. 1347-1351) was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history. It killed tens of millions of Europeans, and recent analyses have shown that the disease targeted elderly adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. Following the epidemic, there were improvements in standards of living, particularly in dietary quality for all socioeconomic strata. This study investigates whether the combination of the selective mortality of the Black Death and post-epidemic improvements in standards of living had detectable effects on survival and mortality in London. Samples are drawn from several pre- and post-Black Death London cemeteries. The pre-Black Death sample comes from the Guildhall Yard (n = 75) and St. Nicholas Shambles (n = 246) cemeteries, which date to the 11th-12th centuries, and from two phases within the St. Mary Spital cemetery, which date to between 1120-1300 (n = 143). The St. Mary Graces cemetery (n = 133) was in use from 1350-1538 and thus represents post-epidemic demographic conditions. By applying Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Gompertz hazard model to transition analysis age estimates, and controlling for changes in birth rates, this study examines differences in survivorship and mortality risk between the pre- and post-Black Death populations of London. The results indicate that there are significant differences in survival and mortality risk, but not birth rates, between the two time periods, which suggest improvements in health following the Black Death, despite repeated outbreaks of plague in the centuries after the Black Death.

  20. Famine, the Black Death, and health in fourteenth-century London

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Antoine; Simon Hillson

    2004-01-01

    In the first half of the fourteenth century two catastrophes struck the population of Europe: the Great Famine and the Black Death. The latter has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the biological effects of the Great Famine. A large assemblage of skeletal remains from one of the Black Death burial grounds, the Royal Mint cemetery in London, provides a unique opportunity to investigate these effects by analyzing the teeth of individuals who survived the famine but died dur...

  1. Procesy eneolityzacji Europy - wybrane zagadnienia

    OpenAIRE

    Kadrow, Sławomir

    2012-01-01

    E. Neustupný suggested using a term “Eneolithic” instead of the copper age and replacing its distinctive raw material criterion (copper) by a complex of cultural, social and economic elements. Importantly he recognized the emergence of the plough in agronomy instead of burning techniques, the replacement of large settlements by smaller ones, burying the dead in cemeteries on land outside the inhabited areas and the strengthening role of the male (“patriarchy”) in societies of that...

  2. Archaeological Investigations at the San Gabriel Reservoir Districts, Central Texas. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    facial characteristics typical of cemetery population .... ............... .... 353 91. Burial P13 example of maxillary abscess .. ........... .... 360 92...basin hearths; F-30 and F-41 photographs a. Overhead view of F-30 large basin hearth; north is to the top of the photograph. b. Overhead view of F-41...small basin hearth; northwest is to the top of the photograph. Note the lack of intensive burning of the surrounding matrix and the root mold in the

  3. Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini in Oriental Mountains Cementeries from Colombia Abejas sin aguijón (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini en cementerios de la Cordillera oriental de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Vélez E.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In 11 cemeteries of Cundinamarca and Meta (Colombia departments we found 203 nests of stingless bees pertaining to 15 species. The majority of the found nests (61% belong to genus Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. Nannotrigona mellaria was the specie with the greater nests number and higher population; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula was found in all cemeteries, but in a smaller percentage that N. mellaria (29% of the total. In the Tena (Cundinamarca cemetery was found the nest highest density (118 nest/ha, with a tombs occupation percentage of 13.9%. We discussed the importance of cemeteries as an alternative for wild bees nesting sites conservation in urban areas.Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 cementerios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia. El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La especie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios estudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% del total. La densidad máxima encontrada fue de 118 nidos/ha, con un porcentaje de ocupación de las tumbas de 13,9% en el cementerio de Tena (Cundinamarca. Se discute sobre la importancia de los cementerios como alternativa para conservación de los sitios de nidificación para abejas silvestres en áreas urbanas.

  4. Monuments and Memorials: Geoscience and the Historic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E.; Smith, B. L.

    2009-05-01

    Many communities have a cemetery, war memorial, public sculpture or old historic buildings that are an important part of the historic record of that community. Such monuments celebrate achievements, commemorate people who died serving their country, or a prominent former member of the local community. Monuments and memorials can trace the histiry of settlement within a community. After a number of years researching cemeteries and memorials, primarily in western Canada my research partner, a historian, and I, a geoscience educator,have documented many monuments and memorials that are succumbing to basic weathering processes. Original design choices can be dictated by cost, material availability, access to transportation and emotions. Climate, type of material, construction methods, technology used and long-term maintenance can all have significant impacts on the sustainability of that material record. Over the last five years we have given many lectures and workshops on the nature of cemeteries to family historians, historical societies and classroom educators. These workshops and lectures focus on developing a better ommunity understanding of the fragility of the record. Field trips by students of all ages can contextualize both geology and history. Seeing local monumanets can facilitate the development of a sense of time and place as well as an appreciation of the environmental impacts and the longevity of the record. For the earth science student documentation of the installation enable comparisons of weathering rates of different materials, the effects of local climate or impacts of pollution. Being able to go to a local memorial or cemetery to compare diffrent structures brings a powerful local context to the learning. However we both have concerns that modern techniques that enable the creation of more elaborate memorials are actually setting the stage for more rapid deterioration. I will illustrate a cross section of our reseacrh and the impact it has had on

  5. Veterans’s Medical Care: FY2014 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    Veterans Benefits Administration ( VBA ), and the National Cemetery Administration (NCA). This report focuses on funding for the VHA. The VHA is primarily...administrations and the Board of Veterans Appeals (BVA).9 The Veterans Benefits Administration ( VBA ) is responsible for, among other things, providing...Congress begins with the formulations of the budget based on the Enrollee Health Care Projection Model (EHCPM).31 The model estimates the amount of

  6. Anzio to Libya: Strategic Direction in Coalition Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    shortcomings inside the alliance and the broader coalition. Former United States Ambassador to NATO, Kurt Volker posits, “It is more accurate to say...sheets of machine gun fire produced many recipients of medals for valor--many of whom are enshrined in Allied cemeteries on the outskirts of Rome...French goods and a league junior minister mentioned opening fire on vessels carrying migrants.44 Given divergent interests, NATO solidarity during

  7. Skeletal remains from Punic Carthage do not support systematic sacrifice of infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Schwartz

    Full Text Available Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the "Tophet" yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3(rd c. BCE and Diodorus Siculus (1(st c. BCE], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human

  8. The Role of the Buffalo Soldiers during the Spanish-American War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    JAMES H. Date Earned: September 29, 1864 Date Awarded: April 6, 1865 Remarks: Died on March 16, 1884. Buried Chartiers Cemetery, Pittsburg, PA...October 10, 1968 Remarks: Born October 15, 1937. KIA October 31, 1967. Buried Hillcrest Memorial Gardens, Spencer, OK> ROGERS , CHARLES C. Date...Rebentisch, Adolph Reyer, Adolph T. Rogers , Albert Rice, Lee C. Staub, Louis E. Shields, William G. Stockbridge, Arthur J. Sharland, George H. Skipwith

  9. Sex differentials in frailty in medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2010-10-01

    In most modern populations, there are sex differentials in morbidity and mortality that favor women. This study addresses whether such female advantages existed to any appreciable degree in medieval Europe. The analyses presented here examine whether men and women with osteological stress markers faced the same risks of death in medieval London. The sample used for this study comes from the East Smithfield Black Death cemetery in London. The benefit of using this cemetery is that most, if not all, individuals interred in East Smithfield died from the same cause within a very short period of time. This allows for the analysis of the differences between men and women in the risks of mortality associated with osteological stress markers without the potential confounding effects of different causes of death. A sample of 299 adults (173 males, 126 females) from the East Smithfield cemetery was analyzed. The results indicate that the excess mortality associated with several osteological stress markers was higher for men than for women. This suggests that in this medieval population, previous physiological stress increased the risk of death for men during the Black Death to a greater extent than was true for women. Alternatively, the results might indicate that the Black Death discriminated less strongly between women with and without pre-existing health conditions than was true for men. These results are examined in light of previous analyses of East Smithfield and what is known about diet and sexually mediated access to resources in medieval England.

  10. Fipronil as a larvicide against the container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Pridgeon, Julia W; Becnel, James J; Ali, Arshad

    2009-06-01

    In the laboratory, fipronil was tested against laboratory-reared and field-collected early 4th-instars of Aedes albopictus. The insecticide was also bioassayed for activity against natural field populations of Ae. albopictus inhabiting 1-liter-capacity stone-made containers in a cemetery in St. Augustine, FL. The cemetery containers also were utilized to study initial efficacy and activity persistence of fipronil against natural populations of Ae. albopictus. The laboratory-reared larvae were 2-fold more susceptible than field-collected larvae as indicated by the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 2.6 and 6 parts per billion (ppb) for laboratory-reared and field-collected larvae, respectively. In the field bioassay, in stone-made containers, the LC50 value of Ae. albopictus larvae amounted to 57.5 ppb. In the cemetery containers, fipronil applied at 3.2 and 32 ppb gave 100% control of Ae. albopictus larvae with either rate of application for at least up to 8 wk posttreatment.

  11. Panteones regios leoneses (924-1109. Concatenaciones dinásticas y discontinuidades topográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boto Varela, Gerardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the royal cemeteries in Leon and Sahagún from an art-historical perspective. This topic demands analysing the documents as well as the architectonic settings. In the royal chronicles, the thread of historical narrative is the lineage of kings. For that reason, I discuss here the architectural and functional genealogy of the graveyards for the kings of Leon. This analysis explores both the links and the oppositions between these cemeteries. Studying the graves and cemeteries of the Kings facilitates understanding what order maintained the kingdom itself.Este examen histórico-artístico de los cementerios regios de León y Sahagún explora crónicas y edificios. Los análisis revelan diversidad de soluciones y actitudes. Por ello, deben cuestionarse los axiomas historiográficos de uniformidad de modelos, continuidad lineal y unicidad de una presunta tradición hispana. Ya que un motor del relato histórico es el linaje de los monarcas, se escruta la genealogía arquitectónica y funcional de los panteones constituidos por y para los reyes de León, atendiendo a los vínculos, sucesiones y discontinuidades. Desvelar algunas penumbras de los sepulcros de los soberanos ayuda a comprender dónde radica el encadenamiento y la subsistencia del reino mismo.

  12. Rewriting the Central European Early Bronze Age Chronology: Evidence from Large-Scale Radiocarbon Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhammer, Philipp W; Massy, Ken; Knipper, Corina; Friedrich, Ronny; Kromer, Bernd; Lindauer, Susanne; Radosavljević, Jelena; Wittenborn, Fabian; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Since the 1920s, archaeologists have divided the Early Bronze Age into two chronological phases (Bronze A1 and A2), which were also seen as stages of technical progress. On the basis of the early radiocarbon dates from the cemetery of Singen, southern Germany, the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe was originally dated around 2300/2200 BC and the transition to more complex casting techniques (i.e., Bronze A2) around 2000 BC. On the basis of 140 newly radiocarbon dated human remains from Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age cemeteries south of Augsburg (Bavaria) and a re-dating of ten graves from the cemetery of Singen, we propose a significantly different dating range, which forces us to re-think the traditional relative and absolute chronologies as well as the narrative of technical development. We are now able to date the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to around 2150 BC and its end to around 1700 BC. Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze (Bz) A1 and Bronze (Bz) A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from 1900-1700 BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture. Finally, we propose that the traditional phases Bz A1 and Bz A2 do not represent a chronological sequence, but regionally different social phenomena connected to the willingness of local actors to appropriate the new bronze technology.

  13. New Neolithic Settlement in Mariupol and Its Place in the System of Synchronous Monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbov Vladimir N.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The settlement of Kalmius in the Northeastern Azov Sea region is situated on the left bank of the the Kalmius river in the historical center of the town of Mariupol. This is a mailtilayered site with cultural layers ranging from the Neolithic to Modern Аge. The Neolithic layer underwent considerable postdepositional deformations. Cultural remains of the Neolithic period are associated with a buried soil occurring at a considerable depth. The layer has yielded numerous flint artifacts, animal bone fragments, and pottery fragments most of which are represented by small shards. The paper describes the ceramic assemblage, demonstrates the connection between the Kalmius settlement and Mariupol cemetery, and compares the materials of Kalmius with those from the coeval assemblages from the Northern Azov and Lower Don regions. In addition, a special attention is paid to the comparative analysis of flint inventories of the Kalmius settlement and Mariupol cemetery. The flint industry of both sites is based on small and middle-sized blades obtained by pressure-flaking. Similar or identical are also microlithic tools, bifacial points, etc. The period of existence of the Mariupol cemetery seems to have been longer than that of the Neolithic settlement at Kalmius. The difference in clay paste makes it possible to reconstruct two technologies of pottery making. The majority of ceramic fragments are decorated with tooth-stamp impressions, but some bear compositions of scratched lines. Most vessels are flat-based. The rims are collar-shaped, bent, sharpened. The assemblage of Kalmius finds close analogies among the Neolithic and Early Eneolithic sites of the South Russian Plain.

  14. The AMS {sup 14}C dating of Iron Age rice chaff ceramic temper from Ban Non Wat, Thailand: First results and its interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higham, Charles F.W., E-mail: charles.higham@otago.ac.n [Department of Anthropology, Otago University, Dunedin (New Zealand); Kuzmin, Yaroslav V. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Koptuyg Ave. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Burr, G.S. [Arizona AMS Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 0081 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Pottery tempered with rice chaff from the early Iron Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat site, northeast Thailand, has been subjected to direct AMS {sup 14}C dating, using low temperature combustion with oxygen as originally developed by authors. The carbon yield (0.2-0.5%) testifies the suitability of this pottery for dating. However, not all the results are in agreement with expected archaeological ages and other {sup 14}C dates from the studied site and neighboring site of Noen U-Loke. This calls for a thorough analysis and interpretation of pottery temper dates from the region.

  15. Privacy with Public Access: Digital Memorials on QR Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotved, Stine

    2015-01-01

    takes the departure in gravestones with QR-codes; objects at once physical and digital, underhandedly putting presumably private content within public reach. A plethora of issues of privacy and publicness are at play within the study's two connected but rather different empirical spaces: the physical...... space with the stonecutters, the cemetery, and the grave, and the emotional space of significance and forms of expression. In this study, the gravestones with QR codes act as a prism for cultural change within the subjects of death, bereavement and memorials. The ongoing negotiation of definitions...

  16. Studies with Myrtus communis L.: Anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogur, Recai

    2014-01-01

    Myrtus communis (MC) L. is a well-known Mediterranean plant with important cultural significance in this region. In ancient times, MC was accepted as a symbol of immortality. Maybe due to this belief, it is used during cemetery visits in some regions. Although it is a well-known plant in cosmetics, and there is a lot of studies about its different medical properties, anticancer studies performed using its different extracts or oils are not so much, but increasing. We collected these anticancer property-related studies in this review.

  17. Gerzeh, a prehistoric Egyptian meteorite

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, D.; Grady, Monica; Tyldesley, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the earliest examples of iron used by man was discovered in a prehistoric Egyptian cemetery. The site of Gerzeh, 40 miles south of Cairo, was excavated in 1911-1912, over 300 graves dat-ing from around 3300 BCE were discovered [1]. A few of the graves contained rare and precious materials such as gold and lapis lazuli. Two graves, Tombs 67 and 133, were also found to contain iron beads; at the time of excavation these examples of Egyptian pre-dynastic culture were considered to be the ...

  18. Analysis of garnets from the archaeological sites in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmit, Ž.; Fajfar, H.; Jeršek, M.; Knific, T.; Lux, J.

    2014-06-01

    Garnets (62 individual stones) originating from the Migration Period cemeteries and hilltop settlements in Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE/PIGE method for their chemical composition. Typologically, the analyzed stones may be classified as almandines originating from the sites in India, belonging to types I and II according to Calligaro. A smaller group of pyraldines intermediate between almandines and pyropes was also determined; identified as type III, their source is most likely in Sri Lanka. No garnets from Bohemia (Czech Republic) have been discovered, which may be related to important political changes in the 7th c. AD, induced by Slavic and Avaric migrations.

  19. The Petrous Bone—A New Sampling Site for Identifying Early Dietary Patterns in Stable Isotopic Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise Schjellerup; Heinemeier, Jan; Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Intraskeletal variation in the composition of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) stable isotopes measured in collagen is tested from various human bones and dentine. Samples were taken from the femur, rib, and petrous part of the temporal bone from well-preserved skeletons of both adults...... (n = 34) and subadults (n = 24). Additional samples of dentine from the root of 1st molars were taken from 16 individuals. The skeletal material is from a medieval cemetery (AD 1200-1573) in Holbaek, Denmark. Our results indicate that the petrous bone has an isotopic signal that differs significantly...

  20. Il cimitero la Verbena: cinquant’anni di violenza politica e sociale a Città del Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Grassi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the ethnography of a specific place of Guatemala City – the cemetery of the barrio “la Verbena” – the paper will reconstruct the correlations that link the recent history of this country (marked by a civil war finished in 1996, after thirty-six years of conflicts with the actual explosion of social violence, which levels are actually among the highest in the world. The political and social violence of Guatemala embrace connections that have not been sufficiently investigated. The analysis of these connections is fundamental to understand some of the contemporary social dynamics affecting not only that country.

  1. SAN MICHELE. ENTRE CIELO Y MAR / San Michele, between sky and sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Blázquez Jesús

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ESUMEN El cementerio es uno de los tipos arquitectónicos más profundos y metafóricos. El concurso para la ampliación del cementerio de San Michele, convocado en 1998 por la administración Municipal de Venecia, se convierte en un excelente campo de pruebas sobre el que poder analizar el contexto histórico en torno a esta tipología, y su relación con la ciudad y el territorio. El estudio de este caso concreto nos permite descubrir personajes, relaciones casuales y hallazgos que se despliegan a lo largo del texto. La historia del cementerio de San Michele es también la crónica de la transformación de la ciudad de Venecia y su Laguna. Interpretando este concurso como un instrumento de investigación, el objetivo del artículo es el de comprender la realidad contemporánea de la arquitectura funeraria a través de la isla de San Michele, Venecia, y las propuestas finalistas de Carlos Ferrater, Enric Miralles y David Chipperfield. Una historia bajo la cual se vislumbran claves que nos sirven para reflexionar acerca del cementerio contemporáneo, la ciudad y el territorio.SUMMARY The cemetery is one of the most profound and metaphorical kinds of architecture. The competition for the extension of the San Michele Cemetery, called in 1998 by the Venice municipal administration, is an excellent testing ground on which to analyse the historical context surrounding this type of architecture, and its relationship with the city and the region. The study of this particular case allows us to uncover characters, casual relationships and findings that unfold throughout the text. The history of the San Michele cemetery is also the chronicle of the transformation of the city of Venice and its Lagoon. Interpreting this competition as a research tool, the aim of the paper is to understand the contemporary reality of funerary architecture through the island of San Michele, Venice, and the finalist proposals of Carlos Ferrater, Enric Miralles and David

  2. Shipping Firm to Offer Funeral Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菊妹

    2001-01-01

    Japan’s largest shipping company, Nippon Yusen KK, plans to offer a new funeral ash-scattering service in a bid to (释义见19页文) capitalize on demand fuelled by the high ccst of cemeteries in Japan, a financial daily said Sunday. 日本最大的海运公司Nippon Yusen KK打算提供新的骨灰海葬服务,以求赢利。日本的公墓的价格居高不下,刺激了骨灰海葬的需求。一份金融日报星期日称。

  3. 海运公司承办海葬%Shipping Firm to Offer Funeral ServiceFrom Reuters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菊妹

    2001-01-01

    @@ Japan's largest shipping company, Nippon Yusen KK, plans to offer a newfuneral ash-scattering service in a bid to (释义见 19 页文) capitalize on demandfuelled by the high cost of cemeteries in Japan, a financial daily said Sunday. 日本最大的海运公司Nippon Yusen KK打算提供新的骨灰海葬服务,以求赢利.日本的公墓的价格居高不下,刺激了骨灰海葬的需求.一份金融日报星期日称.

  4. 河南安阳市王裕口南地殷代遗址的发掘%Excavation on the Yin Site at Locus South of Wangyukou in Anyang City, Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所安阳工作队

    2004-01-01

    The archaeological finds unearthed from the Yin site at Locus South of Wangyukou include three ash-pits,two house-foundations and 21 tombs,which yielded nearly one hundred pottery,stone,bronze,bone and shell objects.The site may have been a settlement of Yin people and then became a clan cemetery of theirs.The burial data show that the tomb-owners were freemen.Part of them were better living warriors.The site can be roughly dated to Yinxu Ⅲ and Ⅳ.

  5. Pre-Columbian Population Dynamics and Cultural Development in South Coast Perú as Revealed by Analysis of Ancient DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I report on a study whose principal aim is to understand the development and decline of the southern Peruvian Nasca culture in the upper Río Grande de Nasca drainage, and its cultural and biological affinities to the preceding Paracas culture. Ancient DNA analyses were conducted on over 300 pre-Columbian individuals from various cemeteries in southern Perú, from periods ranging from the Formative Period to the Middle Horizon. Our results show that the Nasca populations are close...

  6. The Archaeology of Late Antique Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dann, Rachael Jane

    This book constitutes a major reassessment of the mortuary remains from the two X-Group royal cemeteries at Qustul and Ballana in Lower Nubia (c. AD 380–500). Since their excavation more than seventy years ago, and the subsequent flooding of the sites following the building of the Aswan High Dam...... and patterns (the ‘aesthetic’ basis of identity). This study explores the relationships between humans, animals, and artefacts. It demonstrates how a less stable society, which based control on aggressive public displays, became a more stable state, as power was mediated by magico-ritual performances, festal...

  7. The Akhisar Great Mosque

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİNKAYA, H. Sibel

    2016-01-01

    In this article the Ground Mosque in Akhisar is introduced in details not presented before. The Mosque is part of the complex. At present the Mosque and cemetery (hazire) are all that remain of this complex.The Grand Mosque was built with the remains of the church built previously in the same area. The mosque has a central planned main hall (harim), a minaret which is north of the main hall, and the place of the last congregation which was built later. The main hall, originally the square are...

  8. NOTICIAS SOBRE VISITACION SIVILA. UN ALMA MILAGROSA EN JUJUY, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Ana Fernández Distel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here will be elaborated everything that is known by “oral tradition”, journalistic news articles and juridical procedures about the biography of the girl called Visitación Sivila. Her life elapsed between the years 1880 and 1907 in the outskirts of the capital of the province of Jujuy, North Argentina. Her death followed by rape and anthropophagy impacted on the popular imagination, transforming her into a miraculous martyr. Above all young students who still today fill with votive offerings the place of her martyrdom and the grave at the town cemetery where she was burned.

  9. Kovos peilių kilmės vidurio Lietuvoje klausimas

    OpenAIRE

    Bertašius, Mindaugas

    2007-01-01

    The battle-knife is quite a familar weapon in Lithuanian archeological material. The functional characterisitcs are more important than th elength of knife for making decisions about the battle-knife. By appreciating the archaeological material from Marvelė cemetery (central Lithuania), we can observe the process of change in the form of the battle-knife during the Late Roman Period. Kovos peilių kilmės lietuviškoje archeologinėje literatūroje buvo aptarinėjamas epizodiškai. Apibūdinant ko...

  10. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and α Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  11. Archaeological Testing of the Lewisville Lake Shoreline, Denton County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    cemetery 103/526 (fmmme sole) (Grayson Co.) 103/527 (Oklahoma) 1911 H. F. Griffin J. M. Jomison $2400. 120/Tract 1 105/215 & wife Laura A. 1913 J. M. Jemison ...cmerX-"fnv A 1. SYR tO V SsC,iriwdcla wth nuifecsalcim ah mae anr F.00 5 ~ r omWI 0 pi&2 Ir~ofi~ 1-3 A104 104 Part Ill, Chapter $ Bacihoe Trench I...196/34 wife, Bertha 1935 Mrs. Ada Mae Waiters A. C. Williams, 92.75 ac 276/52Q [estate of 0. F. Trustee Waiters] 1939 A. C. Williams, Federal Farm

  12. MORTUARY MERGERS AND THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF INTERMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Whitten

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available “Mortuary Mergers and the Internationalization of Interment” is a study ofthe death services industry’s response to a changing market. Throughout the industry and across national borders, independent mortuaries and cemeteries are merging or consolidating. International death services firms are structured much as the automobile, oil, and communications multinationals are. Monopolistic competition is increasingly replaced by national and international oligopoly that may well translate into monopoly in isolated markets and lead to antitrust action and regulation. The study develops the historical roots of the death services industry but concentrates on the revolution underway. The prospects for the industry in the twenty-first century conclude the paper.

  13. Famine, the Black Death, and health in fourteenth-century London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Antoine

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the fourteenth century two catastrophes struck the population of Europe: the Great Famine and the Black Death. The latter has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the biological effects of the Great Famine. A large assemblage of skeletal remains from one of the Black Death burial grounds, the Royal Mint cemetery in London, provides a unique opportunity to investigate these effects by analyzing the teeth of individuals who survived the famine but died during the Black Death.

  14. REST IN PEACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Keiko Nakamura, 73 and a mem- ber of a Japanese war orphans' delegation, kneels down at a cemetery for adoptive Chinese parents in Fangzheng County, northeast China's Heilongjiang Province, on July 13 dudng a visit to China. More than 4,000 Japanese chil- dren were abandoned by their birth parents during the retreat at the end of World War II in 1945. These orphans were taken in and raised by residents in northeast China, which Japan illegally occupied for over a decade. Most of them relocated to Japan after the two neighbors normalized relations in 1972.

  15. Results of the geomagnetic surveys developed at the oppidum of Monte Bernorio (Pomar de Valdivia, Palencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús F. Torres-Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic surveys carried out at the oppidum of Monte Bernorio in the years 2007-2008 have offered important insights into the structure of the settlement, its fortification system and the associated cemeteries. Moreover, the results have improved fieldwork planning, allowing the excavations to be undertaken in a more efficient way and resources to be optimized. This article offers, for the first time, a summary of the results of these surveys, carried out as the result of an international collaboration between scientific teams from Spain and Germany.

  16. 湖北麻城市李家湾春秋楚墓

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凤春; 田桂萍

    2000-01-01

    The Lijiawan cemetery of the Spring and Autumn period lies at Songfu town about 25km southwest of Macheng city proper, Hubei province. It was surveyed and excavated in 1993 by the Hubei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, which resulted in the revelation of 12 tombs of the Spring and Autumn period, all medium- or small-sized rock-cut shafts. The funeral objects are mainly ritual bronzes; pottery and jades occur seldom. Most of the bronzes belong to the types of ding tripod, dui round container, fu rectangular container, fou pot, hu pot, pan basin, yi ewer and ladle. They usually bear coiled serpent and S-shaped patterns.

  17. [The becoming of public medicine in the second half of XVIII-first half of XIX centuries. Report IV. The state-run activities supporting healthy conditions of life, nutrition and occupational activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochik, A M; Zatravkin, S N; Stochik, A A

    2013-01-01

    The present report considers the activities of governmental authorities of European countries in the area of implementation of the concept of medical police. The target was to apply concrete activities concerning support of healthy conditions of life, nutrition and occupational activities of population of particular countries. The article considers the issues of application of sanitary education, sanitation and improvement of cities, liquidation of dumps, cemeteries and cesspits within the city limits, provision of population with sufficient amount of food and establishment of control of food quality, development and application of factory legislation, limitation of quarantine measures, implementation of specific measures of preventing diseases of smallpox and syphilis.

  18. Training Tomorrow’s Strategic Leaders: Preservation and Military Education at Antietam National Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    general – sixty-five year old Edwin Sumner . Sumner’s three divisions became separated by time and complicated terrain as they attacked one at a time... Sumner led Sedgwick’s Division of 5,000 men into the West Woods and deep into Confederate lines before Lee once again shifted his troops, catching Sumner ...In 1864, State Senator Lewis P. Firey introduced a plan in the Maryland Senate to establish a state, or national, cemetery for the men who died in

  19. Transverse--Harris--lines in a skeletal population from the 1711 Danish plague site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiscella, Gabriela N; Bennike, Pia; Lynnerup, Niels

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the occurrence and distribution of transverse lines in skeletal remains from the Copenhagen site, a plague cemetery dated 1711 AD. A relatively low frequency for evidence of line formation was observed in the individuals comprising the total sample and no transverse lines were...... present in the subadult category. This paper addresses the pattern of transverse line occurrence and cohort-specific distribution in a plague sample in light of the multiple factors influencing line formation and resorption and discusses the significance of transverse lines as measures of non...

  20. Aproximación al estudio del vidrio prerromano: los materiales procedentes de la necrópolis ibérica de El Cigarralejo (Mula, Murcia. Composición química de varias cuentas de collar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruano Ruiz, Encarnación

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, all the glass materials found in the excavations of the Iberian cemetery of El Cigarralejo (Mula, Murcia are studied together including those from the published and the unpublished tombs. The small number of glass items in the grave goods found in this Murcian cemetery let us consider them as prestigious adornments, sometimes with prophylactic purposes. As an hypothesis, we can consider that there was a glass workshop near the studied area. The chemical composition of some necklace beads is presented.

    El texto agrupa por primera vez todos los materiales de vidrio procedentes de las excavaciones de la necrópolis ibérica de El Cigarralejo (Mula, Murcia, tanto de las tumbas publicadas, como inéditas. El escaso número de objetos de vidrio en los ajuares de la necrópolis murciana permite considerarlos como adornos de prestigio y en algún caso con fines profilácticos. Sólo como hipótesis debemos considerar la existencia de un taller cercano al área estudiada. Se presenta la composición química de algunas cuentas de collar.

  1. Value and vulnerability assessment of a historic tomb for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkal, Aykut; Ozhan, Hakki O

    2014-01-01

    Monumental tombs reflect various social, cultural, architectural, religious, economic, and engineering features of a community. However, environmental weathering, natural disasters, poor maintenance, vandalism, and misuse unfortunately pose serious threats to these cultural assets. Historic monuments are often exposed to the highest risk due to their vulnerability. The Ottoman-style Nişancı Hamza Paşa tomb located in Karacaahmet Cemetery, Istanbul, the largest and oldest public cemetery in Turkey, is a case in point. The tomb consisting of six granite columns and a brick dome supported by six arches was constructed in 1605. Cracks, material loss, and decay as a result of adverse environmental effects and past earthquakes are evident. Therefore, this paper analyses the overall value of the tomb with respect to its historical, communal, evidential, and aesthetic aspects. Using the finite element approach and data on the tomb's material properties, a structural analysis under the self-weight and a time history analysis based on the earthquake ground motion data recorded in Duzce, Turkey, in November 1999 were conducted to encourage the conservation of this tomb and similar cultural heritage assets all over the world. The damage observed in the structure is congruent with the analysis results.

  2. Memorialisation in Norrtälje, Mariehamn and Pargas: 1881-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Band

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The data, the result of an archaeological survey of more than 300 memorials dating from 1881 – 1939 in cemeteries in Norrtälje, Sweden; Mariehamn, Åland and Pargas, Finland, was collected for an MA dissertation: ‘The Åland Islands Question’ – A New Perspective? A comparative study of three burial grounds on Åland, in Finland and in Sweden. The dissertation explored the potential for carrying out archaeological studies of memorialisation in a Nordic context, concentrating on the twin themes of identity and nationalism with particular reference to the League of Nations 1921 Agreement on the Autonomy of Åland. The dataset, deposited with the Swedish National Data Service, comprises a database with the details of each memorial, a photograph of each memorial and of the cemeteries, and a note on methodology. Reuse potential includes the incorporation of the data into wider studies of memorialisation, utilisation for gender studies, studies of nationalism, design history and genealogy.

  3. Infectious disease among enslaved African Americans at Eaton's Estate, Warren County, North Carolina, ca. 1830-1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Patricia M

    2006-12-05

    The skeletal remains of 17 people buried in the Eaton Ferry Cemetery in northern North Carolina provide a means of examining health and infectious disease experience in the XIX century South. The cemetery appears to contain the remains of African Americans enslaved on the Eaton family estate from approximately 1830-1850, and thus offers a window into the biological impacts of North American slavery in the years preceding the Civil War. The sample includes the remains of six infants, one child, and one young and nine mature adults (five men, four women, and one unknown). Skeletal indices used to characterize health and disease in the Eaton Ferry sample include dental caries, antemortem tooth loss, enamel hypoplasia, porotic hyperostosis, periosteal lesions, lytic lesions, and stature. These indicators reveal a cumulative picture of compromised health, including high rates of dental disease, childhood growth disruption, and infectious disease. Specific diseases identified in the sample include tuberculosis and congenital syphilis. Findings support previous research on the health impacts of slavery, which has shown that infants and children were the most negatively impacted segment of the enslaved African American population.

  4. Infectious disease among enslaved African Americans at Eaton's Estate, Warren County, North Carolina, ca. 1830-1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M Lambert

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal remains of 17 people buried in the Eaton Ferry Cemetery in northern North Carolina provide a means of examining health and infectious disease experience in the XIX century South. The cemetery appears to contain the remains of African Americans enslaved on the Eaton family estate from approximately 1830-1850, and thus offers a window into the biological impacts of North American slavery in the years preceding the Civil War. The sample includes the remains of six infants, one child, and one young and nine mature adults (five men, four women, and one unknown. Skeletal indices used to characterize health and disease in the Eaton Ferry sample include dental caries, antemortem tooth loss, enamel hypoplasia, porotic hyperostosis, periosteal lesions, lytic lesions, and stature. These indicators reveal a cumulative picture of compromised health, including high rates of dental disease, childhood growth disruption, and infectious disease. Specific diseases identified in the sample include tuberculosis and congenital syphilis. Findings support previous research on the health impacts of slavery, which has shown that infants and children were the most negatively impacted segment of the enslaved African American population.

  5. Diet and mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria: a study of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakenbeck, Susanne; McManus, Ellen; Geisler, Hans; Grupe, Gisela; O'Connell, Tamsin

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates patterns of mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria through a combined study of diet and associated burial practice. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were analyzed in human bone samples from the Late Roman cemetery of Klettham and from the Early Medieval cemeteries of Altenerding and Straubing-Bajuwarenstrasse. For dietary comparison, samples of faunal bone from one Late Roman and three Early Medieval settlement sites were also analyzed. The results indicate that the average diet was in keeping with a landlocked environment and fairly limited availability of freshwater or marine resources. The diet appears not to have changed significantly from the Late Roman to the Early Medieval period. However, in the population of Altenerding, there were significant differences in the diet of men and women, supporting a hypothesis of greater mobility among women. Furthermore, the isotopic evidence from dietary outliers is supported by "foreign" grave goods and practices, such as artificial skull modification. These results reveal the potential of carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis for questions regarding migration and mobility.

  6. CONTEMPORARY FUNERAL AND MEMORIAL RITUALS OF CHINESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Belaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the field material of author of 2015 a modern funeral-mention ceremony of the Chinese is examined in city Harbin, where questioning of respondents, workers of cemetery and columbarium was conducted. 21 peoples (8 women and 13 men were polled. Except questioning of informants was conducted by a photo fixing of registration of columbarium, cemeteries and graves. In China always spared the special attention to the ceremony of funerals of relatives. In work of Confucius “Lun Yu” is such phrase: “Carefully execute the ceremony of funerals of parents, execute all necessary actions to the end and virtue of people will increase”. That is the emphasis that a funeral of parents has to take place in full accordance with ritual is placed. During time a ceremony was passed from a generation in a generation, and although he was placed simplified and mutated, however basic rules remained unchanging. Funeralmention traditions have the developed structure and differ in stability of customs and ceremonies, binding overs in the use of ritual belonging, by vitality of ideas (at times very archaic about death and duties living before memory about gone from life. Behaving to the number of strong ethnic traditions, a funeral-mention rite occupies an important place in the system of traditional connections.

  7. Evidence for Patterns of Selective Urban Migration in the Greater Indus Valley (2600-1900 BC: A Lead and Strontium Isotope Mortuary Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Valentine

    Full Text Available Just as modern nation-states struggle to manage the cultural and economic impacts of migration, ancient civilizations dealt with similar external pressures and set policies to regulate people's movements. In one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Civilization, mechanisms linking city populations to hinterland groups remain enigmatic in the absence of written documents. However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC cemetery burials at Harappa (Pakistan and Farmana (India provide individual biogeochemical life histories of migration. Strontium and lead isotope ratios allow us to reinterpret the Indus tradition of cemetery inhumation as part of a specific and highly regulated institution of migration. Intra-individual isotopic shifts are consistent with immigration from resource-rich hinterlands during childhood. Furthermore, mortuary populations formed over hundreds of years and composed almost entirely of first-generation immigrants suggest that inhumation was the final step in a process linking certain urban Indus communities to diverse hinterland groups. Additional multi disciplinary analyses are warranted to confirm inferred patterns of Indus mobility, but the available isotopic data suggest that efforts to classify and regulate human movement in the ancient Indus region likely helped structure socioeconomic integration across an ethnically diverse landscape.

  8. Perfiles anhelados. Correspondencia de lenguajes y estéticas entre el Cementerio San Pedro y la red social Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Lamilla Guerrero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze, through ethnographic observation of the Cemetery San Pedro in Medellin (Colombia, the recent trend of tombstones decoration in confluence with the proposal of structure and aesthetics of the social network Facebook. This correlation between the virtual language of Facebook and the ritual language of the tombs, is much more complex than a mere coincidence so we propose a thorough comparative reading of these two universes of representation for the meeting and communication, is needed to provide a better understanding of the two phenomena. Both are plethoric spaces that reveal the relentless pursuit of the subject to perpetuate their presence, to tell about their lives and deaths, to eternalize their expressions of affection, love and devotion, and to continue their social relationships despite physical or virtual distance, as scenarios with common origins and intentions, where appearing is more important than being. Currently, the “walls” of both the Cemetery and Facebook, serve as communicational sceneries that share publicly and shamelessly intimate details; where family relationships are announced; idyllic havens are displayed as photographic backgrounds; messages are left and profiles with the strong necessity to achieve the long-awaited update transcendence.

  9. Uwagi o polszczyźnie inskrypcji nagrobnych na Grodzieńszczyźnie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Konczewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Notes about the Polish language gravestone inscriptions in Grodno region The article presents the analysis of features of the Polish language displayed in gravestone inscriptions of the chosen Catholic cemeteries of Grodno region – Kvasovka, Indura, Vereyki, Replya, Lunno, Volpa, Ros. The author briefly describes the districts where research was conducted, gives a general characteristics of the cemeteries and analyses the Polish language inscriptions in gravestones, noting regional linguistic features.   Uwagi o polszczyźnie inskrypcji nagrobnych na Grodzieńszczyźnie Artykuł jest próbą analizy specyfiki regionalnej polszczyzny, zawartej w inskrypcjach nagrobnych z wybranych cmentarzy katolickich na Grodzieńszczyźnie: Kwasówka, Indura, Wierejki, Repla, Łunna, Wołpa, Roś. Autorka przedstawia skrótową informację o miejscowościach, w których odbywały się badania, daje ogólną charakterystykę cmentarzy, a także analizuje polszczyznę inskrypcji nagrobnych, zwracając uwagę na jej cechy regionalne.

  10. Evidence for Patterns of Selective Urban Migration in the Greater Indus Valley (2600-1900 BC): A Lead and Strontium Isotope Mortuary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Benjamin; Kamenov, George D.; Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Shinde, Vasant; Mushrif-Tripathy, Veena; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Krigbaum, John

    2015-01-01

    Just as modern nation-states struggle to manage the cultural and economic impacts of migration, ancient civilizations dealt with similar external pressures and set policies to regulate people’s movements. In one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Civilization, mechanisms linking city populations to hinterland groups remain enigmatic in the absence of written documents. However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) cemetery burials at Harappa (Pakistan) and Farmana (India) provide individual biogeochemical life histories of migration. Strontium and lead isotope ratios allow us to reinterpret the Indus tradition of cemetery inhumation as part of a specific and highly regulated institution of migration. Intra-individual isotopic shifts are consistent with immigration from resource-rich hinterlands during childhood. Furthermore, mortuary populations formed over hundreds of years and composed almost entirely of first-generation immigrants suggest that inhumation was the final step in a process linking certain urban Indus communities to diverse hinterland groups. Additional multi disciplinary analyses are warranted to confirm inferred patterns of Indus mobility, but the available isotopic data suggest that efforts to classify and regulate human movement in the ancient Indus region likely helped structure socioeconomic integration across an ethnically diverse landscape. PMID:25923705

  11. Paleopathology of the commoners at Tell Amarna, Egypt, Akhenaten's capital city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome C Rose

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten initiated worship of a single god and established a new capital city (Tell Amarna that was built and occupied only once from 1350-1330 BCE. This single short occupation offers a unique opportunity to study a short time period. The royal tombs have long been known and studied, but the location of graves for the common inhabitants has been an archaeological puzzle for more than 50 years. Recently four cemeteries have been located and the analysis of commingled bones from the South Tombs cemetery is presented here. The remains yield the following demographic profile: 53 adults with 19 females and 18 males; 14 juveniles between the ages of 5 and 17; and 3 infants. Arthritis and degenerative joint disease of the spine and joints indicates that DJD was not excessive. Only 2 to 8% of the adult population exhibits arthritis. There are 3 healed fractures of the arm (2 to 8% of the adult sample. There is 1 healed compressed fracture of the skull suggesting violence. The adult infection rate is between 2 and 8% with 3 healed and 1 active case of periostitis and no severe infections. Anemia is implicated by 23% of adult frontals exhibiting cribra orbitalia. Life for the common residents of Amarna appears to not have been as good as initially postulated.

  12. Nuevo cementerio municipal de Castellnou de Bages (Barcelona, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Moreno-Navarro, Antoni

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The thousand-year-old town of Castellnou de Bages, the centre of a municipality with 500 inhabitants living scattered about in farmhouses and housing developments, is virtually deserted. The town council wants to revitalise it by promoting its historical importance and its public spaces. There modelling of the old cemetery ,next to the square, is part of this strategy. The decision was taken to establish a new cemetery using the neighbouring ruins of the old rectory, a building that dates back to the 10th century, which was set on fire in 1936 and has remain ed abandoned ever since. This approach has meant that the remains of the rectory have been safeguarded and their sentimental value, as well as their importance as evidence of history, have been transferred to the new site.El milenario pueblo de Castellnou de Bages, cabeza de un municipio de 500 habitantes diseminados en casas de labor o nuevas urbanizaciones, está casi deshabitado. El Ayuntamiento quiere revitalizarlo potenciando sus valores históricos y sus espacios públicos. La remodelación del viejo cementerio, contiguo a la plaza, forma parte de esta estrategia. Se decidió construir un nuevo camposanto aprovechando las vecinas ruinas de la vieja rectoría (un edificio cuyo origen se remonta al siglo X, incendiadas en 1936 y abandonadas desde entonces. De esta manera se salvaron los restos, y sus valores documentales y sentimentales han sido transferidos al nuevo equipamiento.

  13. GIS Visualisations of Mortuary Data from Holešov, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Šmejda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case-study demonstrating the potential of GIS visualisations for analyses of mortuary data, recorded half a century ago at the site of Holešov, Kroměříž district, in the Czech Republic. This cemetery consists of 10 Bell Beaker and 420 Early Bronze Age graves, giving the impression of continuous development over a considerable period of time. The temporality of the cemetery is examined in detail, via its chronological development, as well as the inseparable aspects of its social use and structuring through time. The original data were converted from the printed catalogue into a Geographical Information System (GIS consisting of digitised plans and a database. Exploratory analyses of the data were conducted, based on two complementary perspectives: the spatial reference of recorded features and objects, and the formal similarity of burial assemblages. The former approach includes spatial density and trend surface analyses, the latter applies multivariate factor analysis visualised in GIS, where the extracted factor scores define a new reference system. The methods employed are sometimes unorthodox, specifically because such plots describing formal space have been little employed in GIS-based studies of mortuary behaviour. This article strives to highlight the positive aspects of contemporary computer software in order to encourage researchers to pursue new ways of conceptualising their research ideas through the integration of concepts and methods, which traditionally have been applied to different research domains.

  14. El cementerio judío medieval de ‘la Encarnación’ en Ávila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera González, Blas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Avila’s medieval community Jews is made evident by the existence of a cemetery. Although burial places of the other two religious communities, Christians and Muslims, have been documented, that of the Jews, while cited in medieval and early modern documents, had not been identified heretofore. Archeological excavations near the Encarnación convent recently brought to light the exact location of one Jewish cemetery, providing evidence of burial pits and their structural typology.La importancia de la aljama de judíos de Ávila durante la Edad Media hacía indudable la existencia, al menos, de un espacio funerario donde enterrar a sus muertos, de acuerdo con su particular ritual funerario. Conocidos, en parte, los lugares de enterramiento de las otras dos comunidades religiosas con las que convivieron, cristianos y musulmanes, tan solo la documentación histórica nos proporcionaba datos sobre su posible emplazamiento. Los trabajos arqueológicos junto al Convento de la Encarnación, han sacado a la luz la situación exacta de un cementerio judío, aportando las fosas de inhumación una característica tipología constructiva.

  15. Stable isotope and trace element studies on gladiators and contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD--mplications for differences in diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lösch

    Full Text Available The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts.

  16. The effect of shade on the container index and pupal productivity of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens breeding in artificial containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, D; Albicócco, A P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether certain attributes of larval breeding sites are correlated with pupal productivity (i.e. numbers of pupae collected per sampling period), so that these could be used as the focus for control measures to enhance control efficiency. Therefore, the objectives were to identify the months of highest pupal productivity of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in an urban temperate cemetery in Argentina where artificial containers of containers and to determine whether the composition of the containers affected pupal productivity. Over a period of 9 months, 200 randomly chosen water-filled containers (100 sunlit and 100 shaded), out of approximately 3738 containers present (approximately 54% in shade), were examined each month within a cemetery (5 ha) in Buenos Aires (October 2006 to June 2007). In total, 3440 immatures of Cx pipiens and 1974 of Ae. aegypti were collected. The larvae : pupae ratio was 10 times greater for the former, indicating that larval mortality was greater for Cx pipiens. Both mosquito species showed a higher container index (CI) in shaded than in sunlit containers (Ae. aegypti: 12.8% vs. 6.9% [chi(2) = 17.6, P container and the number of pupae per pupa-positive container did not differ significantly between sunlit and shaded containers for either species. Therefore, the overall relative productivity of pupae per ha of Ae. aegypti and Cx pipiens was 2.3 and 1.8 times greater, respectively, in shaded than in sunlit areas as a result of the greater CIs of containers in shaded areas. Neither the CI nor the number of immatures per infested container differed significantly among container types of different materials in either lighting condition. The maximum CI and total pupal counts occurred in March for Ae. aegypti and in January and February for Cx pipiens. The estimated peak abundance of pupae in the whole cemetery reached a total of approximately 4388 in the middle of March for Ae

  17. The Physics Department of the Moscow University; Historical-Biographycal Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshin, L. V.

    The handbook by one of the professors of the Physics Department of the Moscow University gives allmost a comprehensive information about the Physics Department in a histoprical retrospective, beggining with very early times of the development of the Physics research at the Lomonosov University. The book includes a list of rectors of the Moscow University- physicists, a least of Deans and departments Chiefs, a list of Honors, Prizes, Awards and Decorations received by professors and researchers from the Physics Deprtment, a list of doctoral works defenced at the Scientific Councils of the Physics Department of the University, a list of researchers from the Department which take part from Scientific societies former Soviet, Russian or foreign, a list of funeral monuments at the cemeteries in Moscow, where physicsists from the Moscow University are burried. A very complete index of names can be found at the finish of the book.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL STATUS AND ETHNICITY ON DIET IN MEDIAEVAL TALLINN AS SEEN THROUGH STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Lightfoot, Emma; Russow, Erki;

    2016-01-01

    Food encodes social and cultural values and has an important role to play in defining identities. In mixed populations, diet can be used to distinguish between ‘us’ and ‘them’. This study investigates the extent to which the inhabitants of mediaeval Tallinn, an important trading centre, used food...... to maintain distinct identities. Human skeletal material was selected from four mediaeval cemeteries in Tallinn, chosen to represent different groups within Tallinn’s society, likely including foreign merchants, foreign monks, urban Estonians and low-status Estonians, and from a nearby rural site, Kaberla....... These individuals were also identified as migrants and were likely either monks or foreign merchants. The results suggest that in some cases the people of Tallinn did use food as a means of maintaining social statuses and potentially ethnicities. Only one individual (LTL06) was identified as having had...

  19. Excavation of Tombs at Locus Ⅱ of the Chaiwopu Forestry Center of Urumqi City%乌鲁木齐市柴窝堡林场Ⅱ号地点墓葬的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    新疆文物考古研究所; 乌鲁木齐文物保护管理所

    2003-01-01

    Ten tombs at this locus 50 km southeast of Urumqi City were excavated in 1994 by the Xinjiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and other institutions. They are arranged in order and each consists of a surface mound, an oval underground shaft, and an object pit in some cases. Most of the skeletons are buried singly, and collective burials occur occasionally. The principal burial manner is the extended supine position, and secondary burials are seen sometimes. Among the grave goods plain pottery comes first in amount, and painted ware next. In type there are the single-eared jar, bo bowl, basin, pot, etc. The painted motifs include serrated, peculiar triangular, whorl-like and net patterns. The unearthed bronzes are mainly arrowheads; some tombs yielded irons. Sheep's tail-bones were discovered in most graves. According to ~(14)C dates and comparison with tombs of adjacent areas, this cemetery can be assigned to the time corresponding to the Warring States period.

  20. Jean-Yves Hemery

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The family, friends and colleagues of Jean-Yves HEMERY are sad to announce his accidental death on 24 September, at the age of 63, in Priziac. A funeral service has already taken place in his native region of Brittany and a commemoration will be held at the Mairie de Cessy, on Tuesday 12 October at 1.30 p.m., prior to the burial at the cemetery. Jean-Yves joined CERN in 1973 and worked first at the ISR for ten years and then on the beam instrumentation at LEP. The last twelve years of his career were his most fulfilling as he did great work on the beam design for the LEAR facility at the PS. Since retiring in 2007 his main occupation had been the renovation of his small house in Brittany. His Family and friends

  1. Driven out by Hitler, a dental historian enriches America: the story of Curt Proskauer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Malvin E

    2007-01-01

    I n 1956, workers in Rome, Italy, digging for the foundation of a building, uncovered an extensively decorated catacomb. The Vatican declared it to be a hitherto unknown Christian cemetery, dating from around the year 300. The discoverers were amazed at the fresco paintings, most of them biblical scenes. But one particular fresco was destined to set the world of medical history on its ear! The scene was interpreted as a surgeon performing an operation, and it was duly reported as such by the New York Times. It took a renowned dental historian, Dr. Curt Proskauer, using logical deduction, to disprove that conclusion. The result was to push back our knowledge of certain medical procedures by a thousand years!

  2. Initiating the Pathway to Increase the Region's Income by Developing Tourism Village of Panglipuran Bali

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    M. Bashori Imron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The head of regencies and cities needs to develop their imagination and inspiration in order to present the goal of region development and deliver the positive economic growth for the public. Initiating the tourism village program for the potential area may serve as a creative alternative. The aim of this research is to develop the idea of tourism village to improve the income of the region. In depth participation in the community and intensive interview with the tourism stakeholders have been chosen as the method of this study. The result of the research shows that the tourism village of Penglipuran has seven potentials as the main attractions as represented by the traditional architecture, artistic spatial arrangement, the bamboo forest, heroes cemetery, the beauty of Pura Panataran, remarkable village landscape, and Karang Memadu. The participation of local government may contribute the positive impact for the economic growth and improve the income of local community.

  3. Avance al estudio radiológico del armamento de la necrópolis ibérica del Cabecico del Tesoro (Verdolay, Murcia. I. - Las Falcatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Cano, José Miguel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    We present a new study of the falcata swords decorated with silver inlay from the Iberian Iron Age cemetery at Cabecico del Tesoro (Murcia. Already known pieces are re-studied, while we also present new examples of previously unknown decorations, hidden under the corrosion layers but visible under radiographic examination.



    Se presenta un nuevo estudio de las falcatas decoradas con damasquinados en plata de la necrópolis ibérica del Cabecico del Tesoro (Murcia, Se reestudian piezas conocidas y se presentan nuevos casos de decoraciones previamente ocultas bajo la corrosión pero visibles en un examen radiológico efectuado sobre las piezas.

  4. ATTEMPT TO ANALYSE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EARLY MEDIEVAL FEMALE SILVER JEWELLERY FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN AND SOUTHEASTERN AREA OF POLAND

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    Dagmara Krol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to analyze female silver jewellery produces and used during Early Middle Ages in regions of southeastern and southwestern Poland. Those regions correspond to the area of nowadays Poland, respectively southwestern voivodeships: Dolnoslaskie, Slaskie, Opolskie, Malopolskie and southeastern voivodeships: Podkarpackie and Lubuskie.The presented work deals with similarities and differences in quality and types of jewellery from those regions. The analysis focuses on silver items found in settlements, cemeteries and hoards. The recovered female jewellery highlights the divergence between east, under influence of culture from Byzantine Empire, and west.Thanks to described archeological relics, the southern region of present Poland can be easily divided into two distinguishable parts representing different cultures.

  5. Tombs of the Warring States Period at Jingouzhai in Yantai City, Shandong%山东烟台市金沟寨战国墓葬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    烟台市博物馆

    2003-01-01

    In 1979, the Yantai Municipal Museum excavated 14 tombs at Jingouzhai in the eastern suburb of the city, which are all rectangular earth-pit graves with funeral object pits in most cases. The corpses are prineipally buried singly in a coffin with or without wooden chamber, in an extended supine position. The grave goods are mainly pottery, mostly practical articles. A few large-sized tombs yielded sets of ritual vessels in imitation of bronzes, as well as bronzes, chiefly weapons, and talcum artifacts. Most of the objects are placed in the coffin, on one side of the human skeleton, while pottery and talcum ornaments, such as huang semi-discs, beads and tubes, are put between the coffin and the chamber. Judging from the shape of tombs and the combination of funeral objects and taking related tombs of other areas into comparison, the cemetery under discussion can be dated to the earlier Warring States period.

  6. 西藏札达县皮央·东嘎遗址古墓群试掘简报%Trial Excavation of Ancient Tombs on the Piyang-Donggar Site in Zanda County,Tiet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    四川大学中国藏学研究所; 四川大学考古学系; 西藏自治区文物局

    2001-01-01

    The Piyang-Donggar site ties at Donggar township of Zanda county in Ngari prefecture, Tibetan Autonomous Region, and consists of the Piyang sites at Piyang village and the Donggarsites at Donggar village. The whole site comprises Buddhist grottoes, temp[es and pagodas, and tombs.The tombs in Area V of the Donggar sites and the Sasongtang and GeIintang cemeteries on the Piyangsite, al] discovered through the surveys here reported, form a group in the shape of the character “品”. inan area of about 200 sq m, excavation revea[ed 26 tombs, one horse hurial pit and an array of standingatones. Among the unearthed objects are pottery, bronzes, irons, stone artifacts and bamboo ware. Theygo back to the time corresponding to the Qin-Han period in the Central Plains.

  7. Excavation of Eastern Jin Tombs at Shizigang in Nanjing City%南京市石子岗东晋墓的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南京市博物馆

    2005-01-01

    Two brick-chambered tombs were excavated at Shizigang south of Nanjing City proper in April 1994. They are close in location, identical in direction and similar in size and shape, either having a dome-covered chamber with a short corridor and a 凸 -shaped plan. So they must belong to the same family cemetery. The unearthed pottery, porcelain, bronze, iron and talcum objects number more than 40 pieces, of which the most valuable is a bronze seal with the six sides bearing legends. Judging from the tomb shape and grave goods, the tombs should be dated to the early Eastern Jin period, and the tomb-owner of M1 is Sun Shi, or Sun Gongyuan by another name. The excavation provided material data of great significance to studying the Eastern Jin tomb shape and burial custom in the Nanjing area, as well as the casting technology and using institution of the then seals with legends on the six sides.

  8. Requirements for cremation architecture in contemporary secularized society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Frolíková Palánová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Burials of the deceased were always part of life of each society and that remain forever. In Middle European culture based mostly on Christian tradition, it was common place, till the end of 19th Century, for burials in a grave. On the beginning of 20s Century gradually began to apply also cremation. Its supporters pointed on its hygienic superiority compared to classical disposal with deceased. This led to established and gradual development of a new building type – the crematorium. Supporters also promote high quality farewell ceremonies and this resulted in quality burial and cemetery culture during whole 20s Century. The aim is to approach this new building type to the professional public and specify organization and typology for promote high ethic, ceremony, aesthetic and respect.

  9. Tombs of the Zhou period in Madong Village,Hezhou City,Guangxi%广西贺州市马东村周代墓葬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺州市博物馆

    2001-01-01

    There is an ancient cemetery at Madong village, Shatian town, Hezhou city lying to the south of the Five Ridges on the boundary between Chu and Yue. In 1996, two of the tombs were excavated by the Hezhou Municipal Museum. Both are earth shafts, Tomb M1 being small-sized while M2 having a L-shaped plan. They were found to be damaged seriously: only the tomb bottom remains in both cases. The funeral objects are all bronzes, which belong to the lei pot, ding tripod, yongzhong handled bell, spear, short sword, yue battle axe. adze, arrowhead, etc. Showing no distinct local features, they suggest that local bronzes were cast in imitation of those of the Shang and Zhou cultures in the Central Plains and represented the early bronze culture in the area south of the Five Ridges. The two tombs go back roughly to the turn from the late Western Zhou to the early Spring and Autumn period.

  10. Excavation on the Hulinshan Site of the Shang Period in Zhangzhou City,Fujian%福建漳州市虎林山商代遗址发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    福建博物院; 漳州市文管办; 漳州市博物馆

    2003-01-01

    The Hulinshan site belongs to the Shang period and lies in southern Fujian.20 earth-en-pit tombs were excavated on the site,and waist-pits were discovered in some burials.Large numbers of objects were unearthed from the cemetery.They include mainly stone implements,and also bronzes,jades and pottery.The excavation enriched our knowledge of the contents of the Fubin culture in southern Fujian and eastern Guangdong,especially the discovery of bronzes suggesting that the culture belongs to the Bronze Age.Meanwhile,it provided important reference material for studying the same type of remains in southern Fujian and advancing Shang-Zhou archaeology in the coastal areas of southeastern China.

  11. PAISAJES DE LA MODERNIDAD EN LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES: LA OBRA DEL ARQUITECTO FRANCISCO SALAMONE (1936-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Cruz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work seeks to understand the architecture as a part of the materiality of a social landscape and as an active element, produced by a society where he belongs. From this idea I make some considerations about the potential of the studies of the archaeology of architecture as a form of understand different problematics. I propose to illustrate this idea by studying the process of consolidation of the industrial capitalism in the Buenos Aires Province (Argentina during the 1930 decade through the changes that occurred in the urban landscape of that region. In order to accomplish that, the constructions and buildings designed by the architect Francisco Salamone were studied. They were part of an edification plan developed by the provincial government during the years 1936 to 1940. In this particular work, I consider the city of Azul, localized in the South of the Buenos Aires province where two buildings made by that architect, the cemetery and the slaughterhouse, are present.

  12. Vultures and others scavenger vertebrates associated with man-sized pig carcasses: a perspective in Forensic Taphonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Demo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The activity of vertebrates that feed on corpses can modify the chronology of the decomposition process and interfere with postmortem interval estimates. Further, by destroying the soft parts of the cadaver, scattering, burying or causing the disappearance of bones, it can entirely change the crime scene. In this study, we simulated a clandestine cemetery in an area of Cerrado located inside a farm in Brasília, Distrito Federal. Three domestic pigs of the size of a human of about 60 kg were placed on the ground in different periods of 2010 and 2011. We recorded four species of birds and one of mammal eating the carcasses: 1 Cathartidae: Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1973, Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758, Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758; 2 Falconidae: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777; and 3 Felidae: Leopardus pardalis (Lund, 1840. The behavior of these animals interfered in the decomposition process and resulted in the dispersion and loss of bony parts.

  13. {sup 14}C age determination for human bones during the Yayoi period - the calibration ambiguity around 2400 BP and the marine reservoir effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, S. E-mail: cs200027@scs.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Miyamoto, K.; Nakamura, T.; Koike, H

    2004-08-01

    {sup 14}C ages for Japanese prehistoric samples from the Latest Jomon period to the early Yayoi period have a calibration ambiguity for dates around 2400 BP. It is also necessary to correct for the marine reservoir effect on {sup 14}C ages of human bone samples from people who consumed marine food as a protein source. The Ohtomo site in western Japan, is a cemetery site used from the end of the Latest Jomon period to the Kofun period, provide a useful archaeological chronology. Human bones found in dolmen burials, jar burials and cist burials. In this study, we determined the {sup 14}C ages of human bone samples and calculated the marine reservoir effect, using diet analysis based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Diet analysis showed that these people obtained from 40% to 60% of their protein from marine sources. Their {sup 14}C ages with calibration and marine reservoir correction were serially matched with the archaeological chronology.

  14. Mitochondrial haplogroup C in ancient mitochondrial DNA from Ukraine extends the presence of East Eurasian genetic lineages in Neolithic Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Alexey G; Newton, Jeremy R; Potekhina, Inna D

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have revealed the presence of East Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups in the Central European Neolithic. Here we report the finding of East Eurasian lineages in ancient mtDNA from two Neolithic cemeteries of the North Pontic Region (NPR) in Ukraine. In our study, comprehensive haplotyping information was obtained for 7 out of 18 specimens. Although the majority of identified mtDNA haplogroups belonged to the traditional West Eurasian lineages of H and U, three specimens were determined to belong to the lineages of mtDNA haplogroup C. This find extends the presence of East Eurasian lineages in Neolithic Europe from the Carpathian Mountains to the northern shores of the Black Sea and provides the first genetic account of Neolithic mtDNA lineages from the NPR.

  15. Un casco de tipo Montefortino localizado en la partida de La Carrova (Amposta, Montsià, Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García i Rubert, David

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this note is to present three bronze fragments from a new Montefortino helmet. From its localisation context and decorative characteristics, we maintain a relation between this helmet and others found in the southeastern Iberian cemeteries, placing this helmet far from the catalonian examples.

    Pretendemos con esta breve nota dar a conocer la existencia de tres fragmentos de bronce pertenecientes a un nuevo ejemplar de casco Montefortino. El contexto de su localización y sus características decorativas lo acercan a los individuos recuperados en las necrópolis del sudeste peninsular, distanciándolo un tanto de los ejemplares catalanes conocidos hasta el momento.

  16. The Bahrain Burial Mound Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2007-01-01

    the majority of burial mounds have been removed to make way for roads and housing, and in this process about 8000 mounds have been excavated; of these only c. 265 have been published. In 2006 the Bahrain Directorate for Culture & National Heritage and Moesgaard Museum decided on a collaborative project...... focussed on the Bahrain burial mounds. Within the framework of the Burial Mound Project aerial photos from 1959 have been orto-rectified and geo-referenced and so far a GIS-based digital map representing more than 60.000 mounds have been completed. With respect to the thousands of excavated mounds the huge...... process of linking relevant information to the mounds have been initiated in the course of which excavation data of individual monument is being fed into a relational database. Our preliminary study of the digital maps of the mound cemeteries has revealed an abundance of interesting patterns...

  17. Raw Materials, Production and Distribution of Xuejiagang Stone Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Lina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Xuejiagang culture is associated with the latter part of the Neolithic period in southern China. Since the 1970s, we have found many cemeteries associated with this culture, in which stone implements make up an important and significant part of the funerary objects. The perforated stone knife, the yue axe and the adze were especially important. Analysis of the frequency and relationships between raw material, technology and tool types provides a basis for distinguishing between the different production sites associated with the Xuejiagang stone industry. This article discusses the relationship between rock types and stone tools, and between stone artefacts from different production sites. Thin-section analysis was used to identify and characterise stone used for implement manufacture.

  18. Tombs of the Yelang Period at Kele in Hezhang,Guizhou%贵州赫章可乐夜郎时期墓葬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贵州省文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    In September—October 2000, archaeologists excavated tombs of the Warring States period to Western Han times at Kele Village of Kele Town in Hezhang County, Guizhou. The graves number 112, mostly belonging to natives of the Yelang period. They represent various peculiar burial customs, of which the most important is head-covered burial occurring in five tombs. The unearthed funeral objects, above 500 in total, include weapons, ornaments, household ware and seals, all varying in material. Among them the large-sized bronzes, weapons, ornaments and pottery from the head-covered burials show the strongest local features. The discovery of the cemetery much enriched our knowledge of the Yelang culture and marks a great advance in Yelang archaeology in recent years.

  19. Early Lapita skeletons from Vanuatu show Polynesian craniofacial shape: Implications for Remote Oceanic settlement and Lapita origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Frédérique; Détroit, Florent; Spriggs, Matthew J T; Bedford, Stuart

    2016-01-12

    With a cultural and linguistic origin in Island Southeast Asia the Lapita expansion is thought to have led ultimately to the Polynesian settlement of the east Polynesian region after a time of mixing/integration in north Melanesia and a nearly 2,000-y pause in West Polynesia. One of the major achievements of recent Lapita research in Vanuatu has been the discovery of the oldest cemetery found so far in the Pacific at Teouma on the south coast of Efate Island, opening up new prospects for the biological definition of the early settlers of the archipelago and of Remote Oceania in general. Using craniometric evidence from the skeletons in conjunction with archaeological data, we discuss here four debated issues: the Lapita-Asian connection, the degree of admixture, the Lapita-Polynesian connection, and the question of secondary population movement into Remote Oceania.

  20. Megafaunal meiolaniid horned turtles survived until early human settlement in Vanuatu, Southwest Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arthur W; Worthy, Trevor H; Hawkins, Stuart; Bedford, Stuart; Spriggs, Matthew

    2010-08-31

    Meiolaniid or horned turtles are members of the extinct Pleistocene megafauna of Australia and the southwest Pacific. The timing and causes of their extinction have remained elusive. Here we report the remains of meiolaniid turtles from cemetery and midden layers dating 3,100/3,000 calibrated years before present to approximately 2,900/2,800 calibrated years before present in the Teouma Lapita archaeological site on Efate in Vanuatu. The remains are mainly leg bones; shell fragments are scant and there are no cranial or caudal elements, attesting to off-site butchering of the turtles. The new taxon differs markedly from other named insular terrestrial horned turtles. It is the only member of the family demonstrated to have survived into the Holocene and the first known to have become extinct after encountering humans.

  1. Dentistry in ancient mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiburger, E J

    2000-01-01

    Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion.

  2. The dentition of Abraham's people. Why Abraham left Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiburger, E J; Cohen, M; Lieberman, J; Lieberman, M

    1998-11-01

    Ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq) in 2000 B.C. was the home of the biblical figure Abraham and his people. An analysis of skeletal material from cemeteries in the ancient cities of Ur (birthplace of Abraham) and Kish shows a homogeneous, short-lived population that suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent of inhabitants), periodontal disease (42 percent) and caries (two percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates the population suffered from extensive disease and nutritional deficiency. Of special note was a possible case of endodontic treatment. The people of Abraham had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. It is probable that Abraham, if in truth he existed, left Mesopotamia because of the threat of famine, as evidenced by biblical record, geologic strata and dental analysis.

  3. A newly assembled human skeletal reference collection of modern and identified Filipinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Matthew C; Lee, Amanda B; Santos, Jana Andrea D; Vesagas, Nicole Marie C; Crozier, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    A collection of 75 modern skeletons from the Philippines has recently been created, and is being housed at the Archaeological Studies Program of the University of the Philippines, Diliman, Philippines. All individuals lived during the 20th century, and almost all died within the 21st century. These individuals were accessioned from exhumed and abandoned tombs at the Manila North Cemetery, and most have documented age and sex from tombstone inscriptions. This paper describes the first season of recovery and the collection's current demographic composition, with the future addition of more individuals to the collection expected to follow. The Philippines has an immediate need for forensic resources given its large vulnerable population, widespread diaspora, and exposure to natural disasters. Having a collection of modern Filipinos available for study is critical to the advancement of forensic anthropology and skeletal biology, especially for this heavily understudied population and region of the world.

  4. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Nathan W. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States)]. E-mail: nbower@coloradocollege.edu; McCants, Sarah A. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Custodio, Joseph M. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Getty, Stephen R. [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Hoffman, J. Michael [Department of Anthropology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 8090-3294 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  5. 广西合浦县禁山七星岭东汉墓葬%Eastern Han Tombs on Qixing Ridge of Jinshan Mount in Hepu County, Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    广西壮族自治区文物工作队

    2004-01-01

    These tombs are situated in the Han-tomb-protecting area within Hepu County,Guangxi. In December of 1996, in concert with a capital construction, the Guangxi Archaeological Team carried out a rescuing excavation in the cemetery and revealed 11 Han tombs. These are brick-chambered graves with a single-layer arched ceiling or a dome and a “中”,“十”-or“干”-shaped or rectangular plan,and consist of a front, a middle and a rear rooms and side ones. The funeral objects unearthed include pottery, bronze, iron and talcum articles. Among them the lotus-flower-shaped pottery vessels are unique in form and might be products of the influence of Buddhist culture from abroad. In date the tombs are of the late Eastern Han period.

  6. Determining Foundry Area of Bronze Vessel Using REE in Clay Mould Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The composition of casting clay core might provide clue to the foundry area of the bronze vessels. REE analysis of the residual clay mould was conducted by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Results reveal that characteristic of REE of clay mould from different region is dissimilar. It is feasible to restrict the possible foundry area of the bronze vessels on the basis of analysis of REE of clay mould residues on the bronzes. Meanwhile, this paper attempts to determine the foundry area of the bronze vessels unearthed at Jiuliandun tombs of Chu State, dated back to Warring States Period, in Zaoyang City, Hubei Province, and at Zuozhong cemetery, Spring and Autumn Period, in Jingmen City, Hubei Province. REE of clay core provides information on the foundry area of bronze vessels.

  7. Review and Consideration of Tibetan Archaeology in the 20th Century%20世纪西藏考古的回顾与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甲央; 霍巍

    2001-01-01

    Tibetan archaeology has always drawn close attention from academic circles both athome and abroad. In the first half of the 20th century, archaeological work in this region was principallydone by Western scholars. They obtained some achievements, such as those in the surveys of Tubo royaltombs, though there appeared shortcomings. Since the 1950s, Chinese scholars have independently car-tied out a series of archaeological surveys and diggings on the Qamdo karub site and in the NaogxianLieshan cemetery. The 1990s was an remarkable decade, when Tibetan archaeology was going ahead byleaps and bounds. The general investigation of ancient monuments across Tibet laid the foundations offuture Tibetan archaeology. The excavation of the prehistoric site at Qugoog village, Lhasa, the explo-ration of the ancient Guge city in Ngari and other archaeological projects carried out in recent years ex-erted significant influence in Chinese and foreign academic circles.

  8. Dr Edward Macgowan (1795-1860), a long-term pioneer physician in mid-nineteenth century Jerusalem: founder and director of the first modern hospital in the Holy Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Efraim; Perry, Yaron

    2008-02-01

    At the age of 46, Dr Edward Macgowan, by now a well-established physician, joined the ranks of the London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews with the aim of establishing the first modern hospital in Palestine. For the first six months of 1842, Macgowan established his work among the Jerusalem population on a regular basis and managed to establish a close relationship with the Jewish community and some of its leaders in Jerusalem. On 12 December 1844, the Jews' Hospital was opened in Jerusalem and became a source of great pride for the missionaries. Edward Macgowan died in Jerusalem after 18 years of service and was buried in the Protestant cemetery in his beloved city.

  9. Una sepultura con armas de baja época ibérica (o época romana republicana en la necrópolis del «Cerro de las Balas» (Écija, Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez Pariente de León, Esther

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Iberian Iron-Age weapons are extremely rare in western Andalusia, due mainly to the absence of the normative cremation cemeteries typical of other areas in the Peninsula, cemeteries where nearly all of the approximately six thousand Iron Age weapons that we know have been documented. In this paper we present one of the very few exceptions to this rule: a ‘warrior’ burial found in the Iron Age cemetery cemetery at ‘Cerro de las Balas’ (or «bullets’ hill», so known after the many sling projectiles found in the neighbourhood. This is an important find due to three facts: the type of weapons (among them a sword of the gladius hispaniensis type and a dagger of a very late Celtiberian or very early Roman type; the date, between the Late Iberian period and Early Roman rule; and the closed assemblage of weapons: sword, dagger and two javelins or short spears. It is quite possible that the burial is to be dated to the beginning of the second century BC, and therefore that the sword found in it is the earliest known example of the Roman gladius hispaniensis sword... or the latest version of the Iberian prototype for it. Finally, we discuss the proximity of this burial to the caesarian battlefield of Munda (45 BC to conclude that in all probability these are two completely independent events, the burial being probably much earlier.

    Las armas de época ibérica son rarísimas en Andalucía Occidental, en buena parte debido a la práctica ausencia de necrópolis, que es donde las armas se han documentado en mayor número durante toda la Edad del Hierro peninsular. Se presenta en este trabajo una de las pocas excepciones a esta regla: una sepultura ‘de guerrero’ hallada en la necrópolis del ‘Cerro de las Balas’ (así llamado por los numerosos proyectiles de honda hallados en las cercanías. Es un hallazgo de importancia por el tipo de armas hallado (entre ellas una espada de hoja recta del tipo del

  10. [Identification of male somatotype based on osteometric characteristics of the upper and lower extremities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Sineva, I M

    2009-01-01

    This osteologic study included examination of 101 skeletons from the collections of the Department of Anthropology, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, and Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Sankt-Peterburg). The results were compared with the data obtained by examining materials excavated from grave sites of an Yoshkar-Ola cemetery and from the Isupovo necropole (Kostroma) to evaluate the possibility of identifying human somatotypes from bone remains. Multidimensional discriminative analysis demonstrated that the equation derived by comparing characteristic signs of all long tubular bones of the extremities was of highest diagnostic value for the purpose of the study. Diagnostic equations are proposed for the identification of individual somatotypes based on the analysis of skeletal remains for the use in practical forensic medical examination.

  11. No Dizer das Vozes Locais Revisitando a Experiência de Montes Claros/MG com Incentivos Fiscais Federais nos Anos de 1960-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Fróes Couto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyze the experience of Montes Claros/MG with the tax incentive policy of Sudene from the 1950, from secondary data and reports of the relevant social actors. It was opted for the use of a descriptive research for the purposes, field research for the methods and the case study as research technique. Were interviewed 40 representatives of relevant local institutions. It was concluded that the spatial redistribution of economic activity from the macropolitics of tax incentives disregarded local levels of interaction between the different agents and created unexpected effects. In the analysis of this case, an unexpected element of federal tax incentives policy was the lack of preparation of the local business community to properly manage federal resources directed to the municipality. This resulted in a series of experiences of failure in the region that gave rise to the “cemetery of industries”.

  12. A possible Roman Period sword from Grzybowo (Grzybowen, Masuria, NE Poland. The archaeological and technological context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Żabiński

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a recent stray find of a sword fragment with a possible stamp from Masuria in NE Poland. It was found close to a Roman Period cemetery of the Bogaczewo Culture. On typological grounds, the sword can be classified as a Roman Period weapon. However, the results of metallographic examinations suggest that the find may have been made either from very clean bloomery steel (or hypoeutectoid crucible steel or from mass-made Industrial Age steel (Bessemer, Thomas, Siemens-Martin, etc.. On the other hand, the chemical composition of the sword would rather imply a pre-Industrial Period steel. In conclusion, it is carefully suggested that the weapon may be a genuine Ancient sword, although its final recognition as a Roman Period weapon could only be verified by finds made from similar metal in undoubted Roman Period contexts.

  13. Sexual dimorphism in the 7th cervical and 12th thoracic vertebrae from a Mediterranean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Anabel; Botella, Miguel C; Alemán, Inmaculada

    2014-03-01

    Sex determination is an important task in physical anthropology and forensic medicine. The study sample comprised 121 individuals of known sex, age, and cause of death from San Jose cemetery in Granada (Spain). Eight dimensions were analyzed, and discriminant function analysis was performed for each vertebra to obtain discriminating functions and study the percentage of correct assignations of these functions. The percentage accuracy was approximately 80% for both vertebrae, but varied according to the sex, being higher for the 7th cervical in males and higher for the 12th thoracic in females. As reported in other populations, the greatest dimorphism values were found for the length of the inferior surface of the vertebral body and the width and length of the vertebral foramen of the 7th cervical vertebra and for the length of the inferior surface of the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra.

  14. Zwischen Wallfahrt und Jahrmarkt. Die Gnadenkapelle am Marienberg bei Lenzen (Kr. Prignitz, Land Brandenburg, Deutschland im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert (Pilgrimage and Country Fair. The Chapel of Mercy at Marienberg near Lenzen in the 15th and 16th Centuries [Prignitz county, Brandenburg region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Goßler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During excavations at the Marienberg near Lenzen which were organized by the German Research Foundation (DFG project "Slavs at the lower Central Elbe river", remains of a medieval chapel were discovered. The chapel was surrounded by a cemetery. In the 15th century the chapel was the aim of pilgrimage from the vicinity, the whole complex was related to a chapel of Holy Mary. Together with the pilgrimage, there was a fair held every year after Pentecost. The findings from the Marienberg at Lenzen include many traces of the late medieval and early modern pilgrimage and the contemporaneous fair; the finds are well suited to connect the history of pilgrimage with its mainly written sources to aspects of material culture.

  15. He Came with the Fragrance of Rice from Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>From June 20 to 27,Song Jian,President of the China-Japan Friendship Association(CJFA) led a delegation to visit Japan.On June 23,he and his party especially went to the city of Iwamizawa,on the northern island of Hokkaido,to hold a memorial ceremony for an old friend of the Chinese people,Shoichi Hara,buried there.They were warmly welcomed by city Mayor Koichi Watanabe,relatives of Shoichi Hara and friends from the local Japan-China Friendship Association(JCFA),who accompanied them to the cemetery.It was a drizzling rainy day with thick clouds.President Song Jian took slow steps to the tomb to present flowers,and,together with all the delegation,paid silent tribune to the deceased showing the long memory and high respect they cherished for the Chinese people’s old friend.

  16. José Segundo de Lema : Arquitectura del siglo XIX en Aranjuez

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    Magdalena Merlos Romero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El arquitecto José Segundo de Lema es autor de varias obras en Aranjuez en el siglo XIX. Se valora el estilo del arquitecto, la tipología arquitectónica y su integración en el concepto urbano del real sitio. Se analizan la reforma del Hospital de San Carlos, el cementerio y varios palacios privados.The architect José Segundo de Lema is the autor of several works in Aranjuez in the XIXth Century. We value the architect’s style, the architectural typology and its integration in the urban concept of the Royal Site of Aranjuez. We analyse the reform of the San Carlos Hospital, the cemetery and several private palaces.

  17. Biochemical and physical correlates of DNA contamination in archaeological human bones and teeth excavated at Matera, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M. T. P.; Rudbeck, L.; Willerslev, E.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of ancient DNA studies on human specimens have utilised teeth and bone as a source of genetic material. In this study the levels of endogenous contamination (i.e. present within the sample prior to sampling for the DNA analysis) are assessed within human bone and teeth specimens...... sampled from the cemetery of Santa Lucia alle Malve, Matera, Italy. This site is of exceptional interest, because the samples have been assayed for IS measures of biochemical and physical preservation, and it is the only one identified in a study of more than 107 animal and 154 human bones from 43 sites...... across Europe, where a significant number of human bones was well preserved. The findings demonstrate several important issues: (a) although teeth are more resilient to contamination than bone, both are readily contaminated (presumably through handling or washing), and (b) once contaminated in this way...

  18. Death before life: The legal status of cadaveric foetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2011-01-01

    The issue of how to dispose of aborted foetuses is a sensitive ethical and legal issue which relates directly to the legal status of the foetus. An illustrative example of this issue’s practical legal relevance is the Danish Council of Ethics’ recommendation of March 3, 2011, in reply...... general reflections on the legal status of cadaveric foetuses....... to the Municipality of Odense regarding the establishment of a separate anonymous lawn for aborted foetuses at the town’s principal cemetery in order to provide parents with a free and optional alternative to the current procedure.The aim of this article is to analyse death before life in Danish law and to offer some...

  19. Sacred landscapes, ecclesiastical landscapes: from necropolis to parish in central Iberia

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    Iñaki Martín Viso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rock dug graves are one of the few archaeological signs of the early medieval rural landscape in the central part of Iberia. This paper studies the evidence of that kind of tombs in a wide region, the central-western Iberian Peninsula, with an special focus in two specific areas, the territories of Ciudad Rodrigo and Sierra de Ávila. The role of the graves as spatial markers in order to enforce the social and economic control over some farming and pasture areas inside the territories of local communities is the most probable hypothesis, according to the results of the research. The tombs have been used by the members of these communities as a reference of the kin-group memory from 7th to 10th century, so they could be explained like a significant fragment of a sacred landscape, although they were placed in areas where there was not any ecclesiastical organization. The implementation of the parish system between 12th and 13th centuries, which was a consequence of the political integration of the Central-Western Iberia into the Christian monarchies (a process described by the traditional Spanish historiography as repoblación broke the previous model of burial practices. The cemeteries were linked to parishes, which were built in new places, and it was imposed by the new ecclesiastical organization. Therefore an ecclesiastical landscape was created, and, as a consequence, a new local identity was shaped. However, the row-organised cemeteries of some central places related to the Leonese repoblación in 10th century were an exception. The Church could use the symbolic capital of these ancient burials to shape the new ecclesiastical landscape. They were the places where some parishes were built during 12th century.

  20. Dental enamel Hypoplasia. Investigations on the Bones Exhumed from the Medieval Necropole of Lozova (Republic of Moldova, XIVth–XVth Centuries

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    Robert Daniel Simalcsik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental hypoplasia is a developmental anomaly based on perturbations of amelogenesis. Hypoplasia defects are part of the unspecific quantitative indicators for the state of health and / or nutritional state during the formation of the dental buds. It is a response of the human organism to physiological stress. The incidence of this dysplasia in a past population can indicate its biological frailty in its attempt to adapt to the environmental changes. The osteological material was excavated in the interval 2010 – 2011 by archaeologists from the Archaeology Centre in Chisinau, from the Medieval cemetery of Lozova (Straseni County, Republic of Moldova, dated for the XIVth and XVth centuries. Fifty one skeletons from 50 inhumation graves have been excavated and analyzed so far. Only 40 individuals had most of their teeth present. The enamel hypoplasia is of linear transversal type, located on the labial surface of the dental crowns, in the median third. The canine is the most affected tooth, followed by the incisors. The incidence of dental enamel hypoplasia at population level (based on the data collected and on the number of graves excavates so far, which does not illustrate the entire population of the cemetery is 7.5%. The incidence of dental caries is 23.53%, of cribra orbitalia – 11.75%, and of cribra cranii externa – 1.96%. The results obtained for a relatively small rural community illustrate a good adaptation to the stressing environmental factors. The possible malnutrition and illness episodes suffered during early childhood were recovered along the growth and development processes.

  1. Trace of“Caoyi-Chuqiu Culture”in Hua County of Henan%河南滑县“漕邑-楚丘文化”寻迹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑爽

    2015-01-01

    “Cao Yi-ChuQiu culture”is part of the research of “Wei County Culture”.This paper tries to review the history of the Emperor Dai of Wei Country revived his country and the Emperor Wen worked diligently to renew the country Hua County of Henan Province.Then the writer of the paper do a textual research on the historical sites of Wei Country,Emperor Wei’s Temple Ruin,White-Horse Wall Ruin,Weizhuang Cemetery,Weiling Cemetery,Huizi Tomb and ZhangpingTomb.In addi-tion,based onYongfeng·Fangzhong,Yongfeng ·Zaichi and WeiFeng· papaya as content,summing up the culture of The Book of Songs this period is to fully reveal “Cao Yi-ChuQiu Culture”.%“漕邑—楚丘文化”①是“卫文化”的组成部分。文章对发生在河南滑县地域上的先秦卫国戴公漕邑复国与文公楚丘发奋中兴的历史进行回顾,对卫国历史遗迹卫王殿遗址、白马墙遗址、卫庄公墓、卫灵公墓、惠子冢、张平冢进行考证,并以《鄘风·定之方中》《鄘风·载驰》《卫风·木瓜》为内容,总结这段历史中的诗经文化,以期实现对滑县卫国“漕邑—楚丘文化”的全面揭示。

  2. Ristripatsid Eesti 12.–13. sajandi laibakalmistutes: kas ehted või usu tunnused? / The cross-shaped pendants of inhumation burials in 12th-13th century Estonia: adornments or signs of belief?

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    Tuuli Kurisoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shaped pendants are one of the most discussed symbolically laden artefacts among Estonian archaeological material. The beginning of the distribution of cross-shaped pendants dates back to 11th century when the artefacts, though scarce, appear. The number of such pendants increases noticeably at the very end of the Iron Age. Due to the ambiguous entity of cross and time context, cross-pendants have been interpreted either as symbols of Christian faith, as pieces of adornment not affiliated with Christianity, or as objects with magical qualities. In this paper I study pendants found in the inhumation cemeteries of Estonia. Only those provide us with an archaeological context which shows precisely who could have worn them and how. The analyzed cross-pendants were found at Pada, Kaberla, Kukruse, Haimre and Tammiku cemeteries and from the early burials in Viru-Nigula churchyard. As artefacts, the cross pendants are more or less stylized Greek crosses. In most cases the pendants were either used as a part of jewellery or worn singularly around the neck area. From the total of 48 analyzed cross-pendants one fourth could be interpreted as locally produced items. Of local origin are probably lead pendants from Pada cemetery, heads of decorative pins worn as cross-shaped pendants from Viru-Nigula and Kaberla cemeteries, and obvious scrap and unfinished pendant crosses. In addition, I would like to draw attention that cross-pendants from inhumation burials do not contain many widespread forms, such as ‘Scandinavian’ and some other widespread Russian origin types, which have been found in hoards, from hill-forts and cremation burials. This observation could confirm that cross pendants from 12th–13th century inhumation burials were communally recognized and some of them were locally manufactured. As the next stage of my investigation I studied different occurrence contexts of cross pendants in cemeteries and burials: the location of burials with

  3. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2008- Malazgirt

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    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe research was carried out with the permissions of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 22 July to 6 August 2008 at Malazgirt town of Muş Province and dependent villages.Some cultural assets composed of monumental architectural structures such as Mosques, Churches, Inns, Bridges, cemeteries and grave stones were identifiedA mosque, ruins of an Inn, two bridges at the center of Malazgirt, a house and a rock church,at Uzgörür village of Bulanık County, twelve cemeteries at Malazgirt town and two cemeteries at Uzgörür village were investigated..Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. A small number of identified works belong to Seljuk period and afterwards (XI-XV. Century, and most of the others usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period.The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region.Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors actually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction.ÖzetT.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 22 Temmuz- 06 Ağustos 2008 tarihleri arasında Muş ilinin Malazgirt ilçesinde ve köylerinde yüzey araştırması gerçekleştirilmiştir.Cami, Kilise, Han, Köprü, ve Ev’den oluşan anıtsal mimari yapılar ile mezarlıklar ve mezar taşlarından oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmanın son günlerinde Bulanık ilçesinin köylerine de girilmiştir.Araştırmada; Malazgirt merkezde iki, Dirimpınar Köyü’nde bir han kalıntısı, bir mescit ve bir cami, iki köprü, Bulanık ilçesi Uzg

  4. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2008- Malazgirt / A Survey on Medieval and Later Periods of Malazgirt, Muş (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was carried out with the permissions of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 22 July to 6 August 2008 at Malazgirt town of Muş Province and dependent villages. Some cultural assets composed of monumental architectural structures such as Mosques, Churches, Inns, Bridges, cemeteries and grave stones were identified A mosque, ruins of an Inn, two bridges at the center of Malazgirt, a house and a rock church,at Uzgörür village of Bulanık County, twelve cemeteries at Malazgirt town and two cemeteries at Uzgörür village were investigated.. Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. A small number of identified works belong to Seljuk period and afterwards (XI-XV. Century, and most of the others usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period. The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region. Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors actually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction. Özet T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 22 Temmuz- 06 Ağustos 2008 tarihleri arasında Muş ilinin Malazgirt ilçesinde ve köylerinde yüzey araştırması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Cami, Kilise, Han, Köprü, ve Ev’den oluşan anıtsal mimari yapılar ile mezarlıklar ve mezar taşlarından oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmanın son günlerinde Bulanık ilçesinin köylerine de girilmiştir. Araştırmada; Malazgirt merkezde iki, Dirimpınar Köyü’nde bir han kalıntısı, bir mescit ve bir cami, iki köprü, Bulanık il

  5. 周代邿国地望及相关问题再探%A Study of the Locations of Shi State and Other Relevant Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱继平

    2013-01-01

    This paper reexamines the locations of the Shi State as well as its history in Zhou Dynasty and comes to the conclu-sions as following:1)Originally, Shi State was located in the eastern Pingyin County of Han&Jin Dynasties, which was defen-sive for the southeast frontier of Qi State after Shi State was forced to migrate under the military pressure from Qi State by the middle of the 7th century B.C.2)The new residence for Shi State was located in the southwest of Kangfu County which was very close to Qufu, the capital of Lu State.As a result of this migration, Shi State descended to a client state of Lu State, and Lu State took the opportunity of Shi's inner division in 650 B.C.to destroy it.3) Based on the strategic position of the Shi castle as well as the process of Qi archaeological cultural western expansion, the Shi State destroyed by Lu in 650 B.C.is not around Pingying, but Kangfu, and the former state corresponds to the Xianrentai Cemetery excavated in Changqing District, Jinan.Not only that, given several differences between the tombs of group A and B at Xianrentai Cemetery in distribution, time, tomb structure, character of funerary objects and marriage relationships, the five tombs in group A belong to the Shi State located in Pingyin County during early Spring &Autumn period, and one tomb in group B is likely to relate to the descendents of the Shi State destroyed by Lu State in late Spring&Autumn period.%  针对学界有关认识,综合传世文献与考古发现,对周代邿国地望变迁进行重新梳理,得出以下认识:邿国初位于汉晋平阴以东,因战略位置险要,故在齐势西扩的压力下约于春秋中期早段南迁,在汉晋任城亢父邿亭立国,平阴故地成为齐之邿邑。南迁后邿沦为鲁国附庸,公元前560年因内部分裂而灭于鲁。因此,鲁取之邿并非平阴邿国,而应是南迁后的亢父邿国,山东长清仙人台邿国墓地当对应平阴之邿。

  6. Aedes albopictus in northeast Mexico: An update on adult distribution and first report of parasitism by Ascogregarina taiwanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto Reyes-Villanueva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Aedes albopictus has been known as efficient vector of dengue in Asian countries and its wide displacement of Ae. aegypti has been documented in many parts of the world. The present survey was carried out to update the distribution of Ae. albopictus in northeast Mexico and to report the first record of parasitism of mosquitoes by Ascogregarina taiwanensis in Mexico. Methods: Human landing collections were conducted in the month of May every year between 2007 and 2009 across the three states, Nuevo Leon (NL, Tamaulipas and Coahuila in northeast Mexico. Six human bait collections were also organized at the cemetery of Gomez Farias (GF, a village in southern Tamaulipas during the rainy and dry seasons in 2010. Aedes albopictus caught in 2010 were dissected for parasitic protozoan gregarines. Results: The results of human landing collections carried out during 2007-10 across the three states of northeast zone of Mexico revealed that Ae. albopictus is invading along the route between Monterrey City in NL and Tampico, Tamaulipas, but not into the arid state of Coahuila. Aedes albopictus was recorded in nine new municipalities in addition to the 15 municipalities reported before 2005. Furthermore, six human-bait collections performed during the dry and rainy seasons in 2010 at the cemetery of GF suggest the exclusion of Ae. aegypti on that site. Dominance was shared by Ae. quadrivittatus, another container-inhabitant but indigenous species, and Ae. albopictus during the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The results of dissection of the mosquitoes for gregarines revealed the parasitism of Ae. albopictus by A. taiwanensis. Interpretation & conclusion: The results of this study showed that Ae. albopictus has spread to all the municipalities in the northeastern Mexico except the arid area and reported the first record of parasitic protozoan A. taiwanensis in Mexico. We recommend further studies on larval and adult populations of

  7. AJARAN SUNAN GESENG BAGI KEHIDUPAN KEAGAMAAN MASYARAKAT

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    Dina Faelasofa

    2013-04-01

    collected through interview and observation. Research results show the strong influence of Sunan Geseng’s religious teaching is apparent in Grabag, Magelang. Among the indicators are the use of Sunan Geseng’s cemetery as spiritual tourism site visited by people from many area. There is also selikuran tradition held annually at the 21st night of Ramadhan in Sunan Geseng cemetery area. There are also other rituals like slametan, gendurenan, and methoan. Another interesting thing is that many boarding schools still adopt the management system or learning process like those of Sunan Geseng. All of this enforce the society sentiment theory stating that historical memory in the the past and Sunan Geseng heritages are fondation for society sentiment.

  8. Polskie miejsca pamięci w północnej Bośni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Anna Wichniewicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish realms of memory in northern Bosnia This article presents the transformation in Bosnia and Herzegovina which began after the war during the years 1991-1995. The most important objective was the liberation and emancipation of the forgotten memory of minorities. These processes are also expressed in relation to the Polish minority which came into existence in the territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century with the government takeover by Austria-Hungary and the announcement of the program of colonization. The changes described were significantly apparent in the reconstruction of Polish realms of memory: Polish shrines in Celinovac, Polish church in Cerovljani, Polish cemeteries: in Devetina and Novi Martinac and also in the Yugoslav-Polish partisan cemetery in Srbac. Of interest, the ‘time of memory’ which took place involved all social actors: the government of the Republic of Srpska and the municipalities of Srbac and Nowogrodziec, the Embassy of the Polish Republic in Sarajevo, representatives of local communities - Serbs and the Polish minority from Ćelinovac.   Polskie miejsca pamięci w północnej Bośni Artykuł prezentuje przemiany, które od czasu zakończenia wojny 1991–1995 roku dokonują się w granicach Bośni i Hercegowiny. Ich głównym celem jest wyzwalanie i emancypacja pamięci zapomnianych mniejszości narodowych. Procesy te dotyczą również polskiej mniejszości narodowej, która na terytorium Bośni i Hercegowiny pojawiła się pod koniec XIX i na początku XX wieku wraz z przejęciem administracji przez Austro-Węgry oraz ogłoszeniem programowej kolonizacji. Najsilniej ujawniają się w rekonstruowaniu polskich miejsc pamięci: polskiej kapliczki w Ćelinovacu, polskiego kościoła w Cerovljanach, cmentarzy polskich w Devetinie i Nowym Martyńcu oraz partyzanckiego jugosłowiańsko-polskiego w Srbacu. Co ciekawe, „czas pamięci“, który nastał, odcisn

  9. Residential Mobility di Pinggiran Kota Semarang Jawa Tengah (Studi Kasus Kaum Miskin Kota di Kota Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Gamal Rindarjono

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed in analyzing and examining the development of slum residential in Semarang, including its center of the city urban, urban-fringe and sub-urban area. Within the development of the slum residential due to mobility of the urban poor, the phenomenon in the term of residential mobility occurred. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research was applying distant-interpretation data in examining slum residential phenomenon and terrestrial data in analyzing both social and cultural issues related to development of slum residential. This research resulting a residential mobility model throughout areas of research, especially sub-urban including the Chinese cemetery area; the new migrant was the urbanist namely the bridge headers group, consists of tramp and hobos whom should be concerned more. Though they just have settled in short-period within the area, their income was categorized financially settled. They owned their own home not as the renter and even, built housing for their subordinates amounted 7-15 families in a complex of residential. Stability of the income was also supported by resident-owning whereas selecting its location based on the land-availability which initially settled the location illegally among the graves. This location was selected since its less-maintained condition by neither their descendant nor cemetery officer which then densely covered by bushes. Availability of the sufficient land leads them to build their residential which also used as the scrap collection space. During the times, their number was increased referred to their raising income. Legalizing their residential was the next step for their existence and sustainability by purchasing or renting the land. Eventually this bridge header was earning a stable income, owning their own home, and locating their residential in the sub-urban area furthermore but unfortunately less-supported by a highly established life style but an

  10. The Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, A; Kuś, M; Kupiec, T; Bykowska, M; Zielińska, G; Jasiński, M E; March, A L

    2016-01-01

    members into a common database; (5) making a conclusive, final identification of the victim. PGBOT's first project was to identify victims of the Communist regime buried in hidden mass graves in the Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw. Throughout 2012 and 2013, PGBOT carried out archaeological exhumations in the Powązki Military Cemetery that resulted in the recovery of the skeletal remains of 194 victims in several mass graves. Of the 194 sets of remains, more than 50 victims have been successfully matched and identified through genetic evidence.

  11. Sentiment in New York City: A High Resolution Spatial and Temporal View

    CERN Document Server

    Bertrand, Karla Z; Virdee, Kawandeep; Gros, Andreas; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-01-01

    Measuring public sentiment is a key task for researchers and policymakers alike. The explosion of available social media data allows for a more time-sensitive and geographically specific analysis than ever before. In this paper we analyze data from the micro-blogging site Twitter and generate a sentiment map of New York City. We develop a classifier specifically tuned for 140-character Twitter messages, or tweets, using key words, phrases and emoticons to determine the mood of each tweet. This method, combined with geotagging provided by users, enables us to gauge public sentiment on extremely fine-grained spatial and temporal scales. We find that public mood is generally highest in public parks and lowest at transportation hubs, and locate other areas of strong sentiment such as cemeteries, medical centers, a jail, and a sewage facility. Sentiment progressively improves with proximity to Times Square. Periodic patterns of sentiment fluctuate on both a daily and a weekly scale: more positive tweets are posted...

  12. Death perception discourse as viewed by the family: a photoetnographic approach Discursos da percepção da morte na visão dos familiares: uma abordagem fotoetnográfica

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    Rogério Ferreira Lahan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at analyzing the perspectives of the death and dying as expressed by relatives when searching for the simbology to be present in the grave. The research has a qualitative photoethnographic approach. The bibliography allowed for the basis to collect the narratives from the families of people deceased and buried in Umuarama (PR City Cemetery. The choice of this burial place considered the variety of the graves and the previous contact with relatives. Este trabalho analisa a perspectiva da morte e do morrer na visão de familiares ao escolher a simbologia presente no túmulo. A pesquisa é de abordagem qualitativa, do tipo fotoetnográfica. A bibliografia propiciou a fundamentação para coletar as narrativas das famílias de pessoas falecidas e sepultadas no Cemitério Municipal de Umuarama (PR. A escolha do cemitério considerou a variedade de túmulos e o pré-contato com alguns familiares das pessoas sepultadas.

  13. Strontium isotope evidence for a highly mobile population on the Pamir Plateau 2500 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueye; Tang, Zihua; Wu, Jing; Wu, Xinhua; Wu, Yiqun; Zhou, Xinying

    2016-10-01

    Archeological researches have proposed arguments for human mobility and long-distance trading over the Eurasia before the Silk Roads. Here we utilize biologically available strontium isotope analysis to assess the extent of pre-Silk Road population movements and cultural communications across the Asian interior. From an early Iron Age cemetery (ca. 2500 yr B.P.) on the eastern Pamir Plateau, mean 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 34 individuals display considerable isotopic variability, and 10 individuals are distinguished as migrants based on the local strontium isotope range of 0.710296–0.710572 defined by 12 ovicaprine bones. Comparison of the proportion (10/34) with the regional census data completed in 1909 A.D. (3% non-locals) suggests a highly migratory behavior on the plateau 2500 years ago. Furthermore, exotic mortuary objects, such as silk fabrics from eastern China and angular harp originated from the Near East, clearly demonstrate an interaction between different cultures on the plateau before the establishment of the Silk Road.

  14. Differences in types of artificial cranial deformation are related to differences in frequencies of cranial and oral health markers in pre-Columbian skulls from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Okumura

    Full Text Available Artificial cranial deformation is a cultural practice that modifies the shape of the skull during the early infancy. It is not related to rites of passage, but to different social status in a group. Therefore, the deformed cranium is an expression of individual affirmation and affiliation to a given social group. Osteological material from Pasamayo (AD 1200-1450, a cemetery in central coast of Peru, was analyzed to test whether individuals presenting different types of cranial deformation (interpreted as a sign of different social status present differences in health status. Three types of cranial deformation were observed and five osteological markers (cribra orbitalia, cranial trauma, antemortem tooth loss, dental caries, and periodontal cavities related to health status were analyzed in 78 crania. No significant differences were found in terms of these osteological markers among females in relation to the different types of cranial deformation. However, males presenting occipital deformation had significantly less caries and periodontal cavities than the others. Moreover, males presenting fronto-lambdoid deformation had more antemortem tooth loss than the other males. Therefore, although different types of cranial deformation can be potentially associated to distinct social status, differences in health status could only be observed in the male sample.

  15. Archaeological Investigations at the Upper Chapel, Norfolk Street, Sheffield, UK

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    Katherine Baker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheffield, in the north of England, grew rapidly in the 19th century and gained an international reputation for its cutlery, tableware, and steel products. The material legacy of this age of industrialisation is extensive, and archaeological work in the modern city over the last 20 years has, for the most part, focused on the above and below ground industrial archaeology relating to metals trades' production sites spanning the 19th and 20th centuries. This article describes recent archaeological work around the Upper Chapel, a Unitarian Meeting House in the city centre where archaeological work recovered a possible buried medieval soil deposit, which contained an assemblage of medieval pottery dating from the 12th to 15th centuries. The presence of waster sherds and fragments of kiln furniture within this assemblage suggests that pottery production may have taken place on or near the site, making this the first putative evidence for pottery production in medieval Sheffield. The archaeological investigations also recovered four human burials from the 18th- to 19th-century burial ground associated with the Upper Chapel. The Upper Chapel burial ground differs from other recently excavated cemeteries in Sheffield as it potentially contained graves of high-status individuals, with at least a proportion of the skeletons and coffins well-preserved owing to waterlogged ground conditions. Detailed studies of the human remains, coffins, and incorporated material, including brass shroud pins are also discussed.

  16. International Astronomical-Cultural Initiatives and Ukrainian Astronomical Heritage in the Context of World Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, L.

    2011-09-01

    Astronomy as science of world view has left its mark in many areas of human culture. Astronomical movable and immovable monuments as cultural and scientific content recently started to be studied carefully, and finally receive their recognition for their further preservation. Various international organizations have initiated a diverse case studies of these monuments, produced some recommendations for their organization, typology, division into periods. In joint programs, experts of IAU, UNESCO, ICOMOS elaborate criteria for selection of monuments of global significance. Complete study of astronomical sights will allow to consider the history of scientific knowledge dissemination in time and in space. Ukraine has also carefully examined their stored astronomical monuments scattered in astronomical observatories, libraries, archives, museums, university collections, architectural ensembles, archaeological parks and cemeteries. In conditions of instability and crises it is important to establish uniqueness or typicality of certain historical sites, to study their characteristics and identity, relationship with global trends that will enable their successful promotion and protection. Part of these research works are conducted in our observatories, but not as intensively as in other countries. They have not engaged in related industries and professionals authorized state institutions. Not having used an active effort in this case, we can stay behind the big international project for study the intellectual and cultural heritage.

  17. El disco de bronce y damasquinado en plata de Aguilar de Anguita (Guadalajara

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    Barril Vicente, Magdalena

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the study of a circular bronze plate wilh silver damascene work, from the Celtiberian cemetery of Aguilar de Anguila (Guadalajara, exhibited in the M.A.N. The aim is to trace the extent and origin of these kinds of objects in the Meseta. A study of the decorative structure is also made, in order to determine the importance of this piece from a social and ideological point of view, not only as a social prestigious object but also as a part of the grave goods in the tomb.

    En este trabajo se estudia un disco o placa circular en bronce procedente de la necrópolis celtibérica de Aguilar de Anguita, expuesto en el Museo Arqueológico Nacional. Se intentan rastrear la dispersión y origen de este tipo de objetos en el interior de la Meseta. También se hace un análisis de su estructura decorativa, con el fin de precisar la importancia del objeto desde el punto de vista social e ideológico, tanto como bien de prestigio como integrante del ajuar en una tumba.

  18. Recent extreme rainfall-induced landslides and government countermeasures in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Gon; Hencher, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    During 2011 a large number of landslides occurred in South Korea as a result of heavy rainfall (160~300mm/day) which fell between 19 June and 27 July. Fifty eight people were killed and 200 injured at 11 locations. Almost 80% of the fatal landslides can be attributed at least in part to human activities such as an army camp, pedestrian road, forest road, cemetery, tomb, irrigation for vegetable garden and fruit farm. This paper addresses the anthropogenic influences on recent landslides in Korea. In addition, this paper discusses the Korean government countermeasures related to landslides. Restoration works tends to start immediately without design reports and without investigating the causes of landslides. Restoration works tend to comprise simple erosion control such as hard-covering to failure surfaces and the provision of check dams. These measures are implemented without any input from specialist geotechnical engineers. Persons injured or subject to economic loss as a result of landslides have often taken legal action against the Korean government. The most usual result is that experts appointed by the courts side with Government and simply conclude that the disasters are the natural consequence of heavy rainfall. As a result claimants have generally lost their cases and received no compensation. Furthermore, because of the lack of proper investigations there are no lessons learned from past landslides and no department has been established within the Korean government, tasked with reducing landslide risk.

  19. Interactive analysis and evaluation of ERTS data for regional planning and urban development: A Los Angeles Basin case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, S.; Economy, R.; Willoughby, G.; Mcknight, J.

    1974-01-01

    The progression endemic to the ERTS Data Use Experiment SR 124 in data quality, analysis sophistication and applications responsiveness is reviewed. The roles of the variety of ERTS products, including the supporting underflight aircraft imagery at various scales, are discussed in the context of this investigation. The versatility of interpretation techniques and outputs developed and implemented via the General Electric Multispectral Information Extraction Systems is described and exemplified by both system-expository and applications-explanatory products. The wide-ranging and in-depth applications studied in the course of this experiment can be characterized as community-oriented and agency-directed. In the former, generic category, which is primarily data-contextual, problems analyzed dealt with agricultural systems, surface water bodies, snow cover, brush fire burns, forestry, grass growth, parks - golf courses - cemeteries, dust storms, grading sites, geological features and coastal water structure. The ERTS MSS band selectivity and measurements thresholds were of primary interest here. The agency-directed application areas have been user-evaluational in nature. Beginning with overall urbanized regional analysis of land cover density-development intensity, residential areas were analyzed for ascertaining if housing types could be aggregated with any degree of reliability.

  20. Excavation of the Settlement of Early Yangshao Culture on the Dadiwan Site in Qin'an County, Gansu%甘肃秦安县大地湾遗址仰韶文化早期聚落发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘肃省文物考古研究所

    2003-01-01

    The remains of Stage I of early Yangshao culture discovered on the Dadiwan site include 37 house-foundations, 12 fireplaces, 22 ash-pits, 20 tombs, one kiln-site and one moat (six sections), which combine to show a prehistoric settlement rather clear an layout. The main part of the settlement is built on the second terrace by the river, surrounded with a moat In the center, a little to the west, there is a square nearly one thousand sq m in area, with a common cemetery within it. On the western side of the square lies a large-sized house-foundation, round which and round the square mediumand small-sized house-foundations are spread like a folding fan. The whole settlement displays a strong cohesion. The present paper reports mainly the moat G100, large-sized house-foundation F229, medium-sized F310 and F360, small-sized F5, adult tombs M222 and M1 and urn-burial M213. Being the first discovered early Yangshao settlement in the Gansu region, this is again a noteworthy achievement following the revelation of the Banpo, Jiangzhai and Beishouling sites. It provides valuable material for studying the social organization of prehistoric China and the evolution of then settlements.

  1. Estimation of seismic return periods in the Laguna Verde nuclear plant; Estimacion de periodos de retorno sismico en la PNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores R, J.H

    1992-01-15

    The study of seismic risk in the area of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant (PNLV) and its surroundings, one carries out estimating the different return periods and the occurrence probability in different intervals of time (5, 75, 100, 125, 150 years starting from the distribution of first type of Gumbel (G1) of extreme values (Burton, 1986), the value that was used to evaluate the useful life of the PNLV was of 50 years, the other periods will be occupy to evaluate 'temporal' nuclear cemeteries, that is to say for diminish the radioactive activity of the fuel assemblies already burned in the reactor pool or in a near place to the place. The seismic data that were used for the analysis were of the seismic catalog that it was elaborated from (1920-1982), around the place whose seismic half magnitude was of 5 grades Richter and a depth 65 km, these earthquakes are classified as shallow earthquakes, which are located in the continental plaque of North-America, these they are induced by the efforts of push of the plaque of Cocos, existing 36% of intermediate and 2 of deep earthquakes. (Author)

  2. 重庆巫山麦沱古墓群第二次发掘报告%THE SECOND EXCAVATION OF ANCIENT TOMBS AT MAITUO, WUSHAN, CHONGQING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹检顺; 谭远辉

    2005-01-01

    The first excavation at Maituo, Wushan, which revealed 19 tombs, basically clarified the cultural characteristics of the Han tombs in the cemetery and preliminarily established the periodization criteria for these tombs. Among the 13 tombs uncovered in the present second excavation besides four Han tombs, there are newly discovered burial types that belong to the Warring States, Southern Dynasties and Song. They provided new data for further research into the cultural features of this graveyard in different periods. The achievements in the present excavation consist mainly in the following two aspects,The first is the discovery of three tombs belonging to the late Warring States period. They represent the Chu cultural complex in an area dominated by the Qin State. The second is the revelation of an Eastern Han high-rank tomb in a good condition (M47). The tomb contains over 100 funeral objects, including objects in gold, silver, bronze and lacquer that reflect the tomb owner's wealth, as well as rare treasures of art, such as exquisite glazed pottery tombfigurines of dancers, lamps with toad-shaped stands, and large-sized pottery, tomb guardians, animals, human figures and statues of the Western Queen Mother that are represented in various positions. The unearthed pottery models of buildings, such as those of theatres and watchtowers delicate in workmanship and clear in layout, are valuable to studying Han architecture. These finds provide precious data for systematically studying Han period production technology, culture and art, building style, religion, and burial customs.

  3. Exhumation research concerning the victims of political repressions in 1945-1956 in Poland: A new direction in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szleszkowski, Lukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Konczewski, Paweł; Kawecki, Jerzy; Swiątek, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland), the bodies of 223 prisoners were exhumed, including the victims of political repressions and prosecutions in the period 1949-1954, during which people fighting for the independence of Poland were executed and buried in unidentified graves in various graveyards. It was the first exhumation conducted in Poland on such a large scale. The aim of the present publication is to describe the new direction in forensic medicine employed in these exhumations, which resulted from the new opportunities created by the opening of the state archives after the political transformation of 1989. The authors describe the difficulties they encountered during their exploration of prisoners' burial grounds. The graveyards included in the investigation bear the marks of an intentional policy of confusion and secret burial methods. First, significant disorder in the logical (based on time of death) sequence of burials was observed. This made identification difficult. A substantial time lapse between death and burial in each case, along with the unavailability of comparative data, limited the use of identification methods widely employed in forensic medicine. For this reason, initial analysis had to be based on observations and confirmations made by forensic medicine about the sequence of burials as compared to cemetery documentation. Situations such as this clearly call for the cooperation of historians, archaeologists, anthropologists and forensic pathologists. Political transformations in Eastern Europe in the 1990s gave rise to hopes of exchanging experiences in this type of research as conducted in other countries of the former Eastern Bloc.

  4. Population Densities of Birds Breeding in Urbanized Habitats in the Grabiszyn District in the City of Wrocław

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    Kopij Grzegorz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in 2010 by mean of simplified version of the mapping method. The study area (395 ha was located close to the city centre. It comprised a mosaic of urbanized habitats, with a clear dominance of green areas, such as parks (41.1 ha, gardens, cemeteries and tree clumps. A total of 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the whole study area. The most common (<25 pairs/100 ha were Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Apus apus and Columba livia. Numerous (7-15 pairs/100 ha were also the following species: Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Serinus serinus, Turdus merula and Pica pica. Insectivorous birds were the most common birds constituting 63.3%, and granivorous -32.6% of all pairs recorded. Most birds nested in tree holes (39.3%, in/on buildings (30.2% and in trees/shrubs (25.6%. Distribution of breeding pairs of 23 bird species was presented on maps. Population trends for 17 species were documented. Rapid increase in numbers of Turdus pilaris, Corvus cornix and Phoenicurus phoenicurus and decrease of Pica pica were recorded.

  5. Oui, mais il faut parier: fidelidade e dúvida no Memorial de Aires

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    Pedro Meira Monteiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo investiga o papel desempenhado pelo Fidelio de Beethoven no Memorial de Aires de Machado de Assis. Nesse romance extraordinário, o conselheiro Aires evita condenar uma mulher que, entretanto, o seu enganoso diário terminará pondo sob suspeita. Na ópera, Leonora nada esconde, porque abaixo de sua máscara não há nada senão sua lealdade ao marido aprisionado. Machado de Assis, contudo, inicia sua trama num cemitério, onde o marido agora é morto. A importante questão que daí resta é: o que fazer se a fidelidade se refere a um objeto que, seja ele o amado, seja o referente literário, não existe mais?This article investigates the role played by Beethoven's Fidelio in Machado de Assis' Memorial de Aires. In this extraordinary novel, Counselor Aires avoids condemning a woman who, nevertheless, is put under suspicion by his treacherous diary. In the opera, Leonora hides nothing, because behind her mask there is nothing but loyalty to her imprisoned husband. Machado de Assis, however, begins his novel in a cemetery, where the beloved husband is buried. The main question that is left is: What to do if fidelity refers to an object, be it the beloved or a literary referent, that does not exist any longer?

  6. Early medical skull surgery for treatment of post-traumatic osteomyelitis 5,000 years ago.

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    Pierpaolo Petrone

    Full Text Available Here we describe the findings of a unique example of the early techniques adopted in neurosurgery around 5000 years ago, consisting in a double well healed skull trephination associated with a post-cranial traumatic event occurring intra vitam to a young male from the Early Chalcolithic cemetery of Pontecagnano (South Italy, ca. 4,900 - 4,500 cal BP. Morphological, X-ray and 3D-CT scan skull-cap evaluation revealed that the main orifice was produced by scraping, obtained by clockwise rotary motion of a right-handed surgeon facing the patient, while the partial trephination was carried out by using a stone point as a drilling tool. In both cases, bone regrowth is indicative of the individual's prolonged postoperative survival and his near-complete recovery. The right femur shows a poorly healed mid-shaft fracture presumably induced by a high energy injury, and a resulting chronic osteomyelitis, affecting both femurs by hematogenous spread of the infection. Our observations on the visual and radiological features of skull and femur lesions, along with evidence on the timing of experimental bone regrowth vs. healing of lower limb fractures associated to long-term bone infections now suggest that this young man underwent a double skull trephination in order to alleviate his extremely painful condition induced by chronic osteomyelitis, which is thought to have been the cause of death.

  7. Necrópolis chilotas: un caso en la diversidad patrimonial de un territorio insular/Chiloé’s necropolis: a case study

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    Bravo Sánchez, José

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chiloé, en su condición de ínsula, se expresa en una riqueza cultural fuertemente territorializada, capaz de defenderse de las invasivas influencias foráneas. Merece la pena destacar una de las vigas que sostiene su andamiaje cultural: el poder omnipresente de la religión. En este sentido, sobresalen los cementerios chilotes como un ejemplo claro de simbiosis cultural religiosa que se manifiesta en una arquitectura mortuoria singular que enriquece al espacio y paisaje religioso de cada localidad./Chiloé, in its condition of island, it's express in a cultural wealth, heavily territorialized, with a capacity of defense of the invaders foreign influences. It's worth while to highlight at one of the girders that supports its cultural scaffolding: the omnipresent power of the religion. In this sense, chilotes cemeteries project like a clearly example of cultural symbiosis that it's exposes in a singular mortuary architecture that riches at religious space and landscape of each settlement.

  8. Yoginī e Streghe: luoghi isolati, animali selvatici, figure femminili di confine

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    Elisabetta Cangelosi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the folklore some female figures are related to border situations. Women, less relevant in the social and cultural context, can take a relevant role in the traditional, mythic and religious imagery. These figures are strictly linked to irrational and mystery. The analysis compares a group of tantric semi-deities, called Yogini, with witches: they are both confined in a border condition under the religious and social point of view since they are considered dangerous as well as respectful; they fly (sometimes after a metamorphosis in wild and dangerous birds like, they dance in circle, they turn into terrestrial animals (like snakes and toads they prefer isolated places and trees. They can live close to cemeteries but they can also be attracted by places where new born children are, in a sort of relation with both birth and death, the limits of human life. Following a comparison between these two groups that are very far away one from the other some interesting aspects appear: a major characteristic is their ambiguity. They are positive and negative at the same time, they are dangerous but attractive (being usually beautiful and sensual and even dangerous because so attractive. They are part of a wild  world which clash with a tidy and urbanized world: the first one is inhabited by demons which are not included in the official religious and cultural dimension; in the second one, which considers Yogini and witches as dangerous  entities, a rational and male-influenced approach prevails.

  9. The use of the archaeological record in the research of the celtiberian culture: the archaeological site of El Ceremeño (Guadalajara, Spain

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    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge on Celtiberian Culture have increased over the past few years. This was due to the new approaches as well as to the finding of new sites which are yielding very important archaeological information, that was lacking till recently. Among these new sites El Ceremeño, and its associated cemetery, have become one of the most significant references to this culture. In the present work, the need to analyze in depth the radiocarbon dates obtained at both sites taking into account the general context of the Celtiberian Culture in the Meseta is stressed in order to avoid biases in their interpretation.

    Los estudios sobre la cultura celtibérica han avanzado notablemente en los últimos años debido tanto a nuevos planteamientos, como al hallazgo de nuevos enclaves que están proporcionando importante información arqueológica, hasta hace poco tiempo deficitaria. Entre ellos, el castro de El Ceremeño y su necrópolis asociada se han convertido en una de las referencias más significativas de esta cultura. En el presente trabajo se subraya la necesidad de analizar en profundidad, dentro del marco más general de la cultura celtibérica meseteña, los datos y fechas radiocarbónicas allí obtenidas para evitar desenfoques y sesgos en su interpretación.

  10. Centro de arte contemporáneo de Galicia en Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, España

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    Siza Vieira, Ávaro

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly describes the development of the design for the Galician Centre of Contemporary Art. The various actions to be performed in the area where the Centre is located will eventually give rise to the unity of the adjacent areas. The architect has re-interpreted the previously existing architectural order of the surroundings. The action will be complemented by the rehabilitation of the orchard and cemetery of San Domingos de Bonaval, now recuperated as a green area for the city.

    Se describe -de manera breve- el desarrollo del proyecto del edificio Centro Gallego de Arte Contemporáneo. Las diferentes intervenciones en la zona donde queda asentado terminarán por unificar los espacios colindantes. El arquitecto reinterpreta el orden urbanístico preexistente en el entorno. La intervención se complementa con la rehabilitación de la huerta y cementerio de San Domingos de Bonaval, hoy recuperados como zona verde para la ciudad.

  11. THE SOUTHWESTERN LIMES OF ROMAN DACIA AND BEYOND - NEW SURVEYS AND EXCAVATIONS

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    Eduard Nemeth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research project on the southwestern frontier of Roman Dacia, which was an external frontier of the Roman Empire in this area. The research aimed to investigate and locate on the ground all Roman military sites with modern devices (GPS and establish the elements of the ancient landscape that had an influence on the choice of particular locations for the Roman forts. Also, the Roman military sites have been placed on geo-referenced maps. Another goal was to locate and investigate the great earth ramparts from nowadays southwestern Romania (so-called "Roman walls" and try to see whether there is a relation between them and the forts on one side and the many sites (cemeteries and settlements of the Sarmatian Iazyges. This people, that lived to the west from Roman Dacia, penetrated the marshy plains east of the river Tisza much earlier than the researchers previously supposed, that is right after the Marcomannic wars (after 180 AD and not only at the end of the 3rd century AD.

  12. Self-reported fears: a comparison study of youths with and without an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, E; Cummins, R A; King, N J

    1996-06-01

    Normal fear plays an essential role in human development and experience, and much research attention has been devoted to its study in the general population. In contrast, the normal fears of youths with intellectual disabilities have largely been ignored. The present paper reports the normative fears of 187 youths with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. Data were also gathered from 372 youths of average intelligence for comparison purposes. All respondents were aged between 7 and 18 years. Fear was assessed using the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II (FSSC-II), an instrument which has been psychometrically validated in samples with and without disabilities. The youths with disabilities reported significantly higher levels of fearfulness and a greater range of fears than youths without disabilities. The content of their fears was also more likely to resemble those of younger children without disabilities. The fears that best discriminated between the two samples were those related to supernatural phenomena or animals. Included were fears of bees, lizards, ghosts or similar eerie things, and cemeteries. Nevertheless, there was considerable similarity between the two samples. For both samples, females reported a higher level of fearfulness and a greater range of fear than males, and fears of death and danger were endorsed as arousing the strongest fear for all respondents. The theoretical and applied implications of these results are discussed.

  13. Features of Funeral Rite of Middle Sarmatian Monuments of Esaulovsky Aksai

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    Korobkova Elena Alekseevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes the peculiarities of the burial ritual of Middle Sarmatian complexes from the territory of Esaulovsky Aksai river basin. On the basis of the analysis, two groups of sites having their own characteristics were allocated. The Middle Sarmatian burials Peregruznoe I, Aksai I and II have common elements with the previous period (sets of clothes, planigraphy of burials and others, which makes it possible to talk about their genetic continuity with Early Sarmatian culture. The data of anthropological research confirm these findings. At the same time, the Middle Sarmatian burial mounds such as Zhutovo, Ternovsky and Chikovsky represent complexes with established Middle Sarmatian funeral rites. It is not clear what caused the presence of selected features in the two groups of tombs - the previous tradition or the new elements dominating in the rite. It is unlikely that you can talk about local features resulting from the geographical environment, because the study was conducted in a small area, and remove these groups from each other is not possible. Perhaps this situation is determined by the chronological differences, but today the level of elaboration of Sarmatian chronology does not give an opportunity to identify temporary differences. Not ruled out the possibility that such a situation is determined by ethno-cultural situation in the region where the migrant mastered or abandoned cemeteries primarily certain regions of the steppe, while the local population continues to retain some territories and ancestral burial grounds at their disposal.

  14. 3D Reconstruction and Restoration Monitoring of Sculptural Artworks by a Multi-Sensor Framework

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    Sandro Barone

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, optical sensors are used to digitize sculptural artworks by exploiting various contactless technologies. Cultural Heritage applications may concern 3D reconstructions of sculptural shapes distinguished by small details distributed over large surfaces. These applications require robust multi-view procedures based on aligning several high resolution 3D measurements. In this paper, the integration of a 3D structured light scanner and a stereo photogrammetric sensor is proposed with the aim of reliably reconstructing large free form artworks. The structured light scanner provides high resolution range maps captured from different views. The stereo photogrammetric sensor measures the spatial location of each view by tracking a marker frame integral to the optical scanner. This procedure allows the computation of the rotation-translation matrix to transpose the range maps from local view coordinate systems to a unique global reference system defined by the stereo photogrammetric sensor. The artwork reconstructions can be further augmented by referring metadata related to restoration processes. In this paper, a methodology has been developed to map metadata to 3D models by capturing spatial references using a passive stereo-photogrammetric sensor. The multi-sensor framework has been experienced through the 3D reconstruction of a Statue of Hope located at the English Cemetery in Florence. This sculptural artwork has been a severe test due to the non-cooperative environment and the complex shape features distributed over a large surface.

  15. The preliminary study on the alluvial stratigraphy of Peinan archaeological site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiaochin; Chen, Wenshan; Yeh, Changkeng

    2015-04-01

    Many of the activities of prehistoric people who lived in Taiwan were concentrated around river terrace environments and seldom in alluvial environments which are resulting from the rapid tectonic uplift and high erosion rate of the late Cenozoic mountain belt. However, the Peinan archaeological site, one of the most important Neolithic sites in Taiwan because of the great amount of slate slab coffins and nephrite artifacts unearthed, is located at the bottom of Peinan Hill which is formed by the activity of Lichi and Luyeh Faults. According to the radioactive carbon dating results, the Peinan alluvial fan used as cemetery was lasted over 3,700 years (5700-2000 yr BP) but the related cultural formation was only lasted 400 years (3500-3100 yr BP). What have happened to the prehistoric people? As the stratigraphic record allows archaeologists to ascertain the effects of geological processes on the preservation of the archaeological record, determining which parts of the archaeological records are absent, which have potentially been preserved, and how fragmentary are the preserved portions of the records. The limitations that geologic processes impose on the archaeological record must be recognized and understood before meaningful interpretations of prehistory can be made. Therefore, the reconstruction of the landscape and stratigraphic records in archaeological site not only provides the paleo-environmental context but also helps to explain changes that occurred to human cultures over time.

  16. Mausoleum of the XIV century in the southern part of the Bolgar settlement (excavation trench CLXXIV. Research 2012

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    Elkina Irina I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of archaeological studies on the remains of a stone mausoleum, discovered in the southern part of the Bulgar fortified settlement site in 2012 are published. The preserved remains of the building include only a 2.7-meter-long section of the eastern wall foundation, the northeast corner, and pylon bases. Despite a considerably ruined condition of the building, it was possible to fix its form, width and depth of the unpreserved foundations on the basis of the massifs consisting of tightly rammed crumbs and small-size white stones. Under the foundations of the mausoleum, a ditch of yet unclear purpose, round in plane, about 10 m in diameter, was uncovered. The construction can be dated to the late 14th century. The layout of the building is in general lines similar to other known mausoleums of the Bulgar fortified settlement site. Inside the mausoleum, a burial of at least 9 individuals in wooden coffins was found, and around the building the presence of a large cemetery was discovered.

  17. Yersinia pestis DNA from skeletal remains from the 6(th century AD reveals insights into Justinianic Plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Harbeck

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th and 20(th centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th-17(th centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6(th-8(th centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.

  18. Yersinia pestis DNA from skeletal remains from the 6(th) century AD reveals insights into Justinianic Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M; Scholz, Holger C

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th)-17(th) centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6(th)-8(th) centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.

  19. Bioarchaeology of the middle Neolithic: evidence for archery among early European farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aline

    2014-06-01

    This article focuses on Neolithic skeletons associated with the first monumental cemeteries of Western Europe and specifically those of the Cerny culture (Paris Basin, France). While this cultural context is an agrarian one, numerous arrowheads derived from complete hunting equipment are present in numerous graves. The goal of this work is to evaluate the morphological and pathological differences among the individuals according to the presence of arrowheads in their graves. It is postulated that those buried with such artifacts practiced archery, unlike their counterparts. Only adult males were selected for study to limit the effect of non-mechanical factors such as age- and sex-related modifications. The corpus consists of 36 males reliably identified among the 101 Cerny adults currently available. Thirteen men are associated with arrowheads. Variations in morphology and robusticity are evaluated on the basis of the external geometric properties of the appendicular skeleton. Entheseal changes to fibrocartilaginous attachment sites of upper and lower limbs are also examined. Both nonpathological skeletal adaptations and pathological indicators are consistent and reveal significant differences between the two groups compared. Functional adaptation is observed in the forearm bones and the clavicle in response to mechanical loads, and enthesopathies suggest repeated forceful use of upper limb muscles. These osteological changes specifically reflect the higher intensity upper limb activity of the men buried with arrowheads and correspond with the medical data on known archers, suggesting that this specific forceful task is linked to the practice of archery.

  20. Accentuated lines in the enamel of primary incisors from skeletal remains: A contribution to the explanation of early childhood mortality in a medieval population from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Lorkiewicz, Wiesław; Kurek, Marta; Borowska-Strugińska, Beata

    2015-07-01

    Physiological disruptions resulting from an impoverished environment during the first years of life are of key importance for the health and biological status of individuals and populations. Studies of growth processes in archaeological populations point to the fact that the main causes of childhood mortality in the past are to be sought among extrinsic factors. Based on this assumption, one would expect random mortality of children, with the deceased individuals representing the entire subadult population. The purpose of this study is to explore whether differences in early childhood survival are reflected in differences in deciduous tooth enamel, which can provide an insight into the development of an individual during prenatal and perinatal ontogeny. Deciduous incisors were taken from 83 individuals aged 2.0-6.5 years from a medieval inhumation cemetery dated AD 1300-1600. Prenatal and postnatal enamel formation time, neonatal line width, and the number of accentuated lines were measured using an optical microscope. The significantly wider neonatal line and the higher frequency of accentuated lines in the enamel of the incisors of children who died at the age of 2-3 years suggest the occurrence of stronger or more frequent stress events in this group. These results indicate that in skeletal populations mortality was not exclusively determined by random external factors. Individuals predisposed by an unfavorable course of prenatal and perinatal growth were more likely to die in early childhood.

  1. Mastoid trepanation in a deceased from medieval Croatia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boljunčić, Jadranka; Hat, Josip

    2015-03-01

    We present a rare case of infratentorial mastoid trepanation, by drilling, from medieval Croatia. An artificial ante-mortal opening was found in a male skeleton from the 11th century cemetery Zvonimirovo. It was placed roughly at the intersection of the Frankfurt's plane and the midline of the right mastoid. The right posterior parietal of the deceased also exhibited a callus-like formation consistent with the linear cranial fracture. Our aim was to investigate by computed tomography (CT) a possible presence of otopathology--a chronic middle ear infection--MEI/mastoiditis or cholesteatoma. On the other hand, both standard radiography and CT were employed in a cranial fracture diagnostic agreement. The generated CT scans confirmed the presence of an artificial hole running into a well defined trepanne canal connected with the antrum. The presence of otopathology was not established. The radiography and CT substantiated the presence of a linear posterior parietal discontinuity--without displacement, in front of the right lambdoid suture. From the medical point of view, it would be unusual to perform infratentorial--mastoid trepanation for reasons of treating supratentorial trauma, i.e. possible posttraumatic acute subdural hematoma (PTASDH). However, since there was a lack of CT evidence of osteolysis in ME, there is a possibility of medieval trepanation procedure performed for reasons of posttraumatic treat- ment. To our best knowledge, usually, ancient trepanations described in Croatian bioarchaeology and all over the world are supratentorial and do not always reveal such sophisticated surgical techniques.

  2. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th-12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe.

  3. [Health and social conditions in Brod na Savi during World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrić-Balen, Marica; Balen, Ivica

    2015-11-01

    During World War I, social and health conditions were difficult in Brod na Savi, as it stationed a large number of troops, and the military hospital was crowded with patients. With so many able-bodied men and breadwinners mobilised, the town's economy verged on the brink of poverty, but people managed to keep starvation at bay. The most common diseases among civilians were tuberculosis, malaria, intestinal infectious diseases, diphtheria, and venereal diseases, and in 1915 cholera broke out that lasted five months. At the end of 1918 "Spanish flu" also hit the town. The number of wounded and sick soldiers occasionally surpassed the hospital's capacity, so they had to be stationed at the local school facilities for a while. Over two thousand people died in the military hospital, which suggests that the total number of patients who went through the hospital had to be very large. Unfortunately, there are no records to show the hospital's mortality rate or disease prevalence. We are currently trying to establish the demographics of the 2000 dead buried at the local cemetery during WWI using the death records we have.

  4. The analysis of a World War I U.S. service member's dental remains recovered in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Calvin Y

    2014-11-01

    In October 2009, the grave of an unknown World War I (WWI) U.S. service member was exhumed in Rembercourt-Sur-Mad Village, in the Lorraine Region of France. The skeletal remains and material evidence were accessioned into the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command's (JPAC) Central Identification Laboratory (CIL). The personnel records for the associated casualty were requested, received, and reviewed. A dental profile was present among the service member's personal information. There were multiple points of concordance between the dental records of the associated casualty, and the recovered dental remains to include eight restored teeth, 15 unrestored teeth, and three antemortem missing teeth. Distinctive restorations which compared favorably included a porcelain crown and multiple gold foil fillings. All lines of evidence (historical, material evidence/personal effects, anthropological, and dental) and the circumstances of loss compared positively with the associated casualty. On April 1, 2010, the previously unaccounted-for U.S. service member was positively identified and on June 23, 2010, was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery.

  5. A sequential developmental field defect of the vertebrae, ribs, and sternum, in a young woman of the 12th century AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, B M; Christensen, M N

    2000-03-01

    Changes in the vertebral column are often noted in skeletal material. Descriptions of these anomalies are often lacking, and their developmental origins are not often discussed. The skeleton of a young woman from the medieval cemetery of Tirup, in Denmark, has multiple defects of the axial skeleton, including extra thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, border shifting, extra ribs, block vertebra, and deformed sternum. This case study is particularly interesting because of the number and diversity of anomalies seen; the rarity of these defects, even in living populations; and her survival to adult age. Careful analysis of the bones and use of the morphogenetic method of determining development stages has led to the conclusion that the initial defect probably occurred very early in development, during blastogenesis, with the initial development of at least two extra somitomeres in the paraxial mesoderm. These extra elements in turn led to problems in union and differentiation, and later chondrification and ossification of the vertebra. The malformations of the vertebrae also induced changes in the ribs and sternum. The initial error of segmentation is identified as a developmental field defect, and the cascade of anomalies seen is a developmental sequence caused by the initial field defect. The genetic and environmental causes of developmental field defects are reviewed.

  6. Identification of milk component in ancient food residue by proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proteomic approaches based on mass spectrometry have been recently used in archaeological and art researches, generating promising results for protein identification. Little information is known about eastward spread and eastern limits of prehistoric milking in eastern Eurasia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this paper, an ancient visible food remain from Subeixi Cemeteries (cal. 500 to 300 years BC of the Turpan Basin in Xinjiang, China, preliminarily determined containing 0.432 mg/kg cattle casein with ELISA, was analyzed by using an improved method based on liquid chromatography (LC coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS to further identify protein origin. The specific sequence of bovine casein and the homology sequence of goat/sheep casein were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The existence of milk component in ancient food implies goat/sheep and cattle milking in ancient Subeixi region, the furthest eastern location of prehistoric milking in the Old World up to date. It is envisioned that this work provides a new approach for ancient residue analysis and other archaeometry field.

  7. Paleopathological description and diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma in an Early Bronze Age (4588+34 Cal. BP) forager from the Cis-Baikal region of Eastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieverse, Angela R; Temple, Daniel H; Bazaliiskii, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    Extensive osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions were observed on the skeletal remains of an adult male excavated from an Early Bronze Age cemetery dated to 4556+32 years BP, located in the Cis-Baikal region of Siberia (Russian Federation). Lytic lesions ranged in size from several mm to over 60 mm in diameter and had irregular, moth-eaten borders. Many of these lesions destroyed trabecular bone, though a hollowed shell of cortical bone often remained observable. Radiographic analysis revealed numerous lytic lesions within trabecular bone that had not yet affected the cortex. Blastic lesions were identified as spiculated lines, bands, or nodules of mostly immature (woven) bone formed at irregular intervals. Anatomical elements with the greatest involvement included those of the axial skeleton (skull, vertebrae, sacrum, ribs, and sternum) as well as proximal appendicular elements (ossa coxae, proximal femora, clavicles, scapulae, and proximal humeri). Osteocoalescence of destructive foci was observed on the ilium and frontal bone, with the largest lesion found on the right ilium. Differential diagnoses include metastatic carcinoma, mycotic infections, tuberculosis, Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, and multiple myeloma. Based on lesion appearance and distribution, age and sex of the individual, as well as pathogen endemism, the most likely diagnostic option for this set of lesions is metastatic carcinoma. The age and sex of this individual and appearance of the lesions may reflect carcinoma of the lung or, possibly, prostate. This represents one of the earliest cases of metastatic carcinoma worldwide and the oldest case documented thus far from Northeast Asia.

  8. Diagnosis of Mercurial Teeth in a Possible Case of Congenital Syphilis and Tuberculosis in a 19th Century Child Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Ioannou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Without the presence of “caries sicca,” “sabre shins,” and nodes/expansion of the long bones with superficial cavitation, differential diagnosis of venereal syphilis and tuberculosis (TB may be difficult as various infections produce similar responses. However, congenital syphilis has distinctive features facilitating a diagnosis. A case study of remains of a juvenile European settler (probably male, 8–10 years old (B70 buried in the 19th century and excavated in 2000 from the cemetery of the Anglican Church of St. Marys in South Australia is presented. B70 demonstrated that the two diseases might have been present in the same individual, congenital syphilis and TB. Widespread destruction of vertebral bodies and kyphosis-related rib deformations indicate advanced TB. Severe dental hypoplasia is limited to permanent incisors and first molars; there is pitting on the palate, periosteal reaction on the skull vault, and thinned clavicles. Dental signs are not limited to “screwdriver” central incisors and mulberry molars. Apical portions of the crowns of permanent upper, lower, central, and lateral incisors have multiple hypoplastic-disorganized defects; deciduous canines have severely hypoplastic crowns while possibly hypoplastic occlusal surfaces of lower deciduous second molars are largely destroyed by extensive caries. These dental abnormalities resemble teeth affected by mercurial treatment in congenital syphilitic patients as described by Hutchinson.

  9. 辽宁阜新县代海遗址发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated 62 burials, 30 ash pits and four ash ditches in Daihai Site. Most of the burials were in rectangular plan with round corners, with few rectangular ones. Only two of them were double burials, which were both joint tombs of one male and one female, and all of the rest were single burials. The grave goods were potteries, bronzes, shell implements and cowry ornaments. Most of the grave goods were found in the offering pit or altar to the south of the graves, the popular assemblages were bowl and jar (or pot), which were usually assembled together, and bowl, jar and li-cauldron. In addition, li-cauldron or small cup and bowl were also found below the toes or beside the tibia of the skeleton of the tomb occupant. The date of these burials was the early Bronze Age. The Daihai Cemetery was located on the north side of Yiwulii Moun- tains, which is the zone where the Lower Xiajiadian Culture and Gaotaishan Culture were overlapping, and the burials found here showed elements of both of these two archaeological cultures, so they are valuable materials for the researches and exploration on the relationships between these two cultures.

  10. Excavation on the Halazhuang Site in Baodi District, Tianjin City%天津市宝坻区哈喇庄遗址的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅鹏云; 陈雍; 纪列敏; 张俊生; 刘建; 邸明

    2005-01-01

    In May to July 1997, the former Archaeological Department of Tianjin Municipal Museum of History excavated on a site at Halazhuang Village of Huogezhuang Township in Baodi District, Tianjing City. Within the area of above 170,000 sq m the site occupies, they revealed a house-foundation, 61 ash-pits, six ash-trenches and four tombs, and brought to light mainly pottery and porcelain. The pottery is largely of gray clay ware and belongs chiefly to the jar, basin, urn and fu cauldron types. The porcelain is principally white ware and includes dishes, bowls, and a small number of black-glazed articles. Judging from the unearthed objects, the site contains cultural deposits roughly of the late Liao, early Jin, and late Jin to early Yuan periods, with those of the latter two phases as the main remains. It can be preliminarily inferred that the site was a village from the late Liao to the early Yuan, which was abandoned and became a cemetery in the early Ming period.

  11. The General Urban Plan of Casimcea territorial administrative unit, map of natural and anthropogenic risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BĂNICĂ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The General Urban Plan represents the legal ground for any development action proposed. After endorsement and approval as required by law, GUP is act of authority of local government for the area in which it applies. The aim is to establish priorities regulations applied in land use planning and construction of structures. In terms of geographical location, the administrative territory of Casimcea, Tulcea county, falls in the central Northwest Plateau Casimcei. This is the second unit of the Central Dobrogea Plateau. Geographical location in southeastern Romania, climatic and relief conditions and anthropogenic pressure, expose the village administrative territorial unit Casimcea, permanent susceptibility to produce natural and antropogenical risks. In this context, we identified the following categories of natural and anthropogenic risks: i natural risk phenomena (earthquakes, strong winds, heavy rains, floods caused by overflowing or precipitation, erosion of river banks and torrents, gravitational processes, rain droplet erosion and surface soil erosion; and ii anthropogenic risk phenomena (overgrazing, chemicals use in agriculture, road transport infrastructure and electricity, wind turbines for electricity production, waste deposits, agro-zootechnical complexs, and human cemeteries. Extending their surface was materialized by creating a map of natural and anthropogenic risk on Casimcea territorial administrative unit, explaining the share of potentially affected areas as territorial balance

  12. POZO MORO Y LOS CAMBIOS SOCIO-ECONÓMICOS DE LA PROTOHISTORIA IBÉRICA DURANTE LOS SIGLOS V Y IV ANTES DE NUESTRA ERA (Pozo Moro and the socio-economic changes of Iberian protohistory during the 5th and 4th centuries BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Años atrás desarrollamos y propusimos una nueva metodología para medir estadísticamente el gasto funerario y establecer su relación con las fluctuaciones económicas de la civilización ibérica, obteniendo resultados sumamente significativos. Ahora, sin perder de vista esa columna vertebral como referente obligado, la necrópolis de Pozo Moro aporta novedades esclarecedoras sobre el pasado protohistórico de estos pueblos prerromanos durante los siglos V y IV antes de nuestra era. ENGLISH: Years ago we developed and proposed a new methodology for measuring statistically the funeral expense and establish its relationship with the economic fluctuations of Iberian civilization, getting highly significant results. Now, without losing sight the spine as a point of reference, Pozo Moro cemetery provides enlightening updates on the protohistoric past of these pre-Roman peoples during the V and IV centuries BC.

  13. Comparison of morphological and molecular genetic sex-typing on mediaeval human skeletal remains☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christiane Maria; Niederstätter, Harald; McGlynn, George; Stadler, Harald; Parson, Walther

    2013-01-01

    Archaeological excavations conducted at an early mediaeval cemetery in Volders (Tyrol, Austria) produced 141 complete skeletal remains dated between the 5th/6th and 12th/13th centuries. These skeletons represent one of the largest historical series of human remains ever discovered in the East Alpine region. Little historical information is available for this region and time period. The good state of preservation of these bioarchaeological finds offered the opportunity of performing molecular genetic investigations. Adequate DNA extraction methods were tested in the attempt to obtain as high DNA yields as possible for further analyses. Molecular genetic sex-typing using a dedicated PCR multiplex (“Genderplex”) gave interpretable results in 88 remains, 78 of which had previously been sexed based on morphological features. We observed a discrepancy in sex determination between the two methods in 21 cases. An unbiased follow-up morphological examination of these finds showed congruence with the DNA results in all but five samples. PMID:23941903

  14. A Santería/Palo Mayombe ritual cauldron containing a human skull and multiple artifacts recovered in western Massachusetts, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokines, James T

    2015-03-01

    Santería and Palo Mayombe are West African-derived religions/sects with components of Catholicism, and both involve the ritual use of nonhuman skeletal remains which make them an increasing object of forensic interest. Palo Mayombe specifically involves also the use of human skeletal remains placed within ritual cauldrons or ngangas along with multiple ritual artifacts. A case of a nganga recovered from a periodically drained canal in Western Massachusetts, U.S.A. is presented. This nganga contained multiple items indicating its origin, including railroad spikes, coins, other metal objects, a stone, a glass bead, and multiple labeled and unlabeled sticks and was associated with a knife. It also contained skeletal remains of a bird and a snake as well as a nearly intact human skull of an adult male. The origin of the human remains is likely from a cemetery or as a former anatomical specimen. The find of this nganga is atypical in that it is away from the usual urban centers of Palo Mayombe in the U.S.A., and forensic practitioners should be aware that such sources of human remains may occur in their jurisdictions.

  15. Investigation of a Medieval Pilgrim Burial Excavated from the Leprosarium of St Mary Magdalen Winchester, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katie; Filipek-Ogden, Kori; Montgomery, Janet; Cameron, Jamie; O’Connell, Tamsin; Evans, Jane; Marter, Phil; Taylor, G. Michael

    2017-01-01

    We have examined the remains of a Pilgrim burial from St Mary Magdalen, Winchester. The individual was a young adult male, aged around 18–25 years at the time of death. Radiocarbon dating showed the remains dated to the late 11th–early 12th centuries, a time when pilgrimages were at their height in Europe. Several lines of evidence in connection with the burial suggested this was an individual of some means and prestige. Although buried within the leprosarium cemetery, the skeleton showed only minimal skeletal evidence for leprosy, which was confined to the bones of the feet and legs. Nonetheless, molecular testing of several skeletal elements, including uninvolved bones all showed robust evidence of DNA from Mycobacterium leprae, consistent with the lepromatous or multibacillary form of the disease. We infer that in life, this individual almost certainly suffered with multiple soft tissue lesions. Genotyping of the M.leprae strain showed this belonged to the 2F lineage, today associated with cases from South-Central and Western Asia. During osteological examination it was noted that the cranium and facial features displayed atypical morphology for northern European populations. Subsequently, geochemical isotopic analyses carried out on tooth enamel indicated that this individual was indeed not local to the Winchester region, although it was not possible to be more specific about their geographic origin. PMID:28125649

  16. Brief Excavation Report of the Ming and Qing Tombs at Xiangyu Park of Chuzhou in Huai'an%淮安楚州翔宇花园明清墓葬群发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A series of Ming and Qing tombs were unearthed from an ancient cemetery located at Xiangyu Park in Chuzhou,Huai'an.These tombs were built at different times.Some of them were arranged in an order of proper formalities of young and old and are believed to be the family tombs of the Ming Dynasty.A large number of exquisite funerary objects were unearthed.These objects contain clear time traces with complex cultural elements.These discoveries provide significant references to the study of the funeral customs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties and the local history and culture of Huai'an.%淮安楚州翔宇花园明清墓葬群是一处大型的古代墓地,墓葬时代早晚不一,墓地中出现了排列有序、长幼关系清楚的明代家族墓。此批墓葬随葬器物丰富精美,时代特征明显,文化因素较为复杂,这对研究明清时期丧葬礼俗及淮安地方历史文化特别是明清时期历史具有重要的价值。

  17. Compact Integration of a GSM-19 Magnetic Sensor with High-Precision Positioning using VRS GNSS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Belda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic data consists of a sequence of collected points with spatial coordinates and magnetic information. The spatial location of these points needs to be as exact as possible in order to develop a precise interpretation of magnetic anomalies. GPS is a valuable tool for accomplishing this objective, especially if the RTK approach is used. In this paper the VRS (Virtual Reference Station technique is introduced as a new approach for real-time positioning of magnetic sensors. The main advantages of the VRS approach are, firstly, that only a single GPS receiver is needed (no base station is necessary, reducing field work and equipment costs. Secondly, VRS can operate at distances separated 50-70 km from the reference stations without degrading accuracy. A compact integration of a GSM-19 magnetometer sensor with a geodetic GPS antenna is presented; this integration does not diminish the operational flexibility of the original magnetometer and can work with the VRS approach. The coupled devices were tested in marshlands around Gandia, a city located approximately 100 km South of Valencia (Spain, thought to be the site of a Roman cemetery. The results obtained show adequate geometry and high-precision positioning for the structures to be studied (a comparison with the original low precision GPS of the magnetometer is presented. Finally, the results of the magnetic survey are of great interest for archaeological purposes.

  18. Compact Integration of a GSM-19 Magnetic Sensor with High-Precision Positioning using VRS GNSS Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Angel; Padín, Jorge; Anquela, Ana Belén; Sánchez, Juán; Belda, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic data consists of a sequence of collected points with spatial coordinates and magnetic information. The spatial location of these points needs to be as exact as possible in order to develop a precise interpretation of magnetic anomalies. GPS is a valuable tool for accomplishing this objective, especially if the RTK approach is used. In this paper the VRS (Virtual Reference Station) technique is introduced as a new approach for real-time positioning of magnetic sensors. The main advantages of the VRS approach are, firstly, that only a single GPS receiver is needed (no base station is necessary), reducing field work and equipment costs. Secondly, VRS can operate at distances separated 50-70 km from the reference stations without degrading accuracy. A compact integration of a GSM-19 magnetometer sensor with a geodetic GPS antenna is presented; this integration does not diminish the operational flexibility of the original magnetometer and can work with the VRS approach. The coupled devices were tested in marshlands around Gandia, a city located approximately 100 km South of Valencia (Spain), thought to be the site of a Roman cemetery. The results obtained show adequate geometry and high-precision positioning for the structures to be studied (a comparison with the original low precision GPS of the magnetometer is presented). Finally, the results of the magnetic survey are of great interest for archaeological purposes.

  19. Problems and Countermeasures of illegal use of Forestland in Guangdong Province%广东省违法违规使用林地问题与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区汉明

    2012-01-01

    广东省违法违规使用林地的主要问题表现在毁林采矿、重点工程项目未批先占、毁林开垦、毁林建坟等方面.文中分析问题发生的原因,指出特点:突发性、复杂性、尖锐性、艰巨性、长期性.提出应对措施:提前介入重点工程项目使用林地,积极配合做好补充耕地工作,规范征占用林地审核审批管理,加强基层林地管理人员技术培训,加大对违法违规使用林地行为的打击力度等.%Problems of illegal use of forest land in the Guangdong Province have been listed i. e, deforestation for mining, deforestation for key projects, deforestation for farmland and cemetery. This paper analyzed the characteristics of those problems like sudden, complex, acute, arduous, and long-term. Countermeasures i. e, be prepared to use forestland for key projects, actively cooperate with additional land use, regulate reclaimed forestland management, strengthen forest land management and technical training, crackdown illegal use of forestland behavior etc, have also been carried out.

  20. Shang Period Site and Tombs at Daxinzhuang in Jinan City%济南市大辛庄商代居址与墓葬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山东大学东方考古研究中心; 山东省文物考古研究所; 济南市考古研究所

    2004-01-01

    In March to June 2003, Shandong University, the Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and the Jinan Municipal Institute of Archaeology curried out an excavation on the Daxinzhuang site. The work brought about following results. (1) Four inscribed oracle bones of the Shang period were unearthed. (2) Three Shang cemeteries with 37 tombs were found to be of the middle Shang and the middle and late Shang respectively. (3) House-foundations, cellars and ash-pits were revealed along with a great number of objects. The other finds include quantities of faunal, floral and soil specimens. The excavation provided extremely important data for restudying the nature of the site, researching the Shang Dynasty relationship with the eastern land, and studying political system and social organization in the Shang period. The unearthed oracle-bone inscriptions will exert active influence upon studies of oracle-bones, archaeology of the Shang period, and research on the history of Shang Dynasty. The discovered natural specimens furnished valuable material for investigating then ecological environments, people's diet composition and the cultural meaning of faunal and floral remains.

  1. Parasitic contamination of surface and deep soil in different areas of Sari in north of Iran

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    Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the parasitic contamination of soil in selected areas of Sari, north of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify all available parasites in surface and deep soil. In this study 580 soil samples (278 deep soil and 302 topsoil samples from 21 different locations were collected from pathways, parks, greenhouses, estates around the city, cemetery, main squares, farmlands, fenced gardens and seashores. Depending on the soil type, two samples were prepared, from surface and deep soil at the depth of 3 to 5 cm. After performing various stages of preparation, including cleaning and washing, smoothing and flotation, parasitic elements were examined microscopically and quantitative parasite counting was done using a McMaster slide. Results: The results showed that the highest rate of parasitic contamination was related to nematodes larvae (26.11%. Other contaminants such as Entamoeba and Acanthamoeba cysts, vacuolization Blastocystis hominis form, oocyte containing sporocysts, Toxascaris eggs, nematoda larvae, Hymenolepis eggs, Ascaris eggs, Fasciola eggs, hookworm eggs, Toxocara eggs, insects' larvae and other ciliated and flagellated organisms were also observed. The results of this study showed that the highest contamination was found in public garden (25.80% both in surface (29.30% and in deep soil (21.12%, while the lowest level of contamination was observed in seashore surface soil (4.90%. Conclusions: The results showed that soil can provide a potential medium for the spread of soil transmitted parasitic diseases in the environment; therefore, preventive programs are needed.

  2. [Amédée Latour (1805-1882) Physician, journalist, mutualist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthon, Jean-Marie

    2015-06-01

    AmedéeLatour (1805-1882), native Toulousain and grand-son of a professor of medicine, came to Paris to study, prior to support his doctoral thesis in 1834, bringing his "Proposals on art cure ". He has not practiced much medicine in Paris, but quickly focused toward medical journalism, writing articles in various scientific publications, particularly L'Union médicale from 1847 to 1882. He acquainted with several prominent medical doctors of the nineteenth century, especially Professor Andral. General Secretary of the French medical Congress in 1845, he was also the initiator and founder of the Social Security Association provident and mutual aid doctors in France. Member of the Public Health Advisory Committee, he was elected partner of the Academy of Medicine in 1870. Furthermore, from March to May 1870 AmedéeLatour became a refugee in his modest country house in Châtillon-sous-Bagneux and wrote a personal journal called "Journal of the bombing from April 4 to May 28", published in L'Unionmédicale the next July. He was able to describe the consequences of the bombing in his city of adoption during the Parisian insurrection, and his role as doctor and member of the city council during this period. He was buried in the cemetery of the city.

  3. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP.

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    Hui Shen

    Full Text Available Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji'erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument, bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling, rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment.

  4. ”Tusinder af vingeskudte Trækfugle”. Soldatergrave og dansk-franske erindringssteder 1915-1925 ca.

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    Ning de Coninck-Smith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of Wing-Shot Migratory Birds. Soldier Graves and Danish-French Places of Remembrance Approx. 1915-1925During the months following the end of the First World War in November 1918, some 100,000 prisoners of war passed through Denmark on their way home from the camps on the Eastern Front. Some did not make it all the way, but died from exhaustion and the Spanish flu during their stay in Denmark. The present article deals with the part that these dead soldiers came to play in the formation of a remembrance culture in a country which had not itself taken part in the war. More specifically, it deals with the monuments which a small group of nationally-conservative men and women with ties to the armed forces and the social elite erected between 1919 and 1925 in remembrance of the dead French soldiers. To their minds, France had been the sole serious ally in the struggle for the return of North Schleswig to Denmark. For that reason, they were also behind two monuments in France to commemorate the fallen Danish-minded Schleswigers and the fallen Danes of the French Foreign Legion. Their national-conservative engagementand criticism of the policy of neutrality pursued during the war by the Danish government largely determined the creation and the form of the cemeteries.

  5. Memorial service: A means of communication with the dead

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    Ivanović-Barišić Milina M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A specific relationship toward the dead characterizes the traditional Serbian culture; this cult exists even today, in somewhat changed form. A death is always followed by the appropriate, traditional, ritual obligations that served to regulate behavior of a family, or even wider community members that has lost one of its members. The relationship with the dead does not cease after the funeral, but it continues to be maintained during general holidays dedicated to the dead-memorial service. These are the days dedicated to all dead, and when offerings were made especially for the deceased. The memorial services take place in particular days of the year: most often on Saturdays, on Saturdays before another holiday, the Spirits, and on Saturdays before the holiday Mitrovdan; memorial services are also connected with some other holidays during the year. In addition to the general memorial service dedicated to all dead, there are so-called special memorial services, which take place only in special occasions (on holidays like Petrovdan, Saint Ilija, Velika Gospojina, Trojice and more. Many different rituals performed during memorial services, as well as ritual objects used should provide the deceased with a safe residence in their new environment. The most important rituals that enabled the communication with the dead include: preparing and sharing food and drinks, visits to a cemetery, lighting candles, incense of graves, vine spilling, decoration with flowers and basilica. The most important ritual objects are: graves, food, drinks, candles, incense, vine, flowers and basilica.

  6. From state terrorism to state errorism: post-Pinochet Chile's long search for truth and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndham, Marivic; Read, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Patio 29 lies in the northern sector of Santiago's General Cemetery. To the naked eye, it is a grim unweeded field of some twelve hundred rusted tin crosses. But to the families of the 1,197 detained-disappeared during Augusto Pinochet's brutal dictatorship, Patio 29 is both a site of horror and a site of hope. Its story begins in September-December 1973 when 320 early victims of the repression were brought there in makeshift wooden crates that held as many as three bodies each, and buried in unmarked graves. A few years later, two hundred of those graves were exhumed by the military, and the remains presumably cremated. For another decade, the mass grave remained silent, yielding few of its secrets to the families' demands to know: Where are they? Today, nineteen years into the so-called transition to democracy, Patio 29--the most important single finding in relation to Chile's detained-disappeared-still refuses to reveal the identities of those victims, pressing upon the government of Michelle Bachelet a new question: Who are they? First state terror, now state error have conspired to make Patio 29 one of Chile's principal horror-cum-hopescapes.

  7. Geometrics used as projectile points. Economic, social and ideological implications for the Neolithic societies of the 5th-3rd Millennium Cal. BC in Northeast Iberia

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    Gibaja, Juan Francisco

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are going to present the results of the usewear analysis of the geometrics found in the Neolithic settlements and cemeteries of Catalonian. If the use-wear analysis has demostrated that these geometrics were used as projectile points, the statistical analysis has demostrated that are one of the elements mostly closely associated with adult male burials. This ha allowed us to propose a socioeconomic approach of the human groups that occupied these places.

    En este artículo presentamos los resultados del análisis funcional realizado sobre numerosos geométricos hallados en asentamientos y necrópolis de Cataluña. Si el análisis traceológico nos ha demostrado que estos geométricos fueron usados como proyectiles, el tratamiento estadístico nos ha permitido observar que son uno de los instrumentos más estrechamente asociados con los enterramientos de individuos adultos masculinos. Ello nos ha permitido hacer algunas reflexiones relacionadas con aspectos socio-económicos de las comunidades que ocuparon estos yacimientos.

  8. Un vaso de alabastro procedente de Adra conservado en el Museo de Almería

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    García Alfonso, Eduardo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A previously unpublished alabaster jar from Adra, a coastal site some 50 km to the west of Almería is yet another example of a numerous class of Egyptian containers of the 8th-7th centuries BC discovered on the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. A casual find, the funerary character of this piece suggests that there may have been a cemetery of the Early Phoenician Period in the immediate neighbourhood of the colonial settlement of Abdera.Se estudia un vaso de alabastro inédito procedente de la localidad almeriense de Adra, pieza que se añade a la ya numerosa serie de recipientes de origen egipcio conocida en las costas meridionales de la Península durante los siglos VIII-VII a.C. El principal interés de este hallazgo casual radica en su carácter funerario, siendo indicio de una posible necrópolis de época fenicia arcaica en las inmediaciones del asentamiento colonial de Abdera.

  9. [CCR7 silence by siRNA inhibits proliferation, invasion and promotes apoptosis of human MG63 osteosarcoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Richun; Zhang, Hongtao; E, Zhen; Ma, Qiong; Yan, Shiju; Zhang, Enwei; Ma, Bao'an

    2016-12-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of siRNA-mediated chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) silence on the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of human MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. Methods The study designed and synthesized siRNA targeting CCR7 (CCR7-siRNA). After MG63 cells were transfected with CCR7-siRNA, the expression of CCR7 was identified by Western blotting; cell apoptosis was detected by annexinV-FITC/PI double staining combined with flow cemetery; cell proliferation was tested by MTT assay; and cell migration and invasion abilities were examined by Transwell(TM) migration/invasion assays. Results CCR7 expression in MG63 cells was significantly inhibited after transfected with CCR7-siRNA. At the same time, cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities were distinctly suppressed, and cell apoptosis rate increased. Conclusion Down-regulating CCR7 expression in MG63 cells could apparently inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of MG63 cells, and also induce cell apoptosis.

  10. William Horner Andrews (1887–1953 – First Professor of Physiology at Onderstepoort

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    D. W. Verwoerd

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available WHAndrews qualified as a veterinarian in London in 1908 and was recruited soon after, in 1909, by Sir Arnold Theiler to join the staff of the newly established veterinary laboratory at Onderstepoort. After initial studies on the treatment of trypanosomosis and on snake venoms he was deployed by Theiler in 1911 to start research on lamsiekte (botulismat a field station on the farm Kaffraria near Christiana, where he met and married his wife Doris. After a stint as Captain in the SA Veterinary Corps during World War I he succeeded D T Mitchell as head of the Allerton Laboratory in 1918, where he excelled in research on toxic plants, inter alia identifying Matricaria nigellaefolia as the cause of staggers in cattle.Whenthe Faculty ofVeterinary Science was established in 1920 he was appointed as the first Professor of Physiology. After the graduation of the first class in 1924, and due to health problems, he returned to the UK, first to the Royal Veterinary College and then to the Weybridge Veterinary Laboratories of which he became Director in 1927.After his retirement in 1947 he returned to South Africa as a guest worker at Onderstepoort where he again became involved in teaching physiologywhenProf. Quin unexpectedly died in 1950. Andrews died in Pretoria in 1953 and was buried in the Rebecca Street Cemetery.

  11. The Hillcrest mine disaster: Canada's deadliest mining accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Corey

    2011-02-15

    On June 19, 1914, the worst mining incident in Canadian history occurred at the Hillcrest coal mine in the Crowsnest Pass, in the southern Alberta-BC border. An overproduction occurred a few days before the disaster and the mine was then shut down during the two previous days to check for methane gas pockets. As the union committee did not find any, work resumed on June 19 and 234 men entered the mine. At 9:30 a.m. a massive explosion took place followed by one or two other explosions. The entrance to the mine was obstructed trapping the survivors in the mine with a lack of oxygen and rise of CO2 levels up to 50%. Rescue teams entered the mine facing the risk of further explosions and 46 men were saved by the end of the day. To commemorate this accident a monument was built at the entrance to the Hillcrest cemetery in honor of all miners killed on the job in Canada.

  12. Children of the Golden Minster: St. Oswald’s Priory and the Impact of Industrialisation on Child Health

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    Mary E. Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the disease experience of children buried within the cemetery of St. Oswald’s Priory, Gloucester from AD1153 to 1857. Evidence for ages-at-death, infant mortality, and the prevalence of stress indicators, trauma, and pathology were compared between the early and postmedieval periods. The skeletal remains of these children provide evidence for child health spanning the economic expansion of Gloucester at St. Oswald’s, from a mostly rural parish to a graveyard catering for families from the poorer northern part of the town and the workhouse. Results showed that the children from the postmedieval period in Gloucester suffered higher rates of dental caries (38% and congenital conditions (17.3% than their counterparts from the early and later medieval period. This paper serves to highlight the value of nonadult skeletal material in the interpretation of past human health in transitional societies and illustrates the wide variety of pathological conditions that can be observed in nonadult skeletons.

  13. Mountains, Monuments, and other Matter: Environmental Affects at Manzanar

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    Ladino, Jennifer K.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the natural landscapes and built structures at the Manzanar National Historic Site, the first of ten incarceration camps to open in 1941 and a temporary home for over 11,000 Japanese Americans. Using former incarceree Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston’s writing as a touchstone, my essay foregrounds the environmental features of the (relocation: the extreme desert weather, the mountain vistas, the incarceree-created rock gardens, the reconstructed barracks, guard tower, and barbed wire fence, and the cemetery/monument. I bring together concepts from ecocriticism and from affect theory—particularly Ben Anderson’s “affective atmospheres,” Sianne Ngai’s “tone,” and Sara Ahmed’s characterization of affect as “sticky”—and develop the notion of affective agency to describe the impacts generated by environments and objects at this national memory site. I assess how the visual and written rhetoric at the site addresses what I call an implied tourist, and I show how powerful emotions of shame, anger, grief, and compassion—and sometimes, mixed, even contradictory, affects—are not only represented in visual and written rhetoric but are also, in a sense, communicated by the environment itself. More broadly, I suggest that ecocritical theory brings a useful lens to discussions of public memory, and that affect theory helps account for the less tangible, visceral, experiences visitors have at Manzanar and other fraught historical sites, as well as within our everyday environments.

  14. Purple Staining of Archaeological Human Bone: An Investigation of Probable Cause and Implications for Other Tissues and Artifacts

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    Garrard Cole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excavations in the 1990s at the medieval Chapter House of Worcester Cathedral, UK, revealed medieval human skeletal remains, some of which exhibited a distinctive purple coloration. The nature of the colored bone was investigated using solvents for stain extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, plane polarized (PPL and cross-polarized (XPL light microscopy, and auto fluorescence (AF microscopy. Normal bone from the cemetery was used as a control. The color does not arise from a stain soluble in normal organic solvents. EDX and XRD analysis showed no significant difference between purple and normal bone. XRF analysis shows the presence of trace levels of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper in the affected material. This exhibited a pink color in acid phase and a blue color in alkaline phase. These two states were reversible. The alkaline phase gradually changed irreversibly to yellow over time. These data suggest that the coloration is consistent with the presence of high levels of purple acid phosphatase (PAP enzyme. The presence of trace amounts of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper suggests a plant or fungal origin for the putative PAP, possibly a member of the Aspergillus ficuum species.

  15. The indicial role of photography on grave inscriptions O papel indicial da fotografia nas lápides de cemitério

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    Miguel Luiz Contani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand the way the sign acts in the imaginary and in the repertory of the reader (influenced by paradigms in the act of reception of the visual text. Reading is focused here as a phenomenon sustained by the sign as a sparkler of the individual’s imaginary and repertory as a text receptor. The indicial feature of photography is analyzed by using fixed portraits in Arapongas municipal cemetery. Este estudo busca compreender a forma como o signo atua no imaginário e no repertório do leitor (influenciado por paradigmas no ato da recepção do texto visual. A leitura é um fenômeno que tem por instrumento o signo para a ativação do imaginário e do repertório do indivíduo enquanto receptor do texto. A característica indicial da fotografia é estudada utilizando retratos fixados nas lápides do cemitério municipal de Arapongas focando o ato de ler.

  16. Alteration of the ethnic diversity and ethnic segregation index in Latvia during the first and second independence periods

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    Ádám Németh

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the Baltic area is traditionally one of the most diverse regions of Europe in terms of ethnic concerns; we can observe in many settlements that four or even five religions have their own churches, cemeteries and at least as many ethnic groups are having their schools etc. Regarding geography literature, no generally accepted method has been applied yet to measure the population’s diversity and spatial segregation; in most cases only the number and ratio of ethnic groups were described. This research paper proposes a different approach: the adaptation of the so-called Simpson’s Diversity Index, based on probability theory and originally used by ecologists to measure biodiversity, to human geography. The study seeks the answers to: where, when, why and how has the Ethnic Diversity and Ethnic Segregation Index changed in Latvia during the first and second independence periods? What kind of spatial patterns are possible to observe on the basis of the transformation? The enormous data is processed by modern GIS software products and projected on thematic maps.

  17. Laser Engraving Gulf Pearl Shell - Aiding the Reconstruction of the Lyre of Ur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawcliffe, C.; Aston, M.; Lowings, A.; Sharp, M. C.; Watkins, Kenneth

    The Lyre of Ur was one of two bull's-headed harp instruments that British archaeologist Sir Leonard Woolley recovered from a mass grave during his highly publicised excavations of Ur's Royal Cemetery in the 1920s and 1930s in Iraq. Recreated unplayable models of the Lyre are held in Pennsylvania, London and, until recently before it was vandalised, the Baghdad Museum. It is believed that the original Lyre is approximately 4,750 years old. An attempt to recreate an authentic playable version is being spearheaded by Mr. A. Lowings of Stamford. The instrument is to be ornamented by a golden-sheeted bull's head and geometrically inlaid lapis lazuli as well as engraved gulf pearl shell plaques depicting Sumerian images, which are to be placed on the front of the lyre. Authentic cedar wood from Baghdad was used to create the main framework of the lyre. Due to the intricate designs required for the shell plaques, an investigation to laser engrave them was undertaken.

  18. Identification of the nitrate contamination sources of the Brusselian sands groundwater body (Belgium) using a dual-isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Samuel; Sebilo, Mathieu; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2011-09-01

    Isotopic fingerprinting is an advanced technique allowing the classification of the nitrate source pollution of groundwater, but needs further development and validation. In this study, we performed measurements of natural stable isotopic composition of nitrate ((15)N and (18)O) in the groundwater body of the Brussels sands (Belgium) and studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the isotope signature of this aquifer. Potential nitrogen sources sampled in the region had isotopic signatures that fell within the corresponding typical ranges found in the literature. For a few monitoring stations, the isotopic data strongly suggest that the sources of nitrate are from mineral fertiliser origin, as used in agriculture and golf courses. Other stations suggest that manure leaching from unprotected stockpiles in farms, domestic gardening practices, septic tanks and probably cemeteries contribute to the nitrate pollution of this groundwater body. For most monitoring stations, nitrate originates from a mixing of several nitrogen sources. The isotopic signature of the groundwater body was poorly structured in space, but exhibited a clear temporal structure. This temporal structure could be explained by groundwater recharge dynamics and cycling process of nitrogen in the soil-nitrogen pool.

  19. Taxonomic and functional trait diversity of wild bees in different urban settings

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    Étienne Normandin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the major anthropogenic processes contributing to local habitat loss and extirpation of numerous species, including wild bees, the most widespread pollinators. Little is known about the mechanisms through which urbanization impacts wild bee communities, or the types of urban green spaces that best promote their conservation in cities. The main objective of this study was to describe and compare wild bee community diversity, structure, and dynamics in two Canadian cities, Montreal and Quebec City. A second objective was to compare functional trait diversity among three habitat types (cemeteries, community gardens and urban parks within each city. Bees were collected using pan traps and netting on the same 46 sites, multiple times, over the active season in 2012 and 2013. A total of 32,237 specimens were identified, representing 200 species and 6 families, including two new continental records, Hylaeus communis Nylander (1852 and Anthidium florentinum (Fabricius, 1775. Despite high community evenness, we found significant abundance of diverse species, including exotic ones. Spatio-temporal analysis showed higher stability in the most urbanized city (Montreal but low nestedness of species assemblages among the three urban habitats in both cities. Our study demonstrates that cities are home to diverse communities of wild bees, but in turn affect bee community structure and dynamics. We also found that community gardens harbour high levels of functional trait diversity. Urban agriculture therefore contributes substantially to the provision of functionally diverse bee communities and possibly to urban pollination services.

  20. Taxonomic and functional trait diversity of wild bees in different urban settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, Christopher M.; Fournier, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the major anthropogenic processes contributing to local habitat loss and extirpation of numerous species, including wild bees, the most widespread pollinators. Little is known about the mechanisms through which urbanization impacts wild bee communities, or the types of urban green spaces that best promote their conservation in cities. The main objective of this study was to describe and compare wild bee community diversity, structure, and dynamics in two Canadian cities, Montreal and Quebec City. A second objective was to compare functional trait diversity among three habitat types (cemeteries, community gardens and urban parks) within each city. Bees were collected using pan traps and netting on the same 46 sites, multiple times, over the active season in 2012 and 2013. A total of 32,237 specimens were identified, representing 200 species and 6 families, including two new continental records, Hylaeus communis Nylander (1852) and Anthidium florentinum (Fabricius, 1775). Despite high community evenness, we found significant abundance of diverse species, including exotic ones. Spatio-temporal analysis showed higher stability in the most urbanized city (Montreal) but low nestedness of species assemblages among the three urban habitats in both cities. Our study demonstrates that cities are home to diverse communities of wild bees, but in turn affect bee community structure and dynamics. We also found that community gardens harbour high levels of functional trait diversity. Urban agriculture therefore contributes substantially to the provision of functionally diverse bee communities and possibly to urban pollination services.

  1. Angelic iconographies of the 19th and 20th centuries in the Cimitero Acattolico of Rome: psychopomps, triumphants, mourners and seducers

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    María Victoria Álvarez Rodríguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally it has been considered that the dual nature of angels, halfway between divinity and humanity, made them the most appropriate iconographic representations within the funerary context. Heirs of the marble sculptures that adorned the graves from the Renaissance, in the 19th century these effigies experienced a series of changes in their physical appearance that were closer and closer to the image that today we associate with contemporary cemeteries. This new iconography had a wide range of possibilities: psychopomps angels, triumphants angels, mourners angels... In this study we intend to draw an overview of the iconography present in the Cimitero Acattolico of Rome, one of the most unique places in the Eternal City due to the coexistence that was in it between the traditions of the various Protestant societies and the Catholic substrate in which they were immersed. The angels that adorn those graves also accuse this double influence, and serve as a perfect example of syncretism not only between religions but also between mentalities.

  2. Effect of laser treatment on the surface of copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbacz, Halina, E-mail: hgarbacz@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Fortuna-Zalesna, Elzbieta [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Marczak, Jan [Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Koss, Andrzej; Zatorska, Anna [Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, Inter-Academy Institute for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Wybrzeze Kosciuszkowskie 37, 00-379 Warsaw (Poland); Zukowska, Grazyna Z. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Onyszczuk, Tomasz; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents the results of laser cleaning of the archaeological metal objects using two time widths of pulsed laser radiation, which are around 150 {mu}s and around 120 ns. Two archaeological objects made of copper alloys were studied: a bow and a ring. Both objects came from a cemetery which is located in the garden complex of Wilanow Palace in Warsaw and are dated from XII to XIII century. The bow and bronze ring had ornamental longitudinal grooving and were part of burial jewellery. The materials of which these artefacts were made of, as well as corrosion products on these objects, were studied by using a variety of analytical techniques. The phase composition of the corrosion layers was determined by using Raman spectroscopy. The surface topography as well as the chemical composition of the deposits and cleaned surfaces were investigated. The samples were examined using scanning electron microscopes equipped with EDS. The investigations included observations in SE and BSE modes and point analyses of the chemical composition by EDS.

  3. The Architecture of a Lifetime: Structures of Remembrance and Invention in Walter Benjamin and Aldo Rossi

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    Jolien Paeleman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the result of research on the influence of Walter Benjamin’s thinking in the work of Italian architect Aldo Rossi (1931–1997. In present-day architectural criticism, Aldo Rossi’s oeuvre still constitutes a rich subject for discussion because of its resistance to easy pinpointing, even if Rossi himself explained his theories and methods of design on numerous occasions. In his writings, among these A Scientific Autobiography, Rossi quotes from a collection of Benjamin’s memoirs: Berlin Childhood around 1900. The architect believes that these short prose pieces express better than anything else what he himself had not been able to explain in his writing. In this paper I intend to show the poignancy of the words Rossi referred to and the implications they had on his architecture by offering close comparisons of Benjamin’s and Rossi’s autobiographical writings. In addition, this study examines how one of Rossi’s most famous architectural artefacts, the ossuary of San Cataldo cemetery at Modena, can be viewed as a coalescence of a Benjaminian thought-image, thereby fortifying the philosopher’s presence in modern architecture.

  4. Deux archers assyriens à Mari (Syrie. Esquisse sur l’introduction du fer au Proche-Orient ancien

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    Montero Fenollós, Juan Luis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study about two graves from the Middle Assyrian cemetery in Mari (Syria. The presence of iron arrowheads between the funeral furniture has served to make an approach to the process of introduction of this new metal in the Near East in the Late Bronze Age. The written and archaeological documentation demonstrates that the iron was considered as a precious metal, used by Assyrian elites to show its social position.

    Este artículo es un estudio sobre dos tumbas del cementerio medio-asirio de Mari (Siria. La presencia de puntas de flecha de hierro entre el ajuar funerario ha servido para realizar una aproximación al proceso de introducción de este nuevo metal en el Próximo Oriente durante el Bronce Reciente. Tanto la documentación escrita como la arqueológica demuestran que el hierro era considerado como un metal precioso y, como tal, usado por las élites asirias para mostrar su posición social.

  5. Pemesinan Laju Tinggi dan Pemesinan Kering Menggunakan Pahat Karbida pada Bahan Aluminium 6061

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    Bobby Umroh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of high speed machining and dry machining use for the best cutting conditions on the roughness aluminum 6061 material surface using a carbide tool. Collection machining test data is performed 4 times trial with 3 main variable is the rate of cutting (V, Ingestion rate (f and depth of cut (a at three levels of scale. The best surface roughness conditions is determined by the rate of the cemetery, where the rate of feeding is recommended at f = 0.12 mm/rev or < 0:17 mm/rev. Effect of cutting force is inversely proportional to the value of rate of cuts. At the greater of the cutting force so the surface roughness also getting smaller. Depth of cut and rate cuts also affects on the surface roughness but not in any condition determined. At the lowest state with V = 1000 m/min f = 0:12 mm/rev and a = 1 mm, surface defects (surface defect. Possibly, this is caused by the vibration of the tool due to lack of dynamic balance in the cutting process.

  6. A new reference collection of documented human skeletons from Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Keb, J R; Albertos-González, V M; Ortega-Muñoz, A; Tiesler, V G

    2013-10-01

    This report documents the history and composition of a new reference collection currently composed of 84 identified human skeletons from the modern cemetery of Xoclán in Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico. The skeletal sample is the first of its kind in the Yucatan peninsula, a region with a population short of two million mostly local and non-local Mexican residents and descendants of the ancient Maya. The growing collection is curated at the Facultad de Ciencias Antropológicas (School of Anthropological Sciences) of the Autonomous University of Yucatan. Here we describe recovery procedures, preservation, background information and validation measures of the individuals who make up the collection. Detailed information on the generational pattern, sex, and age distribution, along with socioeconomic context and provenance of the skeletons are provided. The majority of the skeletal series is represented by males and by older individuals of both sexes. Almost all of these individuals come from Mérida's middle and lower socioeconomic sectors and died within the urban city boundaries. Biographic information was collected on each individual at the municipal civil registry and confronted with information of national and municipal censuses (2000 and 2005), to be validated and to be discussed here in terms of the representativeness of the reference series and its potential uses in forensic, anthropological and medical research.

  7. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age

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    Zhang Quanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far. Results Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K, whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin.

  8. Pollution par les nitrates des eaux souterraines du bassin d'Essaouira (Maroc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laftouhi, Nour-Eddine; Vanclooster, Marnik; Jalal, Mohammed; Witam, Omar; Aboufirassi, Mohamed; Bahir, Mohamed; Persoons, Étienne

    2003-03-01

    The Essaouira Basin (Morocco) contains a multi-layered aquifer situated in fractured and karstic materials from the Middle and Upper Cretaceous (the Cenomanian, Turonian and Senonian). Water percolates through the limestone and dolomite formations of the Turonian stage either through the marls and calcareous marls of the Cenomanian or through the calcareous marly materials of the Senonian. The aquifer system may be interconnected since the marl layer separating the Turonian, Cenomanian and Senonian aquifers is thin or intensively fractured. In that case, the water is transported through a network of fractures and stratification joints. This paper describes the extent of the nitrate pollution in the area and its origin. Most of the wells and drillholes located in the Kourimat perimeter are contaminated by nitrates with some concentrations over 400 mg l-1. Nitrate contamination is also observed in the surface water of the Qsob River, which constitutes the natural outlet of the multi-layered complex aquifer system. In this area, agriculture is more developed than in the rest of the Essaouira Basin. Diffuse pollution of the karstic groundwater body by agricultural fertiliser residues may therefore partially explain the observed nitrate pollution. However, point pollution around the wells, springs and drillholes from human wastewater, livestock faeces and the mineralisation of organic debris close to the Muslim cemeteries cannot be excluded.

  9. Nomad Iconography on Tombstones from Luristan, Iran

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    Inge Demant Mortensen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Luristan in western Iran the nomad cemeteries are scattered apparently at random across the landscape. The history of these nomads is not very well known, and until a few years ago they were themselves largely illiterate. They have lived in areas which comprise some of the very isolated mountain valleys and plains in the central Zagros mountains, and untilrecently their rhythm of life was to a great extent determined by the changing seasons. In the interpretation of the images on Luristani tombstones, it may never be possible ,with certainty, to arrive at the correct interpretation of a motif. The signs and symbols on the tombstones are comparable to a code whereby messages are converted from one form of representation to another, which means that they have to be encoded in a form that the communicants can easily interpret. In a community sharing the same religion, cultural inheritance and social background, and living at a given time in particular area, this should present no problem. But if one or more of these elements are altered, the whole structural pattern and symbolic scheme of the community will be affected: as, for example, is clearly demonstrated by the forcible settlement of nomads in Luristan which has caused an abrupt discontinuation in the erection of pictorial tombstones. The more drastic the change, the quicker the transition of symbolic values into fossilized and sometimes incomprehensible fragments of a tradition.

  10. Memories in Present Tense: Affect and Spectrality in Contemporary Aquatic Imaginaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Depetris Chauvin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering recent contributions on affective geographies and on the relationships between memory and spectrality, this papere analyses aquatic imaginaries in a corpus of audiovisual works from Argentina and Chile. Through water, El botón de nácar (Patricio Guzmán, 2015, Los durmientes, El exilio imaginado (Enrique Ramírez, 2012-2014, and Las aguas del olvido (Jonathan Perel, 2013 convey an “affective mapping” that creates ways of “being together” in the aftermath of loss. While Patricio Guzmán, Enrique Ramírez and Jonathan Perel refer to the so-called “death flights” – as both the Argentine and the Chilean dictatorship use oceans and rivers to “discard” the corpses of dissidents and “drown” the truth — their works also transgress conventional geographical and historical demarcations. These films, videos and installations subvert stabilizing cartographies and use anachronism to reflect on the contradictory meanings of water as a source of life, epicenter of cultures and cemetery not only for the victims of dictatorships, but also for indigenous groups or even contemporary migrants. Finally, these works insist on an “aesthetics of affect” that makes it possible to “touch” forgotten events, spaces or subjects and to connect different memories and geographies in the present.

  11. A molecular portrait of maternal sepsis from Byzantine Troy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devault, Alison M; Mortimer, Tatum D; Kitchen, Andrew; Kiesewetter, Henrike; Enk, Jacob M; Golding, G Brian; Southon, John; Kuch, Melanie; Duggan, Ana T; Aylward, William; Gardner, Shea N; Allen, Jonathan E; King, Andrew M; Wright, Gerard; Kuroda, Makoto; Kato, Kengo; Briggs, Derek EG; Fornaciari, Gino; Holmes, Edward C; Poinar, Hendrik N; Pepperell, Caitlin S

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy complications are poorly represented in the archeological record, despite their importance in contemporary and ancient societies. While excavating a Byzantine cemetery in Troy, we discovered calcified abscesses among a woman’s remains. Scanning electron microscopy of the tissue revealed ‘ghost cells’, resulting from dystrophic calcification, which preserved ancient maternal, fetal and bacterial DNA of a severe infection, likely chorioamnionitis. Gardnerella vaginalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus dominated the abscesses. Phylogenomic analyses of ancient, historical, and contemporary data showed that G. vaginalis Troy fell within contemporary genetic diversity, whereas S. saprophyticus Troy belongs to a lineage that does not appear to be commonly associated with human disease today. We speculate that the ecology of S. saprophyticus infection may have differed in the ancient world as a result of close contacts between humans and domesticated animals. These results highlight the complex and dynamic interactions with our microbial milieu that underlie severe maternal infections. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20983.001 PMID:28072390

  12. Introductory considerations Athanasios Koukopoulos: The man, the psychiatrist, the original thinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiskal, Hagop S

    2016-10-21

    What I uttered in Athens moved with apparent emotion [that seem to have not escaped Jules Angst's concern] was spontaneous, except for what is printed in the program book, which has somehow vanished from my office, unlike him with his larger than life figure whose memory will live for as long as he lives in the minds and hearts of all those who were privileged to be his family, colleagues, patients, friends, and… countless others, plus those whose email addresses I cannot locate right now sitting in the sunshine of La Jolla-far away from my loved ones-and wondering what ethnic, genetic and environmental factors-perhaps even several Greek gods combined-to produce the original mind and heart of our Athenian friend who, nonetheless, lived in Rome-and now resting not in the 'atheist' cemetery [it took me 5 minutes to spell this word]-but in our hearts for as long as they will beat-perhaps eventually in another realm, 'from whose bourn'-according to Hamlet-no one has ever returned-that's the promise of the Eternal City-where Athanasios is lying.

  13. Excavation of the Zhu Family Graveyard of the Former Qin Period in Wenlin Neighborhood of Xianyang City, Shaanxi%陕西咸阳市文林小区前秦朱氏家族墓的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    咸阳市文物考古研究所

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the Xianyang Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out excavation in an ancient cemetery within Wenlin Neighborhood, and revealed there 114 tombs, including 9 burials of the Former Qin period. These Former Qin graves are the same in structure, each consisting of a tomb passage, a corridor and a chamber. The corpses are buried in wooden coffins. Their funeral objects consist of pottery, bronzes, silver ware, iron artifacts, etc., numbering 167. The pottery includes male and female tomb-figurines, models of ox carts, horses, pigs, dogs, chickens, cooking stoves, wells, mills, granaries and treadle-operated tilt hammers for hulling rice, jars, bowls, small pots and discs. The bronzes embrace basins, bowls, mirrors, bracelets, hairpins, finger-rings, small bells, dui butt-end pieces and crossbows. The iron artifacts belong to the mirror, pick and scissors, and the silver ware includes hairpins, finger-rings and bracelets. In addition, there are gold hairpins, jade pieces, clay chickens, wuzhu and yanhuan coins, and the dated brick epitaphs coming from four tombs. Definite in date, these graves provide important material for studying the tomb shape and burial custom of the Former Qin period and the history of the Sixteen Kingdoms in the Guanzhong region. Moreover, they have great value to establishing the chronological sequence of burials in this region during the Han, Wei and Sixteen Kingdoms periods.

  14. Romanian medieval earring analysis by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest, (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now used for the characterization of archaeological materials. The combination between archaeological and analytical information can provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, heritage authentication and restoration, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange. Surface mapping techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence have become a powerful tool for obtaining qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of cultural heritage materials, including metallic archaeological objects. In this study, the material comes from the Middle Age cemetery of Feldioara (Romania). The excavation of the site located between the evangelical church and the parsonage led to the discovery of several funeral artifacts in 18 graves among a total of 127 excavated. Even if the inventory was quite poor, some of the objects helped in establishing the chronology. Six anonymous Hungarian denarii (silver coins) were attributed to Geza II (1141-1161) and Stefan III (1162-1172), placing the cemetery in the second half of the XII century. This period was also confirmed by three loop shaped earrings with the end in 'S' form (one small and two large earrings). The small earring was found during the excavation in grave number 86, while the two others were discovered together in grave number 113. The anthropological study shown that skeletons excavated from graves 86 and 113 belonged respectively to a child (1 individual, medium level preservation, 9 months +/- 3 months) and to an adult (1 individual). In this work, elemental mapping were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique from Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument offering detailed elemental images with a spatial resolution of 100{mu}m. The analysis revealed that the earrings were composed of copper, zinc and tin as major elements. Minor elements were also determined. The comparison between the two

  15. New quantitative, in-situ characterization of weathering in geomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivano, Simona; Gaggero, Laura; Gisbert Aguilar, Josep; Yus Gonzalez, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    The mineralogical and microtextural analyses of weathered rocks and mortars are the main diagnostic tools to address the materials exposed under different environmental conditions in order to enucleate and mitigate the decay factors. The characterization of weathering intensity is mostly descriptive and non-quantitative (ICOMOS Glossary, 2008); the Fitzner indexes in arenites (Fitzner et al., 2002) and more recently applied to marbles (Scrivano et al., 2013) provide an operator dependent method. The current diagnostic of decay (Drdàcky & Slìzkovà, 2014) based on a scotch tape tearing off the surface was improved by a specifically adapted pocket penetrometer, and a joint gravimetric + minero-chemical analysis under SEM of ablational decay products. The steps are the following: i) Preparation of stubs for SEM with adherent conductive carbon tape (surface area 1.3 cm2) ii) Weighing of stub + tape + its plastic envelope at 0.001 g precision iii) Connecting the stub to a pocket penetrometer iv) Non invasive sampling of the incoherent dust applying a constant pressure of 2 kgf for 1 minute, and then packing away the stub without loosing grains v) Weighing of stub + tape + weathering products + their plastic envelope at 0.001 g precision vi) Recast the weight of removed material vii) Addressing the weathering products to SEM - EDS. Our quantitative peeling test was applied on a 96m long cladded wall in the Staglieno Monumental Cemetery in Genoa. The wall shows weathering gradients due to a neighbouring interred stream and to different insulation. Slabs of ophicalcite marble were tested from three different areas (5 samples were collected to the E, 5 samples at the centre, 5 samples to the W). The results highlighted capillary rise up to 2 meters height and a more weathered central area. On the whole, our protocol allows a delicate, virtually not impacting and reproducible factual sampling. Moreover, if carried out on a statistically significant population, the decay

  16. 光在建筑设计中的应用研究%The Application of Light in Architecture Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓铭; 许振达; 冼伟莹; 李海波

    2015-01-01

    光是产生视觉的基础,对社会发展起着推动作用;光是建筑设计的起始点,在建筑设计中起着重要作用,光对营造环境、效果展示、渲染气氛都有着至关重要的影响。前人的诸多建筑设计作品中,光线在建筑设计中的表达效果做了完美的展示。本文正是对卡洛•斯卡帕和路易斯•巴拉干的作品中光线的运用进行分析。首先,以卡洛•斯卡帕的布里昂家族墓园设计作为案例,以空间顺序对墓园的每个区域的进行介绍;从造园的手法、营造的氛围、光线的表达效果进行深入的探讨,着重研究光线对气氛的营造。其次,对路易斯•巴拉干的圣•克里斯特博马厩与别墅设计进行研究,从环境气氛、设计意境等方面进行论述光在设计中的运用效果。最后,研究总结出光在建筑中的运用方式及表达效果是建筑设计中的营造视觉冲击力和空间氛围的重要手段。%Light is the basis for generating visual, to play a role in promoting social development; starting just architectural design plays an important role in the architectural design, light to create an environment, the effect display, rendering the atmosphere have a crucial impact . Many architectural works predecessors, the light effect of expression in the architectural design made the perfect show. This article is for use• Carlo Scarpa and Luis Barragan's work • ray analysis. First, Carlo Scarpa's • Brion family cemetery designed as a case in order to space the cemetery order of each region are introduced; the effect of expression of the way from the garden, to create an atmosphere, light depth Discussion focuses on the study of light to create atmosphere. Secondly, St. Louis Barragan • Cristobal stables research and villa design, use light effects are discussed in the design from the ambient atmosphere, design and other aspects of mood. Finally, the study concluded that the use of

  17. “Demonological” root čert- and hiisi- in Russian toponymy of the Russian North and the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Л. Березович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of “demonological” root čert- and hiisi- in the currently used Russian toponymy of the Russian North (Arkhangelsk, Vologda regions, the surrounding areas of Yaroslavl, Kostroma regions, and the Republic of Karelia. In the toponymy of Russian origin, the most frequent names are toponyms with the root čert- (80 % of “demonological” names, which continue Proto-Slavic *čьrt-. The places named using čert- have a number of common features: often these are places with a negative relief, usually filled with water (names of water objects dominate in this type; the economic exploitation of čert- places is either impossible or extremely difficult. The popularity of the root čert- in toponymy is also supported by the use of *čьrtež ‘cleared arable land’, and may be associated with the archaic tradition of the perception of a place in relation to the “spirit of the place”. There are certain factors which caused an increase of čert- toponyms: “landscape” (their number increases in the areas rich with swamps, rapid rivers, dense forests etc.; agricultural activity; a significant number of churches and monasteries. Factors mitigating the productivity of čert- toponyms are: hunting activity; the onomastic tradition of contact languages (e.g., low productivity of the corresponding word in Komi; linguistic taboos. In Finnic toponymy the corresponding root is hiisi-/hiite-, which can be traced back to *hiite. The popularity of the root in toponymy is connected with the semantics that originally included a “local” component. Hiisi was originally used for a pagan cemetery located on a hill, with a large conspicuous stone in the centre. Gradually the word came to mean a grove which developed on the site of the cemetery. With the spread of Christianity in the eastern dialects, the word acquired the meaning ‘devil’. The most likely source of the model in the substrate toponymy of the Russian

  18. 西汉富平侯张安世系年述略%On the Sequential List of Activities of Fuping Marquis Zhang Anshi in Western Han Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁岩

    2012-01-01

    Zhang Anshi was born in the period of the reign by Emperor Hanwu in Western Han dynasty (around 134 B.C.) and died in the reign by Emperor Xuandi (around 62 B.C.). He had been an official for more than fifty years. He was cautious, introverted and self-effacing all his life and won recognition from the society and also got favorable comments from historians. The sorting of Zhang Anshi' s deeds can be helpful for the archaeological studies of Zhang Anshi' s and his family' s cemetery in Fengqi in the southern suburbs of Xi'an City, and is also beneficial to the study of the social history of the middle and late periods of Western Han dynasty.%张安世出生在西汉武帝时期(前134年前后),卒于宣帝朝(前62年),为官五十余年。他谨慎、内敛、自谦的一生,得到了社会的认可,也得到了史家的高度评价。梳理张安世的事迹,有助于对西安南郊凤栖原张安世及其家族墓地的考古研究,亦对研究西汉中、晚期社会历史有所裨益。

  19. Institutional arrangement and typology of community forests of Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland of North-East India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.K.Tiwari; H.Tynsong; M.M.Lynrah; E.Lapasam; S.Deb; D.Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Most community forests in hill regions of northeast India have been managed by traditional local institutions for centuries and most of these institutions remain functional even today.Higher forest coverage on private and community lands as compared to government land indicates that traditional institutions effectively manage community forests in the region.The present study was conducted through a survey of literature and field work using participatory research tools viz.,PRA exercises,group discussions and questionnaire interviews with key informants in northeast India.We categorized the institutions involved in conservation and management of forests into three major types:traditional,quasi-traditional and modern.Traditional institutions with hierarchal structure were found in all states and are intact and functional in the state of Meghalaya.Quasi-traditional institutions,a blend of traditional and modern institutions were prevalent in Nagaland while moderninstitutions have almost replaced traditional institutions in Mizoram.We recorded at least eleven types of community forests viz.,group of village forest,village forest,restricted forest,sacred forest,clan forest,cemetery forest,regeneration forest,bamboo forest,recreation forest,village reserved forest and medicinal plantation in villages of three states.The tribal people,through long-term trial and error experiments,have developed an elaborate,functional and generally democratic system of conservation and management of forests and associated natural ecosystems.Several forest and natural resource management lessons can be learnt from the institutional structure and decision making system of the evolving and dynamic institutions of tribal communities of the region.

  20. Interglobular dentine in first and third molars: relation to hours of sunshine during growth in two archeological populations from England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanhoe, F

    1982-03-01

    Thin ground sections of first molars (M1), third molars (M3), and second premolars (P2) were scanned by light microscopy for relative amounts of interglobular dentine (IGD) in the top half of the crown. Two well-dated cemetery series of English provenance were sampled: the Saint Bride's Church collection (SB) from eighteenth century London, for which the sex, age, and calendar year at death of each individual are known; and the early Anglo-Saxons from Abingdon (A-AS), near Oxford. A lesser number of prehispanic aboriginal Guanche teeth from Tenerife (TG) were also studied. Estimates of insolation in the past were developed indirectly by reference to delta 0(18) mass spectrometer analyses of dated layers of the Greenland ice sheet. In the M1 and M3 of the SB and the A-AS populations, IGD varied as an inverse linear function of average annual hours of bright sunshine below a certain critical level, the insolation deficit threshold being significantly higher and IGD formation faster in the M1 than in the M3. No such dose-response gradient was apparent in the P2 data, presumably because the calcification of this tooth during the fourth year of life coincides with serious pediatric illnesses and weaning of the child onto cereal foods rich in phytate, which together confound and overwhelm the insolation deficit effect. IGD in all three types of teeth of the small TG series was considerably higher than had been predicted on the basis of bright sunshine availability; but the discrepancy is readily explainable in terms of this population's dietary, which relied on barley as the main staple.

  1. An archaeological reconnaissance and evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Reservation, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuVall, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    At the request of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee, an archaeological reconnaissance and evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed areas was conducted between June I and September 2, 1993. The project was conducted by Glyn D. DuVall, Principal Investigator. ORNL project representative, Peter Souza, accompanied the principal investigator during all project evaluations. The reconnaissance to assess adverse impacts to cultural resources located within the boundaries of federally licensed, permitted, funded or assisted projects was conducted in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (Public Law 89-665; 16 USC 470; 80 Stat. 915), National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Public Law 91-190; 91 Stat. 852; 42 USC 4321-4347) and Executive Order 11593 (May 13, 1971). Based upon the reconnaissance, a search of the site files at the Tennessee Division of Archaeology and a search of the National Register of Historic Places, the proposed construction on the site will have no impact on any property included in or eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places pursuant to 36 CFR 60.4. This judgement is based on the amount of prior disturbance associated with ORNL during the past 50 years. Construction in the vicinity of the New Bethel Baptist Church and Cemetery should allow sufficient buffer to avoid direct and visual impact to the property. The determination of sufficient buffer area, either distance or vegetative, should be coordinated with the Tennessee Historical Commission, Office of the State Historic Preservation Officer.

  2. A new approach to the study of Romanization in Britain: a regional perspective of cultural change in late iron age and roman dorset using the siler and gompertz-makeham models of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Rebecca C; Dewitte, Sharon N

    2011-02-01

    This is the first study of health in the Roman Empire to use the Siler and Gompertz-Makeham models of mortality to investigate the health consequences of the 43 AD conquest of Britain. The study examined late Iron Age and Romano-British populations (N = 518) from Dorset, England, which is the only region of Britain to display continuity in inhumation burial practice and cemetery use throughout the two periods. Skeletal evidence for frailty was assessed using cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, periosteal lesions, enamel hypoplasia, dental caries, tuberculosis, and rickets. These health variables were chosen for analysis because they are reliable indicators of general health for diachronic comparison (Steckel and Rose: The backbone of history: health and nutrition in the western hemisphere (2002)) and are associated with the introduction of urbanism in Britain during the Roman period (Redfern: J Rom Archaeol Supp Series 64 (2007) 171-194; Redfern: Britannia 39 (2008a) 161-191; Roberts and Cox: Health and disease in Britain: from prehistory to the present day (2003)). The results show that levels of frailty and mortality were lower in the late Iron Age period, and no sex differences in mortality was present. However, post-conquest, mortality risk increased for children and the elderly, and particularly for men. The latter finding challenges received wisdom concerning the benefits of incorporation into the Empire and the higher status of the male body in the Roman world. Therefore, we conclude that the consequences of urbanism, changes in diet, and increased population heterogeneity negatively impacted health, to the extent that the enhanced cultural buffering of men did not outweigh underlying sex differences in biology that advantage women.

  3. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jones

    Full Text Available Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C. bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C., their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC. We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt. Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  4. Migrants and the transformation of local neighbourhoods: A study of the socioeconomic transformation of Lidcombe, Australia

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    Franklin OBENG-ODOOM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A major contributor to negative attitudes towards migrants is that they exert pressure on the facilities of the host communities without making any (substantial contribution to the host economy and society. This negative sentiment is particularly acute in cities, where pressure on amenities is concentrated and more visible. In turn, migrant neighbourhoods are particularly despised. Migration experiences in the Rookwood Cemetery area of Sydney, Australia, widely regarded as the “largest necropolis in the southern hemisphere”, however, challenge this stereotypical view. This migrant neighbourhood is the site of vibrant and diverse migration and migrant (especially Korean activities never before seen in the history of the area, which is now called Lidcombe. Drawing on multiple sources of evidence, including archival research at local libraries, discussion with long-time residents of the neighbourhood and visual ethnography (analysed from the historical-structural perspective in migration studies, this study offers a history of Lidcombe and appraises its twenty-first-century migration experiences. By doing so, it highlights the demographic, social and economic changes to emphasise the contribution of migrants to the regeneration of a “dead city” and also to contest inherited stereotypes of migrants that often lead to racial scapegoating and misrepresentation as “parasites”, “criminals” and a “drain” on the host economy. Overall, this case study suggests that migrants can and often do transform the spaces they occupy in ways that make a positive and lasting contribution to the host economy and society more generally. This is an important lesson for European countries facing the “migrant crisis” to consider, as it also is for politicians around the world seeking to wall out migrants to protect host economies and societies.

  5. Combining Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies in a dengue surveillance system for developing countries

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    Sobieszczyk Magdalena E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne illness that places significant burden on tropical developing countries with unplanned urbanization. A surveillance system using Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies was developed in Nicaragua as a management tool. Methods and Results Satellite imagery of the town of Bluefields, Nicaragua captured from Google Earth was used to create a base-map in ArcGIS 9. Indices of larval infestation, locations of tire dumps, cemeteries, large areas of standing water, etc. that may act as larval development sites, and locations of the homes of dengue cases collected during routine epidemiologic surveying were overlaid onto this map. Visual imagery of the location of dengue cases, larval infestation, and locations of potential larval development sites were used by dengue control specialists to prioritize specific neighborhoods for targeted control interventions. Conclusion This dengue surveillance program allows public health workers in resource-limited settings to accurately identify areas with high indices of mosquito infestation and interpret the spatial relationship of these areas with potential larval development sites such as garbage piles and large pools of standing water. As a result, it is possible to prioritize control strategies and to target interventions to highest risk areas in order to eliminate the likely origin of the mosquito vector. This program is well-suited for resource-limited settings since it utilizes readily available technologies that do not rely on Internet access for daily use and can easily be implemented in many developing countries for very little cost.

  6. The unfinished castro of La Forca (Grado, Asturias. A thwarted territorial control

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    Camino Mayor, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent complex history was about to destroy the last remains of the small castro (fortification of Forca, located in the centre of Asturias. The archaeological, almost forensic, intervention had private funding and allowed us to determine the characteristics and chronology of the site. The absence of habitation remains, supported by different geochemical analyses, ties in with the unfinished condition of the site and the thwarting of a plan to settle beside a crossing of natural routes that would acquire great importance from Roman times. Its early chronology and situation beside a tumulus cemetery renew expectations of a connection between them and there is evidence for the exploitation of the mid-altitude pastures and shallow soils in the woody environments of the Bronze Age in landscape.

    Una compleja historia reciente estuvo a punto de destruir los últimos vestigios del pequeño castro de La Forca, ubicado en el centro de Asturias. Una actuación arqueológica, casi forense y con financiación privada, permitió conocer las características y cronología del asentamiento. La ausencia de restos de habitación, ratificada con diversos análisis geoquímicos, se pone en relación con la condición inacabada del enclave y la frustración de una iniciativa poblacional al lado de un cruce de rutas naturales que adquirirán gran importancia a partir de época romana. Su temprana cronología y su situación al lado de una necrópolis tumular renuevan las expectativas de conexión entre ambos episodios, a la par que manifiestan la explotación de pastizales y suelos ligeros de media montaña con entornos boscosos que formarían parte del paisaje de la Edad del Bronce.

  7. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910 in medieval central europe.

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    Annina Krüttli

    Full Text Available Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72% exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic

  8. Calculation of financial compensation due of municipalities hosting nuclear waste deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata A. da, E-mail: renata.amaral@ufrj.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Simoes, Francisco Fernando L.; Martins, Vivian B., E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LIMA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Impactos Ambientais

    2011-07-01

    The present work evaluates the math from monthly financial transfers to municipalities with technical viability for building of initial or intermediate repository for storing of radioactivity nuclear waste: gloves, sneakers, mask, resins and filters came from thermonuclear facilities. Several aspects have been considered as the geological factors of the site as presence of capable faults, groundwater vulnerability, infiltration of seawater. Also, it was take into account socioeconomic factors: population density, costs for construction, maintenance and operation of repository; size and activity of waste; among others. Hereafter, we have presented the key features of low and average activity repository and high activity repository even as initial, intermediate and final repository and the possible environment impact. The methodology for calculation of financial compensation of municipalities was established by CNEN will be applied for a specific assumed municipality. The analysis of financial compensation due to the specific nuclear waste deposit and the possible guidelines for the use of that compensation by the municipality will be analyzed. In addiction, it will be compared the model for compensation used for nuclear wastes with other plants receiving permanent wastes from cemeteries and sanitary landfills, where the land should not be allowed for the human activities the same as: crops, livestock and buildings. Also, comparison with royalties and indemnities were paid by facilities of energy production as hydroelectric dams as well as petroleum and gas exploration plants. The destination of financial compensation transfer to the municipality is in charge of the city administration. The compensation could be applied of investments in education and culture, health, sanitation works, improvement of public transport, environment, among others. It will be discussed the cost-benefit relation for the assumed municipality. (author)

  9. Stable isotope ratio analysis of breastfeeding and weaning practices of children from medieval Fishergate House York, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Nicole M

    2013-11-01

    Rib collagen of 51 juveniles and 11 adult females from the late medieval Fishergate House cemetery site (York, UK) were analyzed using nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratio analysis to determine the weaning age for this population and to reconstruct diet. The juveniles' ages ranged from fetal to 5-6 years, while the females were of reproductive age. Previous researchers suggested that the children from Fishergate House might have been weaned later than the medieval British norm of 2 years, based on a mortality peak at 4-6 years of age. The results show weaning was complete by 2 years of age, agreeing with previous British weaning studies. The adult female δ(15) N values have a mean of 11.4‰ ± 1.1‰ and the δ(13) C values have a mean of -19.4‰ ± 0.4‰. These findings are consistent with previous isotopic studies of female diet in York during this period, though slightly lower. The weaned juvenile nitrogen values were found to be higher than the adult females (12.4‰ ± 1.0‰ for δ(15) N and -19.7‰ ± 0.5‰ for δ(13) C), which might indicate a dependence on higher trophic level proteins such as marine fish or pork. Marine fish is considered a high status food and children are considered low-status individuals at this time, making this a particularly interesting finding. Weaning does not appear to coincide with peak mortality, suggesting environment factors may be playing a larger role in child mortality at Fishergate House.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity and LCT-13910 and deltaF508 CFTR alleles typing in the medieval sample from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płoszaj, T; Jerszyńska, B; Jędrychowska-Dańska, K; Lewandowska, M; Kubiak, D; Grzywnowicz, K; Masłowska, A; Witas, H W

    2015-06-01

    We attempted to confirm the resemblance of a local medieval population and to reconstruct their contribution to the formation of the modern Polish population at the DNA level. The HVR I mtDNA sequence and two nuclear alleles, LCT-13910C/T SNP and deltaF508 CFTR, were chosen as markers since the distribution of selected nuclear alleles varies among ethnic groups. A total of 47 specimens were selected from a medieval cemetery in Cedynia (located in the western Polish lowland). Regarding the HVR I profile, the analyzed population differed from the present-day population (P = 0.045, F(st) = 0.0103), in contrast to lactase persistence (LP) based on the LCT-13910T allele, thus indicating the lack of notable frequency changes of this allele during the last millennium (P = 0.141). The sequence of the HVR I mtDNA fragment allowed to identify six major haplogroups including H, U5, T, K, and HV0 within the medieval population of Cedynia which are common in today's central Europe. An analysis of haplogroup frequency and its comparison with modern European populations shows that the studied medieval population is more closely related to Finno-Ugric populations than to the present Polish population. Identification of less common haplogroups, i.e., Z and U2, both atypical of the modern Polish population and of Asian origin, provides evidence for some kind of connections between the studied and foreign populations. Furthermore, a comparison of the available aDNA sequences from medieval Europe suggests that populations differed from one another and a number of data from other locations are required to find out more about the features of the medieval gene pool profile.

  11. 云南滇池地区聚落遗址2008年调查简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    经国家文物局批准,云南省文物考古研究所与美国密歇根大学人类学系签订为期3年的合作协议,进行"滇池区域史前聚落形态考古调查"项目,目的是通过开展全面的区域系统调查,寻找并确认与石寨山文化(亦称滇文化,时代约从春秋时期至西汉末期)有关的遗址和聚落[1],%In 2008, archaeological field survey was conducted to the southeast of the Lake Dian area, covering areas of 64 sq kin. This is the first application of systematic regional survey method in Yunnan. This survey discovered 43 sites, 25 of which belonged to the Bronze Age, nine crossed the Bronze Age through the Eastern Han Dynasty, Three-Kingdoms Period and Western Jin Dynasty, five belonged to the Han Dynasty and the rest four were cemeteries. The analyses based on the survey results showed that the alluvial plain around the Lake Dian was very possibly the central region for the bronze cultures of the Lake Dian area to emerge and develop; the areas with densely distributed sites of the Han Dynasty were close to the seat of Yizhou Prefecture, which was the political center of this area at that time. This survey laid foundation for the archaeological researches on the settlement patterns in the Lake Dian area.

  12. Paleomobility in the Tiwanaku diaspora: biogeochemical analyses at Rio Muerto, Moquegua, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Kelly J; Goldstein, Paul S; Dahlstedt, Allisen; Somerville, Andrew; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2014-11-01

    Paleomobility has been a key element in the study of the expansion of ancient states and empires, including the Tiwanaku polity of the South Central Andes (AD 500-1000). We present radiogenic strontium and oxygen isotope data from human burials from three cemeteries in the Tiwanaku-affiliated Middle Horizon archaeological site complex of Rio Muerto in the Moquegua Valley of southern Peru. At Rio Muerto, archaeological human enamel and bone values range from (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70657-0.72018, with a mean of (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70804 ± 0.00207 (1σ, n = 55). For the subset of samples analyzed for oxygen isotope values (n = 48), the data ranges from δ(18) Ocarbonate(VSMOW)  = +18.1 to +27.0‰. When contextualized with other lines of archaeological evidence, we interpret these data as evidence for an archaeological population in which the majority of individuals had "local" origins, and were likely second-generation, or more, immigrants from the Tiwanaku heartland in the altiplano. Based on detailed life history data, we argue a smaller number of individuals came at different ages from various regions within the Tiwanaku polity. We consider whether these individuals with isotopic values consistent with "nonlocal" geographic origins could represent first-generation migrants, marriage exchange partners, or occupationally mobile herders, traders or other travelers. By combining isotopic life history studies with mortuary treatment data, we use a person-centered migration history approach to state integration and expansion. Isotopic analyses of paleomobility at the Rio Muerto site complex contribute to the role of diversity in ancient states by demonstrating the range of geographic origins rather than simply colonists from the Lake Titicaca Basin.

  13. La necrópolis medieval del Cerro de la Horca de Toledo

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    Ruiz Taboada, Arturo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological excavation of part of a medieval necropolis at the Cerro de la Horca (Toledo has provided new information regarding burial traditions in Toledo. One formal aspect is common to the broad range of graves that have been brought to light, namely the pit that was dug for the burial, being of considerable depth in a number of cases. Because little is known of the funerary practices in Toledo during the Middle Ages and hardly any objects have been recovered in the excavation, it is difficult to identify the religious community to which it belonged. Whereas the location of Muslim and Christian cemeteries have been known through documentary and archaeological sources, only popular traditions quoted so far the Jewish necropolis, its location remaining thus a mystery.

    La excavación arqueológica desarrollada en un sector del Cerro de La Horca ha permitido conocer aspectos inéditos del ritual de enterramiento medieval en Toledo. Se ha documentado una amplia tipología de tumbas con un único elemento constructivo común para todas ellas, la excavación previa de una fosa que, en numerosos casos, alcanza gran profundidad. El desconocimiento sobre el mundo funerario medieval toledano y la falta de materiales arqueológicos representativos en esta necrópolis han obligado a reflexionar sobre la comunidad religiosa a la que pertenecen estos enterramientos. Por fuentes históricas y excavaciones previas, conocemos la localización de necrópolis musulmanas y cristianas. La localización de la(s judía(s había sido, al menos hasta ahora, una incógnita.

  14. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Higham, Thomas F G; Oldfield, Ron; O'Connor, Terry P; Buckley, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C.) bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C.), their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC). We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves) in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt). Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py)-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  15. TIRO Y LAS FLUCTUACIONES DE LA ECONOMÍA FENICIA DURANTE EL SIGLO VIII ANTES DE NUESTRA ERA (Tyre and the Fluctuations of Phoenician Economy during the 8th Century BC

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    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación del método de valoración contextual al análisis de los ajuares funerarios hasta ahora publicados de la necrópolis fenicia de Tiro-Al Bass, Líbano, permite aislar las fluctuaciones económicas y los cambios sociales experimentados por la población tiria durante el siglo VIII a. C. En concreto, se detecta una larga prosperidad desde mediados del siglo IX hasta mediados del VIII antes de nuestra era, con un máximo de bonanza a lo largo del periodo 775-750 a. C. En cambio, la segunda mitad del siglo VIII muestra una aguda crisis económica asociada a una elevada conflictividad social. Estos resultados coinciden plenamente con los acontecimientos históricos conocidos a través de las fuentes literarias antiguas, aportando evidencias que las complementan. En todo caso, con este nuevo ejemplo se confirma, una vez más, la universalidad de la metodología empleada y su irrefutable validez científica. ENGLISH: By applying the contextual valuation method to the analysis of grave goods from the Phoenician cemetery of Tyre-Al Bass, Lebanon, we can isolate the economic fluctuations and social changes experienced by the Tyrian population during the 8th century BC. Based on the evidence, the mid-9th to the mid-8th century BC was a period of prosperity, with the most pronounced economic boom between 775-750 BC. In contrast, the second half of the 8th century BC shows a sharp economic crisis associated with a high level of social conflict. These results are fully consistent with the historical events known through ancient literary sources. This new example confirms the universality of this methodology and its irrefutable scientific validity.

  16. Practising pastoralism in an agricultural environment: An isotopic analysis of the impact of the Hunnic incursions on Pannonian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jane; Chapman, Hazel; Fóthi, Erzsébet

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a multi-isotope study of five fifth-century AD cemeteries in modern-day Hungary to determine relationships between nomadic-pastoralist incomers—the historically documented Huns and other nomadic groups—and the sedentary agricultural population of the late Roman province of Pannonia. Contemporary historical sources describe this relationship as adversarial and destructive for the late Roman population, but archaeological evidence indicates high levels of hybridity between different groups. We undertook carbon, nitrogen, strontium and oxygen isotope analyses of bone collagen, dentine and tooth enamel at Keszthely-Fenékpuszta, Hács-Béndekpuszta, Győr-Széchenyi Square, Mözs and Szolnok-Szanda to examine these relationships through past subsistence practices. The patterns at all sites indicate medium to high animal protein consumption with little evidence for a significant contribution of aquatic resources. All populations relied to a great extent on C4 plants, most likely millet. Within each population, diet was heterogeneous, with significant variations in terms of animal protein and C3 and C4 plant consumption. High levels of intra-population and individual variability suggest that populations made use of a range of subsistence strategies, with many individuals exhibiting significant changes over their lifetimes. Rather than being characterised only by violence, the historically-documented influx of nomadic populations appears to have led to widespread changes in subsistence strategies of populations in the Carpathian basin. Nomadic-pastoralist groups may have switched to smaller herds and more farming, and, conversely, local populations may have integrated with a new economic system based on animal herding. PMID:28328951

  17. Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis in Yucatán State, México, with a summary of published collection records for Ae. cozumelensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rejón, Julián E.; López-Uribe, Mildred P.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Puc-Tinal, Maria; López-Uribe, Genny M.; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Black IV, William C.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We collected mosquito immatures from artificial containers during 2010–2011 from 26 communities, ranging in size from small rural communities to large urban centers, located in different parts of Yucatán State in southeastern México. The arbovirus vector Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was collected from all 26 examined communities, and nine of the communities also yielded another container-inhabiting Aedes mosquito: Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis. The communities from which Ae. cozumelensis were collected were all small, rural communities (<6,000 inhabitants) in the north-central part of Yucatán State. These new collection records for Ae. cozumelensis demonstrate that this mosquito has a far broader geographic range in the Yucatán Peninsula than previously known. Ae. cozumelensis immatures were collected from both residential premises and cemeteries, with specimens recovered from rock holes as well as various artificial containers including metal cans, flower vases, buckets, tires and a water storage tank. The co-occurrence with Ae. aegypti in small rural communities poses intriguing questions regarding linkages between these mosquitoes, including the potential for direct competition for larval development sites. Additional studies are needed to determine how commonly Ae. cozumelensis feeds on human blood and whether it is naturally infected with arboviruses or other pathogens of medical or veterinary importance. We also summarize the published records for Ae. cozumelensis, which are restricted to collections from México’s Yucatán Peninsula and Belize, and uniformly represent geographic locations where Ae. aegypti can be expected to occur. PMID:23181861

  18. Do natural container habitats impede invader dominance? Predator-mediated coexistence of invasive and native container-dwelling mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Damal, Kavitha; Juliano, Steven A

    2008-03-01

    Predator-mediated coexistence of competitors occurs when a species that is superior in competition is also more vulnerable to a shared predator compared to a poorer competitor. The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is usually competitively superior to Ochlerotatus triseriatus. Among second instar larvae, A. albopictus show a lesser degree of behavioral modification in response to water-borne cues from predation by the larval midge Corethrella appendiculata than do O. triseriatus, rendering A. albopictus more vulnerable to predation by C. appendiculata than O. triseriatus. The hypothesis that C. appendiculata predation favors coexistence of these competitors predicts that C. appendiculata abundances will be negatively and positively correlated with A. albopictus and O. triseriatus abundances, respectively, and that coexistence will occur where C. appendiculata are common. Actual abundances of O. triseriatus, A. albopictus, and C. appendiculata in three habitats fit this prediction. In natural container habitats like tree holes, C. appendiculata were abundant and competitors co-existed at similar densities. In cemeteries and tires, which occur primarily in non-forested, human-dominated habitats, A. albopictus dominated, with abundances twice those found in tree holes, but C. appendiculata and O. triseriatus were rare or absent. We also tested for whether antipredatory behavioral responses of A. albopictus differed among habitats or populations, or were correlated with local C. appendiculata abundances. We could detect no differences in A. albopictus antipredatory behavioral responses to water-borne cues from predation. Tree hole habitats appear to promote co-existence of O. triseriatus and A. albopictus through interactions with predatory C. appendiculata, and this predator effect appears to limit invasion success of A. albopictus in tree holes. There are many studies on predator-mediated coexistence in natural habitats but to our knowledge this is the first study

  19. Chacarita Project: conformation and analysis of a modern and documented human osteological collection from Buenos Aires City--theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosio, L A; García Guraieb, S; Luna, L H; Aranda, C

    2012-12-01

    Osteological reference collections play a key role in bioanthropological research; they allow the development and testing of methods for sexing and ageing individuals using various bone and dental attributes. This paper presents the first stage results of the ongoing Chacarita Research Project, which aims to generate and study a reference collection of adult skeletons representative of the contemporary population of Buenos Aires city. The Chacarita Collection consists of unclaimed human remains of individuals of known nationality, sex, age, cause and date of death from the Chacarita Public Cemetery. Unlike other similar endeavours, this sample has been completely exhumed using archaeological techniques. So far, a total of 146 adult skeletons have been recovered (60 females - 41.1% and 86 males - 58.90%), the majority of which have ages-at-death in the range of 71-90 years. They were born primarily in Argentina (n=133; 91.1%), although other nationalities are also represented. Dates of death range between 1987 and 2000. In the short term, the osteological study of this collection will allow assessment of the performance of classical methods of sex determination and age-at-death estimation in a local setting. A special priority will be given to the study of osteological changes in individuals over 50 years. As the sample is being retrieved by exhumation, the impact of taphonomic agents on the most diagnostic bone structures is also being assessed. In the long term, this osteological collection will be available to generate new population-specific techniques and to develop comparative biological studies.

  20. Mozart's chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M E

    1993-11-01

    No commemoration of the bicentennial of Mozart's death would be complete without some consideration of that premature yet predictable demise. Mozart's premonitions of death are well known and apparently played a role in the composition of the K.626 Requiem and perhaps other works. His death has traditionally been ascribed to infectious causes, chiefly rheumatic fever or post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, exacerbated by intemperance and chronic penury. Pathology has been difficult because of his supposed burial in a pauper's grave, the location and contents of which were later supposedly lost. Mozart's burial place in St. Mark's Cemetery in Vienna was known and, in the parlance of the day, "reorganized" a decade later, as the occupants of plots were disinterred to make room for the more recently decreased. A skull believed to the Mozart's was saved by the successor of the gravedigger who had supervised Mozart's burial, and then passed into the collections of the anatomist Josef Hyrtl, the municipality of Salzburg, and the Mozarteum museum (Salzburg). Forensic reconstruction of soft tissues related to this skull reveals substantial concordance with Mozart's portraits. The skull suggests premature closure of the metopic suture, which has been suggested on the basis of his physiognomy. A left temporal fracture and concomitant erosions raise the question of chronic subdural hematoma, which would be consistent with several falls in 1789 and 1790 and could have caused the weakness, headaches, and fainting he experienced in 1790 and 1791. Aggressive bloodletting to treat suspected rheumatic fever could have decompensated such a lesion to produce his death on December 5, 1791.

  1. El ajuar como indicador de la presencia Inka en el Cementerio Aguada Orilla Norte (Provincia de Catamarca Grave Goods As Indicators Of Inka Presence In Aguada Orilla Norte Cementery, Catamarca Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo A. Moralejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la descripción del ajuar de cuatro enterratorios provenientes del sitio arqueológico Cementerio Aguada Orilla Norte (Belén, Catamarca. Dichos ajuares conforman la colección Benjamín Muñiz Barreto del Museo de La Plata. La metodología empleada consistió en la descripción morfológica y decorativa de las piezas que conforman cada uno de los ajuares; y en la revisión de las libretas de campo de la colección mencionada. A partir de estos análisis se determinó que tres de los cuatro enterratorios se encuadran cronológicamente en el período Inka (1471-1536 dC y que cada uno de ellos posee objetos estilísticamente diferentes pertenecientes a diversos grupos culturales del NOA. Sin embargo, el cuarto ajuar, que se encuentra por debajo de uno de los anteriores, posee piezas pertenecientes a grupos culturales preinkaicos.This paper describes the grave goods from four burials found at the archaeological site of Aguada Orila Norte Cemetery, Belén, Catamarca. The grave goods belong to the Benjamin Muñiz Barreto collection, housed at the Museum of La Plata. The methodology employed consisted in describing the morphology and decoration of the pieces that make up each set of grave goods, as well as going through the field notes related to the collection. The results of the analyses indicate that three of the four burials are chronologically within the Inka period (AD 1471-1536 and all posses objects that differ in style, belonging therefore to various cultural groups from NOA (Northwestern Argentina. The fourth burial, however, which was located below one of the other three, contains pieces from pre-Inkan cultural groups.

  2. Burying dogs in ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: temporal trends and relationships with human diet and subsistence practices.

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    Robert J Losey

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region's dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7-8000 B.P., and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica. Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region's human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia.

  3. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume III. Cultural resource assessment socioeconomic background data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, Heather; Janzen, Donald E.

    1980-11-26

    This report has been prepared in conjunction with an environmental baseline study for a commercial coal conversion facility being conducted by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company (AECO). This report represents a cultural resource assessment for the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. This assessment presents data collected by Dames and Moore during a recent archaeological reconnaissance of the unsurveyed southeastern portion of the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. Also, results of two previous surveys on the northern and southwestern portion of the plant site for American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) and Kentucky Utilities are included. The Dames and Moore survey of the southeastern portion of the plant site identified one archaeological site, three standing structures and one historic cemetery. In addition 47 archaeological sites and six standing structures are known from two previous surveys of the remainder of the plant site (Cowan 1975 and Turnbow et al 1980). Eleven of the previously recorded archaeological sites were recommended for further assessment to evaluate their potential for inclusion within the Holt Bottoms Archaeological District currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places. None of the archaeological sites or standing structures located within the plant site during the Dames and Moore survey were recommended for further assessment. A total of eight archaeological sites were located during the Dames and Moore survey of the two potential solid waste disposal areas. Of this total only two sites were recommended for further assessment. Also, one previously unknown historic cemetry was located in the southernmost potential waste disposal area.

  4. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910) in medieval central europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  5. The girl from the Church of the Sacrament: a case of congenital syphilis in XVIII century Lisbon

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    Sheila Mendonça de Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a sexually or congenitally transmitted infectious disease with an impact on the health of human populations that has undergone important cycles in different countries and periods of history. Its presence was first diagnosed in Europe in the late XIV century. In Portugal, although there are various written records of the infection in the last centuries, there are rare references to it in archeological findings (mummified bodies are also rare in Portugal. The current study describes a probable case of congenital syphilis in an 18-month-old girl buried in the Church of the Sacrament in Lisbon. Her body, dating to the XVIII century, was found mummified together with dozens of others, still not studied. Symmetrical periostitis of the long bones, osteitis, metaphyseal lesions, left knee articular, and epiphyseal destruction, and a rarefied lesion with a radiological appearance compatible with Wimberger's sign all point to a diagnosis of congenital syphilis. The diagnosis of this severe form of the infection, possibly related to the cause of death in this upper-class girl, calls attention to the disease's presence in XVIII century Lisbon and is consistent with the intense mobilization at the time in relation to the risks posed by so-called heredosyphilis. It is the first case of congenital syphilis in a child reported in archeological findings in Portugal, and can be correlated with other cases in skeletons of adults buried in cemeteries in Lisbon (in the XVI to XVIII centuries and Coimbra (XIX century. Finally, this finding highlights the need to study the entire series of mummified bodies in the Church of the Sacrament in order to compare the paleopathological findings and existing historical documents on syphilis, so as to expand the paleoepidemiological knowledge of this infection in XVIII century Lisbon.

  6. Health in post-Black Death London (1350-1538): age patterns of periosteal new bone formation in a post-epidemic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2014-10-01

    Previous research has shown that the Black Death targeted older adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. This project investigates whether this selectivity of the Black Death, combined with post-epidemic rising standards of living, led to significant improvements in patterns of skeletal stress markers, and by inference in health, among survivors and their descendants. Patterns of periosteal lesions (which have been previously shown, using hazard analysis, to be associated with elevated risks of mortality in medieval London) are compared between samples from pre-Black Death (c. 1,000-1,300, n = 464) and post-Black Death (c. 1,350-1,538, n = 133) London cemeteries. To avoid the assumptions that stress markers alone provide a direct measure of health and that a change in frequencies of the stress marker by itself indicates changes in health, this study assesses age-patterns of the stress marker to obtain a more nuanced understanding of the population-level effects of an epidemic disease. Age-at-death in these samples is estimated using transition analysis, which provides point estimates of age even for the oldest adults in these samples and thus allows for an examination of physiological stress across the lifespan. The frequency of lesions is significantly higher in the post-Black Death sample, which, at face value, might indicate a general decline in health. However, a significant positive association between age and periosteal lesions, as well as a significantly higher number of older adults in the post-Black Death sample more likely suggests improvements in health following the epidemic.

  7. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a highland desert of Northern Chile.

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    Maria Antonietta Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. METHODOLOGY: We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area-likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today.

  8. Editorial: Discovery from Lake Turkana and History of Human Warfare

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    Professor S. P. Singh, Ph.D.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Very interesting finds have come to light of violently killed humans from Lake Turkana in the Kenyan Rift Valley around 10000 years ago. A stunning discovery of skeletons of 27 persons who are believed to have been killed at the same time and are supposed to have suffered violent wounds has been reported recently (Nature 529, 394–398, 21 January 2016. These finds belong to a period of late Pleistocene/early Holocene of the hunter-gatherer societies from Nataruk. Among the victims were men, women and children. The individuals were killed with projectiles and blunt weapons. These skeletons were found in the lagoon and were preserved very nicely. Such type of mass killing probably could never happen as a consequence of intra-group conflict. The evidence seems to be towards warfare and aggression in ancient societies. The experts ruled out the possibility of a cemetery and ceremonial burial. This discovery of 27 skeletons points to the fact that there may have been more causalities and many individuals might have escaped death at that time. According to one of the co-authors of this research Dr. R.A. Foley, the groups were elatively more densely packed populations than the hunter gatherers and had more chances of having inter-group conflicts because of sharing the resources which would have been plentiful near the lagoons and water bodies. Violence probably has been in the instinct of early humans and that the warfare among humans has a history of 10000 years or even earlier.

  9. 古墓葬出土纺织纤维的微观形态结构分析%Microcosmic structure analysis of textile fibers excavated in ancient tombs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南普恒; 金普军

    2011-01-01

    利用扫描电镜和偏光显微镜对山西横水西周墓地出土青铜器上残留纺织纤维的微观形态结构进行了显微分析,结合现代纺织学研究成果对其进行了细致的比较研究.结果表明:出土纺织纤维为天然纤维素纤维,分为苎麻和大麻两类,说明西用时期山西南部地区已经采用苎麻、大麻纤维作为纺织原料编制织物.研究结果也表明,显微分析技术非常适合古墓葬出土少量甚至微量纺织品的分析鉴别.%Based on the analysis of scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) and polarizing microscope methods, qualitative analysis of physical structure on the four textile fibers on surface of the bronze excavated in Hengshui cemetery was realized. Supported by the scientific analysis results and literature of natural textile fibers, it can be concludedthatall the ancient textile fibers are natural cellulose fiber which can be divided into two kinds:ramie and hemp fiber. Moreover, ramie and hemp fiber were used to braid textile in the Southern Shanxi Province West Zhou Dynasty. Furthermore, it was indicated that Microscopy is a more effective archaeometry technique for identifying the ancient minor and trace amount textile fibers research of the textile material.

  10. Greening and “un”greening Adelaide, South Australia

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    Guy M. Robinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The original design for Adelaide, the capital city of the state of South Australia, incorporated a green belt (known as the Park Lands around the city centre, itself laid out on a one square mile (2.59 km2 grid and including five large public squares. The Park Lands provided a barrier to urban sprawl and covered approximately 9.31 km2, of which 1.53 km2 has been used subsequently for cultural institutions, railways, cemeteries, sporting facilities and other constructions. In addressing issues of greening pertaining to Adelaide, the Park Lands and its management represents a core element in the evolving history of the city's growth. This paper will consider some of the contradictions within this growth, examining the changing attitudes of government and the populace to the Park Lands and also to the increasing sprawl of the city. It can be argued that this sprawl has been antithetical to maintenance of biodiversity and principles of “greening”, not only during the main phase of expansion in the 1960s and 1970s but also in recent years when planned development on prime farmland and other “green” areas is contributing to problems for provision of transport infrastructure and generally reducing capacity for sustainability. The potential for conflict between the desire to maintain biodiversity versus protection for the growing number of people moving into bushfire risk areas is just one of several examples of problems arising as a result of a relaxed attitude to low-density expansion. In examining these problems the paper will present maps of the changing footprint of Adelaide and will elaborate new “greening” initiatives that include green roofs, new systems of water harvesting, community-supported agriculture and schemes directly aimed at creating low-carbon living. A consistent theme will be the contradictions within plans for the city between greening and “un”greening.

  11. «La resurrección de los muertos»: significado del espacio sepulcral

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    Martínez de Sánchez, Ana María

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The sepulchre, space which a death body gives meaning to, acquired in the collective imaginary of the Modem Age a special meaning related to traditional factors, such as prestige and wealth. Then a new and particular hope for ever lasting life related to the purgatory was added. The piece of land had to comply with certain conditions to be preferred or rejected by who would occupy them to wait for the resurrection. In Córdoba del Tucumán, the sepulture was mainly urban in temples and cemeteries in the colonial period, being then semiurban in the mid XIX century. The Borbonic change of burying out of the cities, shook the secular custom, not only of the worldly dwelling, but also the proper social imaginary.

    El sepulcro adquirió en el imaginario colectivo de la Edad Moderna una significación especial ligada a factores tradicionales, como el prestigio y la disponibilidad económica, al que se agregó una renovada esperanza en la vida eterna, relacionada con el purgatorio. El espacio terrenal debía reunir una serie de condiciones para ser motivo de preferencia o de rechazo por quienes debían ocuparlo a la espera de la «resurrección». En Córdoba del Tucumán la sepultura fue mayoritariamente urbana en templos y cementerios en el período colonial, pasando a semi urbana a mediados del siglo XIX. La modificación borbónica, de enterrar extra muros, conmovió la costumbre secular no sólo de la morada terrenal, sino del propio imaginario social.

  12. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  13. Parasitic contamination of surface and deep soil in different areas of Sari in north of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi; Ahmad Daryani; Nastaran Amani Kelarijani; Mina Eskandari Shahraki; Beheshteh Haghparast Kenari; Mohammad Saaid Dayer; Najla Hamidianfar; Fatemeh Ghaffarifar

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the parasitic contamination of soil in selected areas of Sari, north of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify all available parasites in surface and deep soil. In this study 580 soil samples (278 deep soil and 302 topsoil samples) from 21 different locations were collected from pathways, parks, greenhouses, estates around the city, cemetery, main squares, farmlands, fenced gardens and seashores. Depending on the soil type, two samples were prepared, from surface and deep soil at the depth of 3 to 5 cm. After performing various stages of preparation, including cleaning and washing, smoothing and flotation, parasitic elements were examined microscopically and quantitative parasite counting was done using a McMaster slide. Results:The results showed that the highest rate of parasitic contamination was related to nematodes larvae (26.11%). Other contaminants such asEntamoeba andAcanthamoeba cysts, vacuolizationBlastocystis hominis form, oocyte containing sporocysts,Toxascaris eggs, nematoda larvae,Hymenolepis eggs,Ascaris eggs,Fasciola eggs, hookworm eggs,Toxocara eggs, insects' larvae and other ciliated and flagellated organisms were also observed. The results of this study showed that the highest contamination was found in public garden (25.80%) both in surface (29.30%) and in deep soil (21.12%), while the lowest level of contamination was observed in seashore surface soil (4.90%). Conclusions:The results showed that soil can provide a potential medium for the spread of soil transmitted parasitic diseases in the environment; therefore, preventive programs are needed.

  14. The potency of Bukit Tapak forest as means for traditional ceremony, environmental conservation, and education

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    I WAYAN SUMANTERA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Bukit Tapak (1903 m the natural reserve of Batukau I (816.4 ha is one of three natural reserve area of Batukau (1762.8 ha, 1974. Located at the tourism object of Bedugul, the eastern part boundaries to the Botanic Garden Eka Karya-LIPI (154.5 ha, 1959 and settlement of Candikuning area (1152 family, 4475 persons and near the three lakes of the water resources of Bali; Beratan, Buyan and Tamblingan lake. The special plants; cemara geseng (Casuarina junghuhniana Miq., cemara pandak (Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume de Laub., nyabah (Pinanga arinasaensis J.R. Witono, paku kidang (Dicksonia blumei Planch., and purnajiwa (Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch. Benth.. The pioneer plant of the hill is cemara geseng and the endemic is cemara pandak. The plant of needle leaves that basically the existence of Bali Botanical Garden as the conservation ex situ flora of noodle leaves especially at the eastern Indonesian area. Nyabah, which is supposed to be the new kind of palm named Arinasa, driven from the staff name who is the pioneer of the conservation. Paku kidang is rare. There are ethnobotany plants of ritual ceremony such as: kayu tulak (Schefflera sp., kayu tulung (Brasaia sp., penjalin (Calamus sp., paku pidpid (Nephrolepis sp., trijata (Medinilla speciosa (Blume ex Mart. Blume, etc. Balinese people believe that forest is holly and sacred. But because of the existence of Pura Teratai Bang (16 century at the slope, moslem cemetery (found in 1938 at the peak, and other needs (climbing, food, medicine, etc., it can not be avoided the entrances of people that caused the forest is damaged. The forest reservation needs the approach to the local people, so the solution are morally and integration. The use of the forest which is potential as the environment education facilities conservation and other alternatives such as: horticulture, the improvement of the people economy discussed here to be the input for the forest conservation wisely and continuously.

  15. Battlefield Tourism at Gallipoli: The Revival of Collective Memory, the Construction of National Identity and the Making of a Long-distance Tourism Network

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    Elif Yeneroglu Kutbay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Battle of the Dardanelles (Çanakkale, also known as the Gallipoli Campaign, played a crucial role in the construction and endorsement of national identity, irrespective of the immediate consequences such as the prolongation of the war or the resignation of Winston Churchill upon failure. The Battle of the Dardanelles is commemorated every year in Turkey, Australia and New Zealand, as a day of remembrance. The battlefields at Dardanelles were reinstated as the Gallipoli Peninsula Historical National Park in 1973. The park covers numerous cemeteries of soldiers from both sides, memorials, museums and the battlefields in an area of 33,000 hectares. The park provides a vivid setting and depiction of the war experience, and stands out as the most important battlefield site in Turkey.The aim of this paper is to analyze battlefield tourism in Çanakkale in terms of its components and its impact on domestic and international tourism in Turkey. Battlefield tourism in Çanakkale encompasses not only the battlefield itself, but also the Çanakkale Victory Day in Turkey, March 18th, and the Anzac Day in Australia, April 25th. While domestic tourism contributes to the revival of collective memory and to the building of national identity, international tourism provides representations of national heritage as a source of political legitimacy. Unique to this case, battlefield tourism plays a significant role in the construction of a long-distance tourism network between Australia, and Turkey. The annual flow of descendants of ANZAC (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps soldiers is an important source of tourism activity in the area.

  16. 西双版纳民族自然圣境与区域性生物多样性保护%Sacred Natural Site and Regional Biodiversity Conservation in Xishuangbanna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兰新; 杨正斌; 赵建伟; 刀桐杰; 郭贤明

    2014-01-01

    西双版纳是一个多民族聚居的地区,各民族均有自己传统的保护生物多样性的方式,而龙山、坟山、寺庙林等自然圣境是其主要代表形式。随着人口增长及经济发展的影响下,民族传统文化意识逐渐淡化,自然圣境的数量与面积发生了一定的变化,淡化了自然圣境在生物多样性保护中的地位,但是这些圣境在西双版纳的生物多样性保护中仍然起到了积极的作用,尤其是在物种保护、物种基因交流等方面的作用更是明显。%Xishuangbanna is a multinational region and different ethnic groups have self-owned traditional ways of protecting biodiversity, represented by Dragon Moun-tain and Hil Cemetery, and Temple Forest. As population increases and economy develops, people’s consciousness of traditional culture is fading and both of the number and area of sacred natural sites underwent changes, undermining the role of sacred natural sites playing in biodiversity protection, especial y for species pro-tection and gene exchange.

  17. Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm

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    Erik Andersson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden—allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas—and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1 assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2 develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales. Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  18. Measuring social-ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, E; Barthel, S; Ahrné, K

    2007-07-01

    The generation of ecosystem services depends on both social and ecological features. Here we focus on management, its ecological consequences, and social drivers. Our approach combined (1) quantitative surveys of local species diversity and abundance of three functional groups of ecosystem service providers (pollinators, seed dispersers, and insectivores) with (2) qualitative studies of local management practices connected to these services and their underlying social mechanisms, i.e., institutions, local ecological knowledge, and a sense of place. It focused on the ecology of three types of green areas (allotment gardens, cemeteries, and city parks) in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. These are superficially similar but differ considerably in their management. Effects of the different practices could be seen in the three functional groups, primarily as a higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the composition of seed dispersers and insectivores. Thus, informal management, which is normally disregarded by planning authorities, is important for ecosystem services in the urban landscape. Furthermore, we suggest that informal management has an important secondary function: It may be crucial during periods of instability and change as it is argued to promote qualities with potential for adaptation. Allotment gardeners seem to be the most motivated managers, something that is reflected in their deeper knowledge and can be explained by a sense of place and management institutions. We propose that co-management would be one possible way to infuse the same positive qualities into all management and that improved information exchange between managers would be one further step toward ecologically functional urban landscapes.

  19. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2009- Bulanık / A Survey on Medieval and Later Periods of Bulanık, Muş (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was carried out with the permission of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 20 July to 3 August 2009 at Bulanık town of Muş Province and dependent villages. Some monumental works consisting three churches, an inn, a cupola, four open tombs, a tomb, a bridge and three houses, also cultural assets composed of eighteen cemeteries in Bulanık town were identified. Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. Architectural monuments and gravestones in close Settlements; Günbatmaz, Mollakent and Esenlik villages which seem to have cultural interactions are similar to each other and the ones in Ahlat which is not far from the region.The oldest cultural assets belong to Islamic period were found in this region. A small number of identified works belong to Seljuk period and afterwards (XI-XV. Century, and most of the others usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period. The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region. Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors actually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction. Özet T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 20 Temmuz- 03 Ağustos 2009 tarihleri arasında Muş ilinin Bulanık ilçesinde ve köylerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada; üç kilise, bir han, bir kümbet, dört açık türbe, bir türbe, bir köprü ve üç evden oluşan anıtsal eserler; Bulanık ilçesinin köylerinde on sekiz mezarlıktan oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilerek incelenmiştir. Anıt eserler ve mezar

  20. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2010- Varto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe research carried out with the permission of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 9 to 26 July 2010 in the center of Muş, Varto, Korkut and Hasköy towns.In the research, cultural assets which were three churches, a store, a fountain, monument consisting of six houses and thirteen cemeteries were identified and examined.The houses in the center of Muş are generally made of mud brick with two-storey. The houses at Minaret, the castle and the River districts are disappearing rapidly, because they remain in the center of the city. They indicate the characteristic feature of Muş especially with front-side arrangements.The tombstones found in Varto district are noteworthy with human and animal figure forms. The tombstones identified in villages of Hasköy and Korkut towns stand with the sword and shield motifs.Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. The works identified usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period.The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region.Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors gradually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction.ÖzetT.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 09-26 Temmuz 2010 tarihleri arasında Muş merkez, Varto, Korkut ve Hasköy ilçelerinin köylerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir.Araştırmada; üç kilise, bir depo, bir çeşme, altı evden oluşan anıt eser ve on üç mezarlıktan oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilerek incelenmiştir.Muş merkezdeki evler genellikle kerpiç malzemeli ve iki

  1. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2010- Varto / A Survey on Medieval and Later Periods of Varto, Muş (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research carried out with the permission of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 9 to 26 July 2010 in the center of Muş, Varto, Korkut and Hasköy towns. In the research, cultural assets which were three churches, a store, a fountain, monument consisting of six houses and thirteen cemeteries were identified and examined. The houses in the center of Muş are generally made of mud brick with two-storey. The houses at Minaret, the castle and the River districts are disappearing rapidly, because they remain in the center of the city. They indicate the characteristic feature of Muş especially with front-side arrangements. The tombstones found in Varto district are noteworthy with human and animal figure forms. The tombstones identified in villages of Hasköy and Korkut towns stand with the sword and shield motifs. Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. The works identified usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period. The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region. Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors gradually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction. Özet T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 09-26 Temmuz 2010 tarihleri arasında Muş merkez, Varto, Korkut ve Hasköy ilçelerinin köylerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada; üç kilise, bir depo, bir çeşme, altı evden oluşan anıt eser ve on üç mezarlıktan oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilerek incelenmiştir. Muş merkezdeki evler genellikle kerpiç malzemeli

  2. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2009- Bulanık

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe research was carried out with the permission of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 20 July to 3 August 2009 at Bulanık town of Muş Province and dependent villages.Some monumental works consisting three churches, an inn, a cupola, four open tombs, a tomb, a bridge and three houses, also cultural assets composed of eighteen cemeteries in Bulanık town were identified.Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. Architectural monuments and gravestones in close Settlements; Günbatmaz, Mollakent and Esenlik villages which seem to have cultural interactions are similar to each other and the ones in Ahlat which is not far from the region.The oldest cultural assets belong to Islamic period were found in this region. A small number of identified works belong to Seljuk period and afterwards (XI-XV. Century, and most of the others usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period.The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region.Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors actually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction.ÖzetT.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 20 Temmuz- 03 Ağustos 2009 tarihleri arasında Muş ilinin Bulanık ilçesinde ve köylerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir.Araştırmada; üç kilise, bir han, bir kümbet, dört açık türbe, bir türbe, bir köprü ve üç evden oluşan anıtsal eserler; Bulanık ilçesinin köylerinde on sekiz mezarlıktan oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilerek incelenmiştir.Anıt eserler ve mezar ta

  3. Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda en Sevilla: ilusiones y cenizas de un periplo literario

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    Caballero Wangüemert, María

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an approach to Tula. I start from a statement: Sevilla marked a before and after in his literary vocation between 1838 and 1840, becoming known in the newspapers as a poet. Letters to Cepeda, her first and passionate love, are today the most interesting document of this period, both from the point of view metaliterary and autobiographical. All the works of this period can be read as autobiographical plays. After a prolific literary career, Sevilla will be the city where she ends her career while she prepares her complete works. She is a widow, prematurely aged and tired. Her remains now rest in Seville’s San Fernando cemetery . This work, snorkeling in Seville years of increasingly famous writer, is a tribute to the bicentennial of his birth.En mi acercamiento a Tula en las páginas que siguen, quiero partir de una afirmación: Sevilla marcó un antes y un después en su vocación literaria entre 1838 y 1840, dándose a conocer en los periódicos como poeta. Las cartas a Cepeda, su primer y apasionado amor, son hoy el documento más interesante de esta etapa, tanto desde el punto de vista autobiográfico como metaliterario. Aun así, todas las obras de esta época pueden leerse en clave autobiográfica. Tras una fecunda trayectoria literaria, culminará en Sevilla su carrera profesional mientras prepara sus obras completas. Está viuda, prematuramente envejecida y cansada. Sus restos reposan hoy en el sevillano cementerio de San Fernando. Este trabajo, que bucea en los años sevillanos de la cada vez más afamada escritora, pretende ser un homenaje en el bicentenario de su nacimiento.

  4. Osteoarchaeological Studies of Human Systemic Stress of Early Urbanization in Late Shang at Anyang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Merrett, Deborah C.; Jing, Zhichun; Tang, Jigen; He, Yuling; Yue, Hongbin; Yue, Zhanwei; Yang, Dongya Y.

    2016-01-01

    Through the analysis of human skeletal remains and mortuary practice in Yinxu, this study investigates the impact of early urbanization on the commoners during the Late Shang dynasty (ca. 1250–1046 B.C.). A total of 347 individuals examined in this study represent non-elites who were recovered from two different burial contexts (formally buried in lineage cemeteries and randomly scattered in refuse pits). Frequencies of enamel hypoplasia (childhood stress), cribra orbitalia (childhood stress and frailty) and osteoperiostitis (adult stress) were examined to assess systemic stress exposure. Our results reveal that there was no significant difference in the frequency of enamel hypoplasia between two burial groups and between sexes, suggesting these urban commoners experienced similar stresses during childhood, but significantly elevated levels of cribra orbitalia and osteoperiostitis were observed in the refuse pit female cohort. Theoretically, urbanization would have resulted in increased population density in the urban centre, declining sanitary conditions, and increased risk of resource shortage. Biologically, children would be more vulnerable to such physiological disturbance; as a result, high percentages of enamel hypoplasia (80.9% overall) and cribra orbitalia (30.3% overall) are observed in Yin commoners. Adults continued to suffer from stress, resulting in high frequencies of osteoperiostitis (40.0% total adults); in particular, in the refuse pit females who may also reflect a compound impact of gender inequality. Our data show that the non-elite urban population in the capital city of Late Shang Dynasty had experienced extensive stress exposure due to early urbanization with further social stratification only worsening the situation, and eventually contributing to collapse of the Shang Dynasty. PMID:27050400

  5. 白驹施耐庵的历史真实三证%The Three Evidences of Shi Naian' s Hometown Baiju Township

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦玉生

    2011-01-01

    The paper values oral transmission messages, combines written records, unearthed relics and oral literature, makes comprehensive, systematic and holographic considerations, cross checks and finally draws the conclusion that Shi Naian' s hometown is Baiju Township, which is the historic fact and goes a step further in inter- preting the mysteries of Shi Naian. Meanwhile, the paper is critical of the false claims that Xinghua of Yancheng is Shi Naian' s hometown, and Dafeng built Shi Naian' s cemetery. It points out that the people who reject Baiju Township make some errors out of lack of thorough investigation and one - sided ways.%本文重视口传史料,从文献记载、出土文物、民间口碑等三方面综合、系统、全息地思考,互相印证,从而证明白驹施耐庵的历史真实,在破译施耐庵之谜的道路上又向前推进了一步。同时,本文对当前施耐庵研究领域出现的所谓“盐城兴化”施耐庵(彦端)、大丰修建施耐庵陵园的不实之词进行了批评,指出否认白驹施耐庵的人未能深入调查:方法片面,以致闹出不应有的谬误。

  6. Huellas del pasado, miradas del presente: la construcción social del patrimonio arqueológico del Neuquén

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    Estela Mónica Cúneo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la relación entre aspectos teóricos pertinentes a la gestión del patrimonio arqueológico, la praxis profesional y el papel de las comunidades aborígenes y criollas, a partir de tres experiencias de arqueología de rescate en cementerios indígenas ubicados en la Provincia del Neuquén, República Argentina. En todas las ocasiones las comunidades locales manifestaron ser las propietarias de los materiales arqueológicos, por lo que estos casos constituyen un punto de partida para reflexionar acerca de "la construcción social del patrimonio arqueológico". Se plantea que la práctica profesional y la gestión del patrimonio arqueológico deben tener en cuenta los contextos socio-culturales y las percepciones simbólicas de las comunidades.The aim of this paper is to analyze theoretical issues related to the management of archaeological heritage, archaeological praxis, and the role of aboriginal and Creole communities. Three experiences of rescue archaeology conducted at indigenous cemeteries located in Neuquen Province, Argentina, form the basis of this analysis. In all cases local communities claimed to be the owners of the archaeological materials. These experiences are a starting point for thinking about "the social construction of cultural heritage". It is argued that archaeological praxis and the management of the archaeological heritage should take into account sociocultural contexts and the symbolic perceptions of communities.

  7. Utility of multiple chemical techniques in archaeological residential mobility studies: case studies from Tiwanaku- and Chiribaya-affiliated sites in the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Kelly J; Price, T Douglas

    2007-01-01

    In the south central Andes, archaeologists have long debated the extent of Tiwanaku colonization during the Middle Horizon (AD 500-1000). We tested the hypotheses regarding the nature of Tiwanaku influence using strontium isotope, trace element concentration, and oxygen isotope data from archaeological human tooth enamel and bone from Tiwanaku- and Chiribaya-affiliated sites in the south central Andes. Strontium isotope analysis of 25 individuals buried at the Tiwanaku-affiliated Moquegua Valley site of Chen Chen demonstrates that it was likely a Tiwanaku colony. In contrast, no immigrants from the Lake Titicaca Basin were present in 27 individuals analyzed from the San Pedro de Atacama cemeteries of Coyo Oriental, Coyo-3, and Solcor-3; it is likely that these sites represent economic and religious alliances, but not colonies. However, strontium isotope analysis alone cannot distinguish movement between the Tiwanaku- and Chiribaya-affiliated sites in the Moquegua and Ilo Valleys of southern Peru. Analyzing oxygen isotope and trace element concentration data and comparing it with strontium isotope data from the same individuals provides a more detailed picture of residential mobility in the Tiwanaku and Chiribaya polities. In addition to monitoring diagenetic contamination, trace element concentration data identified movement during adulthood for certain individuals. However, these data could not distinguish movement between the Moquegua and Ilo Valleys. While oxygen isotope data could clearly distinguish the high-altitude sites from others, more data is needed to characterize the local oxygen isotope ratios of these regions. These data demonstrate the potential for archaeological reconstruction of residential mobility through multiple lines of evidence.

  8. 河南淅川县阎杆岭83号墓发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In December 2005, in coordination with the heightening works of the Danjiangkou key water control facilities in the middle line of the project of shifting southern water to the north, the Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated Tomb 83 in Area II of the Yanganling Cemetery. The tomb pit is shaped like the character "甲" and filled with stone and charcoal. It yielded 99 funeral objects, which belong to the types of pottery ding tripod, jar, urn, pot and model granary, kitchen range and well, bronze basin, zeng steamer, fu cauldron, wuzhu coin, weapon and horse - and - chariot trappings, and iron sword. Dated to the late Western Han Period, it provided new material data for researching Han tombs and related problems.%2005年12月,为配合南水北调中线丹江口水利枢纽加高工程,河南省文物考古研究所对阎杆岭墓群Ⅱ区的83号墓进行发掘。该墓为“甲”字形积石积炭墓,出土鼎、罐、瓮、壶、仓、灶、井等陶器和铜盆、铜甑、铜釜、铜五铢钱、铜兵器、铜车马器、铁剑等随葬器物99件,年代为西汉晚期,为汉墓以及相关问题的研究提供了新资料。

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry {sup 14}C dating of lime mortars: Methodological aspects and field study applications at CIRCE (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzaioli, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.marzaioli@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Nonni, Sara, E-mail: sara.nonni@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, ' Sapienza' Universita di Roma (Italy); Passariello, Isabella, E-mail: isabella.passariello@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Capano, Manuela, E-mail: manuela.capano@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Dipartimento di Studio delle Componenti Culturali del Territorio, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Caserta (Italy); Ricci, Paola, E-mail: paola.ricci@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Lubritto, Carmine, E-mail: carmine.lubritto@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); De Cesare, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.decesare@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Caserta (Italy); Eramo, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.eramo@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e Geoambientali, Universita degli Studi di Bari ' Aldo Moro' , Bari (Italy); Quiros Castillo, Juan Antonio, E-mail: quiros.castillo@ehu.es [Universidad del Pais Vasco-Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Dipartimento di Geografia, Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); and others

    2013-01-15

    Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) has, recently, obtained some promising results in testing the feasibility of mortar radiocarbon dating by means of an ad hoc developed purification procedure (CryoSoniC: Cryobraking, Sonication, Centrifugation) applied to a series of laboratory mortars. Observed results encouraged CryoSoniC accuracy evaluation on genuine mortars sampled from archeological sites of known or independently constrained age (i.e., other {sup 14}C dates on different materials). In this study, some {sup 14}C measurements performed on genuine mortars will be discussed and compared with independently estimated (i.e., radiocarbon/archaeometrical dating) absolute chronologies of two Spanish sites. Observed results confirm the agreement of the CryoSoniC mortar dates with the archaeological expectations for both examined cases. Several authors reported the possibility of obtaining accurate radiocarbon dates of mortar matrices by analyzing lime lumps: binder-related particles of different sizes exclusively composed of calcium carbonate. In this paper, preliminary data for the absolute chronology reconstruction of the Basilica of the cemetery complex of Ponte della Lama (Canosa di Puglia, Italy) based on lime lumps will also be discussed. Dating accuracy will be quantified by comparing {sup 14}C data on mortar lime lumps from a funerary inscription of known age found near the Basilica, in the same study site. For this site, a comparison between absolute chronologies performed by bulk and CryoSoniC purified lime lumps, and charcoal incased in mortars (when found) will also be discussed. Observed results for this site provide evidence of how bulk lime lump dating may introduce systematic overestimations of the analyzed sample while CryoSoniC purification allows accurate dating.

  10. A Brief Study of Social Structure and Economic Patterns by Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasty Tombs in Jinj iang Region%晋江流域东晋南朝墓葬与社会结构和经济形态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中伟

    2014-01-01

    Eastern Jin and Southern dynasty tombs in Jinjiang region are the important materials to researching the social development and economic history of Qunzhou before the Tang dynasty.The tombs’mastership is a Han national,reflected by the cultural connotation of the structure and funerary objects combination.They migrated to the southern China after the Western Jin dynasty.The tombs’ distribution situation shows Fengzhou town was the central settlement,familial cemetery system populared and social stratification was not obvious.The exploition to Jinjiang region during the Eastern Jin and Southern dynasty period promoted the vigorous development of local agriculture and handicrafts.It created the conditions that Quanzhou became world famous trade port in the Tang and Song dynasties period.%晋江流域东晋南朝墓葬是研究泉州地区唐代以前区域社会发展与经济史的重要资料。墓葬形制与随葬器物组合的文化内涵反映出墓主是西晋末以来南迁的中原汉人,墓葬分布显示出以丰州为中心的聚落结构景观,家族墓地制度流行,社会阶层分化不明显。东晋南朝时期对晋江流域的开发,促进了当地农业和手工业的蓬勃发展,为泉州唐宋时期成为世界著名的通商港口创造了条件。

  11. Usage of Local Raw Material in the Construction of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18, Bujang Valley, Kedah

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    Zuliskandar Ramli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18 are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18 which is located in the cemetery area of Pengkalan Bujang Mosque, Kedah has unearthed various interesting artefacts; among them are the Sung Dynasty celadon findings and also kala carvings made from granite. The main construction materials used to build the temple consisted of laterite, slates, bricks and also granite. Laterite and bricks were used to build the lower part (foot of the temple while granite stones were used as the pillar bases, door sills, stone hem and also kala. The upper part of the temple is believed to have been built using wooden structures and the roof used palm leaves. Natural rock resources used to build this temple were local resources based on the distribution of the rocks that are aplenty in Bujang Valley. Scientific analysis on the bricks also showed that local raw material was used to produce these bricks. Scientific analysis using the X-ray fluorescence technique and X-ray diffraction technique can determine the chemical composition of the bricks, among others the mineral content of the bricks as well as the major element and trace element content. The analysis showed that open burning technique was used in the process of producing the bricks while the major and trace element content analysis showed the clay used was obtained from the Muda River and Bujang River basin. This usage of local raw material also demonstrated the local wisdom in temple construction technology and also technique in producing bricks that had existed since the 5th century AD.

  12. La iglesia de Santo Domingo de La Iruela (Jaén. Excavación y Arqueología de la arquitectura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatierra Cuenca, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the results of the archaeological interventions carried out in the church of Santo Domingo in La Iruela, Jaén. The excavations revealed that, prior to the present building constructed in the 16th century, there was another one that may also have had religious functions. The stratigraphic analysis permit knowing that the entire building was constructed at once, although the materials of the apse and the naves were very different; which allows for different interpretations. However, it has been proved that the deterioration of the building began between the seventeenth and the eighteenth century. The last stage is represented by the desecration and its use as a cemetery, which has caused important damages on the faces.En este artículo presentamos los resultados de la intervención arqueológica efectuada en la iglesia de Santo Domingo de La Iruela (Jaén. Las excavaciones han permitido comprobar que antes del edificio actual, levantado en el siglo XVI, existió otro, que quizá también tuvo funciones religiosas. El análisis estratigráfico de los restos emergentes ha demostrado que el último edificio se construyó en un solo momento, aunque se emplearon materiales muy diferentes en la cabecera y en las naves, lo que abre la puerta a diversas interpretaciones. Por otra parte se ha comprobado que entre los siglos XVII y XVIII debió comenzar el deterioro del edificio. La última fase viene representada por su desacralización y uso como cementerio, acción que ha provocado graves daños en sus paramentos.

  13. Simon Newcomb, Other Aspects of His Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    Simon Newcomb (1835-1909) is perhaps the best known American astronomer of the late 19th century. Among the many aspects of his long career, he was one of the founders and the first president of what later became the American Astronomical Society. However, he wrote widely on subjects other than astronomy, even producing works of fiction. He was especially interested in economics and published such titles as A critical examination of our financial policy during the Southern rebellion, A plain man's talk on the labor question, Principles of political economy and others. The very interesting title, A statistical inquiry into the probability of causes of the production of sex in human offspring was written in 1904. Newcomb even produced a work of science fiction, His Wisdom, the Defender: a story, published in 1900. William Alvord, President of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, on awarding Newcomb the Bruce Medal stated “The essential quality of his mind is that of a philosopher rather than that of a mathematician or an astronomer merely.” It has been suggested (Bradley Schaefer and others) that Arthur Conan Doyle used Newcomb as the model for Prof. Moriarty in his Sherlock Holmes novels. He had close friendships with many scientists of his time including Alexander Graham Bell. On the other hand, it has been reported that he also had contentious relationships with some scientists and could be intimidating. A devoted family man, he encouraged his three daughters in their intellectual pursuits. Newcomb, who held naval rank in the Corps of Professors of Mathematics, was buried in Arlington National Cemetery with full military honors. His funeral was attended by many noted scientists and other dignitaries including President William Howard Taft.

  14. Childbearing during adolescence and offspring mortality: findings from three population-based cohorts in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Fernando C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of young maternal age as a determinant of adverse child health outcomes is controversial, with existing studies providing conflicting results. This work assessed the association between adolescent childbearing and early offspring mortality in three birth cohort studies from the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Methods All hospital births from 1982 (6,011, 1993 (5,304, and 2004 (4,287 were identified and these infants were followed up. Deaths were monitored through vital registration, visits to hospitals and cemeteries. The analyses were restricted to women younger than 30 years who delivered singletons (72%, 70% and 67% of the original cohorts, respectively. Maternal age was categorized into three groups ( Results There were no interactions between maternal age and cohort year. After adjustment for confounding, pooled ORs for mothers aged 12-19 years were 0.6 (95% CI = 0.4; 1.0 for fetal death, 0.9 (0.6; 1.3 for perinatal death, 1.0 (0.7; 1.6 for early neonatal death, 1.6 (0.7; 3.4 for late neonatal death, 1.8 (1.1; 2.9 for postneonatal death, and 1.6 (1.2; 2.1 for infant death, when compared to mothers aged 20-29 years. Further adjustment for mediating variables led to the disappearance of the excess of postneonatal mortality. The number of mothers younger than 16 years was not sufficient for most analyses. Conclusion The slightly increased odds of postneonatal mortality among children of adolescent mothers suggest that social and environmental factors may be more important than maternal biologic immaturity.

  15. Apotropaic practices and the undead: a biogeochemical assessment of deviant burials in post-medieval poland.

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    Lesley A Gregoricka

    Full Text Available Apotropaic observances-traditional practices intended to prevent evil-were not uncommon in post-medieval Poland, and included specific treatment of the dead for those considered at risk for becoming vampires. Excavations at the Drawsko 1 cemetery (17th-18th c. AD have revealed multiple examples (n = 6 of such deviant burials amidst hundreds of normative interments. While historic records describe the many potential reasons why some were more susceptible to vampirism than others, no study has attempted to discern differences in social identity between individuals within standard and deviant burials using biogeochemical analyses of human skeletal remains. The hypothesis that the individuals selected for apotropaic burial rites were non-local immigrants whose geographic origins differed from the local community was tested using radiogenic strontium isotope ratios from archaeological dental enamel. 87Sr/86Sr ratios ( = 0.7112±0.0006, 1σ from the permanent molars of 60 individuals reflect a predominantly local population, with all individuals interred as potential vampires exhibiting local strontium isotope ratios. These data indicate that those targeted for apotropaic practices were not migrants to the region, but instead, represented local individuals whose social identity or manner of death marked them with suspicion in some other way. Cholera epidemics that swept across much of Eastern Europe during the 17th century may provide one alternate explanation as to the reason behind these apotropaic mortuary customs, as the first person to die from an infectious disease outbreak was presumed more likely to return from the dead as a vampire.

  16. 《源氏物语》中脱离困境的引导--三首白氏讽谕诗的异国阐释%Seeking a Way to Turn Their Fortunes Around in The Tale of Genji:On Bai Juyi's Allegorical Poems Used for Exotic Explanations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建梅

    2015-01-01

    白居易的《上阳白发人》《李夫人》《陵园妾》等以后宫薄命美女为题材的讽谕诗对日本平安时代文学作品《源氏物语》影响深刻。紫式部对此三首诗的借鉴先后有别、递进有序,呈现出情感上的“怨与妒”“求不得”“戒而生”的变化与发展。这一借鉴特色是作者紫式部对当时贵族女性婚姻状况的思考,反映了女性重情的审美倾向,亦是其基于净土信仰对女性情殇出路所作的探索与尝试。%Bai Juyi's allegorical poems, themed by ill-fated women in the imperial palace, such as Shangyang Palace Maid, Ms. Lee and Concubines' Cemetery, etc, had profound impact on The Tale of Genji, a lit-erary works in Japan's Heian Period (from A.D. 794 to A.D. 1185). Murasaki Shikibu quoted the above three poems, which presented emotional changes from "resentment and jealousy", "failed pursuit" and"revitalization from abstaining". This reference features represented the women's aesthetic psychology. Murasaki Shikibu's used reference was successively different and progressively orderly, which reflected her thinking on aristocratic women's marriage disturbance in Heian Period and her exploring the way out.

  17. August Hirt and "extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery" to anatomical institutes in National Socialism: a murderous change in paradigm.

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    Lang, Hans-Joachim

    2013-10-01

    German anatomical institutes always had problems obtaining sufficient cadavers for research and training. In the National Socialist (NS) period this changed. Universities could count on "extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery." Most frequently tacitly, many bodies were those of victims of NS crimes. Scientists increasingly exploited the exceptional political situation to systematically supplement their institutional collections. Their endeavors to fill the, in their terms, "lamentable gaps" in their collections took on truly bizarre forms. In Austria, Jewish cemeteries were plundered for racial-political expansion of anatomical collections. A change in paradigm was merely the next step: intentional murder for the benefit of NS-oriented science. In December of 1942, anatomists meeting in Tübingen discussed plans for "material acquisition." August Hirt, director of the anatomical institute at the Reichsuniversität in Strasbourg, was to develop guidelines. There was express reference to "Auftrag Beger," which had already been conceived although not yet realized: at the behest of Hirt and the SS-scientific organization, "Ahnenerbe," the anthropologists Bruno Beger and Hans Fleischhacker selected 86 Jewish prisoners in Auschwitz in June of 1943 and deported them to the concentration camp at Struthof near Natzweiler, where they were murdered. The bodies were delivered to the anatomy department in Strasbourg for preparation and used as anatomical specimens. The Reichsuniversität Strasbourg was considered a center of excellence for Nazi ideology. For modern scientists, the elucidation of these criminal acts is not exhausted in the search for an answer to the questions of perpetrator, place, modus operandi or motive. A suitable memorial to the victims must go beyond mere quantification.

  18. Celebrating Benedict Kiely 2007 Benedict Kiely Weekend Keynote Address

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    David Pierce

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Benedict Kiely (1919-2007 has an annual weekend devoted to his memory as one ofIreland’s leading writers in the modern period. The sixth such event was held in the newly-built Strule Arts Centre in Omagh in September 2007. Kiely lived most of his life in Dublin, pursuing a career as a journalist and a writer, but his roots were in County Tyrone. Educated by the Christian Brothers in Omagh, he embarked on a Jesuit novitiate in the Irish Midlands but this was cut short by a spinal injury, which meant a year of confinement on the broad of his back. Subsequently, he went on to read English and History at University College Dublin. His journalistic career took him first to the Irish Independent and then to the Irish Press, where he was literary editor. In the 1960s he took up visiting professorships at several North American colleges in Oregon and Tennessee. On his return he became well-known on Irish radio for talks and discussion programmes, and he was a regular contributor to Sunday Miscellany. A sharp observer of the Northern scene, he was particularly disturbed by the upsurge in violence in the recent Troubles, airing his grievances in imaginative works such as Proxopera (1977 andNothing Happens in Carmincross (1985. He died in Dublin on 9 February 2007 after a short illness, and after Requiem mass in Donnybrook he was laid to rest in the Dublin Road Cemetery in Omagh. The following is the text of the opening address I was invited to give at the sixth annual weekend. I spoke about Kiely’s sense of connection running through his writings.

  19. History of individuals of the 18th/19th centuries stored in bones, teeth, and hair analyzed by LA-ICP-MS--a step in attempts to confirm the authenticity of Mozart's skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Christina; Reiter, Christian; Patzak, Beatrix; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A cranium stored in the Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg/Austria which is believed to be that of Mozart, and skeletal remains of suspected relatives which have been excavated from the Mozart family grave in the cemetery in Salzburg, have been subjected to scientific investigations to determine whether or not the skull is authentic. A film project by the Austrian television ORF in collaboration with Interspot Film on this issue was broadcast at the beginning of the "Mozart year 2006". DNA analysis could not clarify relationships among the remains and, therefore, assignment of the samples was not really possible. In our work this skull and excavated skeletal remains have been quantified for Pb, Cr, Hg, As, and Sb content by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain information about the living conditions of these individuals. A small splinter of enamel (less than 1 mm(3)) from a tooth of the "Mozart cranium" was also available for investigation. Quantification was performed by using spiked hydroxyapatite standards. Single hair samples which are recorded to originate from Mozart have also been investigated by LA-ICP-MS and compared with hair samples of contemporary citizens stored in the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna. In general, Pb concentrations up to approximately 16 mug g(-1) were found in the bone samples of 18th century individuals (a factor of 7 to 8 higher than in recent samples) reflecting elevated Pb levels in food or beverages. Elevated Pb levels were also found in hair samples. The amount of Sb in the enamel sample of the "Mozart cranium" (approx. 3 mug g(-1)) was significantly higher than in all the other tooth samples investigated, indicating possible Sb ingestion in early childhood. Elevated concentrations of elements in single hair samples gave additional information about possible exposure of the individuals to heavy metals at a particular point in their life.

  20. El mundo funerario del Bronce Final en la fachada atlántica de la Península Ibérica. I Análisis de la documentación

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    Belén, María

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important characteristics of all the Atlantic part of the Iberian Peninsula during the final phase of the Later Bronze Age is the absence of burials. In fact, this characteristic is shared by all the Atlantic areas in Westem Europe. This phenomenon gets progressively older as one moves northward. Attempts have been made to fill this void with various discoveries. In this paper we deal with those graves considered as belonging to the Later Bronze Age and it has been demonstrated that they have been wrongly attributed to that date and that they are not true burials. As a result, the absence of burials must be explained by using hypothesis different from the search for cemeteries as traditionally understood.

    La fachada atlántica de la Península Ibérica se caracteriza durante la fase final de la Edad del Bronce por una marcada ausencia de sepulturas. Esto es en realidad una norma común al mundo atlántico de toda Europa occidental, donde la desaparición de tumbas después del Bronce Medio es más antigua conforme más al norte. En el presente trabajo se aborda el estudio de las sepulturas consideradas del Bronce Final, y se llega a demostrar que se trata de atribuciones que no resisten una revisión critica profunda. En consecuencia, la ausencia de enterramientos debe explicarse elaborando hipótesis distintas a la búsqueda de necrópolis entendidas al estilo tradicional.