WorldWideScience

Sample records for cemeteries

  1. Iowa Historic Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  2. New Mexico National Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The United States Department of Veterans Affairs National Cemetery Administration maintains 2 national cemeteries in the state of New Mexico; the Fort Bayard...

  3. Allegheny County Cemetery Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Outlines of public and private cemeteries greater than one acre in size. Areas were delineated following a generalized line along the outside edge of the area....

  4. Hybrid Cemetery Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Rodil, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the urban cemetery as a site of intangible cultural practices and ubiquitous computing as an approach to enhance heritage sites. The paper introduces an experience assessment tool as a mobile phone application that audio-visually augments a heritage interpretation programme, ...... urban site. Due to the sensitive subject matter of death and mourning, the participation of the public in general faces challenges that need attention when planning a cultural heritage programme.......This paper discusses the urban cemetery as a site of intangible cultural practices and ubiquitous computing as an approach to enhance heritage sites. The paper introduces an experience assessment tool as a mobile phone application that audio-visually augments a heritage interpretation programme...... mediations of historic heritage information and cultural practices of remembrance. The paper concludes, that an augmentation of the urban cemetery culture points to a high significance amongst citizens, and that experience design through mobile technologies promises an enhanced meaning in an often overlooked...

  5. Cemeteries - organisation, management and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Christian Philip

    Through the use of qualitative methods and various theoretical perspectives the implementation of maintenance specifications for Danish cemeteries is analysed and in parallel the cemeteries are described and characterised. Cemeteries and their management is complex due to the duality of the servi...... and thus likely to be part of future innovation and learning processes. Study findings contribute to the field of Danish cemeteries, as well as the knowledge base on cemeteries, public green spaces and of organisational change....... and due to frequent ad hoc approaches. The new tool represents a divergent change of current practices, and implementation is subsequently ambiguous, with adaptations of both tool and organisations. The tool is however addressing aspects of emerging challenges in the field of cemetery administrations...

  6. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    OpenAIRE

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-01-01

    The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое) and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominan...

  7. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerasimyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis Keywords: cemeteries, Odessa, flora, plants, ekobiomorphs.

  8. Soledade. The first cemetery of the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rabelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The origins of cemeteries occurred because of a change in funeral habits, when burials were transferred from the church to saint fields. In 1850, the first public cemetery was inaugurated in the city of Belem, Brazil. The Cemetery Nossa Senhora da Soledade (CNSS has a strong symbolic representation. Although its burials have ceased 30 years after its opening, the place is still visited for religious purpose, expressed in the practice souls and popular saints cults, held every Monday when the cemetery is open to the public. Hundreds of people come to the CNSS for pray near the graves. They deposit candies, soft drinks, flowers, and some sculptures adorned with shirts and ribbons, as a signal of gratitude for the graces received, attributed to the souls represented by the saints. Summed to the offerings, the tombs abandon, dirty plus graffiti, the cemetery is in a bad condition.

  9. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis

  10. Study on the Intensive Use of Rural Cemetery Lands from the Perspective of Multiple Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Mingping; Yu; Zhongxiang

    2014-01-01

    According to the investigation and study on the land use of different cemeteries in rural areas,the intensive land use of four cemeteries,including the public cemetery,traditional cemetery,vertical cemetery,and ecological cemetery,was evaluated.According to the data analysis,it is suggested to choose right cemetery according the practical conditions of each area,to take full use the multiple functions of cemetery lands and improve the intensive use.

  11. 76 FR 70710 - Army National Cemeteries Advisory Commission (ANCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... Department of the Army Army National Cemeteries Advisory Commission (ANCAC) AGENCY: Department of the Army... the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army National Cemeteries... first-come basis. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lieutenant Colonel Renea Yates;...

  12. Analysis on Establishing Urban Cemetery Planning and Compiling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun; YANG; Xiaogang; CHEN

    2015-01-01

    Currently,there are many problems in construction of urban cemetery like improper location,low land utilization,backward greening facilities and imperfect cemetery management,which have greatly affected people’s normal production and life. This article discusses the establishment of a sustainable city cemetery planning and compiling system from three levels of " macro-view,medium-view and micro-view" in order to perfect the present cemetery system.

  13. 77 FR 4471 - Tribal Veterans Cemetery Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Organization in meeting VA's national shrine standards with respect to cleanliness, height and alignment of... establishment, expansion, and improvement of Tribal Organization veterans cemeteries, as authorized by Section... Act requires VA to administer grants to Tribal Organizations in the same manner and under the...

  14. 32 CFR 553.7 - Design and layout of Army national cemeteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Design and layout of Army national cemeteries... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.7 Design and layout of Army national cemeteries. (a) General cemetery layout plans, landscape planting plans and gravesite layout plans for...

  15. 77 FR 9633 - Army National Cemeteries Advisory Commission (ANCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Department of the Army Army National Cemeteries Advisory Commission (ANCAC) AGENCY: Department of the Army... Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army National Cemeteries Advisory...: Lieutenant Colonel Renea Yates; renea-yates@us.army.mil or 571.256.4325. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  16. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(13)-1 - Cemetery companies and crematoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cemetery companies and crematoria. 1.501(c)(13)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(c)(13)-1 Cemetery companies and crematoria. (a) Nonprofit mutual cemetery companies. A nonprofit cemetery company may be...

  17. Land Use and Land Cover - CEMETERIES_USGS_BLA_IN: Cemetery Locations in Indiana (United States Geological Survey, 1:24000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Cemeteries_USGSs__BLA_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations and attribute values of cemeteries extracted from the Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)...

  18. The emergence of mound cemeteries in Early Dilmun:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    the later Dilmun seals. Together with the introduction of a broad variety of imported vessels from Mesopotamia, SW Iran and the Indus, the evolution in local pottery is taken to reflect a fundamental restructuration of Dilmun's network of exchange at the time of the emerging cemeteries. The proto......  This paper focuses on the major transformation in the social organization of Early Dilmun society which led to the emergence of the vast mound cemeteries in Bahrain. The paper examines this transformation on the basis of developments within the transitional mounds of a "proto-cemetery" dated to c......-cemetery is seen as a reflection of a social system which pre-dates the Dilmun state proper that apparently developed after the fall of the Ur III state....

  19. Microbiological Analysis of Necrosols Collected from Urban Cemeteries in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Całkosiński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of organic matter is the primary function in the soil ecosystem, which involves bacteria and fungi. Soil microbial content depends on many factors, and secondary biological and chemical contaminations change and affect environmental feedback. Little work has been done to estimate the microbiological risk for cemetery employees and visitors. The potential risk of infection for people in the cemetery is primarily associated with injury and wound contamination during performing the work. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiota of cemetery soil obtained from cemeteries and bacterial composition in selected soil layers encountered by gravediggers and cemetery caretakers. The most common bacterial pathogens were Enterococcus spp. (80.6%, Bacillus spp. (77.4%, and E. coli (45.1%. The fungi Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from 51% and 6.4% of samples, respectively. Other bacterial species were in the ground cemetery relatively sparse. Sampling depth was not correlated with bacterial growth (p>0.05, but it was correlated with several differences in microbiota composition (superficial versus deep layer.

  20. Using Vertical Panoramic Images to Record a Historic Cemetery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Polidori, L.; Hasegawa, J. K.; Camargo, P. O.; Hirao, H.; Moraes, M. V. A.; Rissate, E. A., Jr.; Henrique, G. R.; Abreu, P. A. G.; Berveglieri, A.; Marcato, J., Jr.

    2013-07-01

    In 1919, during colonization of the West Region of São Paulo State, Brazil, the Ogassawara family built a cemetery and a school with donations received from the newspaper Osaka Mainichi Shimbum, in Osaka, Japan. The cemetery was closed by President Getúlio Vargas in 1942, during the Second World War. The architecture of the Japanese cemetery is a unique feature in Latin America. Even considering its historical and cultural relevance, there is a lack of geometric documentation about the location and features of the tombs and other buildings within the cemetery. As an alternative to provide detailed and fast georeferenced information about the area, it is proposed to use near vertical panoramic images taken with a digital camera with fisheye lens as the primary data followed by bundle adjustment and photogrammetric restitution. The aim of this paper is to present a feasibility study on the proposed technique with the assessment of the results with a strip of five panoramic images, taken over some graves in the Japanese cemetery. The results showed that a plant in a scale of 1 : 200 can be produced with photogrammetric restitution at a very low cost, when compared to topographic surveying or laser scanning. The paper will address the main advantages of this technique as well as its drawbacks, with quantitative analysis of the results achieved in this experiment.

  1. Are we all equal at death?: death competence in municipal cemetery management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoria, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Managers of local government cemeteries should balance social and cultural expectations with fiscal responsibility and when they do so they demonstrate death competence in cemetery management. This study reviews the cultural and social equity aspects of the consumption of cemetery services and develops tools to take into account social equity and cultural concerns for public sector cemetery managers. Cemetery demand and pricing models are developed and applied to the case of Austin, Texas. These models enhance the estimation of demand by taking into account cultural factors and contextualize pricing in terms of social equity concerns. PMID:24666141

  2. 78 FR 53383 - National Cemeteries, Demonstration, Special Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... event, pageant, celebration, historical reenactment, entertainment, exhibition, parade, fair, festival... revise the definition of the terms demonstration and special event, applicable to the national cemeteries... narrowed the NPS's National Capital Region definition of demonstration at Sec. 7.96 (78 FR 14673, March...

  3. Stable isotope analysis of the middle helladic population from two cemeteries at asine: barbouna and the east cemetery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson Sundström, A.; Richards, M. P.; Voutsaki, S.

    In this paper we report the results of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of humans from two Middle Bronze Age cemeteries at Asine, Greece: Barbouna (n=6) and the East Cemetery (n=13). In general, the dietary pattern of adults and juveniles shows a heavy reliance on mainly terrestrial foods; C3 plants and a varying amount of animal protein (meat, milk or dairy products). The high nitrogen values of some individuals from the East cemetery indicate a substantial consumption of animal protein, although the carbon values show that no detectable amounts of marine foods, or C4 plants such as millet had been consumed. High nitrogen values as well as the high slaughter age of domestic animals, as found in previous studies point towards a significant utilization of milk and dairy products at Asine. A low increase of nitrogen values in subadults younger than one years of age from Barbouna compared to females at the East cemetery indicates that these children may have been fed breast milk as well as supplementary foods. Therefore, despite the poor preservation and uneven sample size, the Asine isotopic data give us information on diet during the MH period, as well as variation between the members of the community.

  4. The Crematorium Temple in the Monumental Cemetery in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Boi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Crematorium Temple of Milan, first in Italy and among the first in Europe, has played a key role in the revival of cremation, already used by the ancient classical civilizations, becoming a model soon imitated by other cities. Its construction is due to the generosity of the industrialist Albert Keller who worked to introduce the practice of cremation in Milan as an alternative to burial and as solution to the unrelenting settlement expansion of cemeteries, too close to the cities. In 1876 the crematorium was inaugurated with the first implementation of a design by Carlo Maciachini, author of the Monumental Cemetery where the crematorium is located, presented in grecian Doric style in memory of the purifying rituals of classical ideas.

  5. AMS radiocarbon dating of cemetery of Jin Marquises in China

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X; Wang, J; Guo, Z; Liu, K; Lü, X; Ma, H; Li, K; Yuan, J; Cai, L

    2000-01-01

    Bones are very important samples to determine the hosts of the cemetery of Jin Marquises which were excavated at Tianma-Qucun site in Shanxi Province in China. In order to obtain accurate AMS radiocarbon dates, bones were pretreated by two kinds of methods, the gelatin-extraction method and the amino-acid method. Charcoals collected from the same sites were also used. The measured dates agree with historical record.

  6. Guidelines and Requirements for Review and Acceptance of Memorials at National Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This documents provides guidance on the appropriate design, size, and procedures for the acceptance of donations of memorials to the National Cemetery Administration

  7. Flora of vascular plants of selected Poznań cemeteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Czarna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of 395 species of vascular flora at four rarely used cemeteries within the Poznań city was confirmed in 2010. Apart from naturally occurring species, cultivated species were noted equally. Among species appearing spontaneously between the graves, species new for the flora of Poland: Chionodoxa forbesii, Ch. luciliae, Puschkinia scilloides, new for the flora of Wielkopolska: Bidens ferulifolius, Hyacinthoides hispanica and new for the flora of Poznań: Erigeron ramosus, Lilium bulbiferum, Pimpinella nigra, Poa subcaerulea, Veronica hederifolia s.s., were recorded. Names of taxa originating from cultivation are underlined.

  8. Taphonomic Patterning of Cemetery Remains Received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokines, James T; Zinni, Debra Prince; Crowley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 49 cases of cemetery remains received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Massachusetts (OCME-MA), in Boston was compared with published taphonomic profiles of cemetery remains. The present sample is composed of a cross section of typical cases in this region that ultimately are derived from modern to historical coffin burials and get turned over to or seized by law enforcement. The present sample was composed of a large portion of isolated remains, and most were completely skeletonized. The most prevalent taphonomic characteristics included uniform staining (77.6%), coffin wear (46.9%), and cortical Exfoliation (49.0%). Other taphonomic changes occurring due to later surface exposure of cemetery remains included subaerial weathering, animal gnawing, algae formation, and excavation marks. A case of one set of skeletal remains associated with coffin artifacts and cemetery offerings that was recovered from transported cemetery fill is also presented.

  9. Anomalous values of heavy metals in soil of cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Balestrin Flores

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The necro chorume generated by the decomposition of human bodies has a high pollution load and depending on its location, it may reach and contaminate the soil, the surface and underground water resources. The problem is critical because the analyzed cemetery is located in a vulnerable area and the surrounding population makes use of the water under the influence of the necro chorume, and therefore, subjected to water carrying diseases. This study aimed to analyze the concentrations of heavy metals barium, copper, chromium and zinc in soil occupied by necropolis. An auger was used to collect soil samples in 10 different sites and depths. For determining the concentration of metals, the technique of fluorescence X-ray Energy Dispersive with the support of the software Surfer 10 was used to spatially generate concentration data maps. The concentrations of barium and copper indicated contamination of the soil in all sampled sites, while the chrome showed evidence of contamination at various depths between 0 and 300 cm. The lowest topographic point was the only one to have zinc concentration above reference values, indicating a contamination by this element in the surface flow and sub-surface water. With these results we can confirm the potential of metal contamination in soil occupied by the cemetery.

  10. National Cemetery Administration Summary of Veteran and Non-Veteran Interments: FY2000 to FY2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Total Veteran and Non-Veteran Interments at National Cemetery, and shown by Interment Type of Casket or Cremain, FY2000 to FY2012. Non-Veteran includes dependents,...

  11. Book Review: Haochuan Cemetery%读《好川墓地》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉

    2002-01-01

    The Haochuan Cemetery is the excavation report of the Neolithic Haochuan cemetery in Suichang,Zhejiang.It makes great efforts to reach the fullness and systematicness of material publication,and the author′s research conclusion on the periodization and cultural attribution of the cemetery is worthy of agreement.One of the important contributions of the excavation on the site is that,by using the material it provides,the contemporary archaeological cultures in the Zhejiang,Fujian and Jiangxi regions can be linked up.This makes for the first time the basic condition for integrate research into the Neolithic culture in southeastern China.On the other hand,the author′s determination of absolute dates for the phases of the Haochuan remains needs further discussion,and the social organization reflected in the structure of the cemetery,an issue remaining beyond the coverage of the report,deserves close attention from researchers.

  12. Toxicological potential of metals found in soil of cemeteries in Santa Maria - RS

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Casanova Vilaverde Gomes; ; Gislaine Kummer; Márcia Maria da Silva Monteiro Pereira; Hécio José Izário Filho; Rodrigo Fernando dos Santos Salazar; Noeli Júlia Schüssler de Vasconcellos

    2016-01-01

    Contamination with toxic elements and cemetery leachate may result when proper geo-environmental and hydro geographic studies are not conducted and cemeteries are dug in soils without appropriate structure and chemical properties. This contamination may percolate through the water table, leading to groundwater contamination, which can dramatically affect natural resources and public health. The toxicity of soil from Santa Maria was evaluated in this context. In addition, concentrations of Al,...

  13. "The last thing that tells our story": the Roodepoort West Cemetery, 1958-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to capture some of the complexity in the way that memory, meaning and agenda interact in the history of the cemetery of Roodepoort West. Roodepoort West was the 'old location' where Africans and others lived until 1955, after which a gradual process of removals took place until 1967, when it was finally destroyed. However, not everything was lost of the old location. The cemetery remained, after unrest caused by the proposed removal of the local cemetery during the late 1950s persuaded the authorities to leave it alone. More recently, the cemetery has played a part in land restitution, becoming both a site of tension and remembrance. This article explores the many meanings attached to the old cemetery, and funerals more broadly, over a period of time beginning from the 1950s to 2005. By looking at the history of funerals, and the cemetery, new insights and an alternative understanding of what it meant to live in an urban area in Apartheid South Africa can be gained.

  14. mtDNA analysis of human remains from an early Danish Christian cemetery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Lars; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske;

    2005-01-01

    general questions of population affinity, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA extracted from nine individuals excavated in two different areas within the cemetery: one male and four females from Area 1, and one male and three females from Area 2. Using stringent laboratory protocols, each individual...

  15. Determination of pharmaceuticals in groundwater collected in five cemeteries' areas (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paíga, P; Delerue-Matos, C

    2016-11-01

    There are growing public attention and concern about the possibility of ecosystem and human health effects from pharmaceuticals in environment. Several types of environmental samples were target of studies by the scientific community, namely drinking water, groundwater, surface water (river, ocean), treated water (influent and effluent), soils, and sediments near to Wastewater Treatment Plants or near to others potential sources of contaminations. Normally, studies in the cemeteries areas are for historical and architectural research and questions of the potential risk for adverse impact of cemeteries in environment have never received enough attention. However, this risk may exist when cemeteries are placed in areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The objective of the present work was the determination of pharmaceuticals (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory/analgesics, antibiotics and psychiatric drugs) in groundwater samples collected inside of the cemeteries areas. Acetaminophen, salicylic acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, nimesulide, carbamazepine, fluoxetine, and sertraline were the pharmaceuticals achieved in the analysed samples. None of the studied antibiotics were detected. The highest concentration was obtained for salicylic acid (in the range of 33.7 to 71.0ng/L) and carbamazepine (between 20.0 and 22.3ng/L), respectively. By the cluster analysis similarity between carbamazepine and fluoxetine was achieved. PMID:27328395

  16. Central Cemetery in Neiva (Huila: The setting where manifold memories are activated, reinterpreted and disputed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Lamilla Guerrero

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Through an ethnographic analysis of Central Cemetery in the city of Neiva (Huila, this text proposes to exemplify how cemeteries are privileged settings for the embodiment, organization and resignification of the manifold memories Neivan society collectively build and imagine in order to represent themselves in a dispute for identities and remembrance. They mirror what they are, have been, and aim at being. Those memories may be traced through the battle of signs, the persistence of hegemonies, the nation’s narrative, the bipartisan imprint, tenacity and the horror of the armed conflict, popular claims, the desire for a miracle, the vindication of affection, resistance, regional identity, the ephemeral, the transcendent and oblivion.

  17. A unique human-fox burial from a pre-Natufian cemetery in the Levant (Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Maher

    Full Text Available New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000-11,600 cal BP in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the Natufian (c. 14,500-11,600 cal BP. These features include sedentism, cemeteries, architecture, food production, including animal domestication, and burials with elaborate mortuary treatments. Our findings from the pre-Natufian (Middle Epipalaeolithic cemetery of 'Uyun al-Hammam demonstrate that joint human-animal mortuary practices appear earlier in the Epipalaeolithic. We describe the earliest human-fox burial in the Near East, where the remains of dogs have been found associated with human burials at a number of Natufian sites. This is the first time that a fox has been documented in association with human interments pre-dating the Natufian and with a particular suite of grave goods. Analysis of the human and animal bones and their associated artefacts provides critical data on the nature and timing of these newly-developing relationships between people and animals prior to the appearance of domesticated dogs in the Natufian.

  18. Toxicological potential of metals found in soil of cemeteries in Santa Maria - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Casanova Vilaverde Gomes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination with toxic elements and cemetery leachate may result when proper geo-environmental and hydro geographic studies are not conducted and cemeteries are dug in soils without appropriate structure and chemical properties. This contamination may percolate through the water table, leading to groundwater contamination, which can dramatically affect natural resources and public health. The toxicity of soil from Santa Maria was evaluated in this context. In addition, concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined and compared with the tolerance limits established by the National Environmental Council Resolution No. 420 of 2013. Oligochaetas of the Eisenia andrei species were used as bio indicators in the format bioassays-limit test (control versus treatment, in a completely randomized design with three replications, consisting of seven treatments and two levels. At the end of the exposure period, we evaluated the effects of acute toxicity in oligochaetas, considering the median lethal concentration (LC50. The results of acute and chronic toxicity studies in the two analyzed cemeteries (urban and rural showed toxicity (CL50 239,88 mg k-1 e 52,48 mg kg-1 and interference in the reproductive process of oligochaetas. We detected concentrations of toxic metals that exceeded legally established values.

  19. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  20. City Cemeteries as Cultural Attractions: Towards an Understanding of Foreign Visitors’ Attitude at the National Graveyard in Budapest

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    Brigitta Pécsek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to reposition urban cemeteries within the tourism supply and to showcase their values as cultural tourism products that can enrich visitors’ experiences. Although urban cemeteries as ritual meeting points of life and death have become an integral part of city tourism, contemporary tourism literature mostly embeds them in dark tourism or thanatourism, neglecting the experience-rich potentials of cemeteries as cultural products. This paper rectifies this by arguing that cemetery tourism makes a fascinating cultural display for tourists, offering both nature-based and cultural activities, therefore, it can be rightfully placed in heritage and cultural tourism. The paper investigates foreign visitors’ attitude at the National Graveyard in Budapest. During the empirical research 52 questionnaires were correctly filled in, followed by the same number of mini-interviews. The research findings confirmed the initial hypotheses: 1. Visitors regarded cemeteries as complex attractions representing both natural and cultural values, which added to the positive experiences of a Budapest city break. 2. There was no reference to the so called “dark aspects” of cemeteries in the answers. 3. Although the satisfaction rate was high, the lack of visitors is a clear indication that the cemetery in Budapest has been so far undervalued as an urban attraction. On the negative side, respondents criticized the lack of information sources available prior to visit, the inefficient marketing and the undesirable neighbourhood. The paper ultimately aims to provide stakeholders solid, preliminary data that might serve as a launching pad for further larger-scale research.

  1. The Usaquén Cemetery – A Case Study about the Spacial Manifestations of Society’s Hierarchical Order

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    Juan Camilo González Vargas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with an analysis of the spatial organization of the Usaquén Cemetery in Bogotá, this text proposes that the space of the cemetery functions like a scenario in which the hierarchical order of society is represented and reinforced. This order, however, is not admitted and interiorized totally by cemetery users. Through practices like the Cult to the Holy Souls the hierarchical social order is denied, in a cycle that repeats itself every week when this ritual is carried out. With the exploration of this case study it is proposed that investigations concerning social practices related to death are very useful for understanding the societies that produce them.

  2. Commemorating and burying dead comrades: Revolutionary martyrs’ cemeteries in China and North Korea

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    Gwendolyn Leick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the state sponsored, often vast cemeteries built to bury or commemorate the fallen ‘martyrs’ during revolutionary or civil wars in two Communist countries, China and North Korea. The legitimization of governments has always been an important issue with such burial sites and recent renovations of existing, as well as new constructions, in both countries show the continuing relevance of the policy. Of interest is also the way in which architectural, sculptural and landscape symbolization were employed to construct imagery that sometimes defies intended ideological messages.

  3. The Gallo-Roman cremation cemeteries of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg - intial findings of current research

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    Michel Polfer

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper will present the first results of a research project which aims at: ◦the elaboration of a complete corpus of all individual Gallo-Roman graves and cemeteries, including funerary monuments and inscriptions ◦the analysis of the structures and objects (typology, chronology etc. as well as the study of the religious, cultural and social attitudes and their evolution during the Roman period. The geographic area for the study is the modern Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, a major part of the ancient civitas treverorum. The project covers the period from the second half of the first century AD to the fifth century AD. The paper is divided into three main parts: 1.a short history of Gallo-Roman funerary archaeology in Luxembourg 2.a short presentation of some of the first results of the study related to: ◦the geographic distribution of the sites ◦the relationship between rural settlements, cemeteries and funerary monuments ◦the internal organisation of rural cemeteries ◦depositional practice and social differentiation in rural cemeteries ◦cremation types and the relationship between cremation and inhumation 3.a presentation (through maps and a database of the current state of the corpus (which currently has records of 300 different archaeological sites

  4. Lombards on the move--an integrative study of the migration period cemetery at Szolad, Hungary.

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    Kurt W Alt

    Full Text Available In 2005 to 2007 45 skeletons of adults and subadults were excavated at the Lombard period cemetery at Szólád (6th century A.D., Hungary. Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ(15N, δ(13C, (87Sr/(86Sr analyses. Skeletal stress markers as well as traces of interpersonal violence were found to occur frequently. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a heterogeneous spectrum of lineages that belong to the haplogroups H, U, J, HV, T2, I, and K, which are common in present-day Europe and in the Near East, while N1a and N1b are today quite rare. Evidence of possible direct maternal kinship was identified in only three pairs of individuals. According to enamel strontium isotope ratios, at least 31% of the individuals died at a location other than their birthplace and/or had moved during childhood. Based on the peculiar 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio distribution between females, males, and subadults in comparison to local vegetation and soil samples, we propose a three-phase model of group movement. An initial patrilocal group with narrower male but wider female Sr isotope distribution settled at Szólád, whilst the majority of subadults represented in the cemetery yielded a distinct Sr isotope signature. Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation. Population heterogeneity is furthermore supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope data. They indicate that a group of high-ranking men had access to larger shares of animal-derived food whilst a few individuals consumed remarkable amounts of millet. The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written

  5. An Early Hunter-Gatherer Cemetery in the Canadian Lower Great Lakes

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    James Conolly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The timing and context of the first emergence of cemeteries is of broad interest to archaeologists who wish to understand and explain changes in social complexity in late hunter-gatherer societies. Eastern North America has a particularly informative archaeological record for generating insight into how and why relatively small scale communities transform into much larger and regionally integrated societies, especially as these major transformations occur prior to the emergence of maize-based polities about 800 years ago (Sassaman 2010. An important element of this record of cultural change is innovation, transmission and adoption of new ideas concerning mortuary practices, and variation in these rituals over time provides considerable insight into the organizational complexity of hunter-gatherer societies.

  6. The sex profile of skeletal remains from a cemetery of Chinese indentured labourers in South Africa

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    Paul Ruff

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available For a short period of time in the early 20th century, indentured labourers from China were imported to work on the South African gold mines. The Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons contains 36 skeletons sourced from a Chinese cemetery of this time period on the site of the old Witwatersrand Deep Gold Mine. An earlier morphometric study on this collection recorded a high number of female individuals. However, the general historical records from the early gold mining era conflict with the results of this study, stating that very few Chinese females were among those to arrive in South Africa. In this study, the sex profile of this collection was analysed using molecular sex identification through the amelogenin gene. Results were obtained for 13 (41.93% specimens, all of which were determined to be male – data that correspond well with the historical records.

  7. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  8. Urban Insertions and Landscape Visions. Tension between Design and Place in the Cemeteries by Sigurd Lewerentz

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    Carlotta Torricelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing memorial places involves a reflection about the Origin. Starting from this premise, the paper illustrates some small cemeteries designed by Sigurd Lewerentz in the same years when he was working at the two celebrated sacred spaces of Enskede (Stockholm and East-Malmö. The work developed by the Swedish architect in Forsbacka, Valdemarsvik, Rud and Kvarnsveden shows a peculiar approach aiming to reveal the character of the place. Lewerentz, through the landscape design, gives the ground – seen as a factor of origin – an evocative value. Using signs that allude to archetypes of the relationship between man and the divine, Lewerentz deploys natural features along with artificial and abstract elements. The pursuit of a sense of origin settles the project into the place, and in this we can recognize a founding principle able to orient contemporary urban projects.

  9. Molecular biological analysis of remains from Jiangjungou Cemetery in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haijing; LIU Weiqiang; FU Yuqin; ZHANG Xiaolei; ZHOU Hui; ZHU Hong

    2006-01-01

    The 364 bp nucleotide sequence in hypervariable region I (HVRI) of mitochondrial DNA is successfully amplified from 9 out of 11 individuals of an ancient population buried in the Jiangjungou Cemetery in Inner Mongolia dated back to the Warring States Period in China. Nine fragments with different variations are obtained. A phylogenetic tree and a multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot are constructed using mtDNA sequences from the ancient population and several modern Asian populations. The results show that ancient population shares a closer genetic relationship with East Asian populations than with North and Central Asian populations. The genetic and historical evidence raise the possibility that the population might be the immigrants from Zhongyuan area, sent by the King Wuling of Zhao State to guard the nation against the attack from Huns.

  10. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  11. BANGLES, BEADS AND BEDOUIN: EXCAVATING A LATE OTTOMAN CEMETERY IN JORDAN (ABSTRACT

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    Bethany J. Walker

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Transjordan witnessed significant social and economic changes in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. With the loss of agriculturally-rich territory in Europe, the Ottomans sought to make up for their economic losses by regaining control of their Arab provinces, some regions of which had been autonomous for nearly three hundred years. The application of Tanzimat legislation to the Transjordan was a success, to a large degree, in that it secured tax revenues and contributed to the general security of the region.The application of the 1858 Land Law, in which land was registered in a proprietor’s name for tax purposes, was particularly effective in transforming grazing land to productive agricultural properties. It, moreover, had a significant impact on Transjordanian society which was tribal and largely nomadic. The introduction of direct rule in the region by the Ottoman government transformed traditional tribal life, resulting in the settlement of formerly nomadic groups, the transition to an agrarian way of life, and the opening up of markets formerly inaccessible to indigenous tribal groups. A variety of urban, manufactured goods became readily available to all sectors of society throughout this frontier zone.“Bangles, Beads and Bedouin: Excavating a Late Ottoman Cemetery inJordan” considers the transformation of tribal funerary practices in the Belqa’ of central Jordan. The paper highlights the burial ground of one Transjordanian tribe, identified as the Adwan, excavated at Tall Hisban in 1998. Dated to the late nineteenth century on the basis of coins, this mass grave was one of the last of its kind, as permanent cemeteries replaced seasonal burial grounds by the early twentieth century. The composition of theburial goods indicates that members of the tribe participated in an exchange network that embraced the Red Sea, Greater Syria, and Europe.

  12. The ecological structure of the bryoflora of Wroclaw's parks and cemeteries in relation to their localization and origin

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    Ewa Fudali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The ecological structure of the flora of 81 bryophytes found in 22 town parks and 6 cemeteries situated within the borders of the Wrocław town has been analyzed in relation to the localization of objects (within the center of the town and its suburbs and their origin (parks set up in the place of ruins, those built on the site of old cemeteries, objects established within former forests, and parks set up in open, previously rural areas, often as gardens of mansions. In general estimation, the bryoflora of parks and cemeteries appears to be rather ecologically highly specializated - more than 50% of species occurred only on one type of substratum. Epiphytes s.s. occurred rarely. More often bryophytes were noted at the bases and on the trunks of trees, up to 30 cm. Some of the mosses, described in literature as epiphytes, have adapted to terrestrial-epiphytic sites and have been found only at the base of trees. In parks, epigeits were found in abundance on the ground around the base of trees and in shaded lawns. The presence of specialized epixylics was insignificant, although some of the typical forest epixylics were noted, namely Aulacomnium androgynum, Herzogiella seligeri and Dicranum scoparium. However, only parks situated in the suburbs show a high ecological variety of bryoflora, while objects established within the center of the town do not differ in species composition of bryophytes from surrounding built-up areas, despite their origin. Only in the parks situated in the suburbs there was a pronounced presence of forest and meadow species. The factor of park's origin seems to influence the bryoflora's ecological structure and the species richness on objects situated in the suburbs. In the cemeteries a positive correlation between the high number of species, age of monuments and the dimensions of object areas was stated.

  13. The effectiveness of ground-penetrating radar surveys in the location of unmarked burial sites in modern cemeteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sabine; Illich, Bernhard; Berger, Jochen; Graw, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    Ground-penetration radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that is commonly used in archaeological and forensic investigations, including the determination of the exact location of graves. Whilst the method is rapid and does not involve disturbance of the graves, the interpretation of GPR profiles is nevertheless difficult and often leads to incorrect results. Incorrect identifications could hinder criminal investigations and complicate burials in cemeteries that have no information on the location of previously existing graves. In order to increase the number of unmarked graves that are identified, the GPR results need to be verified by comparing them with the soil and vegetation properties of the sites examined. We used a modern cemetery to assess the results obtained with GPR which we then compared with previously obtained tachymetric data and with an excavation of the graves where doubt existed. Certain soil conditions tended to make the application of GPR difficult on occasions, but a rough estimation of the location of the graves was always possible. The two different methods, GPR survey and tachymetry, both proved suitable for correctly determining the exact location of the majority of graves. The present study thus shows that GPR is a reliable method for determining the exact location of unmarked graves in modern cemeteries. However, the method did not allow statements to be made on the stage of decay of the bodies. Such information would assist in deciding what should be done with graves where ineffective degradation creates a problem for reusing graves following the standard resting time of 25 years.

  14. The emergence of mesolithic cemeteries in SW Europe: insights from the El Collado (Oliva, Valencia, Spain radiocarbon record.

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    Juan F Gibaja

    Full Text Available Located on the Iberian Mediterranean coast, El Collado is an open-air site where a rescue excavation was conducted over two seasons in 1987 and 1988. The archaeological work excavated a surface area of 143 m2 where 14 burials were discovered, providing skeletal remains from 15 individuals. We have obtained AMS dates for 10 of the 15 individuals by means of the direct dating of human bones. The ranges of the probability distribution of the calibrated dates suggest that the cemetery was used during a long period of time (781-1020 years at a probability of 95.4%. The new dates consequently set back the chrono-cultural attribution of the cemetery from the initial proposal of Late Mesolithic to an older date in the Early Mesolithic. Therefore, El Collado becomes the oldest known cemetery in the Iberian Peninsula, earlier than the numerous Mesolithic funerary contexts documented on the Atlantic façade such as the Portuguese shell-middens in the Muge and Sado Estuaries or the funerary sites on the northern Iberian coast.

  15. The emergence of mesolithic cemeteries in SW Europe: insights from the El Collado (Oliva, Valencia, Spain) radiocarbon record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaja, Juan F; Subirà, M Eulàlia; Terradas, Xavier; Santos, F Javier; Agulló, Lidia; Gómez-Martínez, Isabel; Allièse, Florence; Fernández-López de Pablo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Located on the Iberian Mediterranean coast, El Collado is an open-air site where a rescue excavation was conducted over two seasons in 1987 and 1988. The archaeological work excavated a surface area of 143 m2 where 14 burials were discovered, providing skeletal remains from 15 individuals. We have obtained AMS dates for 10 of the 15 individuals by means of the direct dating of human bones. The ranges of the probability distribution of the calibrated dates suggest that the cemetery was used during a long period of time (781-1020 years at a probability of 95.4%). The new dates consequently set back the chrono-cultural attribution of the cemetery from the initial proposal of Late Mesolithic to an older date in the Early Mesolithic. Therefore, El Collado becomes the oldest known cemetery in the Iberian Peninsula, earlier than the numerous Mesolithic funerary contexts documented on the Atlantic façade such as the Portuguese shell-middens in the Muge and Sado Estuaries or the funerary sites on the northern Iberian coast.

  16. Reconstructing Ancient Egyptian Diet through Bone Elemental Analysis Using LIBS (Qubbet el Hawa Cemetery

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    Ghada Darwish Al-Khafif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important advantages of LIBS that make it suitable for the analysis of archeological materials is that it is a quasi-nondestructive technique. Archeological mandibles excavated from Qubbet el Hawa Cemetery, Aswan, were subjected to elemental analysis in order to reconstruct the dietary patterns of the middle class of the Aswan population throughout three successive eras: the First Intermediate Period (FIP, the Middle Kingdom (MK, and the Second Intermediate Period (SIP. The bone Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios were significantly correlated, so the Sr/Ca ratios are considered to represent the ante-mortem values. It was suggested that the significantly low FIP Sr/Ca compared to that of both the MK and the SIP was attributed to the consumption of unusual sorts of food and imported cereals during years of famine, while the MK Sr/Ca was considered to represent the amelioration of climatic, social, economic, and political conditions in this era of state socialism. The SIP Sr/Ca, which is nearly the same as that of the MK, was considered to be the reflection of the continuity of the individualism respect and state socialism and a reflection of agriculture conditions amelioration under the reign of the 17th Dynasty in Upper Egypt.

  17. Comments on the Yule Marble Haines block: potential replacement, Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Arlington National Cemetery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Marble for the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery was cut from the Colorado Yule Marble Quarry in 1931. Although anecdotal reports suggest that cracks were noticed in the main section of the monument shortly after its installation at the Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia, detailed documentation of the extent of cracking did not appear until 1963. Although debate continues as to whether the main section of the Tomb of the Unknowns monument should be repaired or replaced, Mr. John S. Haines of Glenwood Springs, Colorado, in anticipation of the permanent closing of the Yule Quarry, donated a 58-ton block of Yule Marble, the so-called Haines block, as a potential backup. The brief study reported here was conducted during mid-summer 2009 at the behest of the superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery. The field team entered the subterranean Yule Marble Quarry with the Chief Extraction Engineer in order to contrast the method used for extraction of the Haines block with the method that was probably used to extract the marble block that is now cracked. Based on surficial inspection and shallow coring of the Haines block, and on the nature of crack propagation in Yule Marble as judged by close inspection of a large collection of surrogate Yule Marble blocks, the team found the block to be structurally sound and cosmetically equivalent to the marble used for the current monument. If the Haines block were needed, it would be an appropriate replacement for the existing cracked section of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Monument.

  18. Cartographic depiction of religious buildings and cemeteries on cadastral maps created during the first cadastral survey of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Nedim Tuno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with cartographic depictions of religious facilities and cemeteries in Bosnia and Herzegovina on cadastral maps created during the Austro-Hungarian administration. It shows how cartographic depictions of these plans changed over time, based on collections of topographic symbols published in the late 19th and the early 20th century. Relevant cartographic sources depicting religious buildings were identified and collected through analysis of genuine archival documents, i.e. relevant cartographical sources of different scales and types. The research of the materials resulted in a scientific description of the most important aspects of religious facilities belonging to different religious communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  19. Longtangang Cemetery of the Liangzhu Culture in Haiyan County,Zhejiang%浙江海盐县龙潭港良渚文化墓地

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浙江省文物考古研究所; 海盐县博物馆

    2001-01-01

    This cemetery lies on a high mound surrounded by a roughly ring-shaped section of a river course. Excavations were carried out near the center of the mound in 1997, which resulted in the revelation of a rather intact cemetery of the Liangzhu culture. At the center of the mound summit is an almost square zone of burnt clay, which may have been a place for sacrificial activities. A shallow north--south trench divides the cemetery into a western and an eastern parts, in which large tombs and small ones are arranged respectively in good order. The funeral objects unearthed include pottery, jades, stone tools and bone, horn and ivory ornaments, and distinct difference exists between the two categories of tombs in the type, number and quality of grave goods. The cemetery began to be used in the early Liangzhu culture, while its main part was shaped in an earlier stage of the late Liangzhu. Its discovery provides in many ways new material for studying this cultural complex.

  20. Subeixi Site and Cemeteries in Shanshan County, Xinjiang%新疆鄯善县苏贝希遗址及墓地

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    新疆文物考古研究所; 吐鲁番地区博物馆

    2002-01-01

    The site and Cemeteries Nos. 1 and 3 at Subeixi in Shanshan County were excavated in 1999 by the Xinjiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and other institutions. Among the vestiges revealed are the foundations of three houses, two of which consist of three separate rooms each, arranged in a row, and were used as living rooms, livestock pens, etc. The unearthed objects are largely stone tools and household pottery. To the west of the site is the No. 3 cemetery, where 29 earth-pit tombs and a cave-curn-shaft grave were brought to light. In the No. 1 cemetery, four earth-pit tombs were discovered along with a cave-cum-shaft grave. The tombs are covered with pebble mounds on the surface. The grave goods unearthed from them include principally pottery and wooden wares for daily use, a small number of irons, stone tools, bone objects and horn artifacts, and also some woolen and leather articles in rather a good condition. Evidently there was a settlement consisting of a living area and several cemeteries at Subeixi. The finds and the results of C-14 dating show it to go back to the 5th~3rd centuries BC.

  1. Isotopic investigation of human provenience at the eleventh century cemetery of Ndr. Grødbygård, Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Price, Douglas; Bennike, Pia;

    2013-01-01

    Bornholm is a Danish island almost in the center of the southern Baltic Sea. The strategic location of the island, its richarcheology, and its complex geology make it an intriguing location for the isotopic study of past human mobility. The focusof this study is on the large cemetery of Ndr....... Grødbygård in the southern part of the island, which dates to the eleventhcentury AD and contains 553 individuals in 516 graves. The majority of the burials were in a supine position oriented west – east, with the heads to the west, following the tradition of that time. In contrast to the Christian...... geology is quite complex, with a variety of rocks of different age and composition, resulting in a wide range of strontium isotope sources on the island, complicating the issue of identifying migrants. At the same time, Grødbygård provides an important example of the application of such methods in less...

  2. Integrated electromagnetic methods for archaeological prospection and stability assessment of anthropogenic mounds: insights into the English Cemetery in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccini, Luca; Pazzi, Veronica; Tapete, Deodato

    2013-04-01

    The archaeological interest in anthropogenic mounds as historical products of human occupation generally concerns the understanding of their stratigraphic sequence and the discovery of buried structures. Nevertheless, a further key element relies on the assessment of their stability. This is particularly crucial when the conservation history induced relevant alteration of the former configuration, and a potential collapse might cause damages to heritage and actual risk for public safety. To respond to such dual diagnostic need, we propose an integration approach based on Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) qualitative method and 2D-Electrical Resistivity Tomography (2D-ERT), to make the best out of these two techniques in light of their frequencies/bandwidth and methods of soil investigation (15-30 kHz and DC, respectively). We present here the results from the experiments performed on one of the test sites selected to validate the proposed methodology, i.e. the Protestant Cemetery (the so-called "English Cemetery") in Florence, Italy, which is a demonstrative example of a huge sample of anthropogenic mounds within urban and rural environments. Located on a topographic relief, the cemetery testifies a long history since Roman times, as proved by historical documentation and the ceramic findings still now discovered on the (sub-)surface. Converted into a cemetery in 1827, the mound appeared as an anomalous outcrop adjacent to the town walls, prior to the final arrangement and reshaping due to the urban renewal of Florence in 1877, which definitely transformed it into a raised graveyard surrounded by boulevards. A campaign of VLF-EM and ERT measurements was performed to ascertain the presence of a buried part of the ancient eastern wall and identify the key areas of concern for the stability. High values of resistivity were clearly detected and mapped by means of 2D-ERT along the AA' array intercepting the hypothesized location of the buried wall. This

  3. Paleodietary Analysis of Human Remains from a Hellenistic-Roman Cemetery at Camihöyük, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf İzci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of copper, zinc, magnesium, iron, lead, molybdenum, manganese and nickel was discovered on 22 human ribs in a Hellenistic-Roman cemetery located in the ancient city of Camihöyük, Turkey. The levels of each element found in the males were higher than those in females, except iron. Copper, magnesium, iron, molybdenum, and nickel levels were measured to be higher in the soil than in the skeletons, whereas the other elements were higher in the human skeletons. Lead was not traced in the soil, but on the skeletons. These individuals had probably been exposed to this element during their lives due to higher consumption of vegetables than meat.

  4. Dimensions of health and social structure in the early intermediate period cemetery at Villa El Salvador, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenkina, Ekaterina A; Delgado, Mercedes

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines relationships between the social structure of a community and the health of its members, based on analysis of human skeletal remains (N = 64) from Villa El Salvador XII (100 BC-AD 100), a prehistoric cemetery located in the lower Lurín Valley, Peru. The ambiguity of social status as conventionally inferred from archaeological context is among the principal complicating factors in such an inquiry. We use multidimensional scaling of skeletal markers to identify the presence of patterned health-based heterogeneity in our sample, without making a priori assumptions about underlying social structure at Villa El Salvador. This procedure situates every skeleton relative to all others in the sample on the basis of multiple health markers, eliciting health groups. Once recognized, the relevance of those groups to social structure can be evaluated by comparison with a broad range of presumptive archaeological status indicators. We test the hypothesis that the distribution of stress indicators in human skeletons covaries with archaeological indicators of social differentiation. Based on multivariate analysis of skeletal indicators, we conclude that the cemetery at Villa El Salvador was utilized by two social groups with different geographic affinities: one of local coastal origin, and the other probably from the upper Lurín Valley or adjacent higher altitudes. These groups differ in skeletal characteristics related to childhood health, probably reflecting systematic contrasts in the growth environments of the studied individuals. This same division is independently supported by the distribution of cranial deformation, a possible marker of ethnicity. We also document some inequality in the distribution of labor among male individuals, as reflected by the relative advancement of degenerative joint disease, and congruent with differences in the number and quality of associated funerary offerings. PMID:16596594

  5. Parasitism in Kansas in the 1800s: a glimpse to the past through the analysis of grave sediments from Meadowlark cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Le Bailly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During the excavations of the XIX century Meadowlark cemetery (Manhattan, Kansas, US, samples of sediments were taken from around five skeletons, and analyzed to detect intestinal parasites. No helminth eggs were found, but immunological ELISA tests for Entamoeba histolytica were positive in three samples. The immunological techniques have been successfully used in paleoparasitology to detect protozoan infections. Amoebiasis could have been a severe disease in the past, especially where poor sanitary conditions prevailed, and there is evidence that this cemetery may have been used in a situation where poor sanitary conditions may have prevailed. The presence of this protozoan in US during the late XIX century gives information on the health of the population and provides additional data on the parasite's evolution since its appearance in the New World.

  6. The sage who divided Java in 1052: Maclaine Pont’s excavation of Mpu Bharada's hermitage-cemetery at Lĕmah Tulis in 1925

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Carey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Architect Henri Maclaine Pont’s personal papers indicate that he almost certainly excavated the medieval hermitage-cemetery of the eleventh-century sage, Empu Bharada, in 1925. Careful field study in the former royal capital of Majapahit, analysis of the relevant Old Javanese texts and interviews with local residents have enabled an accurate identification of Maclaine-Pont’s exacavation site at the former children’s cemetery of Lemah Tulis where Bharada lived as a hermit. The authors argue that the famous Joko Dolog (‘Fat Youth’ statue now in Surabaya depicts the Buddhist sage who divided Java between King Airlangga’s two sons in 1052, and conclude by urging a new excavation of this most significant historical site.

  7. 新疆哈密市艾斯克霞尔墓地的发掘%Excavation of the Askchar Cemetery in Hami City, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    新疆文物考古研究所; 哈密地区文物管理所

    2002-01-01

    This cemetery lies about 30km southwest of Wubao Township in Hami City, and was excavated in 1999 by the Xinjiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology. The work resulted in the revelation of 32 earth-pit tombs, mostly single burials in a flexed sideways position. The human remains are wrapped in leather coats and covered with leather masks on the face. Among the unearthed and collected objects, pottery and wooden wares come first in quantity, stone tools and bronzes next, and bone and horn artifacts, woolen textiles and leather articles are still smaller in number. The burial ground is roughly identical with the Yanbulake and Wubao cemeteries in tomb form and grave goods, and must have been of the Yanbulake culture. The tombs date from 3000BP and belong to the Bronze Age.

  8. Interpretation on the Brion family cemetery from Scarpa%解读斯卡帕的布里昂家族墓园

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮; 马勇; 梁宇鸣

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces Scarpa and the Brion family cemetery project background, makes a guess and argument for the integral space de-sign of the Brion family cemetery according to drawing, literature and photo, takes final manufacture result as the starting point, and gradually re-stores Scarpa' s original design idea.%介绍了斯卡帕以及布里昂家族墓园的项目背景,根据图纸、文献、照片,对布里昂家族墓园整个空间设计中的设计起点进行了猜想和论证,以最终建造结果为出发点,层层还原了斯卡帕在设计背后的思考.

  9. 谈中国传统殡葬观在墓园景观中的应用%The application of Chinese traditional funeral view in cemetery landscape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊玲; 李雪

    2012-01-01

    对中国传统殡葬观与墓园景观的关系方面进行了研究,并提出传统殡葬观在墓园景观中的应用方法,分别从文化主题、地域特色和象征内涵三个方面进行了论述,从而为墓园景观园林化设计提供可行性的建议,对中国传统殡葬文化传承具有重要意义。%This paper researched the relationship of Chinese traditional funeral view and cemetery landscape,and put forward the application method of traditional funeral view in cemetery landscape,discussed from the cultural theme,regional characteristics and symbolic connotation three aspects,so as to provided feasible suggestion for the green design of cemetery landscape,had important significance to Chinese traditional funeral culture heritage.

  10. Occurrence of ticks and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in three types of urban biotopes: forests, parks and cemeteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Meli, Marina L; Gönczi, Enikő; Halász, Edina; Takács, Nóra; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare different urban biotopes for the occurrence of ixodid tick species, for the population density of Ixodes ricinus and for the prevalence rates of two emerging, zoonotic pathogens. Altogether 2455 ticks were collected from the vegetation on 30 places (forests, parks, cemeteries) of Budapest, Hungary. I. ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna were collected in all three biotope types, but Dermacentor reticulatus only in parks and forests, and D. marginatus only in a forest. Highest population density of I. ricinus was observed in neglected parts of cemeteries. In females of this tick species the prevalence rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were significantly lower in cemeteries, than in parks or forests. In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability of tick hosts and pathogen reservoirs.

  11. Re-Meaning The Indigenous Muisca Cemetery 0f Usme, Colombia: Ethnography of Collaborative Project and Patrimonial Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo F. Gómez-Montañez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper exposes an ethnographic view of a collaborative field work, made in Hacienda El Carmen in Usme, Colombia, a terrain where an indigenous muisca cemetery was found. The analysis focuses on the struggles between the named “authorized patrimonial discourse” and the “cultural process of patrimony”.  In the first part, I want to expose the processes that led us to purpose a current collaborative research project implemented by the Universidad Santo Tomás’ Group of Memory and the Indigenous Muisca Community of Bosa. Based on a situational analysis methodology, this part is the result of an ethnographic field work of some spaces of dialogue and encounter among different logics to understand the patrimony and the heritage. In middle of struggles with the public institutions, the academy and other social groups, the muisca people build and negotiate their ethnic identity as part of their cultural and political project. In the second part, the situational analysis will be applied in scenarios where the muisca people began to interpret the archaeological territory of Hacienda El Carmen. In this part, I will try to expose some epistemological reflections about alternative and inclusive ways of knowledge and remembering. The new senses and narratives, produced as a result of this exercise, let us thinking about the symbolic strategies used by the muisca people to occupy an important place in the present and the possibility of understanding and purposing current citizen visions from creative and original ways of incorporate ancestral memories.

  12. Radiocarbon dating of charred human bone remains preserved in urns excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: nakamura@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.j [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sagawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Tetsuya [Gangoji Institute for Research of Cultural Properties, Nakain, Nara 630-8392 (Japan); Kanehara, Masaaki [School of Science Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake, Nara 630-8528 (Japan); Tsuchimoto, Norio [Ichinomiya City Museum, Yamato, Ichinomiya 491-0922 (Japan); Minami, Masayo [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Okuno, Mitsuru [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Jonan, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Ohta, Tomoko [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    For a preliminary test of {sup 14}C dating of cremated human remains, we have collected charred bone and wood-charcoal fragments from cremated remains contained in cinerary urns that had been excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery at the Hoenji temple in Aichi prefecture, central Japan. More than 230 urn vessels were discovered from the excavated area of ca. 14 m wide and 14 m long. The identification of charred bone or charcoal fragments among the remains was performed by observation of surface appearance, inspection of fine structures by a microscope, bubble formation during the HCl treatments in preparing target material for AMS {sup 14}C dating, carbon and nitrogen contents, delta{sup 13}C and delta{sup 15}N values of the fragments. All {sup 14}C ages obtained for the samples that were identified as charred bone remains were almost consistent with the archeological age estimated based on typological analysis of respective urns. On the other hand, some {sup 14}C ages for the remains identified as wood charcoal, which had been produced from firewood or a wooden coffin during the cremation, were not consistent with archeological estimation, shifting toward older {sup 14}C ages, most probably as the result of old wood effect.

  13. Radiocarbon dating of charred human bone remains preserved in urns excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a preliminary test of 14C dating of cremated human remains, we have collected charred bone and wood-charcoal fragments from cremated remains contained in cinerary urns that had been excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery at the Hoenji temple in Aichi prefecture, central Japan. More than 230 urn vessels were discovered from the excavated area of ca. 14 m wide and 14 m long. The identification of charred bone or charcoal fragments among the remains was performed by observation of surface appearance, inspection of fine structures by a microscope, bubble formation during the HCl treatments in preparing target material for AMS 14C dating, carbon and nitrogen contents, δ13C and δ15N values of the fragments. All 14C ages obtained for the samples that were identified as charred bone remains were almost consistent with the archeological age estimated based on typological analysis of respective urns. On the other hand, some 14C ages for the remains identified as wood charcoal, which had been produced from firewood or a wooden coffin during the cremation, were not consistent with archeological estimation, shifting toward older 14C ages, most probably as the result of old wood effect.

  14. "Lupara Bianca" a way to hide cadavers after Mafia homicides. A cemetery of Italian Mafia. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Gianpaolo, Di Peri; Monica, Salerno; Maglietta, Francesca; Sessa, Francesco; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    The Gargano, also known as the 'Spur of Italy', is a sub-region of Italy which is located in North of Puglia, in the Province of Foggia. A ravine located in this area was used as a dumping ground in past. During a clearing operation, a team of speleologists discovered human skeletal remains, which led to an official investigation by the local prosecutor's office. The prosecutor called a team of forensic specialist for a scene investigation to recover and identify the human skeletal remains. Four different human skeletal remains located at four different levels of depth underground were found and were in different conditions. A complete forensic investigation was initiated and comprised of radiological imaging with DNA profiling. Three of the four human skeletal remains that were found were identified as those belonging to men who vanished mysteriously in the nineties. The studies conducted have demonstrated that the victims found were murdered and the murders were attributed to the "Mafia of Gargano". The Mafia of Gargano was officially recognized as a criminal organization dating back to 2009 and their criminal activities included the smuggling of firearms and cigarettes, human trafficking, and smuggling of undocumented immigrants. Murders in which corpses are made to disappear is common practice in criminal activities including that of the Italian Mafia. The "Lupara Bianca" is a colloquial term commonly used in Sicily to refer to concealed murders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study describing the discovery of one of the locations used extensively by the local Mafia as a "cemetery" for victims of "Lupara Bianca" homicides. Based on evidences collected at the site, an explanation of this homicidal modality will be provided. PMID:25579982

  15. The cartographic methods of presentation and GIS tool in analysis of historical data on the example of Great War cemeteries in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisek Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of Geographic Information System software in cartographic data presentation in the field of historical data mining. Lists of soldiers buried in the I world war cemeteries near Jasło were used. The prepared database helped to create series of maps, mainly diagram maps, that serve as a useful statistical and demographic characteristics of the phenomena. The authors stressed advantages of the solution used and the usefulness of historical data in spatial database preparation process. The shortages of the GIS software itself were also pointed out, especially as long as cartographic editing and methodology principles are concerned.

  16. Excavation in the Gangouzi Cemetery in Changbai County,Jilin%吉林长白县干沟子墓地发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉林省文物考古研究所

    2003-01-01

    In May~July 2001, the Jilin Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeologysurveyed the Gangouzi cemetery in Changbai County and excavated there seven tombs. These are stoneburial pits each with several or dozen circular, semicircular or fan-like platforms structured of pebbles andconnected with each other. They contain secondary burials after cremation. Human bones are largelybroken. The funeral objects consist of pottery, jade and stone artifacts and bronzes. The excavation is ofimportant value to studying the origin of the tomb shape prevailing among the Kaoguryo people.

  17. Natural stones and types of tombstones in National cemetery in Martin from half of the 19th to half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pivko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available About 500 tombstones from National cemetery in Martin were carried out. The cemetery represents section through sepulchral architecture in the 19th and 20th centuries and records history of natural stones use and tombstone evolution. From c. 1850, classicistic steles were produced from Gerecse marble and Banská Bystrica sandstone. Historicist steles of Silesian marble were imported from 1870s. End of 1880s years, variability of tombstone appearance began to grow. Outlined text, carved text fields, ornaments and new typefaces were emerged. In 90s years Carrara marble is imported. Real variousness of tombstone face is typical for first 20 years of the 20th century, when hard natural stones (Silesian granite, Swedish dolerite, and Norwegian larvikite are widely used. Besides them domestic Cenozoic conglomerates, Banská Bystrica sandstone and Bohemian Hořice sandstone were utilized. From 20s years to half of the century, variability of natural stones decreased at the expense of Swedish dolerite. Variety of tombstone shapes grew from decorated secession steles, through geometric functionalistic compositions, to simple tabular tombstones.

  18. Methodological proposal for the volumetric study of archaeological ceramics through 3D edition free-software programs: the case of the celtiberians cemeteries of the meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez Climent

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the free-software programs have been converted into the ideal tools for the archaeological researches, reaching the same level as other commercial programs. For that reason, the 3D modeling tool Blender has reached in the last years a great popularity offering similar characteristics like other commercial 3D editing programs such as 3D Studio Max or AutoCAD. Recently, it has been developed the necessary script for the volumetric calculations of three-dimnesional objects, offering great possibilities to calculate the volume of the archaeological ceramics. In this paper, we present a methodological approach for the volumetric studies with Blender and a study case of funerary urns from several celtiberians cemeteries of the Spanish Meseta. The goal is to demonstrate the great possibilities that the 3D editing free-software tools have in the volumetric studies at the present time.

  19. XANES investigation of Chinese faience excavated from Peng State Cemetery site in Western Zhou Period (BC1046–BC771)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyzed faience of Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty (BC1046–BC771). • We investigated the chemical composition and oxidation state by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), respectively. • The coloring element in both beads is copper in +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu2+. • Chinese faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant. - Abstract: As a special kind of glazed ceramic, faience has an important role to play in the technological trajectory that eventually leads to the development of ancient glass. In China, faience products first emerged in early Western Zhou Dynasty (1046BC–771BC), and their great significance as well as brilliant colors varying between blue and green attracted a lot of scholars. However, scientific researches on the color source of Chinese faience in view of microstructure characterization are quite few. In the present work, analyses by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) were carried out on two faience beads with relatively blue and green color, respectively, both of which were excavated from Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty. The results show that the coloring element in both beads is copper with +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu2+. It is suggested that the faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant in China

  20. XANES investigation of Chinese faience excavated from Peng State Cemetery site in Western Zhou Period (BC1046–BC771)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Wentao; Yang, Yimin [Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Jian, E-mail: jzhu@ucas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gu, Zhou [Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie, Yaoting [Institute of Archaeology of Shanxi Province, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Zhang, Jing [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Lihua [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed faience of Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty (BC1046–BC771). • We investigated the chemical composition and oxidation state by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), respectively. • The coloring element in both beads is copper in +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu{sup 2+}. • Chinese faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant. - Abstract: As a special kind of glazed ceramic, faience has an important role to play in the technological trajectory that eventually leads to the development of ancient glass. In China, faience products first emerged in early Western Zhou Dynasty (1046BC–771BC), and their great significance as well as brilliant colors varying between blue and green attracted a lot of scholars. However, scientific researches on the color source of Chinese faience in view of microstructure characterization are quite few. In the present work, analyses by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) were carried out on two faience beads with relatively blue and green color, respectively, both of which were excavated from Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty. The results show that the coloring element in both beads is copper with +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu{sup 2+}. It is suggested that the faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant in China.

  1. Reconstruction of dietary habits on the basis of dental microwear and trace elements analysis of individuals from Gán cemetery (district Galanta, Slovakia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibenská, Kristína Domonkosová; Bodoriková, Silvia; Katina, Stanislav; Kovácsová, Veronika; Kubová, Jana; Takács, Michal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the diet of a historical human population. Dental microwear and trace elements were analyzed. Although 38 individuals had been buried in the cemetery, only 13 of them were suitable for the analysis of trace elements and 17 skeletal remains for microwear analysis. Buccal microwear has been studied in a sample of 17 teeth from Gán cemetery. Teeth molds of the buccal surface were obtained and observed at 120x magnification with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Length and orientation of each striation have been determined with a SigmaScan Pro 5.0 image analysis program. The results of the analysis from Gán were compared with the previous study in a sample of 153 molar teeth from different modern hunter-gatherer, pastorals, and agriculturalist groups, with different diets (Inuit, Fueguians, Bushmen, Australian aborigines, Andaman's, Indians from Vancouver, Veddahs, Tasmanians, Lapps, and Hindus), preserved at museum collections. Buccal dental microwear density and length by orientation showed almost an inclination to hunter-gatherers from tropic and arid climates. The sample for the trace elements analysis consisted of 10 permanent molars and 3 permanent premolars. All analyzed teeth were intact, with fully developed roots, without dental caries, calculus and abrasion. Samples were analyzed using the method of optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Three elements: Ca, Sr, and Zn were chosen as basic diet determinants. Concentrations of these elements and their ratios were used for description of a relative proportion of plant and animal protein in a diet. The values of the Sr and Zn concentrations indicate that a diet of investigated population was rich in plant food. Higher Sr values in women can indicate lower proportion of animal protein in a diet, but significant differences have not been found. Differences between non-adult and adult individuals and between individuals with and without grave

  2. 新疆拜城县克孜尔吐尔墓地第一次发掘%The First Excavation of the Kiziltur Cemetery in Baicheng County, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    新疆文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    The Kiziltur cemetery discovered in 1998 is located in Kizil Township east of the seat of Baicheng County. It extends about 2kin from the north to the south. The tombs are distributed at the southern end, and an ancient city site and ruins of dwellings were brought to light in the middle. In 1990, the Xinjiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated here 27 earth-pit barrow-tombs, in which no coffins were found. The tombs contain single and couple or multiple joint burials of primary or secondary entombment, and some graves yielded human remains entombed in both ways. The funeral objects include mainly pottery, in which painted ware accounts for 74%, and bronzes, stone tools and bone artifacts were also unearthed. According to the finds and the results of C-14 dating, the cemetery can be dated to the Western Zhou and Spring-and-Autumn period.

  3. 浅析哲学理论在现代墓园景观规划设计中的运用--以宜兴金鸡山墓地公园景观规划设计为例%Application of Theory of Philosophy in the Modern Landscape Planning and Design of Cemetery-- Taking the Landscape Planning and Design of Jinji Mountain Cemetery Park in Yixing City as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晶

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, through the analysis and the research of Chinese traditional philosophical theory which is related to funeral culture, the author found a combining point of philoso- phical theory and the landscape planning and design cemetery. The author combines the Chinese traditional philosophy into the landscape planning and design of modern cemetery, to ex- plore the landscape design of modern cemetery which can not only satisfy the modern life, but also can reflect the inheritance of Chinese culture.%本文通过分析和研究与殡葬文化相关的中国传统哲学理论,寻找哲学理论与墓园景观规划设计的契合点。将中国传统哲学思想融入现代墓园景观规划设计中,探索形成既能满足现代生活,又能体现中国文化传承的现代墓园景观设计。

  4. Legal Regulations on the Cemetery Reclamation in the Context of Urbanization%城镇化背景下坟地复垦的法律规制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘羿

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal regulations on cemetery reclamation in order to clarify which kind of cemetery can be reclaimed in the process ofurbanization. Methods of empirical and normative analysis were employed. The results indicated that whether cemeteriesmay be reclaimed should be distinguished according to the time of being built according to the Funeral Regulations, which was enacted in 1997. The Civil Affairs administrative have the power to enforce the reclamation. However, according to Land Administration Law, the Land Administrative can only execute their power if the cemetery is against the original permission according to the local land use planning, e.g., expanding or reconstructing the cemetery. Furthermore, according to Urban and Rural Planning Law, the governments at village and township level can make decisions on reclaiming the cemeteriesonly if the cemeteries are built after the rural planning is enacted. However, the reclamation decision belongs to the administrative punishment and is in effect as long as the cemeteries have not been reclaimed. The paper concludes that the relevant administrative should force the reclamation according to the time that the cemeteries are built.%研究目的:从殡葬管理、土地管理、城乡规划等实定法的角度,分析对于占用耕地的坟地处理方式,以明确何种坟地可以被复垦。研究方法:实证法,规范分析法。研究结果:依据1997年的《殡葬管理条例》,对已存在于耕地之上的坟墓处理,需根据建坟时间的不同予以区别对待,民政部门对此有强制执行权,该项权力在《行政强制法》实施后失效;依据《土地管理法》,需区分建坟的时间以及坟主对坟墓有无扩建、重建行为,土地行政主管部门对此无行政强制权;依据《城乡规划法》,乡、镇人民政府只能处理乡村规划制定后所建坟墓,并依据该法第65条的规定行使强

  5. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 600 South Clayhill Drive (AKA 600 South Cemetery Road), Monticello, Utah (MS00145)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1986 and 1987, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 600 South Cemetery Road (updated by San Juan County and the state of Utah to 600 South Clayhill Drive), Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  6. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome-Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco-and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center.

  7. Systematic Contradiction Between Heritage Conservation and Tourism Development: Cleaning the Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Degang; Sun Wanzhen

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of the tourist industry, world heritage sites become more and more popular among tourists from home and abroad. Therefore, heritage tourism has become a new hotspot. However, while world heritage sites are making obvious economic benefit from tourism,they also bring various problems and contradictions, of which the most troublesome one is the contradiction between heritage conservation and tourism development. To discuss and analyze the root and the essence of the above contradiction and find a way to bring about harmony between them is an important program faced by our national heritage management practice and academic research. Based on the case of cleaning the Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu, this paper analyzes the reasons why our national world cultural heritage sites bring about the above contradiction in the process of tourism development and points out that the improper system and stakeholders' benefit imbroglio are respectively the root and the essence of the contraction. Then, it also puts forward corresponding solutions.

  8. 新疆尉犁县营盘墓地1999年发掘简报%Excavation of the Yingpan Cemetery in Yuli County, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    新疆文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    The Yingpan cemetery is situated lkm northeast of the Yingpan city-site. There are more than 300 tombs in disorder and largely with diversiform-leaved polar stakes on the surface. Of them 80 were excavated in 1999, and 8 of these are reported in the present paper. The earth-pit tombs contain wooden coffins in the shape of a trough or four-legged case, or only wooden frames or boards in some cases. The cave-cure-shaft graves have no wooden coffins and are blocked at the mouth. The dead were entombed by single or couple joint burial, largely in extended supine position or, in less cases, in extended prone or flexed position. The grave goods include pottery, wooden, straw-knitted and lacquered objects. They are varied according to the sex of the dead. The clothes are different in the condition of preservation. Their styles and materials were not or seldom seen previously. In date the tombs can be inferred to belong to the Wei-Jin period.

  9. Chemical characterization of groundwater in the area occupied by the cemetery: use of fluorescence spectrometry X-ray energy dispersive (EDXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ernesto Ucker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the burial of human corpses can contribute to groundwater pollution by the contact of leachate generated from the decomposition of bodies in the unsaturated zone of the subsoil. This process has been investigated in this work that aimed to determine the overall quality of groundwater in the zone occupied by the cemetery. The fluorescence spectrometry X-ray Energy Dispersive (EDXRF technique was used for groundwater chemical characterization. Five monitoring wells were constructed according to Brazilian norms. The water level fluctuation, the potentiometric surface and the concentrations of the elements calcium, copper, iron, phosphorus and silicon were estimated. The water level appeared quite shallow, ranging between 0.48 to 0.95 m in the dry season. The concentrations range for calcium varied from 4.65 to 17.85 mg L-1, for copper 0.02 ± 0.29 mg L-1, iron 0.57 to 15.96 mg L-1, phosphorus 12.00 to 13.98 mg L-1, and silicon 35.55 to 79.12 mg L-1. It is concluded that the use of EDXRF techniques proved to be rapid and efficient for monitoring the constituents in the groundwater collected in wells under the influence of graveyard in silt-clay soil.

  10. Sugaring marble in the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy): characterization of naturally and artificially weathered samples and first results of consolidation by hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoni, Enrico; Franzoni, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    The so-called sugaring of marble is a very common degradation phenomenon, affecting both historical monuments and modern buildings, which is originated by environmental temperature fluctuations. Thermal cycles are indeed responsible for micro-cracks formation at the boundaries between calcite grains, so that marble is subjected to granular disintegration and can be reduced to a sugar-like powder of isolated calcite grains by just the pressure of a finger. Since no effective, compatible and durable treatment for sugaring marble consolidation is currently available, in this paper a novel consolidating treatment recently proposed for limestone, based on the formation of hydroxyapatite inside the stone, was investigated for weathered marble. To test the new treatment on suitably decayed marble samples, some naturally sugaring marbles from the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy, nineteenth century) were firstly characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurement. Then, artificially weathered samples were produced by heating fresh Carrara marble samples at 400 °C for 1 h. The effects of artificial weathering were characterized using the same techniques as above, and a very good agreement was found between microstructure and mechanical features of naturally and artificially weathered samples. Then, the hydroxyapatite-based treatment was tested on the so-obtained artificially weathered samples, and the treatment effects were characterized by UPV, MIP and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydroxyapatite-based treatment exhibited a remarkable ability of restoring marble cohesion and a good compatibility in terms of modifications in pore size distribution, which leads to regard this treatment as a very promising consolidant for weathered marble.

  11. Tranquebar - cemeteries and grave monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karin; Gasparski, Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    Danish and Norwegian tradesmen and officials, military personnel, German missionaries and British officers with their wives and children-a motley assortment of people-all found their last resting place in the former Danish trading station of Tranquebar in southern India. The bereaved relatives...

  12. 河南三门峡市虢国墓地M2001墓主考%On the Tomb-owner of Grave M2001 in the Guo State Cemetery within Sanmenxia City, Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦修

    2004-01-01

    Grave M2001 in the Guo State cemetery within Sanmenxia City should be assigned to the late stage of the late Western Zhou period, i. e. from Xuanwang's through Youwang's reign. This date was close to the time the Western Guo people migrated eastward as mentioned in historical records,and also corresponded with the time of Guo Wengong living in Zhou King Xuanwang's reign. In bronze inscriptions, we read the names “Guoji” (on bronzes from M2001), “Guoji-shi” (on the Guoji-shi Ziduan li tripod) and “Guo Wengong Ziduan” (on the Guo Wengong Ziduan cling tripod; both the li and the ding occurring in M1631) . Actually they refer to the same person, who was named “Guo Wengong” in literary documents. Therefore, the tomb-owner of M2001 can be definitely identified just as Guo Wengong.

  13. A Study of the Human Skulls from the Sodungbrak Cemetery in Qapqal County, Xinjiang%新疆察布查尔县索墩布拉克墓地出土人头骨研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈靓

    2003-01-01

    The human skulls studied in the present paper come from the Sodungbrak cemetery of the 5th to 3rd centuries BC in Qapqal County, Xinjiang. Based on the tomb structure and pottery form, they are believed to have been concerned with the Saka nomadizing in this area for a long period. There are 13 males and 10 females among the 23 individuals that can be morphologically examined and measured. The research results suggest that this group of people can be divided into two subgroups according to their physical features. Subgroup Ⅰ is close to the Central Asian Mesopotamia type, and Subgroup Ⅱ to the Paleo-Europoid type. Compared with ancient populations in adjacent regions, Subgroup Ⅰ shows closeness to the Alay-Saka-Wusun, Shihezi-Nanshan and Tianshan-Saka-Wusun groups, while Subgroup Ⅱ to the Gumugou, Minusinsk-Andronovo and Yanbrak-C groups.

  14. 云南江川县李家山古墓群第二次发掘%Secondary Excavation in the Ancient Lijiashan Cemetery in Jiangchuan County,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云南省文物考古研究所; 玉溪市文物管理所; 江川县文化局

    2001-01-01

    In 1991, the Yunnan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, in co-operation with other institutions, carried out the secondary excavation in the Jiangchuan Lijiashan cemetery. The 60 excavated tombs are all earth-pit graves without clear data on coffins and fall into three types: large-, medium- and small-sized. Among the grave goods are bronzes, irons, gold- and silver-wares, jade, agate and other precious stone artifacts, bamboo articles and wooden objects. The bronzes and irons include mainly implements of production and weapons, and also instruments of funeral ritual. According to the stratigraphical evidence of the cemetery and changes in the combination of funeral objects, the tombs can be divided into four phases. The first phase contains 28 mediun and small-sized tombs with irons as the main grave goods and without bronze-and-iron compound objects, and goes back to the mid Western Han period, prior to Wudi's reign. The second phase is represented by Tombs M47 and MS1, both furnished with a second-tier platform and containing a two-person joint burial. The large-sized tomb yielded bronze weapons, hoes, spades, and a tomb-figurine of a male holding an umbrella. The medium and small tombs are furnished chiefly with bronzes, and also a few bronze-and-iron compound articles. They date from the mid and late Western Han period. The third phase is represented by Tomb M82 and features the increase of bronze-and-silver ware. The large-sized tomb contains less bronze-ware; in the medium and small graves, bronze-and-iron ware, irons, horse trappings and lacquer-ware occur commonly. They can be assigned to the time from the late Western Han to the early Eastern Han period. The fourth phase comprises only three tombs, M49 and other two. Their funeral objects feature the sharp discrease of Dian-style articles and the emergence of Han-style objects,such as fu cauldrons, zeng steamers and incense burners. They go back to the earlier Eastern Han period.

  15. Dicrocoelium dendriticum found in a Bronze Age cemetery in western Iran in the pre-Persepolis period: The oldest Asian palaeofinding in the present human infection hottest spot region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Mokhtarian, Kobra; Makki, Mahsa Sadat; Mobedi, Iraj; Masoumian, Mohammad; Naseri, Reza; Hoseini, Ghasem; Nekouei, Parisa; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Dicrocoeliasis of animals and humans is caused by trematode species of the genus Dicrocoelium, mainly Dicrocoelium dendriticum in ruminants of the Holarctic region. D. dendriticum may be considered an old parasite, probably related to the appearance and diversification of Eurasian ovicaprines, occurred 14.7-14.5 million years ago. The oldest palaeoparasitological findings of Dicrocoelium in domestic animals and humans date from more than 5000 years BC in Europe. Eggs of D. dendriticum have been found in a burial of a Bronze Age cemetery (2600-2200 BC) close to Yasuj city, southwestern Iran. This is the oldest finding of D. dendriticum in the Near East, where present human infection reports are more numerous than in other world regions where human dicrocoeliasis is rare and sporadic. This palaeofinding in the Zagros mountainous chain area is of interest by its location close to Persepolis, suggesting a narrow relationship between humans and herbivorous animals in these highlands. Domestic ruminant populations of these highlands were following a repeated contact with those of the western flat lowlands of the Fertile Crescent thanks to annual altitudinal transhumance migrations of the nomadic pastoral tribes with their herds living throughout Zagros Mountains in the several millennium period BC. It is concluded that D. dendriticum spread together with sheep and goats westward throughout Europe from the Fertile Crescent during the 8000-6000 year BC period and somewhat later southward into Africa, both spreads facilitated by the low specificity of that trematode species regarding the snail and ant intermediate hosts. PMID:25748277

  16. Al-qarāfa, la Città dei Morti del Cairo. Il circuito delle sette tombe sacre - Al-Qarāfa: the pilgrimage to the holy seven tombs in Cairene Muslim cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tozzi Di Marco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A key aspect of al-Qarāfa, the Muslim inhabitated cemetery in Cairo is the devotion to seven ancient sacred tombs and its relative pilgrimage. The Cairene graveyard was renowned for the local and interregional pilgrimages because of its high concentration of awliyā’s graves (literally friends of God, as holders of baraka, the divine grace. In particular, in the XIII century the famous circuit of the Seven tombs was formalized by the shaykh al- Fārsī who, according to the scholar El Kadi, also called it “pilgrimage of the seven sleepers”. Hence the multitude of Muslim pilgrims who spent the night on the holy spot without taking into account the social code about the separation between sexes. Nowadays some mausoleums of the circuit have disappeared and local people have no memories of them, whereas the most renowned holy men’ tombs are still venerated by a large crowd of devotees, even if the nightly practice of incubation is missing. The author, in considering the scholars’ studies on this issue, explores the current veneration and the contemporary pilgrims’ pattern of habits, comparing it with the Medieval ones.

  17. METODOLOGÍA PARA EL ESTABLECIMIENTO DE ÁREAS CEMENTERIO DE MADERAS EN LA REGIÓN DE COTOVÉ (ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA METHODOLOGY FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AREAS WOOD CEMETERY IN COTOVE REGION ( ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Fredy Herrera Builes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En el manejo de la madera, se debe tener en cuenta el control de los organismos xilófagos. La importancia económica de los degradadores de madera, se debe medir no solo por el verdadero daño que ocasionan, sino también por los costos en las medidas preventivas y de control. Cuando se intente planear y aplicar un método de preservación de la madera, el objetivo debe ser eficaz y seguro. Por lo cual su evaluación en el tiempo es muy relevante, y el establecimiento de áreas de cementerio, permitirá concluir si tal tratamiento aplicado en la madera es el adecuado. El documento muestra un método de campo para evaluar la durabilidad natural de la madera, así, como los tratamientos preservativos aplicados en ellas, el estudio se estableció en el Centro Agropecuario de Cotové (Santafé de Antioquia, Colombia.Control of xilophagous organisms is important in wood handling. The economic importance of wood degraders should be measured not only for the actual damage caused, but also for the costs of preventive measures and control. When attempting to plan and apply a wood preservation method, the objective should be effective and secure. Thus, its evaluation over time is very relevant, and the establishment of cemetery areas will allow evaluation of whether those treatments applied to the wood are appropriate. The document shows a field method for evaluating the natural durability of wood, as well as the preservative treatments applied. This study was conducted in the Cotové Farming Center of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia , Sede Medellín ( Santafé de Antioquia, Colombia .

  18. Control of Aedes aegypti with temephos in a Buenos Aires cemetery, Argentina Control de Aedes aegypti con temefós en un cementerio de Buenos Aires, Argentina Controle de Aedes aegypti com temefós em cemitério de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Darío Vezzani; Stella Maris Velázquez; Nicolás Schweigmann

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of a larvicide, temephos, for controlling Ae. aegypti was evaluated in a cemetery in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Breeding sites decreased from 18.4% in the first study period (Nov 1998 to May 1999, without temephos) to 2.2% in the second period (Nov 1999 to May 2000, two applications), and to 0.05% in the third one (Nov 2000 to May 2001, five applications). Ovitraps with eggs decreased from 17% in the first period to 5.8% in the second period, and to 2.9% in the third one. Results s...

  19. A Restatement on the Chronology Order of the Jin Marquises Cemetery in Tianma-Qu Village and Also the Early Capital of the Jin%再论天马-曲村晋侯墓地的墓主年代序列——兼论晋国早期的都城变迁问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪波

    2012-01-01

    The arrangement of the chronology of the Jin marquises cemetery should be from the Marquis Wu to Marquis Zhao according to Tianma-Qu Village marquises of the cemetery in accordance with the records of descent corresponding sequence of Jin marquises in Shiji·Jin Shijia.Jin,Yi and Jiang are three different capitals of Jin.Jin located in today's the Tianma-Qu Village,and Yi may be ruins in Gucheng village,Jiang is likely around the site of Weigou-Beishoucheng.%按照天马-曲村晋侯墓地晋侯诸墓与《史记.晋世家》晋侯世系对应的年代序列,其排列应为武侯至昭侯。晋、翼、绛是三个不同的晋都地点,晋在今天马-曲村遗址,翼可能在今故城村遗址,绛可能在今苇沟—北寿城遗址一带。

  20. ¿MENOS O MÁS? LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DEL KIOSCO DE LEWERENTZ EN EL CEMENTERIO DE MALMO / Less or more? The construction of Lewerentz’s kiosk in the Malmo cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Campo-Ruiz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Este análisis se centra en el potencial de los detalles constructivos para transformar el espacio circundante a un edificio. Se analizan las puertas, las ventanas, la cubierta y otros elementos del kiosco de flores del Cementerio Este de Malmo y su repercusión en el espacio interior y exterior. Comparando los primeros bocetos y el resultado final de esta obra, realizada por Sigurd Lewerentz en 1969, se observan variaciones de centímetros en la posición relativa entre componentes y otras modificaciones. Se consideran las posibles razones que dan lugar a estos cambios, en relación a detalles constructivos similares empleados por el mismo arquitecto en otros edificios. El estudio de las ventanas se centra en la forma de sustentación en el muro, la relación entre su posición, las vistas que ofrecen y la iluminación que producen en el interior del pabellón. Se estudia la disposición de las puertas y cómo afectan al espacio. Se profundiza en la aparente sencillez de la cubierta, con un único plano inclinado. El kiosco de flores nos muestra cómo un elemento constructivo, por pequeño que parezca, puede afectar significativamente a la relación entre un proyecto y su entorno.SUMMARY This analysis focuses on the potential of construction details for transforming the surrounding space of a building. The doors, the windows, the roof, and other elements are analyzed regarding their impact on the inside and the surrounding space of the flower kiosk of Malmo Eastern Cemetery, designed by Sigurd Lewerentz in 1969. Variations of centimeters in the relative position between construction components and other changes can be noticed, comparing the first sketches of this project with its final result. The possible motivations leading to these variations are examined, and related to similar construction details used by the same architect in other buildings. The way windows are fixed to the walls is discussed, to further investigate the views

  1. Craniometric Variation of Ancient Skulls from the Hami Tianshan North Road Cemetery%哈密天山北路墓地出土颅骨的测量性状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏东; 赵永生; 常喜恩; 朱泓

    2012-01-01

    This study examines within-group variation based on craniometric data obtained from a sample of 24 Bronze Age skeletal human remains recently excavated along the Tianshan North Road,Hami region,Xinjiang. Statistical analysis was applied to 77 craniometric variables of both male and female groups. Morphological affinities showed evidence of a marked biological dissimilarity between the Tianshan North Road group and control groups,and also a considerable distance within Tianshan North Road male group. According to a review of previous archaeological and genetic research in this region,this result could indicate the skeletal population from the Tianshan North Road cemetery has its own unique morphological characteristics and was a group of people living in a transitional area occupied by both eastern and western ancestors.%本文是对出土于新疆哈密地区天山北路青铜时代墓地颅骨测量性状的研究.文中公布了24例天山北路墓地古代人群77项颅骨测量性状基本数据,在此基础上,对男、女两性的测量性状特点进行了统计分析,并结合考古学文化研究和分子生物学研究的相关结论对实验结果进行了讨论和推论.主要研究结论如下:一是该人群虽已经形成了具有自身特点的、共性的体质特征,但人群内部也存在些许差异,尤其是在男性个体数据之中.二是该人群是由分别具有东、西方体质特征的祖先人群混杂融合而成,是处于当时大人种分布过渡地带的过渡人群.

  2. En companía de los muertos: Ofrendas de animales en los cementerios de La Isla (Tilcara, Jujuy In the company of the dead: Animal offerings at the cemeteries of La Isla, Tilcara, Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R Belotti López de Medina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos aquí la identificación de los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos recuperados por Debenedetti en tres entierros de la necrópolis El Morro, del sitio La Isla de Tilcara (Jujuy, Argentina. Hay un consenso notable en torno a la peculiaridad de este cementerio, caracterizado por inhumaciones simples o dobles acompanadas de numerosas ofrendas, algunas de ellas suntuarias. Nuestro trabajo se organizó en torno a dos objetivos. Primero, la identificación taxonómica y etaria de los hallazgos. Se caracterizaron: 1 un cráneo y mandíbula de perro hallados en la Tumba 6, con una edad estimada superior a los siete meses; 2 los restos faunísticos de la Tumba 11, entre ellos el esqueleto casi completo de un guacamayo adulto, en el rango de tamaño del Ara chloroptera. 3 una mandíbula de félido pequeno de la Tumba 10, con una edad estimada superior a los seis meses. En el informe de Debenedetti los dos primeros conjuntos se reportan como esqueletos completos, lo que permite identificarlos como sacrificios. Nuestro segundo objetivo fue formular algunas interpretaciones plausibles sobre el contenido de las tumbas y el lugar de los animales en los ritos mortuorios.This paper presents an exhaustive analysis of the faunal remains recovered by Debenedetti from burials 6, 10 and 11 from El Morro cemetery at La Isla de Tilcara site, Jujuy, Argentina. There is a notable consensus about the importance of El Morro, since its burials contain no more than one or two individuals along with numerous offerings, some of them clearly sumptuary. In some of these tombs, among the diverse items, archaeofaunal remains were found that can be safely identified as sacrificed animals. The zooarchaeological analysis presented here was carried out on two of those offerings: the cranium and mandibles of a small to medium sized dog, estimated to be seven months old, found in Burial 6, and a faunal assemblage from Burial 11, among which an almost complete macaw skeleton was

  3. 76 FR 28925 - Tribal Veterans Cemetery Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... February 22, 2008, a conference call took place between senior VA officials and representatives designated by Tribal leadership of Federally-recognized Tribes to discuss the grant application process. Senior... advertised or placed on the market for bidding; it will construct the project, or cause the project to...

  4. Vascular cemeteries formed by biological nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Andrei P., E-mail: andrei.sommer@uni-ulm.de [University of Ulm, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials (Germany); Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki [Nagasaki University, Department of Macroscopic Anatomy, Graduate School of Biomedical Science (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    We report the discovery of dense colonies of globular structures ranging from 100 nm to 5 {mu}m in the tunica media of the femoral artery of an 89-year-old female cadaver. Systematic analysis using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and light microscopy reveals that the globular structures are surrounded by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and consist predominantly of calcium phosphate. Inspection of the images suggests the action of two complementary growth processes. The structures may grow both in size and in number locally by Ostwald ripening and a replicative route, respectively. Morphology in conjunction with the quality of their native growth niche suggests that they are different from nanocrystals released from apoptotic bodies. Their tendency to fill VSMC pockets leads to the speculation that they could represent an effort of the VSMC system to wall off cytotoxic nanocrystals liberated from apoptotic bodies. Alternatively, the structures may be equivalent with nanobacteria (NB)-a nomenclature which caused confusion. This is reflected by the multitude of names used by different authors for the nanoentities (living nanovesicles, nanobionta, calcifying nanoparticles, and nanons). Indeed, there is no clear definition in the literature as to what NB are. Considering that the calcium phosphate nanoparticles have been identified in the human body, we used in our study the descriptive name biological nanoparticles-the world's first nanoparticles.

  5. [Psychosis and addiction: The evidence cemetery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Stéphane; Lalonde, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The comorbidity between psychosis and substance use has attracted wide attention over the years, and a vast literature is now available for meta-analytic treatment. In the field, a majority of authors assume that cannabis smoking is a risk factor for psychosis, that substance abuse is highly prevalent in schizophrenia, that substance abuse worsens the prognosis of schizophrenia, and that integrated treatments have greater efficacy than treatment-as-usual for this complex population. The objective of the current article is to review the meta-analyses that have been published in the comorbidity field in order to determine if the above-mentioned assumptions are substantiated by evidence or not. Methods A search of the literature was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE. The literature search retrieved a total of 25 systematic quantitative reviews, addressing the following issues: etiology, age at onset, prevalence rates, cognition, treatment, as well as psychiatric, neurologic and functional outcomes. Results Evidence shows that the prevalence of tobacco smoking, cannabis smoking and alcohol use is elevated in psychosis. However, this prevalence is likely to be over-estimated since studies have been performed in clinical settings rather than the general population. Reliable evidence also suggests that cannabis smoking is a risk factor for psychosis outcomes. However, the association is rather small and it remains difficult to draw an unequivocal public health message from this literature. In the same vein, evidence suggests that cannabis smoking is associated with an earlier age at onset of psychosis. However, this observation is derived from cross-sectional studies, not longitudinal ones; thus, no undisputable claims on causality can be made from them. On clinical grounds, some evidence also suggests that substance use is associated with self-harm, increased positive and depressive symptoms in psychosis patients, but this evidence is derived from cross-sectional studies, not longitudinal ones. Cocaine may exacerbate antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia, but this observation is based on a small number of studies. In the case of violence, the aggregation of studies involving very large samples of patients has shown a strong association with substance abuse in psychosis patients. However, this association is based on statistics that are not adjusted for potential confounds, and the role of cluster-B personality disorders in the substance abuse-violence association has yet to be determined from an evidence-based perspective. The effects of psychoactive substances on cognition in psychosis patients are inconsistent and contradictory. In terms of treatment, evidence shows that bupropion and varenicline increase tobacco smoking cessation rates in psychosis. However, this observation is based on a small number of studies. Finally, there is no evidence that integrated psychosocial interventions are superior to treatment as usual in this population. This lack of efficacy may due to a real lack of efficacy or to methodological problems making the comparison of intervention studies difficult. Discussion The evidence supporting the main assumptions of the comorbidity field is not as strong as it may seem. Moreover, important gaps in our understanding of the psychosis-addiction comorbidity remain. Due to lack of interest or lack of data, no meta-analysis has been performed, in the dual-diagnosis population, on injectable antipsychotics, subjective reasons for use, treatment compliance, medical comorbidities, the social context of use, the neurobiological links between substance use and psychosis, as well as the comparative efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy. PMID:25590545

  6. 75 FR 34004 - State Cemetery Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., with general notes to include: governing code, material strengths, live loads, wind loads, foundation...: On December 31, 2009, VA published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (74 FR 69304) to...

  7. O emprego de métodos geofísicos na fase de investigação confirmatória em cemitérios contaminados Application of geophysical methods in the confirmatory investigation phase in contaminated cemeteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Willians da Costa Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentro do gerenciamento de áreas contaminadas, a aplicação de métodos geofísicos, em estudos de área contaminada, constitui uma metodologia confirmatória. Este procedimento - mais precisamente o método da eletrorresistividade por meio das técnicas da sondagem elétrica vertical e imageamento elétrico - foi aplicado no cemitério de Vila Rezende, em Piracicaba, São Paulo, para investigar e mapear a contaminação do cemitério por necrochorume. Os resultados indicam uma profundidade do nível freático entre 3,1 e 5,1 m, com duas direções de fluxo subterrâneo, uma a SW e outra a SE. Tanto as prováveis plumas de contaminação, que têm as mesmas direções de fluxo subterrâneo, quanto as anomalias condutivas verificadas nas seções geoelétricas confirmam as suspeitas de contaminação na área.Inside of the administration of contaminated areas, the application of geophysical methods, in studies of contaminated area, constitutes a confirmatory methodology. This procedure - more precisely the electrical resistivity method through the techniques of the vertical electric sounding and electrical imaging techniques, was applied at Vila Rezendeâ€TMs cemetery, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil, to investigate and to map the contamination of the cemetery for necrochorume. The results indicate a depth of water table among 3.1 and 5.1 m, with two flow directions, being one to SW and another to SE. So the probable contamination plumes, that have the same directions of underground flow, as for the conductive anomalies verified at the geoelectrics sections confirm the suspicions of contamination in the area.

  8. Analysis on the Planning Regulation Scheme of Jinpen Ridge Cemetery in the District of Binjiang Nanhu in Changsha%长沙市滨江南湖片区金盆岭墓区规划整治方案探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨靖

    2013-01-01

      长沙市金盆岭墓区改造是南湖片区改造提升的重点与难点,在通过规划手段取得城市发展需要与维护既得利益之间的平衡,并带动整个片区开发建设的探索尝试中,该方案是一个典型。在明确此次规划的作用与任务前提下,提出总体思路为对墓区实行控制,不再发展新的殡葬,建设地下宫殿,建立公园式生态景观墓园和生命科学展示区。展示区和生态景观墓园与其周边用地共同整合为生命科学主题公园。%The Reconstruction of Jin pen Ridge grave area in Changsha is the emphasis and difficulty of Nanhu District to promote.In the acquiring the balance between the needs of city development and maintenance of the vested interest by means of planning , and promoting the development of exploring the entire development attempts, this scheme is a typical. On the premise of defining the planning role and task condition, it puts forward the general idea is to control the tomb area, not to develop the new funeral, and to construct of the underground palace, and to built the park ecological landscape cemetery and life sciences exhibition area. The exhibition area, ecological landscape cemetery and the surrounding land together for park which is with the theme of life science.

  9. Effects of the earthquake of 11 May 2011 upon the historic family vaults in the San Clemente cemetery, the church of Santa Maria, the church of San Pedro and the Golden Fountain at Lorca in Murcia (SE Spain); Afecciones ocasionadas por el terremoto en el conjunto de panteones historicos del cementerio de San Clemente, iglesia de Santa Maria, iglesia de San Pedro y la Fuente del Oro de Lorca, Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Ballesteros, J. A.; Gallardo Carrillo, J.; Lopez Aguilera, V.

    2012-11-01

    This study forms a contribution to the record of deformations caused by the earthquake that occurred on 11 May 2011 in and around the city of Lorca, affecting a wide variety of its historic buildings. Our work has focused on the San Clemente cemetery, the churches of the Barrios Altos (the higher districts) and on the Fuente del Oro (the Golden Fountain). Our aim was to quantify the deformations and the numerous other effects using archaeological and architectural methods and retrieve as much of this information as possible before the works of structural consolidation and cleaning of the debris could begin. At the same time we tried to analyse the impact of the seismic shocks upon other historic buildings in the city. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. L’apport des analyses 14C à l’étude de la nécropole de l’âge du Bronze de“ La Croix de la Mission ” à Marolles-sur-Seine The contribution of radiocarbon dating in the study of the Bronze Age cemetery of Marolles-sur-Seine “ La Croix de la Mission ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Peake

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatorze des 41 sépultures de la nécropole de “ la Croix de la Mission ” à Marolles-sur-Seine ont récemment fait l’objet d’une datation par le radiocarbone aux laboratoires de Groningen (Pays-Bas et de Lyon (France. Les résultats obtenus mettent en évidence l'utilisation en continu de la nécropole pendant plus d’un millénaire entre 2000 et 800 av. n. è. La corrélation entre ces nouvelles dates et les données archéologiques permet de cerner, avec plus de précision, l’éventail des différentes étapes chrono-culturelles représentées à travers les sépultures de la nécropole. [Les analyses 14C ont été effectuées par les laboratoires de Groningen (Centrum voor Isotopen Onderzoek Rijksuniversiteit Groningen Nijenborgh 4 NL-9747 AG Groningen et Lyon (Centre de Datation par le Radiocarbone Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 43, bd du 11 Novembre 1918 F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex.]Fourteen of the 41 burials of the “ la Croix de la Mission ” Bronze Age cemetery at Marolles-sur-Seine have recently been carbon dated by the Lyon (France and Groningen (Netherlands laboratories. These new dates confirm the site’s occupation for more than 1000 years from 2000 BC to 800 BC and determine more precisely the different cultural and chronological phases of the cemetery illustrated by the great range of its burials.

  11. Environmental impact analysis and identification of vertical cemetery implantation and operation = Análise e identificação dos impactos ambientais da implantação e operação de cemitério vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Massulo Albertin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The vertical cemetery is a one or more pavement building equipped with compartments destined for burials, named locusts. This typology of cemetery is an tendency in the United States, Europe and Japan, and it has currently expanded in Brazil. Even so, publication of scientific work about this topic has been minimal, especially when it comes to environmental impact. Therefore, this present article’s objective is to analyze and classify the environmental impact derived from the vertical cemetery’s implementation phase and operation, utilizing a hypothetical situation. The methodology was based on the environmental impact templates, contemplating physical, biological and social-economical eeans. In turn, the environmental impacts arising from the operation phase are variable, and the largest magnitude that is related to the change in air quality through emissions from the decomposition of the bodies. Moreover, this hypothetical situation identified 17 environmental impacts of direct incidence, which 08 occur during the implementation phase and 09 during the operation phase; 03 will be of a positive nature and 14 negative; 12 are likely to real event and 05 only potential; 10 will be reversible and 7, at moment, will be irreversible. = Resumo - O cemitério vertical é um edifício de um ou mais pavimentos dotados de compartimentos destinados a sepultamentos, denominados de lóculos. Esta tipologia de cemitérios é uma tendência nos Estados Unidos, Europa e Japão e, atualmente, tem-se expandido no Brasil. Entretanto, os trabalhos científicos publicados sobre este tema ainda são poucos, principalmente no que se refere aos impactos ambientais. Diante disso, o presente artigo teve por objetivo analisar e classificar os impactos ambientais decorrentes das fases de implantação e operação de cemitérios verticais, utilizando para isso uma situação hipotética. A metodologia fundamentou-se na matriz de impactos ambientais

  12. EL DESCUBRIMIENTO DE UN CEMENTERIO DE ÉLITE EN EL CAÑO: INDICIOS DE UN PATRÓN FUNERARIO EN EL VALLE DE RÍO GRANDE, COCLÉ, PANAMÁ (The Discovery of an Elite Cemetery at El Caño: Traces of a Mortuary Pattern in Río Grande Valley, Coclé, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mayo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El Caño, situado en la provincia de Coclé (Panamá, es un yacimiento arqueológico conocido por su singular estilo escultórico y por contener estructuras arqueológicas de piedra. Recientemente se han descubierto en este lugar cuatro tumbas de personas de élite con ricos ajuares, fechadas entre el 700 y el 1000 d. C. Estas son coetáneas a las halladas en el cercano Sitio Conte, una necrópolis en la que se encontraron, hace más de ochenta años, las primeras evidencias arqueológicas de la complejidad de las sociedades precolombinas del istmo. La existencia en Sitio Conte y El Caño de elementos semejantes —basaltos columnarios dispuestos en hileras, calzadas y ricas tumbas— organizados además de forma similar, indica la posibilidad de la existencia de un patrón funerario en el valle de Río Grande. ENGLISH: El Caño, located in the Coclé province, Panama, is known for its unique stone sculptural style and stone structures. Recently four lavish burials have been discovered. Dated between 700 and 1000 AD, they are broadly coeval with similar mortuary features at nearby Sitio Conte, a cemetery which provided the first archaeological evidence for the sumptuous wealth of Panamanian chiefdoms more than eighty years ago. The existence in Sitio Conte and El Caño of similar elements—alignments of basalt columns, causeways and rich tombs—with a similar spatial organization, indicates the possibility of the existence of a mortuary pattern in Río Grande.

  13. Control of Aedes aegypti with temephos in a Buenos Aires cemetery, Argentina Control de Aedes aegypti con temefós en un cementerio de Buenos Aires, Argentina Controle de Aedes aegypti com temefós em cemitério de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Vezzani

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a larvicide, temephos, for controlling Ae. aegypti was evaluated in a cemetery in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Breeding sites decreased from 18.4% in the first study period (Nov 1998 to May 1999, without temephos to 2.2% in the second period (Nov 1999 to May 2000, two applications, and to 0.05% in the third one (Nov 2000 to May 2001, five applications. Ovitraps with eggs decreased from 17% in the first period to 5.8% in the second period, and to 2.9% in the third one. Results suggest that, in Buenos Aires, Ae. aegypti populations are highly susceptible to temephos. It is recommended to limit the use of temephos to prevent potential epidemics rather than for routine control.Se evaluó la eficacia de un larvicida, temefós, para controlar Ae. aegypti en un cementerio de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Los criaderos descendieron de 18,4% en el primer periodo de estudio (Nov 1998 a May 1999, sin temefos a 2,2% en el segundo (Nov 1999 a May 2000, dos aplicaciones, y a 0,05% en el tercero (Nov 2000 a May 2001, cinco aplicaciones. Las ovitrampas con huevos disminuyeron de 17% en el primer periodo a 5,8% en el segundo, y a 2,9% en el tercero. Los resultados sugieren que, en Buenos Aires, las poblaciones de Ae. aegypti son altamente susceptibles al temefós. Es recomendable limitar su uso para prevenir eventuales epidemias y no para el control rutinario.Avaliou-se a eficácia de um larvicida, temefós, para controlar Ae. aegypti em um cemitério de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Os criadouros reduziram de 18,4% no primeiro período de estudo (nov de 1998 a maio de 1999, sem temefós para 2,2% no segundo (nov de 1999 a maio de 2000, duas aplicações, e para 0,05% no terceiro (nov de 2000 a maio de 2001, cinco aplicações. As. ovitrampas com ovos diminuíram de 17% no primeiro período para 5,8% no segundo e para 2,9% no terceiro. Os resultados sugerem que, em Buenos Aires, as populações de Ae. aegypti são altamente susceptíveis ao temefós.

  14. 36 CFR 12.2 - Purpose of National Cemeteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... United States. Such areas are protected, managed and administered as suitable and dignified burial grounds and as significant cultural resources. As such, the authorization of activities that take place in... compatible with maintaining the solemn commemorative and historic character of these areas....

  15. Teores de metais pesados e caracterização mineralógica de solos do Cemitério Municipal de Santa Cândida, Curitiba (PR Heavy metal contents and mineralogical characterization of soils from the Santa Cândida Municipal Cemetery, in Curitiba (PR, brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Jurema Barros

    2008-08-01

    , em parte determinadas pelo material de origem, não apresentaram relação de causa e efeito com metais pesados nas áreas estudadas.The metal pieces of coffins, such as handles and adornments, are considered the main source of soil heavy metal contamination. Other sources of pollutants are the products used in the body embalming, wood preservatives and fluids released from body decomposition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clay fraction mineralogy and heavy metal contents of soils from Santa Cândida Municipal Cemetery, in Curitiba (PR, and estimate the contamination risk. The samples were collected at three depths (0-20, 20-80 and 80-120 cm at seven selected points, representing two parent materials (granite/gneiss and claystone and two burial modalities (unmarked graves and mausoleum area. The clay fraction was studied by X ray diffractometry and thermal analysis, and Fe and Al contents were determined, after acid ammonium oxalate (amorphous Fe and Al oxides and sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (crystalline Fe oxides extractions, by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The total and exchangeable heavy metal contents were determined by AAS, after sample digestion with concentrated HF and BaCl2 1 mol L-1 solution, respectively. The predominance of kaolinite and occurrence of vermiculite with Al-hydroxy interlayers and smectite determined the high values of soil CEC. Heavy metal contents were higher in the mausoleum area, where the highest Cr and Pb contents were found (516.3 and 260.2 mg kg-1, respectively. The lower metal contamination in the area of unmarked graves may be attributed to simpler burial practices, with less potential heavy metal sources, such as wood preservatives and metal parts of coffins. No cause-effect relation was observed between the chemical and mineralogical soil characteristics, in part determined by the parent material, and the heavy metal contents in the studied area.

  16. 29 CFR 779.370 - Cemeteries may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or plots. (2) Annual tax or assessment levied on lot owners, and (3) Gifts or bequests. Interest from... lots or plots to a burial society or a fraternal organization for the use of the members are sales...

  17. Bioarchaeological Analysis of the Human Skeletal Remains from the Late Mediaeval Cemetery of Koprivno, Southern Croatia

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    Mario Novak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of bioarchaeological analysis of the late mediaeval (13th-14th century skeletal sample from Koprivno, southern Croatia. Skeletal remains of 21 individuals (eight males, nine females, and four subadults were examined for the possible presence of dental pathologies (caries and alveolar bone diseases, subadult stress indicators (cribra orbitalia and dental enamel hypoplasia, degenerative osteoarthritis of the vertebrae and major joints, Schmorl’s nodes on vertebrae, periostitis, and bone trauma. The analysed sample is characterised by high frequency of alveolar bone disease, most probably as a result of somewhat longer average life span (around 41 years and very poor oral hygiene, while the data concerning dental caries indicate mixed diet evenly based on meat and cereals. High frequencies of cribra orbitalia, dental enamel hypoplasia and periostitis suggest frequent episodes of physiological stress (hunger, epidemics of infectious diseases which is in accordance with historical data. Distribution and prevalence of cranial traumas strongly suggest a relatively high degree of interpersonal violence in the analysed community.

  18. The first archaeometric data metallurgy in the cemetery and settlement of Calvari del Molar (Priorat, Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armada Pita, Xosé-Lois

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Phoenician pottery along the course of the river Ebro has been linked to Phoenician interest in the mineral resources of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula in general and the Molar-Bellmunt-Falset area in particular, but until now this proposition has not been verified. In this article we present the first evidence of metalworking from the site of Calvari del Molar (Priorat, Tarragona excavations of 2002-2003, which consists of a tuyère of a type hitherto unknown in Catalonia, a millstone used to crush ore, and an Orientalizing arrowhead that can be interpreted as a local imitation of foreign prototypes. The archaeometallurgical study of four other bronzes found during the excavations by S. Vilaseca (1930 is also included. Publication of these archaeological and archaeometrical results enables us to set out our proposals for future research on the settlement, its mining/metallurgical area and its relationship with Phoenician traders. Special attention is paid to silver, which was obtained from ores of that metal, from native silver and from lead sulphide.

    La presencia de materiales fenicios en el curso del río Ebro se ha relacionado con su interés hacia los recursos mineros del nordeste peninsular en general y del área Molar- Bellmunt-Falset en particular, pero hasta la fecha esta propuesta no había sido adecuadamente contrastada. En este artículo presentamos las primeras evidencias de actividad metalúrgica procedentes del poblado de Calvari del Molar (Priorat, Tarragona (campañas 2002-2003, que consisten en una tobera de tipología desconocida hasta la fecha en Cataluña, un molino empleado para triturar el mineral y una punta de flecha orientalizante que puede interpretarse como una imitación local de modelos foráneos. Damos a conocer también el estudio arqueometalúrgico de otros cuatro bronces procedentes de las excavaciones de S. Vilaseca (1930. La publicación de los resultados arqueológicos y arqueométricos nos sirve para presentar las perspectivas de futuro de nuestra investigación acerca del poblado, de su área minero- metalúrgica y de su relación con los intereses comerciales fenicios. Se presta especial atención a la plata, obtenida a partir de minerales de este metal, plata nativa y galena argentífera, como un subproducto de la explotación de plomo.

  19. The earthly loci of death: the coffin, the grave, the cemetery:

    OpenAIRE

    Plotnikova, Anna

    1999-01-01

    Predstavljena so različna ljudska verovanja in obredi, povezani s krsto, grobom in pokopališčem. Pogrebne šege, ljudsko verovanje in uporaba besed, povezanih s smrtjo, potrjujejo tezo, da so krsta, grob in pokopališče slovanski simboli "drugega sveta" in se prekrivajo z bivanjem v življenju. Krsta se povezuje s hišo, grob z domom z okolico, pokopališče z vasjo. Beseda o avtorici

  20. 32 CFR 553.22 - Visitors' rules for the Arlington National Cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is a part of a memorial service or ceremony authorized by this section; (6) Allow any dog, cat, or... tumultuous behavior; (ii) Yells, utters loud and boisterous language or makes other unreasonably loud noise..., insulting, profane, indecent or otherwise provocative language or gesture that by its very utterance...

  1. 32 CFR 553.15 - Persons eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). (3) Distinguished Service Medal. (4) Silver Star. (5) Purple Heart. (e) Persons who have held any of... injury incurred or aggravated in line of duty. (g) The spouse, widow or widower, minor child and, at the discretion of the Secretary of the Army, unmarried adult child of any of the persons listed above. (1)...

  2. Archaeometric study of glass beads from the 2nd century BC cemetery of Numantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Heras, Manuel

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent archaeologícalf ieldwork undertaken in the Celtiberian cremation necropolis of Numantia (Soria, Spain has provided a group of glass beads from the 2nd century BC. Such glass beads were part, together with other metallic and ceramic items, of the offerings deposited with the dead. They are ring-shaped in typology and deep-blue, amber, or semitransparent white in colour. This paper reports results derived from the chemical and microstructural characterization carried out on a representative sample set of this group of beads. The main goal of the research was to find out about their production technology to explore their probable provenance. In addítion, corrosion mechanisms were also assessed to determine the influence of crematíon on the beads' structure. The resulting data suggest that these blue and amber beads were made using soda-lime silicate glass, whereas semi-transparent white ones were manufactured from alumino-silicate glass. It has also determined that some transition metal oxides were used as chromophores, as well as lead oxide for decoration.

    La reciente excavación de la necrópolis celtibérica de Numancia (Garray, Soria ha permitido recuperar un conjunto de cuentas de vidrio del siglo II a.C. Las cuentas, junto con otros objetos de metaly cerámica, formaban parte de las ofrendas depositadas con el difunto, siendo de tipología anular y coloreadas en azul oscuro, ambar y blanco semitransparente. Este trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos en la caracterización química y microestructural de una muestra representativa de este conjunto. El objetivo principal de la investigación consistió en recabar información sobre su tecnología de manufactura y evaluar su posible procedencia. Asimismo, también se investigaron sus mecanismos de corrosión para determinar si la cremación había inducido cambios en su estructura. Los resultados indican que las cuentas azules y ámbar se realizaron con vidrio de silicato sódico cálcico y las blancas semitransparentes con vidrio de aluminosilicato, utilizando óxidos de metales de transición como cromóforos y óxido de plomo para la decoración.

  3. Archaeological excavations in the Põltsamaa old parish cemetery / Martin Malve, Juhani Kokamägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Malve, Martin, 1984-

    2014-01-01

    Kihelkonna kalmistule matmine algas tõenäoliselt 13. sajandi teisel veernadil. Kirikaeda kasutati aktiivselt ka pärast kiriku purustamist 1600. aastal ja matmine lõpetati alles 1773. aastal. Uuringute käigus avati kuus matust. Uuringute tulemusena täpsustusid kalmistuala idaosa piirid, väravakoht ja kasutamisaja lõpp

  4. Archaeological excavations on the cemetery of Kodasoo and the settlement site of Lagedi / Gurly Vedru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedru, Gurly, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Kodasoo kalme puhul oli tegu maa-aluste põletusmatustega. Tehti kindlaks, et Kodasoo kalme hõlmas algselt u. 50-70 m2 suuruse ala. Päästekaevamistel Lagedi asulakohal olid leidude hulgas ülekaalus uusaegne keraamika ja vanimateks leidudeks üksikud viikingiaegsed savinõud

  5. Archaeometric study of glass beads from the 2nd century BC cemetery of Numantia

    OpenAIRE

    García Heras, Manuel; Rincoón López, Jesús M.; Alfredo JIMENO MARTÍNEZ; Villegas Broncano, María Angeles

    2003-01-01

    Recent archaeologícalf ieldwork undertaken in the Celtiberian cremation necropolis of Numantia (Soria, Spain) has provided a group of glass beads from the 2nd century BC. Such glass beads were part, together with other metallic and ceramic items, of the offerings deposited with the dead. They are ring-shaped in typology and deep-blue, amber, or semitransparent white in colour. This paper reports results derived from the chemical and microstructural characterization carried out on a representa...

  6. The expression of asymmetry in hand bones from the medieval cemetery at Écija, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cashmore, Lisa; Zakrzewski, Sonia R.

    2009-01-01

    The unique nature of ‘handedness’ in modern humans poses questions about the development of this trait in both extinct hominid species and archaeological populations. An examination of the expression of hand preference in skeletal material is required to answer such questions. The main focus of previous research on asymmetry and hand preference has been on the bones of the upper limb, rather than those of the hand. This study addresses this issue by exploring the expression of asymmetry in th...

  7. The Importance of Gender Studies for Predynastic Egypt: A Case Study of Cemetery N7000 at Naga-ed-Deir

    OpenAIRE

    Lords, Krystal

    2008-01-01

    In the study of ancient cultures, gender issues are often ignored. Although Egyptology generally follows this trend, several publications have examined the status and role of women in Dynastic Egypt, concluding that Egyptian women were unusually powerful and independent in comparison to other contemporary cultures. These Dynastic gender analyses are primarily based upon evidence from artistic and textual sources. Because of the lack of this type of evidence from earlier periods, Predynasti...

  8. Paradise in a Brazil nut cemetery : sustainability discourses and social action in Pará, the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2007-01-01

    This book is about sustainable development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. It explores how Amazonian settlers construct their life in a settlement project and how this process accompanies the landscape change in the southeast of Pará State. The book critically examines discourses of susta

  9. Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 B.P.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingsi; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Binghua; Wang, Changsui

    2013-07-01

    In the dry northern temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, the genus Ephedra comprises a series of native shrub species with a cumulative application history reaching back well over 2,000 years for the treatment of asthma, cold, fever, as well as many respiratory system diseases, especially in China. There are ethnological and philological evidences of Ephedra worship and utilization in many Eurasia Steppe cultures. However, no scientifically verifiable, ancient physical proof has yet been provided for any species in this genus. This study reports the palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China. The macro-remains were first examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for traits of residual biomarkers under the reference of modern Ephedra samples. The GC-MS result of chemical analysis presents the existence of Ephedra-featured compounds, several of which, including benzaldehyde, tetramethyl-pyrazine, and phenmetrazine, are found in the chromatograph of both the ancient and modern sample. These results confirm that the discovered plant remains are Ephedra twigs. Although there is no direct archaeological evidence for the indication of medicinal use of this Ephedra, the unified burial deposit in which the Ephedra was discovered is a strong indication of the religious and medicinal awareness of the human inhabitants of Gumugou towards this plant.

  10. The Symbol and the Reason. Numbers, Shape and Measure in the Architecture of Parma’s Cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rossi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available  The introduction of the Decimal Measurement System in Enlichtened Europe is meant as an af fermation of reason and science to overlap the confusion of antropometrical systems with the  imposition of a unique reference from a cosmic measurement.  It get interesting to indagate the meaning and the role of the measurement in the Age of Reason  and how this change conditioned the architectural design. The Cimitero de La Villetta in Parma is an interesting case study because of its particular relationship among design and easurement system.The project develops a special model that melts together the rationality of the Metric Decimal System with strong symbolic references in shape, number and measure.

  11. Kaks luustikku Tartu toomkirikust: arheoloogia ja osteoloogia andmed / Two skeletons from the Tartu Cathedral Cemetery: archaeological and osteological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with two case studies based on the osteological obtained in the rescue excavations in the Cathedral of Tartu in 2001 and 2008 (fig. 1. The first case study focuses on the skeleton of the child who suffered from congenital syphilis. The grave has been dated to the end of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. The child had been buried in the eighth nave of the northern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave was, according to the Christian burial traditions, west-oriented with the head facing towards the east. A Swedish 1/6 öre, minted during the reign of King Charles XI (1600–1697, was recovered from the grave. The skeleton was relatively complete and well preserved (fig. 2. Based on the dental eruption, the age at death was 9 years ± 24 months. Sexually distinctive characteristics had not developed, and thus it was impossible to determine the sex of the child. Both the microscopical and radiological analyses revealed that the skeleton had indicators of congenital syphilis. Damage from gummatous osteomyelitis and periostitis were visible on the skull and on the axial and appendicular skeleton (fig. 6, while Hutchinson’s incisors and Mulberry molars were present among the teeth. Deformations and damage on the bones suggest that the child had suffered from the disease for quite a long time.The second case study discusses a beheaded man found from the eighth nave in the southern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave pit had a depth of 80 cm from the medieval floor surface of the church, which indicates that the burial dates from the Middle Ages. Also, the head of the deceased pointed to the west.The bones were well preserved (fig. 6. Sex was determined from the characteristics of the skull and the length of the right humerus. Calcification of the cranial sutures and cartilages suggests that the age of the man at death was probably 50+. Macroscopic examination of the skeleton revealed that the man had suffered from slight forms of various spinal diseases, which include Schmorl’s nodes, spondyloarthrosis, and spondylosis. The fourth and fifth cervical vertebrae had ankylosis, the cause of which is unknown. Signs of osteoartrosis, a joint disease, were also noticed. Traumas recorded in the skeleton include a healed fracture of a rib and vertebral compression. The man’s head was decapitated with a sharp blade between the sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae (fig. 7.

  12. 48 CFR 801.602-80 - Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legal and technical review... 801.602-80 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority,...

  13. On Traditional Funeral Culture and Modern Cemetery Construction in China%我国的传统墓葬文化与现代墓园建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯震

    2009-01-01

    通过传统生死观、丧葬习俗的研究,来阐述民族情感诸种复杂因素;对传统土葬的哲学诠释及形制特点的研究,解析墓地与自然、社会甚至信仰间的桥梁作用,并呈现出它的多元特征:秉承传统墓葬文化的内涵及现代意义的重新定义,寻求我国现代墓地景观建设的基本策略,用于指导墓地园林化建设,是中国传统墓葬的文化传承及意义之所在.

  14. St George's Cemetery in Tartu - Medieval Burial Ground of the Leprosarium? / Martin Malve, Anti Lillak, Raido Roog, Mihkel Mäesalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Varasemad andmed Püha Jüri hospidalist Tartus pärinevad 1345. aastast. Asutus tegutses 17. sajandi esimese pooleni. Küsimus aga, kas korduvalt uuritud Püha Jüri kalmistu ja keskaegne hospidalikalmistu on üks ja sama objekt, jääb praeguses uurimisseisus kindla vastuseta

  15. From a Suburban Pasture to the Urban Cemetery - Recent Fieldwork in North-Western Corner of Medieval Haapsalu / Erki Russow, Raili Allmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Russow, Erki, 1974-

    2013-01-01

    Küsimustele, kas Ehte ja Wiedemanni tänava ristmiku piirkonnas võis asuda keskaegne linnamüür ja kas Mängu tänav võis pärineda keskajast, vastust ei saadud. Ehte tänaval enne Karja tänavale suubumist tulid ilmsiks luustikud. Arvestades topograafilist situatsiooni, võib oletada, et tegemist on hiliskeskaegse kalmistuga

  16. Gurupá - das ruínas aos cemitérios Gurupá: from the ruins to the cemeteries

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter Karl Pressler

    2012-01-01

    Posterior ao Tratado de Madrid (1750), o governo do Marquês de Pombal (1750-1777) implanta o projeto moderno nacional de caráter imperial nas colônias portuguesas. O Tratado de Madrid reconhecia a situação real na América Latina e encaminhou o trabalho das comissões de limites. O capitão-geral, na época do Estado do Grão-Pará e Maranhão, Francisco Xavier Mendonça Furtado foi ator decisivo do projeto político e militar, segurando a região à coroa portuguesa, e executava o projeto pombalino con...

  17. Rescue excavations at the pit grave cemetery of Järvküla / Gurly Vedru, Raili Allmäe, Heidi Luik, Liina Maldre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedru, Gurly, 1970-

    2015-01-01

    2014. aasta aprillis ning novembris-detsembris toimusid päästekaevamised Järveküla maa-alusel kalmistul. Selgus, et kohta oli matmiseks kasutatud erinevatel aegadel: rooma rauaajal, rahvasterännuajal ning muinasaja lõpusajanditel

  18. Yangshe Cemetery of the Jin Marquis in Quwo,Shanxi%山西曲沃羊舌晋侯墓地发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山西省考古研究所; 曲沃县文物局

    2009-01-01

    2005年8月~2006年10月,山西省考古研究所在山西省曲沃县史村镇羊舌村南的岭地上发掘了一处晋国两周时期的墓地,其中M1和M2是一组晋侯和夫人的异穴并列合葬墓。

  19. Gurupá - das ruínas aos cemitérios Gurupá: from the ruins to the cemeteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Karl Pressler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Posterior ao Tratado de Madrid (1750, o governo do Marquês de Pombal (1750-1777 implanta o projeto moderno nacional de caráter imperial nas colônias portuguesas. O Tratado de Madrid reconhecia a situação real na América Latina e encaminhou o trabalho das comissões de limites. O capitão-geral, na época do Estado do Grão-Pará e Maranhão, Francisco Xavier Mendonça Furtado foi ator decisivo do projeto político e militar, segurando a região à coroa portuguesa, e executava o projeto pombalino contra os jesuítas ("Estado de Deus" e as condições agrestes da região. A partir dos traços que o empreendimento político e ideológico deixou, o nosso estudo compara três vozes: as cartas do Governador Francisco Xavier de Mendonça Furtado, a obra do escritor paraense Dalcídio Jurandir e a trilogia romanesca de Alfred Döblin, a fim de analisar como as incursões ideológica e estética configuram a mediação entre a realidade histórica e a representação nas narrativas de ficção. Essa comparação se realiza no contexto de uma região que liberou as mais altas e fecundas fantasias da historia cultural da humanidade (as Amazonas, El Dorado, o tesouro do Rei Salomão e o boom da borracha, a fim de traçar as fantasmagorias diante das ruínas da realidade, confrontar o imaginário coletivo e a ficcionalização individual.Prime Minister Marques de Pombal (1750-1770 begins his mandate after the Treaty of Madrid (1750 a modern political enterprise of "nationalization" of the colonies. The Treaty has recognized the de facto occupation, and transferred sovereignty of about half of the Amazon basin from Spain to Portugal. The political project has been executed by Francisco X. Mendonça Furtado against the Jesuits "State of God" who 'protected Indians from slavery and settlers in vast semi-autonomous tracts of territory . By drawing our attention to political and ideological appropriations(the concept of the modern individual/state, and the traces left by social memory (personal e officinal letters and fictional literature (romances, such flows of people, ideas, images and ideals challenge us to rethink the character of phantasmagoria and fictional values of belonging, formation and identity. This study compare three voices: the letters of the Portuguese ambassador-traveler Francisco X. Mendonça Furtado, the Amazon Trilogy of Alfred Döblin and the work of the native novelists Dalcídio Jurandir to knowing how political and aesthetic imagination inflected or configured the individual creative enquire and in which form are collectively of Amazonia (Nationalization and Culture imagined or represented. This comparative study especially considering the regional background which liberate one of the most potentialities of imagination and confronting in dialogic interaction the Phantasmagoria with the ruins of the reality, the political imagination with the narrative fictionalisation..

  20. Department of Veterans Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... largest genomic database in the world, placing VA Healthcare at the forefront of the Precision Medicine revolution. – Read more » National Cemetery Administration VA’s National Cemetery Administration honors Veterans and their ...

  1. Managing green spaces of the deceased

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Christian Philip

    2012-01-01

    organisations. To gain a better understanding of cemetery administration, this paper will characterise cemetery management and in particular different types of cemetery administration in the national church of Denmark. A case study of 28 cemetery administrations was conducted, gathering key data about......Cemeteries in Denmark are managed by the national church; they are green spaces of high standard, with an important role as burial places for members of the society. Previous studies elsewhere indicate that cemetery management operates with special approaches on the fringe of other public service...... themselves as unlike other administrations; and change is dependent on local initiatives, only occurring when necessary, but also with indications that cooperation in handling crises in the wider field do happen. The Danish cemeteries are categorised according to the constructs of urban and rural cemeteries...

  2. 32 CFR 553.11 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement. 553.11 Section 553.11 National... CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.11 Procurement. Cemetery supplies and services will be procured in accordance with the provisions of the Armed Services Procurement Regulation (ASPR) and the Army...

  3. The Right to be Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Troyer, John Eric

    2016-01-01

    /3 the population of Bristol city), either through burial or cremation. It remains a working cemetery that covers 45 acres near the city centre and in June 2012 the Arnos Vale Cemetery Trust signed a new 125-year lease with the city of Bristol. Since its founding, the Future Cemetery has explicitly explored...

  4. 旅游体验实证研究——以南京雨花台烈士陵园为例%Empirical Research on Tourist Experience: A case study of Yuhuatai Cemetery of Martyrs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志远; 张玉钧

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate tourist motive, the formation process and results of tourist experience, field observation and questionnaire investigation were carried out. The data was analyzed by SPSS 17.0. The result shows that the quality of tourist experience has a close connection with tourist motive and tourist behavior. By the analysis of tourism semiology, it reveals that unscrambling the symbol meaning of tourism elements is an important way of interaction between tourists and tourism field. What's more, a significant positive correlation was observed among the quality of tourist experience, the attention tourists paid to tourism elements and the symbol meaning tourists got from tourism elements. In addition, the tourist experience is not only various but also stratified, and sublimity is the core.%以南京雨花台烈士陵园为例进行实证研究,目的是了解在具体的旅游情境中旅游者的出游动机、旅游体验的生成过程及结果(包括内容和质量)。采用旅游符号学的方法,通过现场观察和问卷调查获取数据,用SPSS17.0软件进行数据分析。结果表明旅游体验状况与旅游动机、旅游者行为之间具有密切联系。符号解读是旅游者与旅游场互动的重要方式和途径。旅游体验质量与旅游者对旅游元素的关注程度、对旅游元素符号意义的解读之间存在显著相关性,且为正相关。雨花台烈士陵园旅游者体验存在多样性和层次性,其中,崇高是旅游体验的核心。

  5. The temple crematorium in the Monumental Cemetery in Milan Considerations on the project of the Memorial stone to the fallen in the forest of Cercina Edoardo Detti and Carlo Scarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mugnai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 60s Edoardo Detti and Carlo Scarpa design a memorial headstone in memory of seven supporters killed by the Germans in 1944, which was to be built in Cercina near Florence. The only remains of this small monument are some sketches by Scarpa and a finalized drawing by Detti, little known but very interesting, which document the compositional research of the laic expression, pluralistic of death and pain, as a universal answer, inclusive and non-dogmatic, the need to represent the wounds of the war and their cargo of political, ethnic and religious lacerations. The search for universal symbolism, capable of comprehending the different souls of modern society, also belongs to individual architectural production of the two architects and is inscribed in the contemporary architectural and cultural context.

  6. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places, points_of_interest, Feature data set contains historic points, churches and cemetery feature classes., Published in unknown, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Glynn County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as...

  7. 由中国传统殡葬观分析城市墓园的生态化设计%Urban Cemetery Design based on Analysis of Chinese Traditional Funeral View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰; 李桂文; 陶恺

    2009-01-01

    本文针对城市墓园面临的生态问题,以中国传统的殡葬观分析城市生态墓园,探寻切实可行的生态化墓园的设计策略,为我国墓园的生态化设计提供借鉴,以契合城市可持续发展的全球共识.

  8. 中国殡葬文化及现代墓园景观规划设计初探%Research on Chinese Funeral Culture and Landscape Layout of Modern Cemetery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晟; 邓禧

    2007-01-01

    现代墓园是指在城市周边开发的,满足社会公众墓葬需要的,以企业性质经营的大众墓园.在我国现代墓园的景观规划设计和当代殡葬习俗一直受到传统殡葬文化的深刻影响.而殡葬文化发展到今天,应当使之人文化,泯灭对死亡与基地的恐惧.墓园设计者应使墓园公园化,倡导墓志文化.天津东华林陵墓园规划设计正反映了这一时代特征,为后辈儿孙营造了淡化生死、淡化贫富、淡化贵贱、净化灵魂、美化生活的胜地名区.

  9. The Iron Age and 13th-18th century Cemetery and Chapel Site of Niklusmägi : Grave Looting and Archaeology / Heiki Valk, Pikne Kama, Riina Rammo ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    2011. aastal anti arheoloogilidele vihje Niklusmäe kalme lõhkumisest. 2012. aasta suvel leidsid projekti "Arheoloogia, võim ja ühiskond" raames aset arheoloogilised päästeuuringud. Ilmnes, et kalmet oli rüüstatud 4-5 aasta jooksul. Leitud luustikest, hauapanustest. Niklusmäest Läti Henriku kroonika andmetel. Tänini räägib pärimus Lätist tulnud, Niklusmäe metsa läbivast ja Sangaste poole suunduvast sõjateest. Leiud on tõstatanud küsimusi Eesti lõunaserva matmiskommete ja etnokultuuriliste olude kohta. Kuna kalmesüdamik on rüüstatud, jäävad küsimused vastuseta

  10. Special Taxing Districts, Lyon County Cemetery Districts, Library Districts, Recreation Districts, Watershed Districts. ., Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. It is described...

  11. Several Issues of the Ruins of Westside - Tablet - Kiosk at Cemetery 3 in Xixian Tombs District%关于西夏陵区3号陵园西碑亭遗址的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余军

    2000-01-01

    本文依1998年秋发掘西夏陵区3号陵园西碑遗址出土遗物、清理迹象等情况,探讨了3号陵陵主、碑亭构筑、基址裂缝、碑石残碎、石像座运置及文物石料等相关问题.

  12. The Documentary of the Archeological Excavation Management Case of Dahekou Cemetery at Yicheng County%一个考古工地管理案例翼城大河口墓地发掘纪实

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢尧亭; 王金平; 李永敏; 杨及耕; 李建生

    2011-01-01

    @@ 这只是一个阶段性的工作过程和成果. `寒来暑往,春秋显得那样美丽而短暂,自然条件对田野考古上作的影响,实在是难以用语言描述的:夏大的火热将土层炙烤得又干又硬,冬天的寒冷又把它冻得坚硬如铁,大风肆虐,大雨滂沱,大雪飘飞;暑天,挥汗如雨,衣裤潮潮地裹着身体,寒季冷风嗖嗖,手脚麻木,上下墓穴都瑟缩发抖.

  13. Across the River. The Cemetery in Dolina and New Aspects of the Late Urnfield Culture in Croatian Posavina and Northern Bosnia. Archaeologia Austriaca|Archaeologia Austriaca Band 97-98/2014|

    OpenAIRE

    Ložnjak Dizdar, Daria; Gavranović, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The site of Dolina in the Croatian region of Posavina has been investigated since 2009 under the leadership of the Institute of Archaeology in Zagreb. In previous excavations five tumuli with one or two cremation deposits of different types (urned, scattered cremation remains, or with an organic container) could be detected. On the basis of characteristic grave goods (bronze pins and fibulae, helmet parts), the burials are dated to the 9th-8th century BC or in the stage Ha B3-Ha C1. Typical o...

  14. Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) in Oriental Mountains Cementeries from Colombia Abejas sin aguijón (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) en cementerios de la Cordillera oriental de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Vélez E.; Rodríguez-C. Ángela; Nates-Parra Guiomar

    2006-01-01

    In 11 cemeteries of Cundinamarca and Meta (Colombia) departments we found 203 nests of stingless bees pertaining to 15 species. The majority of the found nests (61%) belong to genus Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. Nannotrigona mellaria was the specie with the greater nests number and higher population; Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula was found in all cemeteries, but in a smaller percentage that N. mellaria (29% of the total). In the Tena (Cundinamarca) cemetery was found the nest highest densit...

  15. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  16. About Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  17. How Common Is PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  18. Issues Specific to Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  19. Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  20. Effects of PTSD on Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  1. Suicide and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  2. How Is PTSD Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  3. Self-Harm and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  4. Other Common Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  5. 77 FR 65405 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ..., Roughly, Holston, 7th, 8th, & Watauga Aves., Haynes, Orchard, Clyde Reser, Reynolds, & Weise Sts., Bristol, 12000945 Williamson County Franklin City Cemetery, N. Margin St. between 3rd & 4th Aves. N., Franklin, 12000946 Rest Haven Cemetery, N. Margin St. between 4th & 5th Aves. N., Franklin, 12000947 A request...

  6. 75 FR 9925 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Brownsville City Cemetery and Hebrew Cemetery, Bound by E. 5th St., Madison St., E 2nd St., and Town Resaca... 60.13 of 36 CFR Part 60 written comments concerning the significance of these properties under the... River, Hammond, 10000124 Marion County Emerson Heights Historic District, (Historic Residential...

  7. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Environment Studies with Students with Special Education Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Randolph R., Jr., Ed.

    Developed by teachers, the curriculum guide provides information on environmental studies activities for use with handicapped students. Activities are divided into three areas: awareness level activities (aesthetics, cemeteries, water, soil, air, noise, and miscellaneous activities); transition level activities (playgrounds, cemeteries, wildlife,…

  8. Cementerios en el altiplano cundiboyacense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo González.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a refection on feldwork notes made during trips to various cemeteries in towns of Cundinamarca and Boyacá during March and April, 2006. This exercise was an effort to observe how the physical space of the cemetery refects social practices related to death, thus furthering the study of the relationship between memory and space. The article recounts the observations made in each cemetery, and includes photographs to accompany the descriptions as well as drawings and maps to illustrate the spatial organization of the cemeteries. In the end, comparing the observations made in each town, it offers a brief analysis of the information gathered in order establish the relationship between the space of the cemetery and its social context.

  9. Drought-Related Changes in Two Hunter-Gatherer California Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2002-11-01

    Skeletal remains from two California cemeteries bracketing a severe drought that began around 1200 yr B.P. are analyzed to determine drought-related quality of life changes in Native Americans. Cemetery 1 predates the drought at 2895±160 yr B.P. to 1845±90 yr B.P. and Cemetery 2 dates it at 1100±90 yr B.P. to 1220±200 yr B.P. Quality of life was assessed through femoral computerized tomography scan measures of cortical thickness, age at adult death, and pathology/trauma frequency. After controlling for age and sex differences, changes from Cemetery 1 to Cemetery 2 showed decreases in cortical thickness and age at death and increases in pathology and trauma frequency.

  10. Kalmistu kodupaiga sümbolina: Siberi eestlaste näide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aivar Jürgenson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the importance of cemeteries among the Estonians in Siberia. The Diaspora of the Siberian Estonians has formed during the past 150 years, comprising the descendents of deportees and voluntary emigrants. The Estonians in Siberia have lived more or less in isolation, having distanced themselves from foreign-language- speaking neighbours: this need for privacy is evident even today. Cemeteries are no exception. In the Diaspora, several cultural elements may have been attributed additional meanings that they lacked in the source country, and, in the isolation, may have begun to symbolise the lost homeland (the language, religion, calendar, etc.. One such symbol of homeland for the Estonians in Siberia is also cemetery. The cemeteries of the Siberian Estonians are organised according to the territorial principle. If a village has a multi-ethnic population, then the dead are buried to the section belonging to this particular ethnic/religious group. The group, who has formed a community in life, will continue to do so in death. The cemetery is a place where our worldly existence ends, a place which extends to eternity. And since our worldly existence follows certain rules, a cemetery (and its appearance must follow certain order as well. The Estonians have not been accustomed to the bleak and treeless cemeteries of other ethnic groups and, unlike other Siberian settlers, have tried to mark the graves with trees, steppe or field flowers. The same applied to the appearance of villages - it is characteristic of the Estonians to plant trees around their houses. The symbol of cemetery as a homeland is reflected also in the tradition of the settlers in sister colonies to bury their dead to the cemetery of their mother colony. The Estonians in Siberia have brought back a handful of soil as a symbol of their homeland; this custom, however, is not known in Estonia.

  11. “Un cimetière et des avions” : argumentation et valeurs dans le courrier des lecteurs d’un journal local ‘Cemetery and Planes’: Argumentation and Values in the Letters to the Editor of a Local Newspaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Doury

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article interroge les lieux et modes d’intervention des valeurs dans les enchaînements argumentatifs. Pour l’ancienne rhétorique, la question des valeurs est centrale dans le genre épidictique, alors que le logos se déploie dans les contextes judiciaire ou délibératif. Pourtant, les données étudiées se révèlent bien souvent hybrides. Ce sont ces phénomènes de porosité entre genres épidictique et délibératif que met au jour l’analyse de lettres envoyées pour publication dans la rubrique « courrier des lecteurs » d’un quotidien régional à propos d’un débat concernant l’implantation d’un troisième aéroport en région parisienne. L’appel aux valeurs qui sous-tend les données les inscrit centralement dans le registre épidictique. Au-delà de sa fonction de consolidation de la cohésion sociale, cet appel est immédiatement réinvesti dans l’opposition au projet, l’imminence d’une prise de décision orientant les discours vers une finalité délibérative. Enfin, ces « envolées épidictiques » peuvent susciter des réactions intégrant l’appel aux valeurs dans un discours argumentatif critique où le logos reprend ses droits.This article studies the places and modes of intervention of values in argumentative discourse. In classical rhetoric, the question of values is central in the epideictic genre, whereas logos is privileged in the forensic or deliberative context. Nevertheless, the texts often appear to be a hybrid between the various genres. Such phenomena of “permeability” between the epideictic and deliberative genres are illuminated by the analysis of letters sent for publication in the “letters to the editor” section of a regional daily paper in a debate focusing on the construction of a third airport in the Parisian region. The appeal to values which underlies the texts places them primarily in the epideictic register. The function usually attributed to the epideictic species is that of consolidating social cohesion. Beyond that, such an appeal to values is also reinvested in the opposition to the project of the third airport, in view of the imminence of a decision-making that subordinates the speeches to a concrete deliberative purpose. Finally, these epideictic displays can arouse reactions mobilizing strategies deployed to escape the essentially oratorical tone of the appeal to values, and to integrate it into an argumentative critical speech where logos becomes central again.

  12. Study on the Characters of Red Tourist Market Structure —— A Case Study of Wannan Event Martyr Cemetery%红色旅游地客源市场结构研究——以皖南事变烈士陵园为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丁玲; 章锦河; 王群; 王浩; 魏鸿雁

    2006-01-01

    红色旅游市场是一种特殊类型的旅游市场,在当前大力发展红色旅游的背景下,深入分析红色旅游市场特征,有利于推进红色旅游的可持续发展.文章利用安徽泾县皖南事变烈士陵园2000-2003年国内游客的统计资料,分析了红色旅游市场的时间结构、空间结构、旅游者类型结构特征.结果表明,与其它类型的旅游地一样,红色旅游地的发展同样受到与客源地的空间距离、客源地的经济水平及旅游地知名度的影响.

  13. O emprego de métodos geofísicos na fase de investigação confirmatória em cemitérios contaminados Application of geophysical methods in the confirmatory investigation phase in contaminated cemeteries

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Willians da Costa Silva; Walter Malagutti Filho

    2009-01-01

    Dentro do gerenciamento de áreas contaminadas, a aplicação de métodos geofísicos, em estudos de área contaminada, constitui uma metodologia confirmatória. Este procedimento - mais precisamente o método da eletrorresistividade por meio das técnicas da sondagem elétrica vertical e imageamento elétrico - foi aplicado no cemitério de Vila Rezende, em Piracicaba, São Paulo, para investigar e mapear a contaminação do cemitério por necrochorume. Os resultados indicam uma profundidade do nível freáti...

  14. EL DESCUBRIMIENTO DE UN CEMENTERIO DE ÉLITE EN EL CAÑO: INDICIOS DE UN PATRÓN FUNERARIO EN EL VALLE DE RÍO GRANDE, COCLÉ, PANAMÁ (The Discovery of an Elite Cemetery at El Caño: Traces of a Mortuary Pattern in Río Grande Valley, Coclé, Panama)

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Mayo; Carlos Mayo

    2013-01-01

    El Caño, situado en la provincia de Coclé (Panamá), es un yacimiento arqueológico conocido por su singular estilo escultórico y por contener estructuras arqueológicas de piedra. Recientemente se han descubierto en este lugar cuatro tumbas de personas de élite con ricos ajuares, fechadas entre el 700 y el 1000 d. C. Estas son coetáneas a las halladas en el cercano Sitio Conte, una necrópolis en la que se encontraron, hace más de ochenta años, las primeras evidencias arqueológicas de la complej...

  15. A Study of the Human Skeletons Unearthed in 1997 from the Yinniugou Cemetery in Liangcheng County,Inner Mongolia%内蒙古凉城县饮牛沟墓地1997年发掘出土人骨研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何嘉宁

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the Inner Mongolian Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated 23 tombs of the Warring States period at Yinniugou in Liangcheng city, Inner Mongolia. The tomb owners are 11 males, 11 females and one child. Their skeletons are mostly in a good condition. As shown in the results of examination, measurement and comparison, the males and females are in the ratio of one to one; they died largely at the middle age and born East Asian Mongoloid features in skull form and measured value; and three quarters of their skeletons reveal pathological reflections.

  16. The Performing Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    the surface of Vor Frelsers Cemetery, as the background for affective resonances of the un-seen and un-told networks that connect people with time, places and spaces, through media. By following a non-representational research approach the project tries to enliven this particular cemetery rather than report...... and location. This non-representational understanding might lead to further exploration of the hybridity of urban cemeteries, their materiality, spatiality, memory, cultural history and relevance as liminal in- between places of fiction and reality, the city and the people that perform or once performed...... Frelsers cemetery, this audio production will focus on user-generated media from online archives (e.g. Youtube) to draw up their specific places of performance and play. The sounds and audio tracks will merge together with the sounds of the present and thus constitute another soundscape, an assemblage...

  17. 77 FR 33004 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Clinton Power Station, Unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Company, LLC (the licensee, EGC) for operation of the Clinton Power Station, Unit 1 (CPS), located in De... EGC, from CPS to Creek Township to expand the Lisenby Cemetery. Before acceptance of the partial...

  18. 76 FR 6197 - Advisory Committee on Women Veterans; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... to health care, rehabilitation, compensation, outreach, and other programs and activities...; overviews of the Veterans Health Administration, the Veterans Benefits Administration, the National Cemetery Administration, and the Women Veterans Health Strategic Health Care Group; and briefings on mental health,...

  19. Redescription of Xiphinema americanum Cobb, 1913 with Comments on Its Morphometric Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, F; Golden, A M

    1984-04-01

    Xiphinema americanum is redescribed and illustrated from material collected from Arlington Cemetery, near Cobb's type locality (Falls Church, Virginia), Morphometric data showing variations within this species are given for three additional populations.

  20. Estimated Buried Irrigation Water Lines at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset captures the irrigation water lines running through and around the cemetery. The irrigation lines were compiled from utility lines collected with GPS...

  1. Shopping for Funeral Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Admongo Bookmark Avoiding Scams 101 Buying Alaska Native Art Buying American Indian Arts and Crafts Buying Jewelry Buying a Cemetery Site ... credit and finance? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  2. Planning Your Own Funeral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Admongo Bookmark Avoiding Scams 101 Buying Alaska Native Art Buying American Indian Arts and Crafts Buying Jewelry Buying a Cemetery Site ... credit and finance? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  3. Types of Funerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Admongo Bookmark Avoiding Scams 101 Buying Alaska Native Art Buying American Indian Arts and Crafts Buying Jewelry Buying a Cemetery Site ... credit and finance? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  4. Veterans Crisis Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also access and download the Veterans Crisis Line Branding Guidelines for guidance on how to consistently apply ... Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs | 810 ...

  5. 78 FR 52784 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    .... between William St. & Martin Luther King Dr., South Bend, 13000727 KANSAS Grant County Lower Cimarron... Bayou Historic District, Roughly bounded by Martin Luther King Ave., Mound Bayou Cemetery, South &...

  6. CONTEMPORARY FUNERAL AND MEMORIAL RITUALS OF CHINESE

    OpenAIRE

    E. G. Belaya

    2015-01-01

    In the article on the basis of the field material of author of 2015 a modern funeral-mention ceremony of the Chinese is examined in city Harbin, where questioning of respondents, workers of cemetery and columbarium was conducted. 21 peoples (8 women and 13 men) were polled. Except questioning of informants was conducted by a photo fixing of registration of columbarium, cemeteries and graves. In China always spared the special attention to the ceremony of funerals of relatives. In work of Conf...

  7. Panteones regios leoneses (924-1109). Concatenaciones dinásticas y discontinuidades topográficas

    OpenAIRE

    Boto Varela, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the royal cemeteries in Leon and Sahagún from an art-historical perspective. This topic demands analysing the documents as well as the architectonic settings. In the royal chronicles, the thread of historical narrative is the lineage of kings. For that reason, I discuss here the architectural and functional genealogy of the graveyards for the kings of Leon. This analysis explores both the links and the oppositions between these cemeteries. Studying the graves and cemeter...

  8. Euroopa Ajalooliste Kalmistute Assotsiatsioon : rahvusvahelised koostööprojektid / Ilme Mäesalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäesalu, Ilme

    2005-01-01

    ASCE (Assotiation of Significant Cemeteries in Europe) peaeesmärkidest, tegevusest. Muinsuskaitsameti esindaja Ilme Mäesalu on alates liidu asutamisest 2001. a. kuulunud ASCE juhatusse. 2004. a. ilmus Bolognas koguteos "Cemeteries of Europe. A Historical Heritage to Appreciate and Restore", kus leiduvad artiklid Tallinna surnuaedade ja Tartu Raadi kalmistu kohta. 2004. a. toimus Tartus seminar "Ajalooline kalmistu - kujunemine ja tänapäev"

  9. The Death and the Tomb of the Architect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sgarbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to discuss the funerary architecture of the body of the architect in its moment of transition between the space of the living to the space of the dead and in its more or less eternal final destination. The encompassing cemetery of those who design cemeteries for everybody else is fragmented in a myriad of differences and loci. Yet this space has its symbols and its imaginary. Who is the architect who designs the cemetery for all the others, and how does she/he see her/his own death and tomb? The ambition of this paper is to violate the intimate space of the “last desires” of the architect. Are there some expectations, some commonplaces, some appropriate or shared intents that might give to the architect a specific dignity in relation to the dignity we imagine for the death of the others?

  10. The impact of candle burning during All Saints' Day ceremonies on ambient alkyl-substituted benzene concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Kłos, Andrzej

    2013-11-01

    Research findings concerning benzene, toluene, ethylobenzene, meta-, para- and ortho-xylene as well as styrene (BTEXS) emission at public cemeteries during All Saints' Day are presented here. Tests were carried out at town-located cemeteries in Opole and Grodków (southern Poland) and, as a benchmark, at the centres of those same towns. The purpose of the study was to estimate BTEXS emissions caused by the candle burning and, equally important to examine, whether emissions generated by the tested sources were similar to the BTEXS emissions generated by road transport. During the festive period, significant increases in benzene concentrations, by 200 % and 144 %, were noted at the cemeteries in Opole and Grodków, as well as in toluene, by 366 % and 342 %, respectively. Styrene concentrations also increased. It was demonstrated that the ratio of toluene to benzene concentrations from emissions caused by the burning candles are comparable to the ratio established for transportation emissions. PMID:24052143

  11. The art, history, and geoscience of Hindostan whetstone gravestones in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Powell, R.L.; McNerney, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cemeteries can be intriguing places to people, in part because of a fascination with death but also because of the quiet solitude and artistic beauty found there. Many grave monuments are really works of art and can be appreciated on that basis alone. Cemeteries can also serve as teaching laboratories for geologists. Monument types, carving styles, ornamentation, and durability are all related, to some extent, to the type of rock used. The older the monument dates the more variability one can see in the character of the stones. Pioneer cemeteries in southern Indiana, some of which date back to the early 1800s, can be used to teach concepts in mineralogy, depositional environments, and paleoastronomy. This can be very useful to someone teaching some of the basic concepts of geology.

  12. The art, history, and geoscience of hindustan whetstone gravestones in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Powell, R.L.; McNerney, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cemeteries can be intriguing places to people, in part because of a fascination with death but also because of the quiet solitude and artistic beauty found there. Many grave monuments are really works of art and can be appreciated on that basis alone. Cemeteries can also serve as teaching laboratories for geologists. Monument types, carving styles, ornamentation, and durability are all related, to some extent, to the type of rock used. The older the monument dates the more variability one can see in the character of the stones. Pioneer cemeteries in southern Indiana, some of which date back to the early 1800s, can be used to teach concepts in mineralogy, depositional environments, and paleoastronomy. This can be very useful to someone teaching some of the basic concepts of geology.

  13. Death as a passage. Sacred and archaic in the architecture of Sigurd Lewerentz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Torricelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1915 E.G. Asplund and S. Lewerentz won the Competition for the Enlargement of the South Cemetery in Stockholm. The long and complex series of events leading to the creation of the cemetery in phases began at that point and continued for the whole period of the two architects’ professional activity. When, in 1921, the cemetery authority entrusted Lewerentz with the task of creating the second of the minor chapels - later called the Chapel of Resurrection - the young architect decided to place a classical temple, built of white stone, at the end of the Way of the Seven Wells, the long straight path cut out of the high, dark mass of forest and coming from the Meditation Grove. Lewerentz envisioned a so-called chapel of passage, meaning that the death is not an end point but rather a gateway toward a new dimension.

  14. Sonic journeys with the dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    This audio-paper is a site-specific investigation of relations between a gravesite at Vor Frelser Cemetery (Cemetery of Our Saviour), Copenhagen, Denmark, its cultural history and publicly co-constructed memories. The audio-paper follows a non-representational approach to sonic media...... with friends and usergenerated online media based on Youtube. The sonic journey through the city is constructed from available digital material based on the author’s own subjective assessment. As potential experience design a well-established design framework as well as careful implementation of ethical...

  15. Architectural Innovations Influenced by Climatic Phenomena (4.2 Ka Event in the Late Old Kingdom (Saqqara, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuraszkiewicz Kamil O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The work of the Polish-Egyptian Archaeological Mission at Saqqara revealed a cemetery of palace officials that was in use during the late Old Kingdom. The evidence found during the exploration of the tombs indicates that the tomb builders were aware of the problems resulting from torrential rains in last years of functioning of the cemetery and that architectural solutions have been invented against these problems. The discussed phenomena seem to be directly related to the 4.2 ka event.

  16. Risti peale kirjutas: Ühel papil oli peni... Eesti loomakalmistukultuurist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marju Torp-Kõivupuu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available While in Finland pet cemeteries were common phenomena already in the 1990s, the first pet cemetery in Estonia was established only in 1995. The article discusses a rather marginal aspect of death culture - the funeral traditions and cemetery culture of pets in the late 20th and early 21st century Estonian society. Native Estonians, who came from the village society, had mostly practical relationships with their domestic animals, whereas local Balto-German estate owners are known to have buried their expensive pedigree dogs and horses. Urbanised people have estranged from the natural environment, and try to fill the void with caring for pets. In our Postmodernist and technocratic world the relationships with pets are often of anthropomorphic nature - animals are often attributed human characteristics. The first animal cemeteries in the western society were established in the late 20th century. The first charity pet cemetery in Estonia, used mostly for burying cats and dogs, but also various smaller pets, was founded in 1995. The graves of pets are often decorated with crosses and gravestones. And though the semantics of the cross sign has lost its sacral Christian meaning for modern people, and has become to symbolise mourning, the Christians consider the use of the cross symbol in pet cemetery culture as inappropriate. The burial tradition of pets appears to depend on the ethnic and religious affinity of their owners and largely copies the traditional funeral tradition of the corresponding ethnic group. Various popular beliefs are associated with buried pets, for instance, excessive dedication to a pet may inhibit its owner's chance of having children. While the Estonian society has largely accepted the practical need for pet cemeteries in urbanised environment, the pet burial traditions are still considered as something alien, perhaps because of their lavishness. The burial traditions and customs largely copy the human funeral traditions. Pet

  17. 32 CFR 552.90 - Permit office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-training acess to the range complex. The office is open 0700-1900 hours, seven days a week, for... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Permit office. 552.90 Section 552.90 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.90 Permit...

  18. 14C AMS dates on Rattus exulans bones from natural and archaeological contexts on Norfolk Island, south-west Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) was transported throughout the western Pacific by migrant peoples in prehistory. Meredith et al (1985) reported a minimum date for the presence of Rattus exulans on Norfolk Island using dates on charcoal from an apparently enclosing layer (the upper part of their Unit C4) in Cemetery Bay. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Ritual plants of Muslim graveyards in northern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafni Amots

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article surveys the botanical composition of 40 Muslim graveyards in northern Israel, accompanied by an ethnobotanical study of the folkloristic traditions of the use of these plants in cemeteries. Three groups of plants were found to be repeated systematically and were also recognized for their ritual importance: aromatics herbs (especially Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis, white flowered plants (mainly Narcissus tazetta, Urginea maritima, Iris spp. and Pancratium spp. and Cupressus sempervirens as the leading cemetery tree. As endemic use we can indicate the essential role of S. fruticosa as the main plant used in all human rites of passage symbolizing the human life cycle. The rosemary is of European origin while the use of basil is of Indian influence. The use of white flowers as cemeteries plants reflects an old European influence and almost the same species are used or their congeners. Most of the trees and shrubs that are planted in Muslim cemeteries in Israel have the same use in ancient as well in modern European cultures. In conclusion, our findings on the occurrence of plants in graveyards reflect the geographic situation of Israel as a crossroads in the cultural arena between Asia and Europe. Most of the traditions are common to the whole Middle East showing high relatedness to the classical world as well as to the present-day Europe.

  20. El Dia de los Muertos -- Libreto. (The Day of the Dead -- Notebook.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Delia; Lopez, Santiago, III

    On November 2, all Mexican Americans remember their dead as Mexico does on that same day. Called "El Dia de los Muertos" (Day of the Dead), the dead are remembered posthumously with flowers, candles, music, prayers, chants, and wreaths. The people go to cemeteries to clean tombs, lay fresh or artificial flowers on them, and pray for peace for each…

  1. Visualisation of unbuilt buildings in their landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob; Petersen, Ernst Steffen

    1999-01-01

    Modelling the site and chapel for a new cemetery for Lyngby submitted to a competition in 1951 by the architect Alvar Aalto. Ir was not built but the computer model shows how he overestimated the steepness of the site and how his proposals for graves and chapel would have looked...

  2. 36 CFR 60.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative official who is the elected head of the local political jurisdiction in which the property is... development. A district may also comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by... environment. Examples Delta Queen Steamboat (Cincinnati, OH) Adams Memorial (Rock Creek Cemetery,...

  3. 32 CFR 552.126 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.126 Definitions. For the purpose of this part, the following definitions... offensive or defensive weapon. Devices of this type include but are not limited to: (1) “Constant...

  4. 32 CFR 552.128 - Requirements for possession and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.128 Requirements for possession and use. All... installation, or after obtaining the weapon, except: (1) Firearms legally brought onto the installation for...

  5. 76 FR 6157 - Meeting of the National Park System Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ..., Leavenworth, KS. Maine Olson House, Cushing, ME. Minnesota Grand Mound, Koochiching County, MN. Split Rock Light Station, Lake County, MN. New York Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, NY. North Dakota Lynch Quarry Site... Indian Agricultural School, Kay County, OK. Platt National Park, Murray County, OK. Oregon Aubrey...

  6. 75 FR 49520 - Landmarks Committee of the National Park System Advisory Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ..., Leavenworth, KS Maine OLSON HOUSE, Cushing, ME Minnesota GRAND MOUND, Koochiching County, MN SPLIT ROCK LIGHT STATION, Lake County, MN New York WOODLAWN CEMETERY, Bronx, NY North Dakota LYNCH QUARRY, Dunn County, ND... CHILOCCO INDIAN AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL, Kay County, OK PLATT NATIONAL PARK, Murray County, OK Oregon...

  7. 36 CFR 12.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 12.3 Section 12.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... headstone placed in a memorial section of a national cemetery with the words “In Memory Of” inscribed...

  8. Transverse--Harris--lines in a skeletal population from the 1711 Danish plague site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiscella, Gabriela N; Bennike, Pia; Lynnerup, Niels

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the occurrence and distribution of transverse lines in skeletal remains from the Copenhagen site, a plague cemetery dated 1711 AD. A relatively low frequency for evidence of line formation was observed in the individuals comprising the total sample and no transverse lines were...

  9. The neolithic demographic transition in Europe: correlation with juvenility index supports interpretation of the summed calibrated radiocarbon date probability distribution (SCDPD as a valid demographic proxy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean S Downey

    Full Text Available Analysis of the proportion of immature skeletons recovered from European prehistoric cemeteries has shown that the transition to agriculture after 9000 BP triggered a long-term increase in human fertility. Here we compare the largest analysis of European cemeteries to date with an independent line of evidence, the summed calibrated date probability distribution of radiocarbon dates (SCDPD from archaeological sites. Our cemetery reanalysis confirms increased growth rates after the introduction of agriculture; the radiocarbon analysis also shows this pattern, and a significant correlation between both lines of evidence confirms the demographic validity of SCDPDs. We analyze the areal extent of Neolithic enclosures and demographic data from ethnographically known farming and foraging societies and we estimate differences in population levels at individual sites. We find little effect on the overall shape and precision of the SCDPD and we observe a small increase in the correlation with the cemetery trends. The SCDPD analysis supports the hypothesis that the transition to agriculture dramatically increased demographic growth, but it was followed within centuries by a general pattern of collapse even after accounting for higher settlement densities during the Neolithic. The study supports the unique contribution of SCDPDs as a valid demographic proxy for the demographic patterns associated with early agriculture.

  10. Hector Garcia Middle School: A School's Design Aspires to Live Up to Its Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Brown discusses the history of Hector Garcia, a Mexican immigrant who, as U.S. Army captain, worked diligently to assist minority servicemen in navigating the Veterans Administration, and found the GI Forum. Dr. Garcia's activism, through the Forum, was instrumental in desegregating hospitals, swimming pools, schools and cemeteries. Brown's case…

  11. 38 CFR 39.15 - Amount of grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., committal-service shelters, and administration/maintenance buildings. (3) In the case of an establishment... cost of non-fixed equipment such as grounds maintenance equipment, burial equipment, and office... in this part; (3) Improvements not on cemetery land, such as access roads or utilities;...

  12. Diet, social differentiation and cultural change in Roman Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Christina; Schroeder, Hannes; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2011-01-01

    urban Gloucester with those of 46 individuals from two rural cemeteries at Horcott Quarry and Cotswold Community, respectively. Seven individuals from urban Gloucester were buried in a mass grave; all others were buried in single inhumations. Results show small but significant differences in stable...

  13. Digitizing a Heritage of Faded Memories: A Case Study on Extending Historical Research Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branting, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    A historical fact is like a fata morgana, "always less than what really happened." Even consensus does not establish truth; otherwise history is merely the version of the past that people agree to accept. The students who participated in the acclaimed 5th Street Cemetery Necrogeographical Study innocently found themselves clashing with accepted…

  14. Mapping regional vegetation developments in Twente (the Netherlands) since the Late Glacial and evaluating contemporary settlement patters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Roy; Gouw - Bouman, Marjolein; Bos, Hanneke

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary, landscape-oriented studies from an archaeological viewpoint in the Low Countries mainly concentrate on cultural and economic research questions. Focal points are the physical setting of settlements and cemeteries, land use patterns and subsistence economy. As a result, the collect

  15. Treasure Along the Parker River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ann-Marie; And Others

    Designed so that 100 to 125 heterogeneously grouped 7th and 8th grade students and a team of 5 core teachers might experience and discover the natural and historical "treasure" in the Parker River area of Massachusetts, this interdisciplinary unit centers on a hike to Parker River (6.7 miles) and visits to a cemetery, a monument, and Old Town…

  16. 75 FR 39623 - Advisory Committee on Women Veterans; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ..., Public Relations and Public Affairs, at (202) 745-4037. Members of the press planning to attend briefings...) gives notice under Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that the Advisory Committee on... Cemetery, Washington, DC. The meeting is open to the public. Those wishing to attend must have...

  17. 32 CFR 552.16 - Real estate claims founded upon contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Real estate claims founded upon contract. 552.16 Section 552.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Use of Department of the Army Real Estate Claims Founded Upon...

  18. 32 CFR 552.32 - Authority to acquire real estate and interests therein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority to acquire real estate and interests therein. 552.32 Section 552.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Acquisition of Real Estate and Interest Therein §...

  19. 32 CFR 552.104 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. 552... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Firearms and Weapons § 552.104 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives or other devices defined...

  20. 75 FR 51104 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Cemetery, 320 N St, Killingly, 10000578 DELAWARE New Castle County Owl's Nest Country Place, 201 Owl's Nest... Centurion, 134 Bernard Rd, Fort Monroe, 10000582 Quarters 1,151 Bernard Rd, Fort Monroe, 10000583 Quarters 17, 41A, 41B, 47A, 47B Bernard Rd, Fort Monroe, 10000584 Richmond Independent city Crenshaw...

  1. 75 FR 3539 - Agency Information Collection (NCA Customer Satisfaction Surveys (Headstone/Marker)) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (NCA Customer Satisfaction Surveys (Headstone/Marker)) Activity... maintain ongoing measures of performance and to determine how well customer service standards are met. An.... National Cemetery Administration Mail Surveys a. Next of Kin National Customer Satisfaction Survey (Mail...

  2. Field Guide to Rock Weathering. Earth Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Robert E.

    Highlighted are the effects of weathering through field investigations of the environment, both natural rocks, and the urban environment's pavements, buildings, and cemeteries. Both physical weathering and chemical weathering are discussed. Questions are presented for post-field trip discussion. References and a glossary are provided. (Author/RE)

  3. Putting papyri into archaeological context: new insights from Tebtunis, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Monson

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available For more than a century, scholars have studied the ancient Egyptian texts written on rolls of papyrus that have been found in tombs, temples and cemeteries. But it is only recently that systematic attempts have been made, as at the site of Tebtunis in the Fayum oasis, to relate such texts to the archaeological contexts from which they came.

  4. 32 CFR 552.18 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administration. 552.18 Section 552.18 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Post Commander § 552.18 Administration. (a) Purpose... economical operation, administration, service, and supply of all individuals, units, and activities...

  5. 38 CFR 39.25 - Inspections, audits, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspections, audits, and reports. 39.25 Section 39.25 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... State will make an annual report on VA Form 40-0241 (“State Cemetery Data”) signed by the...

  6. Death in Design in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    design'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites and services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by the discourses of economics, power, technology and culture. Furthermore many end-users do not recognize the need or potential of a certain death service...

  7. Visualisation of unbuilt buildings in their landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Robert; Petersen, Ernst Steffen

    1999-01-01

    Computer modelling can provide better information on building projects presented in two dimensional drawings but never built. A cemetery project in Denmark was formed as a solid model in its sloping landscape using Softimage. Boolean operations were used to position walls at a given height above...

  8. Numancia: relación necrópolis-poblado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimeno Martínez, Alfredo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between the Celtiberian cemetery and the Numancia city sieged by Scipio (133 b.c.. A first part is dedicated to present the location problems of the Celtiberian cemetery during the present century, and the archaeological data of the cemetery are also analyzed. In the second part the stratigraphie questions and the problems to differentiate the city of the II century b.C. are explained. Finally the basis is established for the relationship between the city and the cemetery.Este trabajo estudia la relación entre la necrópolis celtibérica y la Numancia del cerco de Escipión (133 a. C.. En la primera parte se exponen las dificultades para la localización de la necrópolis a lo largo de este siglo y los datos arqueológicos que está aportando su excavación. En la segunda se abordan los problemas estratigráficos y la dificultad de diferenciar la ciudad del 133 a.C. Finalmente se establecen las bases de relación entre necrópolis y poblado.

  9. 32 CFR 552.97 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Communications. 552.97 Section 552.97 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.97...

  10. Activity reconstruction of post-medieval Dutch rural villagers from upper limb osteoarthritis and entheseal changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, Menno; Palmer, Jessica; Waters, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to reconstruct levels and types of physical activity and associated sexual and social differences using human skeletal remains from the predominately 19th century Dutch cemetery of Middenbeemster. Two skeletal markers of activity are examined in the upper limb of

  11. Health and demography in late 19th century Kimberley : a palaeopathological assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merwe, Alie Emily van der

    2010-01-01

    One-hundred-and-forty-five unmarked graves were accidentally uncovered outside the Gladstone cemetery in Kimberley, South Africa, in 2003. This study aimed to describe the archaeological findings, demographic composition and health of the unknown human remains excavated from the site. Fifteen graves

  12. 75 FR 77958 - Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year); Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ...-461-7485. Correction In FR Doc. 2010-30554, published on December 7, 2010, at 75 FR 76082, make the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year); Correction AGENCY: National Cemetery...

  13. A Sequential Developmental Field Defect of the Vertebrae, Ribs, and Sternum, in a Young Woman of the 12th Century AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Nørregaard; Usher, Bethany

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the vertebral column are often noted in skeletal material. Descriptions of these anomalies are often lacking, and their developmental origins are not often discussed. The skeleton of a young woman from the medieval cemetery of Tirup, in Denmark, has multiple defects of the axial skelet...

  14. 32 CFR 552.86 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.86 Section 552.86 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.86 References. (a)...

  15. 38 CFR 38.631 - Graves marked with a private headstone or marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... it is requested or, if placement on the grave is impossible or impracticable, as close to the grave... type and placement of the headstone or marker requested adheres to the policies and guidelines of the selected private cemetery. (f) VA will furnish its full product line of Government headstones or...

  16. UNA POLÉMICA HIGIENISTA Y LOS CEMENTERIOS DE CARACAS EN EL PRIMER GUZMANATO, 1870-1877

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobos, E.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Venezuelan public health by the end of nineteenth century was, to a large extent, based on ideas developed by President Antonio Guzmán Blanco, together with intellectuals and publicists, and first implemented through political and legal reforms during his rule from 1870-1877. One key aspect was a controversy over the Catholic cemeteries in northern Caracas, stirred up by the press and supported by contemporary hygiene theory, giving the state an excuse to shut them down. More broadly, Guzmán's ideas show European influences on his re-urbanization plans for the capital, aimed, among other things, at gaining control over cemeteries which had until then been under the power of the Catholic Church. This led to the construction of a secular graveyard on the outskirts of the city.

  17. Remembrance of Dutch War Dead in Southeast Asia, 1942-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridus Steijlen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the war experience in Southeast Asia in the Netherlands was not easy. The Indisch community, those who had to leave the Netherlands East Indies after decolonization, did not feel that their war experience was accepted. Following the story of one man, a former POW, this article shows how unorthodox ways of protesting were used to command respect and acknowledgement. The arena for these actions was not only the Indisch monument in the Netherlands, but also the War cemetery in Thailand. The former Dutch POW ended up in a dispute with the Australian caretaker of that cemetery over the specific location of a camp. Both men, however, were motivated by the same urge to find the exact locations of camps along the Burma railway. The story of this POW shows how important official recognition is on a personal level.

  18. 《陇县店子秦墓》读后

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵化成

    2000-01-01

    The Qin Tombs at Dianzi, Longxian County compiled by the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology is so far the first monographic report on the excavation of Qin tombs . It described 224 Qin tombs from the Spring-Autumn and Warring States period to the Qin dynasty. The book features scientificalness and completeness in the systematization of material and makes for the first time the periodization of a great number of Qin tombs belonging to the same cemetery. The Qin tombs at Dianzi are noteworthy in many aspects. For example, the catacombs are in a small number and of a relatively late date; the flexed burials account for the majority and the extended ones appeared in a later time; pottery li tripods with double ears and granary molds characteristic of the “Rong” people were discovered quite often; and pottery ritual vessels are combined in even numbers. These reflect the local features of the cemetery and enrich our understanding of the Qin culture.

  19. 略说青海都兰出土的吐蕃石狮%On the Tubo Stone Lions Unearthed from Dulan,Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤惠生

    2003-01-01

    Tubo period stone lions similar to each other in style were unearthed from the Tubo cemetery at Kexiaotu in Dulan,Qinghai,and Tubo king tombs in Qionggyai and the Chamuqin cemetery in Lhaze,Tibet.In form and style they differ from the Tang period stone lions in the Central Plains,and,as is generally believed,seem to bear elements of the West Asian or Indian style.In the early Tubo period,there existed lion figures in two artistic styles,which were brought about under the influence of the Indian and the Six Dynasties and Tang period Central Plains styles respectively.The stone lions from Kexiaotu and other localities must belong to the latter category.

  20. Death and life new balances in Italian Lanscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Bartolomei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will analyze the most recent changes in spaces for the dead with respect to new rituals, beliefs and social behaviors in Italy. While in the past two centuries the geography of death was one designed only by extra-urban cemeteries, today new trends are acting to multiply funerary places within urban contexts. There are several factors contributing to this change. First, the new multi-faith profile of contemporary Italian society and its growing secularization are amplifying the request for spaces in which to celebrate all kinds of funeral or farewell rituals with a sense of dignity. This has opened a market for funeral homes or “case funerarie”, never seen before in Italy. Secondly, a wider social acceptance of cremation (recently approved by Catholic Church introduces the possibility for a displacement of ashes in houses or in private cemeteries, even within urban settings.

  1. Mourning in Bits and Stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    We mourn our dead, publicly and privately, online and offline. Cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites make up parts of todays intricately weaved and interrelated network of death, grief and memorialization practices [1]–[5]. Whether cut in stone or made of bits, graves, cemeteries......, memorials, monuments, websites and social networking services (SNS) all are alterable, controllable and adaptive. They represent a certain rationale contrary to the emotive state of mourning (e.g. gravesites function as both spaces of internment and places of spiritual and emotional recollection). Following...... the divide between ‘states of rationale’ and ‘states of sentiment’ and augment the loop of exchanges between the two. We switch interdependently between these states by a seemingly coincidental structure, when subjected to involuntary memories or episodic reminders afforded by trigger parameters...

  2. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient Sampula population in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The archaeological site of Sampula cemetery was located about 14 km to the southwest of the Luo County in Xinjiang Khotan, China, belonging to the ancient Yutian kingdom. 14C analysis showed that this cemetery was used from 217 B.C. to 283 A.D.Ancient DNA was analyzed by 364 bp of the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region Ⅰ (mtDNA HVR-Ⅰ), and by six restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) sites of mtDNA coding region. We successfully extracted and sequenced intact stretches of maternally inherited mtDNA from 13 out of 16 ancient Sampula samples. The analysis of mtDNA haplogroup distribution showed that the ancient Sampula was a complex population with both European and Asian characteristics. Median joining network of U3 sub-haplogroup and multi-dimensional scaling analysis all showed that the ancient Sampula had maternal relationship with Ossetian and Iranian.

  3. Mural Tombs of the Liao Period at Haotehua in Jarud Banner,Inner Mongolia%内蒙古扎鲁特旗浩特花辽代壁画墓

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所内蒙古工作队; 内蒙古文物考古研究所

    2003-01-01

    The Haotehua cemetery in southern Jarud Banner of Inner Mongolia is a Qidan aristocratic burial ground of the Liao period. In 1999, the Inner Mongolian Archaeological Team, IA, CASS, and the Inner Mongolian Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated here three large-sized and two small-sized tombs. The No.1 Haotehua tomb of the mid Liao period is the larges tbrick-built mural tomb in the cemetery. It consists of a tomb-passage, a tomb-gate, a corridor, an ante-room, two side rooms, and a rear room, totaling 30.5m in length. The murals represent officials, acrobatic performance, music playing, cattle and sheep grazing, falcons and hunting dogs, processions, kitchens, etc. Rich in content, these paintings are of great academic value to the study of the history, culture and social customs of the Liao period as well as the history of Chinese art.

  4. On the Funeral Jades from the Jin Marquis Graveyard%试论晋侯墓地出土的葬玉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹楠

    2001-01-01

    “Funeral jades” refer to the jade objects made specially for burial with and preservation of the deceased' s corpses. They consist mainly of the shroud, stopper, mouth-kept piece and hand-held piece. The present paper makes a discussion on the use of funeral jades in the Western Zhou period, as well as the formation and influence of the concept of burying these objects based on the funeral jades abundantly unearthed in 1992-1994 from the Jin marquis graveyard at Beizhao, Tianma- Qucun site in Houma, Shanxi, and in combination with those from the Western Zhou cemetery at Zhangjiapo and the Guo state cemetery at Sanmenxia and relevant literary records.

  5. Dental disease as an indicator of ecological factors in medieval skeletal populations from Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Thurzo M.; Šefčáková A.; Katina Stanislav; Jakab J.; Benus R.; Bodorikova S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of previous odontological research into the medieval (7th–15th c. A.D.) populations in Slovakia and presents conclusions concerning the diachronic and geographical differences in their dental disease. The dental remains from 16 cemeteries were used. The remains were divided into four chronological (Avar Period, Great-Moravian Period, Hungarian Conquest Period, Arpadian Period) and two geographical groups (east Slovakia, southwest Slovakia). The dental data, such ...

  6. The species belonging to Diaspididae family (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) harmful on parks and ornamental plants in Isparta province

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent YAŞAR; KÜÇÜKÇAKAL, Ümmügülsüm

    2014-01-01

    In the present study conducted the armored scale insect being harmful on parks and ornamental plants in Isparta province and its around between 2010-2011 years. The samples was took on parks of manucipality, way edges, house gardens, picnic areas, groves, school gardens, cemeteries, botanical parks, university campus and animal zoo and were made their preparations in laboratory, taken photos and were identified. As a results of recognizing, 11 species were determined belonging to Diaspidid...

  7. APPROACHES ON THE INVASIVE ALIEN TAXA IN ROMANIA - AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA (RAGWEED) II

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    In a previous paper we presented the localities in Romania where we identified populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Between 2008-2011, investigations were continuing. Our data clearly show that Ambrosia is present throughout the country. The territories heavily infested are railway embankments, along traffic routes, gravel pits, building sites, forest edges, industrial areas, cemeteries and recreational areas. It is quite common to find ragweed in many private gardens, or flower pots in ur...

  8. Urban-rural differences in Roman Dorset, England: A bioarchaeological perspective on Roman settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Rebecca C; DeWitte, Sharon N; Pearce, John; Hamlin, Christine; Dinwiddy, Kirsten Egging

    2015-05-01

    In the Roman period, urban and rural ways of living were differentiated philosophically and legally, and this is the first regional study of these contrasting life-ways. Focusing on frailty and mortality risk, we investigated how these differed by age, sex, and status, using coffin type as a proxy for social status. We employed skeletal data from 344 individuals: 150 rural and 194 urban (1st-5th centuries A.D.) from Dorset, England. Frailty and mortality risk were examined using indicators of stress (cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, nonspecific periostitis, and enamel hypoplastic defects), specific metabolic and infectious diseases (rickets, scurvy, and tuberculosis), and dental health (carious lesions and calculus). These variables were studied using Chi-square, Siler model of mortality, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the Gompertz model of adult mortality. Our study found that overall, mortality risk and survivorship did not differ between cemetery types but when the data were examined by age, mortality risk was only significantly higher for urban subadults. Demographic differences were found, with urban cemeteries having more 0-10 and >35 year olds, and for health, urban cemeteries had significantly higher frequencies of enamel hypoplastic defects, carious lesions, and rickets. Interestingly, no significant difference in status was observed between rural and urban cemeteries. The most significant finding was the influence of the skeletal and funerary data from the Poundbury sites, which had different demographic profiles, significantly higher frequencies of the indicators of stress and dental health variables. In conclusion, there are significant health, demographic, and mortality differences between rural and urban populations in Roman Britain.

  9. Evidence for Patterns of Selective Urban Migration in the Greater Indus Valley (2600-1900 BC): A Lead and Strontium Isotope Mortuary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Valentine; Kamenov, George D.; Jonathan Mark Kenoyer; Vasant Shinde; Veena Mushrif-Tripathy; Erik Otarola-Castillo; John Krigbaum

    2015-01-01

    Just as modern nation-states struggle to manage the cultural and economic impacts of migration, ancient civilizations dealt with similar external pressures and set policies to regulate people's movements. In one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Civilization, mechanisms linking city populations to hinterland groups remain enigmatic in the absence of written documents. However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) cemetery burials at Harap...

  10. Evidence for Patterns of Selective Urban Migration in the Greater Indus Valley (2600-1900 BC): A Lead and Strontium Isotope Mortuary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, Benjamin; Kamenov, George D.; Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Shinde, Vasant; Mushrif-Tripathy, Veena; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Krigbaum, John

    2015-01-01

    Just as modern nation-states struggle to manage the cultural and economic impacts of migration, ancient civilizations dealt with similar external pressures and set policies to regulate people’s movements. In one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Civilization, mechanisms linking city populations to hinterland groups remain enigmatic in the absence of written documents. However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) cemetery burials at Harap...

  11. Remembrance of Dutch War Dead in Southeast Asia, 1942-1945

    OpenAIRE

    Fridus Steijlen

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of the war experience in Southeast Asia in the Netherlands was not easy. The Indisch community, those who had to leave the Netherlands East Indies after decolonization, did not feel that their war experience was accepted. Following the story of one man, a former POW, this article shows how unorthodox ways of protesting were used to command respect and acknowledgement. The arena for these actions was not only the Indisch monument in the Netherlands, but also the War cemetery in Tha...

  12. Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini in Oriental Mountains Cementeries from Colombia Abejas sin aguijón (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini en cementerios de la Cordillera oriental de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Vélez E.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In 11 cemeteries of Cundinamarca and Meta (Colombia departments we found 203 nests of stingless bees pertaining to 15 species. The majority of the found nests (61% belong to genus Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. Nannotrigona mellaria was the specie with the greater nests number and higher population; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula was found in all cemeteries, but in a smaller percentage that N. mellaria (29% of the total. In the Tena (Cundinamarca cemetery was found the nest highest density (118 nest/ha, with a tombs occupation percentage of 13.9%. We discussed the importance of cemeteries as an alternative for wild bees nesting sites conservation in urban areas.Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 cementerios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia. El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La especie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios estudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% del total. La densidad máxima encontrada fue de 118 nidos/ha, con un porcentaje de ocupación de las tumbas de 13,9% en el cementerio de Tena (Cundinamarca. Se discute sobre la importancia de los cementerios como alternativa para conservación de los sitios de nidificación para abejas silvestres en áreas urbanas.

  13. Genetic evidence of African slavery at the beginning of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade

    OpenAIRE

    BRADLEY, DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    An archaeological excavation in Valle da Gafaria (Lagos, Portugal), revealed two contiguous burial places outside the medieval city walls, dating from the 15th–17th centuries AD: one was interpreted as a Leprosarium cemetery and the second as an urban discard deposit, where signs of violent, unceremonious burials suggested that these remains may belong to slaves captured in Africa by the Portuguese. We obtained random short autosomal sequence reads from seven individuals: two from the latter ...

  14. Identification of the cranium of W.A. Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, P F; Puech, B; Tichy, G

    1989-01-01

    In 1801 at the cemetery in Vienna, Austria, the skull of W.A. Mozart was exhumed (La Chronique Médicale, 13 (1906) 423), and now it has been examined for identification. The osteometrical and osteological findings correspond with the available data of W.A. Mozart. Superimposition gives evidence that craniofacial distinctiveness of the cranium is consistent with the portrait. Additional individual particularities caused by the premature synostosis of the metopic suture (PSMS) and a bone lesion are described.

  15. Damage Assessment and Chemical Charecterization of Glass Objects Excavated from Gadara, Northern Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Abd-Allah, Ramadan

    2012-01-01

    During the excavation works carried out by the Department of Antiquities, at the archaeological site of Umm Qais/Gadara, Northern Jordan, from January 6 to February 19, 2009, a considerable collection of glass objects of different typologies and colors were uncovered in a Roman cemetery. These glasses were characterized chemically by using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that these glasses are of soda-lime-silica ...

  16. ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini EN CEMENTERIOS DE LA CORDILLERA ORIENTAL DE COLOMBIA Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini in Oriental Mountains Cementeries from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUIOMAR NATES-PARRA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 cementerios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia. El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La especie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios estudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% del total. La densidad máxima encontrada fue de 118 nidos/ha, con un porcentaje de ocupación de las tumbas de 13,9% en el cementerio de Tena (Cundinamarca. Se discute sobre la importancia de los cementerios como alternativa para conservación de los sitios de nidificación para abejas silvestres en áreas urbanas.In 11 cemeteries of Cundinamarca and Meta (Colombia departments we found 203 nests of stingless bees pertaining to 15 species. The majority of the found nests (61% belong to genus Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. Nannotrigona mellaria was the species with the greater nests number and higher population; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula was found in all cemeteries, but in a smaller percentage that N. mellaria (29% of the total. In the Tena (Cundinamarca cemetery was found the nest highest density (118 nest/ha, with a tombs occupation percentage of 13.9%. We discussed the importance of cemeteries as an alternative for wild bees nesting sites conservation in urban areas.

  17. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes Japonicus Japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) underscore the importance of human intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Werner, Doreen; Schaffner, Francis; Kampen, Helge; Dina M Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgiu...

  18. Unexpected Patterns of Admixture in German Populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) Underscore the Importance of Human Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Doreen Werner; Francis Schaffner; Helge Kampen; Dina M Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgiu...

  19. The Bahrain Burial Mound Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2007-01-01

    The beginning of archaeology in Bahrain was inspired by the vast burial mound cemeteries, but the picture we have today of the Early Dilmun period is mainly due to excavations in the capital of Dilmun, Qala'at al-Bahrain, the temples at Barbar and the settlement at Saar. v During the last 50 year...... an elite segment of society from around 2200-2050 BC and indicate the emergence of social stratification prior the development of the Dilmun kingdom...

  20. Prof. Dr. Predrag Terzić 1918–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Solarić; Drago Špoljarić

    2012-01-01

    Our highly estimated Prof. Dr. Predrag Terzić left us suddenly on Tuesday, the 10 April 2012. On Friday, the 20 April, we have escorted him to his final rest at the City cemetery Mirogoj. In the name of the Faculty of Geodesy,University of Zagreb, the dean, Prof. Miodrag Roić gave euology, and Prof. Nikola Solarić, one of his closest associates made a commemorative speech.

  1. An invisible wall put up by ghosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>When I was a child, my grandmother would often tell me ghost stories. One of them was about an invisible wall that had been put up by ghosts.It was a winter night that was getting darker and darker, colder and colder. A lone farmer was driving his horse and cart along a country path. As he was getting close to his village, he could see the cemetery with the myriad tombs on both sides

  2. SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEF IN PURCHASING PROPERTY

    OpenAIRE

    SYAFRUDDIN, EKA MAYLIZA BINTI

    2016-01-01

    The research about superstitious in purchasing property has been done. Research variables that were used in this research are product, price, promotion, place, location direction, tusuk sate location, location near the cemetery and crematorium, the arrangement of the environment – fish pond, and the elevation of the property location from the road. This research analyzes whether the superstitious belief can overrule marketing strategy in purchasing property. This research us...

  3. 32 CFR 555.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 555.3 Section 555.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES CORPS... OTHERS § 555.3 References. (a) AR 10-5. (b) AR 37-27. (c) AR 70-1. (d) ER 1-1-6. (e) ER 1-1-7. (f) ER...

  4. 湖北随州市叶家山西周墓地

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In February through June 2011, Hubei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Ar- chaeology and Suizhou Museum conducted excavation to Yejiashan Cemetery of the Western Zhou Dy- nasty. The excavation uncovered areas of 3700 sq m in total, from which 65 tombs and one horse pit were recovered and over 700 pieces (or sets) of artifacts including bronzes, potteries, proto-poreelain wares and jades were unearthed. Some bronzes bore inscriptions of "Zeng 曾", "Hou 侯 (marquis)", "Zeng Hou 曾侯 (Marquis of Zeng)", "Zeng Hou Jian 曾侯谏 (Marquis of Zeng named Jian)" and so on. The styles of the grave goods and the inscriptions on the bronzes showed that this cemetery was the family cemetery of the Marquis of Zeng in the early Western Zhou Dynasty. The excavation of the Yeijiashan Cemetery has significant academic meanings for the researches on the relationships between the Zeng and E States and Zeng and Chu States to the east of the Han River in the Early Western Zhou Dynasty.%随州叶家山西周墓地位于湖北随州市东北,地处一南北走向的椭圆形岗地上,岗地高出周围农田约8米。漂水自墓地东北部环绕墓地北部及西部注入浸水(府河)。墓地所在地现隶属随州市经济开发区淅河镇蒋寨村八组,南距已发掘的西花园及庙台子遗址约1公里。

  5. Urban-rural differences in Roman Dorset, England: A bioarchaeological perspective on Roman settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Rebecca C; DeWitte, Sharon N; Pearce, John; Hamlin, Christine; Dinwiddy, Kirsten Egging

    2015-05-01

    In the Roman period, urban and rural ways of living were differentiated philosophically and legally, and this is the first regional study of these contrasting life-ways. Focusing on frailty and mortality risk, we investigated how these differed by age, sex, and status, using coffin type as a proxy for social status. We employed skeletal data from 344 individuals: 150 rural and 194 urban (1st-5th centuries A.D.) from Dorset, England. Frailty and mortality risk were examined using indicators of stress (cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, nonspecific periostitis, and enamel hypoplastic defects), specific metabolic and infectious diseases (rickets, scurvy, and tuberculosis), and dental health (carious lesions and calculus). These variables were studied using Chi-square, Siler model of mortality, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the Gompertz model of adult mortality. Our study found that overall, mortality risk and survivorship did not differ between cemetery types but when the data were examined by age, mortality risk was only significantly higher for urban subadults. Demographic differences were found, with urban cemeteries having more 0-10 and >35 year olds, and for health, urban cemeteries had significantly higher frequencies of enamel hypoplastic defects, carious lesions, and rickets. Interestingly, no significant difference in status was observed between rural and urban cemeteries. The most significant finding was the influence of the skeletal and funerary data from the Poundbury sites, which had different demographic profiles, significantly higher frequencies of the indicators of stress and dental health variables. In conclusion, there are significant health, demographic, and mortality differences between rural and urban populations in Roman Britain. PMID:25613696

  6. A Lady of York: migration, ethnicity and identity in Roman Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, S.; Eckardt, H.; Chenery, C.; Muldner, G.; Lewis, M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern methods of analysis applied to cemeteries have often been used in our pages to suggest generalities about mobility and diet. But these same techniques applied to a single individual, together with the grave goods and burial rite, can open a special kind of personal window on the past. Here, the authors of a multidisciplinary project use a combination of scientific techniques to illuminate Roman York, and later Roman history in general, with their image of a glamorous mixed-race woman, ...

  7. The Metallurgy of the Sicilian Final Bronze Age/Early Iron Age necropolis of Madonna del Piano (Catania, Sicily)

    OpenAIRE

    Giumlia-Mair, Alessandra; Albanese Procelli, Rosa Maria; Lo Schiavo, Fulvia

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis results of the copper- based finds, from the important Sicilian necropolis of Madonna del Piano, near Grammichele (Catania), dated between the local Final Bronze Age 2 and the Early Iron Age IA. 122 copper-based finds from the 273 graves (1970-71) of the large cemetery have been analysed. The sampled objects belong to different classes, there are for instance weapons of offence and defence, such as swords and greaves, small decorative objects for personal use,...

  8. Fipronil as a larvicide against the container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Pridgeon, Julia W; Becnel, James J; Ali, Arshad

    2009-06-01

    In the laboratory, fipronil was tested against laboratory-reared and field-collected early 4th-instars of Aedes albopictus. The insecticide was also bioassayed for activity against natural field populations of Ae. albopictus inhabiting 1-liter-capacity stone-made containers in a cemetery in St. Augustine, FL. The cemetery containers also were utilized to study initial efficacy and activity persistence of fipronil against natural populations of Ae. albopictus. The laboratory-reared larvae were 2-fold more susceptible than field-collected larvae as indicated by the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 2.6 and 6 parts per billion (ppb) for laboratory-reared and field-collected larvae, respectively. In the field bioassay, in stone-made containers, the LC50 value of Ae. albopictus larvae amounted to 57.5 ppb. In the cemetery containers, fipronil applied at 3.2 and 32 ppb gave 100% control of Ae. albopictus larvae with either rate of application for at least up to 8 wk posttreatment.

  9. Panteones regios leoneses (924-1109. Concatenaciones dinásticas y discontinuidades topográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boto Varela, Gerardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the royal cemeteries in Leon and Sahagún from an art-historical perspective. This topic demands analysing the documents as well as the architectonic settings. In the royal chronicles, the thread of historical narrative is the lineage of kings. For that reason, I discuss here the architectural and functional genealogy of the graveyards for the kings of Leon. This analysis explores both the links and the oppositions between these cemeteries. Studying the graves and cemeteries of the Kings facilitates understanding what order maintained the kingdom itself.Este examen histórico-artístico de los cementerios regios de León y Sahagún explora crónicas y edificios. Los análisis revelan diversidad de soluciones y actitudes. Por ello, deben cuestionarse los axiomas historiográficos de uniformidad de modelos, continuidad lineal y unicidad de una presunta tradición hispana. Ya que un motor del relato histórico es el linaje de los monarcas, se escruta la genealogía arquitectónica y funcional de los panteones constituidos por y para los reyes de León, atendiendo a los vínculos, sucesiones y discontinuidades. Desvelar algunas penumbras de los sepulcros de los soberanos ayuda a comprender dónde radica el encadenamiento y la subsistencia del reino mismo.

  10. KAMPOR MEMORIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Krušec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kampor Memorial Complex, which was built in 1953 to a design by architect Edvard Ravnikar, is situated on the site of a former cemetery, where between 1942 and 1943 the Italians buried the prisoners who died in the concentration camp on the Island of Rab. Along with the description of the architectural design of the Kampor Memorial Complex on the Island of Rab, the purpose of the paper is to show the most significant models and motivations influencing this particular architectural creation by Ravnikar. The analysis of spatial sequences of the memorial complex served as a basis to study the architectural concept of the cemetery, as described in the paper. The layout of the cemetery is longitudinal. The transversal terraces formulating the lines of graves are longitudinally cut in the middle by a paved path representing the central communication axis of the memorial complex. The path is additionally defined by a sequence of three stone obelisks of different heights, situated along the path. Along the path, three major programmatic emphases can be identified: the entrance vestibule, the platform with the great obelisk and a water tank, and the area below the vaulted structure in stone, also called the Museum. The paper describes the models and influences underlying the creation of Ravnikar's architectural design of the Kampor Memorial Complex on the Island of Rab, particularly Le Corbusier's influence on Ravnikar in the 1940's and the 1950's. In many ways, Ravnikar's stay in Paris and work with Le Corbusier in 1938 round off his basic architectural education; nevertheless, he remained rooted in the classical architectural elements that he obtained in his studies, particularly in the seminar by Jože Plečnik.

  11. Rewriting the Central European Early Bronze Age Chronology: Evidence from Large-Scale Radiocarbon Dating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp W Stockhammer

    Full Text Available The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Since the 1920s, archaeologists have divided the Early Bronze Age into two chronological phases (Bronze A1 and A2, which were also seen as stages of technical progress. On the basis of the early radiocarbon dates from the cemetery of Singen, southern Germany, the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe was originally dated around 2300/2200 BC and the transition to more complex casting techniques (i.e., Bronze A2 around 2000 BC. On the basis of 140 newly radiocarbon dated human remains from Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age cemeteries south of Augsburg (Bavaria and a re-dating of ten graves from the cemetery of Singen, we propose a significantly different dating range, which forces us to re-think the traditional relative and absolute chronologies as well as the narrative of technical development. We are now able to date the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to around 2150 BC and its end to around 1700 BC. Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze (Bz A1 and Bronze (Bz A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from 1900-1700 BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture. Finally, we propose that the traditional phases Bz A1 and Bz A2 do not represent a chronological sequence, but regionally different social phenomena connected to the willingness of local actors to appropriate the new bronze technology.

  12. Studies with Myrtus communis L.: Anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogur, Recai

    2014-01-01

    Myrtus communis (MC) L. is a well-known Mediterranean plant with important cultural significance in this region. In ancient times, MC was accepted as a symbol of immortality. Maybe due to this belief, it is used during cemetery visits in some regions. Although it is a well-known plant in cosmetics, and there is a lot of studies about its different medical properties, anticancer studies performed using its different extracts or oils are not so much, but increasing. We collected these anticancer property-related studies in this review. PMID:26401362

  13. Analysis of garnets from the archaeological sites in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž., E-mail: ziga.smit@fmf.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršek, M. [Slovenian Museum of National History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-06-01

    Garnets (62 individual stones) originating from the Migration Period cemeteries and hilltop settlements in Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE/PIGE method for their chemical composition. Typologically, the analyzed stones may be classified as almandines originating from the sites in India, belonging to types I and II according to Calligaro. A smaller group of pyraldines intermediate between almandines and pyropes was also determined; identified as type III, their source is most likely in Sri Lanka. No garnets from Bohemia (Czech Republic) have been discovered, which may be related to important political changes in the 7th c. AD, induced by Slavic and Avaric migrations.

  14. NOTICIAS SOBRE VISITACION SIVILA. UN ALMA MILAGROSA EN JUJUY, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Ana Fernández Distel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here will be elaborated everything that is known by “oral tradition”, journalistic news articles and juridical procedures about the biography of the girl called Visitación Sivila. Her life elapsed between the years 1880 and 1907 in the outskirts of the capital of the province of Jujuy, North Argentina. Her death followed by rape and anthropophagy impacted on the popular imagination, transforming her into a miraculous martyr. Above all young students who still today fill with votive offerings the place of her martyrdom and the grave at the town cemetery where she was burned.

  15. An Archaeological Assessment of Taung Valley of Sindh-Kohistan Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasid Hussain Mallah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taung valley of Sindh – Kohistan is very rich in archaeological depositions. The present paper is an attempt to take an account of 43 sites in the said region, influx variety of evidences have been traced from microlithism to Hakra, Amri and Indus type. It also reveals traces of nomadic camp , circular structure of stones. Grave yards and gobra bunds. Nontheless Taung valley has big historical longitivity extending from ancient remains to medival cemetery to premodern nomadic activity and the most important structures witnessing local wisdom pertaining to water management.

  16. Il cimitero la Verbena: cinquant’anni di violenza politica e sociale a Città del Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Grassi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the ethnography of a specific place of Guatemala City – the cemetery of the barrio “la Verbena” – the paper will reconstruct the correlations that link the recent history of this country (marked by a civil war finished in 1996, after thirty-six years of conflicts with the actual explosion of social violence, which levels are actually among the highest in the world. The political and social violence of Guatemala embrace connections that have not been sufficiently investigated. The analysis of these connections is fundamental to understand some of the contemporary social dynamics affecting not only that country.

  17. The way we bury our dead. Reflections on mortuary ritual, community and identity at the time of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Nilsson Stutz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how archaeologists can approach ways in which the ritual treatment of the dead body was a means of reproducing a sense of identity and community in the past. The approach combines a theoretical framework grounded in practice and body theory with a methodological approach based on taphonomic analysis. This framework is introduced to analyze the mortuary practices at the Mesolithic cemeteries of Skateholm I and II, Vedbæk, Bøgebakken and Zvejnieki. Beyond the immediate context, the study seeks to reflect on how similarities and differences noticeable over time and space may provide an insight into changing identity processes.

  18. SAN MICHELE. ENTRE CIELO Y MAR / San Michele, between sky and sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Blázquez Jesús

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ESUMEN El cementerio es uno de los tipos arquitectónicos más profundos y metafóricos. El concurso para la ampliación del cementerio de San Michele, convocado en 1998 por la administración Municipal de Venecia, se convierte en un excelente campo de pruebas sobre el que poder analizar el contexto histórico en torno a esta tipología, y su relación con la ciudad y el territorio. El estudio de este caso concreto nos permite descubrir personajes, relaciones casuales y hallazgos que se despliegan a lo largo del texto. La historia del cementerio de San Michele es también la crónica de la transformación de la ciudad de Venecia y su Laguna. Interpretando este concurso como un instrumento de investigación, el objetivo del artículo es el de comprender la realidad contemporánea de la arquitectura funeraria a través de la isla de San Michele, Venecia, y las propuestas finalistas de Carlos Ferrater, Enric Miralles y David Chipperfield. Una historia bajo la cual se vislumbran claves que nos sirven para reflexionar acerca del cementerio contemporáneo, la ciudad y el territorio.SUMMARY The cemetery is one of the most profound and metaphorical kinds of architecture. The competition for the extension of the San Michele Cemetery, called in 1998 by the Venice municipal administration, is an excellent testing ground on which to analyse the historical context surrounding this type of architecture, and its relationship with the city and the region. The study of this particular case allows us to uncover characters, casual relationships and findings that unfold throughout the text. The history of the San Michele cemetery is also the chronicle of the transformation of the city of Venice and its Lagoon. Interpreting this competition as a research tool, the aim of the paper is to understand the contemporary reality of funerary architecture through the island of San Michele, Venice, and the finalist proposals of Carlos Ferrater, Enric Miralles and David

  19. Shipping Firm to Offer Funeral Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菊妹

    2001-01-01

    Japan’s largest shipping company, Nippon Yusen KK, plans to offer a new funeral ash-scattering service in a bid to (释义见19页文) capitalize on demand fuelled by the high ccst of cemeteries in Japan, a financial daily said Sunday. 日本最大的海运公司Nippon Yusen KK打算提供新的骨灰海葬服务,以求赢利。日本的公墓的价格居高不下,刺激了骨灰海葬的需求。一份金融日报星期日称。

  20. The Significance of Cremations in Early Neolithic Communities in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Trautmann, Iris

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends or patterns that could explain why certain individuals in the LBK were subjected to different burial rites from the rest: Cremation. In order to do so, the known cremations from the seven cemeteries in this study, including Elsloo in the Netherlands, Schwetzingen, Fellbach-Oeffingen, Wandersleben and Arnstadt, all in Germany, were analyzed. The data from the literature for the cremations from Stuttgart-Mühlhausen and Aiterhofen-Ödmühle were also in...

  1. 湖北麻城市李家湾春秋楚墓

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凤春; 田桂萍

    2000-01-01

    The Lijiawan cemetery of the Spring and Autumn period lies at Songfu town about 25km southwest of Macheng city proper, Hubei province. It was surveyed and excavated in 1993 by the Hubei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, which resulted in the revelation of 12 tombs of the Spring and Autumn period, all medium- or small-sized rock-cut shafts. The funeral objects are mainly ritual bronzes; pottery and jades occur seldom. Most of the bronzes belong to the types of ding tripod, dui round container, fu rectangular container, fou pot, hu pot, pan basin, yi ewer and ladle. They usually bear coiled serpent and S-shaped patterns.

  2. REST IN PEACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Keiko Nakamura, 73 and a mem- ber of a Japanese war orphans' delegation, kneels down at a cemetery for adoptive Chinese parents in Fangzheng County, northeast China's Heilongjiang Province, on July 13 dudng a visit to China. More than 4,000 Japanese chil- dren were abandoned by their birth parents during the retreat at the end of World War II in 1945. These orphans were taken in and raised by residents in northeast China, which Japan illegally occupied for over a decade. Most of them relocated to Japan after the two neighbors normalized relations in 1972.

  3. Analiza umeščanja ljubljanske džamije

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, Drago

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the decades-long search for a site for an Islamic religious and cultural centre in Ljubljana highlights several key reasons which have caused the project to remain unfulfilled. The initial impulses and motives to erect a mosque were connected with piety values, and in the first phase specific ideas for the site of the mosque suggested the vicinity of Plečnik's Žale - Ljubljana's biggest cemetery. The political emancipation of the Islamic population in Yugoslavia played an impor...

  4. Analiza umeščanja ljubljanske džamije:

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, Drago

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of the decades-long search for a site for an Islamic religious and cultural centre in Ljubljana highlights several key reasons which have caused the project to remain unfulfilled. The initial impulses and motives to erect a mosque were connected with piety values, and in the first phase specific ideas for the site of the mosque suggested the vicinity of Plečnik's Žale - Ljubljana's biggest cemetery. The political emancipation of the Islamic population in Yugoslavia played an impor...

  5. Discovery and Excavation of the Jinsha Site in Chengdu%成都金沙遗址的发现与发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成都市文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    The Jinsha site discovered in 2001 lies in the western suburb of Chengdu City and occupies an area of over three sq km, with the vestiges laid out in certain order. Extensive excavation has revealed sacrificial plots, major and ordinary living areas, and cemeteries. The unearthed objects include more than 2,000 valuable gold, bronze, jade and stone articles, a large amount of ivory, and tens of thousands of pottery vessels and shards. Some peculiar phenomena are concerned with religious sacrificial activities. The site is left from a central settlement of the ancient Shu culture.

  6. Vultures and others scavenger vertebrates associated with man-sized pig carcasses: a perspective in Forensic Taphonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Demo; Edison Rogério Cansi; Cecília Kosmann; José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2013-01-01

    The activity of vertebrates that feed on corpses can modify the chronology of the decomposition process and interfere with postmortem interval estimates. Further, by destroying the soft parts of the cadaver, scattering, burying or causing the disappearance of bones, it can entirely change the crime scene. In this study, we simulated a clandestine cemetery in an area of Cerrado located inside a farm in Brasília, Distrito Federal. Three domestic pigs of the size of a human of about 60 kg were p...

  7. The suitability of using death certificates as a data source for cancer mortality assessement in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ulus, Tumer; Yurtseven, Eray; Cavdar, Sabanur; Erginoz, Ethem; Erdogan, M. Sarper

    2012-01-01

    Aim To compare the quality of the 2008 cancer mortality data of the Istanbul Directorate of Cemeteries (IDC) with the 2008 data of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK), and discuss the suitability of using this databank for estimations of cancer mortality in the future. Methods We used 2008 and 2010 death records of the IDC and compared it to TUIK and IARC data. Results According to the WHO statistics, in Turkey in 2008 there were 67 255 ...

  8. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and α Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  9. The 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' Collection: an Argentinian sample of modern skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda, S A; Desántolo, B; Mancuso, R García; Plischuk, M; Inda, A M

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' skeletal collection. The Lambre Collection is housed in the School of Medical Sciences of the National University of La Plata and it consists of skeletal remains ceded by the Municipal Cemetery of La Plata. The collection has more than four hundred skeletons, with information on age, sex, nationality, date and cause of death. It was created for teaching and research purposes in compliance with current legislation, and its management meets guidelines specified in the Declaration of the Argentinian Association for Biological Anthropology on Research Ethics on Human Remains (2007). PMID:22769855

  10. Les cimetières de Saint-Denis de la Réunion: un territoire de reconquête identitaire pour les communautés indiennes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra de Cauna

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a geographical interpretation of the revival of identities on Reunion Island. The analysis looks at the marking of space in the seaside cemetery in Saint-Denis. It emphasises the strategies developed by the island’s Indian communities to differentiate themselves from each other in the «space of death» and focuses on the particular case of Muslim Indians. We see that, in their spatial dimension, patterns of social differentiation are no longer based on economic criteria, but now seem linked to cultural practices.

  11. [THE FRENCH ANATOMICAL XAVIER BICHAT (1771 - 1802). FUNDATOR OF DOCTRINE OF TISSUES. BIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY BEFORE HIS GRAVE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez García, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    It is reminded to Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771-1802), French physician who figure in the pages of the history of the Universal Medicine. With him begins the anatomic mentality in the nineteenth century, which in 1801 introduced the concept of tissue in his book "Anatomie Generale". With unprecedented nature is disclosed his tomb in Paris' Pere Lachaise cemetery visited by the author, fact that motivated before it about his memories and historical work, which appears in the communication, as a tribute to his memory.

  12. Sous l’angle du genre: analyse de nécropoles de l’âge du Bronze (15e-13e siècle av. J.-C.) d’Italie du Nord et comparaisons avec le nord des Alpes

    OpenAIRE

    David-El Biali, Mireille

    2010-01-01

    The scope of my research is to examine the gender roles of women and men in parts of continental Europe during the Bronze Age. Northern Italy is a very interesting area from this point of view. It is divided into two cultural provinces: the Terramare culture east of the river Oglio and the Western province to its west. Many large cemeteries were established in the Middle Bronze Age and continued to be used in the Recent Bronze Age (Bronzo recente, the phase Bronze D of the Central European ch...

  13. Evidence for Patterns of Selective Urban Migration in the Greater Indus Valley (2600-1900 BC: A Lead and Strontium Isotope Mortuary Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Valentine

    Full Text Available Just as modern nation-states struggle to manage the cultural and economic impacts of migration, ancient civilizations dealt with similar external pressures and set policies to regulate people's movements. In one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Civilization, mechanisms linking city populations to hinterland groups remain enigmatic in the absence of written documents. However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC cemetery burials at Harappa (Pakistan and Farmana (India provide individual biogeochemical life histories of migration. Strontium and lead isotope ratios allow us to reinterpret the Indus tradition of cemetery inhumation as part of a specific and highly regulated institution of migration. Intra-individual isotopic shifts are consistent with immigration from resource-rich hinterlands during childhood. Furthermore, mortuary populations formed over hundreds of years and composed almost entirely of first-generation immigrants suggest that inhumation was the final step in a process linking certain urban Indus communities to diverse hinterland groups. Additional multi disciplinary analyses are warranted to confirm inferred patterns of Indus mobility, but the available isotopic data suggest that efforts to classify and regulate human movement in the ancient Indus region likely helped structure socioeconomic integration across an ethnically diverse landscape.

  14. Osteology of a slave burial population from Barbados, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corruccini, R S; Handler, J S; Mutaw, R J; Lange, F W

    1982-12-01

    A unique seventeenth-nineteenth century slave cemetery population from Newton plantation, Barbados, allows examination of craniodental characters in relation to ethnohistorical data. Age-at-death estimates suggest life expectancy at birth of 29 years and low infant mortality; historical demography, however, suggests life expectancy of 20 years and very high infant mortality. Tooth decay, bilateral tooth loss, periodontal disease, root hypercementosis, and severe enamel hypoplasia are high in frequency. The teeth yield evidence of such cultural practices as pipe-smoking and incisor mutilation. Several skeletal features reflect periodic near-starvation. Directional and fluctuating dental asymmetry, relative tooth size, and hypoplasia distribution suggest slaves experienced considerable weaning trauma; metabolic stress at this time exceeded that of prenatal and immediate postnatal periods. Odontometrics and dental and cranial nonmetric traits indicate that modern Blacks are intermediate between the ancestral slaves and modern Whites but more similar to the latter, suggesting effects of environmental covariance exceed those of genetic admixture. Nonmetric trait distributions show nonrandom patterns according to area of burial in the cemetery, a possible result of family segregation. PMID:6762099

  15. GIS Visualisations of Mortuary Data from Holešov, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Šmejda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case-study demonstrating the potential of GIS visualisations for analyses of mortuary data, recorded half a century ago at the site of Holešov, Kroměříž district, in the Czech Republic. This cemetery consists of 10 Bell Beaker and 420 Early Bronze Age graves, giving the impression of continuous development over a considerable period of time. The temporality of the cemetery is examined in detail, via its chronological development, as well as the inseparable aspects of its social use and structuring through time. The original data were converted from the printed catalogue into a Geographical Information System (GIS consisting of digitised plans and a database. Exploratory analyses of the data were conducted, based on two complementary perspectives: the spatial reference of recorded features and objects, and the formal similarity of burial assemblages. The former approach includes spatial density and trend surface analyses, the latter applies multivariate factor analysis visualised in GIS, where the extracted factor scores define a new reference system. The methods employed are sometimes unorthodox, specifically because such plots describing formal space have been little employed in GIS-based studies of mortuary behaviour. This article strives to highlight the positive aspects of contemporary computer software in order to encourage researchers to pursue new ways of conceptualising their research ideas through the integration of concepts and methods, which traditionally have been applied to different research domains.

  16. Evidence for Patterns of Selective Urban Migration in the Greater Indus Valley (2600-1900 BC): A Lead and Strontium Isotope Mortuary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Benjamin; Kamenov, George D; Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Shinde, Vasant; Mushrif-Tripathy, Veena; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Krigbaum, John

    2015-01-01

    Just as modern nation-states struggle to manage the cultural and economic impacts of migration, ancient civilizations dealt with similar external pressures and set policies to regulate people's movements. In one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Civilization, mechanisms linking city populations to hinterland groups remain enigmatic in the absence of written documents. However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) cemetery burials at Harappa (Pakistan) and Farmana (India) provide individual biogeochemical life histories of migration. Strontium and lead isotope ratios allow us to reinterpret the Indus tradition of cemetery inhumation as part of a specific and highly regulated institution of migration. Intra-individual isotopic shifts are consistent with immigration from resource-rich hinterlands during childhood. Furthermore, mortuary populations formed over hundreds of years and composed almost entirely of first-generation immigrants suggest that inhumation was the final step in a process linking certain urban Indus communities to diverse hinterland groups. Additional multi disciplinary analyses are warranted to confirm inferred patterns of Indus mobility, but the available isotopic data suggest that efforts to classify and regulate human movement in the ancient Indus region likely helped structure socioeconomic integration across an ethnically diverse landscape. PMID:25923705

  17. Identification of kinship and occupant status in Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty through a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinqiu; Song, Li; Wei, Dong; Pang, Yuhong; Wang, Ning; Ning, Chao; Li, Chunmei; Feng, Binxiao; Tang, Wentao; Li, Hongjie; Ren, Yashan; Zhang, Chunchang; Huang, Yanyi; Hu, Yaowu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-01-19

    The Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271-1368) was the first dynasty in Chinese history where a minority ethnic group (Mongols) ruled. Few cemeteries containing Mongolian nobles have been found owing to their tradition of keeping burial grounds secret and their lack of historical records. Archaeological excavations at the Shuzhuanglou site in the Hebei province of China led to the discovery of 13 skeletons in six separate tombs. The style of the artefacts and burials indicate the cemetery occupants were Mongol nobles. However, the origin, relationships and status of the chief occupant (M1m) are unclear. To shed light on the identity of the principal occupant and resolve the kin relationships between individuals, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted, combining archaeological information, stable isotope data and molecular genetic data. Analysis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA show that some of the occupants were related. The available evidence strongly suggests that the principal occupant may have been the Mongol noble Korguz. Our study demonstrates the power of a multidisciplinary approach in elucidating information about the inhabitants of ancient historical sites. PMID:25487330

  18. CONTEMPORARY FUNERAL AND MEMORIAL RITUALS OF CHINESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Belaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the field material of author of 2015 a modern funeral-mention ceremony of the Chinese is examined in city Harbin, where questioning of respondents, workers of cemetery and columbarium was conducted. 21 peoples (8 women and 13 men were polled. Except questioning of informants was conducted by a photo fixing of registration of columbarium, cemeteries and graves. In China always spared the special attention to the ceremony of funerals of relatives. In work of Confucius “Lun Yu” is such phrase: “Carefully execute the ceremony of funerals of parents, execute all necessary actions to the end and virtue of people will increase”. That is the emphasis that a funeral of parents has to take place in full accordance with ritual is placed. During time a ceremony was passed from a generation in a generation, and although he was placed simplified and mutated, however basic rules remained unchanging. Funeralmention traditions have the developed structure and differ in stability of customs and ceremonies, binding overs in the use of ritual belonging, by vitality of ideas (at times very archaic about death and duties living before memory about gone from life. Behaving to the number of strong ethnic traditions, a funeral-mention rite occupies an important place in the system of traditional connections.

  19. The further spread of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera, Culicidae) towards northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2013-10-01

    After its first detection in 2008 in the south German federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, another distinct population of the invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus was unexpectedly found in western Germany in 2012. Range expansion had already been observed for the southern German population and was anticipated for the western German one. Here, we report on a third, apparently independent and even more northerly German colonization area of Aedes j. japonicus in southern Lower Saxony and northeastern North Rhine-Westphalia, which was discovered in spring 2013. In a snapshot study, intended to determine the presence or absence of Aedes j. japonicus in an area close to Hanover, the capital of the northern German federal state of Lower Saxony, where a specimen had been collected in late 2012, central water basins of cemeteries were checked for pre-imaginal mosquito stages at the beginning of the mosquito season 2013. Almost 20% of the inspected cemeteries were found positive (25 out of 129), with many of them being located in towns and villages close to the motorways A2 and A7. Being of Far Eastern origin, the Asian bush mosquito is well adapted to moderate climates and appears to be further expanding its distribution area in Central Europe. As it is a proven laboratory vector of several mosquito-borne disease agents, its present and future distribution areas should be carefully monitored. PMID:23974325

  20. Delineation of graves using electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nero, Callistus; Aning, Akwasi Acheampong; Danuor, Sylvester K.; Noye, Reginald M.

    2016-03-01

    A suspected old royal cemetery has been surveyed at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) campus, Kumasi, Ghana using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) with the objective of detecting graves in order to make informed decisions with regard to the future use of the area. The survey was conducted on a 10,000 m2 area. Continuous Vertical Electrical Sounding (CVES) was combined with the roll along technique for 51 profiles with 1 m probe separation separated by 2 m. Inverted data results indicated wide resistivity variations ranging between 9.34 Ωm and 600 Ωm in the near surface. Such heterogeneity suggests a disturbance of the soil at this level. Both high (≥ 600 Ωm) and low resistivity (≤ 74.7 Ωm) anomalies, relative to background levels, were identified within the first 4 m of the subsurface. These were suspected to be burial tombs because of their rectangular geometries and resistivity contrasts. The results were validated with forward numerical modeling results. The study area is therefore an old cemetery and should be preserved as a cultural heritage site.

  1. Paleopathology of the commoners at Tell Amarna, Egypt, Akhenaten's capital city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome C Rose

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten initiated worship of a single god and established a new capital city (Tell Amarna that was built and occupied only once from 1350-1330 BCE. This single short occupation offers a unique opportunity to study a short time period. The royal tombs have long been known and studied, but the location of graves for the common inhabitants has been an archaeological puzzle for more than 50 years. Recently four cemeteries have been located and the analysis of commingled bones from the South Tombs cemetery is presented here. The remains yield the following demographic profile: 53 adults with 19 females and 18 males; 14 juveniles between the ages of 5 and 17; and 3 infants. Arthritis and degenerative joint disease of the spine and joints indicates that DJD was not excessive. Only 2 to 8% of the adult population exhibits arthritis. There are 3 healed fractures of the arm (2 to 8% of the adult sample. There is 1 healed compressed fracture of the skull suggesting violence. The adult infection rate is between 2 and 8% with 3 healed and 1 active case of periostitis and no severe infections. Anemia is implicated by 23% of adult frontals exhibiting cribra orbitalia. Life for the common residents of Amarna appears to not have been as good as initially postulated.

  2. 荆门罗坡岗墓地研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯卫东

    2012-01-01

    罗坡岗墓地是一处战国晚期楚遗民“士”级族墓地,至少包含九个“核心家族”,起码可分出两个支族。可识别出多组夫妻并穴合葬基、兄弟辈并葬墓、父子辈墓等。罗坡岗墓地存在士级墓葬和普通族人墓葬两个阶层,存在随葬“鼎”核心组合的上层系统和随葬“鬲”核心组合的平民系统。墓地强烈的军事色彩,表明当时还存在家族式的基层军事组织。墓地的主体面貌为楚文化,说明泰国占领区基层楚人的文化传统没有普遍地改变。%The Luopogang Cemetery is a late Warring States Period clan burial ground left over by Chu State survivors of lowest aristoc- racy. The tomb owners include at least members of nine families that can be attributed to two or more sub-clans. There are couples' , brothers' and father-and-sons' double- or single-pit joint burials. In the cemetery, graves of lowest aristocracy coexist with those of common clansmen, and the upper social stratum enjoying the funeral object combination centering on the ding tripod coexist with the common people qualified to be buried with li tripods and other more humble grave goods only. The strong military flavor of the cemetery shows the existence of a basic-level military organization within the clan. The main aspect of the burial ground belongs to the Chu Cuhure, so the Chu common people' s cultural tradition must have not changed everywhere in the region occupied by the Qin State.

  3. Determining Foundry Area of Bronze Vessel Using REE in Clay Mould Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The composition of casting clay core might provide clue to the foundry area of the bronze vessels. REE analysis of the residual clay mould was conducted by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Results reveal that characteristic of REE of clay mould from different region is dissimilar. It is feasible to restrict the possible foundry area of the bronze vessels on the basis of analysis of REE of clay mould residues on the bronzes. Meanwhile, this paper attempts to determine the foundry area of the bronze vessels unearthed at Jiuliandun tombs of Chu State, dated back to Warring States Period, in Zaoyang City, Hubei Province, and at Zuozhong cemetery, Spring and Autumn Period, in Jingmen City, Hubei Province. REE of clay core provides information on the foundry area of bronze vessels.

  4. Un casco de tipo Montefortino localizado en la partida de La Carrova (Amposta, Montsià, Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García i Rubert, David

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this note is to present three bronze fragments from a new Montefortino helmet. From its localisation context and decorative characteristics, we maintain a relation between this helmet and others found in the southeastern Iberian cemeteries, placing this helmet far from the catalonian examples.

    Pretendemos con esta breve nota dar a conocer la existencia de tres fragmentos de bronce pertenecientes a un nuevo ejemplar de casco Montefortino. El contexto de su localización y sus características decorativas lo acercan a los individuos recuperados en las necrópolis del sudeste peninsular, distanciándolo un tanto de los ejemplares catalanes conocidos hasta el momento.

  5. Jean-Yves Hemery

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The family, friends and colleagues of Jean-Yves HEMERY are sad to announce his accidental death on 24 September, at the age of 63, in Priziac. A funeral service has already taken place in his native region of Brittany and a commemoration will be held at the Mairie de Cessy, on Tuesday 12 October at 1.30 p.m., prior to the burial at the cemetery. Jean-Yves joined CERN in 1973 and worked first at the ISR for ten years and then on the beam instrumentation at LEP. The last twelve years of his career were his most fulfilling as he did great work on the beam design for the LEAR facility at the PS. Since retiring in 2007 his main occupation had been the renovation of his small house in Brittany. His Family and friends

  6. ATTEMPT TO ANALYSE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EARLY MEDIEVAL FEMALE SILVER JEWELLERY FROM THE SOUTHWESTERN AND SOUTHEASTERN AREA OF POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Krol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to analyze female silver jewellery produces and used during Early Middle Ages in regions of southeastern and southwestern Poland. Those regions correspond to the area of nowadays Poland, respectively southwestern voivodeships: Dolnoslaskie, Slaskie, Opolskie, Malopolskie and southeastern voivodeships: Podkarpackie and Lubuskie.The presented work deals with similarities and differences in quality and types of jewellery from those regions. The analysis focuses on silver items found in settlements, cemeteries and hoards. The recovered female jewellery highlights the divergence between east, under influence of culture from Byzantine Empire, and west.Thanks to described archeological relics, the southern region of present Poland can be easily divided into two distinguishable parts representing different cultures.

  7. PAISAJES DE LA MODERNIDAD EN LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES: LA OBRA DEL ARQUITECTO FRANCISCO SALAMONE (1936-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Cruz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work seeks to understand the architecture as a part of the materiality of a social landscape and as an active element, produced by a society where he belongs. From this idea I make some considerations about the potential of the studies of the archaeology of architecture as a form of understand different problematics. I propose to illustrate this idea by studying the process of consolidation of the industrial capitalism in the Buenos Aires Province (Argentina during the 1930 decade through the changes that occurred in the urban landscape of that region. In order to accomplish that, the constructions and buildings designed by the architect Francisco Salamone were studied. They were part of an edification plan developed by the provincial government during the years 1936 to 1940. In this particular work, I consider the city of Azul, localized in the South of the Buenos Aires province where two buildings made by that architect, the cemetery and the slaughterhouse, are present.

  8. [Identification of male somatotype based on osteometric characteristics of the upper and lower extremities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Sineva, I M

    2009-01-01

    This osteologic study included examination of 101 skeletons from the collections of the Department of Anthropology, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, and Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Sankt-Peterburg). The results were compared with the data obtained by examining materials excavated from grave sites of an Yoshkar-Ola cemetery and from the Isupovo necropole (Kostroma) to evaluate the possibility of identifying human somatotypes from bone remains. Multidimensional discriminative analysis demonstrated that the equation derived by comparing characteristic signs of all long tubular bones of the extremities was of highest diagnostic value for the purpose of the study. Diagnostic equations are proposed for the identification of individual somatotypes based on the analysis of skeletal remains for the use in practical forensic medical examination. PMID:20058841

  9. Practical Considerations in Trace Element Analysis of Bone by Portable X-ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Jennifer F; Bush, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Forensic anthropologists are more often turning to nondestructive methods to assist with skeletal analyses, specifically for trace elemental analyses. Portable XRF (pXRF) instruments are versatile and are able to be used in diverse settings or for specimens of a shape and size that cannot be accommodated by laboratory-based instruments. Use of XRF requires knowledge of analysis parameters such as X-ray penetration and exit depth. Analysis depth was determined by examining pure elements through known thicknesses of equine bone slices. Correlation between the element's X-ray emission energy and the depth of reading was observed. Bone surfaces from a small unknown historic cemetery were analyzed before and after sanding of the periosteal surface to observe possible changes in XRF readings based on potential diagenesis. Results validate the pXRF device as a powerful and convenient instrument for nondestructive analysis, while highlighting limitations and considerations for the analysis of osseous materials. PMID:27093090

  10. Excavation of Tombs at Locus Ⅱ of the Chaiwopu Forestry Center of Urumqi City%乌鲁木齐市柴窝堡林场Ⅱ号地点墓葬的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    新疆文物考古研究所; 乌鲁木齐文物保护管理所

    2003-01-01

    Ten tombs at this locus 50 km southeast of Urumqi City were excavated in 1994 by the Xinjiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and other institutions. They are arranged in order and each consists of a surface mound, an oval underground shaft, and an object pit in some cases. Most of the skeletons are buried singly, and collective burials occur occasionally. The principal burial manner is the extended supine position, and secondary burials are seen sometimes. Among the grave goods plain pottery comes first in amount, and painted ware next. In type there are the single-eared jar, bo bowl, basin, pot, etc. The painted motifs include serrated, peculiar triangular, whorl-like and net patterns. The unearthed bronzes are mainly arrowheads; some tombs yielded irons. Sheep's tail-bones were discovered in most graves. According to ~(14)C dates and comparison with tombs of adjacent areas, this cemetery can be assigned to the time corresponding to the Warring States period.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL STATUS AND ETHNICITY ON DIET IN MEDIAEVAL TALLINN AS SEEN THROUGH STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Lightfoot, Emma; Russow, Erki;

    2016-01-01

    Food encodes social and cultural values and has an important role to play in defining identities. In mixed populations, diet can be used to distinguish between ‘us’ and ‘them’. This study investigates the extent to which the inhabitants of mediaeval Tallinn, an important trading centre, used food...... to maintain distinct identities. Human skeletal material was selected from four mediaeval cemeteries in Tallinn, chosen to represent different groups within Tallinn’s society, likely including foreign merchants, foreign monks, urban Estonians and low-status Estonians, and from a nearby rural site, Kaberla....... These individuals were also identified as migrants and were likely either monks or foreign merchants. The results suggest that in some cases the people of Tallinn did use food as a means of maintaining social statuses and potentially ethnicities. Only one individual (LTL06) was identified as having had...

  12. Potential of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging for assessing bio-viability changes of biodeteriogen growths on stone monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osticioli, I.; Mascalchi, M.; Pinna, D.; Siano, S.

    2013-05-01

    A systematic study on the use of Chlorophyll Fluorescence (CF) imaging in Pulsed Amplitude Modulated (PAM) for assessing viability changes of biodeteriogen on stone artifacts has been carried out. The experimentation has been performed on different phototrophic organisms of gravestone slabs from the monumental British Cemetery of Florence (Italy). Since the viability of these organisms and then their chlorophyll fluorescence emission is strongly dependent on the environmental conditions, a preliminary study on the effects of local patterns during the season was carried out. The trend of the fluorescence quantum yield (QYmax) at different dark adapted times in different periods of the year was determined. The results achieved in our work proves the effectiveness of the CF-PAM imaging for in situ lichen characterizations in conservation studies and defines an optimized application protocol.

  13. VAUGRIGNON Y LAS FLUCTUACIONES ECONÓMICAS DE LOS GALOS DURANTE LOS SIGLOS II Y I A. C. (Vaugrignon and the Economic Fluctuations of the Gauls during the Second and First Centuries BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El cementerio galo de Vaugrignon (Esvres-sur-Indre, Francia arroja luz sobre las fluctuaciones económicas y los cambios sociales registrados en el territorio de los Turoni y en el resto de la Galia inmediatamente anterior y posterior a la conquista romana, entre finales del siglo II y finales del I antes de nuestra era. Sus monedas, cuyo sistema resulta perfectamente aislable, también evidencian las oscilaciones de su economía monetaria, mostrando devaluaciones, revalorizaciones o situaciones inflacionarias. ENGLISH: The Gaul cemetery at Vaugrignon—Esvres-sur-Indre, France—sheds light on the economic fluctuations and social changes in the territory of the Turoni and the rest of Gaul immediately before and after the Roman conquest, between the late second and late first centuries BC. Coins, whose system is perfectly isolable, also show the oscillations of their monetary economy, highlighting devaluations, revaluations or inflationary situations.

  14. Excavation on the Hulinshan Site of the Shang Period in Zhangzhou City,Fujian%福建漳州市虎林山商代遗址发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    福建博物院; 漳州市文管办; 漳州市博物馆

    2003-01-01

    The Hulinshan site belongs to the Shang period and lies in southern Fujian.20 earth-en-pit tombs were excavated on the site,and waist-pits were discovered in some burials.Large numbers of objects were unearthed from the cemetery.They include mainly stone implements,and also bronzes,jades and pottery.The excavation enriched our knowledge of the contents of the Fubin culture in southern Fujian and eastern Guangdong,especially the discovery of bronzes suggesting that the culture belongs to the Bronze Age.Meanwhile,it provided important reference material for studying the same type of remains in southern Fujian and advancing Shang-Zhou archaeology in the coastal areas of southeastern China.

  15. Sample Acquisition Techniques for Exobiology Flight Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Stratton, David M.; Valentin, Jose R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Exobiology Flight Experiments involve complex analyses conducted in environments far different than those encountered in terrestrial applications. A major part of the analytical challenge is often the selection, acquisition, delivery and, in some cases, processing of a sample suitable for the analytical requirements of the mission. The added complications of severely limited resources and sometimes rigid time constraints combine to make sample acquisition potentially a major obstacle for successful analyses. Potential samples come in a wide range including planetary atmospheric gas and aerosols (from a wide variety of pressures), planetary soil or rocks, dust and ice particles streaming off of a comet, and cemetery surface ice and rocks. Methods to collect and process sample are often mission specific, requiring continual development of innovative concepts and mechanisms. These methods must also maintain the integrity of the sample for the experimental results to be meaningful. We present here sample acquisition systems employed from past missions and proposed for future missions.

  16. Review and Consideration of Tibetan Archaeology in the 20th Century%20世纪西藏考古的回顾与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甲央; 霍巍

    2001-01-01

    Tibetan archaeology has always drawn close attention from academic circles both athome and abroad. In the first half of the 20th century, archaeological work in this region was principallydone by Western scholars. They obtained some achievements, such as those in the surveys of Tubo royaltombs, though there appeared shortcomings. Since the 1950s, Chinese scholars have independently car-tied out a series of archaeological surveys and diggings on the Qamdo karub site and in the NaogxianLieshan cemetery. The 1990s was an remarkable decade, when Tibetan archaeology was going ahead byleaps and bounds. The general investigation of ancient monuments across Tibet laid the foundations offuture Tibetan archaeology. The excavation of the prehistoric site at Qugoog village, Lhasa, the explo-ration of the ancient Guge city in Ngari and other archaeological projects carried out in recent years ex-erted significant influence in Chinese and foreign academic circles.

  17. Tombs of the Yelang Period at Kele in Hezhang,Guizhou%贵州赫章可乐夜郎时期墓葬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贵州省文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    In September—October 2000, archaeologists excavated tombs of the Warring States period to Western Han times at Kele Village of Kele Town in Hezhang County, Guizhou. The graves number 112, mostly belonging to natives of the Yelang period. They represent various peculiar burial customs, of which the most important is head-covered burial occurring in five tombs. The unearthed funeral objects, above 500 in total, include weapons, ornaments, household ware and seals, all varying in material. Among them the large-sized bronzes, weapons, ornaments and pottery from the head-covered burials show the strongest local features. The discovery of the cemetery much enriched our knowledge of the Yelang culture and marks a great advance in Yelang archaeology in recent years.

  18. Early Lapita skeletons from Vanuatu show Polynesian craniofacial shape: Implications for Remote Oceanic settlement and Lapita origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Frédérique; Détroit, Florent; Spriggs, Matthew J T; Bedford, Stuart

    2016-01-12

    With a cultural and linguistic origin in Island Southeast Asia the Lapita expansion is thought to have led ultimately to the Polynesian settlement of the east Polynesian region after a time of mixing/integration in north Melanesia and a nearly 2,000-y pause in West Polynesia. One of the major achievements of recent Lapita research in Vanuatu has been the discovery of the oldest cemetery found so far in the Pacific at Teouma on the south coast of Efate Island, opening up new prospects for the biological definition of the early settlers of the archipelago and of Remote Oceania in general. Using craniometric evidence from the skeletons in conjunction with archaeological data, we discuss here four debated issues: the Lapita-Asian connection, the degree of admixture, the Lapita-Polynesian connection, and the question of secondary population movement into Remote Oceania.

  19. Tombs of the Warring States Period at Jingouzhai in Yantai City, Shandong%山东烟台市金沟寨战国墓葬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    烟台市博物馆

    2003-01-01

    In 1979, the Yantai Municipal Museum excavated 14 tombs at Jingouzhai in the eastern suburb of the city, which are all rectangular earth-pit graves with funeral object pits in most cases. The corpses are prineipally buried singly in a coffin with or without wooden chamber, in an extended supine position. The grave goods are mainly pottery, mostly practical articles. A few large-sized tombs yielded sets of ritual vessels in imitation of bronzes, as well as bronzes, chiefly weapons, and talcum artifacts. Most of the objects are placed in the coffin, on one side of the human skeleton, while pottery and talcum ornaments, such as huang semi-discs, beads and tubes, are put between the coffin and the chamber. Judging from the shape of tombs and the combination of funeral objects and taking related tombs of other areas into comparison, the cemetery under discussion can be dated to the earlier Warring States period.

  20. 西藏札达县皮央·东嘎遗址古墓群试掘简报%Trial Excavation of Ancient Tombs on the Piyang-Donggar Site in Zanda County,Tiet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    四川大学中国藏学研究所; 四川大学考古学系; 西藏自治区文物局

    2001-01-01

    The Piyang-Donggar site ties at Donggar township of Zanda county in Ngari prefecture, Tibetan Autonomous Region, and consists of the Piyang sites at Piyang village and the Donggarsites at Donggar village. The whole site comprises Buddhist grottoes, temp[es and pagodas, and tombs.The tombs in Area V of the Donggar sites and the Sasongtang and GeIintang cemeteries on the Piyangsite, al] discovered through the surveys here reported, form a group in the shape of the character “品”. inan area of about 200 sq m, excavation revea[ed 26 tombs, one horse hurial pit and an array of standingatones. Among the unearthed objects are pottery, bronzes, irons, stone artifacts and bamboo ware. Theygo back to the time corresponding to the Qin-Han period in the Central Plains.

  1. [Grmek, medical history, and paleopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillaud, P L

    2001-01-01

    Mirko Drazen Grmek died on 6 March 2000, defeated by an implacable enemy (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which had been diagnosed just 18 months earlier). He has now found peace in his final resting place, the Montparnasse cemetery in Paris. His immense body of work reveals an omniscient man of great wisdom, a cosmopolitan polyglot who devoted his life to the history of science, with particular emphasis on medicine and disease. He looked at paleopathology for what that discipline could bring to the study of populations in antiquity, and succeeded in anchoring it in history with his definitive concept of "pathocenose", created in 1969. Several years later, his most important work, "Les Maladies à l'aube de la civilisation occidentale", (1983) set forth with definitive and convincing illustrations the importance of paleopathology, which will therefore be forever associated with one of the most outstanding medical history books of the XXth. century. PMID:11908523

  2. Driven out by Hitler, a dental historian enriches America: the story of Curt Proskauer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Malvin E

    2007-01-01

    I n 1956, workers in Rome, Italy, digging for the foundation of a building, uncovered an extensively decorated catacomb. The Vatican declared it to be a hitherto unknown Christian cemetery, dating from around the year 300. The discoverers were amazed at the fresco paintings, most of them biblical scenes. But one particular fresco was destined to set the world of medical history on its ear! The scene was interpreted as a surgeon performing an operation, and it was duly reported as such by the New York Times. It took a renowned dental historian, Dr. Curt Proskauer, using logical deduction, to disprove that conclusion. The result was to push back our knowledge of certain medical procedures by a thousand years!

  3. Vultures and others scavenger vertebrates associated with man-sized pig carcasses: a perspective in Forensic Taphonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Demo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The activity of vertebrates that feed on corpses can modify the chronology of the decomposition process and interfere with postmortem interval estimates. Further, by destroying the soft parts of the cadaver, scattering, burying or causing the disappearance of bones, it can entirely change the crime scene. In this study, we simulated a clandestine cemetery in an area of Cerrado located inside a farm in Brasília, Distrito Federal. Three domestic pigs of the size of a human of about 60 kg were placed on the ground in different periods of 2010 and 2011. We recorded four species of birds and one of mammal eating the carcasses: 1 Cathartidae: Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1973, Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758, Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758; 2 Falconidae: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777; and 3 Felidae: Leopardus pardalis (Lund, 1840. The behavior of these animals interfered in the decomposition process and resulted in the dispersion and loss of bony parts.

  4. Avance al estudio radiológico del armamento de la necrópolis ibérica del Cabecico del Tesoro (Verdolay, Murcia. I. - Las Falcatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Cano, José Miguel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    We present a new study of the falcata swords decorated with silver inlay from the Iberian Iron Age cemetery at Cabecico del Tesoro (Murcia. Already known pieces are re-studied, while we also present new examples of previously unknown decorations, hidden under the corrosion layers but visible under radiographic examination.



    Se presenta un nuevo estudio de las falcatas decoradas con damasquinados en plata de la necrópolis ibérica del Cabecico del Tesoro (Murcia, Se reestudian piezas conocidas y se presentan nuevos casos de decoraciones previamente ocultas bajo la corrosión pero visibles en un examen radiológico efectuado sobre las piezas.

  5. Death before life: The legal status of cadaveric foetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2011-01-01

    The issue of how to dispose of aborted foetuses is a sensitive ethical and legal issue which relates directly to the legal status of the foetus. An illustrative example of this issue’s practical legal relevance is the Danish Council of Ethics’ recommendation of March 3, 2011, in reply...... general reflections on the legal status of cadaveric foetuses....... to the Municipality of Odense regarding the establishment of a separate anonymous lawn for aborted foetuses at the town’s principal cemetery in order to provide parents with a free and optional alternative to the current procedure.The aim of this article is to analyse death before life in Danish law and to offer some...

  6. Estimating of seismic return periods in Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of seismic risk in the site of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant and surroundings was made considering the different periods of seismic return and the probability of occurrence in distinct time intervals (50, 75, 100, 125, 150 years) starting with the distribution of first type of extreme values of Gumbel (G1), the value used for the assessment of lifetime of lump was 50 years, and the rest of the periods are used to evaluate temporary nuclear cemeteries, it is to say for reducing the radioactivity of burned fuel assemblies. The seismic data belongs to the seismicity catalog (1920-1982) elaborated around the site, which average magnitude was 5 in the Richter Scale and are considered as shallow and are located in the Continental crust of North American shelf, and are induced by the pressure of the cocos shelf, being 36 % of the seismic movements of intermediate value and two seismic movements of deep value. (Author)

  7. McDonaldization, Islamic teachings, and funerary practices in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on George Ritzer's sociological concept of McDonaldization, this article explores the transformation of burial practices in Kuwait. It is argued that traditional, religious, and private ways of dealing with death have been modernized using the fast-food model of McDonald's. This article examines Islamic teachings on burial and how that model has been applied to the traditional Muslim funerary services, including cemetery management, grave excavation, funeral prayers, burial, and condolences, to make them more efficient vis-a-vis more profitable. Based on personal observations and random interviews, the study finds that the state bureaucracy in Kuwait has made burial rituals more efficient, standardized, calculable, and controlled. Furthermore, several associated irrationalities are also considered. Findings suggest that some individuals may not be happy with these changes but there is no popular resistance to McDonaldization of the burial practices, probably due to the authoritarian and welfare nature of the State of Kuwait. PMID:21748923

  8. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories

  9. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Nathan W; McCants, Sarah A; Custodio, Joseph M; Ketterer, Michael E; Getty, Stephen R; Hoffman, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories. PMID:17126382

  10. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Nathan W. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States)]. E-mail: nbower@coloradocollege.edu; McCants, Sarah A. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Custodio, Joseph M. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Getty, Stephen R. [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Hoffman, J. Michael [Department of Anthropology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 8090-3294 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  11. Examining the life history of an individual from Solcor 3, San Pedro de Atacama: Combining bioarchaeology and archaeological chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed life history information using multiple lines of evidence including the identification of geographic origins, health, and body use indicators, can be used to elucidate the complex process of acculturation in the San Pedro de Atacama oases of northern Chile during the Middle Horizon. This paper presents the results of bioarchaeological and archaeological chemical analyses of the skeletal remains of an adult male (tomb 50, catalog number 1948) from the cemetery of Solcor 3 (ca. AD 500-900). Strontium isotope ratios in human tooth enamel reveal information about where a person lived during their childhood, when enamel was being formed. Individual 1948 showed strontium isotope ratios decidedly outside the range of the local San Pedro de Atacama strontium isotope signature. Given these data implying that individual 1948 was originally from elsewhere, an examination of his health status, social role, and mortuary context provides insight into the treatment of foreigners in San Pedro de Atacama. Our data support the argument that individual 1948's foreign birth did not hinder his later assimilation into Atacameno society. He was buried in a local cemetery with a typical mortuary assemblage for a male of this time and no strong evidence of possible foreign origin. Skeletal indicators of diet and activity patterns do not distinguish individual 1948 from the local population, suggesting that his lifestyle was similar to that of other Atacamenos. Therefore, our analyses suggest that individual 1948's acculturation into Atacameno society during his adult life was nearly complete and he retained little to no indication of his probable foreign birth

  12. Dental enamel Hypoplasia. Investigations on the Bones Exhumed from the Medieval Necropole of Lozova (Republic of Moldova, XIVth–XVth Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Daniel Simalcsik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental hypoplasia is a developmental anomaly based on perturbations of amelogenesis. Hypoplasia defects are part of the unspecific quantitative indicators for the state of health and / or nutritional state during the formation of the dental buds. It is a response of the human organism to physiological stress. The incidence of this dysplasia in a past population can indicate its biological frailty in its attempt to adapt to the environmental changes. The osteological material was excavated in the interval 2010 – 2011 by archaeologists from the Archaeology Centre in Chisinau, from the Medieval cemetery of Lozova (Straseni County, Republic of Moldova, dated for the XIVth and XVth centuries. Fifty one skeletons from 50 inhumation graves have been excavated and analyzed so far. Only 40 individuals had most of their teeth present. The enamel hypoplasia is of linear transversal type, located on the labial surface of the dental crowns, in the median third. The canine is the most affected tooth, followed by the incisors. The incidence of dental enamel hypoplasia at population level (based on the data collected and on the number of graves excavates so far, which does not illustrate the entire population of the cemetery is 7.5%. The incidence of dental caries is 23.53%, of cribra orbitalia – 11.75%, and of cribra cranii externa – 1.96%. The results obtained for a relatively small rural community illustrate a good adaptation to the stressing environmental factors. The possible malnutrition and illness episodes suffered during early childhood were recovered along the growth and development processes.

  13. The Temple of St. Sava in Kosovska Mitrovica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Zoran Č.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity of the Serbian Orthodox Church during the enslavement under the Turks was of decisive and invaluable significance for maintaining the national spirit of the Serbian nation in the region of the Old and South Serbia. The construction of monasteries and temples, as the centers of Serbian spirituality, was the primary goal of The Serbian Orthodox Church and The Government of The Kingdom of Serbia. Kosovska Mitrovica is a small town which got its Orthodox church last. The construction of the church (1896-1921 went slowly, depending on the political and economic (mishappenings. Anger of the Albanians, obstinacy of the Turks, two Balkan and one world war dictated the speed of the construction of the church. The project of the church (Andra Stevanović and of the bell-tower (Aleksandar Deroko was also economically expensive. The executor(s of the work, master masons from Veles and painters from Macedonia were also expensive. The church was built with the great effort of The Church Municipality and it was the spiritual center of the Serbs in Kosovska Mitrovica and its surroundings between the two world wars. The Temple of St. Sava celebrates a great jubilee on August 6, 2007 - the 110th anniversary from the beginning of its construction. The Serbs do not live in the so-called South Mitrovica, where the church, the bell-tower, the chapel and the cemetery are located. From the distance of 500 meters, the Serbs from Northern Mitrovica watch the burnt temple, destroyed chapel and broken monuments in the southern part of the town, waiting for the new construction of the church, of the chapel, of the cemetery...

  14. Ristripatsid Eesti 12.–13. sajandi laibakalmistutes: kas ehted või usu tunnused? / The cross-shaped pendants of inhumation burials in 12th-13th century Estonia: adornments or signs of belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Kurisoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shaped pendants are one of the most discussed symbolically laden artefacts among Estonian archaeological material. The beginning of the distribution of cross-shaped pendants dates back to 11th century when the artefacts, though scarce, appear. The number of such pendants increases noticeably at the very end of the Iron Age. Due to the ambiguous entity of cross and time context, cross-pendants have been interpreted either as symbols of Christian faith, as pieces of adornment not affiliated with Christianity, or as objects with magical qualities. In this paper I study pendants found in the inhumation cemeteries of Estonia. Only those provide us with an archaeological context which shows precisely who could have worn them and how. The analyzed cross-pendants were found at Pada, Kaberla, Kukruse, Haimre and Tammiku cemeteries and from the early burials in Viru-Nigula churchyard. As artefacts, the cross pendants are more or less stylized Greek crosses. In most cases the pendants were either used as a part of jewellery or worn singularly around the neck area. From the total of 48 analyzed cross-pendants one fourth could be interpreted as locally produced items. Of local origin are probably lead pendants from Pada cemetery, heads of decorative pins worn as cross-shaped pendants from Viru-Nigula and Kaberla cemeteries, and obvious scrap and unfinished pendant crosses. In addition, I would like to draw attention that cross-pendants from inhumation burials do not contain many widespread forms, such as ‘Scandinavian’ and some other widespread Russian origin types, which have been found in hoards, from hill-forts and cremation burials. This observation could confirm that cross pendants from 12th–13th century inhumation burials were communally recognized and some of them were locally manufactured. As the next stage of my investigation I studied different occurrence contexts of cross pendants in cemeteries and burials: the location of burials with

  15. Comment l’exemple des cimetières-jardins interprète la mémoire funéraire québécoise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Cornellier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Les cimetières-jardins sont un excellent laboratoire d’observation du traitement distinct de la mémoire funéraire à travers les époques. Ils font partie d’une période charnière dans la commémoration des morts, entre celle des cimetières urbains (du XVIIe au XIXe siècle et des parcs-cimetières d’aujourd’hui. Ils sont à la jonction de la gestion par les fabriques et la prise en charge par les entreprises privées qui offrent désormais des services et des biens funéraires selon la formule « tout-en-un ». Des sculpteurs professionnels taillent les pierres tombales, l’iconographie présente sur ces dernières est plus diversifiée et élaborée, de nouveaux matériaux deviennent la norme, des entreprises privées spécialisées dans les pompes funèbres ouvrent leurs portes. « L’industrialisation de la mort » débute peu à peu. Les monuments funéraires qu’on y retrouve témoignent d’une standardisation de certaines pratiques funéraires. Ayant connu leur âge d’or dans le premier quart du XXe siècle, les cimetières-jardins sont de moins en moins fréquentés. Ce texte propose de démontrer pourquoi ces cimetières ont été des lieux de commémoration, autant pour la mémoire à court et à long terme et pourquoi ils ne sont devenus, dans bien des cas, que des espaces mémoriels à court terme. En raison du désengagement social à leur égard, ces lieux voués à une mémoire à long terme sont en quelque sorte marqués par l’oubli, devenant ainsi les acteurs d’une mémoire à court terme.Garden cemeteries are great sites for the observation of different treatments of funerary memory throughout history. They belong to a transition period in the history of remembering the dead, between the urban cemeteries of the 16th-18th centuries and the contemporary cemetery parks and were at the junction of a management by factories and a support from private companies that offered funeral goods and services

  16. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2008- Malazgirt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe research was carried out with the permissions of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 22 July to 6 August 2008 at Malazgirt town of Muş Province and dependent villages.Some cultural assets composed of monumental architectural structures such as Mosques, Churches, Inns, Bridges, cemeteries and grave stones were identifiedA mosque, ruins of an Inn, two bridges at the center of Malazgirt, a house and a rock church,at Uzgörür village of Bulanık County, twelve cemeteries at Malazgirt town and two cemeteries at Uzgörür village were investigated..Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. A small number of identified works belong to Seljuk period and afterwards (XI-XV. Century, and most of the others usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period.The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region.Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors actually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction.ÖzetT.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 22 Temmuz- 06 Ağustos 2008 tarihleri arasında Muş ilinin Malazgirt ilçesinde ve köylerinde yüzey araştırması gerçekleştirilmiştir.Cami, Kilise, Han, Köprü, ve Ev’den oluşan anıtsal mimari yapılar ile mezarlıklar ve mezar taşlarından oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmanın son günlerinde Bulanık ilçesinin köylerine de girilmiştir.Araştırmada; Malazgirt merkezde iki, Dirimpınar Köyü’nde bir han kalıntısı, bir mescit ve bir cami, iki köprü, Bulanık ilçesi Uzg

  17. Aedes albopictus in northeast Mexico: An update on adult distribution and first report of parasitism by Ascogregarina taiwanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto Reyes-Villanueva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Aedes albopictus has been known as efficient vector of dengue in Asian countries and its wide displacement of Ae. aegypti has been documented in many parts of the world. The present survey was carried out to update the distribution of Ae. albopictus in northeast Mexico and to report the first record of parasitism of mosquitoes by Ascogregarina taiwanensis in Mexico. Methods: Human landing collections were conducted in the month of May every year between 2007 and 2009 across the three states, Nuevo Leon (NL, Tamaulipas and Coahuila in northeast Mexico. Six human bait collections were also organized at the cemetery of Gomez Farias (GF, a village in southern Tamaulipas during the rainy and dry seasons in 2010. Aedes albopictus caught in 2010 were dissected for parasitic protozoan gregarines. Results: The results of human landing collections carried out during 2007-10 across the three states of northeast zone of Mexico revealed that Ae. albopictus is invading along the route between Monterrey City in NL and Tampico, Tamaulipas, but not into the arid state of Coahuila. Aedes albopictus was recorded in nine new municipalities in addition to the 15 municipalities reported before 2005. Furthermore, six human-bait collections performed during the dry and rainy seasons in 2010 at the cemetery of GF suggest the exclusion of Ae. aegypti on that site. Dominance was shared by Ae. quadrivittatus, another container-inhabitant but indigenous species, and Ae. albopictus during the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The results of dissection of the mosquitoes for gregarines revealed the parasitism of Ae. albopictus by A. taiwanensis. Interpretation & conclusion: The results of this study showed that Ae. albopictus has spread to all the municipalities in the northeastern Mexico except the arid area and reported the first record of parasitic protozoan A. taiwanensis in Mexico. We recommend further studies on larval and adult populations of

  18. Environmental impact and natural hazards on Kharga Oasis monumental sites, Western Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, A. B.; Howari, F. M.; El-Sankary, M. M.; Wali, A. M.; Saleh, M. M.

    2010-09-01

    Kharga Oasis monumental sites are important to the cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The studied sites include the Hibis, EI-Nadura, EI-Ghueita and El-Zayyan temples as well as El-Bagawat Cemetery. The present study found that natural hazards have remarkable impacts on these sites. The impact of weathering processes, encroachment of sand dunes, stability of foundation beds and shallow groundwater seepage were documented. The present study found that humidity, temperature, sunlight and water content conditions seem to be favorable for biodegradation as evidenced by the presence of algae, bat blood and bird excretions. The radioactivity levels at the investigated sites are also measured via gamma-ray spectrometry. Sand dunes in the area pose a serious natural threat to the monumental sites. Active sand dunes are rapidly encroaching upon the components of these monuments, partially covering some monuments such as El-Ghueita Temple. These dunes load wind storms with fine sand particles. This causes wind erosion through sand blasting of these sites. Some monuments, such as EI-Nadura, EI-Ghueita and El-Zayyan temples were constructed on a suitable hard sandstone ground, whereas others, such as the Hibis Temple, were constructed on unsuitable soft shale ground in relatively topographically low area. The impact of the unstable foundation and shallow groundwater levels have caused severe structural damage as evidenced by tilted columns, cracked walls and salt-crystal growth in the porous building stones. These destructive elements threaten some other temples in Kharga Oasis and will eventually cause total physical collapse. Although rain is rare in this area, it can form a real threat to mud brick monuments such as El-Bagawat Cemetery. The natural radioactivity sources resulted in an annual effective dose equivalent values averaging 0.20, 0.13, 0.09 and 0.07 m

  19. AJARAN SUNAN GESENG BAGI KEHIDUPAN KEAGAMAAN MASYARAKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Faelasofa

    2013-04-01

    collected through interview and observation. Research results show the strong influence of Sunan Geseng’s religious teaching is apparent in Grabag, Magelang. Among the indicators are the use of Sunan Geseng’s cemetery as spiritual tourism site visited by people from many area. There is also selikuran tradition held annually at the 21st night of Ramadhan in Sunan Geseng cemetery area. There are also other rituals like slametan, gendurenan, and methoan. Another interesting thing is that many boarding schools still adopt the management system or learning process like those of Sunan Geseng. All of this enforce the society sentiment theory stating that historical memory in the the past and Sunan Geseng heritages are fondation for society sentiment.

  20. The Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, A; Kuś, M; Kupiec, T; Bykowska, M; Zielińska, G; Jasiński, M E; March, A L

    2016-01-01

    members into a common database; (5) making a conclusive, final identification of the victim. PGBOT's first project was to identify victims of the Communist regime buried in hidden mass graves in the Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw. Throughout 2012 and 2013, PGBOT carried out archaeological exhumations in the Powązki Military Cemetery that resulted in the recovery of the skeletal remains of 194 victims in several mass graves. Of the 194 sets of remains, more than 50 victims have been successfully matched and identified through genetic evidence. PMID:26646737

  1. 周代邿国地望及相关问题再探%A Study of the Locations of Shi State and Other Relevant Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱继平

    2013-01-01

    This paper reexamines the locations of the Shi State as well as its history in Zhou Dynasty and comes to the conclu-sions as following:1)Originally, Shi State was located in the eastern Pingyin County of Han&Jin Dynasties, which was defen-sive for the southeast frontier of Qi State after Shi State was forced to migrate under the military pressure from Qi State by the middle of the 7th century B.C.2)The new residence for Shi State was located in the southwest of Kangfu County which was very close to Qufu, the capital of Lu State.As a result of this migration, Shi State descended to a client state of Lu State, and Lu State took the opportunity of Shi's inner division in 650 B.C.to destroy it.3) Based on the strategic position of the Shi castle as well as the process of Qi archaeological cultural western expansion, the Shi State destroyed by Lu in 650 B.C.is not around Pingying, but Kangfu, and the former state corresponds to the Xianrentai Cemetery excavated in Changqing District, Jinan.Not only that, given several differences between the tombs of group A and B at Xianrentai Cemetery in distribution, time, tomb structure, character of funerary objects and marriage relationships, the five tombs in group A belong to the Shi State located in Pingyin County during early Spring &Autumn period, and one tomb in group B is likely to relate to the descendents of the Shi State destroyed by Lu State in late Spring&Autumn period.%  针对学界有关认识,综合传世文献与考古发现,对周代邿国地望变迁进行重新梳理,得出以下认识:邿国初位于汉晋平阴以东,因战略位置险要,故在齐势西扩的压力下约于春秋中期早段南迁,在汉晋任城亢父邿亭立国,平阴故地成为齐之邿邑。南迁后邿沦为鲁国附庸,公元前560年因内部分裂而灭于鲁。因此,鲁取之邿并非平阴邿国,而应是南迁后的亢父邿国,山东长清仙人台邿国墓地当对应平阴之邿。

  2. The Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, A; Kuś, M; Kupiec, T; Bykowska, M; Zielińska, G; Jasiński, M E; March, A L

    2016-01-01

    members into a common database; (5) making a conclusive, final identification of the victim. PGBOT's first project was to identify victims of the Communist regime buried in hidden mass graves in the Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw. Throughout 2012 and 2013, PGBOT carried out archaeological exhumations in the Powązki Military Cemetery that resulted in the recovery of the skeletal remains of 194 victims in several mass graves. Of the 194 sets of remains, more than 50 victims have been successfully matched and identified through genetic evidence.

  3. Results of the first western coal availability study -- Hilight quadrangle, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnia, C.L.; Biewick, L.R.H.; Blake, D. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center; Tewalt, S.J.; Carter, M.D. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Gaskill, C. [Bureau of Land Management, Casper, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, Geological Survey of Wyoming, and US Bureau of Mines, has produced an estimate of the amount of available coal in an area about 35 miles south of Gillette, Wyoming, where the Wyodak coal bed is, in places, more than 100 ft thick. Available coal is coal that actually is accessible for development under current regulatory, land-use, and technologic conditions. The first western coal availability study, in the Hilight quadrangle, has shown that approximately 60% (2.7 billion tons) of the total 4.4 billion tons of original coal resources in the quadrangle is available for development. Of this total 4.4 billion tons, 2.9 billion tons are contained in the Main Wyodak coal bed; 67% (1.9 billion tons) of this coal bed is considered available. Local coal-development considerations include dwellings, railroads, pipelines, power lines, wildlife habitat (eagles), alluvial valley floors, cemeteries, the Hilight oil and gas field, and the Hilight gas plant. Some of these considerations would be mitigated so that surface mining could proceed; others presently preclude mining in their vicinity.

  4. Purple Staining of Archaeological Human Bone: An Investigation of Probable Cause and Implications for Other Tissues and Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrard Cole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excavations in the 1990s at the medieval Chapter House of Worcester Cathedral, UK, revealed medieval human skeletal remains, some of which exhibited a distinctive purple coloration. The nature of the colored bone was investigated using solvents for stain extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, plane polarized (PPL and cross-polarized (XPL light microscopy, and auto fluorescence (AF microscopy. Normal bone from the cemetery was used as a control. The color does not arise from a stain soluble in normal organic solvents. EDX and XRD analysis showed no significant difference between purple and normal bone. XRF analysis shows the presence of trace levels of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper in the affected material. This exhibited a pink color in acid phase and a blue color in alkaline phase. These two states were reversible. The alkaline phase gradually changed irreversibly to yellow over time. These data suggest that the coloration is consistent with the presence of high levels of purple acid phosphatase (PAP enzyme. The presence of trace amounts of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper suggests a plant or fungal origin for the putative PAP, possibly a member of the Aspergillus ficuum species.

  5. Problems and Countermeasures of illegal use of Forestland in Guangdong Province%广东省违法违规使用林地问题与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区汉明

    2012-01-01

    广东省违法违规使用林地的主要问题表现在毁林采矿、重点工程项目未批先占、毁林开垦、毁林建坟等方面.文中分析问题发生的原因,指出特点:突发性、复杂性、尖锐性、艰巨性、长期性.提出应对措施:提前介入重点工程项目使用林地,积极配合做好补充耕地工作,规范征占用林地审核审批管理,加强基层林地管理人员技术培训,加大对违法违规使用林地行为的打击力度等.%Problems of illegal use of forest land in the Guangdong Province have been listed i. e, deforestation for mining, deforestation for key projects, deforestation for farmland and cemetery. This paper analyzed the characteristics of those problems like sudden, complex, acute, arduous, and long-term. Countermeasures i. e, be prepared to use forestland for key projects, actively cooperate with additional land use, regulate reclaimed forestland management, strengthen forest land management and technical training, crackdown illegal use of forestland behavior etc, have also been carried out.

  6. Why Sacred Lands Are Not Indivisible: The Cognitive Foundations of Sacralising Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sosis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous political analysts have argued that conflicts over sacred land are intractable. These scholars maintain that sacred lands are psychologically perceived as indivisible, or alternatively, in the sociological tradition, their indivisibility is a social fact. Moreover, religious beliefs are viewed as stagnant and resistant to change. Consequently, resolving such conflicts is fraught with difficulty, and even if a truce could be imposed, it would be unstable and violence would eventually erupt. A cognitive and evolutionary account offers a less pessimistic view. Individuals do not conceive of sacred lands in the same way that they conceive of sacred space, such as cemeteries or houses of worship, or sacred objects, such as holy water or prayer beads. Unlike sacred space and objects, whose boundaries are clearly defined, conceptions of sacred land are typically abstract and may bear little resemblance to the contested physical land. While abstract notions of sacred land are indivisible and must remain intact, the physical land is not indivisible, and therefore there is often greater room for negotiation of sacred lands than is generally appreciated.

  7. Välitööd rahvuskaaslaste juures Krasnojarski krais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Korb

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 2008, Estonian folklorists Anu Korb, Astrid Tuisk, Andreas Kalkun, and Tiit Sibul took part in the fieldwork expedition carried out among Estonians living in the villages of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. The team of folklorists collected information about the establishment of the villages, the local song tradition, folk calendar rituals, family holidays, popular methods of treatment in folk medicine, and folk tunes. Next to the lore material collected on previous expeditions in Siberia, the team recorded material about the everyday life of the people: working on collective and state-owned farms, coping in present-day Russia, residential houses and their interior, traditional food, etc. The photographs taken and videos recorded inform about the cemetery tradition in the village, local handicraft, interiors of houses, etc.The 2008 fieldwork expedition resulted in about 75 hours of audio-recorded material, 30 hours of video-recorded material, over 2,000 photographs and the fieldwork diaries of members of the expedition team.

  8. Ámbar en la Meseta Oriental durante el Bronce Final: yacimientos locales e importaciones bálticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Cerdeño, M.ª

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the analysis done with two amber beads coming of the cemetery of Herrería II (Molina de Aragón, Guadalajara; it is dated in Late Bronze Age, preceding the Celtiberian period. The Baltic origin of the raw material has been confirmed by the analysis and this origin provides the evidence that continental cultural influences arrived to the meseta during mentioned period.

    En el presente trabajo se dan a conocer los resultados de los análisis de espectroscopía infrarroja realizados a dos cuentas de ámbar procedentes de la fase II de la necrópolis de Herrería (Molina de Aragón, Guadalajara, fechada a finales del Bronce Final y precedente inmediato de la primera fase celtibérica de dicho cementerio. Los resultados confirman la procedencia báltica de esta materia prima. Ello la convierte en una nueva evidencia +de la llegada de elementos continentales hasta la Meseta oriental, donde dicho substrato cultural desempeñó un papel importante en la gestación de los posteriores pueblos prerromanos.

  9. Pollution par les nitrates des eaux souterraines du bassin d'Essaouira (Maroc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laftouhi, Nour-Eddine; Vanclooster, Marnik; Jalal, Mohammed; Witam, Omar; Aboufirassi, Mohamed; Bahir, Mohamed; Persoons, Étienne

    2003-03-01

    The Essaouira Basin (Morocco) contains a multi-layered aquifer situated in fractured and karstic materials from the Middle and Upper Cretaceous (the Cenomanian, Turonian and Senonian). Water percolates through the limestone and dolomite formations of the Turonian stage either through the marls and calcareous marls of the Cenomanian or through the calcareous marly materials of the Senonian. The aquifer system may be interconnected since the marl layer separating the Turonian, Cenomanian and Senonian aquifers is thin or intensively fractured. In that case, the water is transported through a network of fractures and stratification joints. This paper describes the extent of the nitrate pollution in the area and its origin. Most of the wells and drillholes located in the Kourimat perimeter are contaminated by nitrates with some concentrations over 400 mg l-1. Nitrate contamination is also observed in the surface water of the Qsob River, which constitutes the natural outlet of the multi-layered complex aquifer system. In this area, agriculture is more developed than in the rest of the Essaouira Basin. Diffuse pollution of the karstic groundwater body by agricultural fertiliser residues may therefore partially explain the observed nitrate pollution. However, point pollution around the wells, springs and drillholes from human wastewater, livestock faeces and the mineralisation of organic debris close to the Muslim cemeteries cannot be excluded.

  10. Identification of milk component in ancient food residue by proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proteomic approaches based on mass spectrometry have been recently used in archaeological and art researches, generating promising results for protein identification. Little information is known about eastward spread and eastern limits of prehistoric milking in eastern Eurasia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this paper, an ancient visible food remain from Subeixi Cemeteries (cal. 500 to 300 years BC of the Turpan Basin in Xinjiang, China, preliminarily determined containing 0.432 mg/kg cattle casein with ELISA, was analyzed by using an improved method based on liquid chromatography (LC coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS to further identify protein origin. The specific sequence of bovine casein and the homology sequence of goat/sheep casein were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The existence of milk component in ancient food implies goat/sheep and cattle milking in ancient Subeixi region, the furthest eastern location of prehistoric milking in the Old World up to date. It is envisioned that this work provides a new approach for ancient residue analysis and other archaeometry field.

  11. Alteration of the ethnic diversity and ethnic segregation index in Latvia during the first and second independence periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Németh

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the Baltic area is traditionally one of the most diverse regions of Europe in terms of ethnic concerns; we can observe in many settlements that four or even five religions have their own churches, cemeteries and at least as many ethnic groups are having their schools etc. Regarding geography literature, no generally accepted method has been applied yet to measure the population’s diversity and spatial segregation; in most cases only the number and ratio of ethnic groups were described. This research paper proposes a different approach: the adaptation of the so-called Simpson’s Diversity Index, based on probability theory and originally used by ecologists to measure biodiversity, to human geography. The study seeks the answers to: where, when, why and how has the Ethnic Diversity and Ethnic Segregation Index changed in Latvia during the first and second independence periods? What kind of spatial patterns are possible to observe on the basis of the transformation? The enormous data is processed by modern GIS software products and projected on thematic maps.

  12. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th-12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe. PMID:26963389

  13. Pemesinan Laju Tinggi dan Pemesinan Kering Menggunakan Pahat Karbida pada Bahan Aluminium 6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Umroh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of high speed machining and dry machining use for the best cutting conditions on the roughness aluminum 6061 material surface using a carbide tool. Collection machining test data is performed 4 times trial with 3 main variable is the rate of cutting (V, Ingestion rate (f and depth of cut (a at three levels of scale. The best surface roughness conditions is determined by the rate of the cemetery, where the rate of feeding is recommended at f = 0.12 mm/rev or < 0:17 mm/rev. Effect of cutting force is inversely proportional to the value of rate of cuts. At the greater of the cutting force so the surface roughness also getting smaller. Depth of cut and rate cuts also affects on the surface roughness but not in any condition determined. At the lowest state with V = 1000 m/min f = 0:12 mm/rev and a = 1 mm, surface defects (surface defect. Possibly, this is caused by the vibration of the tool due to lack of dynamic balance in the cutting process.

  14. Excavation on the Halazhuang Site in Baodi District, Tianjin City%天津市宝坻区哈喇庄遗址的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅鹏云; 陈雍; 纪列敏; 张俊生; 刘建; 邸明

    2005-01-01

    In May to July 1997, the former Archaeological Department of Tianjin Municipal Museum of History excavated on a site at Halazhuang Village of Huogezhuang Township in Baodi District, Tianjing City. Within the area of above 170,000 sq m the site occupies, they revealed a house-foundation, 61 ash-pits, six ash-trenches and four tombs, and brought to light mainly pottery and porcelain. The pottery is largely of gray clay ware and belongs chiefly to the jar, basin, urn and fu cauldron types. The porcelain is principally white ware and includes dishes, bowls, and a small number of black-glazed articles. Judging from the unearthed objects, the site contains cultural deposits roughly of the late Liao, early Jin, and late Jin to early Yuan periods, with those of the latter two phases as the main remains. It can be preliminarily inferred that the site was a village from the late Liao to the early Yuan, which was abandoned and became a cemetery in the early Ming period.

  15. Identification of the nitrate contamination sources of the Brusselian sands groundwater body (Belgium) using a dual-isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Samuel; Sebilo, Mathieu; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2011-09-01

    Isotopic fingerprinting is an advanced technique allowing the classification of the nitrate source pollution of groundwater, but needs further development and validation. In this study, we performed measurements of natural stable isotopic composition of nitrate ((15)N and (18)O) in the groundwater body of the Brussels sands (Belgium) and studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the isotope signature of this aquifer. Potential nitrogen sources sampled in the region had isotopic signatures that fell within the corresponding typical ranges found in the literature. For a few monitoring stations, the isotopic data strongly suggest that the sources of nitrate are from mineral fertiliser origin, as used in agriculture and golf courses. Other stations suggest that manure leaching from unprotected stockpiles in farms, domestic gardening practices, septic tanks and probably cemeteries contribute to the nitrate pollution of this groundwater body. For most monitoring stations, nitrate originates from a mixing of several nitrogen sources. The isotopic signature of the groundwater body was poorly structured in space, but exhibited a clear temporal structure. This temporal structure could be explained by groundwater recharge dynamics and cycling process of nitrogen in the soil-nitrogen pool.

  16. Sentiment in New York City: A High Resolution Spatial and Temporal View

    CERN Document Server

    Bertrand, Karla Z; Virdee, Kawandeep; Gros, Andreas; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-01-01

    Measuring public sentiment is a key task for researchers and policymakers alike. The explosion of available social media data allows for a more time-sensitive and geographically specific analysis than ever before. In this paper we analyze data from the micro-blogging site Twitter and generate a sentiment map of New York City. We develop a classifier specifically tuned for 140-character Twitter messages, or tweets, using key words, phrases and emoticons to determine the mood of each tweet. This method, combined with geotagging provided by users, enables us to gauge public sentiment on extremely fine-grained spatial and temporal scales. We find that public mood is generally highest in public parks and lowest at transportation hubs, and locate other areas of strong sentiment such as cemeteries, medical centers, a jail, and a sewage facility. Sentiment progressively improves with proximity to Times Square. Periodic patterns of sentiment fluctuate on both a daily and a weekly scale: more positive tweets are posted...

  17. William Horner Andrews (1887–1953 – First Professor of Physiology at Onderstepoort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Verwoerd

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available WHAndrews qualified as a veterinarian in London in 1908 and was recruited soon after, in 1909, by Sir Arnold Theiler to join the staff of the newly established veterinary laboratory at Onderstepoort. After initial studies on the treatment of trypanosomosis and on snake venoms he was deployed by Theiler in 1911 to start research on lamsiekte (botulismat a field station on the farm Kaffraria near Christiana, where he met and married his wife Doris. After a stint as Captain in the SA Veterinary Corps during World War I he succeeded D T Mitchell as head of the Allerton Laboratory in 1918, where he excelled in research on toxic plants, inter alia identifying Matricaria nigellaefolia as the cause of staggers in cattle.Whenthe Faculty ofVeterinary Science was established in 1920 he was appointed as the first Professor of Physiology. After the graduation of the first class in 1924, and due to health problems, he returned to the UK, first to the Royal Veterinary College and then to the Weybridge Veterinary Laboratories of which he became Director in 1927.After his retirement in 1947 he returned to South Africa as a guest worker at Onderstepoort where he again became involved in teaching physiologywhenProf. Quin unexpectedly died in 1950. Andrews died in Pretoria in 1953 and was buried in the Rebecca Street Cemetery.

  18. Incidence of Infestation and Larval Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) on White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Chinese Fringetree (Chionanthus retusus), and Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M

    2015-10-01

    We compared the incidence of infestation by emerald ash borer (EAB) and lilac borer on white fringetree to that of its Asian congener, Chinese fringetree, Chionanthus retusus, and a North American relative, devilwood, Osmanthus americanus. We also conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the suitability of these hosts for EAB larvae. At Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 of 28 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB. Most of the white fringetrees had lilac borer infestation, and most of the trees infested by EAB also had lilac borer infestation. None of the 11 Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either EAB or lilac borer. Each of the five devilwood individuals examined was infested by lilac borer, but not EAB. At The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois, 7 of 16 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB, while none of the seven Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either insect. A 40-d bioassay confirmed that white fringetree was an acceptable host, producing fourth-instar larvae that were smaller than those produced on a highly susceptible cultivar of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. No larvae survived on Chinese fringetree, and neonates were largely incapable of feeding on it. Two larvae survived on devilwood, reaching the second instar and excavating extensive galleries. Future work should be aimed at biotic and abiotic factors influencing the susceptibility of white fringetree, as well as further examination of close relatives for their vulnerability to EAB. PMID:26314014

  19. Excavation of the Settlement of Early Yangshao Culture on the Dadiwan Site in Qin'an County, Gansu%甘肃秦安县大地湾遗址仰韶文化早期聚落发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘肃省文物考古研究所

    2003-01-01

    The remains of Stage I of early Yangshao culture discovered on the Dadiwan site include 37 house-foundations, 12 fireplaces, 22 ash-pits, 20 tombs, one kiln-site and one moat (six sections), which combine to show a prehistoric settlement rather clear an layout. The main part of the settlement is built on the second terrace by the river, surrounded with a moat In the center, a little to the west, there is a square nearly one thousand sq m in area, with a common cemetery within it. On the western side of the square lies a large-sized house-foundation, round which and round the square mediumand small-sized house-foundations are spread like a folding fan. The whole settlement displays a strong cohesion. The present paper reports mainly the moat G100, large-sized house-foundation F229, medium-sized F310 and F360, small-sized F5, adult tombs M222 and M1 and urn-burial M213. Being the first discovered early Yangshao settlement in the Gansu region, this is again a noteworthy achievement following the revelation of the Banpo, Jiangzhai and Beishouling sites. It provides valuable material for studying the social organization of prehistoric China and the evolution of then settlements.

  20. Characterization of soils containing adipocere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, S; Schneckenberger, K; Graw, M

    2004-11-01

    The formation of adipocere (commonly known as grave wax), a spontaneous inhibition of postmortem changes, has been extensively analyzed in forensic science. However, soils in which adipocere formation occurs have never been described in detail. Therefore, this study is intended as a first step in the characterization of soils containing adipocere. Two grave soils (Gleyic Anthrosols) that prevent the timely reuse of graves due to the occurrence of adipocere and a control soil (Gleyic Luvisol) were selected from a cemetery in the Central Black Forest (Southwest Germany). Descriptions of soil morphology and a wide assay of physical, chemical, and microbiologic soil characteristics were accomplished. In contrast to the control soil, the grave soils were characterized by lower bulk density and pH. The degradation of the soil structure caused by digging led to a higher water table and the expansion of the reducing conditions in the graves where the prevalent absence of oxygen in range of the coffins inhibited decomposition processes. Although the formation of adipocere led to the conservation of the buried corpses, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and cadavarine leaching from the graves was observed. Microbial biomass and microbial activity were higher in the control soil and hence reflected the inert character of adipocere. The study results clearly show the need for additional approaches in forensic, pedologic, and microbiologic research. PMID:15499507

  1. Estimation of seismic return periods in the Laguna Verde nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of seismic risk in the area of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant (PNLV) and its surroundings, one carries out estimating the different return periods and the occurrence probability in different intervals of time (5, 75, 100, 125, 150 years starting from the distribution of first type of Gumbel (G1) of extreme values (Burton, 1986), the value that was used to evaluate the useful life of the PNLV was of 50 years, the other periods will be occupy to evaluate 'temporal' nuclear cemeteries, that is to say for diminish the radioactive activity of the fuel assemblies already burned in the reactor pool or in a near place to the place. The seismic data that were used for the analysis were of the seismic catalog that it was elaborated from (1920-1982), around the place whose seismic half magnitude was of 5 grades Richter and a depth 65 km, these earthquakes are classified as shallow earthquakes, which are located in the continental plaque of North-America, these they are induced by the efforts of push of the plaque of Cocos, existing 36% of intermediate and 2 of deep earthquakes. (Author)

  2. Recent extreme rainfall-induced landslides and government countermeasures in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Gon; Hencher, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    During 2011 a large number of landslides occurred in South Korea as a result of heavy rainfall (160~300mm/day) which fell between 19 June and 27 July. Fifty eight people were killed and 200 injured at 11 locations. Almost 80% of the fatal landslides can be attributed at least in part to human activities such as an army camp, pedestrian road, forest road, cemetery, tomb, irrigation for vegetable garden and fruit farm. This paper addresses the anthropogenic influences on recent landslides in Korea. In addition, this paper discusses the Korean government countermeasures related to landslides. Restoration works tends to start immediately without design reports and without investigating the causes of landslides. Restoration works tend to comprise simple erosion control such as hard-covering to failure surfaces and the provision of check dams. These measures are implemented without any input from specialist geotechnical engineers. Persons injured or subject to economic loss as a result of landslides have often taken legal action against the Korean government. The most usual result is that experts appointed by the courts side with Government and simply conclude that the disasters are the natural consequence of heavy rainfall. As a result claimants have generally lost their cases and received no compensation. Furthermore, because of the lack of proper investigations there are no lessons learned from past landslides and no department has been established within the Korean government, tasked with reducing landslide risk.

  3. Evaluation of the efficacy of spatiotemporal Pb isoscapes for provenancing of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Austin T; Regan, Laura A; Lundstrom, Craig C; Bower, Nathan W

    2016-04-01

    Geospatially distributed isotopes (isoscapes) from biogeochemically fractionated processes have been applied in many forensic investigations, such as authentication of food and sourcing of drugs. Provenancing of human remains using isotopes has been hindered by a lack of appropriate isoscapes, by changes in these isoscapes over time, and by various homogenization processes. In this study we create spatiotemporal isoscapes for anthropogenic lead (Pb) for the contiguous United States and Europe using literature data from dated sediments, soils and biological tissues. We compare (206)Pb/(207)Pb isoscapes with isoscapes of δ(13)C, δ(18)O and (87)Sr/(86)Sr to determine their relative efficacy for the forensic identification of human remains. We do this comparison using third molar enamel data from 22 United States Air Force Academy cadets with known life trajectories born between 1983 and 1985. We use these spatiotemporal isoscapes with osteologic analyses, hospital records and isotopic analyses of tooth enamel carbonate from permanent teeth to help identify 32 individuals from unmarked graves found in a forgotten 19th century mental asylum cemetery. PMID:26914828

  4. Time of travel of solutes in the Vermilion River, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandro, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Dye-tracer studies were made in November 1978 and in June 1979 to define streamflow patterns in the Vermilion River. For the November 1978 study the tracer was injected at two locations, Surrey Street in Lafayette and about 7 miles downstream at State Highway 3073; the discharge at Surrey Street at the time of injection was 218 cubic feet per second. The two dye clouds merged at Broussard Cemetery, about 12.2 miles downstream from Surrey Street, after an elapsed time of about 270 hours. After 438 hours the dye cloud extended form the Abbeville bridge (Louisiana Highway 14 Bypass) upstream about 14.5 miles. In June 1979, a tracer was injected into the river at Surrey Street at Lafayette; the discharge at Surrey Street at the time of injection was 161 cubic feet per second. Forty-two hours after injection the leading edge of the tracer was located at the Milton pumping plant, 14 miles downstream from the injection site. The average pumping rate of the plant during the study was 440 cubic feet per second. Ninety hours after injection, no indication of the tracer was found in the river, but the tracer was found in a rice-irrigation cannal at State Highway 14, about 10 miles west of Abbeville. (USGS)

  5. Evaluation of elemental status of ancient human bone samples from Northeastern Hungary dated to the 10th century AD by XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janos, I., E-mail: janosi2@zeus.nyf.hu [Agricultural and Molecular Research Institute, College of Nyiregyhaza, H-4400 Nyiregyhaza (Hungary); Szathmary, L. [Department of Evolutionary Zoology and Human Biology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen H-4010 (Hungary); Nadas, E. [Agricultural and Molecular Research Institute, College of Nyiregyhaza, H-4400 Nyiregyhaza (Hungary); Beni, A. [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Nyiregyhaza, H-4400 Nyiregyhaza (Hungary); Dinya, Z.; Mathe, E. [Agricultural and Molecular Research Institute, College of Nyiregyhaza, H-4400 Nyiregyhaza (Hungary)

    2011-11-01

    The present study is a multielemental analysis of bone samples belonging to skeletal individuals originating from two contemporaneous (10th century AD) cemeteries (Tiszavasvari Nagy-Gyeparos and Nagycserkesz-Nadasibokor sites) in Northeastern Hungary, using the XRF analytical technique. Emitted X-rays were detected in order to determine the elemental composition of bones and to appreciate the possible influence of the burial environment on the elemental content of the human skeletal remains. Lumbar vertebral bodies were used for analysis. Applying the ED(P)XRF technique concentration of the following elements were determined: P, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br and Sr. The results indicated post mortem mineral exchange between the burial environment (soil) and bones (e.g. the enhanced levels of Fe and Mn) and referred to diagenetic alteration processes during burials. However, other elements such as Zn, Sr and Br seemed to be accumulated during the past life. On the basis of statistical analysis, clear separation could not be observed between the two excavation sites in their bone elemental concentrations which denoted similar diagenetic influences, environmental conditions. The enhanced levels of Sr might be connected with the past dietary habits, especially consumption of plant food.

  6. The use of the archaeological record in the research of the celtiberian culture: the archaeological site of El Ceremeño (Guadalajara, Spain

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    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge on Celtiberian Culture have increased over the past few years. This was due to the new approaches as well as to the finding of new sites which are yielding very important archaeological information, that was lacking till recently. Among these new sites El Ceremeño, and its associated cemetery, have become one of the most significant references to this culture. In the present work, the need to analyze in depth the radiocarbon dates obtained at both sites taking into account the general context of the Celtiberian Culture in the Meseta is stressed in order to avoid biases in their interpretation.

    Los estudios sobre la cultura celtibérica han avanzado notablemente en los últimos años debido tanto a nuevos planteamientos, como al hallazgo de nuevos enclaves que están proporcionando importante información arqueológica, hasta hace poco tiempo deficitaria. Entre ellos, el castro de El Ceremeño y su necrópolis asociada se han convertido en una de las referencias más significativas de esta cultura. En el presente trabajo se subraya la necesidad de analizar en profundidad, dentro del marco más general de la cultura celtibérica meseteña, los datos y fechas radiocarbónicas allí obtenidas para evitar desenfoques y sesgos en su interpretación.

  7. The preliminary study on the alluvial stratigraphy of Peinan archaeological site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiaochin; Chen, Wenshan; Yeh, Changkeng

    2015-04-01

    Many of the activities of prehistoric people who lived in Taiwan were concentrated around river terrace environments and seldom in alluvial environments which are resulting from the rapid tectonic uplift and high erosion rate of the late Cenozoic mountain belt. However, the Peinan archaeological site, one of the most important Neolithic sites in Taiwan because of the great amount of slate slab coffins and nephrite artifacts unearthed, is located at the bottom of Peinan Hill which is formed by the activity of Lichi and Luyeh Faults. According to the radioactive carbon dating results, the Peinan alluvial fan used as cemetery was lasted over 3,700 years (5700-2000 yr BP) but the related cultural formation was only lasted 400 years (3500-3100 yr BP). What have happened to the prehistoric people? As the stratigraphic record allows archaeologists to ascertain the effects of geological processes on the preservation of the archaeological record, determining which parts of the archaeological records are absent, which have potentially been preserved, and how fragmentary are the preserved portions of the records. The limitations that geologic processes impose on the archaeological record must be recognized and understood before meaningful interpretations of prehistory can be made. Therefore, the reconstruction of the landscape and stratigraphic records in archaeological site not only provides the paleo-environmental context but also helps to explain changes that occurred to human cultures over time.

  8. [Health and social conditions in Brod na Savi during World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrić-Balen, Marica; Balen, Ivica

    2015-11-01

    During World War I, social and health conditions were difficult in Brod na Savi, as it stationed a large number of troops, and the military hospital was crowded with patients. With so many able-bodied men and breadwinners mobilised, the town's economy verged on the brink of poverty, but people managed to keep starvation at bay. The most common diseases among civilians were tuberculosis, malaria, intestinal infectious diseases, diphtheria, and venereal diseases, and in 1915 cholera broke out that lasted five months. At the end of 1918 "Spanish flu" also hit the town. The number of wounded and sick soldiers occasionally surpassed the hospital's capacity, so they had to be stationed at the local school facilities for a while. Over two thousand people died in the military hospital, which suggests that the total number of patients who went through the hospital had to be very large. Unfortunately, there are no records to show the hospital's mortality rate or disease prevalence. We are currently trying to establish the demographics of the 2000 dead buried at the local cemetery during WWI using the death records we have.

  9. The analysis of a World War I U.S. service member's dental remains recovered in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Calvin Y

    2014-11-01

    In October 2009, the grave of an unknown World War I (WWI) U.S. service member was exhumed in Rembercourt-Sur-Mad Village, in the Lorraine Region of France. The skeletal remains and material evidence were accessioned into the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command's (JPAC) Central Identification Laboratory (CIL). The personnel records for the associated casualty were requested, received, and reviewed. A dental profile was present among the service member's personal information. There were multiple points of concordance between the dental records of the associated casualty, and the recovered dental remains to include eight restored teeth, 15 unrestored teeth, and three antemortem missing teeth. Distinctive restorations which compared favorably included a porcelain crown and multiple gold foil fillings. All lines of evidence (historical, material evidence/personal effects, anthropological, and dental) and the circumstances of loss compared positively with the associated casualty. On April 1, 2010, the previously unaccounted-for U.S. service member was positively identified and on June 23, 2010, was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery.

  10. ”Tusinder af vingeskudte Trækfugle”. Soldatergrave og dansk-franske erindringssteder 1915-1925 ca.

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    Ning de Coninck-Smith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of Wing-Shot Migratory Birds. Soldier Graves and Danish-French Places of Remembrance Approx. 1915-1925During the months following the end of the First World War in November 1918, some 100,000 prisoners of war passed through Denmark on their way home from the camps on the Eastern Front. Some did not make it all the way, but died from exhaustion and the Spanish flu during their stay in Denmark. The present article deals with the part that these dead soldiers came to play in the formation of a remembrance culture in a country which had not itself taken part in the war. More specifically, it deals with the monuments which a small group of nationally-conservative men and women with ties to the armed forces and the social elite erected between 1919 and 1925 in remembrance of the dead French soldiers. To their minds, France had been the sole serious ally in the struggle for the return of North Schleswig to Denmark. For that reason, they were also behind two monuments in France to commemorate the fallen Danish-minded Schleswigers and the fallen Danes of the French Foreign Legion. Their national-conservative engagementand criticism of the policy of neutrality pursued during the war by the Danish government largely determined the creation and the form of the cemeteries.

  11. Yoginī e Streghe: luoghi isolati, animali selvatici, figure femminili di confine

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    Elisabetta Cangelosi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the folklore some female figures are related to border situations. Women, less relevant in the social and cultural context, can take a relevant role in the traditional, mythic and religious imagery. These figures are strictly linked to irrational and mystery. The analysis compares a group of tantric semi-deities, called Yogini, with witches: they are both confined in a border condition under the religious and social point of view since they are considered dangerous as well as respectful; they fly (sometimes after a metamorphosis in wild and dangerous birds like, they dance in circle, they turn into terrestrial animals (like snakes and toads they prefer isolated places and trees. They can live close to cemeteries but they can also be attracted by places where new born children are, in a sort of relation with both birth and death, the limits of human life. Following a comparison between these two groups that are very far away one from the other some interesting aspects appear: a major characteristic is their ambiguity. They are positive and negative at the same time, they are dangerous but attractive (being usually beautiful and sensual and even dangerous because so attractive. They are part of a wild  world which clash with a tidy and urbanized world: the first one is inhabited by demons which are not included in the official religious and cultural dimension; in the second one, which considers Yogini and witches as dangerous  entities, a rational and male-influenced approach prevails.

  12. Memorial service: A means of communication with the dead

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    Ivanović-Barišić Milina M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A specific relationship toward the dead characterizes the traditional Serbian culture; this cult exists even today, in somewhat changed form. A death is always followed by the appropriate, traditional, ritual obligations that served to regulate behavior of a family, or even wider community members that has lost one of its members. The relationship with the dead does not cease after the funeral, but it continues to be maintained during general holidays dedicated to the dead-memorial service. These are the days dedicated to all dead, and when offerings were made especially for the deceased. The memorial services take place in particular days of the year: most often on Saturdays, on Saturdays before another holiday, the Spirits, and on Saturdays before the holiday Mitrovdan; memorial services are also connected with some other holidays during the year. In addition to the general memorial service dedicated to all dead, there are so-called special memorial services, which take place only in special occasions (on holidays like Petrovdan, Saint Ilija, Velika Gospojina, Trojice and more. Many different rituals performed during memorial services, as well as ritual objects used should provide the deceased with a safe residence in their new environment. The most important rituals that enabled the communication with the dead include: preparing and sharing food and drinks, visits to a cemetery, lighting candles, incense of graves, vine spilling, decoration with flowers and basilica. The most important ritual objects are: graves, food, drinks, candles, incense, vine, flowers and basilica.

  13. Mountains, Monuments, and other Matter: Environmental Affects at Manzanar

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    Ladino, Jennifer K.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the natural landscapes and built structures at the Manzanar National Historic Site, the first of ten incarceration camps to open in 1941 and a temporary home for over 11,000 Japanese Americans. Using former incarceree Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston’s writing as a touchstone, my essay foregrounds the environmental features of the (relocation: the extreme desert weather, the mountain vistas, the incarceree-created rock gardens, the reconstructed barracks, guard tower, and barbed wire fence, and the cemetery/monument. I bring together concepts from ecocriticism and from affect theory—particularly Ben Anderson’s “affective atmospheres,” Sianne Ngai’s “tone,” and Sara Ahmed’s characterization of affect as “sticky”—and develop the notion of affective agency to describe the impacts generated by environments and objects at this national memory site. I assess how the visual and written rhetoric at the site addresses what I call an implied tourist, and I show how powerful emotions of shame, anger, grief, and compassion—and sometimes, mixed, even contradictory, affects—are not only represented in visual and written rhetoric but are also, in a sense, communicated by the environment itself. More broadly, I suggest that ecocritical theory brings a useful lens to discussions of public memory, and that affect theory helps account for the less tangible, visceral, experiences visitors have at Manzanar and other fraught historical sites, as well as within our everyday environments.

  14. Archaeological Investigations at the Upper Chapel, Norfolk Street, Sheffield, UK

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    Katherine Baker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheffield, in the north of England, grew rapidly in the 19th century and gained an international reputation for its cutlery, tableware, and steel products. The material legacy of this age of industrialisation is extensive, and archaeological work in the modern city over the last 20 years has, for the most part, focused on the above and below ground industrial archaeology relating to metals trades' production sites spanning the 19th and 20th centuries. This article describes recent archaeological work around the Upper Chapel, a Unitarian Meeting House in the city centre where archaeological work recovered a possible buried medieval soil deposit, which contained an assemblage of medieval pottery dating from the 12th to 15th centuries. The presence of waster sherds and fragments of kiln furniture within this assemblage suggests that pottery production may have taken place on or near the site, making this the first putative evidence for pottery production in medieval Sheffield. The archaeological investigations also recovered four human burials from the 18th- to 19th-century burial ground associated with the Upper Chapel. The Upper Chapel burial ground differs from other recently excavated cemeteries in Sheffield as it potentially contained graves of high-status individuals, with at least a proportion of the skeletons and coffins well-preserved owing to waterlogged ground conditions. Detailed studies of the human remains, coffins, and incorporated material, including brass shroud pins are also discussed.

  15. Potential economic impact of introduction and spread of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutrich, J.J.; VanGelder, E.; Loope, L.

    2007-01-01

    Globally, many invasive alien species have caused extensive ecological and economic damage from either accidental or intentional introduction. The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has created billions of dollars in costs annually, spreading as an invasive species across the southern United States. In 1998, the red imported fire ant spread into California creating a highly probable future introduction via shipped products to Hawaii. This paper presents the estimation of potential economic impacts of the red imported fire ant (RIFA) to the state of Hawaii. Evaluation of impacts focuses on the economic sectors of (1) households, (2) agriculture (cattle and crop production), (3) infrastructure (cemeteries, churches, cities, electrical, telephone, and cable services, highways, hospitals and schools), (4) recreation, tourism and business (hotels/resort areas, golf courses, commercial businesses and tourists), and (5) government expenditures (with minimal intervention). The full annual economic costs of the red imported fire ant to Hawaii are estimated (in US$ 2006) to be $211 million/year, comprised of $77 million in damages and expenditures and $134 million in foregone outdoor opportunities to households and tourists. The present value of the projected costs of RIFA over a 20-year period after introduction total $2.5 billion. RIFA invasions across the globe indicate that economic cost-effective action in Hawaii entails implementation of prevention, early detection and rapid response treatment programs for RIFA. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Are the ‘new’ AMS Varna dates older?

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    Tanya Dzhanfezova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates on the AMS dating results obtained for the Chalcolithic cemetery near Varna, located on the western Black Sea coast in northeastern Bulgaria. The focus here is not on the comparison between absolute dates acquired for various sites from the middle and late Chalcolithic period in the region. It is rather on the examination of the main approaches towards suggested chronological frameworks. Divided into three parts, the text reviews regional methods for proceeding conventional radiocarbon dates (II A and such, related to the later AMS measurement of bone collagen (II B. Both approaches are considered as deserving more attention with regard to the problematic aspects that may affect the acquisition of reliable results. The 19 new AMS Varna dates are found important for chronological revisions. However, at this stage they alone are not considered sufficient for inarguable modifications of the schemes (III. Along with identification of major factors that should be taken into account when dealing with the chronological debates in the specified region, strategies for solving some of the issues are also suggested.

  17. Un vaso de alabastro procedente de Adra conservado en el Museo de Almería

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    García Alfonso, Eduardo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A previously unpublished alabaster jar from Adra, a coastal site some 50 km to the west of Almería is yet another example of a numerous class of Egyptian containers of the 8th-7th centuries BC discovered on the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. A casual find, the funerary character of this piece suggests that there may have been a cemetery of the Early Phoenician Period in the immediate neighbourhood of the colonial settlement of Abdera.Se estudia un vaso de alabastro inédito procedente de la localidad almeriense de Adra, pieza que se añade a la ya numerosa serie de recipientes de origen egipcio conocida en las costas meridionales de la Península durante los siglos VIII-VII a.C. El principal interés de este hallazgo casual radica en su carácter funerario, siendo indicio de una posible necrópolis de época fenicia arcaica en las inmediaciones del asentamiento colonial de Abdera.

  18. Deux archers assyriens à Mari (Syrie. Esquisse sur l’introduction du fer au Proche-Orient ancien

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    Montero Fenollós, Juan Luis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study about two graves from the Middle Assyrian cemetery in Mari (Syria. The presence of iron arrowheads between the funeral furniture has served to make an approach to the process of introduction of this new metal in the Near East in the Late Bronze Age. The written and archaeological documentation demonstrates that the iron was considered as a precious metal, used by Assyrian elites to show its social position.

    Este artículo es un estudio sobre dos tumbas del cementerio medio-asirio de Mari (Siria. La presencia de puntas de flecha de hierro entre el ajuar funerario ha servido para realizar una aproximación al proceso de introducción de este nuevo metal en el Próximo Oriente durante el Bronce Reciente. Tanto la documentación escrita como la arqueológica demuestran que el hierro era considerado como un metal precioso y, como tal, usado por las élites asirias para mostrar su posición social.

  19. Death perception discourse as viewed by the family: a photoetnographic approach Discursos da percepção da morte na visão dos familiares: uma abordagem fotoetnográfica

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    Rogério Ferreira Lahan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at analyzing the perspectives of the death and dying as expressed by relatives when searching for the simbology to be present in the grave. The research has a qualitative photoethnographic approach. The bibliography allowed for the basis to collect the narratives from the families of people deceased and buried in Umuarama (PR City Cemetery. The choice of this burial place considered the variety of the graves and the previous contact with relatives. Este trabalho analisa a perspectiva da morte e do morrer na visão de familiares ao escolher a simbologia presente no túmulo. A pesquisa é de abordagem qualitativa, do tipo fotoetnográfica. A bibliografia propiciou a fundamentação para coletar as narrativas das famílias de pessoas falecidas e sepultadas no Cemitério Municipal de Umuarama (PR. A escolha do cemitério considerou a variedade de túmulos e o pré-contato com alguns familiares das pessoas sepultadas.

  20. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP.

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    Hui Shen

    Full Text Available Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji'erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument, bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling, rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment.

  1. Excavation of the Zhu Family Graveyard of the Former Qin Period in Wenlin Neighborhood of Xianyang City, Shaanxi%陕西咸阳市文林小区前秦朱氏家族墓的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    咸阳市文物考古研究所

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the Xianyang Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out excavation in an ancient cemetery within Wenlin Neighborhood, and revealed there 114 tombs, including 9 burials of the Former Qin period. These Former Qin graves are the same in structure, each consisting of a tomb passage, a corridor and a chamber. The corpses are buried in wooden coffins. Their funeral objects consist of pottery, bronzes, silver ware, iron artifacts, etc., numbering 167. The pottery includes male and female tomb-figurines, models of ox carts, horses, pigs, dogs, chickens, cooking stoves, wells, mills, granaries and treadle-operated tilt hammers for hulling rice, jars, bowls, small pots and discs. The bronzes embrace basins, bowls, mirrors, bracelets, hairpins, finger-rings, small bells, dui butt-end pieces and crossbows. The iron artifacts belong to the mirror, pick and scissors, and the silver ware includes hairpins, finger-rings and bracelets. In addition, there are gold hairpins, jade pieces, clay chickens, wuzhu and yanhuan coins, and the dated brick epitaphs coming from four tombs. Definite in date, these graves provide important material for studying the tomb shape and burial custom of the Former Qin period and the history of the Sixteen Kingdoms in the Guanzhong region. Moreover, they have great value to establishing the chronological sequence of burials in this region during the Han, Wei and Sixteen Kingdoms periods.

  2. Vulnerability and hydrogeologic risk of SAG in the outcroupping zone of Rivera Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studied area belongs to the outcroupping zone of the Guarani Aquifer in the Department of Rivera, Uruguay. It comprises an approximate area of 2900 Km2. The outcropping Guarani Aquifer (AGa) is formed by two sections, an upper one corresponding to the Rivera Unit (UR) and a lower one corresponding to the Tacuarembo Unit (UT), both with vertical hydraulic continuity. The Rivera Unit is entirely represented by the homonymous formation and it consists of medium to fine sandstones with a mean effective porosity of 14% and mean Transmissivity of 88 m2/dia. The Tacuarembo Unit is constituted by fine to very fine sandstone levels interbedded with pelitic sandstone and shales. This unit behaves like unconfined aquifer in the upper section, where it contains the phreatic layer and it passes to semi-confined as the depth increases. The effective porosity is approximatelly of 9% and mean T 24 m2/dia. Chemically, both units are classified as calcicbicarbonated and magnesic-bicarbonated. To determine the vulnerability, it was applied the GOD method yielding high vulnerability for levels lower than 10m and moderate for levels of water larger than 10m. From the study of risk the conclusions are: high risk of groundwater contamination due to the lack of sewage systems and to the rubbish dump leakage. The industrial activity, cemeteries and mining activity represents moderated risks in most of the cases

  3. Exhumation research concerning the victims of political repressions in 1945-1956 in Poland: A new direction in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szleszkowski, Lukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Konczewski, Paweł; Kawecki, Jerzy; Swiątek, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland), the bodies of 223 prisoners were exhumed, including the victims of political repressions and prosecutions in the period 1949-1954, during which people fighting for the independence of Poland were executed and buried in unidentified graves in various graveyards. It was the first exhumation conducted in Poland on such a large scale. The aim of the present publication is to describe the new direction in forensic medicine employed in these exhumations, which resulted from the new opportunities created by the opening of the state archives after the political transformation of 1989. The authors describe the difficulties they encountered during their exploration of prisoners' burial grounds. The graveyards included in the investigation bear the marks of an intentional policy of confusion and secret burial methods. First, significant disorder in the logical (based on time of death) sequence of burials was observed. This made identification difficult. A substantial time lapse between death and burial in each case, along with the unavailability of comparative data, limited the use of identification methods widely employed in forensic medicine. For this reason, initial analysis had to be based on observations and confirmations made by forensic medicine about the sequence of burials as compared to cemetery documentation. Situations such as this clearly call for the cooperation of historians, archaeologists, anthropologists and forensic pathologists. Political transformations in Eastern Europe in the 1990s gave rise to hopes of exchanging experiences in this type of research as conducted in other countries of the former Eastern Bloc.

  4. The Activities of the Committee for the Preservation of Military Traditions from Turda (THHB

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    Cech Vilmos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Military History of the Hungarian Ministry of Defence decided in 2000 to try to find the marked or unmarked graves of Hungarian soldiers killed in World War II. Joining this initiative, Jozsef Patakv founded the Committee for the Preservation of Military Traditions from Turda (THHB. Among other things, the aim of establishing the Committee was to discover the identity of the Hungarian soldiers that died in action in the fall of 1944 in Torda (in Romanian: Turda: in the followings, we will use the traditionally Hungarian name of the town: Torda and its surroundings, find the location where they were buried, and erect a worthy monument to their memory. A Hungarian Soldier Graveyard was created within the Central Hungarian Cemetery of Torda, which has since become a place of pilgrimage. In addition, more then fifty sites of Hungarian soldiers’ graves were discovered and in most of the cases properly marked since that time. In 2012, Jozsef Patakv was awarded the Hungarian Gold Cross by the Ministry of Defence for his untiring work to discover the places of burial and identify Hungarian soldiers that died in WWII, and for worthily keeping their memories alive.

  5. Self-reported fears: a comparison study of youths with and without an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, E; Cummins, R A; King, N J

    1996-06-01

    Normal fear plays an essential role in human development and experience, and much research attention has been devoted to its study in the general population. In contrast, the normal fears of youths with intellectual disabilities have largely been ignored. The present paper reports the normative fears of 187 youths with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. Data were also gathered from 372 youths of average intelligence for comparison purposes. All respondents were aged between 7 and 18 years. Fear was assessed using the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II (FSSC-II), an instrument which has been psychometrically validated in samples with and without disabilities. The youths with disabilities reported significantly higher levels of fearfulness and a greater range of fears than youths without disabilities. The content of their fears was also more likely to resemble those of younger children without disabilities. The fears that best discriminated between the two samples were those related to supernatural phenomena or animals. Included were fears of bees, lizards, ghosts or similar eerie things, and cemeteries. Nevertheless, there was considerable similarity between the two samples. For both samples, females reported a higher level of fearfulness and a greater range of fear than males, and fears of death and danger were endorsed as arousing the strongest fear for all respondents. The theoretical and applied implications of these results are discussed.

  6. Early medical skull surgery for treatment of post-traumatic osteomyelitis 5,000 years ago.

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    Pierpaolo Petrone

    Full Text Available Here we describe the findings of a unique example of the early techniques adopted in neurosurgery around 5000 years ago, consisting in a double well healed skull trephination associated with a post-cranial traumatic event occurring intra vitam to a young male from the Early Chalcolithic cemetery of Pontecagnano (South Italy, ca. 4,900 - 4,500 cal BP. Morphological, X-ray and 3D-CT scan skull-cap evaluation revealed that the main orifice was produced by scraping, obtained by clockwise rotary motion of a right-handed surgeon facing the patient, while the partial trephination was carried out by using a stone point as a drilling tool. In both cases, bone regrowth is indicative of the individual's prolonged postoperative survival and his near-complete recovery. The right femur shows a poorly healed mid-shaft fracture presumably induced by a high energy injury, and a resulting chronic osteomyelitis, affecting both femurs by hematogenous spread of the infection. Our observations on the visual and radiological features of skull and femur lesions, along with evidence on the timing of experimental bone regrowth vs. healing of lower limb fractures associated to long-term bone infections now suggest that this young man underwent a double skull trephination in order to alleviate his extremely painful condition induced by chronic osteomyelitis, which is thought to have been the cause of death.

  7. Oui, mais il faut parier: fidelidade e dúvida no Memorial de Aires

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    Pedro Meira Monteiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo investiga o papel desempenhado pelo Fidelio de Beethoven no Memorial de Aires de Machado de Assis. Nesse romance extraordinário, o conselheiro Aires evita condenar uma mulher que, entretanto, o seu enganoso diário terminará pondo sob suspeita. Na ópera, Leonora nada esconde, porque abaixo de sua máscara não há nada senão sua lealdade ao marido aprisionado. Machado de Assis, contudo, inicia sua trama num cemitério, onde o marido agora é morto. A importante questão que daí resta é: o que fazer se a fidelidade se refere a um objeto que, seja ele o amado, seja o referente literário, não existe mais?This article investigates the role played by Beethoven's Fidelio in Machado de Assis' Memorial de Aires. In this extraordinary novel, Counselor Aires avoids condemning a woman who, nevertheless, is put under suspicion by his treacherous diary. In the opera, Leonora hides nothing, because behind her mask there is nothing but loyalty to her imprisoned husband. Machado de Assis, however, begins his novel in a cemetery, where the beloved husband is buried. The main question that is left is: What to do if fidelity refers to an object, be it the beloved or a literary referent, that does not exist any longer?

  8. Population Densities of Birds Breeding in Urbanized Habitats in the Grabiszyn District in the City of Wrocław

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    Kopij Grzegorz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in 2010 by mean of simplified version of the mapping method. The study area (395 ha was located close to the city centre. It comprised a mosaic of urbanized habitats, with a clear dominance of green areas, such as parks (41.1 ha, gardens, cemeteries and tree clumps. A total of 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the whole study area. The most common (<25 pairs/100 ha were Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Apus apus and Columba livia. Numerous (7-15 pairs/100 ha were also the following species: Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Serinus serinus, Turdus merula and Pica pica. Insectivorous birds were the most common birds constituting 63.3%, and granivorous -32.6% of all pairs recorded. Most birds nested in tree holes (39.3%, in/on buildings (30.2% and in trees/shrubs (25.6%. Distribution of breeding pairs of 23 bird species was presented on maps. Population trends for 17 species were documented. Rapid increase in numbers of Turdus pilaris, Corvus cornix and Phoenicurus phoenicurus and decrease of Pica pica were recorded.

  9. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th–12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe. PMID:26963389

  10. THE SOUTHWESTERN LIMES OF ROMAN DACIA AND BEYOND - NEW SURVEYS AND EXCAVATIONS

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    Eduard Nemeth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research project on the southwestern frontier of Roman Dacia, which was an external frontier of the Roman Empire in this area. The research aimed to investigate and locate on the ground all Roman military sites with modern devices (GPS and establish the elements of the ancient landscape that had an influence on the choice of particular locations for the Roman forts. Also, the Roman military sites have been placed on geo-referenced maps. Another goal was to locate and investigate the great earth ramparts from nowadays southwestern Romania (so-called "Roman walls" and try to see whether there is a relation between them and the forts on one side and the many sites (cemeteries and settlements of the Sarmatian Iazyges. This people, that lived to the west from Roman Dacia, penetrated the marshy plains east of the river Tisza much earlier than the researchers previously supposed, that is right after the Marcomannic wars (after 180 AD and not only at the end of the 3rd century AD.

  11. EXCAVACIÓN ARQUEOLÓGICA Y ANÁLISIS BIOARQUEOLÓGICO EN EL CEMENTERIO DE LA CAPITAL (MENDOZA. REPATRIACIÓN DE LOS RESTOS DE SANTOS ORTIZ E INÉS VÉLEZ DE ORTIZ

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    Mansegosa,Daniela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discloses the results of archaeological excavations in two graves in the cemetery of the city of Mendoza and bioarchaeological analysis carried out on skeletal remains of five individuals exhumed. These studies were conducted under the request for repatriation of the remains of Don Jose Santos Ortiz and Doña Ines Velez de Ortiz, by the government of the province of San Luis and family members. The exhumation and study of skeletal remains was authorized by the general direction of the heritage of Mendoza. It presents the methodology for the identification of individuals, as well as the techniques used for anatomical reassembly disjointed sets. The high frequency of tooth loss recorded is probably associated with a diet rich in carbohydrates and with elderly individuals. On the other hand, the combination of evidence with information bioarchaeological documentary sources allowed for different interpretations adjusted on family relationships of individuals as well as the cause of death of individuals who showed signs of violence.

  12. The Architecture of a Lifetime: Structures of Remembrance and Invention in Walter Benjamin and Aldo Rossi

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    Jolien Paeleman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the result of research on the influence of Walter Benjamin’s thinking in the work of Italian architect Aldo Rossi (1931–1997. In present-day architectural criticism, Aldo Rossi’s oeuvre still constitutes a rich subject for discussion because of its resistance to easy pinpointing, even if Rossi himself explained his theories and methods of design on numerous occasions. In his writings, among these A Scientific Autobiography, Rossi quotes from a collection of Benjamin’s memoirs: Berlin Childhood around 1900. The architect believes that these short prose pieces express better than anything else what he himself had not been able to explain in his writing. In this paper I intend to show the poignancy of the words Rossi referred to and the implications they had on his architecture by offering close comparisons of Benjamin’s and Rossi’s autobiographical writings. In addition, this study examines how one of Rossi’s most famous architectural artefacts, the ossuary of San Cataldo cemetery at Modena, can be viewed as a coalescence of a Benjaminian thought-image, thereby fortifying the philosopher’s presence in modern architecture.

  13. 重庆巫山麦沱古墓群第二次发掘报告%THE SECOND EXCAVATION OF ANCIENT TOMBS AT MAITUO, WUSHAN, CHONGQING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹检顺; 谭远辉

    2005-01-01

    The first excavation at Maituo, Wushan, which revealed 19 tombs, basically clarified the cultural characteristics of the Han tombs in the cemetery and preliminarily established the periodization criteria for these tombs. Among the 13 tombs uncovered in the present second excavation besides four Han tombs, there are newly discovered burial types that belong to the Warring States, Southern Dynasties and Song. They provided new data for further research into the cultural features of this graveyard in different periods. The achievements in the present excavation consist mainly in the following two aspects,The first is the discovery of three tombs belonging to the late Warring States period. They represent the Chu cultural complex in an area dominated by the Qin State. The second is the revelation of an Eastern Han high-rank tomb in a good condition (M47). The tomb contains over 100 funeral objects, including objects in gold, silver, bronze and lacquer that reflect the tomb owner's wealth, as well as rare treasures of art, such as exquisite glazed pottery tombfigurines of dancers, lamps with toad-shaped stands, and large-sized pottery, tomb guardians, animals, human figures and statues of the Western Queen Mother that are represented in various positions. The unearthed pottery models of buildings, such as those of theatres and watchtowers delicate in workmanship and clear in layout, are valuable to studying Han architecture. These finds provide precious data for systematically studying Han period production technology, culture and art, building style, religion, and burial customs.

  14. POZO MORO Y LOS CAMBIOS SOCIO-ECONÓMICOS DE LA PROTOHISTORIA IBÉRICA DURANTE LOS SIGLOS V Y IV ANTES DE NUESTRA ERA (Pozo Moro and the socio-economic changes of Iberian protohistory during the 5th and 4th centuries BC

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    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Años atrás desarrollamos y propusimos una nueva metodología para medir estadísticamente el gasto funerario y establecer su relación con las fluctuaciones económicas de la civilización ibérica, obteniendo resultados sumamente significativos. Ahora, sin perder de vista esa columna vertebral como referente obligado, la necrópolis de Pozo Moro aporta novedades esclarecedoras sobre el pasado protohistórico de estos pueblos prerromanos durante los siglos V y IV antes de nuestra era. ENGLISH: Years ago we developed and proposed a new methodology for measuring statistically the funeral expense and establish its relationship with the economic fluctuations of Iberian civilization, getting highly significant results. Now, without losing sight the spine as a point of reference, Pozo Moro cemetery provides enlightening updates on the protohistoric past of these pre-Roman peoples during the V and IV centuries BC.

  15. [Amédée Latour (1805-1882) Physician, journalist, mutualist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthon, Jean-Marie

    2015-06-01

    AmedéeLatour (1805-1882), native Toulousain and grand-son of a professor of medicine, came to Paris to study, prior to support his doctoral thesis in 1834, bringing his "Proposals on art cure ". He has not practiced much medicine in Paris, but quickly focused toward medical journalism, writing articles in various scientific publications, particularly L'Union médicale from 1847 to 1882. He acquainted with several prominent medical doctors of the nineteenth century, especially Professor Andral. General Secretary of the French medical Congress in 1845, he was also the initiator and founder of the Social Security Association provident and mutual aid doctors in France. Member of the Public Health Advisory Committee, he was elected partner of the Academy of Medicine in 1870. Furthermore, from March to May 1870 AmedéeLatour became a refugee in his modest country house in Châtillon-sous-Bagneux and wrote a personal journal called "Journal of the bombing from April 4 to May 28", published in L'Unionmédicale the next July. He was able to describe the consequences of the bombing in his city of adoption during the Parisian insurrection, and his role as doctor and member of the city council during this period. He was buried in the cemetery of the city.

  16. Necrópolis chilotas: un caso en la diversidad patrimonial de un territorio insular/Chiloé’s necropolis: a case study

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    Bravo Sánchez, José

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chiloé, en su condición de ínsula, se expresa en una riqueza cultural fuertemente territorializada, capaz de defenderse de las invasivas influencias foráneas. Merece la pena destacar una de las vigas que sostiene su andamiaje cultural: el poder omnipresente de la religión. En este sentido, sobresalen los cementerios chilotes como un ejemplo claro de simbiosis cultural religiosa que se manifiesta en una arquitectura mortuoria singular que enriquece al espacio y paisaje religioso de cada localidad./Chiloé, in its condition of island, it's express in a cultural wealth, heavily territorialized, with a capacity of defense of the invaders foreign influences. It's worth while to highlight at one of the girders that supports its cultural scaffolding: the omnipresent power of the religion. In this sense, chilotes cemeteries project like a clearly example of cultural symbiosis that it's exposes in a singular mortuary architecture that riches at religious space and landscape of each settlement.

  17. 3D Reconstruction and Restoration Monitoring of Sculptural Artworks by a Multi-Sensor Framework

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    Sandro Barone

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, optical sensors are used to digitize sculptural artworks by exploiting various contactless technologies. Cultural Heritage applications may concern 3D reconstructions of sculptural shapes distinguished by small details distributed over large surfaces. These applications require robust multi-view procedures based on aligning several high resolution 3D measurements. In this paper, the integration of a 3D structured light scanner and a stereo photogrammetric sensor is proposed with the aim of reliably reconstructing large free form artworks. The structured light scanner provides high resolution range maps captured from different views. The stereo photogrammetric sensor measures the spatial location of each view by tracking a marker frame integral to the optical scanner. This procedure allows the computation of the rotation-translation matrix to transpose the range maps from local view coordinate systems to a unique global reference system defined by the stereo photogrammetric sensor. The artwork reconstructions can be further augmented by referring metadata related to restoration processes. In this paper, a methodology has been developed to map metadata to 3D models by capturing spatial references using a passive stereo-photogrammetric sensor. The multi-sensor framework has been experienced through the 3D reconstruction of a Statue of Hope located at the English Cemetery in Florence. This sculptural artwork has been a severe test due to the non-cooperative environment and the complex shape features distributed over a large surface.

  18. Evaluation of elemental status of ancient human bone samples from Northeastern Hungary dated to the 10th century AD by XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    János, I.; Szathmáry, L.; Nádas, E.; Béni, A.; Dinya, Z.; Máthé, E.

    2011-11-01

    The present study is a multielemental analysis of bone samples belonging to skeletal individuals originating from two contemporaneous (10th century AD) cemeteries (Tiszavasvári Nagy-Gyepáros and Nagycserkesz-Nádasibokor sites) in Northeastern Hungary, using the XRF analytical technique. Emitted X-rays were detected in order to determine the elemental composition of bones and to appreciate the possible influence of the burial environment on the elemental content of the human skeletal remains. Lumbar vertebral bodies were used for analysis. Applying the ED(P)XRF technique concentration of the following elements were determined: P, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br and Sr. The results indicated post mortem mineral exchange between the burial environment (soil) and bones (e.g. the enhanced levels of Fe and Mn) and referred to diagenetic alteration processes during burials. However, other elements such as Zn, Sr and Br seemed to be accumulated during the past life. On the basis of statistical analysis, clear separation could not be observed between the two excavation sites in their bone elemental concentrations which denoted similar diagenetic influences, environmental conditions. The enhanced levels of Sr might be connected with the past dietary habits, especially consumption of plant food.

  19. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age

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    Zhang Quanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far. Results Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K, whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin.

  20. The case of survivors of the Villatina slide (in Medellín, 1987: an ethnographic research, 2005

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    Claudia P. Isaza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This ethnographic research tries to understand the perception of the individuals who survived after the landslide of Villatina in 1987, the social processes related to it and the outcomes that still remain in the communitarian life of the Villatina and Héctor Abad Gómez suburbs in the city of Medellín. The discussion was focused in the information gathered from 16 semi-structured interviews, the revision of secondary sources and direct observation. Positive and negative outcomes were the result of the disaster, some of which still prevail. Among the negative causes are the lost of family members and friends which is shown in unsolved grief, handling and representation of the cemetery, lack of clarity due to the versions about the real causes of the tragedy and disagreement with the nomination of the place as a high risk zone. On the other hand, some other aspects are recognized as a social gain, such as organized social processes, new leaderships, organized meeting places; the family as a social support, contributions to the relocation process and an increasing social sensitivity. Finally, the survivors look forward to deserve worthy treatment from the investigators; in the hope that institutions taking part in the community be correspondent and that the government will clarify the causes of the tragedy.

  1. Nomad Iconography on Tombstones from Luristan, Iran

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    Inge Demant Mortensen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Luristan in western Iran the nomad cemeteries are scattered apparently at random across the landscape. The history of these nomads is not very well known, and until a few years ago they were themselves largely illiterate. They have lived in areas which comprise some of the very isolated mountain valleys and plains in the central Zagros mountains, and untilrecently their rhythm of life was to a great extent determined by the changing seasons. In the interpretation of the images on Luristani tombstones, it may never be possible ,with certainty, to arrive at the correct interpretation of a motif. The signs and symbols on the tombstones are comparable to a code whereby messages are converted from one form of representation to another, which means that they have to be encoded in a form that the communicants can easily interpret. In a community sharing the same religion, cultural inheritance and social background, and living at a given time in particular area, this should present no problem. But if one or more of these elements are altered, the whole structural pattern and symbolic scheme of the community will be affected: as, for example, is clearly demonstrated by the forcible settlement of nomads in Luristan which has caused an abrupt discontinuation in the erection of pictorial tombstones. The more drastic the change, the quicker the transition of symbolic values into fossilized and sometimes incomprehensible fragments of a tradition.

  2. Analysis of a prehistoric Egyptian iron bead with implications for the use and perception of meteorite iron in ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Diane; Tyldesley, Joyce; Lowe, Tristan; Withers, Philip J.; Grady, Monica M.

    2013-06-01

    Tube-shaped beads excavated from grave pits at the prehistoric Gerzeh cemetery, approximately 3300 BCE, represent the earliest known use of iron in Egypt. Using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and micro X-ray microcomputer tomography, we show that microstructural and chemical analysis of a Gerzeh iron bead is consistent with a cold-worked iron meteorite. Thin fragments of parallel bands of taenite within a meteoritic Widmanstätten pattern are present, with structural distortion caused by cold-working. The metal fragments retain their original chemistry of approximately 30 wt% nickel. The bulk of the bead is highly oxidized, with only approximately 2.4% of the total bead volume remaining as metal. Our results show that the first known example of the use of iron in Egypt was produced from a meteorite, its celestial origin having implications for both the perception of meteorite iron by ancient Egyptians and the development of metallurgical knowledge in the Nile Valley.

  3. Diagnosis of Mercurial Teeth in a Possible Case of Congenital Syphilis and Tuberculosis in a 19th Century Child Skeleton

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    Stella Ioannou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Without the presence of “caries sicca,” “sabre shins,” and nodes/expansion of the long bones with superficial cavitation, differential diagnosis of venereal syphilis and tuberculosis (TB may be difficult as various infections produce similar responses. However, congenital syphilis has distinctive features facilitating a diagnosis. A case study of remains of a juvenile European settler (probably male, 8–10 years old (B70 buried in the 19th century and excavated in 2000 from the cemetery of the Anglican Church of St. Marys in South Australia is presented. B70 demonstrated that the two diseases might have been present in the same individual, congenital syphilis and TB. Widespread destruction of vertebral bodies and kyphosis-related rib deformations indicate advanced TB. Severe dental hypoplasia is limited to permanent incisors and first molars; there is pitting on the palate, periosteal reaction on the skull vault, and thinned clavicles. Dental signs are not limited to “screwdriver” central incisors and mulberry molars. Apical portions of the crowns of permanent upper, lower, central, and lateral incisors have multiple hypoplastic-disorganized defects; deciduous canines have severely hypoplastic crowns while possibly hypoplastic occlusal surfaces of lower deciduous second molars are largely destroyed by extensive caries. These dental abnormalities resemble teeth affected by mercurial treatment in congenital syphilitic patients as described by Hutchinson.

  4. Effect of laser treatment on the surface of copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbacz, Halina, E-mail: hgarbacz@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Fortuna-Zalesna, Elzbieta [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Marczak, Jan [Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Koss, Andrzej; Zatorska, Anna [Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, Inter-Academy Institute for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Wybrzeze Kosciuszkowskie 37, 00-379 Warsaw (Poland); Zukowska, Grazyna Z. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Onyszczuk, Tomasz; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents the results of laser cleaning of the archaeological metal objects using two time widths of pulsed laser radiation, which are around 150 {mu}s and around 120 ns. Two archaeological objects made of copper alloys were studied: a bow and a ring. Both objects came from a cemetery which is located in the garden complex of Wilanow Palace in Warsaw and are dated from XII to XIII century. The bow and bronze ring had ornamental longitudinal grooving and were part of burial jewellery. The materials of which these artefacts were made of, as well as corrosion products on these objects, were studied by using a variety of analytical techniques. The phase composition of the corrosion layers was determined by using Raman spectroscopy. The surface topography as well as the chemical composition of the deposits and cleaned surfaces were investigated. The samples were examined using scanning electron microscopes equipped with EDS. The investigations included observations in SE and BSE modes and point analyses of the chemical composition by EDS.

  5. Shang Period Site and Tombs at Daxinzhuang in Jinan City%济南市大辛庄商代居址与墓葬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山东大学东方考古研究中心; 山东省文物考古研究所; 济南市考古研究所

    2004-01-01

    In March to June 2003, Shandong University, the Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and the Jinan Municipal Institute of Archaeology curried out an excavation on the Daxinzhuang site. The work brought about following results. (1) Four inscribed oracle bones of the Shang period were unearthed. (2) Three Shang cemeteries with 37 tombs were found to be of the middle Shang and the middle and late Shang respectively. (3) House-foundations, cellars and ash-pits were revealed along with a great number of objects. The other finds include quantities of faunal, floral and soil specimens. The excavation provided extremely important data for restudying the nature of the site, researching the Shang Dynasty relationship with the eastern land, and studying political system and social organization in the Shang period. The unearthed oracle-bone inscriptions will exert active influence upon studies of oracle-bones, archaeology of the Shang period, and research on the history of Shang Dynasty. The discovered natural specimens furnished valuable material for investigating then ecological environments, people's diet composition and the cultural meaning of faunal and floral remains.

  6. Romanian medieval earring analysis by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now used for the characterization of archaeological materials. The combination between archaeological and analytical information can provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, heritage authentication and restoration, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange. Surface mapping techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence have become a powerful tool for obtaining qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of cultural heritage materials, including metallic archaeological objects. In this study, the material comes from the Middle Age cemetery of Feldioara (Romania). The excavation of the site located between the evangelical church and the parsonage led to the discovery of several funeral artifacts in 18 graves among a total of 127 excavated. Even if the inventory was quite poor, some of the objects helped in establishing the chronology. Six anonymous Hungarian denarii (silver coins) were attributed to Geza II (1141-1161) and Stefan III (1162-1172), placing the cemetery in the second half of the XII century. This period was also confirmed by three loop shaped earrings with the end in 'S' form (one small and two large earrings). The small earring was found during the excavation in grave number 86, while the two others were discovered together in grave number 113. The anthropological study shown that skeletons excavated from graves 86 and 113 belonged respectively to a child (1 individual, medium level preservation, 9 months +/- 3 months) and to an adult (1 individual). In this work, elemental mapping were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique from Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument offering detailed elemental images with a spatial resolution of 100μm. The analysis revealed that the earrings were composed of copper, zinc and tin as major elements. Minor elements were also determined. The comparison between the two large earrings

  7. New quantitative, in-situ characterization of weathering in geomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivano, Simona; Gaggero, Laura; Gisbert Aguilar, Josep; Yus Gonzalez, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    The mineralogical and microtextural analyses of weathered rocks and mortars are the main diagnostic tools to address the materials exposed under different environmental conditions in order to enucleate and mitigate the decay factors. The characterization of weathering intensity is mostly descriptive and non-quantitative (ICOMOS Glossary, 2008); the Fitzner indexes in arenites (Fitzner et al., 2002) and more recently applied to marbles (Scrivano et al., 2013) provide an operator dependent method. The current diagnostic of decay (Drdàcky & Slìzkovà, 2014) based on a scotch tape tearing off the surface was improved by a specifically adapted pocket penetrometer, and a joint gravimetric + minero-chemical analysis under SEM of ablational decay products. The steps are the following: i) Preparation of stubs for SEM with adherent conductive carbon tape (surface area 1.3 cm2) ii) Weighing of stub + tape + its plastic envelope at 0.001 g precision iii) Connecting the stub to a pocket penetrometer iv) Non invasive sampling of the incoherent dust applying a constant pressure of 2 kgf for 1 minute, and then packing away the stub without loosing grains v) Weighing of stub + tape + weathering products + their plastic envelope at 0.001 g precision vi) Recast the weight of removed material vii) Addressing the weathering products to SEM - EDS. Our quantitative peeling test was applied on a 96m long cladded wall in the Staglieno Monumental Cemetery in Genoa. The wall shows weathering gradients due to a neighbouring interred stream and to different insulation. Slabs of ophicalcite marble were tested from three different areas (5 samples were collected to the E, 5 samples at the centre, 5 samples to the W). The results highlighted capillary rise up to 2 meters height and a more weathered central area. On the whole, our protocol allows a delicate, virtually not impacting and reproducible factual sampling. Moreover, if carried out on a statistically significant population, the decay

  8. 光在建筑设计中的应用研究%The Application of Light in Architecture Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓铭; 许振达; 冼伟莹; 李海波

    2015-01-01

    光是产生视觉的基础,对社会发展起着推动作用;光是建筑设计的起始点,在建筑设计中起着重要作用,光对营造环境、效果展示、渲染气氛都有着至关重要的影响。前人的诸多建筑设计作品中,光线在建筑设计中的表达效果做了完美的展示。本文正是对卡洛•斯卡帕和路易斯•巴拉干的作品中光线的运用进行分析。首先,以卡洛•斯卡帕的布里昂家族墓园设计作为案例,以空间顺序对墓园的每个区域的进行介绍;从造园的手法、营造的氛围、光线的表达效果进行深入的探讨,着重研究光线对气氛的营造。其次,对路易斯•巴拉干的圣•克里斯特博马厩与别墅设计进行研究,从环境气氛、设计意境等方面进行论述光在设计中的运用效果。最后,研究总结出光在建筑中的运用方式及表达效果是建筑设计中的营造视觉冲击力和空间氛围的重要手段。%Light is the basis for generating visual, to play a role in promoting social development; starting just architectural design plays an important role in the architectural design, light to create an environment, the effect display, rendering the atmosphere have a crucial impact . Many architectural works predecessors, the light effect of expression in the architectural design made the perfect show. This article is for use• Carlo Scarpa and Luis Barragan's work • ray analysis. First, Carlo Scarpa's • Brion family cemetery designed as a case in order to space the cemetery order of each region are introduced; the effect of expression of the way from the garden, to create an atmosphere, light depth Discussion focuses on the study of light to create atmosphere. Secondly, St. Louis Barragan • Cristobal stables research and villa design, use light effects are discussed in the design from the ambient atmosphere, design and other aspects of mood. Finally, the study concluded that the use of

  9. Cosmic airburst debris, climate anomalies and societal reactions at 4.2kyr BP: from North Syria to Adelie Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coqueugniot, E.; Courty, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The linkages established between dust spikes, unprecedented drought and societal disruption at 4.2 kyr BP have yet failed elucidating the marked increase in aerosol. The volcanic dust component or the erratic spatial pattern are among other puzzling anomalies for a global climate event. We examine here the 4.2 kyr BP debris records from high quality sedimentary archives across the two hemispheres: (1) at Tell Dja'de (Syria), a carbonaceous surface sealed by a EB III/IV Bronze age cemetery; (2) at Tell Ahmar (Syria), the nearly intact collapsed wood frame of the Akkad palace sandwiched between the last 3rd millennium BC plastered floors and massive destruction layers of the monumental buildings; (3) debris accumulation from human processed slags in late Akkaddian contexts at Tell Leilan, Tell Chuera, Tell Beydar, Tell Brak (North Syria) and in an EB III/IV one at Umbaschi (South Syria); (4) a tsunami layer at Banda Aceh (Sumatra); (5) deep sea cores from the Mediterranean and Caspian seas, the Indian and Austral oceans. Using an in situ multi-analytical protocol, we focus on the carbonaceous polymorphs and the composite elements that we formerly defined to tracing hypervelocity cosmic airbursts. A meticulous control of their spatial pattern and structural characteristics at meso to nano-scales has helped to distinguishing the intact debris fall of airburst origin from their human processed-byproducts. The later trace the occurrence in the debris airbursts of highly valuable resources, i.e. fossil combustible with singular properties, that have been exploited since the prehistoric time. Evidence for an oceanic impact at 4.2 kyr BP in the Austral ocean are provided by the 3 m record in the Adelie land high resolution marine core (MD03-2601) showing sudden discharge of ice rafted fine debris with impact features. Their fresh fingerprints in the high to low latitude records from the southern hemisphere indicate massive dispersion of impact debris by air and surface

  10. Romanian medieval earring analysis by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest, (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now used for the characterization of archaeological materials. The combination between archaeological and analytical information can provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, heritage authentication and restoration, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange. Surface mapping techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence have become a powerful tool for obtaining qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of cultural heritage materials, including metallic archaeological objects. In this study, the material comes from the Middle Age cemetery of Feldioara (Romania). The excavation of the site located between the evangelical church and the parsonage led to the discovery of several funeral artifacts in 18 graves among a total of 127 excavated. Even if the inventory was quite poor, some of the objects helped in establishing the chronology. Six anonymous Hungarian denarii (silver coins) were attributed to Geza II (1141-1161) and Stefan III (1162-1172), placing the cemetery in the second half of the XII century. This period was also confirmed by three loop shaped earrings with the end in 'S' form (one small and two large earrings). The small earring was found during the excavation in grave number 86, while the two others were discovered together in grave number 113. The anthropological study shown that skeletons excavated from graves 86 and 113 belonged respectively to a child (1 individual, medium level preservation, 9 months +/- 3 months) and to an adult (1 individual). In this work, elemental mapping were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique from Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument offering detailed elemental images with a spatial resolution of 100{mu}m. The analysis revealed that the earrings were composed of copper, zinc and tin as major elements. Minor elements were also determined. The comparison between the two

  11. “Demonological” root čert- and hiisi- in Russian toponymy of the Russian North and the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Л. Березович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of “demonological” root čert- and hiisi- in the currently used Russian toponymy of the Russian North (Arkhangelsk, Vologda regions, the surrounding areas of Yaroslavl, Kostroma regions, and the Republic of Karelia. In the toponymy of Russian origin, the most frequent names are toponyms with the root čert- (80 % of “demonological” names, which continue Proto-Slavic *čьrt-. The places named using čert- have a number of common features: often these are places with a negative relief, usually filled with water (names of water objects dominate in this type; the economic exploitation of čert- places is either impossible or extremely difficult. The popularity of the root čert- in toponymy is also supported by the use of *čьrtež ‘cleared arable land’, and may be associated with the archaic tradition of the perception of a place in relation to the “spirit of the place”. There are certain factors which caused an increase of čert- toponyms: “landscape” (their number increases in the areas rich with swamps, rapid rivers, dense forests etc.; agricultural activity; a significant number of churches and monasteries. Factors mitigating the productivity of čert- toponyms are: hunting activity; the onomastic tradition of contact languages (e.g., low productivity of the corresponding word in Komi; linguistic taboos. In Finnic toponymy the corresponding root is hiisi-/hiite-, which can be traced back to *hiite. The popularity of the root in toponymy is connected with the semantics that originally included a “local” component. Hiisi was originally used for a pagan cemetery located on a hill, with a large conspicuous stone in the centre. Gradually the word came to mean a grove which developed on the site of the cemetery. With the spread of Christianity in the eastern dialects, the word acquired the meaning ‘devil’. The most likely source of the model in the substrate toponymy of the Russian

  12. Greening and “un”greening Adelaide, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The original design for Adelaide, the capital city of the state of South Australia, incorporated a green belt (known as the Park Lands around the city centre, itself laid out on a one square mile (2.59 km2 grid and including five large public squares. The Park Lands provided a barrier to urban sprawl and covered approximately 9.31 km2, of which 1.53 km2 has been used subsequently for cultural institutions, railways, cemeteries, sporting facilities and other constructions. In addressing issues of greening pertaining to Adelaide, the Park Lands and its management represents a core element in the evolving history of the city's growth. This paper will consider some of the contradictions within this growth, examining the changing attitudes of government and the populace to the Park Lands and also to the increasing sprawl of the city. It can be argued that this sprawl has been antithetical to maintenance of biodiversity and principles of “greening”, not only during the main phase of expansion in the 1960s and 1970s but also in recent years when planned development on prime farmland and other “green” areas is contributing to problems for provision of transport infrastructure and generally reducing capacity for sustainability. The potential for conflict between the desire to maintain biodiversity versus protection for the growing number of people moving into bushfire risk areas is just one of several examples of problems arising as a result of a relaxed attitude to low-density expansion. In examining these problems the paper will present maps of the changing footprint of Adelaide and will elaborate new “greening” initiatives that include green roofs, new systems of water harvesting, community-supported agriculture and schemes directly aimed at creating low-carbon living. A consistent theme will be the contradictions within plans for the city between greening and “un”greening.

  13. 古墓葬出土纺织纤维的微观形态结构分析%Microcosmic structure analysis of textile fibers excavated in ancient tombs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南普恒; 金普军

    2011-01-01

    利用扫描电镜和偏光显微镜对山西横水西周墓地出土青铜器上残留纺织纤维的微观形态结构进行了显微分析,结合现代纺织学研究成果对其进行了细致的比较研究.结果表明:出土纺织纤维为天然纤维素纤维,分为苎麻和大麻两类,说明西用时期山西南部地区已经采用苎麻、大麻纤维作为纺织原料编制织物.研究结果也表明,显微分析技术非常适合古墓葬出土少量甚至微量纺织品的分析鉴别.%Based on the analysis of scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) and polarizing microscope methods, qualitative analysis of physical structure on the four textile fibers on surface of the bronze excavated in Hengshui cemetery was realized. Supported by the scientific analysis results and literature of natural textile fibers, it can be concludedthatall the ancient textile fibers are natural cellulose fiber which can be divided into two kinds:ramie and hemp fiber. Moreover, ramie and hemp fiber were used to braid textile in the Southern Shanxi Province West Zhou Dynasty. Furthermore, it was indicated that Microscopy is a more effective archaeometry technique for identifying the ancient minor and trace amount textile fibers research of the textile material.

  14. Paleomobility in the Tiwanaku diaspora: biogeochemical analyses at Rio Muerto, Moquegua, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Kelly J; Goldstein, Paul S; Dahlstedt, Allisen; Somerville, Andrew; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2014-11-01

    Paleomobility has been a key element in the study of the expansion of ancient states and empires, including the Tiwanaku polity of the South Central Andes (AD 500-1000). We present radiogenic strontium and oxygen isotope data from human burials from three cemeteries in the Tiwanaku-affiliated Middle Horizon archaeological site complex of Rio Muerto in the Moquegua Valley of southern Peru. At Rio Muerto, archaeological human enamel and bone values range from (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70657-0.72018, with a mean of (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70804 ± 0.00207 (1σ, n = 55). For the subset of samples analyzed for oxygen isotope values (n = 48), the data ranges from δ(18) Ocarbonate(VSMOW)  = +18.1 to +27.0‰. When contextualized with other lines of archaeological evidence, we interpret these data as evidence for an archaeological population in which the majority of individuals had "local" origins, and were likely second-generation, or more, immigrants from the Tiwanaku heartland in the altiplano. Based on detailed life history data, we argue a smaller number of individuals came at different ages from various regions within the Tiwanaku polity. We consider whether these individuals with isotopic values consistent with "nonlocal" geographic origins could represent first-generation migrants, marriage exchange partners, or occupationally mobile herders, traders or other travelers. By combining isotopic life history studies with mortuary treatment data, we use a person-centered migration history approach to state integration and expansion. Isotopic analyses of paleomobility at the Rio Muerto site complex contribute to the role of diversity in ancient states by demonstrating the range of geographic origins rather than simply colonists from the Lake Titicaca Basin. PMID:25066931

  15. The potency of Bukit Tapak forest as means for traditional ceremony, environmental conservation, and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN SUMANTERA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Bukit Tapak (1903 m the natural reserve of Batukau I (816.4 ha is one of three natural reserve area of Batukau (1762.8 ha, 1974. Located at the tourism object of Bedugul, the eastern part boundaries to the Botanic Garden Eka Karya-LIPI (154.5 ha, 1959 and settlement of Candikuning area (1152 family, 4475 persons and near the three lakes of the water resources of Bali; Beratan, Buyan and Tamblingan lake. The special plants; cemara geseng (Casuarina junghuhniana Miq., cemara pandak (Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume de Laub., nyabah (Pinanga arinasaensis J.R. Witono, paku kidang (Dicksonia blumei Planch., and purnajiwa (Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch. Benth.. The pioneer plant of the hill is cemara geseng and the endemic is cemara pandak. The plant of needle leaves that basically the existence of Bali Botanical Garden as the conservation ex situ flora of noodle leaves especially at the eastern Indonesian area. Nyabah, which is supposed to be the new kind of palm named Arinasa, driven from the staff name who is the pioneer of the conservation. Paku kidang is rare. There are ethnobotany plants of ritual ceremony such as: kayu tulak (Schefflera sp., kayu tulung (Brasaia sp., penjalin (Calamus sp., paku pidpid (Nephrolepis sp., trijata (Medinilla speciosa (Blume ex Mart. Blume, etc. Balinese people believe that forest is holly and sacred. But because of the existence of Pura Teratai Bang (16 century at the slope, moslem cemetery (found in 1938 at the peak, and other needs (climbing, food, medicine, etc., it can not be avoided the entrances of people that caused the forest is damaged. The forest reservation needs the approach to the local people, so the solution are morally and integration. The use of the forest which is potential as the environment education facilities conservation and other alternatives such as: horticulture, the improvement of the people economy discussed here to be the input for the forest conservation wisely and continuously.

  16. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Higham, Thomas F G; Oldfield, Ron; O'Connor, Terry P; Buckley, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C.) bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C.), their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC). We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves) in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt). Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py)-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period. PMID:25118605

  17. El ajuar como indicador de la presencia Inka en el Cementerio Aguada Orilla Norte (Provincia de Catamarca Grave Goods As Indicators Of Inka Presence In Aguada Orilla Norte Cementery, Catamarca Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo A. Moralejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la descripción del ajuar de cuatro enterratorios provenientes del sitio arqueológico Cementerio Aguada Orilla Norte (Belén, Catamarca. Dichos ajuares conforman la colección Benjamín Muñiz Barreto del Museo de La Plata. La metodología empleada consistió en la descripción morfológica y decorativa de las piezas que conforman cada uno de los ajuares; y en la revisión de las libretas de campo de la colección mencionada. A partir de estos análisis se determinó que tres de los cuatro enterratorios se encuadran cronológicamente en el período Inka (1471-1536 dC y que cada uno de ellos posee objetos estilísticamente diferentes pertenecientes a diversos grupos culturales del NOA. Sin embargo, el cuarto ajuar, que se encuentra por debajo de uno de los anteriores, posee piezas pertenecientes a grupos culturales preinkaicos.This paper describes the grave goods from four burials found at the archaeological site of Aguada Orila Norte Cemetery, Belén, Catamarca. The grave goods belong to the Benjamin Muñiz Barreto collection, housed at the Museum of La Plata. The methodology employed consisted in describing the morphology and decoration of the pieces that make up each set of grave goods, as well as going through the field notes related to the collection. The results of the analyses indicate that three of the four burials are chronologically within the Inka period (AD 1471-1536 and all posses objects that differ in style, belonging therefore to various cultural groups from NOA (Northwestern Argentina. The fourth burial, however, which was located below one of the other three, contains pieces from pre-Inkan cultural groups.

  18. Calculation of financial compensation due of municipalities hosting nuclear waste deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata A. da, E-mail: renata.amaral@ufrj.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Simoes, Francisco Fernando L.; Martins, Vivian B., E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LIMA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Impactos Ambientais

    2011-07-01

    The present work evaluates the math from monthly financial transfers to municipalities with technical viability for building of initial or intermediate repository for storing of radioactivity nuclear waste: gloves, sneakers, mask, resins and filters came from thermonuclear facilities. Several aspects have been considered as the geological factors of the site as presence of capable faults, groundwater vulnerability, infiltration of seawater. Also, it was take into account socioeconomic factors: population density, costs for construction, maintenance and operation of repository; size and activity of waste; among others. Hereafter, we have presented the key features of low and average activity repository and high activity repository even as initial, intermediate and final repository and the possible environment impact. The methodology for calculation of financial compensation of municipalities was established by CNEN will be applied for a specific assumed municipality. The analysis of financial compensation due to the specific nuclear waste deposit and the possible guidelines for the use of that compensation by the municipality will be analyzed. In addiction, it will be compared the model for compensation used for nuclear wastes with other plants receiving permanent wastes from cemeteries and sanitary landfills, where the land should not be allowed for the human activities the same as: crops, livestock and buildings. Also, comparison with royalties and indemnities were paid by facilities of energy production as hydroelectric dams as well as petroleum and gas exploration plants. The destination of financial compensation transfer to the municipality is in charge of the city administration. The compensation could be applied of investments in education and culture, health, sanitation works, improvement of public transport, environment, among others. It will be discussed the cost-benefit relation for the assumed municipality. (author)

  19. Soil creep as factor of landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Many erosion models assume that soils are transported grain-by-grain, and thus calculate loss and deposition according to parameters such as bulk density and average grain size. However, there are indications that clay-rich soils, such as the widespread Red Mediterranean Soils or Terrae Rossae, behave differently. This is illustrated by a case study of historic landscape changes in Jordan, where evidence for soil creep as main process of soil movement was found in the context of ancient cemeteries. Due to a dominance of smectites, the Red Mediterranean Soils in this area shrink and form cracks during the dry period. Because of the cracks and underlying limestone karst, they can swallow strong rains without high erosion risk. However, when water-saturated, these soils expand and can start creeping. Buried geoarchaeological features like small water channels on formerly cleared rocks suggest that soils can move a few cm uplslope when wet, and buried graves illustrate that soil creep can create new level surfaces, sealing cavities but not completely filling them. Such processes seem associated with slumping and earth flows as instable rocks might collapse under the weight of a creeping soil. While it is very difficult to measure such processes, landscape archaeology offers at least an indirect approach that could be suited to estimate the scale and impact of soil creep. Analogies with modern rainfalls, including record levels of precipitation during the winter 1991/1992, indicate that similar levels of soil moisture have not been reached during times of modern instrumental rainfall monitoring. This suggests that very strong deluges must have occurred during historical periods, that could potentially cause tremendous damage to modern infrastructure if happening again.

  20. Institutional arrangement and typology of community forests of Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland of North-East India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.K.Tiwari; H.Tynsong; M.M.Lynrah; E.Lapasam; S.Deb; D.Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Most community forests in hill regions of northeast India have been managed by traditional local institutions for centuries and most of these institutions remain functional even today.Higher forest coverage on private and community lands as compared to government land indicates that traditional institutions effectively manage community forests in the region.The present study was conducted through a survey of literature and field work using participatory research tools viz.,PRA exercises,group discussions and questionnaire interviews with key informants in northeast India.We categorized the institutions involved in conservation and management of forests into three major types:traditional,quasi-traditional and modern.Traditional institutions with hierarchal structure were found in all states and are intact and functional in the state of Meghalaya.Quasi-traditional institutions,a blend of traditional and modern institutions were prevalent in Nagaland while moderninstitutions have almost replaced traditional institutions in Mizoram.We recorded at least eleven types of community forests viz.,group of village forest,village forest,restricted forest,sacred forest,clan forest,cemetery forest,regeneration forest,bamboo forest,recreation forest,village reserved forest and medicinal plantation in villages of three states.The tribal people,through long-term trial and error experiments,have developed an elaborate,functional and generally democratic system of conservation and management of forests and associated natural ecosystems.Several forest and natural resource management lessons can be learnt from the institutional structure and decision making system of the evolving and dynamic institutions of tribal communities of the region.

  1. Diet and social status on Taumako, a Polynesian outlier in the Southeastern Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinaston, Rebecca L; Buckley, Hallie R; Gray, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    Stable isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S) are used to characterize the diet of the adult individuals (n = 99) interred in the Namu burial ground located on the Polynesian outlier of Taumako (∼300-750 BP). Polynesian outliers are islands on the fringe of Remote Oceania that were inhabited by a back migration of populations from Polynesia during prehistory. As a result of admixture with nearby island communities, little is known about the social structure and social diversity of the prehistoric inhabitants of Taumako. The distribution of prestige grave goods within the Namu cemetery has been used as evidence to support the premise that Taumakoan social structure was stratified like Polynesian societies. Here we test the hypothesis that "wealthy" individuals and males will display isotopic ratios indicative of the consumption of "high status" foods in the Pacific islands such as pork, chicken, sea turtle, and pelagic fish. The isotope results suggest the δ(34) S values were diagenetically altered, possibly an effect of volcanism. The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios indicate that the diet of all the individuals included a mixture of C3 terrestrial plant foods (likely starchy staples such as yam, taro, and breadfruit, in addition to nuts) and a variety of marine resources, including reef and pelagic fish. The stable isotope results indicate that wealthy individuals and males were eating more foods from higher trophic levels, interpreted as being high status animal foods. The socially differentiated food consumption patterns are discussed within a Pacific island context. PMID:23868172

  2. «La resurrección de los muertos»: significado del espacio sepulcral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez de Sánchez, Ana María

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The sepulchre, space which a death body gives meaning to, acquired in the collective imaginary of the Modem Age a special meaning related to traditional factors, such as prestige and wealth. Then a new and particular hope for ever lasting life related to the purgatory was added. The piece of land had to comply with certain conditions to be preferred or rejected by who would occupy them to wait for the resurrection. In Córdoba del Tucumán, the sepulture was mainly urban in temples and cemeteries in the colonial period, being then semiurban in the mid XIX century. The Borbonic change of burying out of the cities, shook the secular custom, not only of the worldly dwelling, but also the proper social imaginary.

    El sepulcro adquirió en el imaginario colectivo de la Edad Moderna una significación especial ligada a factores tradicionales, como el prestigio y la disponibilidad económica, al que se agregó una renovada esperanza en la vida eterna, relacionada con el purgatorio. El espacio terrenal debía reunir una serie de condiciones para ser motivo de preferencia o de rechazo por quienes debían ocuparlo a la espera de la «resurrección». En Córdoba del Tucumán la sepultura fue mayoritariamente urbana en templos y cementerios en el período colonial, pasando a semi urbana a mediados del siglo XIX. La modificación borbónica, de enterrar extra muros, conmovió la costumbre secular no sólo de la morada terrenal, sino del propio imaginario social.

  3. Modernity in medicine and hygiene at the end of the 19th century: the example of cremation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Alessandro; Falconi, Bruno; Cristini, Carlo; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia F.

    2012-01-01

    Medicine in the second half of the nineteenth century takes on some characteristics of modernity. These characteristics are worthy of our attention because they help us to understand better some of the current problems of hygiene and public health. One of the topics that was most discussed in the scientific-academic milieu of the second half of the nineteenth century was cremation. There was a poetic precedent: the cremation of Percy Bysse Shelley (1792-1822). The earliest apparatus to completely destroy the corpse was made in Italy and Germany in the 1870s. As far as hygiene was concerned, the reasons for cremation were not to pollute the water-bearing strata and an attempt to streamline the cemetery structure. As in an apparent schizophrenia, scientists of the day worked to both destroy and preserve corpses. There is also the unusual paradox that when the first cremations took place, the corpses were first preserved then to be destroyed later. The catholic world (mainly in Italy) and forensic scientists opposed cremation. It was left to the hygienists to spread the practice of cremation. An analysis of scientific literature shows us that if we leave out the related forensic and ethical problems, recent years have seen attention paid to any harmful emissions from crematoria equipment which have poured into the environment. Another issue is the assessment of inadvertent damage which may be caused by the condition of the corpse. Some topics, however, such as the need for preventive autopsies (first proposed in 1884 in Milan) are still a subject of debate, and seem to pass virtually unchanged from one generation to the next. PMID:25170446

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry {sup 14}C dating of lime mortars: Methodological aspects and field study applications at CIRCE (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzaioli, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.marzaioli@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Nonni, Sara, E-mail: sara.nonni@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, ' Sapienza' Universita di Roma (Italy); Passariello, Isabella, E-mail: isabella.passariello@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Capano, Manuela, E-mail: manuela.capano@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Dipartimento di Studio delle Componenti Culturali del Territorio, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Caserta (Italy); Ricci, Paola, E-mail: paola.ricci@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Lubritto, Carmine, E-mail: carmine.lubritto@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); De Cesare, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.decesare@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Caserta (Italy); Eramo, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.eramo@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e Geoambientali, Universita degli Studi di Bari ' Aldo Moro' , Bari (Italy); Quiros Castillo, Juan Antonio, E-mail: quiros.castillo@ehu.es [Universidad del Pais Vasco-Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Dipartimento di Geografia, Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); and others

    2013-01-15

    Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) has, recently, obtained some promising results in testing the feasibility of mortar radiocarbon dating by means of an ad hoc developed purification procedure (CryoSoniC: Cryobraking, Sonication, Centrifugation) applied to a series of laboratory mortars. Observed results encouraged CryoSoniC accuracy evaluation on genuine mortars sampled from archeological sites of known or independently constrained age (i.e., other {sup 14}C dates on different materials). In this study, some {sup 14}C measurements performed on genuine mortars will be discussed and compared with independently estimated (i.e., radiocarbon/archaeometrical dating) absolute chronologies of two Spanish sites. Observed results confirm the agreement of the CryoSoniC mortar dates with the archaeological expectations for both examined cases. Several authors reported the possibility of obtaining accurate radiocarbon dates of mortar matrices by analyzing lime lumps: binder-related particles of different sizes exclusively composed of calcium carbonate. In this paper, preliminary data for the absolute chronology reconstruction of the Basilica of the cemetery complex of Ponte della Lama (Canosa di Puglia, Italy) based on lime lumps will also be discussed. Dating accuracy will be quantified by comparing {sup 14}C data on mortar lime lumps from a funerary inscription of known age found near the Basilica, in the same study site. For this site, a comparison between absolute chronologies performed by bulk and CryoSoniC purified lime lumps, and charcoal incased in mortars (when found) will also be discussed. Observed results for this site provide evidence of how bulk lime lump dating may introduce systematic overestimations of the analyzed sample while CryoSoniC purification allows accurate dating.

  5. 河南淅川县阎杆岭83号墓发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In December 2005, in coordination with the heightening works of the Danjiangkou key water control facilities in the middle line of the project of shifting southern water to the north, the Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated Tomb 83 in Area II of the Yanganling Cemetery. The tomb pit is shaped like the character "甲" and filled with stone and charcoal. It yielded 99 funeral objects, which belong to the types of pottery ding tripod, jar, urn, pot and model granary, kitchen range and well, bronze basin, zeng steamer, fu cauldron, wuzhu coin, weapon and horse - and - chariot trappings, and iron sword. Dated to the late Western Han Period, it provided new material data for researching Han tombs and related problems.%2005年12月,为配合南水北调中线丹江口水利枢纽加高工程,河南省文物考古研究所对阎杆岭墓群Ⅱ区的83号墓进行发掘。该墓为“甲”字形积石积炭墓,出土鼎、罐、瓮、壶、仓、灶、井等陶器和铜盆、铜甑、铜釜、铜五铢钱、铜兵器、铜车马器、铁剑等随葬器物99件,年代为西汉晚期,为汉墓以及相关问题的研究提供了新资料。

  6. La iglesia de Santo Domingo de La Iruela (Jaén. Excavación y Arqueología de la arquitectura

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    Salvatierra Cuenca, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the results of the archaeological interventions carried out in the church of Santo Domingo in La Iruela, Jaén. The excavations revealed that, prior to the present building constructed in the 16th century, there was another one that may also have had religious functions. The stratigraphic analysis permit knowing that the entire building was constructed at once, although the materials of the apse and the naves were very different; which allows for different interpretations. However, it has been proved that the deterioration of the building began between the seventeenth and the eighteenth century. The last stage is represented by the desecration and its use as a cemetery, which has caused important damages on the faces.En este artículo presentamos los resultados de la intervención arqueológica efectuada en la iglesia de Santo Domingo de La Iruela (Jaén. Las excavaciones han permitido comprobar que antes del edificio actual, levantado en el siglo XVI, existió otro, que quizá también tuvo funciones religiosas. El análisis estratigráfico de los restos emergentes ha demostrado que el último edificio se construyó en un solo momento, aunque se emplearon materiales muy diferentes en la cabecera y en las naves, lo que abre la puerta a diversas interpretaciones. Por otra parte se ha comprobado que entre los siglos XVII y XVIII debió comenzar el deterioro del edificio. La última fase viene representada por su desacralización y uso como cementerio, acción que ha provocado graves daños en sus paramentos.

  7. Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda en Sevilla: ilusiones y cenizas de un periplo literario

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    Caballero Wangüemert, María

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an approach to Tula. I start from a statement: Sevilla marked a before and after in his literary vocation between 1838 and 1840, becoming known in the newspapers as a poet. Letters to Cepeda, her first and passionate love, are today the most interesting document of this period, both from the point of view metaliterary and autobiographical. All the works of this period can be read as autobiographical plays. After a prolific literary career, Sevilla will be the city where she ends her career while she prepares her complete works. She is a widow, prematurely aged and tired. Her remains now rest in Seville’s San Fernando cemetery . This work, snorkeling in Seville years of increasingly famous writer, is a tribute to the bicentennial of his birth.En mi acercamiento a Tula en las páginas que siguen, quiero partir de una afirmación: Sevilla marcó un antes y un después en su vocación literaria entre 1838 y 1840, dándose a conocer en los periódicos como poeta. Las cartas a Cepeda, su primer y apasionado amor, son hoy el documento más interesante de esta etapa, tanto desde el punto de vista autobiográfico como metaliterario. Aun así, todas las obras de esta época pueden leerse en clave autobiográfica. Tras una fecunda trayectoria literaria, culminará en Sevilla su carrera profesional mientras prepara sus obras completas. Está viuda, prematuramente envejecida y cansada. Sus restos reposan hoy en el sevillano cementerio de San Fernando. Este trabajo, que bucea en los años sevillanos de la cada vez más afamada escritora, pretende ser un homenaje en el bicentenario de su nacimiento.

  8. Lichenometry and Cosmogenic Surface Exposure Dating of Possible Fossil Talus Deposits, Devil's Lake State Park, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knochenhauer, K. J.; Weber, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    Lichenometry and cosmogenic surface exposure dating have been highly successful in deciphering landform evolution in tectonically active regions, but have not been widely applied in mid-continent settings. We propose to test the idea that many of the talus deposits in Devil's Lake State Park (DLSP) are ancient, fossil, periglacial deposits that have been frozen in space and time not moving since ~18,000 years ago. Our results may provide valuable information that could be applied to other settings and may also offer information on the effects of 2nd order climatic events such as the Little Ice Age of the 16th-19th centuries, and also help determine the relation between the last glacial maximum about 18ky ago and its related timing to major mass sediment movements. Our preliminary data was collected methodologically offering tight, unimodal peaks of lichen diameters/ages for Aspicilia cinerea and Dimelaena oreina most consistent with the idea that the deposits have not moved since the last ice age. A growth curve for Dimelaena oreina was established through the use of a neighboring cemetery giving a local growth rate of 67.13mm/100yr with R=68. Size-distribution results for DLSP peaked at only 65.2mm. This suggests that current talus block lichen cover is not a record of the first generation. We will pair our lichenometric results with the future use of 10Be cosmogenic surface exposure dating to determine the ages of the 3 major talus deposits themselves (as opposed to lichen initialization ages) which should allow us to test our initial hypothesis, enhance our lichenometry data set, and begin to develop a more robust sampling strategy for further work. Deciphering the landform evolution of this area would offer insight to past landslides and mass debris flows.

  9. Reconstructing diet by stable isotope analysis: Two case studies from Bronze Age and Early Medieval Lower Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis is nowadays a method frequently applied for the reconstruction of past human diets. The principles of this technique were developed in the late 1970s and 1980s, when it was shown that the isotopic composition of an animal's body reflected that of its diet. Given that the investigated material (often bone collagen) is well enough preserved, several aspects of diet can be investigated by carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures - expressed as δ13C- und δ15N-values - as e.g. whether nutrition was based on C3 or C4 plants. Furthermore, these signatures can be used for the detection of a marine component in the diet and they contain information about the trophic level of an individual. The goal of the work presented in this talk was to investigate certain aspects of diet using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of human and animal skeletal remains from Austrian archaeological sites. Two sites (both in Lower Austria) were selected for this study, the Bronze Age Cemetery of Gemeinlebarn and the Early Medieval settlement of Thunau/Gars am Kamp. Previous archaeological and anthropological examinations suggested that both sites were inhabited by socially differentiated populations. Hence, during the stable isotope analysis special attention was paid to the detection of variation in nutritional habits due to sociogenic or gender-related differences. δ13C- und δ15N-values were measured in collagen, extracted from bone samples, by means of elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The obtained stable isotope data were examined for significant differences between social groups and the sexes using statistical hypothesis testing (MANOVA and ANOVA). (author)

  10. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae underscore the importance of human intervention.

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    Dorothee E Zielke

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes. Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany.

  11. Migrants and the transformation of local neighbourhoods: A study of the socioeconomic transformation of Lidcombe, Australia

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    Franklin OBENG-ODOOM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A major contributor to negative attitudes towards migrants is that they exert pressure on the facilities of the host communities without making any (substantial contribution to the host economy and society. This negative sentiment is particularly acute in cities, where pressure on amenities is concentrated and more visible. In turn, migrant neighbourhoods are particularly despised. Migration experiences in the Rookwood Cemetery area of Sydney, Australia, widely regarded as the “largest necropolis in the southern hemisphere”, however, challenge this stereotypical view. This migrant neighbourhood is the site of vibrant and diverse migration and migrant (especially Korean activities never before seen in the history of the area, which is now called Lidcombe. Drawing on multiple sources of evidence, including archival research at local libraries, discussion with long-time residents of the neighbourhood and visual ethnography (analysed from the historical-structural perspective in migration studies, this study offers a history of Lidcombe and appraises its twenty-first-century migration experiences. By doing so, it highlights the demographic, social and economic changes to emphasise the contribution of migrants to the regeneration of a “dead city” and also to contest inherited stereotypes of migrants that often lead to racial scapegoating and misrepresentation as “parasites”, “criminals” and a “drain” on the host economy. Overall, this case study suggests that migrants can and often do transform the spaces they occupy in ways that make a positive and lasting contribution to the host economy and society more generally. This is an important lesson for European countries facing the “migrant crisis” to consider, as it also is for politicians around the world seeking to wall out migrants to protect host economies and societies.

  12. 云南滇池地区聚落遗址2008年调查简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    经国家文物局批准,云南省文物考古研究所与美国密歇根大学人类学系签订为期3年的合作协议,进行"滇池区域史前聚落形态考古调查"项目,目的是通过开展全面的区域系统调查,寻找并确认与石寨山文化(亦称滇文化,时代约从春秋时期至西汉末期)有关的遗址和聚落[1],%In 2008, archaeological field survey was conducted to the southeast of the Lake Dian area, covering areas of 64 sq kin. This is the first application of systematic regional survey method in Yunnan. This survey discovered 43 sites, 25 of which belonged to the Bronze Age, nine crossed the Bronze Age through the Eastern Han Dynasty, Three-Kingdoms Period and Western Jin Dynasty, five belonged to the Han Dynasty and the rest four were cemeteries. The analyses based on the survey results showed that the alluvial plain around the Lake Dian was very possibly the central region for the bronze cultures of the Lake Dian area to emerge and develop; the areas with densely distributed sites of the Han Dynasty were close to the seat of Yizhou Prefecture, which was the political center of this area at that time. This survey laid foundation for the archaeological researches on the settlement patterns in the Lake Dian area.

  13. Metric sex estimation from the postcranial skeleton for the Colombian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Megan K; DiGangi, Elizabeth A; Niño Ruíz, Francis Paola; Hidalgo Davila, Oscar Joaquín; Sanabria Medina, César

    2016-05-01

    This research explores the best univariate and multivariate indicators for sex estimation using 51 standard osteometric measurements of all six major postcranial long bones, bones of the shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, and the calcaneus from a modern, Colombian skeletal collection. The hypotheses being tested are (1) that postcrania will yield accurate sex classification rates and (2) the shoulder girdle will demonstrate the highest discrimination, based on results from previous research. The sample consists of 134 individuals (50 females, 84 males) between the ages of 19 and 93 with a mean age of 47 years. The sample is from the Colombian Skeletal Collection, consisting of skeletons from cemeteries in Bogotá, with recent years of death. The methods include univariate and multivariate discriminant function analysis (DFA). The results for this sample indicate the same general pattern of univariate classification effectiveness as found in research on North Americans; however, here the humerus performs better than the distal femur and proximal tibia as demonstrated in some North American samples. The cross-validated percent correct univariate classification for the postcranial elements ranges from 64.8% to 86.1% (paids in forensic individuation, as the long bones of the postcranial elements are relatively resistant to taphonomic processes. Furthermore, the ability to achieve such a high degree of success from a single bone is preferable for the fast-paced forensic anthropology laboratories in Colombia that process hundreds to thousands of cases each year. This research plays an important role in the development of population standards in Colombia and South America and provides a robust method that can withstand courtroom scrutiny. PMID:27032896

  14. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2010- Varto

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    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe research carried out with the permission of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 9 to 26 July 2010 in the center of Muş, Varto, Korkut and Hasköy towns.In the research, cultural assets which were three churches, a store, a fountain, monument consisting of six houses and thirteen cemeteries were identified and examined.The houses in the center of Muş are generally made of mud brick with two-storey. The houses at Minaret, the castle and the River districts are disappearing rapidly, because they remain in the center of the city. They indicate the characteristic feature of Muş especially with front-side arrangements.The tombstones found in Varto district are noteworthy with human and animal figure forms. The tombstones identified in villages of Hasköy and Korkut towns stand with the sword and shield motifs.Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. The works identified usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period.The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region.Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors gradually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction.ÖzetT.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 09-26 Temmuz 2010 tarihleri arasında Muş merkez, Varto, Korkut ve Hasköy ilçelerinin köylerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir.Araştırmada; üç kilise, bir depo, bir çeşme, altı evden oluşan anıt eser ve on üç mezarlıktan oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilerek incelenmiştir.Muş merkezdeki evler genellikle kerpiç malzemeli ve iki

  15. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2010- Varto / A Survey on Medieval and Later Periods of Varto, Muş (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research carried out with the permission of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 9 to 26 July 2010 in the center of Muş, Varto, Korkut and Hasköy towns. In the research, cultural assets which were three churches, a store, a fountain, monument consisting of six houses and thirteen cemeteries were identified and examined. The houses in the center of Muş are generally made of mud brick with two-storey. The houses at Minaret, the castle and the River districts are disappearing rapidly, because they remain in the center of the city. They indicate the characteristic feature of Muş especially with front-side arrangements. The tombstones found in Varto district are noteworthy with human and animal figure forms. The tombstones identified in villages of Hasköy and Korkut towns stand with the sword and shield motifs. Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. The works identified usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period. The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region. Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors gradually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction. Özet T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 09-26 Temmuz 2010 tarihleri arasında Muş merkez, Varto, Korkut ve Hasköy ilçelerinin köylerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada; üç kilise, bir depo, bir çeşme, altı evden oluşan anıt eser ve on üç mezarlıktan oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilerek incelenmiştir. Muş merkezdeki evler genellikle kerpiç malzemeli

  16. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910) in medieval central europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  17. Huellas del pasado, miradas del presente: la construcción social del patrimonio arqueológico del Neuquén

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    Estela Mónica Cúneo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la relación entre aspectos teóricos pertinentes a la gestión del patrimonio arqueológico, la praxis profesional y el papel de las comunidades aborígenes y criollas, a partir de tres experiencias de arqueología de rescate en cementerios indígenas ubicados en la Provincia del Neuquén, República Argentina. En todas las ocasiones las comunidades locales manifestaron ser las propietarias de los materiales arqueológicos, por lo que estos casos constituyen un punto de partida para reflexionar acerca de "la construcción social del patrimonio arqueológico". Se plantea que la práctica profesional y la gestión del patrimonio arqueológico deben tener en cuenta los contextos socio-culturales y las percepciones simbólicas de las comunidades.The aim of this paper is to analyze theoretical issues related to the management of archaeological heritage, archaeological praxis, and the role of aboriginal and Creole communities. Three experiences of rescue archaeology conducted at indigenous cemeteries located in Neuquen Province, Argentina, form the basis of this analysis. In all cases local communities claimed to be the owners of the archaeological materials. These experiences are a starting point for thinking about "the social construction of cultural heritage". It is argued that archaeological praxis and the management of the archaeological heritage should take into account sociocultural contexts and the symbolic perceptions of communities.

  18. The girl from the Church of the Sacrament: a case of congenital syphilis in XVIII century Lisbon

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    Sheila Mendonça de Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a sexually or congenitally transmitted infectious disease with an impact on the health of human populations that has undergone important cycles in different countries and periods of history. Its presence was first diagnosed in Europe in the late XIV century. In Portugal, although there are various written records of the infection in the last centuries, there are rare references to it in archeological findings (mummified bodies are also rare in Portugal. The current study describes a probable case of congenital syphilis in an 18-month-old girl buried in the Church of the Sacrament in Lisbon. Her body, dating to the XVIII century, was found mummified together with dozens of others, still not studied. Symmetrical periostitis of the long bones, osteitis, metaphyseal lesions, left knee articular, and epiphyseal destruction, and a rarefied lesion with a radiological appearance compatible with Wimberger's sign all point to a diagnosis of congenital syphilis. The diagnosis of this severe form of the infection, possibly related to the cause of death in this upper-class girl, calls attention to the disease's presence in XVIII century Lisbon and is consistent with the intense mobilization at the time in relation to the risks posed by so-called heredosyphilis. It is the first case of congenital syphilis in a child reported in archeological findings in Portugal, and can be correlated with other cases in skeletons of adults buried in cemeteries in Lisbon (in the XVI to XVIII centuries and Coimbra (XIX century. Finally, this finding highlights the need to study the entire series of mummified bodies in the Church of the Sacrament in order to compare the paleopathological findings and existing historical documents on syphilis, so as to expand the paleoepidemiological knowledge of this infection in XVIII century Lisbon.

  19. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume III. Cultural resource assessment socioeconomic background data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, Heather; Janzen, Donald E.

    1980-11-26

    This report has been prepared in conjunction with an environmental baseline study for a commercial coal conversion facility being conducted by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company (AECO). This report represents a cultural resource assessment for the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. This assessment presents data collected by Dames and Moore during a recent archaeological reconnaissance of the unsurveyed southeastern portion of the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. Also, results of two previous surveys on the northern and southwestern portion of the plant site for American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) and Kentucky Utilities are included. The Dames and Moore survey of the southeastern portion of the plant site identified one archaeological site, three standing structures and one historic cemetery. In addition 47 archaeological sites and six standing structures are known from two previous surveys of the remainder of the plant site (Cowan 1975 and Turnbow et al 1980). Eleven of the previously recorded archaeological sites were recommended for further assessment to evaluate their potential for inclusion within the Holt Bottoms Archaeological District currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places. None of the archaeological sites or standing structures located within the plant site during the Dames and Moore survey were recommended for further assessment. A total of eight archaeological sites were located during the Dames and Moore survey of the two potential solid waste disposal areas. Of this total only two sites were recommended for further assessment. Also, one previously unknown historic cemetry was located in the southernmost potential waste disposal area.

  20. Burying dogs in ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: temporal trends and relationships with human diet and subsistence practices.

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    Robert J Losey

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region's dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7-8000 B.P., and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica. Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region's human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia.

  1. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) underscore the importance of human intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Werner, Doreen; Schaffner, Francis; Kampen, Helge; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes). Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany. PMID:24992470

  2. Celebrating Benedict Kiely 2007 Benedict Kiely Weekend Keynote Address

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    David Pierce

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Benedict Kiely (1919-2007 has an annual weekend devoted to his memory as one ofIreland’s leading writers in the modern period. The sixth such event was held in the newly-built Strule Arts Centre in Omagh in September 2007. Kiely lived most of his life in Dublin, pursuing a career as a journalist and a writer, but his roots were in County Tyrone. Educated by the Christian Brothers in Omagh, he embarked on a Jesuit novitiate in the Irish Midlands but this was cut short by a spinal injury, which meant a year of confinement on the broad of his back. Subsequently, he went on to read English and History at University College Dublin. His journalistic career took him first to the Irish Independent and then to the Irish Press, where he was literary editor. In the 1960s he took up visiting professorships at several North American colleges in Oregon and Tennessee. On his return he became well-known on Irish radio for talks and discussion programmes, and he was a regular contributor to Sunday Miscellany. A sharp observer of the Northern scene, he was particularly disturbed by the upsurge in violence in the recent Troubles, airing his grievances in imaginative works such as Proxopera (1977 andNothing Happens in Carmincross (1985. He died in Dublin on 9 February 2007 after a short illness, and after Requiem mass in Donnybrook he was laid to rest in the Dublin Road Cemetery in Omagh. The following is the text of the opening address I was invited to give at the sixth annual weekend. I spoke about Kiely’s sense of connection running through his writings.

  3. New results to discuss possibility of irrigation in Bat (Wadi Sharsah, northwestern Oman) before Hafit period (ca. 3100-2700 BCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouache, Eric; Desruelles, Stéphane; Eddargach, Wassel; Cammas, Cecilia; Wattez, Julia; Martin, Chloé; Tengberg, Margareta; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Cable, Charlotte; Thornton, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1989, the extensive archaeological site of Bat is situated within the Wadi Sharsah and around the modern village and palm grove of Bat, 24 km from the modern city of Ibri in northwestern Oman. The archaeological remains from the Bronze Age excavated by the Bat Archaeological Project are located in two mains areas. The northern area consists of a chain of low limestone hills cut by wadi tributaries leading to the main Wadi Sharsah. It is characterised by an exceptionnally high density of graves from two successive Bronze Age periods : Hafit (ca. 3100-2700 BCE) and Umm an-Nar (ca. 2700-2000 BCE). South of the Bat cemetery, in the flat part of the valley, there are several large circular structures (known historically as « towers ») and remains from both Hafit and Umm an-Nar periods, as well as later periods. Geomorphological mapping of the floodplain, associated with archaeological survey, have identified walls suggesting that during the Umm an-Nar period there was a system of irrigation which controlled flood water. Sedimentological, malacological, C14 dating and micromorphological studies of a 10 m long and 2.5 m high section located 143 m northeast of the Tower 1146 on the left bank of a small tributary of the Wadi Sharsah provide strong argument for the presence of an irrigation system that began before the Hafit period. New C14 datings confirm this hypothesis. Botanical macro-remains collected during the excavation of early Bronze Age structures at Bat further indicate the presence of date palm gardens since the 3rd millenium BCE allowing the cultivation of several crop species, in particular cereals. Most generally the global palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from our data supports a model of a general trend of aridification from Bronze Age to iron Age. Key words : Bronze Age, Holocene, Geomoephology, Micromorphology, Irrigation, Oman.

  4. Osteoarchaeological Studies of Human Systemic Stress of Early Urbanization in Late Shang at Anyang, China.

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    Zhang, Hua; Merrett, Deborah C; Jing, Zhichun; Tang, Jigen; He, Yuling; Yue, Hongbin; Yue, Zhanwei; Yang, Dongya Y

    2016-01-01

    Through the analysis of human skeletal remains and mortuary practice in Yinxu, this study investigates the impact of early urbanization on the commoners during the Late Shang dynasty (ca. 1250-1046 B.C.). A total of 347 individuals examined in this study represent non-elites who were recovered from two different burial contexts (formally buried in lineage cemeteries and randomly scattered in refuse pits). Frequencies of enamel hypoplasia (childhood stress), cribra orbitalia (childhood stress and frailty) and osteoperiostitis (adult stress) were examined to assess systemic stress exposure. Our results reveal that there was no significant difference in the frequency of enamel hypoplasia between two burial groups and between sexes, suggesting these urban commoners experienced similar stresses during childhood, but significantly elevated levels of cribra orbitalia and osteoperiostitis were observed in the refuse pit female cohort. Theoretically, urbanization would have resulted in increased population density in the urban centre, declining sanitary conditions, and increased risk of resource shortage. Biologically, children would be more vulnerable to such physiological disturbance; as a result, high percentages of enamel hypoplasia (80.9% overall) and cribra orbitalia (30.3% overall) are observed in Yin commoners. Adults continued to suffer from stress, resulting in high frequencies of osteoperiostitis (40.0% total adults); in particular, in the refuse pit females who may also reflect a compound impact of gender inequality. Our data show that the non-elite urban population in the capital city of Late Shang Dynasty had experienced extensive stress exposure due to early urbanization with further social stratification only worsening the situation, and eventually contributing to collapse of the Shang Dynasty. PMID:27050400

  5. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

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    Jana Jones

    Full Text Available Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C. bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C., their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC. We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt. Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  6. A new approach to the study of Romanization in Britain: a regional perspective of cultural change in late iron age and roman dorset using the siler and gompertz-makeham models of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Rebecca C; Dewitte, Sharon N

    2011-02-01

    This is the first study of health in the Roman Empire to use the Siler and Gompertz-Makeham models of mortality to investigate the health consequences of the 43 AD conquest of Britain. The study examined late Iron Age and Romano-British populations (N = 518) from Dorset, England, which is the only region of Britain to display continuity in inhumation burial practice and cemetery use throughout the two periods. Skeletal evidence for frailty was assessed using cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, periosteal lesions, enamel hypoplasia, dental caries, tuberculosis, and rickets. These health variables were chosen for analysis because they are reliable indicators of general health for diachronic comparison (Steckel and Rose: The backbone of history: health and nutrition in the western hemisphere (2002)) and are associated with the introduction of urbanism in Britain during the Roman period (Redfern: J Rom Archaeol Supp Series 64 (2007) 171-194; Redfern: Britannia 39 (2008a) 161-191; Roberts and Cox: Health and disease in Britain: from prehistory to the present day (2003)). The results show that levels of frailty and mortality were lower in the late Iron Age period, and no sex differences in mortality was present. However, post-conquest, mortality risk increased for children and the elderly, and particularly for men. The latter finding challenges received wisdom concerning the benefits of incorporation into the Empire and the higher status of the male body in the Roman world. Therefore, we conclude that the consequences of urbanism, changes in diet, and increased population heterogeneity negatively impacted health, to the extent that the enhanced cultural buffering of men did not outweigh underlying sex differences in biology that advantage women.

  7. Simon Newcomb, Other Aspects of His Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    Simon Newcomb (1835-1909) is perhaps the best known American astronomer of the late 19th century. Among the many aspects of his long career, he was one of the founders and the first president of what later became the American Astronomical Society. However, he wrote widely on subjects other than astronomy, even producing works of fiction. He was especially interested in economics and published such titles as A critical examination of our financial policy during the Southern rebellion, A plain man's talk on the labor question, Principles of political economy and others. The very interesting title, A statistical inquiry into the probability of causes of the production of sex in human offspring was written in 1904. Newcomb even produced a work of science fiction, His Wisdom, the Defender: a story, published in 1900. William Alvord, President of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, on awarding Newcomb the Bruce Medal stated “The essential quality of his mind is that of a philosopher rather than that of a mathematician or an astronomer merely.” It has been suggested (Bradley Schaefer and others) that Arthur Conan Doyle used Newcomb as the model for Prof. Moriarty in his Sherlock Holmes novels. He had close friendships with many scientists of his time including Alexander Graham Bell. On the other hand, it has been reported that he also had contentious relationships with some scientists and could be intimidating. A devoted family man, he encouraged his three daughters in their intellectual pursuits. Newcomb, who held naval rank in the Corps of Professors of Mathematics, was buried in Arlington National Cemetery with full military honors. His funeral was attended by many noted scientists and other dignitaries including President William Howard Taft.

  8. Editorial: Discovery from Lake Turkana and History of Human Warfare

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    Professor S. P. Singh, Ph.D.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Very interesting finds have come to light of violently killed humans from Lake Turkana in the Kenyan Rift Valley around 10000 years ago. A stunning discovery of skeletons of 27 persons who are believed to have been killed at the same time and are supposed to have suffered violent wounds has been reported recently (Nature 529, 394–398, 21 January 2016. These finds belong to a period of late Pleistocene/early Holocene of the hunter-gatherer societies from Nataruk. Among the victims were men, women and children. The individuals were killed with projectiles and blunt weapons. These skeletons were found in the lagoon and were preserved very nicely. Such type of mass killing probably could never happen as a consequence of intra-group conflict. The evidence seems to be towards warfare and aggression in ancient societies. The experts ruled out the possibility of a cemetery and ceremonial burial. This discovery of 27 skeletons points to the fact that there may have been more causalities and many individuals might have escaped death at that time. According to one of the co-authors of this research Dr. R.A. Foley, the groups were elatively more densely packed populations than the hunter gatherers and had more chances of having inter-group conflicts because of sharing the resources which would have been plentiful near the lagoons and water bodies. Violence probably has been in the instinct of early humans and that the warfare among humans has a history of 10000 years or even earlier.

  9. Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm

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    Erik Andersson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden—allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas—and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1 assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2 develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales. Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  10. Measuring social-ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, E; Barthel, S; Ahrné, K

    2007-07-01

    The generation of ecosystem services depends on both social and ecological features. Here we focus on management, its ecological consequences, and social drivers. Our approach combined (1) quantitative surveys of local species diversity and abundance of three functional groups of ecosystem service providers (pollinators, seed dispersers, and insectivores) with (2) qualitative studies of local management practices connected to these services and their underlying social mechanisms, i.e., institutions, local ecological knowledge, and a sense of place. It focused on the ecology of three types of green areas (allotment gardens, cemeteries, and city parks) in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. These are superficially similar but differ considerably in their management. Effects of the different practices could be seen in the three functional groups, primarily as a higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the composition of seed dispersers and insectivores. Thus, informal management, which is normally disregarded by planning authorities, is important for ecosystem services in the urban landscape. Furthermore, we suggest that informal management has an important secondary function: It may be crucial during periods of instability and change as it is argued to promote qualities with potential for adaptation. Allotment gardeners seem to be the most motivated managers, something that is reflected in their deeper knowledge and can be explained by a sense of place and management institutions. We propose that co-management would be one possible way to infuse the same positive qualities into all management and that improved information exchange between managers would be one further step toward ecologically functional urban landscapes.

  11. 《源氏物语》中脱离困境的引导--三首白氏讽谕诗的异国阐释%Seeking a Way to Turn Their Fortunes Around in The Tale of Genji:On Bai Juyi's Allegorical Poems Used for Exotic Explanations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建梅

    2015-01-01

    白居易的《上阳白发人》《李夫人》《陵园妾》等以后宫薄命美女为题材的讽谕诗对日本平安时代文学作品《源氏物语》影响深刻。紫式部对此三首诗的借鉴先后有别、递进有序,呈现出情感上的“怨与妒”“求不得”“戒而生”的变化与发展。这一借鉴特色是作者紫式部对当时贵族女性婚姻状况的思考,反映了女性重情的审美倾向,亦是其基于净土信仰对女性情殇出路所作的探索与尝试。%Bai Juyi's allegorical poems, themed by ill-fated women in the imperial palace, such as Shangyang Palace Maid, Ms. Lee and Concubines' Cemetery, etc, had profound impact on The Tale of Genji, a lit-erary works in Japan's Heian Period (from A.D. 794 to A.D. 1185). Murasaki Shikibu quoted the above three poems, which presented emotional changes from "resentment and jealousy", "failed pursuit" and"revitalization from abstaining". This reference features represented the women's aesthetic psychology. Murasaki Shikibu's used reference was successively different and progressively orderly, which reflected her thinking on aristocratic women's marriage disturbance in Heian Period and her exploring the way out.

  12. TIRO Y LAS FLUCTUACIONES DE LA ECONOMÍA FENICIA DURANTE EL SIGLO VIII ANTES DE NUESTRA ERA (Tyre and the Fluctuations of Phoenician Economy during the 8th Century BC

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    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación del método de valoración contextual al análisis de los ajuares funerarios hasta ahora publicados de la necrópolis fenicia de Tiro-Al Bass, Líbano, permite aislar las fluctuaciones económicas y los cambios sociales experimentados por la población tiria durante el siglo VIII a. C. En concreto, se detecta una larga prosperidad desde mediados del siglo IX hasta mediados del VIII antes de nuestra era, con un máximo de bonanza a lo largo del periodo 775-750 a. C. En cambio, la segunda mitad del siglo VIII muestra una aguda crisis económica asociada a una elevada conflictividad social. Estos resultados coinciden plenamente con los acontecimientos históricos conocidos a través de las fuentes literarias antiguas, aportando evidencias que las complementan. En todo caso, con este nuevo ejemplo se confirma, una vez más, la universalidad de la metodología empleada y su irrefutable validez científica. ENGLISH: By applying the contextual valuation method to the analysis of grave goods from the Phoenician cemetery of Tyre-Al Bass, Lebanon, we can isolate the economic fluctuations and social changes experienced by the Tyrian population during the 8th century BC. Based on the evidence, the mid-9th to the mid-8th century BC was a period of prosperity, with the most pronounced economic boom between 775-750 BC. In contrast, the second half of the 8th century BC shows a sharp economic crisis associated with a high level of social conflict. These results are fully consistent with the historical events known through ancient literary sources. This new example confirms the universality of this methodology and its irrefutable scientific validity.

  13. August Hirt and "extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery" to anatomical institutes in National Socialism: a murderous change in paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Hans-Joachim

    2013-10-01

    German anatomical institutes always had problems obtaining sufficient cadavers for research and training. In the National Socialist (NS) period this changed. Universities could count on "extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery." Most frequently tacitly, many bodies were those of victims of NS crimes. Scientists increasingly exploited the exceptional political situation to systematically supplement their institutional collections. Their endeavors to fill the, in their terms, "lamentable gaps" in their collections took on truly bizarre forms. In Austria, Jewish cemeteries were plundered for racial-political expansion of anatomical collections. A change in paradigm was merely the next step: intentional murder for the benefit of NS-oriented science. In December of 1942, anatomists meeting in Tübingen discussed plans for "material acquisition." August Hirt, director of the anatomical institute at the Reichsuniversität in Strasbourg, was to develop guidelines. There was express reference to "Auftrag Beger," which had already been conceived although not yet realized: at the behest of Hirt and the SS-scientific organization, "Ahnenerbe," the anthropologists Bruno Beger and Hans Fleischhacker selected 86 Jewish prisoners in Auschwitz in June of 1943 and deported them to the concentration camp at Struthof near Natzweiler, where they were murdered. The bodies were delivered to the anatomy department in Strasbourg for preparation and used as anatomical specimens. The Reichsuniversität Strasbourg was considered a center of excellence for Nazi ideology. For modern scientists, the elucidation of these criminal acts is not exhausted in the search for an answer to the questions of perpetrator, place, modus operandi or motive. A suitable memorial to the victims must go beyond mere quantification.

  14. Wendell H. Griffith (1895-1968). Biographical sketch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R E

    1986-12-01

    Wendell Griffith made an indelible impression on his students, his colleagues and the broad field of the nutrition sciences. He was the prototype of the physiological chemist studying intricate problems of intermediary metabolism in the whole animal or human body. His early scientific reports on choline and amino acid metabolism set a high standard for intellectual precision and literary clarity. Dr. Griffith's last research paper was entitled "The Present Knowledge of Methyl Groups in Nutrition" and appeared in Nutrition Reviews in 1968. In this paper he reviews the substance of figure 2, which depicts the advancement in knowledge of choline metabolism, methyl biosynthesis, and transmethylation during his career. It is fortunate that Dr. Griffith was able to witness many of the developments in a field that he had pioneered. If he were alive today, he would be delighted to see how much further this field has moved. Wendell Griffith was a complete man. He combined the traits of high intelligence with a selfless patience and kindness, uncommon in productive scientists. His lucid and absorbing lectures were a joy to his students. Furthermore, he was a mentor with warmth and charm in his relationships to his graduate students and young faculty members and was a superb role model for them. After they left his department he was most supportive. Part of his own rejuvenation, I am sure, occurred in the out-of-doors where he loved to garden, hike and fish. Griff did not grow old, or it seemed he did not. He died at the age of 72 in Baltimore from a brain tumor that was of relatively sudden onset, and is buried in Oak Hill cemetery in Kirkwood, MO, a suburb of St. Louis. He enriched the lives of all of us who had the good fortune to know him. Moreover, his work lives on to stimulate the minds of all serious students of biochemistry and nutrition. PMID:3543258

  15. 西汉富平侯张安世系年述略%On the Sequential List of Activities of Fuping Marquis Zhang Anshi in Western Han Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁岩

    2012-01-01

    Zhang Anshi was born in the period of the reign by Emperor Hanwu in Western Han dynasty (around 134 B.C.) and died in the reign by Emperor Xuandi (around 62 B.C.). He had been an official for more than fifty years. He was cautious, introverted and self-effacing all his life and won recognition from the society and also got favorable comments from historians. The sorting of Zhang Anshi' s deeds can be helpful for the archaeological studies of Zhang Anshi' s and his family' s cemetery in Fengqi in the southern suburbs of Xi'an City, and is also beneficial to the study of the social history of the middle and late periods of Western Han dynasty.%张安世出生在西汉武帝时期(前134年前后),卒于宣帝朝(前62年),为官五十余年。他谨慎、内敛、自谦的一生,得到了社会的认可,也得到了史家的高度评价。梳理张安世的事迹,有助于对西安南郊凤栖原张安世及其家族墓地的考古研究,亦对研究西汉中、晚期社会历史有所裨益。

  16. Youth projects in Zamglay village in the Ripkynsky district of the Chernihiv region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population of Zamglay village is 1985 and about 400 inhabitants are young people. The village is located 70 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and experienced radioactive contamination during the disaster. As the years passed, radiation conditions fortunately improved, but unemployment and poverty caused by the closure of local enterprises became much worse. Impoverishment of the population has caused alcoholism and drug addiction of young people. Apathy and passivity towards life developed in people. People became accustomed to receiving low subsidies from the State authorized to 'chernobyltsy' (Chernobyl-affected people) and to doing nothing, dragging out a passive existence. People who were looking for a better life began to leave the village. The situation was difficult. People finally understood that they should not rely on the help of others. People said: 'If we don't help ourselves, who will help us?' 'We can help ourselves!' was the answer. We have understood that our power lies in our unity. In March 2003, the population of the village united in two organizations: 'Pobeda' (Victory) community organization and 'Ogonyok' (Light) community organization. We have jointly defined priorities and common projects for village recovery. We started by putting the cemetery in order, cleaning the streets, repairing the fences, water supply systems, wells and reconstruction of the local market. We then implemented projects on reconstruction of health clinics, repairing the school's workshop and sports ground, and laying a gas supply system. We implemented these projects with the assistance of the UNDP's Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme. There are also problems. The absence of telecommunications infrastructure does not allow reliable modern access to the internet. To implement business plans, available credit lines, training and experience are needed. This requires the assistance of the international community and the State. However, we have already

  17. Earliest evidence for caries and exploitation of starchy plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Louise T; De Groote, Isabelle; Morales, Jacob; Barton, Nick; Collcutt, Simon; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil

    2014-01-21

    Dental caries is an infectious disease that causes tooth decay. The high prevalence of dental caries in recent humans is attributed to more frequent consumption of plant foods rich in fermentable carbohydrates in food-producing societies. The transition from hunting and gathering to food production is associated with a change in the composition of the oral microbiota and broadly coincides with the estimated timing of a demographic expansion in Streptococcus mutans, a causative agent of human dental caries. Here we present evidence linking a high prevalence of caries to reliance on highly cariogenic wild plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from North Africa, predating other high caries populations and the first signs of food production by several thousand years. Archaeological deposits at Grotte des Pigeons in Morocco document extensive evidence for human occupation during the Middle Stone Age and Later Stone Age (Iberomaurusian), and incorporate numerous human burials representing the earliest known cemetery in the Maghreb. Macrobotanical remains from occupational deposits dated between 15,000 and 13,700 cal B.P. provide evidence for systematic harvesting and processing of edible wild plants, including acorns and pine nuts. Analysis of oral pathology reveals an exceptionally high prevalence of caries (51.2% of teeth in adult dentitions), comparable to modern industrialized populations with a diet high in refined sugars and processed cereals. We infer that increased reliance on wild plants rich in fermentable carbohydrates and changes in food processing caused an early shift toward a disease-associated oral microbiota in this population.

  18. APPROACHES ON THE INVASIVE ALIEN TAXA IN ROMANIA - AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA (RAGWEED II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper we presented the localities in Romania where we identified populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Between 2008-2011, investigations were continuing. Our data clearly show that Ambrosia is present throughout the country. The territories heavily infested are railway embankments, along traffic routes, gravel pits, building sites, forest edges, industrial areas, cemeteries and recreational areas. It is quite common to find ragweed in many private gardens, or flower pots in urban areas. The few foci observed along riversides got there by household waste and construction waste. In many rural communities find it on the drainage ditches. Disturbed and neglected land (on city limits and outside the city, abandonment of land without subsequent turning of stubble and another wrong agricultural practice, absence of ruderal weed control are the main causes that favor the dissemination of our country. Intensity of anthropogenic influence is manifested mainly by transport of materials and soil movement during road rehabilitation and construction of highways. The recent observations show that could be expected to appear on agricultural fields, now being found only on the outskirts of cultivated land, at 5-6 meters from high traffic roads. Ambrosia benefits from human activities to spread. This implies a strong control strategy. The main objective of the fighting activities need to be to reduce damages caused by its pollen and to limit its expansion. If invasion by Ambrosia is left uncontrolled, increase of allergies could heavily augment the treatments. Knowledge about mechanical or chemical control of ragweed could be very important for road and rail services, agricultural institutions, farmers, staff responsible for managing natural areas, institutions that approves and oversees residential sites and factories, responsible personnel of the administrations from cities and rural localities. Reducing the population is more required than

  19. Cascos hallados en necrópolis celtibéricas conservados en el Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Madrid

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    Barril Vicente, Magdalena

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes some helmets kept at the Museo Arqueológico Nacional in Madrid. They come from Celtiberian cemeteries at Aguilar de Anguita (province of Guadalajara, Alpanseque and Almaluez (both in Soria. The first two were excavated by D. Enrique de Aguilera y Gamboa, marquis de Cerralbo, and the third by D. Blas de Taracena. The helmets were studied and drawn in ideal reconstruction by D. Juan Cabré, whose designs have been used by later scholars. In this paper we show and draw the helmets in their actual state of preservation, some of them heavily damaged. However, we’ll de able to show that the Aguilar de Anguita type follows an etrusco-italic type with peculiar cheekpieces that is in itself a modification of East Mediterranean types. The other helmets are basically conical in shape, with an altogether different handycraft and decoration, and belong to a Centroeuropean model, also modified in the Italian Peninsula.

    En este trabajo revisaremos los cascos que se conservan en el Museo Arqueológico Nacional, de Madrid, procedentes de las necrópolis celtibéricas de Aguilar de Anguita, en Guadalajara y Alpanseque y Almaluez en Soria; excavadas las dos primeras por D. Enrique de Aguilera y Gamboa, Marqués de Cerralbo y la tercera por D. Blas de Taracena. Estos cascos fueron estudiados y reconstruidos en dibujo, idealmente, por D. Juan Cabré y seguidas sus propuestas en la bibliografía posterior. Los presentamos en su estado actual, que, aunque fragmentario, nos permite comprobar que son cascos que siguen modelos que han sido transformados en el Mediterráneo central. En particular el casco de Aguilar de Anguita sigue un tipo etrusco-itálico, de carrilleras avanzadas que transforma el tipo originario del Mediterráneo oriental; los demás cascos, serían casquetes de forma cónica, con distinta ejecución y decoración, modelo extendido por Europa central y también modificado en la Península Itálica.

  20. The structure and differentiation of the synanthropic flora of the botanical gardens in Poland

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    Halina Galera

    2011-04-01

    flora of Warsaw and that of the two botanical gardens established in the city revealed that the proportion of alien species was lower in case of these gardens. In Warsaw the flora of areas, which had been managed in the same way as those of the botanical gardens, was also investigated. It was found that the botanical gardens in Warsaw were more similar to cemeteries with respect to the structure of flora than they were to the allotments. The present study showed that the high variability of flora within the particular gardens is attributed to the different ways the area is utilized.

  1. Elemental mapping of medieval teeth using XRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent developments in X-Ray Fluorescence micro-analysis techniques made the traditional range of XRF applications expand, benefiting from the combination of single point analysis with high spatial element imaging. The sample is scanned through the X-Ray beam and corresponding spectra are continuously read from the detector and correlated to a particular position on the sample. In this work, elemental concentrations were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique (Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument) offering detailed elemental analysis. The instrument is equipped with a tungsten X-ray tube and a beryllium window, operating at 50 kV with a beam collimator of 100μm in diameter to irradiate the sample and with a Si detector. Tooth mapping provided semi-quantitative information and highlighted the regions of interest. Then multi-points analysis was used to obtain quantitative results on calcium, phosphorus, strontium and iron. As the chemical composition of dental tissues is similar to the one of bone tissue, the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were used for calibration. In this study, only permanent first molars were selected for analysis. The material comes from the medieval cemetery (XIIth . XIIIth) of Feldioara (Bra.ov County, Romania). In the same time, modern teeth were used as reference. The top of the tooth was removed using a diamond disk, with a cut lying perpendicular to the dental cusps, creating a flat transversal surface to be characterized. XRF elemental (Ca, P, Sr, Fe) and ratio (Ca/P, Sr/Ca, Sr/Fe) distribution images for dental tissues (enamel and dentin) were obtained from past and modern teeth with and without caries and the results are presented and discussed. The analysis of the spatial element distribution in the teeth tissues revealed severe alterations in elemental composition of both enamel and dentin from the regions affected by caries that were confirmed by the multi

  2. The Metallurgy of the Sicilian Final Bronze Age/Early Iron Age necropolis of Madonna del Piano (Catania, Sicily

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    Giumlia-Mair, Alessandra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis results of the copper- based finds, from the important Sicilian necropolis of Madonna del Piano, near Grammichele (Catania, dated between the local Final Bronze Age 2 and the Early Iron Age IA. 122 copper-based finds from the 273 graves (1970-71 of the large cemetery have been analysed. The sampled objects belong to different classes, there are for instance weapons of offence and defence, such as swords and greaves, small decorative objects for personal use, such as rings, fibulae, belt hooks, belt decorations, and small tools, such as the knives used by women, reels, needles and razors, but also small functional parts, such as rivets and nails, repairs and even a kind of musical instrument, such as the tintinnabula. The methods employed were AAS and SEM, where possible, and XRF in all cases. The aim of the research was that of evaluating the skill of the local artisans, of determining the most common copper-based alloys in use in Sicily in this period and comparing the data with the analysis results of contemporary groups of finds from other areas of the Italian peninsula and from other European regions.

    El artículo presenta el resultado de los análisis realizados a los metales de base cobre de la importante necrópolis siciliana de Madonna del Piano, próxima a Grammichele (Catania, fechada entre el Bronce Final 2 y la Primera Edad del Hierro IA. Se han estudiado un total de 122 objetos de base cobre procedentes de 273 tumbas excavadas entre 1970 y 1971. Los objetos muestreados pertenecen a diferentes tipos, armas ofensivas y defensivas tales como espadas y grebas, pequeños objetos de uso personal como anillos, fíbulas, broches de cinturón y pequeñas herramientas como cuchillos usados por las mujeres, carretes, agujas, navajas, pero también elementos funcionales como remaches, clavos y un tipo de instrumento como el tintinábulo. Los métodos de análisis utilizados fueron AAS y SEM, cuando fue

  3. Comment devient-on français quand on est juif et polonais ? How becoming French when you are a Polish Jew ? Compared itineraries from Holocaust survivors

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    Alban Perrin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available De nombreux Juifs polonais, fuyant la misère et l’antisémitisme, vinrent s’installer en France avant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. En 1940, l’occupation allemande et l’avènement du régime de Vichy mirent fin brutalement à leurs espoirs d’intégration. Fichés, spoliés, raflés, déportés, ils périrent en masse durant la Shoah. Un tiers environ des victimes de la « Solution finale » en France étaient d’origine polonaise. À la Libération, les survivants furent bientôt rejoints par de nouveaux réfugiés, rescapés des ghettos et des camps, aux yeux desquels la Pologne n’était plus qu’un immense cimetière. Durant plus de quarante ans, le partage de l’Europe en deux blocs antagonistes acheva de les couper de leur pays d’origine. Aucun, ou presque, n’apprit le polonais à ses enfants. Tous, en revanche, déployèrent d’importants efforts pour s’intégrer à leur société d’accueil et devenir Français. Comparer leurs trajectoires individuelles offre une double perspective riche d’enseignements sur l’immigration en France et le destin des Juifs au xxe siècle.A lot of Polish Jews, fleeing misery and anti-Semitism, settled in France before the Second World War. In 1940, the German occupation and the establishment of the Vichy regime ended their hopes of integration. Filed, despoiled, rounded up, deported, they massively died during the Holocaust. One third of the victims of the “Final Solution” in France came from Poland. At the Liberation, new refugees, survivors from ghettos and camps, arrived. For them, Poland was just a huge cemetery. Hardly anyone of them spoke Polish with his children. On the other hand, they made important efforts to integrate French society and to become French citizens. To compare their individual trajectories gives a double viewpoint on the immigration in France and the fate of Jews during the twentieth century.

  4. Tshuktshi ja mõnede tehiste rahvaste surnute ja matustega seotud kommetest ja uskumustest

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    Ülo Siimets

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article opens with a quotation from a novel by Lennart Meri, revealing that the Chukchi consider it pointless to visit cemeteries without reason. The article discusses the funeral rites and the fear for death of the Chukchi. The Chukchi believe that the souls of the dead will turn into the henchmen of keltja, and are therefore dangerous. Their fear for the deceased is so overwhelming that when the last member of a family dies, their jaranga is left to decompose in the tundra - no living creature is allowed touch it. The funeral tradition of the Chukchi is based on keeping the dead from harming the living. When somebody died, the Chukchi in the village were bound to silence. At least two people had to hold wake to the dead, because the dead may have overpowered one. The corpse was dressed in white leather clothes, because the dead might not be satisfied with everyday clothes and might come back to haunt the living. Some food is also given along. In order to satisfy the deceased and keep it from coming back, it is "consulted" on everything, for example, whether it "wishes" to be left in the tundra or to be cremated. The corpse is taken out of the jaranga through the back wall and all the traces to the burial site are carefully removed, so that it would not find its way back. During the funeral, one or two reindeers are sacrificed for the deceased. The performers of the funeral ceremony croak like crows three times to keep the evil spirits off the deceased. The dead body is covered with reindeer meat and several magico-protective rites are performed. Often the whole village visits the deceased the next day and sacrifice and share another reindeer. The living will be also protected by the items that belonged to the deceased. A belt worn by a dead man or pieces of the fur collar worn by a dead woman will be distributed among the living. The main purpose of the funeral ritual is to protect the living and keep the deceased satisfied, so that he

  5. Lake Level Changes in the Mono Basin During the Last Deglacial Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Ali, G.; Hemming, S. R.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Stine, S. W.; Hemming, G.

    2014-12-01

    Mono Basin, located in the southwestern corner of the US Great Basin, has long been known to have experienced large lake level changes, particularly during the last deglaciation. But until recently it was not possible to establish a reliable lake level time series. We discovered many visually clean, white, shiny, dense calcite samples in the basin, associated with tufa deposits from high terraces. Their low thorium, but high uranium contents allow precise and reproducible U/Th age determinations. A highly resolved history of a minimum lake level through the last deglaciation can therefore be inferred based on sample locations and their ages. We found that the lake level reached ~2030 m asl at ~20.4 ka, evidenced by calcite coatings on a tufa mound at the upper Wilson Creek. The lake then rose to ~2075 m by ~19.1 ka, shown by calcite cements on conglomerates from the Hansen Cut terrace. The lake climbed to at least ~2140 m at ~15.9 ka, indicated by beach calcites from the east Sierra slope. Such timing of the highest lake stand, occurring within Heinrich Stadial 1, is reinforced by U/Th dates on calcite coatings from widespread locations in the basin, including the Bodie Hills and Cowtrack Mountains. The lake then dropped rapidly to ~2075 m at ~14.5 ka. It stood near this height over the next ~300 years, evidenced by a few-centimeter thick, laminated calcite rims on the Goat Ranch tufa mounds. It subsequently plunged to ~2007 m at ~13.8 ka, indicated by calcite coatings from cemetery road tufa mounds. The lake level came back to ~2030 m at ~12.9 ka, as seen in upper Wilson Creek tufa mounds. The lake level had a few fluctuations within the Younger Dryas, and even shot up to ~2075 m at ~12.0 ka. It then fell to levels in accord with Holocene climatic conditions. Relative to the present lake level of ~1950 m, Mono Lake broadly stood high during Heinrich Stadial 1 and Younger Dryas, when the climate was extremely cold over the North Atlantic, and the Asian monsoon was

  6. El registro arqueológico de las antiguas poblaciones de los valles orientales de la Provincia Arce, Tarija, Bolivia The Archaeological Record Of The Early Populations Of The Eastern Valleys Of Arce Province, Tarija, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ventura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2001 iniciamos un Proyecto binacional de relevamiento del registro arqueológico de las antiguas poblaciones que habitaron los valles orientales del sur tarijeño y el norte salteño durante los últimos mil años. En este trabajo se presentan los datos de la primera parte del proyecto, en la cual hemos prospectado sectores de ocho valles en el Departamento Arce (Tarija detectando 32 sitios arqueológicos de diversas características. Entre los sitios hay un conglomerado con presencia de arquitectura y materiales incaicos y sectores de caminos empedrados. Hay sitios semi-conglomerados de unas 30 estructuras de paredes dobles de piedra y otros con unas pocas estructuras dispersas. Se hallaron entierros humanos en el interior de una cueva, a partir de los cuales se obtuvo una muestra que fue datada. Otras inhumaciones fueron relevadas tanto en aleros como en cementerios con estructuras de piedra en superficie. Se detectaron sitios con arte rupestre, tanto con motivos grabados como con pinturas. Se ubicaron también sitios posiblemente más antiguos. En todos los casos se verificó un alto grado de destrucción de los sitios y se plantea entonces la necesidad urgente de su preservación y estudio.In 2001, a bi-national project was initiated to study the archaeological record of the early populations that inhabited the eastern valleys of Southern Tarija and Northern Salta during the last thousand years. During stage one of the project, sectors of eight valleys in Arce County, Tarija, were explored, resulting in the detection of 32 archaeological sites. The sites include a conglomerate with presence of Inca materials and architecture, and sectors of stone-paved roads. In addition, there are semi-conglomerated sites approximately 30 structures of double-width stonewalls, and other sites a few dispersed structures. Human burials have been found in the interior of a cave, in rock shelters, and in cemeteries with superficial stone structures

  7. Early urbanization and mobility at Tell Brak, NE Syria: the evidence from femoral and tibial external shaft shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    2015-04-01

    Urbanization at Tell Brak began in the late 5th millennium BCE and the site reached its maximum size in the Late Chalcolithic (LC) 3, ca. 3900-3600 BCE. During that time, a large midden was formed at the edge of the early city, now known as Tell Majnuna. Rescue excavations at Tell Majnuna revealed several clusters of commingled human remains and a cemetery on the top. Several human skeletons dated to the LC 3 and Early Bronze Age (EBA) were found also at Tell Brak itself and it was possible to investigate differences in cross-sectional femoral and tibial shaft shapes between LC 3 and EBA to test the hypothesis that rapid and extensive urbanization in the LC 3 induced increase in mobility. External midshaft and subtrochanteric measurements of at least 152 femora and measurements of 55 tibiae at the nutrient foramen were taken to investigate the differences in the level of terrestrial mobility between four LC 3 and one EBA chronological subsets. Also the correlation was examined between shaft cross-sectional shapes and frequency of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) in canines, as a proxy indicator of population stress. Due to post-mortem damage, sex assessment was based only on the size of measured bones. In spite of the limited quality of the gathered data, significant differences in femoral midshaft shape in males were observed between the LC 3 and EBA subsets and the average shape index scores appeared to be correlated with the LEH frequencies. No such result was obtained for females, suggesting that only males were more mobile in the LC 3 and their mobility level was associated with general population stress. In contrast, in females the average shape of subtrochanteric femoral cross-section was more variable between temporal subsets. The patterns of temporal differences in tibial cross-section at the nutrient foramen were not conclusive due to the small sample size. Obtained results suggest that males in the LC 3, the period of rapid urbanization, were more mobile

  8. Casting Away Four Olds Campaign and its Effects in the Early Days of "the Cultural Revolution" in Qufu Concurrently on Red Guards and the Natives'Behaviors and Mentality%“文化大革命”初期曲阜的“破四旧”运动及其影响——兼论红卫兵与当地民众的行为、心态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李先明

    2012-01-01

    曲阜的“破四旧”运动始于1966年8月,止于1967年初。运动之初,当地干部组织群众努力把“破四旧”运动控制在一定范围内,力保“三孔”等重点文物保护单位免遭破坏。但随着“文化大革命”的全面升级和北师大“井冈山战斗团”等外地红卫兵组织的介入,“破四旧”最终演变成一场“造孔家店的反”的灾难性破坏运动。曲阜“破四旧”运动的开展,不仅未能“移风易俗”、“改变整个社会的精神面貌”,反而严重地破坏了国家历史文化遗产,给当地民众的文化、生活等造成了巨大的负面影响,其经验教训值得反思。%Casting Away Four Olds Campaign in Qufu dated from August 1966 and ended in the beginning of 1967. At the start of the campaign, the local cadres organized the masses to try to control the campaign in a cer- tain extent to preserve the Confucius Mansion, Confucius Temple, Confucius Cemetery and other key preservation units of cultural relics from destruction. However, with the comprehensive upgrade of the "Cultural Revolution" and the intervention of Beijing Normal University' s Jinggangshan Battle Group and other Red Guard organizations from other parts of the country, Casting Away Four Olds Campaign was eventually developed into a disastrous ac- tion to object the Confucianism. The launch of Casting Away Four Olds Campaign in Qufu hadn' t transformed es- tablished social traditions and shifted the spirit of the whole society, on the contrary, seriously damaged the na- tional historical and cultural heritages and brought big negative effects on the country and the culture and life of the natives. The experiences and lessons really need our reflections.

  9. Direct and indirect effects of land use on floral resources and flower-visiting insects across an urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, K.C.; Grace, James B.; Minor, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Although urban areas are often considered to have uniformly negative effects on biodiversity, cities are most accurately characterized as heterogeneous mosaics of buildings, streets, parks, and gardens that include both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ areas for wildlife. However, to date, few studies have evaluated how human impacts vary in direction and magnitude across a heterogeneous urban landscape. In this study, we assessed the distribution of floral resources and flower-visiting insects across a variety of land uses in New York City. We visited both green spaces (e.g. parks, cemeteries) and heavily developed neighborhood blocks (e.g. with high or low density residential zoning) and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of median income, vegetation, and development intensity on floral resources and insects in both settings. Abundance and taxonomic richness of flower-visiting insects was significantly greater in green spaces than neighborhood blocks. The SEM results indicated that heavily-developed neighborhoods generally had fewer flower-visiting insects consistent with reductions in floral resources. However, some low-density residential neighborhoods maintained high levels of floral resources and flower-visiting insects. We found that the effects of surrounding vegetation on floral resources, and thus indirect effects on insects, varied considerably between green spaces and neighborhood blocks. Along neighborhood blocks, vegetation consisted of a mosaic of open gardens and sparsely distributed trees and had a positive indirect effect on flower-visiting insects. In contrast, vegetation in urban green spaces was associated with increased canopy cover and thus had a negative indirect effect on flower-visiting insects through reductions in floral resources. In both neighborhood blocks and green spaces, vegetation had a positive direct effect on flower-visiting insects independent of the influence of vegetation on floral

  10. Cólera e gentes de cores ou o acesso aos socorros públicos no século XIX Cholera and people "of color" or access to public health care in 19th-century Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Felipe Beltrão

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A diversidade étnica no Grão-Pará, na época da cólera, está estampada nas categorias anotadas pelos profissionais de saúde, pelos viajantes e pelos publicistas que registraram as nuanças relativas à cor e à etnia de cada uma das vítimas da epidemia. Arrolados como indígenas, as vítimas caboclas, índias, e tapuias somam 205 almas; e, como negros, vítimas cafuzas, mamelucas, mulatas, pardas e pretas chegam a 646, enquanto os brancos somam 184. As gentes de cores abatidas pela epidemia constituem 82% dos mortos sepultados na Soledade. A cólera "escolhe" ou não suas vítimas? É cega em relação à condição social, à cor e à etnia dos grupos que flagela? São as perguntas que se fazem tendo como campo empírico a epidemia ocorrida no século XIX, e o acesso aos socorros públicos na Belém do Grão-Pará, trabalhando documentos depositados no Arquivo Público do Estado do Pará (APEP e no Instituto Histórico e Geográfico do Pará (IHGP.The prevailing ethnic diversity in the province of Grão-Pará (at the mouth of the Amazon River during the 19th-century cholera academic is revealed in the categories recorded by physicians, travelers, and chroniclers, with various nuances in the color and ethnicity of victims. The following cholera victims were classified under terms equivalent to indigenous: caboclas, índias, and tapuias, totaling 205 individuals, while blacks included cafuzas, mamelucas, mulatas, pardas, and pretas, totaling 646; meanwhile whites totaled 184. Persons of color who died during the epidemic thus comprised 82% of the individuals buried at the Soledade Cemetery. Does cholera "choose" its victims? Is it blind towards the social conditions, color, and ethnicity of the groups it strikes? These are the key questions in relation to the 19th-century epidemic, along with the question of access to public health care in Belém do Grão-Pará, based on documents from the Pará State Archives (APEP and the Par

  11. Explanation for the Structure of Zhuang-Nationality's Funeral Rites and the Meaning of It'sCultural Symbol(Ⅰ)——The Investigation of First Funeral Rites in Rongdong Village of Zhuang Nationality and the Analysis of It's Cultural Significance%壮族丧葬仪式结构及其文化象征意义解读(一)——以榕垌村壮族新丧首次葬仪式结构及其文化象征意义分析为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁福兴; 陆发焕

    2009-01-01

    In Chinese rural area, there exits a set of funeral culture, which embodies both the basic social relations and certain cultural value. The rural funeral is constituted by two sections: initial funeral and the secondary funeral. It demonstrates local people' s understanding towards life and the universe. During the process of the funeral, the main body(the decedent' s relatives), the object(the decedent), the agent(the rabbi), the field(the cemetery), all these elements constitute a complete in procedure but independent in meaning social order structure system. Through this system, people express their memory toward the decedent and care for the living. The funerals help to realize the transformation of life existence and the integration of the social groups' relations.%壮族农村礼俗社会拥有一套以既定程式体现其基本社会关系结构秩序和特定文化价值意义的丧葬制度文化.它以新丧首次葬和拾骨二次葬两段完整的传统仪式完成壮族对个人生命存在意义和群体宇宙存续方式的展示和理解.其中,在壮族新丧首次葬仪式活动过程中,丧葬主体(亲属)、客体(死者)、中介(法师)、场域(灵堂、墓地)等众多仪式要素相互作用,共同组成一个程式相对完整、意义相对独立的社会秩序结构体系,人们以一系列象征性的手段,通过这个结构体系,表达对死者的追念和对生者的关怀,实现个体生命存在形式的转场和社会群体关系秩序的整合.

  12. SPECIFICITIES OF MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nadim

    1971-07-01

    Full Text Available Mortality case registration is one of the oldest statistical data keeping, more for the legal reasons. Mortality statistical data are used for demographic and health purposes, if they classified and adjusted for factors such as age, gender, etc. Deficiencies in mortality registration are absence of descriptive factors, absence of some case reports, inaccuracy in reported cases, and changes of description of the cause of disease in time. Specificities of mortality are: age, gender, and disease. Of the age related one, three categories are the most important, children under the age of one, 1-4 years group, and relative death rate, that is, percentage of death related to the group of over 50 years. In present time, the mortality specific data are based on reports on the Ministry of Health which is obtained from the reports of the cemeteries in Tehran and several large cities. According to these reports, children mortality in the large cities is 29 to 145 in 1000. Independent studies in the rural areas showed this rate to be 112.8 to 217 in 1000. Reported figures for the mortality rate of 1-4 years old age group in the large cities vary from 281 to 2206 per 1000. The reason for this difference is considered to be the deficiencies in the methods of reports of the regions. In all reported figures, the sex related group showed higher mortality rate in men, but due to deficiencies of the system of registration, this difference can not be considered real. The more important causes of death in Iran are related to malnutrition and infections. Sources of data for determination of morbidity rates are consistent reports of the contagious diseases, registration of all cases of chronic and non contagious diseases, and collection of data from the people as morbidity survey. In Iran, most of the cases are not reported; also, diagnoses are mostly on the bases of suspicions and guesses. For these reasons, the published statistical data and their variations can not

  13. Social Consequences of Ebola Containment Measures in Liberia.

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    Umberto Pellecchia

    Full Text Available In the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD outbreak in Liberia, two major emergency disease-control measures were cremation of bodies and enforcement of quarantine for asymptomatic individuals suspected of being in contact with a positive case. Enforced by State-related actors, these were promoted as the only method to curtail transmissions as soon as possible. However, as with other harsh measures witnessed by Liberian citizens, in many cases those measures elicited uncontrolled negative reactions within the communities (stigma; fear that produced, in some cases, the opposite effect of that intended.The research has been conducted in two phases, for a total of 8 weeks. Ethnography of local practices was carried out in 7 neighbourhoods in Monrovia and 5 villages in Grand Cape Mount County in Liberia. 45 Focus Group Discussions (432 participants and 30 semi-structured interviews sustained the observing participation. Randomly selected people from different social layers were targeted. The principal investigator worked with the help of two local assistants. Perceptions and practices were both analysed.Participants stressed how cremation perpetuated the social breakdown that started with the isolation for the sickness. Socio-economical divides were created by inequitable management of the dead: those who could bribe the burial teams obtained a burial in a private cemetery or the use of Funeral Homes. Conversely, those in economic disadvantage were forced to send their dead for cremation. State-enforced quarantine, with a mandatory prohibition of movement, raised condemnation, strengthened stigmatization and created serious socio-economic distress. Food was distributed intermittently and some houses shared latrines with non-quarantined neighbours. Escapes were also recorded. Study participants narrated how they adopted local measures of containment, through local task forces and socially-rooted control of outsiders. They also stressed how information that was

  14. Communicating Science to Officials and People at Risk During a Slow-Motion Lava Flow Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. A.; Babb, J.; Brantley, S.; Kauahikaua, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    From June 2014 through March 2015, Kīlauea Volcano's Púu ´Ō´ō vent on the East Rift Zone produced a tube-fed pāhoehoe lava flow -the "June 27th flow" - that extended 20 km downslope. Within 2 months of onset, flow trajectory towards populated areas in the Puna District caused much concern. The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) issued a news release of increased hazard on August 22 and began participating in public meetings organized by Hawai`i County Mayor and Civil Defense two days later. On September 4, HVO upgraded the volcano alert level to WARNING based on an increased potential for lava to reach homes and infrastructure. Ultimately, direct impacts were modest: lava destroyed one unoccupied home and one utility pole, crossed a rural roadway, and partially inundated a waste transfer station, a cemetery, and agricultural land. Anticipation that lava could reach Pāhoa Village and cross the only major access highway, however, caused significant disruption. HVO scientists employed numerous methods to communicate science and hazard information to officials and the at-risk public: daily (or more frequent) written updates of the lava activity, flow front locations and advance rates; frequent updates of web-hosted maps and images; use of the 'lines of steepest descent' method to indicate likely lava flow paths; consistent participation in well-attended community meetings; bi-weekly briefings to County, State, and Federal officials; correspondence with the public via email and recorded phone messages; participation in press conferences and congressional briefings; and weekly newspaper articles (Volcano Watch). Communication lessons both learned and reinforced include: (1) direct, frequent interaction between scientists and officials and at-risk public builds critical trust and understanding; (2) images, maps, and presentations must be tailored to audience needs; (3) many people are unfamiliar with maps (oblique aerial photographs were more effective); (4

  15. Management of city aquifers from anthropogenic activities: Example of the Windhoek aquifer, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapani, Benjamin S.; Schreiber, Ute

    are much more adverse, as they are able to reside in soils for long periods of time. The weathering of soils in humid climes produces silicic acid, which has an effect in sealing the conduits due to soil generation from rocks; an element lacking in Windhoek due to the arid climate. Thus the close monitoring of all sewage pipes, filling stations, dump sites including cemeteries preferably on a GIS based model is the best possible way to save the aquifer from future pollution.

  16. A new focus of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901 (Diptera, Culicidae distribution in Western Germany: rapid spread or a further introduction event?

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    Kampen Helge

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus, a potential vector of several viruses, was first detected in Germany in 2008 on the Swiss-German border. In the following years, this invasive species apparently succeeded in establishing populations in southern Germany and in spreading northwards. In 2011, its distribution area already covered large areas of the federal state of Baden-Wurttemberg, and its northernmost German collection point was reported to be close to Stuttgart. Several independent submissions to our laboratories of Ae. j. japonicus specimens in July 2012, originating from the same area in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, western Germany, prompted us to carry out an immediate surveillance in this region in the expectation of finding a further distribution focus of Ae. j. japonicus in Germany. Methods After inspecting the places of residence of the collectors of the submitted mosquito specimens, all kinds of water containers in 123 cemeteries in surrounding towns and villages were checked for mosquito developmental stages. These were collected and kept to produce adults for morphological species identification. One specimen per collection site was identified genetically by COI sequence analysis. Results Aedes j. japonicus adults and immature stages were found in 36 towns/villages that were checked (29% over an area of approximately 2,000 km2 in southern North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland Palatinate. The species could not be demonstrated further south when monitoring towards the northernmost previous collection sites in southern Germany. It therefore remains to be elucidated whether the species has entered western Germany from the south, from Belgium in the west where it has been demonstrated to occur locally since 2002, or through a new introduction. Conclusions Aedes j. japonicus is obviously much more widely distributed in Germany than previously thought. It appears to be well

  17. Master of Science Teaching: Encouraging Teachers and their Students in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Master of Science Teaching program is designed to encourage more content knowledge among teachers. Thirty credit hours are required, chosen from 12 hours of Earth science courses, 12 hours of space science courses, a chemistry course, a math course, and research or education credits. A thesis is not required but each teacher must have a special project (either research or curriculum). A number of students chose as their project using ground penetrating radar to look for buried graves in an African-American cemetery. Others became Heliospheric Ambassadors, Messenger Ambassadors, or PolarTrec teachers. Nineteen teachers have graduated as of 2010 with six presently in the program. A survey of the participants has fifteen responses so far, with a good mixture of responses from early in the program to present students. Many (69%) were grade 6-8 teachers when they entered the program. After earning their MST, many had increased their teaching level: (93% reported that it helped their career path, 39% have upgraded to administration or science supervision, and 53% reported receiving a better or higher level job position as a result). Only one student no longer teaches (completing a PhD in Administration). Given that 20% of the respondents are still in the program, two thirds of the alumni (8 of 12) have earned better jobs. All respondents said that they learned from both the Earth and space science courses, and all respondents (except the person no longer in the classroom) say they use the earth and space science material in the classrooms, with 80% "frequently" and 13% "sometimes". They also report that they are more likely to encourage their students to become scientists (80%), more likely to encourage their students to support NASA (93%), and think that their students are getting better scores on the state standardized tests (60%). It is certainly not easy for teachers to perform publishable research (although some have), and it is even more difficult for students

  18. Social Consequences of Ebola Containment Measures in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellecchia, Umberto; Crestani, Rosa; Decroo, Tom; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Al-Kourdi, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in Liberia, two major emergency disease-control measures were cremation of bodies and enforcement of quarantine for asymptomatic individuals suspected of being in contact with a positive case. Enforced by State-related actors, these were promoted as the only method to curtail transmissions as soon as possible. However, as with other harsh measures witnessed by Liberian citizens, in many cases those measures elicited uncontrolled negative reactions within the communities (stigma; fear) that produced, in some cases, the opposite effect of that intended. Methodology The research has been conducted in two phases, for a total of 8 weeks. Ethnography of local practices was carried out in 7 neighbourhoods in Monrovia and 5 villages in Grand Cape Mount County in Liberia. 45 Focus Group Discussions (432 participants) and 30 semi-structured interviews sustained the observing participation. Randomly selected people from different social layers were targeted. The principal investigator worked with the help of two local assistants. Perceptions and practices were both analysed. Results Participants stressed how cremation perpetuated the social breakdown that started with the isolation for the sickness. Socio-economical divides were created by inequitable management of the dead: those who could bribe the burial teams obtained a burial in a private cemetery or the use of Funeral Homes. Conversely, those in economic disadvantage were forced to send their dead for cremation. State-enforced quarantine, with a mandatory prohibition of movement, raised condemnation, strengthened stigmatization and created serious socio-economic distress. Food was distributed intermittently and some houses shared latrines with non-quarantined neighbours. Escapes were also recorded. Study participants narrated how they adopted local measures of containment, through local task forces and socially-rooted control of outsiders. They also stressed how

  19. La cristianización de las necrópolis de Corduba. Fuentes escritas y testimonios arqueológicos

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    Sánchez Ramos, Isabel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this work we are expounding a study about urban necropolis in Corduba, which tries to show the transformation of the extramural cemeteries of the city throughout the Late Antiquity. We will analyse the reasons that determined the continuity of the burial use on some suburban areas as well as those elements introducing changes that contributed to the formation of new sectors for extramural burials. In this context, the christianization of funeral topography will be particularly noteworthy, although unlike the high level of knowledge of other Hispanic cities, the archaeological documentation in Cordoba is rather limited up to now. For this reason and in order to complete such information, we must refer to the ancient literary sources. Although their information has not been totally verified by means of the Archaeology, the mentioned sources would allow to us to evoke an image of the late city which will be characterised by the predominance of a new religious architecture.Se presenta un estudio realizado sobre las necrópolis urbanas de Corduba que pretende mostrar la transformación que experimentarían las áreas funerarias de la ciudad a lo largo de la Antigüedad tardía. Se analizan los factores que determinaron una continuidad del uso funerario de algunos espacios suburbanos y aquellos otros elementos que introdujeron cambios, contribuyendo a la conformación de nuevos sectores de enterramiento, extramuros. En este contexto, será especialmente significativa la cristianización de la topografía funeraria, aunque a diferencia del alto nivel de conocimiento que se tiene para otras ciudades hispanas, la documentación arqueológica en Córdoba es hasta ahora muy limitada. Para ello, se remite a las fuentes literarias que, si bien aportan una información que no ha sido completamente verificada a través de la arqueología, permiten evocar una imagen de la ciudad tardía que se definirá por la preeminencia de una nueva arquitectura

  20. A Review on John Snow’s (1813-1858 CE Contributions to the Epidemiology and Anesthesiology

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    Samad EJ Golzari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available “In riding his hobby very hard, he has fallen down through a gully hole and has never since been able to get out again” “Has he any facts to show in proof? No!”** From an Editorial on John Snow’s theories published in the Lancet in 1855 BiographyJohn Snow, the famous physician, epidemiologist and anesthetist, was born on March 15th, 1813 in York, England (Image 1. He was the eldest of nine children born to William and Frances Snow in their North Street home. His first 12 years of life were spent in a poor and unsanitary area in Michaelgate. River Ouse, which provided the drinking water for the people and often contaminated with excreta, was in the vicinity of his home. This exposed him and his family to the danger of flooding and contamination with excrements of drinking water (1.After financial status of his father improved, they moved to a more wholesome area which was appropriate for the children's education. When he was 14, he was apprenticed to William Hardcastle, a surgeon in Newcastle upon Tyne School of Medicine. Later, he attended in lectures and visited the different wards of the local infirmary (2.His apprenticeship was finished in 1833. Between 1833 and 1836 Snow worked as an assistant to a colliery surgeon. He returned to London after completing his education to get a London degree and became a student in the Royal College of Surgeons and began working at the Westminster Hospital. Snow finished his education in 1844. Then he was elected as the chancellor of the London Medical Society. Snow suffered a stroke while working in his London office on June 10th, 1858. He was 45 years old at the time. This valuable and memorable researcher and scientist died in London on June 16th, 1858 aged 45 years from a stroke. He was buried in Brompton Cemetery (3. Many books, papers, and letters to journals on various topics such as rickets, chest deformities, the circulation of the blood, lead poisoning, and scarlet fever have been written

  1. MAILHAC Y LAS FLUCTUACIONES ECONÓMICAS DE LA PROTOHISTORIA IBÉRICA ARCAICA (550-450 A. C. (Mailhac and the economic fluctuations of early Iberian protohistory, 550-450 BC

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    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de la necrópolis Grand Bassin II de Mailhac (Aude, Francia, mediante el método de valoración contextual de sus ajuares, ha mejorado nuestro conocimiento científico sobre las fluctuaciones económicas de la protohistoria ibérica arcaica, arrojando abundante luz no solo sobre esta cuestión sino también acerca de los acontecimientos del Mediterráneo occidental a lo largo de un período escasamente conocido. En síntesis, el registro funerario de Mailhac evidencia una espectacular bonanza durante el tercer cuarto del siglo VI antes de nuestra era; por el contrario, el último cuarto de dicha centuria muestra un acusado descenso de la acumulación económica, coincidente con el ocaso del comercio griego con las comunidades galas a través del Ródano; mientras que el primer cuarto del siglo V indica una nueva prosperidad más acentuada que la anterior, en conexión directa con la etapa expansiva del iberismo levantino. ENGLISH: The analysis of the Grand Bassin II cemetery at Mailhac (Aude, France, using the contextual appraisal method for grave goods, has improved our scientific understanding of economic fluctuations in early Iberian protohistory, throwing much light not only on this issue but also on the events of the western Mediterranean during a little known period. In short, the funerary record shows a dramatic boom at Mailhac during the third quarter of the 6th century BC; on the other hand, the last quarter of this century shows a sharp decline in economic accumulation, coinciding with the fall of Greek trade with the Gaul communities across the Rhône while the first quarter of the 5th century indicates a new prosperity more marked than the previous one, in direct connection with the upswing of the Levantine Iberians.

  2. 城市游憩空间的发展历程及类型%The Evolution and Style of Urban Recreation Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈渝

    2013-01-01

    探讨了城市游憩空间的演变.游憩空间的发展表明:城市游憩空间系统是人口和经济活动集聚的产物,其发生和发展的过程与城市空间扩展和人类生活空间变迁具有密切的联系.重点分析了城市游憩空间的系统发展过程,探讨了近现代游憩空间的发展演变过程中不断出现的游憩空间类型:游憩墓地、公园体系、公共开放空间、城市周边游憩中心、附属于建筑的游憩空间、绿道等,努力寻找城市游憩空间系统伴随城市化过程而逐渐发展演变的脉络;挖掘游憩空间在发展演变过程中与城市及区域在空间上形成的有机联系.%There is exploration of the evolution of urban recreation space in this article. The development of recreation space indicates that: urban recreation space system is the product of the cluster of both population and economic activities, and its occurrence and development process are closely linked to urban space expansion and spatial Transformation of human life. This thesis focuses on analysis of spatial process of development and the mechanism of its formation of the city recreation system, and divide the evolution of modern recreation space into six style: recreation cemetery, park system, public open space, peri-urban recreation center, building attached recreation space, greenway; and seeks the context of the progressive development and evolution of the city recreation space system along with the urbanization process; and reflects the connections between the city recreation space and the space of city and region during their development and evolution.

  3. An electric and electromagnetic geophysical approach for subsurface investigation of anthropogenic mounds in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Tapete, Deodato; Cappuccini, Luca; Fanti, Riccardo

    2016-11-01

    Scientific interest in mounds as geomorphological features that currently represent topographic anomalies in flat urban landscapes mainly lies on the understanding of their origin, either purely natural or anthropogenic. In this second circumstance, another question is whether traces of lost buildings are preserved within the mound subsurface and can be mapped as remnants testifying past settlement. When these landforms have been modified in centuries for civilian use, structural stability is a further element of concern. To address these issues we applied a geophysical approach based on a very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) technique and two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (2D-ERT) and integrated it with well-established surface survey methods within a diagnostic workflow of structural assessment. We demonstrate the practical benefits of this method in the English Cemetery of Florence, Italy, whose mixed nature and history of morphological changes are suggested by archival records. The combination of the two selected geophysical techniques allowed us to overcome the physical obstacles caused by tomb density and to prevent interference from the urban vehicular traffic on the geophysical signals. Eighty-two VLF-EM profiles and five 2D-ERTs were collected to maximise the spatial coverage of the subsurface prospection, while surface indicators of instability (e.g., tomb tilt, location, and direction of ground fractures and wall cracks) were mapped by standard metric survey. High resistive anomalies (> 300 and 400 Ωm) observed in VLF-EM tomographies are attributed to remnants of the ancient perimeter wall that are still buried along the southern side of the mound. While no apparent correlation is found between the causes of tomb and ground movements, the crack pattern map supplements the overall structural assessment. The main outcome is that the northern portion of the retaining wall is classed with the highest hazard rate. The impact of this

  4. The Late Mediaeval Necropolis of Lăpuşna (Hânceşti County, Republic of Moldova. Preliminary Anthropological Results

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    Angela Simalcsik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The osteological material was exhumed in 2013 by archaeologists from the Archaeology Department of the Cultural Heritage Institute of the Academy of Science of Moldova, in the mediaeval necropolis of Lăpuşna (Hânceşti County, Republic of Moldova. Thirty graves were fully or partially researched, the deceased having been buried lying on their backs, with the upper limbs placed on the chest or abdomen. Based on the funerary inventory (which includes six mediaeval coins, the graves were chronologically placed between the XVth and the XVIIth centuries. The cemetery belonged to a local Christian rural community. The preservation status of skeletons is satisfactory. Twenty-two human skeletons (seven males, ten females, and five children have been analyzed so far. Sex ratio in the osteological sample from Lăpuşna is subunitary, indicating a higher number of female skeletons, comparatively with the male ones. A quarter of the analysed subjects did not survive after adolescence. The maximum risk of mortality in this sample occurs during early childhood (0–7 years. 32% of deceases appear in the adultus category of age (20–30 years and 45%, respectively, in the matures one (30–60 years. Life expectancy at birth is of 30.7 years. For individuals older than 20 years, life expectancy after this age, calculated separately on sexes, was of 16 years in men and of 19 years in women. At cranial level eight nonmetric traits and only two pathologies were identified. Regarding dentition, seven nonmetric traits and six pathologies were reported. At postcranial level, 14 nonmetric traits were distinguished, most of them classified as occupational markers. The most frequent postcranial pathology is osteoarthritis; this disease is present in nine individuals. The subjects affected with osteoarthritis are mature persons. Traces of osteoarthritis appears especially in the spine, hip joint, lower limb (mainly femurs, upper limb (especially radiuses, and clavicle

  5. UNDERSTANDING THE HIGH MIND: HUMANS ARE STILL EVOLVING GENETICALLY

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    Blum K et al

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The total population of the United States at the turn of the 21 st century was 281,421,906. The total number of people above the age of 12 years old was estimated at 249 million. The National Institutes on Drug Abuse and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA have surveyed persons age 12 and older and found that in the year 2001, a total of 104 million people have used illegal drugs in their life (ever used, 32 million used a psychoactive drug in the past year (2000-2001 and 18 million used a psychoactive drug in the past 30 days. Interestingly this does not include Alcohol. We must ask then, who are the people that could just say NO? When almost half-of the US population have indulged in illegal drug practices, when our presidential candidates are forced to dodge the tricky question of their past history involving illegal drug use, and when almost every American has sloshed down a martini or two in their life time, there must be a reason, there must be a need, there must be a natural response for humans to imbibe at such high rates. There is even a more compelling question surrounding the millions who seek out high risk novelty. Why do millions have this innate drive in face of putting themselves in harms-way? Why are millions paying the price of their indiscretions in our jails, in hospitals, in wheel chairs and are lying dead in our cemeteries. What price must we pay for pleasure seeking or just plain getting “HIGH”? Maybe the answer lies within our brain. Maybe it is in our genome? Utilization of the candidate vs the common variant approach may be parsimonious as it relates to unraveling the addiction riddle. In this commentary we have discussed evidence, theories and conjecture about the “High Mind” and its relationship to evolutionary genetics and drug seeking behavior as impacted by genetic polymorphisms. We consider the meaning of recent findings in genetic research including an exploration of the

  6. Assessment of the environmental value of the Zichy Castle Park in Voivodeni, Romania – Brief description

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    Kovács Lóránt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Zichy Castle from Vajdaszentiväny (Voievodeni is located in Mure§ County, central Romania, south-west from the town of Reghin. Its constniction in classical baroque style dates back to the beginning of the X\\TH Century. The archaeological findings from the area show that Vajdaszentiväny was already populated in the Copper Age. The findings of gray dishes from the III and IV centuries were considered by Dr. Protase as indigenous Daco-Roman relics. The Roman presence here was demonstrated by residues of the hewn-stone road along the Maros River. After the Roman Age, several other populations (Goths, Slavonic peoples. Darghins and Huns settled down here. The feudal Hungarian state occupied this area around the XI Century. Several streams, terraces and old cemetery ruins demonstrate tliat the Hungarians used the region for protective purposes. The first mitten records of Vajdaszentiväny date back to 1332, when die Papal documents (Sacerdos de Sancto Johanne mention the settlement for the first time. In 1366. the name of the village was Märton-Szent-Ivän. and dunng the centuries it belonged to several old and noble families and dynasties as szentiväni Szekely. monoszlai Losonczi. Szakäcsi. the Bänffy and Dezsöfi, the Szentiväni, Butkai, Balog, Kecseti, Kerelöi, Szengyeli, Dengelegi, Fodor, vajdaszentivänyi Földväri, Koka, Piski, Järai or Järai Felsöjärai Abafäja. During the first half of the 19* Century, among former Hungarians noble owners of the village, the following can be mentioned: Count Sämuel Kemeny, Albert Horvath, Budai, Szocs (Käroly es Mihäly and Duke Löwenthäl. Later on, the village of Vajdaszentiväny became famous because of its castle, later named the “Zichy Castle,” but also because of its citizens as preservers of folk music, folk dance and folk tales.

  7. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

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    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    healing. We can note also the left humerus of a middle aged man with a healed fracture at the distal end (photo 5, a fibula with a healed fracture (photo 5 and a talus with osteochondritis dissecans. Some bones exhibited markers of periostitis that could have been caused by trauma, infection or physical stress. Apart from diseases and traumas, anomalies of bone growth were present in osteological finds. For instance a sacrum with sacralization can be identified. Some adults and children had open suture between frontal cranial bones (metopic suture; sutura metopica, these bones usually knit at the age of 2–4 years.The analysed bones belonged to adults and children in all age groups, representing osteological material typical for an ordinary and peacetime cemetery.

  8. Elemental mapping of medieval teeth using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest (Romania); Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Recent developments in X-Ray Fluorescence micro-analysis techniques made the traditional range of XRF applications expand, benefiting from the combination of single point analysis with high spatial element imaging. The sample is scanned through the X-Ray beam and corresponding spectra are continuously read from the detector and correlated to a particular position on the sample. In this work, elemental concentrations were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique (Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument) offering detailed elemental analysis. The instrument is equipped with a tungsten X-ray tube and a beryllium window, operating at 50 kV with a beam collimator of 100{mu}m in diameter to irradiate the sample and with a Si detector. Tooth mapping provided semi-quantitative information and highlighted the regions of interest. Then multi-points analysis was used to obtain quantitative results on calcium, phosphorus, strontium and iron. As the chemical composition of dental tissues is similar to the one of bone tissue, the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were used for calibration. In this study, only permanent first molars were selected for analysis. The material comes from the medieval cemetery (XII{sup th} . XIII{sup th}) of Feldioara (Bra.ov County, Romania). In the same time, modern teeth were used as reference. The top of the tooth was removed using a diamond disk, with a cut lying perpendicular to the dental cusps, creating a flat transversal surface to be characterized. XRF elemental (Ca, P, Sr, Fe) and ratio (Ca/P, Sr/Ca, Sr/Fe) distribution images for dental tissues (enamel and dentin) were obtained from past and modern teeth with and without caries and the results are presented and discussed. The analysis of the spatial element distribution in the teeth tissues revealed severe alterations in elemental composition of both enamel and dentin from the regions affected by caries that were confirmed by the

  9. SOTUNKI: An Island Of Education and Adventure

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    Heidi HEIKKILÄ

    2011-08-01

    .Information points:Ø amphitheatre and Mount Olympus for Ancient Greece and RomeØ Medieval tavern for Medieval literatureØ Midsummer Night’s fairy cave for RenaissanceØ Robinson Crusoe’s island for 18th century EnlightenmentØ cemetery and crypt for RomanticismØ a small, poor cottage for RealismØ a lighthouse (as in Virginia Woolf’s novel for ModernismØ a hobbit’s home for PostmodernismIt was crucial that the information points were in chronological order -that way students can “walk” through the history of Western literature themselves instead of just reading about it from a book and chronological order makes it is easier to remember the order of different time periods. I wish to share here the information points to reflect the stylistic periods they presented so it would be easy to learn something of a stylistic period by just looking around: it activates visual memory and helps to connect information with the place where it was found. For instance, students can learn things about 19th century Romanticism in a cemetery and in a mad scientist’s lab and remember that the era was not all about sweet, romantic dreams about love and more about monsters, death and mad scientists -and love with ruinous consequences.On every information point there are both theory and exercises available. There is at least one big board that holds the most important information about that time period written on it. When a student clicks on a board he gets an English translation and all the board’s information on a Notecard that can be saved in the student’s personal inventory. Then he can for instance go to sit on a beach, watch a sunset and study.Most of the information points have “talking” objects, by which I mean objects with scripts in them: when you click them, the object sends a chat-message with some information about literature. Below every information board there is an object (usually an apple and by clicking it a student gets a set of questions about that time period

  10. Paisajes sagrados, paisajes eclesiásticos: de la necrópolis a la parroquia en el centro de la península ibérica Paisajes sagrados, paisajes eclesiásticos: de la necrópolis a la parroquia en el centro de la península ibérica Sacred landscapes, ecclesiastical landscapes: from necropolis to parish in central Iberia

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    Iñaki Martín Viso

    2012-10-01

    been used by the members of these communities as a reference of the kin-group memory from 7th to 10th century, so they could be explained like a significant fragment of a sacred landscape, although they were placed in areas where there was not any ecclesiastical organization. The implementation of the parish system between 12th and 13th centuries, which was a consequence of the political integration of the Central-Western Iberia into the Christian monarchies (a process described by the traditional Spanish historiography as repoblación broke the previous model of burial practices. The cemeteries were linked to parishes, which were built in new places, and it was imposed by the new ecclesiastical organization. Therefore an ecclesiastical landscape was created, and, as a consequence, a new local identity was shaped. However, the row-organised cemeteries of some central places related to the Leonese repoblación in 10th century were an exception. The Church could use the symbolic capital of these ancient burials to shape the new ecclesiastical landscape. They were the places where some parishes were built during 12th century.

  11. The geographic distribution of Sr isotopes from surface waters and soil extracts over the island of Bornholm (Denmark) – A base for provenance studies in archaeology and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    source with lower [Sr] delivering radiogenic Sr to the surface waters, which we equate with Sr leached from the products of mineral weathering (soils). A feasibility study for using Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters and soil extracts as a proxy for bioavailable Sr signatures was performed with a few samples collected in the vicinity of the eleventh century AD Ndr. Grødbygård cemetery site in SW Bornholm, from where Sr isotope compositions of modern fauna samples and tooth enamel of humans buried in the cemetery have been reported. Waters and soil extracts studied herein from around this site range from 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7104–0.7166 and correspond to Sr compositions extracted from snail shells in this area which span a range of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7095–0.7160. Some human tooth enamel is characterized by more radiogenic values (87Sr/86Sr up to 0.718) which points to a possible provenance of these humans from the granite–gneiss terrain in the north of the island and/or to immigration of these humans in their childhood from other places (for example from mainland Sweden) to Bornholm. If the total compositional range of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.709–0.718 (n = 44) recorded in human enamel from the Ndr. Grødbygård site is considered representative for the variation of bioavailable Sr on Bornholm, then our soil leachate and surface water data entirely covers this range. We therefore propose that the combination of Sr isotope analyses of surface waters and soil leachates are an easy, fast and relatively cost efficient way to characterize a local bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr signature, and consequently propose that the overall average of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7153 ± 0.0048 (1σ; n = 50) can be taken as a band for bioavailable Sr fractions suitable to discriminate between local and non-local signatures in provenance studies in the field of archaeology and for food and plant authenticity control in agricultural applications

  12. “De Beach Belong to We!” Socio-economic Disparity and Islanders’ Rights of Access to the Coast in a Tourist Paradise

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    Christine Toppin-Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean islands share a history of plantation economy in which the "1%" not only controlled the natural resources and economies of the region, but also owned the majority of the "99%" who were enslaved. This disparity in wealth approximated a racial divide in the society, as the wealthy minority was predominantly "white" while the dispossessed majority was mainly non-whites. While the coastlands were always of importance in these export-oriented agricultural colonies, beach and backshore lands unsuitable for agriculture were less so, often being utilized for boatyards/fishing depots, cemeteries and "tenantries" or squatter settlements housing the landless. Since World War II, and particularly since the Cuban revolution in 1960, beach-oriented tourism has become the leading economic activity in most Caribbean countries. Competition for coastal resources has generally been resolved in favour of foreign currency, transferring much coastal property to foreign ownership and increasingly shutting off the local population's access to the sea. As the majority of foreign investors and tourists are white, this also has racial connotations. This paper examines the legal and administrative responses to the challenges that this situation presents which have been adopted by the Anglo-Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS, with particular reference to the islands of Jamaica, Barbados, Tobago and some of the member countries of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS. Las islas del Caribe comparten una historia de economía basada en plantaciones, en el que el 1% de la población controlaba los recursos naturales y la economía de la región, y al 99% restante, que vivía esclavizado. Esta diferencia en la riqueza traía consigo una división racial en la sociedad, ya que la minoría rica era principalmente "blanca", mientras que la mayoría desposeía era principalmente "no blanca". Mientras que las tierras costeras tenían siempre

  13. Procedimentos em exumações para investigação de vínculo genético em ossos Exhumations procedures for investigating the genetic link in bones

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    João Arnaldo Damião Melki

    2001-08-01

    , there was scarcity of useful information to identify the human remains. In half of them, identification was based on the individual's morphological characteristics, given by their relatives. Individual morphological characteristics contributed to identification in 50% of cases. In three cases, it was possible to determine only the sex, and in one of them, only the age. Lack of infrastructure and police security in the cemeteries impaired the examination. CONCLUSIONS: To assure the reliability of the DNA molecular examination, it is necessary to identify the individual to whom the exhumed mortal remains belonged. To an efficacious investigation, it is paramount to have a working protocol that will cover, among other issues, those concerning identification, infrastructure and staff safety at the site of examination.

  14. SRTM Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height/EarthKam Optical Honolulu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These two images of the eastern part of the island of Oahu, Hawaii provide information on regional topography and show the relationship between urban development and sensitive ecosystems. On the left is a topographic radar image collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM.) On the right is an optical image acquired by a digital camera on the Space Shuttle Endeavour, which carried SRTM. Features of interest in this scene include Diamond Head (an extinct volcano at the lower center), Waikiki Beach (just left of Diamond Head), the Punchbowl National Cemetery (another extinct volcano, at the foot of the Koolau Mountains), downtown Honolulu and Honolulu airport (lower left of center), and Pearl Harbor (at the left edge.)The topography shows the steep, high central part of the island surrounded by flatter coastal areas. The optical image shows the urban areas and a darker, forested region on the mountain slopes. The clouds in the optical image and the black areas on the topographic image are both a result of the steep topography. In this tropical region, high mountain peaks are usually covered in clouds. These steep peaks also cause shadows in the radar data, resulting in missing data 'holes.' A second pass over the island was obtained by SRTM and will be used to fill in the holes.The left image combines two types of SRTM data. Brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation. Each color cycle (from pink through blue and back to pink) represents 400 meters (1,300 feet) of elevation difference, like the contour lines on a topographic map. This image contains about 2,400 meters (8,000 feet) of total relief. The optical image was acquired by the Shuttle Electronic Still Camera with a lens focal length of 64 millimeters (2.5 inches) for the Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle school students (EarthKAM) project. EarthKAM has flown on five space shuttle missions since 1996. Additional information

  15. Padrão de mortalidade da comunidade judaica de Belo Horizonte no século XX Mortality pattern of jewish community of Belo Horizonte in the XXth century

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    Débora Balabram

    2006-12-01

    . It has been consolidated in the 20th decade of the last century. Nowadays the Federação Israelita de Minas Gerais (FISEMG has records of approximately 600 families. The purpose of this study is to define the mortality pattern in this community, and how it has changed since the community's formation. METHODS: Data was recovered from the files of the Instituto Histórico Israelita Mineiro, the FISEMG and from the cemeteries Israelita and Bonfim. RESULTS: 601 death registries have been studied, 61,6% belonging to men and 38,4% to women. The diseases of the circulatory system were the most frequent cause of death since the decade of 40, and infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, deserve note in the decades of 30 and 40. CONCLUSION: There was a change in death pattern of the jewish community of Belo Horizonte.

  16. Adaptation of sentimental (ethnic tourism on tourist route «Golden Horseshoe» for tourist flows from Poland

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    N.Ie. Tomczewska-Popowycz

    2016-03-01

    tourist product. It must be at a sufficiently high level. To investigate the level of tourism infrastructure the survey was conducted among visitors from abroad. Studies have shown that road infrastructure outside the city needs immediate improvement, especially the road surface. This also applies to public toilets. In many places the lack of road signs and tables of interesting places that are nearby. Gastronomy is assessed mostly well. Possibly that is the lack of manual in English. It should do even the menu in English and Polish. Polish tourists in the territory of Lviv region staying mainly from few days to a week. During this time, it is very important to propose the adequate level of infrastructure and attractions. Foreign tourists often come due to local history, cognitive tourism. A lot of them are coming to find they roots. It is very necessary to make tourist expectation to come true. Conclusions and directions for futher researches. The author suggested how to adapt not used facilities and other potential in sentimental tourism. For example, revitalize Polish (Catholic cemeteries, gravestones important for Poles. Further studies should direct to improving of “Golden Horseshoe” at the international level for sentimental tourists not only from Poland but also from Austria, Hungary, Germany and Turkey. The territory of Lviv region has great potential for development of new tourism products. It seems that the most promising direction is genealogical and culinary tourism.

  17. Book Reviews

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    Soemarsaid Moertono

    1969-07-01

    Full Text Available - D. van der Horst, Albert Herrmann, An historical atlas of China. New edition by Norton Ginsburg. Djambatan N.V., Amsterdam 1966. 88 pp. - A.F.P. Hulsewé, F.S. Drake, Symposium of historical, archaeological and linguistic studies on Southern China, South-East Asia and the Hongkong region. Proceedings of a meeting held in September 1961 as part of the Golden Jubilee Congress of the University of Hongkong. Hongkong, Hongkong University Press, 1967. X + 370 pp. - D.R. Jonker, Liu Shih-Shun, One hundred and one Chinese poems. With English translations and preface. UNESCO Collection of Representative Works, Chinese Series; Hong Kong University Press, 1967. XXXIX + 173 pp. - M.A.P. Meilink-Roelofsz, A. Das Gupta, Malabar in Asian trade 1740-1800. Cambridge South Asian Studies. Cambridge U.P. 1967. XII, 204 blz. Met krt. - C.R. Hooijer, Per Sorensen, Ban-Kao, Neolithic settlements with cemeteries in the Kanchanaburi Province. 140 pp., 140 plates, 4 maps, figs. The Thai-Danish Prehistoric Expedition 1960-62, Archaeological Excavations in Thailand, Vol. II. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 1967. - C.R. Hooijer, H.R. van Heekeren, Sai-Yok, Stone-age settlements in the Kanchanaburi Province. 129 pp., 33 plates, 47 figs. The Thai-Danish Prehistoric Expedition 1960-1962, Archaeological Excavations in Thailand, Vol. I. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 1967., Eigil Knuth (eds. - Th. G. Th. Pigeaud, C. Hooykaas, Bagus Umbara, Prince of Koripan. The story of a prince of Bali and a princess of Java, illustrated on palm leaves by a Balines artist. With Balinese text and English translation by Dr C. Hooykaas, Reader in Old Javanese, University of London. Published by the Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1968. 55 pp., 9 illustrations, 31 x 25 cm. - H.J. de Graaf, Soemarsaid Moertono, State and statecraft in old Java: A study of the late Mataram period 16th to 19th century. Monograph series Modern Indonesia Project. Southeast Asia Program Department of Asian Studies. Cornell

  18. Geomorphic Response to Neotectonic Rise of the Middle Russian Upland: the case of the Ostrogozhsk Uplift (European Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskaya, Maria; Bessudnov, Alexandr; Kosevich, Natalya; Kuznetsova, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    The Ostrogozhsk Neotectonic Uplift is located in the south of the Middle Russian Upland (East European Plain). Tectonically, it is associated with the northeastern wing of the Voronezh Anteclise. Our geomorphological study of the area has shown that the Ostrogozhsk Uplift is an actively growing structure (Romanovskaya, 2015). According to recent studies neotectonic uplift amplitude can be estimated at more than 200 m. This growth has played a major role in landscape formation all around. This is clearly demonstrated by the following: recent dramatic changes in the flow directions of the rivers Don and Tikhaya Sosna as they had to bypass growing upland; instances of damming up, which created numerous oxbow lakes and led to waterlogging in floodplains; increase in the density of the erosion grid on the upland itself. On three sides, the Uplift slopes down towards neotectonic depressions. Lying at markedly different altitudes, the upland and the river floodplains connected with the depressions now possess contrasting local climates and support contrasting ecosystems. Land rise and concomitant fall of the groundwater table intensified erosion, weathering, karst and slope wash processes. These, in turn, have created numerous canyon-shaped ravines, very steep slopes (>60°) and interconnected bastion-like relief forms. Surrounded by protections in the form of steep slopes and water courses, the area is now a natural fortress which has favored human habitation since the Late Paleolithic Age. In a location in the Tikhaya Sosna river basin, gully erosion has exposed a large accumulation of ancient horse bones and human-made stone artifacts (Upper Paleolithic Multi-Level Archaeological Site Divnogorie-9, 13.5 ka - 14 ka BP) (Kuznetsova, 2014) and a cemetery left by the Mayatskoye medieval settlement (9th-10th centuries AD). Superimposed on the geology of the area, neotectonic movements and erosion have led to the formation of a very peculiar relief type - an assemblage of

  19. Thematic trip: "Save Roşia MontanÄă"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2015-04-01

    The name Roşia Montană, situated in Transylvania, became well known after a Romanian-Canadian company, Roşia Montană Gold Company (RMGC), obtained the concession license on exploitation for gold and silver minerals in the Roşia Montană area. The project consists of opening the largest surface gold mines in Europe using cyanide, which will include four open pits and a processing plant for gold and silver in The Roşia Valley and a tailings facility with an area of 367 hectares in the Corna Valley. One of the main fears is related to a possible ecological accident like the one in Baia Mare in 2000, when a tailing facility dam break led to cyanide pollution of Tisa and Danube rivers that resulted in the death of 1,200 tons of fish and contamination of water resources for 2 million people. This thematic trip is important for the scientific preparation of students and an opportunity to educate them in the spirit of environmental protection. The training and education of students will require assimilation and understanding, actively and consciously, using the knowledge acquired during the compulsory curriculum and training skills. REASON: The continuous degradation of the environment is a major crisis due to human intervention in nature, and the proposed Roşia Montană mining project will continue this trend. The company proposes to extract gold from mines by using the gold separation technique using cyanide, a process that involves destroying a total area of 16 km² which includes 5 mountains, 7 churches, 11 cemeteries and the ruins of Alburnus Maior Citadel, as well as creating pollution that would last for hundreds of years. The extraction of gold from low-grade ores using cyanide processes was estimated to result in a worldwide emission of 45,300 tons of hydrogen cyanide. Environmental education for a healthy life has children as target group, because they are the trustees and beneficiaries of tomorrow's natural resources and can influence the attitudes of

  20. Mortalidade infantil em duas coortes de base populacional no Sul do Brasil: tendências e diferenciais Infant mortality in two population-based cohorts in southern Brazil: trends and differentials

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    Ana M. B. Menezes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a tendência temporal da mortalidade infantil através de dois estudos de coorte realizados em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, em 1982 e 1993. Ambas coortes incluíram todos os nascimentos hospitalares e óbitos verificados através de visitas regulares aos hospitais, cartórios e cemitérios. As informações sobre a causa de morte foram obtidas através de entrevistas com pediatras, revisão do prontuário, necrópsias e entrevista com os pais das crianças. O coeficiente de mortalidade infantil caiu de 36,4 por mil nascidos vivos para 21,1 na década. As principais causas de mortalidade infantil em 1993 foram as perinatais, malformações congênitas, diarréia e infecções respiratórias. Crianças com baixo peso ao nascer apresentaram mortalidade 12 vezes maior do que crianças com peso adequado, e crianças pré-termo, duas vezes mais do que crianças com retardo de crescimento intra-uterino. Crianças de famílias com renda baixa (um salário mínimo apresentaram mortalidade sete vezes superior àquelas com renda alta (10 salários mínimos. A mortalidade de crianças de baixo peso ao nascer e alta renda familiar decresceu em 67%, contra apenas 36% para as de baixa renda. Conclui-se que, mesmo com uma queda expressiva da mortalidade infantil na década, persistem importantes desigualdades sociais.Time trends in infant mortality were assessed through two cohort studies carried out in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1982 and 1993. Both cohorts included all hospital deliveries, and deaths were monitored through regular visits to hospitals, cemeteries, and notary publics. Information on cause of death was obtained from pediatricians, case notes, autopsies, and home visits to parents. The infant mortality rate fell from 36.4 in 1982 to 21.1 per thousand live births in 1993. The main causes of death in 1993 were perinatal, congenital malformations, diarrhea, and respiratory infections. Low birthweight babies were twelve times more likely