WorldWideScience

Sample records for cemeteries

  1. New Mexico National Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The United States Department of Veterans Affairs National Cemetery Administration maintains 2 national cemeteries in the state of New Mexico; the Fort Bayard...

  2. Iowa Historic Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  3. Hybrid Cemetery Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Rodil, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the urban cemetery as a site of intangible cultural practices and ubiquitous computing as an approach to enhance heritage sites. The paper introduces an experience assessment tool as a mobile phone application that audio-visually augments a heritage interpretation programme, ...

  4. Cemeteries - organisation, management and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Christian Philip

    and due to frequent ad hoc approaches. The new tool represents a divergent change of current practices, and implementation is subsequently ambiguous, with adaptations of both tool and organisations. The tool is however addressing aspects of emerging challenges in the field of cemetery administrations...

  5. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    OpenAIRE

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-01-01

    The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое) and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominan...

  6. 75 FR 34004 - State Cemetery Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (h) State Cemetery Grants Service (SCGS) means the State Cemetery Grants Service...: On December 31, 2009, VA published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (74 FR 69304) to amend...); (7) Water quality; (8) Land use; (9) Vegetation, Wildlife, Aquatic, Ecology/Wetlands, etc.;...

  7. Soledade. The first cemetery of the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rabelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The origins of cemeteries occurred because of a change in funeral habits, when burials were transferred from the church to saint fields. In 1850, the first public cemetery was inaugurated in the city of Belem, Brazil. The Cemetery Nossa Senhora da Soledade (CNSS has a strong symbolic representation. Although its burials have ceased 30 years after its opening, the place is still visited for religious purpose, expressed in the practice souls and popular saints cults, held every Monday when the cemetery is open to the public. Hundreds of people come to the CNSS for pray near the graves. They deposit candies, soft drinks, flowers, and some sculptures adorned with shirts and ribbons, as a signal of gratitude for the graces received, attributed to the souls represented by the saints. Summed to the offerings, the tombs abandon, dirty plus graffiti, the cemetery is in a bad condition.

  8. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis

  9. Cemeteries and the human landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anna Caminiti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A cemetery’s configuration is closely linked to the territory, the culture and traditions of the communities they belong to. The plants — initially determined by specific reference models, based on the regulations at the time of foundation — undergo transformations over time, extensions, alterations and degradation that make it lose its identity. The essential value of places of collective memory and expression of feeling remain connected to the culture of death. These are the topics included as part of a university research, developing extensive analysis of the Great Camposanto in Messina and cemetery complex on the hillside of Messina and the Aeolian Islands, characterized by the visual presence of the sea and marked by adherence to the morphology of the sites through the use of terracing.

  10. Cemeteries: organisation, management and innovation:diffusion of maintenance specifications in Danish national church cemetery administrations

    OpenAIRE

    Kjøller, Christian Philip

    2014-01-01

    Through the use of qualitative methods and various theoretical perspectives theimplementation of maintenance specifications for Danish cemeteries is analysedand in parallel the cemeteries are described and characterised.Cemeteries and their management is complex due to the duality of the serviceand due to frequent ad hoc approaches. The new tool represents a divergentchange of current practices, and implementation is subsequently ambiguous,with adaptations of both tool and organisations. The ...

  11. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(13)-1 - Cemetery companies and crematoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cemetery companies and crematoria. 1.501(c)(13)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(c)(13)-1 Cemetery companies and crematoria. (a) Nonprofit mutual cemetery companies. A nonprofit cemetery company may be...

  12. Land Use and Land Cover - CEMETERIES_USGS_BLA_IN: Cemetery Locations in Indiana (United States Geological Survey, 1:24000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Cemeteries_USGSs__BLA_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations and attribute values of cemeteries extracted from the Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)...

  13. Microbiological Analysis of Necrosols Collected from Urban Cemeteries in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Całkosiński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of organic matter is the primary function in the soil ecosystem, which involves bacteria and fungi. Soil microbial content depends on many factors, and secondary biological and chemical contaminations change and affect environmental feedback. Little work has been done to estimate the microbiological risk for cemetery employees and visitors. The potential risk of infection for people in the cemetery is primarily associated with injury and wound contamination during performing the work. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiota of cemetery soil obtained from cemeteries and bacterial composition in selected soil layers encountered by gravediggers and cemetery caretakers. The most common bacterial pathogens were Enterococcus spp. (80.6%, Bacillus spp. (77.4%, and E. coli (45.1%. The fungi Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from 51% and 6.4% of samples, respectively. Other bacterial species were in the ground cemetery relatively sparse. Sampling depth was not correlated with bacterial growth (p>0.05, but it was correlated with several differences in microbiota composition (superficial versus deep layer.

  14. Are we all equal at death?: death competence in municipal cemetery management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoria, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Managers of local government cemeteries should balance social and cultural expectations with fiscal responsibility and when they do so they demonstrate death competence in cemetery management. This study reviews the cultural and social equity aspects of the consumption of cemetery services and develops tools to take into account social equity and cultural concerns for public sector cemetery managers. Cemetery demand and pricing models are developed and applied to the case of Austin, Texas. These models enhance the estimation of demand by taking into account cultural factors and contextualize pricing in terms of social equity concerns. PMID:24666141

  15. The emergence of mound cemeteries in Early Dilmun:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    the later Dilmun seals. Together with the introduction of a broad variety of imported vessels from Mesopotamia, SW Iran and the Indus, the evolution in local pottery is taken to reflect a fundamental restructuration of Dilmun's network of exchange at the time of the emerging cemeteries. The proto...

  16. 78 FR 53383 - National Cemeteries, Demonstration, Special Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... event, pageant, celebration, historical reenactment, entertainment, exhibition, parade, fair, festival... revise the definition of the terms demonstration and special event, applicable to the national cemeteries... narrowed the NPS's National Capital Region definition of demonstration at Sec. 7.96 (78 FR 14673, March...

  17. The Crematorium Temple in the Monumental Cemetery in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Boi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Crematorium Temple of Milan, first in Italy and among the first in Europe, has played a key role in the revival of cremation, already used by the ancient classical civilizations, becoming a model soon imitated by other cities. Its construction is due to the generosity of the industrialist Albert Keller who worked to introduce the practice of cremation in Milan as an alternative to burial and as solution to the unrelenting settlement expansion of cemeteries, too close to the cities. In 1876 the crematorium was inaugurated with the first implementation of a design by Carlo Maciachini, author of the Monumental Cemetery where the crematorium is located, presented in grecian Doric style in memory of the purifying rituals of classical ideas.

  18. AMS radiocarbon dating of cemetery of Jin Marquises in China

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X; Wang, J; Guo, Z; Liu, K; Lü, X; Ma, H; Li, K; Yuan, J; Cai, L

    2000-01-01

    Bones are very important samples to determine the hosts of the cemetery of Jin Marquises which were excavated at Tianma-Qucun site in Shanxi Province in China. In order to obtain accurate AMS radiocarbon dates, bones were pretreated by two kinds of methods, the gelatin-extraction method and the amino-acid method. Charcoals collected from the same sites were also used. The measured dates agree with historical record.

  19. Guidelines and Requirements for Review and Acceptance of Memorials at National Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This documents provides guidance on the appropriate design, size, and procedures for the acceptance of donations of memorials to the National Cemetery Administration

  20. mtDNA analysis of human remains from an early Danish Christian cemetery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Lars; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske;

    2005-01-01

    One of Denmark's earliest Christian cemeteries is Kongemarken, dating to around AD 1000-1250. A feature of early Scandinavian Christian cemeteries is sex segregation, with females buried on the northern sides and males on the southern sides. However, such separation was never complete; in the few...

  1. Analysis of ancient DNA from a prehistoric Amerindian cemetery.

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, A C; Stoneking, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Norris Farms No. 36 cemetery in central Illinois has been the subject of considerable archaeological and genetic research. Both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA have been examined in this 700-year-old population. DNA preservation at the site was good, with about 70% of the samples producing mtDNA results and approximately 15% yielding nuclear DNA data. All four of the major Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were found, in addition to a fifth haplogroup. Sequences of the first hypervar...

  2. Anomalous values of heavy metals in soil of cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Balestrin Flores

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The necro chorume generated by the decomposition of human bodies has a high pollution load and depending on its location, it may reach and contaminate the soil, the surface and underground water resources. The problem is critical because the analyzed cemetery is located in a vulnerable area and the surrounding population makes use of the water under the influence of the necro chorume, and therefore, subjected to water carrying diseases. This study aimed to analyze the concentrations of heavy metals barium, copper, chromium and zinc in soil occupied by necropolis. An auger was used to collect soil samples in 10 different sites and depths. For determining the concentration of metals, the technique of fluorescence X-ray Energy Dispersive with the support of the software Surfer 10 was used to spatially generate concentration data maps. The concentrations of barium and copper indicated contamination of the soil in all sampled sites, while the chrome showed evidence of contamination at various depths between 0 and 300 cm. The lowest topographic point was the only one to have zinc concentration above reference values, indicating a contamination by this element in the surface flow and sub-surface water. With these results we can confirm the potential of metal contamination in soil occupied by the cemetery.

  3. National Cemetery Administration Summary of Veteran and Non-Veteran Interments: FY2000 to FY2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Total Veteran and Non-Veteran Interments at National Cemetery, and shown by Interment Type of Casket or Cremain, FY2000 to FY2012. Non-Veteran includes dependents,...

  4. Book Review: Haochuan Cemetery%读《好川墓地》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉

    2002-01-01

    The Haochuan Cemetery is the excavation report of the Neolithic Haochuan cemetery in Suichang,Zhejiang.It makes great efforts to reach the fullness and systematicness of material publication,and the author′s research conclusion on the periodization and cultural attribution of the cemetery is worthy of agreement.One of the important contributions of the excavation on the site is that,by using the material it provides,the contemporary archaeological cultures in the Zhejiang,Fujian and Jiangxi regions can be linked up.This makes for the first time the basic condition for integrate research into the Neolithic culture in southeastern China.On the other hand,the author′s determination of absolute dates for the phases of the Haochuan remains needs further discussion,and the social organization reflected in the structure of the cemetery,an issue remaining beyond the coverage of the report,deserves close attention from researchers.

  5. Toxicological potential of metals found in soil of cemeteries in Santa Maria - RS

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Casanova Vilaverde Gomes; ; Gislaine Kummer; Márcia Maria da Silva Monteiro Pereira; Hécio José Izário Filho; Rodrigo Fernando dos Santos Salazar; Noeli Júlia Schüssler de Vasconcellos

    2016-01-01

    Contamination with toxic elements and cemetery leachate may result when proper geo-environmental and hydro geographic studies are not conducted and cemeteries are dug in soils without appropriate structure and chemical properties. This contamination may percolate through the water table, leading to groundwater contamination, which can dramatically affect natural resources and public health. The toxicity of soil from Santa Maria was evaluated in this context. In addition, concentrations of Al,...

  6. Environmental characteristics of the cemeteries of Buenos Aires City (Argentina and infestation levels of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezzani Darío

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cemeteries with many water-filled containers, flowers, sources of human blood, and shade are favorable urban habitats for the proliferation of Aedes aegypti, a vector of yellow fever and dengue. A total of 22,956 containers was examined in the five cemeteries of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The vector was found in four cemeteries that showed an average infestation level of 5.5% (617 positive out of 11,196 water-filled containers. The four cemeteries positive for Ae. aegypti showed significantly different (p<0.01 infestation levels. Vegetation cover and percentage of infestation were significantly correlated (p<0.01, but neither cemetery area nor number of available containers were significantly related to the proportion of positive vases. Our results suggest that the cemeteries of Buenos Aires represent a gradient of habitat favorableness for this vector species, some of which may act as foci for its proliferation and dispersal.

  7. Determination of pharmaceuticals in groundwater collected in five cemeteries' areas (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paíga, P; Delerue-Matos, C

    2016-11-01

    There are growing public attention and concern about the possibility of ecosystem and human health effects from pharmaceuticals in environment. Several types of environmental samples were target of studies by the scientific community, namely drinking water, groundwater, surface water (river, ocean), treated water (influent and effluent), soils, and sediments near to Wastewater Treatment Plants or near to others potential sources of contaminations. Normally, studies in the cemeteries areas are for historical and architectural research and questions of the potential risk for adverse impact of cemeteries in environment have never received enough attention. However, this risk may exist when cemeteries are placed in areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The objective of the present work was the determination of pharmaceuticals (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory/analgesics, antibiotics and psychiatric drugs) in groundwater samples collected inside of the cemeteries areas. Acetaminophen, salicylic acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, nimesulide, carbamazepine, fluoxetine, and sertraline were the pharmaceuticals achieved in the analysed samples. None of the studied antibiotics were detected. The highest concentration was obtained for salicylic acid (in the range of 33.7 to 71.0ng/L) and carbamazepine (between 20.0 and 22.3ng/L), respectively. By the cluster analysis similarity between carbamazepine and fluoxetine was achieved. PMID:27328395

  8. Impact of cemeteries on groundwater contamination by bacteria and viruses - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żychowski, Józef; Bryndal, Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    In the process of decomposition of a human body, 0.4-0.6 litres of leachate is produced per 1 kg of body weight. The leachate contains pathogenic bacteria and viruses that may contaminate the groundwater and cause disease when it is used for drinking. So far, this topic has been investigated in several regions of the world (mainly Brazil, Australia, the Republic of South Africa, Portugal, the United Kingdom and Poland). However, recently more and more attention has been focused on this issue. This study reviews the results of investigations related to the impact of cemeteries on groundwater bacteriology and virology. This topic was mainly discussed in the context of the quantities and qualities of changes in types of microorganisms causing groundwater contamination. In some cases, these changes were related to the environmental setting of a place, where a cemetery was located. The review is completed by a list of recommendations. Their implementation aims to protect the local environment, employees of funeral homes and the residents living in the vicinity of cemeteries. In this form, this review aims to familiarize the reader with the results of this topic, and provide practical guidance for decision-makers in the context of expansion and management of cemeteries, as well as the location of new ones. PMID:26042963

  9. GPR Detection and Geophysical Characteristics of Burials in an 19th Century Cemetery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobyarchick, A. R.; Brooks, C.; Flowers, M.; Johnson, B.

    2009-12-01

    We conducted a GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) survey as part of a forensic investigation of the Second Site Cemetery (Rice Cemetery, Hartt Cemetery) in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. The oldest marked grave at Second Site is 1797, although it is likely that unmarked graves date back to 1780. The most recent marked grave is dated 1848, but forensic evidence suggest that Second Site was in active use until at least the 1880s. The Second Site cemetery contains a "members" section and a "servants" section. The servants section contains graves of slaves, former slaves, and possibly other individuals. Our objectives were to determine the locations of unmarked graves in the servants cemetery, and to define the GPR characteristics that might help distinguish between burials in simple (or no) enclosures and those involving ornamented caskets with hardware. We selected a 15 m by 15 m section of the servants cemetery (Section A) and a second 5 m by 5 m section (Section Z) to conduct GPR surveys, and excavated one grave in each section. Our GPR surveys were done with a GSSI SIR 3000 and a 400 MHz antenna in distance mode. The Section A GPR survey comprised parallel north-south profiles at 0.2 m intervals, and a set of cross lines at 0.5 m spacing. The Section Z profiles were north-south but at a spacing of 0.4 m. Soils in the cemetery are CeB2: Cecil sandy clay loam, clay, clay loam, and sandy loam derived from saprolitized metagranite. We established that a relative permittivity of 3 was suitable for this site at average depths of about 1.5 m, the nominal depth of burial. GPR profiles in both sections revealed some common geophysical characteristics. Most graves are longitudinally oriented east-west. Our north-south profiles therefore define grave lengths. Graves in non-migrated GPR sections are parabolic reflections with lower frequency responses than background. The size, shape, and spectral qualities of these reflections distinguish them from other sources (debris

  10. Central Cemetery in Neiva (Huila: The setting where manifold memories are activated, reinterpreted and disputed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Lamilla Guerrero

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Through an ethnographic analysis of Central Cemetery in the city of Neiva (Huila, this text proposes to exemplify how cemeteries are privileged settings for the embodiment, organization and resignification of the manifold memories Neivan society collectively build and imagine in order to represent themselves in a dispute for identities and remembrance. They mirror what they are, have been, and aim at being. Those memories may be traced through the battle of signs, the persistence of hegemonies, the nation’s narrative, the bipartisan imprint, tenacity and the horror of the armed conflict, popular claims, the desire for a miracle, the vindication of affection, resistance, regional identity, the ephemeral, the transcendent and oblivion.

  11. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Huijuan Mai; Yimin Yang; Idelisi Abuduresule; Wenying Li; Xingjun Hu; Changsui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980–1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), ...

  12. [Moscow Semenov cemetery--a monument of military glory of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, I B; Medvedev, G A; Smirnova, A G; Ovchinnikova, M B

    2012-03-01

    Until recently, beyond the attention of the public and the scientific community remains the question of memorializatsii once existed in Moscow, a large-scale military burial--Semenov military cemetery. This cemetery was not associated with any one war, and actually covered several periods of military history of Russia. Today, this place can be perceived as a symbol of Russia's military prowess, as a unique fraternal burial of soldiers of different generations. Today, thanks to the initiative of the public, the Chief Military Clinical Hospital. N.N. Burdenko Institute of History and Archives State Humanitarian University, the Union of Russian ethnographers, with the support of the Prefecture of HLW in Moscow and the district council "Falcon Hill" is working on giving the territory of the park, located in the cemeteries of Semenov, the status of places of interest here in order to create a military memorial. August 25, 2011 there was established the foundation stone of the future memorial. Continued hard work to gather and organize archival materials on the history of the necropolis Semenov, developed the scientific and artistic vision for the future memorial site. Memorial, designed by leading Russian experts--historians, sculptors, architects, artists who will be able to enrich the historical and cultural heritage of the city, will preserve the historical continuity of the traditions of the military glory of Russia, to perpetuate the memory of generations of defenders of the Fatherland. PMID:22686034

  13. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  14. Toxicological potential of metals found in soil of cemeteries in Santa Maria - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Casanova Vilaverde Gomes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination with toxic elements and cemetery leachate may result when proper geo-environmental and hydro geographic studies are not conducted and cemeteries are dug in soils without appropriate structure and chemical properties. This contamination may percolate through the water table, leading to groundwater contamination, which can dramatically affect natural resources and public health. The toxicity of soil from Santa Maria was evaluated in this context. In addition, concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined and compared with the tolerance limits established by the National Environmental Council Resolution No. 420 of 2013. Oligochaetas of the Eisenia andrei species were used as bio indicators in the format bioassays-limit test (control versus treatment, in a completely randomized design with three replications, consisting of seven treatments and two levels. At the end of the exposure period, we evaluated the effects of acute toxicity in oligochaetas, considering the median lethal concentration (LC50. The results of acute and chronic toxicity studies in the two analyzed cemeteries (urban and rural showed toxicity (CL50 239,88 mg k-1 e 52,48 mg kg-1 and interference in the reproductive process of oligochaetas. We detected concentrations of toxic metals that exceeded legally established values.

  15. Geophysical Investigation of an Abandoned Cemetery: Teachers Discover Evidence of Unmarked Graves in Prairie View, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, A. T.; Sawyer, D. S.; Baldwin, R.; Kahera, A.; Thoms, A.

    2007-12-01

    In July 2007, a group of nineteen K-12 teachers investigated an abandoned cemetery in Prairie View, Texas, utilizing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to image the subsurface. In a period of two weeks, the group acquired and interpreted 59 GPR profiles in Wyatt Chapel Cemetery and surrounding areas in order to determine the local stratigraphy and try to locate unmarked graves. The sandy soil in this area is ideally suited for GPR investigations and numerous geophysical anomalies were identified. Wyatt Chapel Cemetery is located adjacent to the campus of Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View, TX, and is thought to have originated as a slave burial ground in the 1850's. Participants in a summer course at Rice University conducted a geophysical investigation of the site. Participants were in-service K-12 teachers from urban Houston school districts where the majority of students are members of historically underrepresented minority groups. Recruitment efforts targeted educators who are currently teaching science without a science degree. Participants included elementary, middle and high school teachers. This summer experience is followed by a content-intensive academic year course in Physical Geology. GPR is an excellent tool for investigating the sandy soil encountered at Wyatt Chapel Cemetery. The stratigraphy in the area consists of 3-6 feet of reddish-brown, medium-grained sand overlying a light gray, highly compacted clay. The sand-clay boundary appears as a strong reflector on the GPR profiles. Participants identified numerous anomalies in the GPR data and two were excavated. One consisted of a pair of bright hyperbolae, suggesting two edges of a metal object. This excavation resulted in the discovery of a metal plank thought to be a burial cover. The second anomaly consisted of a break in the horizon representing the top of the clay layer, and subsequent excavation revealed a grave shaft. Participants experienced the process of science first-hand and used

  16. The Usaquén Cemetery – A Case Study about the Spacial Manifestations of Society’s Hierarchical Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo González Vargas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with an analysis of the spatial organization of the Usaquén Cemetery in Bogotá, this text proposes that the space of the cemetery functions like a scenario in which the hierarchical order of society is represented and reinforced. This order, however, is not admitted and interiorized totally by cemetery users. Through practices like the Cult to the Holy Souls the hierarchical social order is denied, in a cycle that repeats itself every week when this ritual is carried out. With the exploration of this case study it is proposed that investigations concerning social practices related to death are very useful for understanding the societies that produce them.

  17. New evidence of an "old" iconographic feature from the Teti pyramid cemetery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková Vlčková, Petra

    Prague : Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, 2009 - (Maříková Vlčková, P.; Mynářová, J.; Tomášek, M.), s. 47-57 ISBN 978-80-87365-18-2; ISBN 978-80-7308-279-6 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800020804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : egyptology * Old Kingdom * Teti pyramid cemetery Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. Geophysics and Texas History: Teachers Utilize GPS and GPR Technology to Help Restore an Abandoned Cemetery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, A. T.; Sawyer, D. S.; Wallace, D.; Kahera, A.

    2009-12-01

    In July 2009, a group of twenty-six K-12 teachers investigated an abandoned cemetery in Prairie View, Texas, utilizing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to image the subsurface and handheld global positioning system (GPS) units and a total station to record surface positions. The teachers were participants in a summer course at Rice University, ESCI 515: Geophysical Field Work for Educators. The course met for 8 full days over a two week period. During this time, the group acquired and interpreted 53 GPR profiles and over 700 GPS positions. The results of the study were presented to the Prairie View community at the end of the two weeks, and our data will be used in their effort to obtain a historical site designation for the cemetery. Wyatt Chapel Cemetery is located adjacent to the campus of Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View, TX, and is thought to have originated as a slave burial ground in the 1850’s. There are very few markers remaining, but a previous ESCI 515 course (in summer 2007) discovered multiple unmarked burials using GPR, which were confirmed by subsequent excavations. This past summer, ESCI 515 participants acquired GPR profiles in previously unexplored areas, used a total station to accurately record the positions of surface features such as headstones, and used handheld GPS units to map the location of a nearby stream bed. Participants were in-service K-12 teachers from urban Houston school districts where the majority of students are members of historically underrepresented minority groups. Recruitment efforts targeted educators who are currently teaching science without a science degree. Participants included elementary, middle and high school teachers. This summer experience is followed by a content-intensive academic year course in Physical Geology. Participants experienced the process of science first-hand and used science for community service (i.e. restoring an abandoned cemetery). Through background research, they derived a rich

  19. The Gallo-Roman cremation cemeteries of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg - intial findings of current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Polfer

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper will present the first results of a research project which aims at: ◦the elaboration of a complete corpus of all individual Gallo-Roman graves and cemeteries, including funerary monuments and inscriptions ◦the analysis of the structures and objects (typology, chronology etc. as well as the study of the religious, cultural and social attitudes and their evolution during the Roman period. The geographic area for the study is the modern Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, a major part of the ancient civitas treverorum. The project covers the period from the second half of the first century AD to the fifth century AD. The paper is divided into three main parts: 1.a short history of Gallo-Roman funerary archaeology in Luxembourg 2.a short presentation of some of the first results of the study related to: ◦the geographic distribution of the sites ◦the relationship between rural settlements, cemeteries and funerary monuments ◦the internal organisation of rural cemeteries ◦depositional practice and social differentiation in rural cemeteries ◦cremation types and the relationship between cremation and inhumation 3.a presentation (through maps and a database of the current state of the corpus (which currently has records of 300 different archaeological sites

  20. 48 CFR 801.602-80 - Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery Administration. 801.602-80 Section 801.602-80 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION...

  1. Lombards on the move--an integrative study of the migration period cemetery at Szolad, Hungary.

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    Kurt W Alt

    Full Text Available In 2005 to 2007 45 skeletons of adults and subadults were excavated at the Lombard period cemetery at Szólád (6th century A.D., Hungary. Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ(15N, δ(13C, (87Sr/(86Sr analyses. Skeletal stress markers as well as traces of interpersonal violence were found to occur frequently. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a heterogeneous spectrum of lineages that belong to the haplogroups H, U, J, HV, T2, I, and K, which are common in present-day Europe and in the Near East, while N1a and N1b are today quite rare. Evidence of possible direct maternal kinship was identified in only three pairs of individuals. According to enamel strontium isotope ratios, at least 31% of the individuals died at a location other than their birthplace and/or had moved during childhood. Based on the peculiar 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio distribution between females, males, and subadults in comparison to local vegetation and soil samples, we propose a three-phase model of group movement. An initial patrilocal group with narrower male but wider female Sr isotope distribution settled at Szólád, whilst the majority of subadults represented in the cemetery yielded a distinct Sr isotope signature. Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation. Population heterogeneity is furthermore supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope data. They indicate that a group of high-ranking men had access to larger shares of animal-derived food whilst a few individuals consumed remarkable amounts of millet. The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written

  2. Review of human osseal remains from XVI-XVIII centuries cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad (Tver, Russia

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    Andrei V. Zinoviev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human osseal remains from the cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad at the historical Russian city of Tver revealed the data on its population in XVI-XVIII centuries. Obtained data generally agreed with the material from other contemporaneous necropoles of the city. Domination of male burials and underrepresentation of younger individuals are accompanied by the signs of poor oral hygiene. Caries has not only often destroyed majority of molars in males and females by the age of 45-50 years, but affected teeth of teenagers and even younger individuals. The heavily developed dental calculus is one of the signs of insufficient oral hygiene in adults. Possible kinship between buried is manifested by similar genetically determined cranial anomalies.

  3. Urban Insertions and Landscape Visions. Tension between Design and Place in the Cemeteries by Sigurd Lewerentz

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    Carlotta Torricelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing memorial places involves a reflection about the Origin. Starting from this premise, the paper illustrates some small cemeteries designed by Sigurd Lewerentz in the same years when he was working at the two celebrated sacred spaces of Enskede (Stockholm and East-Malmö. The work developed by the Swedish architect in Forsbacka, Valdemarsvik, Rud and Kvarnsveden shows a peculiar approach aiming to reveal the character of the place. Lewerentz, through the landscape design, gives the ground – seen as a factor of origin – an evocative value. Using signs that allude to archetypes of the relationship between man and the divine, Lewerentz deploys natural features along with artificial and abstract elements. The pursuit of a sense of origin settles the project into the place, and in this we can recognize a founding principle able to orient contemporary urban projects.

  4. The sex profile of skeletal remains from a cemetery of Chinese indentured labourers in South Africa

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    Paul Ruff

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available For a short period of time in the early 20th century, indentured labourers from China were imported to work on the South African gold mines. The Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons contains 36 skeletons sourced from a Chinese cemetery of this time period on the site of the old Witwatersrand Deep Gold Mine. An earlier morphometric study on this collection recorded a high number of female individuals. However, the general historical records from the early gold mining era conflict with the results of this study, stating that very few Chinese females were among those to arrive in South Africa. In this study, the sex profile of this collection was analysed using molecular sex identification through the amelogenin gene. Results were obtained for 13 (41.93% specimens, all of which were determined to be male – data that correspond well with the historical records.

  5. An Early Hunter-Gatherer Cemetery in the Canadian Lower Great Lakes

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    James Conolly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The timing and context of the first emergence of cemeteries is of broad interest to archaeologists who wish to understand and explain changes in social complexity in late hunter-gatherer societies. Eastern North America has a particularly informative archaeological record for generating insight into how and why relatively small scale communities transform into much larger and regionally integrated societies, especially as these major transformations occur prior to the emergence of maize-based polities about 800 years ago (Sassaman 2010. An important element of this record of cultural change is innovation, transmission and adoption of new ideas concerning mortuary practices, and variation in these rituals over time provides considerable insight into the organizational complexity of hunter-gatherer societies.

  6. Molecular biological analysis of remains from Jiangjungou Cemetery in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haijing; LIU Weiqiang; FU Yuqin; ZHANG Xiaolei; ZHOU Hui; ZHU Hong

    2006-01-01

    The 364 bp nucleotide sequence in hypervariable region I (HVRI) of mitochondrial DNA is successfully amplified from 9 out of 11 individuals of an ancient population buried in the Jiangjungou Cemetery in Inner Mongolia dated back to the Warring States Period in China. Nine fragments with different variations are obtained. A phylogenetic tree and a multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot are constructed using mtDNA sequences from the ancient population and several modern Asian populations. The results show that ancient population shares a closer genetic relationship with East Asian populations than with North and Central Asian populations. The genetic and historical evidence raise the possibility that the population might be the immigrants from Zhongyuan area, sent by the King Wuling of Zhao State to guard the nation against the attack from Huns.

  7. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

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    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  8. Dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions from a hospital and cemetery waste incinerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininni, Giuseppe; Sbrilli, Andrea; Maria Braguglia, Camilla; Guerriero, Ettore; Marani, Dario; Rotatori, Mauro

    An experimental campaign was carried out on a hospital and cemetery waste incineration plant in order to assess the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Raw gases were sampled in the afterburning chamber, using a specifically designed device, after the heat recovery section and at the stack. Samples of slags from the combustion chamber and fly ashes from the bag filter were also collected and analyzed. PCDD/Fs and PAHs concentrations in exhaust gas after the heat exchanger (200-350 °C) decreased in comparison with the values detected in the afterburning chamber. Pollutant mass balance regarding the heat exchanger did not confirm literature findings about the de novo synthesis of PCDD/Fs in the heat exchange process. In spite of a consistent reduction of PCDD/Fs in the flue gas treatment system (from 77% up to 98%), the limit of 0.1 ng ITEQ Nm -3 at the stack was not accomplished. PCDD/Fs emission factors for air spanned from 2.3 up to 44 μg ITEQ t -1 of burned waste, whereas those through solid residues (mainly fly ashes) were in the range 41-3700 μg ITEQ t -1. Tests run with cemetery wastes generally showed lower PCDD/F emission factors than those with hospital wastes. PAH total emission factors (91-414 μg kg -1 of burned waste) were in the range of values reported for incineration of municipal and industrial wastes. In spite of the observed release from the scrubber, carcinogenic PAHs concentrations at the stack (0.018-0.5 μg Nm -3) were below the Italian limit of 10 μg Nm -3.

  9. BANGLES, BEADS AND BEDOUIN: EXCAVATING A LATE OTTOMAN CEMETERY IN JORDAN (ABSTRACT

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    Bethany J. Walker

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Transjordan witnessed significant social and economic changes in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. With the loss of agriculturally-rich territory in Europe, the Ottomans sought to make up for their economic losses by regaining control of their Arab provinces, some regions of which had been autonomous for nearly three hundred years. The application of Tanzimat legislation to the Transjordan was a success, to a large degree, in that it secured tax revenues and contributed to the general security of the region.The application of the 1858 Land Law, in which land was registered in a proprietor’s name for tax purposes, was particularly effective in transforming grazing land to productive agricultural properties. It, moreover, had a significant impact on Transjordanian society which was tribal and largely nomadic. The introduction of direct rule in the region by the Ottoman government transformed traditional tribal life, resulting in the settlement of formerly nomadic groups, the transition to an agrarian way of life, and the opening up of markets formerly inaccessible to indigenous tribal groups. A variety of urban, manufactured goods became readily available to all sectors of society throughout this frontier zone.“Bangles, Beads and Bedouin: Excavating a Late Ottoman Cemetery inJordan” considers the transformation of tribal funerary practices in the Belqa’ of central Jordan. The paper highlights the burial ground of one Transjordanian tribe, identified as the Adwan, excavated at Tall Hisban in 1998. Dated to the late nineteenth century on the basis of coins, this mass grave was one of the last of its kind, as permanent cemeteries replaced seasonal burial grounds by the early twentieth century. The composition of theburial goods indicates that members of the tribe participated in an exchange network that embraced the Red Sea, Greater Syria, and Europe.

  10. Suitability of containers from different sources as breeding sites of Aedes aegypti (L.) in a cemetery of Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Darío Vezzani; Nicolás Schweigmann

    2002-01-01

    Cemeteries are ideal urban areas to study the importance of different types of containers as breeding sites of Aedes aegypti (L.). In the present study, the suitability of plastic, glass, ceramic and metal containers was evaluated in four patches within a cemetery of Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Between October 1998 and May 2000, we found 215 breeding sites of Ae. aegypti out of 13,022 water-filled containers examined. In two patches containing microenvironments sheltered from the sun, the u...

  11. The ecological structure of the bryoflora of Wroclaw's parks and cemeteries in relation to their localization and origin

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    Ewa Fudali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The ecological structure of the flora of 81 bryophytes found in 22 town parks and 6 cemeteries situated within the borders of the Wrocław town has been analyzed in relation to the localization of objects (within the center of the town and its suburbs and their origin (parks set up in the place of ruins, those built on the site of old cemeteries, objects established within former forests, and parks set up in open, previously rural areas, often as gardens of mansions. In general estimation, the bryoflora of parks and cemeteries appears to be rather ecologically highly specializated - more than 50% of species occurred only on one type of substratum. Epiphytes s.s. occurred rarely. More often bryophytes were noted at the bases and on the trunks of trees, up to 30 cm. Some of the mosses, described in literature as epiphytes, have adapted to terrestrial-epiphytic sites and have been found only at the base of trees. In parks, epigeits were found in abundance on the ground around the base of trees and in shaded lawns. The presence of specialized epixylics was insignificant, although some of the typical forest epixylics were noted, namely Aulacomnium androgynum, Herzogiella seligeri and Dicranum scoparium. However, only parks situated in the suburbs show a high ecological variety of bryoflora, while objects established within the center of the town do not differ in species composition of bryophytes from surrounding built-up areas, despite their origin. Only in the parks situated in the suburbs there was a pronounced presence of forest and meadow species. The factor of park's origin seems to influence the bryoflora's ecological structure and the species richness on objects situated in the suburbs. In the cemeteries a positive correlation between the high number of species, age of monuments and the dimensions of object areas was stated.

  12. Reconstructing Ancient Egyptian Diet through Bone Elemental Analysis Using LIBS (Qubbet el Hawa Cemetery

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    Ghada Darwish Al-Khafif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important advantages of LIBS that make it suitable for the analysis of archeological materials is that it is a quasi-nondestructive technique. Archeological mandibles excavated from Qubbet el Hawa Cemetery, Aswan, were subjected to elemental analysis in order to reconstruct the dietary patterns of the middle class of the Aswan population throughout three successive eras: the First Intermediate Period (FIP, the Middle Kingdom (MK, and the Second Intermediate Period (SIP. The bone Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios were significantly correlated, so the Sr/Ca ratios are considered to represent the ante-mortem values. It was suggested that the significantly low FIP Sr/Ca compared to that of both the MK and the SIP was attributed to the consumption of unusual sorts of food and imported cereals during years of famine, while the MK Sr/Ca was considered to represent the amelioration of climatic, social, economic, and political conditions in this era of state socialism. The SIP Sr/Ca, which is nearly the same as that of the MK, was considered to be the reflection of the continuity of the individualism respect and state socialism and a reflection of agriculture conditions amelioration under the reign of the 17th Dynasty in Upper Egypt.

  13. A bioarchaeological approach to prehistoric cemetery populations from western and central Greek Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The osteological material under study consists of 510 skeletal remains dating from the Early Neolithic (6000 BC) to the Early Iron Age (1100-700 BC). It comes from nine different cemeteries and burial locations extending from the coastal to the inland areas of the study region. The current thesis attempts to explore two major issues: 1) the reconstruction of aspects of life history and 2) the treatment and manipulation of the deceased as revealed by the human skeletal remains. With regard to the former, the investigation of demographic parameters, patterns of health and oral status as well as diet have been considered. In short, local conditions defined by environmental and social constraints probably affected the general quality of life reconstructed for the study populations. There is an overall tendency however, towards declining levels of health and oral status in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age populations, while certain assemblages provide high levels of infant and child mortality, possibly associated with a type of anaemia. There is also a substantial involvement of the upper skeleton in work patterns, possibly related to activities such as food acquisition, processing and preparation. Meanwhile, the evidence for dietary patterns from the Neolithic/Early Bronze Ages to the Late Bronze/Early Iron Ages is consistent with an overall shift from a high reliance on meat consumption to a diet base on carbohydrate foodstuffs. The evaluation of the manipulation of the deceased, alongside the evidence for mortuary differentiation through time, reveals a striking transformation from the practice of single inhumations in the Early Bronze Age to multiple/secondary burials in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age assemblages, suggesting a shift in emphasis from individual to lineage-group identity. Furthermore, the integration of biological inferences with the evidence of mortuary behaviour provides further insights into sex roles and the position of subadults, otherwise

  14. Paleodietary Analysis of Human Remains from a Hellenistic-Roman Cemetery at Camihöyük, Turkey

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    Yusuf İzci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of copper, zinc, magnesium, iron, lead, molybdenum, manganese and nickel was discovered on 22 human ribs in a Hellenistic-Roman cemetery located in the ancient city of Camihöyük, Turkey. The levels of each element found in the males were higher than those in females, except iron. Copper, magnesium, iron, molybdenum, and nickel levels were measured to be higher in the soil than in the skeletons, whereas the other elements were higher in the human skeletons. Lead was not traced in the soil, but on the skeletons. These individuals had probably been exposed to this element during their lives due to higher consumption of vegetables than meat.

  15. Isotopic investigation of human provenience at the eleventh century cemetery of Ndr. Grødbygård, Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Price, Douglas; Bennike, Pia;

    2013-01-01

    Bornholm is a Danish island almost in the center of the southern Baltic Sea. The strategic location of the island, its richarcheology, and its complex geology make it an intriguing location for the isotopic study of past human mobility. The focusof this study is on the large cemetery of Ndr....... Grødbygård in the southern part of the island, which dates to the eleventhcentury AD and contains 553 individuals in 516 graves. The majority of the burials were in a supine position oriented west – east, with the heads to the west, following the tradition of that time. In contrast to the Christian...... geology is quite complex, with a variety of rocks of different age and composition, resulting in a wide range of strontium isotope sources on the island, complicating the issue of identifying migrants. At the same time, Grødbygård provides an important example of the application of such methods in less...

  16. Dimensions of health and social structure in the early intermediate period cemetery at Villa El Salvador, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenkina, Ekaterina A; Delgado, Mercedes

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines relationships between the social structure of a community and the health of its members, based on analysis of human skeletal remains (N = 64) from Villa El Salvador XII (100 BC-AD 100), a prehistoric cemetery located in the lower Lurín Valley, Peru. The ambiguity of social status as conventionally inferred from archaeological context is among the principal complicating factors in such an inquiry. We use multidimensional scaling of skeletal markers to identify the presence of patterned health-based heterogeneity in our sample, without making a priori assumptions about underlying social structure at Villa El Salvador. This procedure situates every skeleton relative to all others in the sample on the basis of multiple health markers, eliciting health groups. Once recognized, the relevance of those groups to social structure can be evaluated by comparison with a broad range of presumptive archaeological status indicators. We test the hypothesis that the distribution of stress indicators in human skeletons covaries with archaeological indicators of social differentiation. Based on multivariate analysis of skeletal indicators, we conclude that the cemetery at Villa El Salvador was utilized by two social groups with different geographic affinities: one of local coastal origin, and the other probably from the upper Lurín Valley or adjacent higher altitudes. These groups differ in skeletal characteristics related to childhood health, probably reflecting systematic contrasts in the growth environments of the studied individuals. This same division is independently supported by the distribution of cranial deformation, a possible marker of ethnicity. We also document some inequality in the distribution of labor among male individuals, as reflected by the relative advancement of degenerative joint disease, and congruent with differences in the number and quality of associated funerary offerings. PMID:16596594

  17. The sage who divided Java in 1052: Maclaine Pont’s excavation of Mpu Bharada's hermitage-cemetery at Lĕmah Tulis in 1925

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    Peter Carey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Architect Henri Maclaine Pont’s personal papers indicate that he almost certainly excavated the medieval hermitage-cemetery of the eleventh-century sage, Empu Bharada, in 1925. Careful field study in the former royal capital of Majapahit, analysis of the relevant Old Javanese texts and interviews with local residents have enabled an accurate identification of Maclaine-Pont’s exacavation site at the former children’s cemetery of Lemah Tulis where Bharada lived as a hermit. The authors argue that the famous Joko Dolog (‘Fat Youth’ statue now in Surabaya depicts the Buddhist sage who divided Java between King Airlangga’s two sons in 1052, and conclude by urging a new excavation of this most significant historical site.

  18. Parasitism in Kansas in the 1800s: a glimpse to the past through the analysis of grave sediments from Meadowlark cemetery

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    Matthieu Le Bailly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During the excavations of the XIX century Meadowlark cemetery (Manhattan, Kansas, US, samples of sediments were taken from around five skeletons, and analyzed to detect intestinal parasites. No helminth eggs were found, but immunological ELISA tests for Entamoeba histolytica were positive in three samples. The immunological techniques have been successfully used in paleoparasitology to detect protozoan infections. Amoebiasis could have been a severe disease in the past, especially where poor sanitary conditions prevailed, and there is evidence that this cemetery may have been used in a situation where poor sanitary conditions may have prevailed. The presence of this protozoan in US during the late XIX century gives information on the health of the population and provides additional data on the parasite's evolution since its appearance in the New World.

  19. Suitability of containers from different sources as breeding sites of Aedes aegypti (L. in a cemetery of Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Vezzani

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cemeteries are ideal urban areas to study the importance of different types of containers as breeding sites of Aedes aegypti (L.. In the present study, the suitability of plastic, glass, ceramic and metal containers was evaluated in four patches within a cemetery of Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Between October 1998 and May 2000, we found 215 breeding sites of Ae. aegypti out of 13,022 water-filled containers examined. In two patches containing microenvironments sheltered from the sun, the use of the different types of containers was proportional to the offer (correlation coefficient = 0.99, P < 0.05 in both cases. In the remaining patches, plastic and metal containers were the most and less frequent breeding sites, respectively (P < 0.001 in both cases. The number of immatures per breeding site (median = 4.5 did not show significant differences among the four types of containers examined (H3, 215 = 1.216, P = 0.749. Differences found in patches from a same cemetery suggest that different microenvironmental conditions affect the suitability of each type of container for Ae. aegypti breeding. Plastic containers appeared as key breeding sites that should be removed to reduce the Ae. aegypti population in the study area.

  20. Re-Meaning The Indigenous Muisca Cemetery 0f Usme, Colombia: Ethnography of Collaborative Project and Patrimonial Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo F. Gómez-Montañez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper exposes an ethnographic view of a collaborative field work, made in Hacienda El Carmen in Usme, Colombia, a terrain where an indigenous muisca cemetery was found. The analysis focuses on the struggles between the named “authorized patrimonial discourse” and the “cultural process of patrimony”.  In the first part, I want to expose the processes that led us to purpose a current collaborative research project implemented by the Universidad Santo Tomás’ Group of Memory and the Indigenous Muisca Community of Bosa. Based on a situational analysis methodology, this part is the result of an ethnographic field work of some spaces of dialogue and encounter among different logics to understand the patrimony and the heritage. In middle of struggles with the public institutions, the academy and other social groups, the muisca people build and negotiate their ethnic identity as part of their cultural and political project. In the second part, the situational analysis will be applied in scenarios where the muisca people began to interpret the archaeological territory of Hacienda El Carmen. In this part, I will try to expose some epistemological reflections about alternative and inclusive ways of knowledge and remembering. The new senses and narratives, produced as a result of this exercise, let us thinking about the symbolic strategies used by the muisca people to occupy an important place in the present and the possibility of understanding and purposing current citizen visions from creative and original ways of incorporate ancestral memories.

  1. Radiocarbon dating of charred human bone remains preserved in urns excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: nakamura@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.j [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sagawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Tetsuya [Gangoji Institute for Research of Cultural Properties, Nakain, Nara 630-8392 (Japan); Kanehara, Masaaki [School of Science Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake, Nara 630-8528 (Japan); Tsuchimoto, Norio [Ichinomiya City Museum, Yamato, Ichinomiya 491-0922 (Japan); Minami, Masayo [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Okuno, Mitsuru [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Jonan, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Ohta, Tomoko [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    For a preliminary test of {sup 14}C dating of cremated human remains, we have collected charred bone and wood-charcoal fragments from cremated remains contained in cinerary urns that had been excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery at the Hoenji temple in Aichi prefecture, central Japan. More than 230 urn vessels were discovered from the excavated area of ca. 14 m wide and 14 m long. The identification of charred bone or charcoal fragments among the remains was performed by observation of surface appearance, inspection of fine structures by a microscope, bubble formation during the HCl treatments in preparing target material for AMS {sup 14}C dating, carbon and nitrogen contents, delta{sup 13}C and delta{sup 15}N values of the fragments. All {sup 14}C ages obtained for the samples that were identified as charred bone remains were almost consistent with the archeological age estimated based on typological analysis of respective urns. On the other hand, some {sup 14}C ages for the remains identified as wood charcoal, which had been produced from firewood or a wooden coffin during the cremation, were not consistent with archeological estimation, shifting toward older {sup 14}C ages, most probably as the result of old wood effect.

  2. Radiocarbon dating of charred human bone remains preserved in urns excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a preliminary test of 14C dating of cremated human remains, we have collected charred bone and wood-charcoal fragments from cremated remains contained in cinerary urns that had been excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery at the Hoenji temple in Aichi prefecture, central Japan. More than 230 urn vessels were discovered from the excavated area of ca. 14 m wide and 14 m long. The identification of charred bone or charcoal fragments among the remains was performed by observation of surface appearance, inspection of fine structures by a microscope, bubble formation during the HCl treatments in preparing target material for AMS 14C dating, carbon and nitrogen contents, δ13C and δ15N values of the fragments. All 14C ages obtained for the samples that were identified as charred bone remains were almost consistent with the archeological age estimated based on typological analysis of respective urns. On the other hand, some 14C ages for the remains identified as wood charcoal, which had been produced from firewood or a wooden coffin during the cremation, were not consistent with archeological estimation, shifting toward older 14C ages, most probably as the result of old wood effect.

  3. "Lupara Bianca" a way to hide cadavers after Mafia homicides. A cemetery of Italian Mafia. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Gianpaolo, Di Peri; Monica, Salerno; Maglietta, Francesca; Sessa, Francesco; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    The Gargano, also known as the 'Spur of Italy', is a sub-region of Italy which is located in North of Puglia, in the Province of Foggia. A ravine located in this area was used as a dumping ground in past. During a clearing operation, a team of speleologists discovered human skeletal remains, which led to an official investigation by the local prosecutor's office. The prosecutor called a team of forensic specialist for a scene investigation to recover and identify the human skeletal remains. Four different human skeletal remains located at four different levels of depth underground were found and were in different conditions. A complete forensic investigation was initiated and comprised of radiological imaging with DNA profiling. Three of the four human skeletal remains that were found were identified as those belonging to men who vanished mysteriously in the nineties. The studies conducted have demonstrated that the victims found were murdered and the murders were attributed to the "Mafia of Gargano". The Mafia of Gargano was officially recognized as a criminal organization dating back to 2009 and their criminal activities included the smuggling of firearms and cigarettes, human trafficking, and smuggling of undocumented immigrants. Murders in which corpses are made to disappear is common practice in criminal activities including that of the Italian Mafia. The "Lupara Bianca" is a colloquial term commonly used in Sicily to refer to concealed murders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study describing the discovery of one of the locations used extensively by the local Mafia as a "cemetery" for victims of "Lupara Bianca" homicides. Based on evidences collected at the site, an explanation of this homicidal modality will be provided. PMID:25579982

  4. Natural stones and types of tombstones in National cemetery in Martin from half of the 19th to half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pivko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available About 500 tombstones from National cemetery in Martin were carried out. The cemetery represents section through sepulchral architecture in the 19th and 20th centuries and records history of natural stones use and tombstone evolution. From c. 1850, classicistic steles were produced from Gerecse marble and Banská Bystrica sandstone. Historicist steles of Silesian marble were imported from 1870s. End of 1880s years, variability of tombstone appearance began to grow. Outlined text, carved text fields, ornaments and new typefaces were emerged. In 90s years Carrara marble is imported. Real variousness of tombstone face is typical for first 20 years of the 20th century, when hard natural stones (Silesian granite, Swedish dolerite, and Norwegian larvikite are widely used. Besides them domestic Cenozoic conglomerates, Banská Bystrica sandstone and Bohemian Hořice sandstone were utilized. From 20s years to half of the century, variability of natural stones decreased at the expense of Swedish dolerite. Variety of tombstone shapes grew from decorated secession steles, through geometric functionalistic compositions, to simple tabular tombstones.

  5. Neoclassicism and local artistic tradition in the sepulchral monuments of the Certosa cemetery in Bologna during the napoleonic era and the restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Bagattoni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In advance of the edict of Saint-Cloud (1804 which forbade burials inside towns, the suppressed monastery of the Carthusians monks of Bologna was transformed into a vast cemetery in 1801 and complied with the most modern instances of sanitation. After a heated debate on whether to put all social classes together in one burial place extra moenia, the Municipality of Bologna resolved the dispute by overcoming the existing Enlightenment-Jacobin egalitarianism: the wide open fields were reserved for the burial of ordinary people, while the wealthy (nobility and the newly rich bourgeoisie were able to bury their dead in the costly monumental sepulchres in the arches of the Renaissance cloister. The growing number of monuments soon meant that the Bolognese cemetery became the richest exhibition of Italian Neoclassical art and consequently a destination for many Italian and foreign travellers. This situation promoted activities of writing and engraving which focused on the monumental works and their illustrious dedicatees. From 1815 on, the Municipality and the Academy of Fine Arts of Bologna promoted the prestige of their cemetery by enlarging and embellishing it and initiating a methodical quality control of the artistic work produced for its enrichment. The interest of these institutions also contributed to the evolution of techniques for executing the monuments. During the Napoleonic era, in line with the great local classical-naturalistic tradition of painting and “quadratura” of Bologna, the sepulchres were predominantly decorated by painters. This phenomenon, perhaps unique in the world, ended with scagliola and gypsum sculpture being favoured over painting in the middle of the 1810s. One reason for this reversal in trend can be found in the problems of conservation which the painted tombs, located outdoors, presented only a few years after they had been made. Another reason is evident in the slow change in taste of the Bolognese towards

  6. Methodological proposal for the volumetric study of archaeological ceramics through 3D edition free-software programs: the case of the celtiberians cemeteries of the meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez Climent

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the free-software programs have been converted into the ideal tools for the archaeological researches, reaching the same level as other commercial programs. For that reason, the 3D modeling tool Blender has reached in the last years a great popularity offering similar characteristics like other commercial 3D editing programs such as 3D Studio Max or AutoCAD. Recently, it has been developed the necessary script for the volumetric calculations of three-dimnesional objects, offering great possibilities to calculate the volume of the archaeological ceramics. In this paper, we present a methodological approach for the volumetric studies with Blender and a study case of funerary urns from several celtiberians cemeteries of the Spanish Meseta. The goal is to demonstrate the great possibilities that the 3D editing free-software tools have in the volumetric studies at the present time.

  7. XANES investigation of Chinese faience excavated from Peng State Cemetery site in Western Zhou Period (BC1046–BC771)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Wentao; Yang, Yimin [Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Jian, E-mail: jzhu@ucas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gu, Zhou [Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044 (China); Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie, Yaoting [Institute of Archaeology of Shanxi Province, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Zhang, Jing [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Lihua [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed faience of Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty (BC1046–BC771). • We investigated the chemical composition and oxidation state by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), respectively. • The coloring element in both beads is copper in +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu{sup 2+}. • Chinese faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant. - Abstract: As a special kind of glazed ceramic, faience has an important role to play in the technological trajectory that eventually leads to the development of ancient glass. In China, faience products first emerged in early Western Zhou Dynasty (1046BC–771BC), and their great significance as well as brilliant colors varying between blue and green attracted a lot of scholars. However, scientific researches on the color source of Chinese faience in view of microstructure characterization are quite few. In the present work, analyses by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) were carried out on two faience beads with relatively blue and green color, respectively, both of which were excavated from Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty. The results show that the coloring element in both beads is copper with +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu{sup 2+}. It is suggested that the faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant in China.

  8. XANES investigation of Chinese faience excavated from Peng State Cemetery site in Western Zhou Period (BC1046–BC771)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyzed faience of Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty (BC1046–BC771). • We investigated the chemical composition and oxidation state by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), respectively. • The coloring element in both beads is copper in +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu2+. • Chinese faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant. - Abstract: As a special kind of glazed ceramic, faience has an important role to play in the technological trajectory that eventually leads to the development of ancient glass. In China, faience products first emerged in early Western Zhou Dynasty (1046BC–771BC), and their great significance as well as brilliant colors varying between blue and green attracted a lot of scholars. However, scientific researches on the color source of Chinese faience in view of microstructure characterization are quite few. In the present work, analyses by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) were carried out on two faience beads with relatively blue and green color, respectively, both of which were excavated from Peng State archaeological cemetery site in Western Zhou Dynasty. The results show that the coloring element in both beads is copper with +2 valence, and the color divergence of these two beads may originate from different local chemical environments of Cu2+. It is suggested that the faience in this period is the earliest glaze with copper colorant in China

  9. Reconstruction of dietary habits on the basis of dental microwear and trace elements analysis of individuals from Gán cemetery (district Galanta, Slovakia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibenská, Kristína Domonkosová; Bodoriková, Silvia; Katina, Stanislav; Kovácsová, Veronika; Kubová, Jana; Takács, Michal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the diet of a historical human population. Dental microwear and trace elements were analyzed. Although 38 individuals had been buried in the cemetery, only 13 of them were suitable for the analysis of trace elements and 17 skeletal remains for microwear analysis. Buccal microwear has been studied in a sample of 17 teeth from Gán cemetery. Teeth molds of the buccal surface were obtained and observed at 120x magnification with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Length and orientation of each striation have been determined with a SigmaScan Pro 5.0 image analysis program. The results of the analysis from Gán were compared with the previous study in a sample of 153 molar teeth from different modern hunter-gatherer, pastorals, and agriculturalist groups, with different diets (Inuit, Fueguians, Bushmen, Australian aborigines, Andaman's, Indians from Vancouver, Veddahs, Tasmanians, Lapps, and Hindus), preserved at museum collections. Buccal dental microwear density and length by orientation showed almost an inclination to hunter-gatherers from tropic and arid climates. The sample for the trace elements analysis consisted of 10 permanent molars and 3 permanent premolars. All analyzed teeth were intact, with fully developed roots, without dental caries, calculus and abrasion. Samples were analyzed using the method of optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Three elements: Ca, Sr, and Zn were chosen as basic diet determinants. Concentrations of these elements and their ratios were used for description of a relative proportion of plant and animal protein in a diet. The values of the Sr and Zn concentrations indicate that a diet of investigated population was rich in plant food. Higher Sr values in women can indicate lower proportion of animal protein in a diet, but significant differences have not been found. Differences between non-adult and adult individuals and between individuals with and without grave

  10. All Roads Lead to Rome: Exploring Human Migration to the Eternal City through Biochemistry of Skeletons from Two Imperial-Era Cemeteries (1st-3rd c AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgrove, Kristina; Montgomery, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Migration within the Roman Empire occurred at multiple scales and was engaged in both voluntarily and involuntarily. Because of the lengthy tradition of classical studies, bioarchaeological analyses must be fully contextualized within the bounds of history, material culture, and epigraphy. In order to assess migration to Rome within an updated contextual framework, strontium isotope analysis was performed on 105 individuals from two cemeteries associated with Imperial Rome—Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco—and oxygen and carbon isotope analyses were performed on a subset of 55 individuals. Statistical analysis and comparisons with expected local ranges found several outliers who likely immigrated to Rome from elsewhere. Demographics of the immigrants show men and children migrated, and a comparison of carbon isotopes from teeth and bone samples suggests the immigrants may have significantly changed their diet. These data represent the first physical evidence of individual migrants to Imperial Rome. This case study demonstrates the importance of employing bioarchaeology to generate a deeper understanding of a complex ancient urban center. PMID:26863610

  11. Systematic Contradiction Between Heritage Conservation and Tourism Development: Cleaning the Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Degang; Sun Wanzhen

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of the tourist industry, world heritage sites become more and more popular among tourists from home and abroad. Therefore, heritage tourism has become a new hotspot. However, while world heritage sites are making obvious economic benefit from tourism,they also bring various problems and contradictions, of which the most troublesome one is the contradiction between heritage conservation and tourism development. To discuss and analyze the root and the essence of the above contradiction and find a way to bring about harmony between them is an important program faced by our national heritage management practice and academic research. Based on the case of cleaning the Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu, this paper analyzes the reasons why our national world cultural heritage sites bring about the above contradiction in the process of tourism development and points out that the improper system and stakeholders' benefit imbroglio are respectively the root and the essence of the contraction. Then, it also puts forward corresponding solutions.

  12. Results of the independent verification of radiological remedial action at 600 South Clayhill Drive (AKA 600 South Cemetery Road), Monticello, Utah (MS00145)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980 the site of a vanadium and uranium mill at Monticello, Utah, was accepted into the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program, with the objectives of restoring the government-owned mill site to safe levels of radioactivity, disposing of or containing the tailings in an environmentally safe manner, and performing remedial actions on off-site (vicinity) properties that had been contaminated by radioactive material resulting from mill operations. During 1986 and 1987, UNC Geotech, the remedial action contractor designated by DOE, performed remedial action on the vicinity property at 600 South Cemetery Road (updated by San Juan County and the state of Utah to 600 South Clayhill Drive), Monticello, Utah. The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was assigned the responsibility of verifying the data supporting the adequacy of remedial action and confirming the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The PAG found that the site successfully meets the DOE remedial action objectives. Procedures used by PAG are described. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Chemical characterization of groundwater in the area occupied by the cemetery: use of fluorescence spectrometry X-ray energy dispersive (EDXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ernesto Ucker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the burial of human corpses can contribute to groundwater pollution by the contact of leachate generated from the decomposition of bodies in the unsaturated zone of the subsoil. This process has been investigated in this work that aimed to determine the overall quality of groundwater in the zone occupied by the cemetery. The fluorescence spectrometry X-ray Energy Dispersive (EDXRF technique was used for groundwater chemical characterization. Five monitoring wells were constructed according to Brazilian norms. The water level fluctuation, the potentiometric surface and the concentrations of the elements calcium, copper, iron, phosphorus and silicon were estimated. The water level appeared quite shallow, ranging between 0.48 to 0.95 m in the dry season. The concentrations range for calcium varied from 4.65 to 17.85 mg L-1, for copper 0.02 ± 0.29 mg L-1, iron 0.57 to 15.96 mg L-1, phosphorus 12.00 to 13.98 mg L-1, and silicon 35.55 to 79.12 mg L-1. It is concluded that the use of EDXRF techniques proved to be rapid and efficient for monitoring the constituents in the groundwater collected in wells under the influence of graveyard in silt-clay soil.

  14. 新疆尉犁县营盘墓地1999年发掘简报%Excavation of the Yingpan Cemetery in Yuli County, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    新疆文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    The Yingpan cemetery is situated lkm northeast of the Yingpan city-site. There are more than 300 tombs in disorder and largely with diversiform-leaved polar stakes on the surface. Of them 80 were excavated in 1999, and 8 of these are reported in the present paper. The earth-pit tombs contain wooden coffins in the shape of a trough or four-legged case, or only wooden frames or boards in some cases. The cave-cure-shaft graves have no wooden coffins and are blocked at the mouth. The dead were entombed by single or couple joint burial, largely in extended supine position or, in less cases, in extended prone or flexed position. The grave goods include pottery, wooden, straw-knitted and lacquered objects. They are varied according to the sex of the dead. The clothes are different in the condition of preservation. Their styles and materials were not or seldom seen previously. In date the tombs can be inferred to belong to the Wei-Jin period.

  15. Foramen Tympanicum or Foramen of Huschke: A Bioarchaeological Study on Human Skeletons from an Iron Age Cemetery at Tabriz Kabud Mosque Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Rezaian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The foramen tympanicum is an anatomical variation that is created in the tympanic plate of temporal bone during the first year of life. The tympanic plate grows and foramen tympanicum is gradually closed by about the fifth postnatal year. However, due to a defect in normal ossification, foramen tympanicum sporadically remains throughout life. The construction of a shopping center in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, led to the discovery of an Iron Age cemetery (1500-500 BC. Several tombs have been uncovered below one meter of sterile soil so far and a thick level of architectural debris from the medieval city has been discovered. Up to now, no bioarchaeological data has been gathered about the burials in this area. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of foramen tympanicum in this area. In this study, 45 skeletons were studied and the prevalence of this foramen was about 4.4% bilaterally. We also reported on two babies with fused and un-fused squamotympanic fissure. The persistence of this foramen is a possible risk factor for otologic complications after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint and salivary gland fistula through this foramen. The closure of this foramen could be also used for age estimation in sub-adult individuals. The incidence of this trait in this study was similar to other available studies on modern skeletons.

  16. Legal Regulations on the Cemetery Reclamation in the Context of Urbanization%城镇化背景下坟地复垦的法律规制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘羿

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal regulations on cemetery reclamation in order to clarify which kind of cemetery can be reclaimed in the process ofurbanization. Methods of empirical and normative analysis were employed. The results indicated that whether cemeteriesmay be reclaimed should be distinguished according to the time of being built according to the Funeral Regulations, which was enacted in 1997. The Civil Affairs administrative have the power to enforce the reclamation. However, according to Land Administration Law, the Land Administrative can only execute their power if the cemetery is against the original permission according to the local land use planning, e.g., expanding or reconstructing the cemetery. Furthermore, according to Urban and Rural Planning Law, the governments at village and township level can make decisions on reclaiming the cemeteriesonly if the cemeteries are built after the rural planning is enacted. However, the reclamation decision belongs to the administrative punishment and is in effect as long as the cemeteries have not been reclaimed. The paper concludes that the relevant administrative should force the reclamation according to the time that the cemeteries are built.%研究目的:从殡葬管理、土地管理、城乡规划等实定法的角度,分析对于占用耕地的坟地处理方式,以明确何种坟地可以被复垦。研究方法:实证法,规范分析法。研究结果:依据1997年的《殡葬管理条例》,对已存在于耕地之上的坟墓处理,需根据建坟时间的不同予以区别对待,民政部门对此有强制执行权,该项权力在《行政强制法》实施后失效;依据《土地管理法》,需区分建坟的时间以及坟主对坟墓有无扩建、重建行为,土地行政主管部门对此无行政强制权;依据《城乡规划法》,乡、镇人民政府只能处理乡村规划制定后所建坟墓,并依据该法第65条的规定行使强

  17. Sugaring marble in the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy): characterization of naturally and artificially weathered samples and first results of consolidation by hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoni, Enrico; Franzoni, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    The so-called sugaring of marble is a very common degradation phenomenon, affecting both historical monuments and modern buildings, which is originated by environmental temperature fluctuations. Thermal cycles are indeed responsible for micro-cracks formation at the boundaries between calcite grains, so that marble is subjected to granular disintegration and can be reduced to a sugar-like powder of isolated calcite grains by just the pressure of a finger. Since no effective, compatible and durable treatment for sugaring marble consolidation is currently available, in this paper a novel consolidating treatment recently proposed for limestone, based on the formation of hydroxyapatite inside the stone, was investigated for weathered marble. To test the new treatment on suitably decayed marble samples, some naturally sugaring marbles from the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy, nineteenth century) were firstly characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurement. Then, artificially weathered samples were produced by heating fresh Carrara marble samples at 400 °C for 1 h. The effects of artificial weathering were characterized using the same techniques as above, and a very good agreement was found between microstructure and mechanical features of naturally and artificially weathered samples. Then, the hydroxyapatite-based treatment was tested on the so-obtained artificially weathered samples, and the treatment effects were characterized by UPV, MIP and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydroxyapatite-based treatment exhibited a remarkable ability of restoring marble cohesion and a good compatibility in terms of modifications in pore size distribution, which leads to regard this treatment as a very promising consolidant for weathered marble.

  18. Cemeteries and the human landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Anna Caminiti

    2015-01-01

    A cemetery’s configuration is closely linked to the territory, the culture and traditions of the communities they belong to. The plants — initially determined by specific reference models, based on the regulations at the time of foundation — undergo transformations over time, extensions, alterations and degradation that make it lose its identity. The essential value of places of collective memory and expression of feeling remain connected to the culture of death. These are the topics included...

  19. Tranquebar - cemeteries and grave monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karin; Gasparski, Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    devoted great care to the erection of monuments with long personal inscriptions for the deceased.Some of the epitaphs are composed with talent and skill, while others are maladroit. The monuments and the church registers tell the story of the early inhabitants of Tranquebar, their ideals, their sorrows...

  20. A Study of the Human Skulls from the Sodungbrak Cemetery in Qapqal County, Xinjiang%新疆察布查尔县索墩布拉克墓地出土人头骨研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈靓

    2003-01-01

    The human skulls studied in the present paper come from the Sodungbrak cemetery of the 5th to 3rd centuries BC in Qapqal County, Xinjiang. Based on the tomb structure and pottery form, they are believed to have been concerned with the Saka nomadizing in this area for a long period. There are 13 males and 10 females among the 23 individuals that can be morphologically examined and measured. The research results suggest that this group of people can be divided into two subgroups according to their physical features. Subgroup Ⅰ is close to the Central Asian Mesopotamia type, and Subgroup Ⅱ to the Paleo-Europoid type. Compared with ancient populations in adjacent regions, Subgroup Ⅰ shows closeness to the Alay-Saka-Wusun, Shihezi-Nanshan and Tianshan-Saka-Wusun groups, while Subgroup Ⅱ to the Gumugou, Minusinsk-Andronovo and Yanbrak-C groups.

  1. 河南三门峡市虢国墓地M2001墓主考%On the Tomb-owner of Grave M2001 in the Guo State Cemetery within Sanmenxia City, Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦修

    2004-01-01

    Grave M2001 in the Guo State cemetery within Sanmenxia City should be assigned to the late stage of the late Western Zhou period, i. e. from Xuanwang's through Youwang's reign. This date was close to the time the Western Guo people migrated eastward as mentioned in historical records,and also corresponded with the time of Guo Wengong living in Zhou King Xuanwang's reign. In bronze inscriptions, we read the names “Guoji” (on bronzes from M2001), “Guoji-shi” (on the Guoji-shi Ziduan li tripod) and “Guo Wengong Ziduan” (on the Guo Wengong Ziduan cling tripod; both the li and the ding occurring in M1631) . Actually they refer to the same person, who was named “Guo Wengong” in literary documents. Therefore, the tomb-owner of M2001 can be definitely identified just as Guo Wengong.

  2. Al-qarāfa, la Città dei Morti del Cairo. Il circuito delle sette tombe sacre - Al-Qarāfa: the pilgrimage to the holy seven tombs in Cairene Muslim cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tozzi Di Marco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A key aspect of al-Qarāfa, the Muslim inhabitated cemetery in Cairo is the devotion to seven ancient sacred tombs and its relative pilgrimage. The Cairene graveyard was renowned for the local and interregional pilgrimages because of its high concentration of awliyā’s graves (literally friends of God, as holders of baraka, the divine grace. In particular, in the XIII century the famous circuit of the Seven tombs was formalized by the shaykh al- Fārsī who, according to the scholar El Kadi, also called it “pilgrimage of the seven sleepers”. Hence the multitude of Muslim pilgrims who spent the night on the holy spot without taking into account the social code about the separation between sexes. Nowadays some mausoleums of the circuit have disappeared and local people have no memories of them, whereas the most renowned holy men’ tombs are still venerated by a large crowd of devotees, even if the nightly practice of incubation is missing. The author, in considering the scholars’ studies on this issue, explores the current veneration and the contemporary pilgrims’ pattern of habits, comparing it with the Medieval ones.

  3. Dicrocoelium dendriticum found in a Bronze Age cemetery in western Iran in the pre-Persepolis period: The oldest Asian palaeofinding in the present human infection hottest spot region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Mokhtarian, Kobra; Makki, Mahsa Sadat; Mobedi, Iraj; Masoumian, Mohammad; Naseri, Reza; Hoseini, Ghasem; Nekouei, Parisa; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Dicrocoeliasis of animals and humans is caused by trematode species of the genus Dicrocoelium, mainly Dicrocoelium dendriticum in ruminants of the Holarctic region. D. dendriticum may be considered an old parasite, probably related to the appearance and diversification of Eurasian ovicaprines, occurred 14.7-14.5 million years ago. The oldest palaeoparasitological findings of Dicrocoelium in domestic animals and humans date from more than 5000 years BC in Europe. Eggs of D. dendriticum have been found in a burial of a Bronze Age cemetery (2600-2200 BC) close to Yasuj city, southwestern Iran. This is the oldest finding of D. dendriticum in the Near East, where present human infection reports are more numerous than in other world regions where human dicrocoeliasis is rare and sporadic. This palaeofinding in the Zagros mountainous chain area is of interest by its location close to Persepolis, suggesting a narrow relationship between humans and herbivorous animals in these highlands. Domestic ruminant populations of these highlands were following a repeated contact with those of the western flat lowlands of the Fertile Crescent thanks to annual altitudinal transhumance migrations of the nomadic pastoral tribes with their herds living throughout Zagros Mountains in the several millennium period BC. It is concluded that D. dendriticum spread together with sheep and goats westward throughout Europe from the Fertile Crescent during the 8000-6000 year BC period and somewhat later southward into Africa, both spreads facilitated by the low specificity of that trematode species regarding the snail and ant intermediate hosts. PMID:25748277

  4. Control of Aedes aegypti with temephos in a Buenos Aires cemetery, Argentina Control de Aedes aegypti con temefós en un cementerio de Buenos Aires, Argentina Controle de Aedes aegypti com temefós em cemitério de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Darío Vezzani; Stella Maris Velázquez; Nicolás Schweigmann

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of a larvicide, temephos, for controlling Ae. aegypti was evaluated in a cemetery in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Breeding sites decreased from 18.4% in the first study period (Nov 1998 to May 1999, without temephos) to 2.2% in the second period (Nov 1999 to May 2000, two applications), and to 0.05% in the third one (Nov 2000 to May 2001, five applications). Ovitraps with eggs decreased from 17% in the first period to 5.8% in the second period, and to 2.9% in the third one. Results s...

  5. Reconstruction of methods of execution of the death penalty by shooting in the years 1949-1954 based on exhumation research of "prison fields" in Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw. Part I--Historical outline and results of research conducted prior to exhumations performed in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    In the period between October and December 2011, a series of exhumation research of the so-called prison quarters dating back to 1949-1954 was conducted in Osobowicki Cemetery in Wrocław. Among the buried there were political prisoners executed by shooting--genuine or alleged members of post-war independence organizations. It was a unique opportunity to determine the method of execution of the death penalty in that period because, according to historical data and the results of two test exhumations, this method considerably differed from instructions on the use of a firing squad during execution of the death penalty. PMID:23424936

  6. Craniometric Variation of Ancient Skulls from the Hami Tianshan North Road Cemetery%哈密天山北路墓地出土颅骨的测量性状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏东; 赵永生; 常喜恩; 朱泓

    2012-01-01

    This study examines within-group variation based on craniometric data obtained from a sample of 24 Bronze Age skeletal human remains recently excavated along the Tianshan North Road,Hami region,Xinjiang. Statistical analysis was applied to 77 craniometric variables of both male and female groups. Morphological affinities showed evidence of a marked biological dissimilarity between the Tianshan North Road group and control groups,and also a considerable distance within Tianshan North Road male group. According to a review of previous archaeological and genetic research in this region,this result could indicate the skeletal population from the Tianshan North Road cemetery has its own unique morphological characteristics and was a group of people living in a transitional area occupied by both eastern and western ancestors.%本文是对出土于新疆哈密地区天山北路青铜时代墓地颅骨测量性状的研究.文中公布了24例天山北路墓地古代人群77项颅骨测量性状基本数据,在此基础上,对男、女两性的测量性状特点进行了统计分析,并结合考古学文化研究和分子生物学研究的相关结论对实验结果进行了讨论和推论.主要研究结论如下:一是该人群虽已经形成了具有自身特点的、共性的体质特征,但人群内部也存在些许差异,尤其是在男性个体数据之中.二是该人群是由分别具有东、西方体质特征的祖先人群混杂融合而成,是处于当时大人种分布过渡地带的过渡人群.

  7. En companía de los muertos: Ofrendas de animales en los cementerios de La Isla (Tilcara, Jujuy In the company of the dead: Animal offerings at the cemeteries of La Isla, Tilcara, Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R Belotti López de Medina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos aquí la identificación de los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos recuperados por Debenedetti en tres entierros de la necrópolis El Morro, del sitio La Isla de Tilcara (Jujuy, Argentina. Hay un consenso notable en torno a la peculiaridad de este cementerio, caracterizado por inhumaciones simples o dobles acompanadas de numerosas ofrendas, algunas de ellas suntuarias. Nuestro trabajo se organizó en torno a dos objetivos. Primero, la identificación taxonómica y etaria de los hallazgos. Se caracterizaron: 1 un cráneo y mandíbula de perro hallados en la Tumba 6, con una edad estimada superior a los siete meses; 2 los restos faunísticos de la Tumba 11, entre ellos el esqueleto casi completo de un guacamayo adulto, en el rango de tamaño del Ara chloroptera. 3 una mandíbula de félido pequeno de la Tumba 10, con una edad estimada superior a los seis meses. En el informe de Debenedetti los dos primeros conjuntos se reportan como esqueletos completos, lo que permite identificarlos como sacrificios. Nuestro segundo objetivo fue formular algunas interpretaciones plausibles sobre el contenido de las tumbas y el lugar de los animales en los ritos mortuorios.This paper presents an exhaustive analysis of the faunal remains recovered by Debenedetti from burials 6, 10 and 11 from El Morro cemetery at La Isla de Tilcara site, Jujuy, Argentina. There is a notable consensus about the importance of El Morro, since its burials contain no more than one or two individuals along with numerous offerings, some of them clearly sumptuary. In some of these tombs, among the diverse items, archaeofaunal remains were found that can be safely identified as sacrificed animals. The zooarchaeological analysis presented here was carried out on two of those offerings: the cranium and mandibles of a small to medium sized dog, estimated to be seven months old, found in Burial 6, and a faunal assemblage from Burial 11, among which an almost complete macaw skeleton was

  8. Vascular cemeteries formed by biological nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Andrei P., E-mail: andrei.sommer@uni-ulm.de [University of Ulm, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials (Germany); Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki [Nagasaki University, Department of Macroscopic Anatomy, Graduate School of Biomedical Science (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    We report the discovery of dense colonies of globular structures ranging from 100 nm to 5 {mu}m in the tunica media of the femoral artery of an 89-year-old female cadaver. Systematic analysis using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and light microscopy reveals that the globular structures are surrounded by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and consist predominantly of calcium phosphate. Inspection of the images suggests the action of two complementary growth processes. The structures may grow both in size and in number locally by Ostwald ripening and a replicative route, respectively. Morphology in conjunction with the quality of their native growth niche suggests that they are different from nanocrystals released from apoptotic bodies. Their tendency to fill VSMC pockets leads to the speculation that they could represent an effort of the VSMC system to wall off cytotoxic nanocrystals liberated from apoptotic bodies. Alternatively, the structures may be equivalent with nanobacteria (NB)-a nomenclature which caused confusion. This is reflected by the multitude of names used by different authors for the nanoentities (living nanovesicles, nanobionta, calcifying nanoparticles, and nanons). Indeed, there is no clear definition in the literature as to what NB are. Considering that the calcium phosphate nanoparticles have been identified in the human body, we used in our study the descriptive name biological nanoparticles-the world's first nanoparticles.

  9. 77 FR 4471 - Tribal Veterans Cemetery Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register (76 FR 28925), that proposed to amend regulations in 38 CFR... to address structural differences between Tribal Organizations and States. DATES: Effective Date... requirements of sections 603 and 604. Unfunded Mandates The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 requires, at...

  10. 76 FR 28925 - Tribal Veterans Cemetery Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... proposed rule would revise VA regulations to address structural differences between Tribal Organizations.... Unfunded Mandates The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 requires, at 2 U.S.C. 1532, that agencies... drawings for each of the following types of work: architectural, equipment, layout, structural, heating...

  11. L’apport des analyses 14C à l’étude de la nécropole de l’âge du Bronze de“ La Croix de la Mission ” à Marolles-sur-Seine The contribution of radiocarbon dating in the study of the Bronze Age cemetery of Marolles-sur-Seine “ La Croix de la Mission ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Peake

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatorze des 41 sépultures de la nécropole de “ la Croix de la Mission ” à Marolles-sur-Seine ont récemment fait l’objet d’une datation par le radiocarbone aux laboratoires de Groningen (Pays-Bas et de Lyon (France. Les résultats obtenus mettent en évidence l'utilisation en continu de la nécropole pendant plus d’un millénaire entre 2000 et 800 av. n. è. La corrélation entre ces nouvelles dates et les données archéologiques permet de cerner, avec plus de précision, l’éventail des différentes étapes chrono-culturelles représentées à travers les sépultures de la nécropole. [Les analyses 14C ont été effectuées par les laboratoires de Groningen (Centrum voor Isotopen Onderzoek Rijksuniversiteit Groningen Nijenborgh 4 NL-9747 AG Groningen et Lyon (Centre de Datation par le Radiocarbone Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 43, bd du 11 Novembre 1918 F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex.]Fourteen of the 41 burials of the “ la Croix de la Mission ” Bronze Age cemetery at Marolles-sur-Seine have recently been carbon dated by the Lyon (France and Groningen (Netherlands laboratories. These new dates confirm the site’s occupation for more than 1000 years from 2000 BC to 800 BC and determine more precisely the different cultural and chronological phases of the cemetery illustrated by the great range of its burials.

  12. Environmental impact analysis and identification of vertical cemetery implantation and operation = Análise e identificação dos impactos ambientais da implantação e operação de cemitério vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Massulo Albertin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The vertical cemetery is a one or more pavement building equipped with compartments destined for burials, named locusts. This typology of cemetery is an tendency in the United States, Europe and Japan, and it has currently expanded in Brazil. Even so, publication of scientific work about this topic has been minimal, especially when it comes to environmental impact. Therefore, this present article’s objective is to analyze and classify the environmental impact derived from the vertical cemetery’s implementation phase and operation, utilizing a hypothetical situation. The methodology was based on the environmental impact templates, contemplating physical, biological and social-economical eeans. In turn, the environmental impacts arising from the operation phase are variable, and the largest magnitude that is related to the change in air quality through emissions from the decomposition of the bodies. Moreover, this hypothetical situation identified 17 environmental impacts of direct incidence, which 08 occur during the implementation phase and 09 during the operation phase; 03 will be of a positive nature and 14 negative; 12 are likely to real event and 05 only potential; 10 will be reversible and 7, at moment, will be irreversible. = Resumo - O cemitério vertical é um edifício de um ou mais pavimentos dotados de compartimentos destinados a sepultamentos, denominados de lóculos. Esta tipologia de cemitérios é uma tendência nos Estados Unidos, Europa e Japão e, atualmente, tem-se expandido no Brasil. Entretanto, os trabalhos científicos publicados sobre este tema ainda são poucos, principalmente no que se refere aos impactos ambientais. Diante disso, o presente artigo teve por objetivo analisar e classificar os impactos ambientais decorrentes das fases de implantação e operação de cemitérios verticais, utilizando para isso uma situação hipotética. A metodologia fundamentou-se na matriz de impactos ambientais

  13. EL DESCUBRIMIENTO DE UN CEMENTERIO DE ÉLITE EN EL CAÑO: INDICIOS DE UN PATRÓN FUNERARIO EN EL VALLE DE RÍO GRANDE, COCLÉ, PANAMÁ (The Discovery of an Elite Cemetery at El Caño: Traces of a Mortuary Pattern in Río Grande Valley, Coclé, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mayo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El Caño, situado en la provincia de Coclé (Panamá, es un yacimiento arqueológico conocido por su singular estilo escultórico y por contener estructuras arqueológicas de piedra. Recientemente se han descubierto en este lugar cuatro tumbas de personas de élite con ricos ajuares, fechadas entre el 700 y el 1000 d. C. Estas son coetáneas a las halladas en el cercano Sitio Conte, una necrópolis en la que se encontraron, hace más de ochenta años, las primeras evidencias arqueológicas de la complejidad de las sociedades precolombinas del istmo. La existencia en Sitio Conte y El Caño de elementos semejantes —basaltos columnarios dispuestos en hileras, calzadas y ricas tumbas— organizados además de forma similar, indica la posibilidad de la existencia de un patrón funerario en el valle de Río Grande. ENGLISH: El Caño, located in the Coclé province, Panama, is known for its unique stone sculptural style and stone structures. Recently four lavish burials have been discovered. Dated between 700 and 1000 AD, they are broadly coeval with similar mortuary features at nearby Sitio Conte, a cemetery which provided the first archaeological evidence for the sumptuous wealth of Panamanian chiefdoms more than eighty years ago. The existence in Sitio Conte and El Caño of similar elements—alignments of basalt columns, causeways and rich tombs—with a similar spatial organization, indicates the possibility of the existence of a mortuary pattern in Río Grande.

  14. Control of Aedes aegypti with temephos in a Buenos Aires cemetery, Argentina Control de Aedes aegypti con temefós en un cementerio de Buenos Aires, Argentina Controle de Aedes aegypti com temefós em cemitério de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Vezzani

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a larvicide, temephos, for controlling Ae. aegypti was evaluated in a cemetery in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Breeding sites decreased from 18.4% in the first study period (Nov 1998 to May 1999, without temephos to 2.2% in the second period (Nov 1999 to May 2000, two applications, and to 0.05% in the third one (Nov 2000 to May 2001, five applications. Ovitraps with eggs decreased from 17% in the first period to 5.8% in the second period, and to 2.9% in the third one. Results suggest that, in Buenos Aires, Ae. aegypti populations are highly susceptible to temephos. It is recommended to limit the use of temephos to prevent potential epidemics rather than for routine control.Se evaluó la eficacia de un larvicida, temefós, para controlar Ae. aegypti en un cementerio de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Los criaderos descendieron de 18,4% en el primer periodo de estudio (Nov 1998 a May 1999, sin temefos a 2,2% en el segundo (Nov 1999 a May 2000, dos aplicaciones, y a 0,05% en el tercero (Nov 2000 a May 2001, cinco aplicaciones. Las ovitrampas con huevos disminuyeron de 17% en el primer periodo a 5,8% en el segundo, y a 2,9% en el tercero. Los resultados sugieren que, en Buenos Aires, las poblaciones de Ae. aegypti son altamente susceptibles al temefós. Es recomendable limitar su uso para prevenir eventuales epidemias y no para el control rutinario.Avaliou-se a eficácia de um larvicida, temefós, para controlar Ae. aegypti em um cemitério de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Os criadouros reduziram de 18,4% no primeiro período de estudo (nov de 1998 a maio de 1999, sem temefós para 2,2% no segundo (nov de 1999 a maio de 2000, duas aplicações, e para 0,05% no terceiro (nov de 2000 a maio de 2001, cinco aplicações. As. ovitrampas com ovos diminuíram de 17% no primeiro período para 5,8% no segundo e para 2,9% no terceiro. Os resultados sugerem que, em Buenos Aires, as populações de Ae. aegypti são altamente susceptíveis ao temefós.

  15. Metallographic examination of silver jewellery from the "Lumbe Garden" cemetery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolářová, K.; Děd, J.; Ottenwelter, Estelle

    Vol. 2. Praha: Archeologický ústav AV ČR, Praha, 2014 - (Frolík, J.), s. 289-310. (Castrum Pragense. 12). ISBN 978-80-87365-80-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2195 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeometallurgy * medieval jewellery * Lumbe Garden * Prague Castle Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  16. Teores de metais pesados e caracterização mineralógica de solos do Cemitério Municipal de Santa Cândida, Curitiba (PR Heavy metal contents and mineralogical characterization of soils from the Santa Cândida Municipal Cemetery, in Curitiba (PR, brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Jurema Barros

    2008-08-01

    , em parte determinadas pelo material de origem, não apresentaram relação de causa e efeito com metais pesados nas áreas estudadas.The metal pieces of coffins, such as handles and adornments, are considered the main source of soil heavy metal contamination. Other sources of pollutants are the products used in the body embalming, wood preservatives and fluids released from body decomposition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clay fraction mineralogy and heavy metal contents of soils from Santa Cândida Municipal Cemetery, in Curitiba (PR, and estimate the contamination risk. The samples were collected at three depths (0-20, 20-80 and 80-120 cm at seven selected points, representing two parent materials (granite/gneiss and claystone and two burial modalities (unmarked graves and mausoleum area. The clay fraction was studied by X ray diffractometry and thermal analysis, and Fe and Al contents were determined, after acid ammonium oxalate (amorphous Fe and Al oxides and sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (crystalline Fe oxides extractions, by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The total and exchangeable heavy metal contents were determined by AAS, after sample digestion with concentrated HF and BaCl2 1 mol L-1 solution, respectively. The predominance of kaolinite and occurrence of vermiculite with Al-hydroxy interlayers and smectite determined the high values of soil CEC. Heavy metal contents were higher in the mausoleum area, where the highest Cr and Pb contents were found (516.3 and 260.2 mg kg-1, respectively. The lower metal contamination in the area of unmarked graves may be attributed to simpler burial practices, with less potential heavy metal sources, such as wood preservatives and metal parts of coffins. No cause-effect relation was observed between the chemical and mineralogical soil characteristics, in part determined by the parent material, and the heavy metal contents in the studied area.

  17. Bioarchaeological Analysis of the Human Skeletal Remains from the Late Mediaeval Cemetery of Koprivno, Southern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Novak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of bioarchaeological analysis of the late mediaeval (13th-14th century skeletal sample from Koprivno, southern Croatia. Skeletal remains of 21 individuals (eight males, nine females, and four subadults were examined for the possible presence of dental pathologies (caries and alveolar bone diseases, subadult stress indicators (cribra orbitalia and dental enamel hypoplasia, degenerative osteoarthritis of the vertebrae and major joints, Schmorl’s nodes on vertebrae, periostitis, and bone trauma. The analysed sample is characterised by high frequency of alveolar bone disease, most probably as a result of somewhat longer average life span (around 41 years and very poor oral hygiene, while the data concerning dental caries indicate mixed diet evenly based on meat and cereals. High frequencies of cribra orbitalia, dental enamel hypoplasia and periostitis suggest frequent episodes of physiological stress (hunger, epidemics of infectious diseases which is in accordance with historical data. Distribution and prevalence of cranial traumas strongly suggest a relatively high degree of interpersonal violence in the analysed community.

  18. Early Medieval silver pearl from Lumbe's garden cemetery at Prague Castle: Composition, manufacture, deterioration, and conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, J.; Ottenwelter, Estelle; Šejvlová, Ludmila

    -, - (2016). ISSN 0039-3630 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2195 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : medieval jewellery * Lumbe's Garden * archaeometry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2014

  19. A resampling approach to gender relations: the Rebešovice cemetery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosna, D.; Galeta, P.; Sládek, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2008), s. 342-354. ISSN 0305-4403 Grant ostatní: National Science Foundation(US) BCS0642297 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Early Bronze Age * Gender inequality * Mortuary practices * Central Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.779, year: 2008

  20. Oral Health and Frailty in the Medieval English Cemetery of St. Mary Graces

    OpenAIRE

    DeWitte, Sharon N.; Bekvalac, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of oral pathologies is routinely a part of bioarchaeological and paleopathological investigations. Oral health, while certainly interesting by itself, is also potentially informative about general or systemic health. Numerous studies within modern populations have shown associations between oral pathologies and other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and pulmonary infections. This paper addresses the question of how oral health was associated with...

  1. The earthly loci of death: the coffin, the grave, the cemetery:

    OpenAIRE

    Plotnikova, Anna

    1999-01-01

    Predstavljena so različna ljudska verovanja in obredi, povezani s krsto, grobom in pokopališčem. Pogrebne šege, ljudsko verovanje in uporaba besed, povezanih s smrtjo, potrjujejo tezo, da so krsta, grob in pokopališče slovanski simboli "drugega sveta" in se prekrivajo z bivanjem v življenju. Krsta se povezuje s hišo, grob z domom z okolico, pokopališče z vasjo. Beseda o avtorici

  2. Dating and significance of the cemetery at the site of Sphinx, Jebel Sabaloka, Sixth Nile Cataract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varadzin, Ladislav; Suková, L.

    2014. [International conference for Nubian studies /13./. 01.09.2014-06.09.2014, Neuchâtel] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Africa * Sudan * Mesolithic * burial ground Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www2.unine.ch/nubianstudies2014/

  3. Archaeological excavations on the cemetery of Kodasoo and the settlement site of Lagedi / Gurly Vedru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedru, Gurly, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Kodasoo kalme puhul oli tegu maa-aluste põletusmatustega. Tehti kindlaks, et Kodasoo kalme hõlmas algselt u. 50-70 m2 suuruse ala. Päästekaevamistel Lagedi asulakohal olid leidude hulgas ülekaalus uusaegne keraamika ja vanimateks leidudeks üksikud viikingiaegsed savinõud

  4. Technical study of jewellery from the "Lumbe Garden" cemetery at Prague Castle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ottenwelter, Estelle; Děd, J.; Barčáková, Ludmila

    Vol. 2. Praha : Archeologický ústav AV ČR, Praha, 2014 - (Frolík, J.), s. 163-287 ISBN 978-80-87365-80-9. - (Castrum Pragense. 12) R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2195 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : medieval jewellery * Prague Castle * archaeometry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. Bioarchaeological Analysis of the Human Skeletal Remains from the Late Mediaeval Cemetery of Koprivno, Southern Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Novak

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results of bioarchaeological analysis of the late mediaeval (13th-14th century) skeletal sample from Koprivno, southern Croatia. Skeletal remains of 21 individuals (eight males, nine females, and four subadults) were examined for the possible presence of dental pathologies (caries and alveolar bone diseases), subadult stress indicators (cribra orbitalia and dental enamel hypoplasia), degenerative osteoarthritis of the vertebrae and major joints, Schmorl’s nodes on verte...

  6. Nowinka. Site 1 : the cemetery from the Late Migration Period in the northern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kontny, Bartosz; Okulicz-Kozaryn, Jerzy; Pietrzak, Mirosław

    2011-01-01

    The book was written to realize the research grant of the Ministry of Science and Information Technology: The burial ground of the Elbląg group from the West Balt circle at Nowinka, Tolkmicko com. The complete study and preparation for the publication (Project No.: N N109 0362 33; Contract No.: 0362/B/H03/2007/33).

  7. 32 CFR 553.22 - Visitors' rules for the Arlington National Cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and directives should be consulted for all other matters not within the scope of these rules. (b) Scope. Pursuant to title 40 United States Code, sections 318a and 486, and based upon delegations of... is a part of a memorial service or ceremony authorized by this section; (6) Allow any dog, cat,...

  8. 32 CFR 553.15 - Persons eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). (3) Distinguished Service Medal. (4) Silver Star. (5) Purple Heart. (e) Persons who have held any of... injury incurred or aggravated in line of duty. (g) The spouse, widow or widower, minor child and, at the discretion of the Secretary of the Army, unmarried adult child of any of the persons listed above. (1)...

  9. Archaeometric study of glass beads from the 2nd century BC cemetery of Numantia

    OpenAIRE

    García Heras, Manuel; Rincoón López, Jesús M.; Alfredo JIMENO MARTÍNEZ; Villegas Broncano, María Angeles

    2003-01-01

    Recent archaeologícalf ieldwork undertaken in the Celtiberian cremation necropolis of Numantia (Soria, Spain) has provided a group of glass beads from the 2nd century BC. Such glass beads were part, together with other metallic and ceramic items, of the offerings deposited with the dead. They are ring-shaped in typology and deep-blue, amber, or semitransparent white in colour. This paper reports results derived from the chemical and microstructural characterization carried out on a representa...

  10. 29 CFR 779.370 - Cemeteries may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or plots. (2) Annual tax or assessment levied on lot owners, and (3) Gifts or bequests. Interest from... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or... resale and as such may not be counted as part of the 75 percent of annual dollar volume of sales of...

  11. The eastern group of lesser tombs: a middle class cemetery in South Abusir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vymazalová, H.; Coppens, F.; Varadzin, Ladislav

    Prague : Charles University in Prague, 2010 - (Bárta, M.; Coppens, F.; Vymazalová, H.), s. 364-369 ISBN 978-80-7308-325-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : tombs * Abusir * Egypt Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  12. Archaeometric study of glass beads from the 2nd century BC cemetery of Numantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Heras, Manuel

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent archaeologícalf ieldwork undertaken in the Celtiberian cremation necropolis of Numantia (Soria, Spain has provided a group of glass beads from the 2nd century BC. Such glass beads were part, together with other metallic and ceramic items, of the offerings deposited with the dead. They are ring-shaped in typology and deep-blue, amber, or semitransparent white in colour. This paper reports results derived from the chemical and microstructural characterization carried out on a representative sample set of this group of beads. The main goal of the research was to find out about their production technology to explore their probable provenance. In addítion, corrosion mechanisms were also assessed to determine the influence of crematíon on the beads' structure. The resulting data suggest that these blue and amber beads were made using soda-lime silicate glass, whereas semi-transparent white ones were manufactured from alumino-silicate glass. It has also determined that some transition metal oxides were used as chromophores, as well as lead oxide for decoration.

    La reciente excavación de la necrópolis celtibérica de Numancia (Garray, Soria ha permitido recuperar un conjunto de cuentas de vidrio del siglo II a.C. Las cuentas, junto con otros objetos de metaly cerámica, formaban parte de las ofrendas depositadas con el difunto, siendo de tipología anular y coloreadas en azul oscuro, ambar y blanco semitransparente. Este trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos en la caracterización química y microestructural de una muestra representativa de este conjunto. El objetivo principal de la investigación consistió en recabar información sobre su tecnología de manufactura y evaluar su posible procedencia. Asimismo, también se investigaron sus mecanismos de corrosión para determinar si la cremación había inducido cambios en su estructura. Los resultados indican que las cuentas azules y ámbar se realizaron con vidrio de silicato sódico cálcico y las blancas semitransparentes con vidrio de aluminosilicato, utilizando óxidos de metales de transición como cromóforos y óxido de plomo para la decoración.

  13. The expression of asymmetry in hand bones from the medieval cemetery at Écija, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cashmore, Lisa; Zakrzewski, Sonia R.

    2009-01-01

    The unique nature of ‘handedness’ in modern humans poses questions about the development of this trait in both extinct hominid species and archaeological populations. An examination of the expression of hand preference in skeletal material is required to answer such questions. The main focus of previous research on asymmetry and hand preference has been on the bones of the upper limb, rather than those of the hand. This study addresses this issue by exploring the expression of asymmetry in th...

  14. Belarusian cemeteries as objects of the memorial value: their protection and study

    OpenAIRE

    Трусаў, Алег Анатольевiч

    2005-01-01

    Laidojimo tradicijos, kurių formavimuisi turėjo įtakos konfesiniai, nacionaliniai ir politiniai veiksniai, tūkstantmetėje Baltarusijos istorijoje nuosekliai evoliucionavo. X a. pabaigoje baltarusių protėviai tampa Bizantijos apeigų krikščionimis. Rytų slavų mirusiųjų kremacijos tradicijas iškart pakeičia laidojimas. Tačiau paprotys laidoti mirusius pilkapiuose išlieka iki XII a. pabaigos – XIII a. pradžios. XIII–XV a. pagoniškosios laidojimo tradicijos pamažu nunyksta net kaimo vietovės...

  15. Los cementerios públicos como blanco de las disputas entre la Iglesia y el Estado durante la crisis del Imperio (1869-1891 Public cemeteries as targets of the disputes between the Church and State during the Empire crisis (1869-1891 - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v13i1.366 Os cemitérios públicos como alvo das disputas entre Igreja e Estado na crise do Império (1869-1891 - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v13i1.366

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Rodrigues

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende identificar de qué forma el tema de la muerte puede ser un canal de análisis de la acción ultramontana y romanizante de la jerarquía eclesiástica durante el período imperial, especialmente entre 1869 y 1889, cuando la cuestión de las sepulturas eclesiásticas se tornó el campo de una polémica exacerbada entre el episcopado de algunas capitales del Imperio y los defensores de las ideas liberales y anticlericales expresadas, por ejemplo, por los agentes defensores de la masonería y de la causa protestante. En el contexto de la jerarquía eclesiástica que buscaba afirmar su autonomía frente a las políticas regalistas del Estado, la defensa de la jurisdicción eclesiástica sobre los cementerios públicos se transformó en una importante arma de su política de romanización, en la búsqueda de afirmación de sus dogmas y de la manutención de su hegemonía sobre la sociedad.This article aims to identify how the theme of death can be a channel for the analysis of ultramontanist and romanizing actions of the ecclesiastic hierarchy during the Imperial period, especially between the years 1869 and 1889, when the issue of ecclesiastic burials became the object of a fierce controversy between the episcopate of some imperial capitals and the defenders of liberal and anti-clerical ideas, such as supporters of the Masonic order and the Protestant cause. In the
    context that the ecclesiastic hierarchy sought to affirm its autonomy from the royalist policies of the State, the defense of ecclesiastic jurisdiction over public cemeteries became an important weapon of its Romanization policy, in the search for affirmation of its dogmas and the maintenance of its hegemony over society.Este artigo pretende identificar de que forma o tema da morte pode ser um canal de análise da ação ultramontana e romanizante da hierarquia eclesiástica no período imperial, especialmente entre os anos de 1869 e 1889, quando a quest

  16. Re-Meaning The Indigenous Muisca Cemetery 0f Usme, Colombia: Ethnography of Collaborative Project and Patrimonial Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo F. Gómez-Montañez

    2013-06-01

    In the first part, I want to expose the processes that led us to purpose a current collaborative research project implemented by the Universidad Santo Tomás’ Group of Memory and the Indigenous Muisca Community of Bosa. Based on a situational analysis methodology, this part is the result of an ethnographic field work of some spaces of dialogue and encounter among different logics to understand the patrimony and the heritage. In middle of struggles with the public institutions, the academy and other social groups, the muisca people build and negotiate their ethnic identity as part of their cultural and political project. In the second part, the situational analysis will be applied in scenarios where the muisca people began to interpret the archaeological territory of Hacienda El Carmen. In this part, I will try to expose some epistemological reflections about alternative and inclusive ways of knowledge and remembering. The new senses and narratives, produced as a result of this exercise, let us thinking about the symbolic strategies used by the muisca people to occupy an important place in the present and the possibility of understanding and purposing current citizen visions from creative and original ways of incorporate ancestral memories.

  17. The Importance of Gender Studies for Predynastic Egypt: A Case Study of Cemetery N7000 at Naga-ed-Deir

    OpenAIRE

    Lords, Krystal

    2008-01-01

    In the study of ancient cultures, gender issues are often ignored. Although Egyptology generally follows this trend, several publications have examined the status and role of women in Dynastic Egypt, concluding that Egyptian women were unusually powerful and independent in comparison to other contemporary cultures. These Dynastic gender analyses are primarily based upon evidence from artistic and textual sources. Because of the lack of this type of evidence from earlier periods, Predynasti...

  18. The Symbol and the Reason. Numbers, Shape and Measure in the Architecture of Parma’s Cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rossi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available  The introduction of the Decimal Measurement System in Enlichtened Europe is meant as an af fermation of reason and science to overlap the confusion of antropometrical systems with the  imposition of a unique reference from a cosmic measurement.  It get interesting to indagate the meaning and the role of the measurement in the Age of Reason  and how this change conditioned the architectural design. The Cimitero de La Villetta in Parma is an interesting case study because of its particular relationship among design and easurement system.The project develops a special model that melts together the rationality of the Metric Decimal System with strong symbolic references in shape, number and measure.

  19. Paradise in a Brazil nut cemetery : sustainability discourses and social action in Pará, the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2007-01-01

    This book is about sustainable development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. It explores how Amazonian settlers construct their life in a settlement project and how this process accompanies the landscape change in the southeast of Pará State. The book critically examines discourses of susta

  20. Kaks luustikku Tartu toomkirikust: arheoloogia ja osteoloogia andmed / Two skeletons from the Tartu Cathedral Cemetery: archaeological and osteological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with two case studies based on the osteological obtained in the rescue excavations in the Cathedral of Tartu in 2001 and 2008 (fig. 1. The first case study focuses on the skeleton of the child who suffered from congenital syphilis. The grave has been dated to the end of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century. The child had been buried in the eighth nave of the northern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave was, according to the Christian burial traditions, west-oriented with the head facing towards the east. A Swedish 1/6 öre, minted during the reign of King Charles XI (1600–1697, was recovered from the grave. The skeleton was relatively complete and well preserved (fig. 2. Based on the dental eruption, the age at death was 9 years ± 24 months. Sexually distinctive characteristics had not developed, and thus it was impossible to determine the sex of the child. Both the microscopical and radiological analyses revealed that the skeleton had indicators of congenital syphilis. Damage from gummatous osteomyelitis and periostitis were visible on the skull and on the axial and appendicular skeleton (fig. 6, while Hutchinson’s incisors and Mulberry molars were present among the teeth. Deformations and damage on the bones suggest that the child had suffered from the disease for quite a long time.The second case study discusses a beheaded man found from the eighth nave in the southern aisle of the Cathedral (fig. 3. The grave pit had a depth of 80 cm from the medieval floor surface of the church, which indicates that the burial dates from the Middle Ages. Also, the head of the deceased pointed to the west.The bones were well preserved (fig. 6. Sex was determined from the characteristics of the skull and the length of the right humerus. Calcification of the cranial sutures and cartilages suggests that the age of the man at death was probably 50+. Macroscopic examination of the skeleton revealed that the man had suffered from slight forms of various spinal diseases, which include Schmorl’s nodes, spondyloarthrosis, and spondylosis. The fourth and fifth cervical vertebrae had ankylosis, the cause of which is unknown. Signs of osteoartrosis, a joint disease, were also noticed. Traumas recorded in the skeleton include a healed fracture of a rib and vertebral compression. The man’s head was decapitated with a sharp blade between the sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae (fig. 7.

  1. St George's Cemetery in Tartu - Medieval Burial Ground of the Leprosarium? / Martin Malve, Anti Lillak, Raido Roog, Mihkel Mäesalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Varasemad andmed Püha Jüri hospidalist Tartus pärinevad 1345. aastast. Asutus tegutses 17. sajandi esimese pooleni. Küsimus aga, kas korduvalt uuritud Püha Jüri kalmistu ja keskaegne hospidalikalmistu on üks ja sama objekt, jääb praeguses uurimisseisus kindla vastuseta

  2. Agreement of molecular biology and morphology methods in sex determination of human bones from Žatec cemetery (11th-13th Century AD)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bromová, Markéta; Černý, Viktor; Hájek, Martin; Brůžek, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2003), s. 687-695. ISSN 0323-1267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB9002001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8002910 Keywords : archaeogenetics * sex determination Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. Gurupá - das ruínas aos cemitérios Gurupá: from the ruins to the cemeteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Karl Pressler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Posterior ao Tratado de Madrid (1750, o governo do Marquês de Pombal (1750-1777 implanta o projeto moderno nacional de caráter imperial nas colônias portuguesas. O Tratado de Madrid reconhecia a situação real na América Latina e encaminhou o trabalho das comissões de limites. O capitão-geral, na época do Estado do Grão-Pará e Maranhão, Francisco Xavier Mendonça Furtado foi ator decisivo do projeto político e militar, segurando a região à coroa portuguesa, e executava o projeto pombalino contra os jesuítas ("Estado de Deus" e as condições agrestes da região. A partir dos traços que o empreendimento político e ideológico deixou, o nosso estudo compara três vozes: as cartas do Governador Francisco Xavier de Mendonça Furtado, a obra do escritor paraense Dalcídio Jurandir e a trilogia romanesca de Alfred Döblin, a fim de analisar como as incursões ideológica e estética configuram a mediação entre a realidade histórica e a representação nas narrativas de ficção. Essa comparação se realiza no contexto de uma região que liberou as mais altas e fecundas fantasias da historia cultural da humanidade (as Amazonas, El Dorado, o tesouro do Rei Salomão e o boom da borracha, a fim de traçar as fantasmagorias diante das ruínas da realidade, confrontar o imaginário coletivo e a ficcionalização individual.Prime Minister Marques de Pombal (1750-1770 begins his mandate after the Treaty of Madrid (1750 a modern political enterprise of "nationalization" of the colonies. The Treaty has recognized the de facto occupation, and transferred sovereignty of about half of the Amazon basin from Spain to Portugal. The political project has been executed by Francisco X. Mendonça Furtado against the Jesuits "State of God" who 'protected Indians from slavery and settlers in vast semi-autonomous tracts of territory . By drawing our attention to political and ideological appropriations(the concept of the modern individual/state, and the traces left by social memory (personal e officinal letters and fictional literature (romances, such flows of people, ideas, images and ideals challenge us to rethink the character of phantasmagoria and fictional values of belonging, formation and identity. This study compare three voices: the letters of the Portuguese ambassador-traveler Francisco X. Mendonça Furtado, the Amazon Trilogy of Alfred Döblin and the work of the native novelists Dalcídio Jurandir to knowing how political and aesthetic imagination inflected or configured the individual creative enquire and in which form are collectively of Amazonia (Nationalization and Culture imagined or represented. This comparative study especially considering the regional background which liberate one of the most potentialities of imagination and confronting in dialogic interaction the Phantasmagoria with the ruins of the reality, the political imagination with the narrative fictionalisation..

  4. Gurupá - das ruínas aos cemitérios Gurupá: from the ruins to the cemeteries

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter Karl Pressler

    2012-01-01

    Posterior ao Tratado de Madrid (1750), o governo do Marquês de Pombal (1750-1777) implanta o projeto moderno nacional de caráter imperial nas colônias portuguesas. O Tratado de Madrid reconhecia a situação real na América Latina e encaminhou o trabalho das comissões de limites. O capitão-geral, na época do Estado do Grão-Pará e Maranhão, Francisco Xavier Mendonça Furtado foi ator decisivo do projeto político e militar, segurando a região à coroa portuguesa, e executava o projeto pombalino con...

  5. Rescue excavations at the pit grave cemetery of Järvküla / Gurly Vedru, Raili Allmäe, Heidi Luik, Liina Maldre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedru, Gurly, 1970-

    2015-01-01

    2014. aasta aprillis ning novembris-detsembris toimusid päästekaevamised Järveküla maa-alusel kalmistul. Selgus, et kohta oli matmiseks kasutatud erinevatel aegadel: rooma rauaajal, rahvasterännuajal ning muinasaja lõpusajanditel

  6. From a Suburban Pasture to the Urban Cemetery - Recent Fieldwork in North-Western Corner of Medieval Haapsalu / Erki Russow, Raili Allmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Russow, Erki, 1974-

    2013-01-01

    Küsimustele, kas Ehte ja Wiedemanni tänava ristmiku piirkonnas võis asuda keskaegne linnamüür ja kas Mängu tänav võis pärineda keskajast, vastust ei saadud. Ehte tänaval enne Karja tänavale suubumist tulid ilmsiks luustikud. Arvestades topograafilist situatsiooni, võib oletada, et tegemist on hiliskeskaegse kalmistuga

  7. Department of Veterans Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... largest genomic database in the world, placing VA Healthcare at the forefront of the Precision Medicine revolution. – Read more » National Cemetery Administration VA’s National Cemetery Administration honors Veterans and their ...

  8. 75 FR 36441 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Cemetery Chapel, Bellville Cemetery, SR 97, Bellville, 10000457 PUERTO RICO Camuy Municipality Ernesto... Honey Creek Parkway (Milwaukee County Parkway System) Located between STH 181 at I 94 and N 72nd...

  9. 32 CFR 553.11 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement. 553.11 Section 553.11 National... CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.11 Procurement. Cemetery supplies and services will be procured in accordance with the provisions of the Armed Services Procurement Regulation (ASPR) and the Army...

  10. The Right to be Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Troyer, John Eric

    2016-01-01

    /3 the population of Bristol city), either through burial or cremation. It remains a working cemetery that covers 45 acres near the city centre and in June 2012 the Arnos Vale Cemetery Trust signed a new 125-year lease with the city of Bristol. Since its founding, the Future Cemetery has explicitly explored...

  11. Managing green spaces of the deceased

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Christian Philip

    2012-01-01

    Cemeteries in Denmark are managed by the national church; they are green spaces of high standard, with an important role as burial places for members of the society. Previous studies elsewhere indicate that cemetery management operates with special approaches on the fringe of other public service...... explaining the dissimilarity of cemetery administration from other public administrations and green space management in particular. Further research however is required....... themselves as unlike other administrations; and change is dependent on local initiatives, only occurring when necessary, but also with indications that cooperation in handling crises in the wider field do happen. The Danish cemeteries are categorised according to the constructs of urban and rural cemeteries...

  12. The Iron Age and 13th-18th century Cemetery and Chapel Site of Niklusmägi : Grave Looting and Archaeology / Heiki Valk, Pikne Kama, Riina Rammo ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    2011. aastal anti arheoloogilidele vihje Niklusmäe kalme lõhkumisest. 2012. aasta suvel leidsid projekti "Arheoloogia, võim ja ühiskond" raames aset arheoloogilised päästeuuringud. Ilmnes, et kalmet oli rüüstatud 4-5 aasta jooksul. Leitud luustikest, hauapanustest. Niklusmäest Läti Henriku kroonika andmetel. Tänini räägib pärimus Lätist tulnud, Niklusmäe metsa läbivast ja Sangaste poole suunduvast sõjateest. Leiud on tõstatanud küsimusi Eesti lõunaserva matmiskommete ja etnokultuuriliste olude kohta. Kuna kalmesüdamik on rüüstatud, jäävad küsimused vastuseta

  13. 旅游体验实证研究——以南京雨花台烈士陵园为例%Empirical Research on Tourist Experience: A case study of Yuhuatai Cemetery of Martyrs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志远; 张玉钧

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate tourist motive, the formation process and results of tourist experience, field observation and questionnaire investigation were carried out. The data was analyzed by SPSS 17.0. The result shows that the quality of tourist experience has a close connection with tourist motive and tourist behavior. By the analysis of tourism semiology, it reveals that unscrambling the symbol meaning of tourism elements is an important way of interaction between tourists and tourism field. What's more, a significant positive correlation was observed among the quality of tourist experience, the attention tourists paid to tourism elements and the symbol meaning tourists got from tourism elements. In addition, the tourist experience is not only various but also stratified, and sublimity is the core.%以南京雨花台烈士陵园为例进行实证研究,目的是了解在具体的旅游情境中旅游者的出游动机、旅游体验的生成过程及结果(包括内容和质量)。采用旅游符号学的方法,通过现场观察和问卷调查获取数据,用SPSS17.0软件进行数据分析。结果表明旅游体验状况与旅游动机、旅游者行为之间具有密切联系。符号解读是旅游者与旅游场互动的重要方式和途径。旅游体验质量与旅游者对旅游元素的关注程度、对旅游元素符号意义的解读之间存在显著相关性,且为正相关。雨花台烈士陵园旅游者体验存在多样性和层次性,其中,崇高是旅游体验的核心。

  14. Several Issues of the Ruins of Westside - Tablet - Kiosk at Cemetery 3 in Xixian Tombs District%关于西夏陵区3号陵园西碑亭遗址的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余军

    2000-01-01

    本文依1998年秋发掘西夏陵区3号陵园西碑遗址出土遗物、清理迹象等情况,探讨了3号陵陵主、碑亭构筑、基址裂缝、碑石残碎、石像座运置及文物石料等相关问题.

  15. The Documentary of the Archeological Excavation Management Case of Dahekou Cemetery at Yicheng County%一个考古工地管理案例翼城大河口墓地发掘纪实

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢尧亭; 王金平; 李永敏; 杨及耕; 李建生

    2011-01-01

    @@ 这只是一个阶段性的工作过程和成果. `寒来暑往,春秋显得那样美丽而短暂,自然条件对田野考古上作的影响,实在是难以用语言描述的:夏大的火热将土层炙烤得又干又硬,冬天的寒冷又把它冻得坚硬如铁,大风肆虐,大雨滂沱,大雪飘飞;暑天,挥汗如雨,衣裤潮潮地裹着身体,寒季冷风嗖嗖,手脚麻木,上下墓穴都瑟缩发抖.

  16. Across the River. The Cemetery in Dolina and New Aspects of the Late Urnfield Culture in Croatian Posavina and Northern Bosnia. Archaeologia Austriaca|Archaeologia Austriaca Band 97-98/2014|

    OpenAIRE

    Ložnjak Dizdar, Daria; Gavranović, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The site of Dolina in the Croatian region of Posavina has been investigated since 2009 under the leadership of the Institute of Archaeology in Zagreb. In previous excavations five tumuli with one or two cremation deposits of different types (urned, scattered cremation remains, or with an organic container) could be detected. On the basis of characteristic grave goods (bronze pins and fibulae, helmet parts), the burials are dated to the 9th-8th century BC or in the stage Ha B3-Ha C1. Typical o...

  17. The Performing Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    This audio-paper is a site-specific investigation into the relations between cemetery space, users, cultural history and public memory in Copenhagen. The chosen site is Vor Frelser (Our Saviour) Cemetery at Amagerbrogade 33-35, just next to Prags Boulevard. Urban cemeteries are unique places......, however recent developments in burial practice, urban densification, green space policy and societal attitudes towards death and dying Danish urban cemeteries have become spaces of contest and their everyday embodied spatial and cultural practices challenged. In the literature the cemetery is usually...... as functional assistant cemetery in 1790, the 1,66 Acre of Vor Frelser Cemetery have had significant cultural and emotional roothold in the citizens of Amager and the adjacent Copenhagen districts. Today it serves as both the traditional ritual space for the interment of the dead (bodies or cremated remains...

  18. Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) in Oriental Mountains Cementeries from Colombia Abejas sin aguijón (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) en cementerios de la Cordillera oriental de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Vélez E.; Rodríguez-C. Ángela; Nates-Parra Guiomar

    2006-01-01

    In 11 cemeteries of Cundinamarca and Meta (Colombia) departments we found 203 nests of stingless bees pertaining to 15 species. The majority of the found nests (61%) belong to genus Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. Nannotrigona mellaria was the specie with the greater nests number and higher population; Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula was found in all cemeteries, but in a smaller percentage that N. mellaria (29% of the total). In the Tena (Cundinamarca) cemetery was found the nest highest densit...

  19. 32 CFR 552.127 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous... shotgun. (2) Sawed-off rifle. (3) Machine gun and automatic weapons. (4) Silencers. (5)...

  20. 77 FR 47874 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ...., Littleton, 12000550 GEORGIA Hall County Alta Vista Cemetery, 521 Jones St., Gainesville, 12000551 Troup... Blanchard, Joshua James, House (Duplin County MPS), 415 Carrolls Rd., Warsaw, 12000572 Forsyth County...

  1. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  2. About Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  3. How Common Is PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  4. Issues Specific to Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  5. Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  6. Effects of PTSD on Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  7. Suicide and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  8. National Center for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  9. How Is PTSD Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  10. Self-Harm and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  11. Other Common Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans ...

  12. 38 CFR 39.20 - Site planning standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... should be simple, durable, standardized and properly scaled. (19) Carillons. The cemetery development plan should include a location for a carillon tower. Carillons are normally donated. They are...

  13. 75 FR 74079 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ...-Way between N Cheyenne and N Boston Aves, Tulsa, 10001012 North Cheyenne Avenue Historic District... Cheyenne Aves, Tulsa, 10001013 PENNSYLVANIA Delaware County Eden Cemetery, 1434 Springdale Rd,...

  14. 77 FR 65405 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ..., Roughly, Holston, 7th, 8th, & Watauga Aves., Haynes, Orchard, Clyde Reser, Reynolds, & Weise Sts., Bristol, 12000945 Williamson County Franklin City Cemetery, N. Margin St. between 3rd & 4th Aves. N., Franklin, 12000946 Rest Haven Cemetery, N. Margin St. between 4th & 5th Aves. N., Franklin, 12000947 A request...

  15. Cementerios en el altiplano cundiboyacense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo González.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a refection on feldwork notes made during trips to various cemeteries in towns of Cundinamarca and Boyacá during March and April, 2006. This exercise was an effort to observe how the physical space of the cemetery refects social practices related to death, thus furthering the study of the relationship between memory and space. The article recounts the observations made in each cemetery, and includes photographs to accompany the descriptions as well as drawings and maps to illustrate the spatial organization of the cemeteries. In the end, comparing the observations made in each town, it offers a brief analysis of the information gathered in order establish the relationship between the space of the cemetery and its social context.

  16. “Un cimetière et des avions” : argumentation et valeurs dans le courrier des lecteurs d’un journal local ‘Cemetery and Planes’: Argumentation and Values in the Letters to the Editor of a Local Newspaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Doury

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article interroge les lieux et modes d’intervention des valeurs dans les enchaînements argumentatifs. Pour l’ancienne rhétorique, la question des valeurs est centrale dans le genre épidictique, alors que le logos se déploie dans les contextes judiciaire ou délibératif. Pourtant, les données étudiées se révèlent bien souvent hybrides. Ce sont ces phénomènes de porosité entre genres épidictique et délibératif que met au jour l’analyse de lettres envoyées pour publication dans la rubrique « courrier des lecteurs » d’un quotidien régional à propos d’un débat concernant l’implantation d’un troisième aéroport en région parisienne. L’appel aux valeurs qui sous-tend les données les inscrit centralement dans le registre épidictique. Au-delà de sa fonction de consolidation de la cohésion sociale, cet appel est immédiatement réinvesti dans l’opposition au projet, l’imminence d’une prise de décision orientant les discours vers une finalité délibérative. Enfin, ces « envolées épidictiques » peuvent susciter des réactions intégrant l’appel aux valeurs dans un discours argumentatif critique où le logos reprend ses droits.This article studies the places and modes of intervention of values in argumentative discourse. In classical rhetoric, the question of values is central in the epideictic genre, whereas logos is privileged in the forensic or deliberative context. Nevertheless, the texts often appear to be a hybrid between the various genres. Such phenomena of “permeability” between the epideictic and deliberative genres are illuminated by the analysis of letters sent for publication in the “letters to the editor” section of a regional daily paper in a debate focusing on the construction of a third airport in the Parisian region. The appeal to values which underlies the texts places them primarily in the epideictic register. The function usually attributed to the epideictic species is that of consolidating social cohesion. Beyond that, such an appeal to values is also reinvested in the opposition to the project of the third airport, in view of the imminence of a decision-making that subordinates the speeches to a concrete deliberative purpose. Finally, these epideictic displays can arouse reactions mobilizing strategies deployed to escape the essentially oratorical tone of the appeal to values, and to integrate it into an argumentative critical speech where logos becomes central again.

  17. EL DESCUBRIMIENTO DE UN CEMENTERIO DE ÉLITE EN EL CAÑO: INDICIOS DE UN PATRÓN FUNERARIO EN EL VALLE DE RÍO GRANDE, COCLÉ, PANAMÁ (The Discovery of an Elite Cemetery at El Caño: Traces of a Mortuary Pattern in Río Grande Valley, Coclé, Panama)

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Mayo; Carlos Mayo

    2013-01-01

    El Caño, situado en la provincia de Coclé (Panamá), es un yacimiento arqueológico conocido por su singular estilo escultórico y por contener estructuras arqueológicas de piedra. Recientemente se han descubierto en este lugar cuatro tumbas de personas de élite con ricos ajuares, fechadas entre el 700 y el 1000 d. C. Estas son coetáneas a las halladas en el cercano Sitio Conte, una necrópolis en la que se encontraron, hace más de ochenta años, las primeras evidencias arqueológicas de la complej...

  18. Reconstruction of methods of execution of the death penalty by shooting in the years 1949-1954 based on exhumation research of "prison fields" in Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw. Part II--analysis of gunshot injuries and an attempt at reconstructing the course of execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Kawecki, Jerzy; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Swiatek, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of gunshot injuries in prisoners who were executed in Wroclaw penitentiary in the years 1949-1954 shows divergences from legal regulations describing the method of execution. This observation leads to the conclusion that the predominant method of execution of the death penalty was a gunshot or gunshots to the back of the head, which is analogous to the results of exhumation works on collective graves of war prisoners executed during World War II in the territory of the former Soviet Union. PMID:23424941

  19. Kalmistu kodupaiga sümbolina: Siberi eestlaste näide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aivar Jürgenson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the importance of cemeteries among the Estonians in Siberia. The Diaspora of the Siberian Estonians has formed during the past 150 years, comprising the descendents of deportees and voluntary emigrants. The Estonians in Siberia have lived more or less in isolation, having distanced themselves from foreign-language- speaking neighbours: this need for privacy is evident even today. Cemeteries are no exception. In the Diaspora, several cultural elements may have been attributed additional meanings that they lacked in the source country, and, in the isolation, may have begun to symbolise the lost homeland (the language, religion, calendar, etc.. One such symbol of homeland for the Estonians in Siberia is also cemetery. The cemeteries of the Siberian Estonians are organised according to the territorial principle. If a village has a multi-ethnic population, then the dead are buried to the section belonging to this particular ethnic/religious group. The group, who has formed a community in life, will continue to do so in death. The cemetery is a place where our worldly existence ends, a place which extends to eternity. And since our worldly existence follows certain rules, a cemetery (and its appearance must follow certain order as well. The Estonians have not been accustomed to the bleak and treeless cemeteries of other ethnic groups and, unlike other Siberian settlers, have tried to mark the graves with trees, steppe or field flowers. The same applied to the appearance of villages - it is characteristic of the Estonians to plant trees around their houses. The symbol of cemetery as a homeland is reflected also in the tradition of the settlers in sister colonies to bury their dead to the cemetery of their mother colony. The Estonians in Siberia have brought back a handful of soil as a symbol of their homeland; this custom, however, is not known in Estonia.

  20. Future Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    questions how death and disposal is perceived by a British (urban) public and if death has been liberated from social and individual emotional regulation or is (still) constrained by subjective and/or collective regulation. The design proposals from the Future Cemetery Design Competition 2016 are used to...... Gallery (bristolmuseums.org.uk) and the Future Cemetery Design Competition 2016 held by the Centre for Death and Society and Arnos Vale Cemetery in Bristol (futurecemetery.org). Grounded in sociological theory on death and memorialization technologies, ethnographic fieldwork and survey results (n=348...

  1. Raně středověké pohřebiště v Mělníku-Rousovicích

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomková, Kateřina; Košta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2015), s. 271-318. ISSN 1214-3553 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Early Middle Age * Bohemia * cemetery * jewellery Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  2. 77 FR 33004 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Clinton Power Station, Unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Company, LLC (the licensee, EGC) for operation of the Clinton Power Station, Unit 1 (CPS), located in De... EGC, from CPS to Creek Township to expand the Lisenby Cemetery. Before acceptance of the partial...

  3. Estimated Buried Irrigation Water Lines at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset captures the irrigation water lines running through and around the cemetery. The irrigation lines were compiled from utility lines collected with GPS...

  4. Shopping for Funeral Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Admongo Bookmark Avoiding Scams 101 Buying Alaska Native Art Buying American Indian Arts and Crafts Buying Jewelry Buying a Cemetery Site ... credit and finance? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  5. Planning Your Own Funeral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Admongo Bookmark Avoiding Scams 101 Buying Alaska Native Art Buying American Indian Arts and Crafts Buying Jewelry Buying a Cemetery Site ... credit and finance? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  6. Types of Funerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Admongo Bookmark Avoiding Scams 101 Buying Alaska Native Art Buying American Indian Arts and Crafts Buying Jewelry Buying a Cemetery Site ... credit and finance? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  7. Výzkum lokality Sfinga (SBK.W-60) v pohoří Sabaloka v centrálním Súdánu: poznatky z výzkumné sezóny 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varadzinová Suková, L.; Varadzin, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 14 (2015), s. 56-65. ISSN 1214-3189 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Sudan * Sabaloka * Mesolithic * archaeological excavation methods * post-depositional processes * hunter-gatherer cemetery Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  8. Sonic journeys with the dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    This audio-paper is a site-specific investigation of relations between a gravesite at Vor Frelser Cemetery (Cemetery of Our Saviour), Copenhagen, Denmark, its cultural history and publicly co-constructed memories. The audio-paper follows a non-representational approach to sonic media and the...... metaphor of travelling, in an attempt to establish an alternative method for meaning-making of urban cemeteries. By using recorded environmental sounds and publicly accessible online digital material an awareness of cemeteries as significant parts of our shared social and cultural history is established....... With offset in the particular gravesite of late Danish actor and cultural personage Jesper Klein, the audio-paper production is a aural narrative journey in which chosen spaces, places and temporal events from Jesper Klein's life are further animated by using relational sound souvenirs, interviews with...

  9. 38 CFR 39.25 - Inspections, audits, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... it has met its responsibility under the Single Audit Act of 1984 (see part 41 of this chapter). (b) A State will make an annual report on VA Form 40-0241 (“State Cemetery Data”) signed by the...

  10. 75 FR 17407 - Service Corporation International and Keystone North America Inc.; Analysis of Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... providers to reach and monitor terms of coordination, or alternatively promote tacit forms of collusion. In several funeral and cemetery services markets, coordinated interaction or tacit collusion is likely due...

  11. Veterans Crisis Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also access and download the Veterans Crisis Line Branding Guidelines for guidance on how to consistently apply ... Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs | 810 ...

  12. Euroopa Ajalooliste Kalmistute Assotsiatsioon : rahvusvahelised koostööprojektid / Ilme Mäesalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäesalu, Ilme

    2005-01-01

    ASCE (Assotiation of Significant Cemeteries in Europe) peaeesmärkidest, tegevusest. Muinsuskaitsameti esindaja Ilme Mäesalu on alates liidu asutamisest 2001. a. kuulunud ASCE juhatusse. 2004. a. ilmus Bolognas koguteos "Cemeteries of Europe. A Historical Heritage to Appreciate and Restore", kus leiduvad artiklid Tallinna surnuaedade ja Tartu Raadi kalmistu kohta. 2004. a. toimus Tartus seminar "Ajalooline kalmistu - kujunemine ja tänapäev"

  13. Panteones regios leoneses (924-1109). Concatenaciones dinásticas y discontinuidades topográficas

    OpenAIRE

    Boto Varela, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the royal cemeteries in Leon and Sahagún from an art-historical perspective. This topic demands analysing the documents as well as the architectonic settings. In the royal chronicles, the thread of historical narrative is the lineage of kings. For that reason, I discuss here the architectural and functional genealogy of the graveyards for the kings of Leon. This analysis explores both the links and the oppositions between these cemeteries. Studying the graves and cemeter...

  14. Nuevos museos y nuevas tecnologías: una propuesta de musealización para el cementerio general de Valencia.

    OpenAIRE

    ESCRIVÁ ESTEVAN, FINA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] This research focused on the value enhancement strategy of the main graveyard in Valencia. This monumental cemetery, created at the beginning of the nineteen-century, has an important heritage needed of an urgent revalorization. Considering the sociocultural changes related to the management of cemeteries and their increasing role on heritage and tourism, a musealization route is created with the aim to contribute to the conservation and the diffusion of this heritage, particularly t...

  15. The impact of candle burning during All Saints' Day ceremonies on ambient alkyl-substituted benzene concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Kłos, Andrzej

    2013-11-01

    Research findings concerning benzene, toluene, ethylobenzene, meta-, para- and ortho-xylene as well as styrene (BTEXS) emission at public cemeteries during All Saints' Day are presented here. Tests were carried out at town-located cemeteries in Opole and Grodków (southern Poland) and, as a benchmark, at the centres of those same towns. The purpose of the study was to estimate BTEXS emissions caused by the candle burning and, equally important to examine, whether emissions generated by the tested sources were similar to the BTEXS emissions generated by road transport. During the festive period, significant increases in benzene concentrations, by 200 % and 144 %, were noted at the cemeteries in Opole and Grodków, as well as in toluene, by 366 % and 342 %, respectively. Styrene concentrations also increased. It was demonstrated that the ratio of toluene to benzene concentrations from emissions caused by the burning candles are comparable to the ratio established for transportation emissions. PMID:24052143

  16. The Death and the Tomb of the Architect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Sgarbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to discuss the funerary architecture of the body of the architect in its moment of transition between the space of the living to the space of the dead and in its more or less eternal final destination. The encompassing cemetery of those who design cemeteries for everybody else is fragmented in a myriad of differences and loci. Yet this space has its symbols and its imaginary. Who is the architect who designs the cemetery for all the others, and how does she/he see her/his own death and tomb? The ambition of this paper is to violate the intimate space of the “last desires” of the architect. Are there some expectations, some commonplaces, some appropriate or shared intents that might give to the architect a specific dignity in relation to the dignity we imagine for the death of the others?

  17. Architectural Innovations Influenced by Climatic Phenomena (4.2 Ka Event in the Late Old Kingdom (Saqqara, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuraszkiewicz Kamil O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The work of the Polish-Egyptian Archaeological Mission at Saqqara revealed a cemetery of palace officials that was in use during the late Old Kingdom. The evidence found during the exploration of the tombs indicates that the tomb builders were aware of the problems resulting from torrential rains in last years of functioning of the cemetery and that architectural solutions have been invented against these problems. The discussed phenomena seem to be directly related to the 4.2 ka event.

  18. Mourning in Bits and Stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    We mourn our dead, publicly and privately, online and offline. Cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites make up parts of todays intricately weaved and interrelated network of death, grief and memorialization practices [1]–[5]. Whether cut in stone or made of bits, graves, cemeteries...... such as space, artifacts, situations or sensuous representations. In this paper we build upon present research on grief-work and propose a methodological contribution to the study of progressions of digital mourning and remembrance practices [6]–[8]. We present a generalized structure of online...

  19. Preamplification Procedure for the Analysis of Ancient DNA Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Del Gaudio; Alessandra Cirillo; Giovanni Di Bernardo; Umberto Galderisi; Theodoros Thanassoulas; Theodoros Pitsios; Marilena Cipollaro

    2013-01-01

    In ancient DNA studies the low amount of endogenous DNA represents a limiting factor that often hampers the result achievement. In this study we extracted the DNA from nine human skeletal remains of different ages found in the Byzantine cemetery of Abdera Halkidiki and in the medieval cemetery of St. Spiridion in Rhodes (Greece). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to detect in the extracts the presence of PCR inhibitors and to estimate the DNA content. As mitocho...

  20. Visualisation of unbuilt buildings in their landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob; Petersen, Ernst Steffen

    1999-01-01

    Modelling the site and chapel for a new cemetery for Lyngby submitted to a competition in 1951 by the architect Alvar Aalto. Ir was not built but the computer model shows how he overestimated the steepness of the site and how his proposals for graves and chapel would have looked......Modelling the site and chapel for a new cemetery for Lyngby submitted to a competition in 1951 by the architect Alvar Aalto. Ir was not built but the computer model shows how he overestimated the steepness of the site and how his proposals for graves and chapel would have looked...

  1. Dark tourism, thematic routes and possibilities for innovation in the Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Horodnikova, Jana; Derco, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This research note describes an interconnection between touristic potential of localities impacted by the First and the Second World War, by focusing on a case study of cemeteries in the North-East of Slovakia. The case study proposes to create a Slovak part of the ‘dark tourism thematic trail’ through cemeteries from the First World War that could join the existing Polish part of the trail and thus gaining an international importance. The case study gives some directions for suitable tourist...

  2. Záchranný archeologický výzkum u kostela sv. Martina v Chrasti-Chrašicích (okr. Chrudim)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 28 (2015), s. 5-42. ISSN 1213-1733 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeology * church * Middle Ages * cemetery * East Bohemia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. Pohřby jedinců s postižením pohybového aparátu na pohřebišti kultury zvoncovitých pohárů v Kolíně, střední Čechy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzobohatá, Hana; Šumberová, Radka; Likovský, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2015), s. 193-212. ISSN 0323-1267 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : Eneolithic * trochanteritis * Bell Beaker culture * paleopathology * congenital hip dislocation * ulnar fracture * spatial structure of cemetery Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Laténské pohřebiště v pískovnách u Vliněvsi, okr. Mělník

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Limburský, Petr; Sankot, P.; Březinová, Helena; Likovský, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, prosinec (2015), s. 181-246. ISSN 0031-0506 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 564512 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Central Bohemia * Mělník region * cemetery * La Tène period * chronology * social structure * interregional ties to western Europe and the Danube region Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. 32 CFR 552.95 - Compatible use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compatible use. 552.95 Section 552.95 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.95 Compatible use. (a... closed. (4) Motorized infantry operations that will use the majority of the road net in a training...

  6. 32 CFR 552.171 - Compatible use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compatible use. 552.171 Section 552.171 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.171 Compatible use. (a) Military unit commanders may request during...

  7. 32 CFR 552.18 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administration. 552.18 Section 552.18 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Post Commander § 552.18 Administration. (a) Purpose... economical operation, administration, service, and supply of all individuals, units, and activities...

  8. 78 FR 79451 - Service Corporation International, and Stewart Enterprises, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... relating to the promotion, marketing, sale, and provision of funeral services and goods, including, but not... promotion, marketing, sale, and provision of property, goods, and services to provide for the disposition of... niche, or scattering cremated remains on cemetery grounds. In some local markets, certain...

  9. The neolithic demographic transition in Europe: correlation with juvenility index supports interpretation of the summed calibrated radiocarbon date probability distribution (SCDPD as a valid demographic proxy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean S Downey

    Full Text Available Analysis of the proportion of immature skeletons recovered from European prehistoric cemeteries has shown that the transition to agriculture after 9000 BP triggered a long-term increase in human fertility. Here we compare the largest analysis of European cemeteries to date with an independent line of evidence, the summed calibrated date probability distribution of radiocarbon dates (SCDPD from archaeological sites. Our cemetery reanalysis confirms increased growth rates after the introduction of agriculture; the radiocarbon analysis also shows this pattern, and a significant correlation between both lines of evidence confirms the demographic validity of SCDPDs. We analyze the areal extent of Neolithic enclosures and demographic data from ethnographically known farming and foraging societies and we estimate differences in population levels at individual sites. We find little effect on the overall shape and precision of the SCDPD and we observe a small increase in the correlation with the cemetery trends. The SCDPD analysis supports the hypothesis that the transition to agriculture dramatically increased demographic growth, but it was followed within centuries by a general pattern of collapse even after accounting for higher settlement densities during the Neolithic. The study supports the unique contribution of SCDPDs as a valid demographic proxy for the demographic patterns associated with early agriculture.

  10. 32 CFR 552.126 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which a machine gun can be assembled if such parts are in the possession or under the control of a... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous... of less than 26 inches or a barrel or barrels of less than 16 inches in length. (5) A machine gun....

  11. 76 FR 6157 - Meeting of the National Park System Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ..., Leavenworth, KS. Maine Olson House, Cushing, ME. Minnesota Grand Mound, Koochiching County, MN. Split Rock Light Station, Lake County, MN. New York Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, NY. North Dakota Lynch Quarry Site... Indian Agricultural School, Kay County, OK. Platt National Park, Murray County, OK. Oregon Aubrey...

  12. 75 FR 49520 - Landmarks Committee of the National Park System Advisory Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ..., Leavenworth, KS Maine OLSON HOUSE, Cushing, ME Minnesota GRAND MOUND, Koochiching County, MN SPLIT ROCK LIGHT STATION, Lake County, MN New York WOODLAWN CEMETERY, Bronx, NY North Dakota LYNCH QUARRY, Dunn County, ND... CHILOCCO INDIAN AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL, Kay County, OK PLATT NATIONAL PARK, Murray County, OK Oregon...

  13. 32 CFR 552.35 - Rights-of-entry for survey and exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rights-of-entry for survey and exploration. 552.35 Section 552.35 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Acquisition of Real Estate and Interest Therein §...

  14. 32 CFR 552.36 - Rights-of-entry for construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rights-of-entry for construction. 552.36 Section 552.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Acquisition of Real Estate and Interest Therein § 552.36 Rights-of-entry...

  15. Ritual plants of Muslim graveyards in northern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafni Amots

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article surveys the botanical composition of 40 Muslim graveyards in northern Israel, accompanied by an ethnobotanical study of the folkloristic traditions of the use of these plants in cemeteries. Three groups of plants were found to be repeated systematically and were also recognized for their ritual importance: aromatics herbs (especially Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis, white flowered plants (mainly Narcissus tazetta, Urginea maritima, Iris spp. and Pancratium spp. and Cupressus sempervirens as the leading cemetery tree. As endemic use we can indicate the essential role of S. fruticosa as the main plant used in all human rites of passage symbolizing the human life cycle. The rosemary is of European origin while the use of basil is of Indian influence. The use of white flowers as cemeteries plants reflects an old European influence and almost the same species are used or their congeners. Most of the trees and shrubs that are planted in Muslim cemeteries in Israel have the same use in ancient as well in modern European cultures. In conclusion, our findings on the occurrence of plants in graveyards reflect the geographic situation of Israel as a crossroads in the cultural arena between Asia and Europe. Most of the traditions are common to the whole Middle East showing high relatedness to the classical world as well as to the present-day Europe.

  16. Ojedinělé hroby a nálezy sekundárně přemístěných lidských kostí na Hradčanech

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomková, Kateřina

    Praha: Archeologický ústav AV ČR Praha, 2006, s. 175-176. (Castrum Pragense. 7). ISBN 80-86124-64-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA404/01/0853; GA AV ČR ICE800020601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : cemetery * early Middle Age Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. 32 CFR 552.90 - Permit office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-training acess to the range complex. The office is open 0700-1900 hours, seven days a week, for... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Permit office. 552.90 Section 552.90 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.90 Permit...

  18. Dítě ve středověkých pramenech

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sommer, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 31 (2012), s. 73-79. ISSN 0231-7443 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC521 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : child * Middle Ages * cemeteries * superstiton * baptism Subject RIV: AB - History

  19. 14C AMS dates on Rattus exulans bones from natural and archaeological contexts on Norfolk Island, south-west Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) was transported throughout the western Pacific by migrant peoples in prehistory. Meredith et al (1985) reported a minimum date for the presence of Rattus exulans on Norfolk Island using dates on charcoal from an apparently enclosing layer (the upper part of their Unit C4) in Cemetery Bay. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  20. 75 FR 39623 - Advisory Committee on Women Veterans; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ..., Public Relations and Public Affairs, at (202) 745-4037. Members of the press planning to attend briefings...) gives notice under Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that the Advisory Committee on... Cemetery, Washington, DC. The meeting is open to the public. Those wishing to attend must have...

  1. 32 CFR 552.118 - Issuance from unit arms room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Issuance from unit arms room. 552.118 Section 552... AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Physical Security of Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.118 Issuance from unit arms room. When...

  2. 38 CFR 39.15 - Amount of grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... connecting device, such as kitchen and intercommunication equipment, built-in cabinets, and equipment lifts... grant, the cost of equipment necessary for the operation of the State cemetery. This may include the cost of non-fixed equipment such as grounds maintenance equipment, burial equipment, and...

  3. Rituals Cows or just another flock of Sheep?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Pernille

    This dissertation examines the practises of faunal deposits at Pangrave and C-Group cemeteries. The faunal culture of the Middle Nubian Horizon has occasionally been mentioned in the literature and scholarly interest has included the topic of daily subsistence consumption as well as the symbolic ...

  4. Visualisation of unbuilt buildings in their landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Robert; Petersen, Ernst Steffen

    1999-01-01

    Computer modelling can provide better information on building projects presented in two dimensional drawings but never built. A cemetery project in Denmark was formed as a solid model in its sloping landscape using Softimage. Boolean operations were used to position walls at a given height above...

  5. Good Faith Efforts? Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1996, a small group of Roman Catholic parents in a suburban New York district filed suit, claiming that a new program was promoting Satanism, occultism, and New Age spirituality. Activities included a Ganesha story, worry dolls, stories on Buddha and Quetzalcoatl, poetry writing, psychic phenomena, and a cemetery visit. To be continued. (MLH)

  6. Numancia: relación necrópolis-poblado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimeno Martínez, Alfredo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between the Celtiberian cemetery and the Numancia city sieged by Scipio (133 b.c.. A first part is dedicated to present the location problems of the Celtiberian cemetery during the present century, and the archaeological data of the cemetery are also analyzed. In the second part the stratigraphie questions and the problems to differentiate the city of the II century b.C. are explained. Finally the basis is established for the relationship between the city and the cemetery.Este trabajo estudia la relación entre la necrópolis celtibérica y la Numancia del cerco de Escipión (133 a. C.. En la primera parte se exponen las dificultades para la localización de la necrópolis a lo largo de este siglo y los datos arqueológicos que está aportando su excavación. En la segunda se abordan los problemas estratigráficos y la dificultad de diferenciar la ciudad del 133 a.C. Finalmente se establecen las bases de relación entre necrópolis y poblado.

  7. Digitizing a Heritage of Faded Memories: A Case Study on Extending Historical Research Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branting, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    A historical fact is like a fata morgana, "always less than what really happened." Even consensus does not establish truth; otherwise history is merely the version of the past that people agree to accept. The students who participated in the acclaimed 5th Street Cemetery Necrogeographical Study innocently found themselves clashing with accepted…

  8. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...

  9. 75 FR 77958 - Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year); Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ...-461-7485. Correction In FR Doc. 2010-30554, published on December 7, 2010, at 75 FR 76082, make the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year); Correction AGENCY: National Cemetery...

  10. 32 CFR 552.97 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Communications. 552.97 Section 552.97 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.97...

  11. 32 CFR 552.86 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.86 Section 552.86 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.86 References. (a)...

  12. 75 FR 17766 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... (Arkansas Highway History and Architecture MPS) Crittenden County Riverside Speedway, 151 Legion Rd., West..., 09001259, LISTED, 1/21/10 (Cotton and Rice Farm History and Architecture in the Arkansas Delta MPS) Van... District, Co. Rt. 9, New Concord, 09001268, LISTED, 1/19/10 Orange County Balmville Cemetery, Albany...

  13. 77 FR 35114 - Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ..., service members, and their eligible family members with planning for burial in a VA national cemetery... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: NCA PreNeed Burial Planning, VA Form 40-10007. OMB Control Number: 2900--New. Type...

  14. 75 FR 3539 - Agency Information Collection (NCA Customer Satisfaction Surveys (Headstone/Marker)) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (NCA Customer Satisfaction Surveys (Headstone/Marker)) Activity.... National Cemetery Administration Mail Surveys a. Next of Kin National Customer Satisfaction Survey (Mail to... National Customer Satisfaction Survey (Mail to 5,000 respondents/30 minutes per survey) = 2,500 hours. ]...

  15. Biologische Charakteristik der menschlichen Skelettreste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stránská, Petra

    Darmstadt : Philipp von Zabern, 2015 - (Ernée, M.), s. 168-194 ISBN 978-3-8053-4969-7. - (Römisch-Germanische Forschungen. 72) Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Early Bronze Age * human remains * cemetery Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  16. 38 CFR 38.631 - Graves marked with a private headstone or marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... it is requested or, if placement on the grave is impossible or impracticable, as close to the grave... type and placement of the headstone or marker requested adheres to the policies and guidelines of the selected private cemetery. (f) VA will furnish its full product line of Government headstones or...

  17. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552... AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Post Commander § 552.19 Hunting and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  18. 36 CFR 12.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 12.3 Section 12.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... headstone placed in a memorial section of a national cemetery with the words “In Memory Of” inscribed...

  19. Záchranný archeologický výzkum u kostela sv. Bartoloměje v Kočí (okr. Chrudim)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolík, Jan

    Suppl. 97, - (2015), s. 52-53. ISSN 1211-992X. [Archeologické výzkumy v Čechách 2014. Praha, 31.03.2015-01.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : church * Middle Ages * archaeology * cemetery * belfry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. Treasure Along the Parker River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ann-Marie; And Others

    Designed so that 100 to 125 heterogeneously grouped 7th and 8th grade students and a team of 5 core teachers might experience and discover the natural and historical "treasure" in the Parker River area of Massachusetts, this interdisciplinary unit centers on a hike to Parker River (6.7 miles) and visits to a cemetery, a monument, and Old Town…

  1. Gozāreš-e nahā’ī-ye kāvoš-e bāstān-šenāḫtī gūrestān-e Lamā, Yāsūj - Kohgīlūye va Boyer Aḥmad / Final Report of the Archaeological excavations at Lamā Cemetery, Yasudj - Kohgilouye va Boyer Ahmad. Tehrān, Pažūhešgāh-e mīrā

    OpenAIRE

    Boucharlat, Rémy

    2010-01-01

    Fouilles de sauvetage entreprises entre 2000 et 2005 sur une nécropole située près du village de Lamā à 50 km au nord de Yasuj. À part plusieurs tombes détruites par un bulldozer, 58 autres ont été fouillées par une mission archéologique. La plupart ont des parois élevées en moellons et la couverture est constituée de dalles disposées en bâtière, ou parfois posées à plat. Squelettes et dépôts d’objets ont été très endommagés par les infiltrations d’eau, car les tombes sont proches de la surfa...

  2. UNA POLÉMICA HIGIENISTA Y LOS CEMENTERIOS DE CARACAS EN EL PRIMER GUZMANATO, 1870-1877

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobos, E.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Venezuelan public health by the end of nineteenth century was, to a large extent, based on ideas developed by President Antonio Guzmán Blanco, together with intellectuals and publicists, and first implemented through political and legal reforms during his rule from 1870-1877. One key aspect was a controversy over the Catholic cemeteries in northern Caracas, stirred up by the press and supported by contemporary hygiene theory, giving the state an excuse to shut them down. More broadly, Guzmán's ideas show European influences on his re-urbanization plans for the capital, aimed, among other things, at gaining control over cemeteries which had until then been under the power of the Catholic Church. This led to the construction of a secular graveyard on the outskirts of the city.

  3. Death and life new balances in Italian Lanscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Bartolomei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will analyze the most recent changes in spaces for the dead with respect to new rituals, beliefs and social behaviors in Italy. While in the past two centuries the geography of death was one designed only by extra-urban cemeteries, today new trends are acting to multiply funerary places within urban contexts. There are several factors contributing to this change. First, the new multi-faith profile of contemporary Italian society and its growing secularization are amplifying the request for spaces in which to celebrate all kinds of funeral or farewell rituals with a sense of dignity. This has opened a market for funeral homes or “case funerarie”, never seen before in Italy. Secondly, a wider social acceptance of cremation (recently approved by Catholic Church introduces the possibility for a displacement of ashes in houses or in private cemeteries, even within urban settings.

  4. Death in Design in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    each constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices dealing with death, grief and memorialization. Design pioneering company IDEO'S recent failed attempt to 'redesign death' is an example of how delicate and difficult it is to work with material and symbolic 'death......The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline, and combined, cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites...... design'. Urns, coffins, graves, cemeteries, memorials, monuments, websites and services, whether cut in stone or made of bits, are all influenced by the discourses of economics, power, technology and culture. Furthermore many end-users do not recognize the need or potential of a certain death service...

  5. Magnetic surveying in the Roman age town porolissum (NW Romania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. We present the results of magnetic surveys carried out in a Roman age town Porolissum (NW Romania). Porolissum was the capital of the province Dacia Porolissensis in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, and it had 20000 inhabitants. After the Romans left Dacia the town was deserted. The buildings in the town were built from dacite mined in nearby quarries. The dacite has large magnetic susceptibility compared to the soil, which allows the detection of the ruins by magnetic measurements. We made magnetic surveying using GSM-19 Overhauser magnetometers in the fortress, the town and the cemetery. We were able to map streets, foundations of different buildings: houses, sanctuaries, and in the cemetery roads, graves and graveyards. The geophysical surveys help to reconstruct the structure of the archaeological objects, and on large scale the structure of the town. Based upon our results, the archaeologists dug more trenches, which confirmed the interpretation of geophysical measurements.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient Sampula population in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The archaeological site of Sampula cemetery was located about 14 km to the southwest of the Luo County in Xinjiang Khotan, China, belonging to the ancient Yutian kingdom. 14C analysis showed that this cemetery was used from 217 B.C. to 283 A.D.Ancient DNA was analyzed by 364 bp of the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region Ⅰ (mtDNA HVR-Ⅰ), and by six restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) sites of mtDNA coding region. We successfully extracted and sequenced intact stretches of maternally inherited mtDNA from 13 out of 16 ancient Sampula samples. The analysis of mtDNA haplogroup distribution showed that the ancient Sampula was a complex population with both European and Asian characteristics. Median joining network of U3 sub-haplogroup and multi-dimensional scaling analysis all showed that the ancient Sampula had maternal relationship with Ossetian and Iranian.

  7. Alexander Thomas Augusta--physician, teacher and human rights activist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Heather M

    2005-01-01

    Commissioned surgeon of colored volunteers, April 4, 1863, with the rank of Major. Commissioned regimental surgeon on the 7th Regiment of U.S. Colored Troops, October 2, 1863. Brevet Lieutenant Colonel of Volunteers, March 13, 1865, for faithful and meritorious services--mustered out October 13, 1866. So reads the tombstone at Arlington National Cemetery of Alexander Thomas Augusta, the first black surgeon commissioned in the Union Army during the Civil War and the first black officer-rank soldier to be buried at Arlington Cemetery. He was also instrumental in founding the institutions that later became the hospital and medical college of Howard University and the National Medical Association. PMID:15719881

  8. Remembrance of Dutch War Dead in Southeast Asia, 1942-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridus Steijlen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the war experience in Southeast Asia in the Netherlands was not easy. The Indisch community, those who had to leave the Netherlands East Indies after decolonization, did not feel that their war experience was accepted. Following the story of one man, a former POW, this article shows how unorthodox ways of protesting were used to command respect and acknowledgement. The arena for these actions was not only the Indisch monument in the Netherlands, but also the War cemetery in Thailand. The former Dutch POW ended up in a dispute with the Australian caretaker of that cemetery over the specific location of a camp. Both men, however, were motivated by the same urge to find the exact locations of camps along the Burma railway. The story of this POW shows how important official recognition is on a personal level.

  9. 《陇县店子秦墓》读后

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵化成

    2000-01-01

    The Qin Tombs at Dianzi, Longxian County compiled by the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology is so far the first monographic report on the excavation of Qin tombs . It described 224 Qin tombs from the Spring-Autumn and Warring States period to the Qin dynasty. The book features scientificalness and completeness in the systematization of material and makes for the first time the periodization of a great number of Qin tombs belonging to the same cemetery. The Qin tombs at Dianzi are noteworthy in many aspects. For example, the catacombs are in a small number and of a relatively late date; the flexed burials account for the majority and the extended ones appeared in a later time; pottery li tripods with double ears and granary molds characteristic of the “Rong” people were discovered quite often; and pottery ritual vessels are combined in even numbers. These reflect the local features of the cemetery and enrich our understanding of the Qin culture.

  10. Dental disease as an indicator of ecological factors in medieval skeletal populations from Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Thurzo M.; Šefčáková A.; Katina Stanislav; Jakab J.; Benus R.; Bodorikova S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of previous odontological research into the medieval (7th–15th c. A.D.) populations in Slovakia and presents conclusions concerning the diachronic and geographical differences in their dental disease. The dental remains from 16 cemeteries were used. The remains were divided into four chronological (Avar Period, Great-Moravian Period, Hungarian Conquest Period, Arpadian Period) and two geographical groups (east Slovakia, southwest Slovakia). The dental data, such ...

  11. Belege für die Anwesenheit von Eliten des 6./5. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. am Zusammenfluss von Elbe und Moldau in Mittelböhmen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytráček, Miloslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1-2 (2015), s. 271-300. ISSN 0079-4848 Grant ostatní: Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M300021201 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Bohemia * Late Hallstatt * Early La Tène * cemetery * settlement * Etruscan bronze basins * drinking horns * amber routes * wreath * cult Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.278, year: 2014

  12. APPROACHES ON THE INVASIVE ALIEN TAXA IN ROMANIA - AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA (RAGWEED) II

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    In a previous paper we presented the localities in Romania where we identified populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Between 2008-2011, investigations were continuing. Our data clearly show that Ambrosia is present throughout the country. The territories heavily infested are railway embankments, along traffic routes, gravel pits, building sites, forest edges, industrial areas, cemeteries and recreational areas. It is quite common to find ragweed in many private gardens, or flower pots in ur...

  13. Pohřebiště únětické kultury v Klecanech, okr. Praha-východ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ernée, Michal; Profantová, Naďa; Březinová, Helena; Frána, Jaroslav; Majer, A.; Stránská, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2011), s. 307-330. ISSN 0323-1267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA404/09/1135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Early Bronze Age * Únětice culture * cemetery * 14C * anthropology * metal analyses * corrosion layers Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  14. Genetic evidence of African slavery at the beginning of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade

    OpenAIRE

    BRADLEY, DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    An archaeological excavation in Valle da Gafaria (Lagos, Portugal), revealed two contiguous burial places outside the medieval city walls, dating from the 15th–17th centuries AD: one was interpreted as a Leprosarium cemetery and the second as an urban discard deposit, where signs of violent, unceremonious burials suggested that these remains may belong to slaves captured in Africa by the Portuguese. We obtained random short autosomal sequence reads from seven individuals: two from the latter ...

  15. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes Japonicus Japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) underscore the importance of human intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Werner, Doreen; Schaffner, Francis; Kampen, Helge; Dina M Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgiu...

  16. Unexpected Patterns of Admixture in German Populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) Underscore the Importance of Human Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Doreen Werner; Francis Schaffner; Helge Kampen; Dina M Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgiu...

  17. ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini EN CEMENTERIOS DE LA CORDILLERA ORIENTAL DE COLOMBIA Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini in Oriental Mountains Cementeries from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUIOMAR NATES-PARRA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 cementerios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia. El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La especie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios estudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% del total. La densidad máxima encontrada fue de 118 nidos/ha, con un porcentaje de ocupación de las tumbas de 13,9% en el cementerio de Tena (Cundinamarca. Se discute sobre la importancia de los cementerios como alternativa para conservación de los sitios de nidificación para abejas silvestres en áreas urbanas.In 11 cemeteries of Cundinamarca and Meta (Colombia departments we found 203 nests of stingless bees pertaining to 15 species. The majority of the found nests (61% belong to genus Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. Nannotrigona mellaria was the species with the greater nests number and higher population; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula was found in all cemeteries, but in a smaller percentage that N. mellaria (29% of the total. In the Tena (Cundinamarca cemetery was found the nest highest density (118 nest/ha, with a tombs occupation percentage of 13.9%. We discussed the importance of cemeteries as an alternative for wild bees nesting sites conservation in urban areas.

  18. Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini in Oriental Mountains Cementeries from Colombia Abejas sin aguijón (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini en cementerios de la Cordillera oriental de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Vélez E.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In 11 cemeteries of Cundinamarca and Meta (Colombia departments we found 203 nests of stingless bees pertaining to 15 species. The majority of the found nests (61% belong to genus Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. Nannotrigona mellaria was the specie with the greater nests number and higher population; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula was found in all cemeteries, but in a smaller percentage that N. mellaria (29% of the total. In the Tena (Cundinamarca cemetery was found the nest highest density (118 nest/ha, with a tombs occupation percentage of 13.9%. We discussed the importance of cemeteries as an alternative for wild bees nesting sites conservation in urban areas.Se encontraron 203 nidos de abejas sin aguijón pertenecientes a 15 especies en 11 cementerios de los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta (Colombia. El 61% de los nidos encontrados pertenecen a abejas del género Nannotrigona Cokerell, 1922. La especie con el mayor número de nidos y mayor representatividad en los cementerios estudiados fue Nannotrigona mellaria; Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula se encontró en todos los cementerios estudiados pero, en un porcentaje menor que N. mellaria (29% del total. La densidad máxima encontrada fue de 118 nidos/ha, con un porcentaje de ocupación de las tumbas de 13,9% en el cementerio de Tena (Cundinamarca. Se discute sobre la importancia de los cementerios como alternativa para conservación de los sitios de nidificación para abejas silvestres en áreas urbanas.

  19. Evidence for Patterns of Selective Urban Migration in the Greater Indus Valley (2600-1900 BC): A Lead and Strontium Isotope Mortuary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Valentine; Kamenov, George D.; Jonathan Mark Kenoyer; Vasant Shinde; Veena Mushrif-Tripathy; Erik Otarola-Castillo; John Krigbaum

    2015-01-01

    Just as modern nation-states struggle to manage the cultural and economic impacts of migration, ancient civilizations dealt with similar external pressures and set policies to regulate people's movements. In one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Civilization, mechanisms linking city populations to hinterland groups remain enigmatic in the absence of written documents. However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) cemetery burials at Harap...

  20. Evidence for Patterns of Selective Urban Migration in the Greater Indus Valley (2600-1900 BC): A Lead and Strontium Isotope Mortuary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, Benjamin; Kamenov, George D.; Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Shinde, Vasant; Mushrif-Tripathy, Veena; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Krigbaum, John

    2015-01-01

    Just as modern nation-states struggle to manage the cultural and economic impacts of migration, ancient civilizations dealt with similar external pressures and set policies to regulate people’s movements. In one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Civilization, mechanisms linking city populations to hinterland groups remain enigmatic in the absence of written documents. However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) cemetery burials at Harap...

  1. Whodunnit? Grave-robbery in early medieval northern and western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Klevn?s, Alison Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This thesis brings together all that is currently known of early medieval grave reopening in northern and western Europe. It investigates in detail an intensive outbreak of grave-robbery in 6th-7th century Kent. This is closely related to the same phenomenon in Merovingia: an example of the import of not only material goods but also a distinctive cultural practice. Limited numbers of similar robbing episodes, affecting a much smaller proportion of graves in each cemetery, are also identified ...

  2. A preliminary carbon and nitrogen isotopic investigation of bone collagen from skeletal remains recovered from a Pre-Columbian burial site, Matanzas Province, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Collagen isotope (carbon and nitrogen) based reconstruction of paleodiets. ► Human remains recovered from Canimar Abajo, Matanzas Province, Cuba. ► Individuals consumed marine resource diets supplemented with terrestrial plants. ► Trophic level and isotope shifts for breastfed and weaned infant/juveniles (I/J). ► I/J evidence of weaning through distinct δ15N enrichments and δ13C depletions. - Abstract: This preliminary study investigates the diet of a population of humans (n = 28) recovered from a shell-matrix site of Canimar Abajo on the Canimar River, Matanzas Province, Cuba. The site is characterized by two cemetery levels separated by a layer of occupation/ritual/midden activity that lasted 1.5 ka. Stable C (δ13C) and N (δ15N) isotope analysis of human bone collagen samples obtained from individuals (7 infant/juveniles, and 21 adults) from both cemetery levels was conducted in order to reconstruct the diet of these two populations, investigate the relative importance of marine vs. terrestrial resources, and reveal any sex- and age-related distinctions in their food sources. Initial indications suggest that individuals from both cemetery levels consumed diets that were marine resource intensive but also supplemented with varied additions of terrestrial (mostly plant) resources. This supplementation is particularly evident in the later cemetery population. Though there are no significant differences in diet according to sex, there is a trophic level and terrestrial-based shift for breastfed and weaning infant/juveniles. The infant/juveniles showed evidence of being weaned through distinct δ15N enrichments and δ13C depletions over adult females

  3. Der Brusnice-Bach (Hirschgraben) als Grenze zwischen den Bestattungen auf der Prager Burg und in ihrem Vorgelände

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolík, Jan; Tomková, Kateřina

    Langenweissbach : Beier&Beran Verlag, 2007 - (Biermann, F.; Kersting, T.), s. 353-362 ISBN 978-3-937517-65-0. [Deutscher Archäologenkongress. Frankfurt an der Oder (DE), 04.04.2005-07.04.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA404/01/0853 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : cemetery * early Middle Age * Prague Castle Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. The Change in Sacred Space under the Pressure of Land Markets in Central Tokyo

    OpenAIRE

    Aveline, Natacha

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the change the contrasted strategies of Buddhist and Shinto communities regarding the redevelopment of their landed properties in Tokyo. The first section deals with the distinctive Buddhist tradition of death management in Japan, and the subsequent involvement of Buddhist communities in cemetery redevelopment and funeral services. The second section examines how the separation of state and religion, after 1947, has driven Shinto communities to build non-religious faciliti...

  5. The species belonging to Diaspididae family (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) harmful on parks and ornamental plants in Isparta province

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent YAŞAR; KÜÇÜKÇAKAL, Ümmügülsüm

    2014-01-01

    In the present study conducted the armored scale insect being harmful on parks and ornamental plants in Isparta province and its around between 2010-2011 years. The samples was took on parks of manucipality, way edges, house gardens, picnic areas, groves, school gardens, cemeteries, botanical parks, university campus and animal zoo and were made their preparations in laboratory, taken photos and were identified. As a results of recognizing, 11 species were determined belonging to Diaspidid...

  6. Danzare l'assenza. Pratiche coreutiche e lotta politica dei Tamil di Sri' Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Natali,

    2011-01-01

    Every year since 1989, LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) supporters have commemorated the dead Tigers, called Maaveerar (“Great Heroes” in Tamil), in public ceremonies held all over the world. Maaveerar Naal is celebrated on November 27th, officially recognized as the day on which the first Tiger died. In Sri Lanka, before the defeat of 2009, the ceremonies used to take place in the Tigers’ cemeteries, known as Tuillum Illam (lit. “Sleeping houses”). People would bring flowers, incense,...

  7. Assistens Kirkegården - et sted for de levende?

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Anna Sofie; Nielsen, Lea Præstbro; Andersen, Karin Linn; Øzer, Ayla Camilla; Helmer-Hansen, Karen; Rubow, Christiane Balslev

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the different aspects of place for Assistens Cemetery in Copenhagen, Denmark. Besides from being an active graveyard, this specific site is considered to be an important part of the Danish cultural heritage due to the great quantity of historical monuments and influential people buried there. In addition to Assistens Cemetery’s function as a cultural heritage site it also serves the citizens of Copenhagen as a recreational park. This entails certain practices, which are no...

  8. Damage Assessment and Chemical Charecterization of Glass Objects Excavated from Gadara, Northern Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Abd-Allah, Ramadan

    2012-01-01

    During the excavation works carried out by the Department of Antiquities, at the archaeological site of Umm Qais/Gadara, Northern Jordan, from January 6 to February 19, 2009, a considerable collection of glass objects of different typologies and colors were uncovered in a Roman cemetery. These glasses were characterized chemically by using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that these glasses are of soda-lime-silica ...

  9. SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEF IN PURCHASING PROPERTY

    OpenAIRE

    SYAFRUDDIN, EKA MAYLIZA BINTI

    2016-01-01

    The research about superstitious in purchasing property has been done. Research variables that were used in this research are product, price, promotion, place, location direction, tusuk sate location, location near the cemetery and crematorium, the arrangement of the environment – fish pond, and the elevation of the property location from the road. This research analyzes whether the superstitious belief can overrule marketing strategy in purchasing property. This research us...

  10. De sjukaste överlever : en osteologisk undersökning av nio gravlagda individer från karmeliterklostret i Ny Varberg

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Osteological analysis was carried out on skeletons from nine graves from a medieval cemetery in Ny Varberg, Varberg, Halland. The graves originate from a monastery and a church, dating back to the fourteenth and fifteenth century. The main aim with this thesis has been to study health through the presence of pathologies and skeletal changes. Further aim was to compare the results from the present study with theresults from Torsten Sandbergs analysis of the same material from 1964. This compar...

  11. Pohřebiště v Lumbeho zahradě Pražského hradu. Analýza, chronologie, význam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolík, Jan

    Vol. 2. Praha: Archeologický ústav AV ČR, Praha, 2014 - (Frolík, J.), 5-115, 431-434. (Castrum Pragense. 12). ISBN 978-80-87365-80-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2195 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Prague Castle * Early Middle Ages * cemetery * jewellery Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  12. 32 CFR 555.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 555.3 Section 555.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES CORPS... OTHERS § 555.3 References. (a) AR 10-5. (b) AR 37-27. (c) AR 70-1. (d) ER 1-1-6. (e) ER 1-1-7. (f) ER...

  13. Urban-rural differences in Roman Dorset, England: A bioarchaeological perspective on Roman settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Rebecca C; DeWitte, Sharon N; Pearce, John; Hamlin, Christine; Dinwiddy, Kirsten Egging

    2015-05-01

    In the Roman period, urban and rural ways of living were differentiated philosophically and legally, and this is the first regional study of these contrasting life-ways. Focusing on frailty and mortality risk, we investigated how these differed by age, sex, and status, using coffin type as a proxy for social status. We employed skeletal data from 344 individuals: 150 rural and 194 urban (1st-5th centuries A.D.) from Dorset, England. Frailty and mortality risk were examined using indicators of stress (cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, nonspecific periostitis, and enamel hypoplastic defects), specific metabolic and infectious diseases (rickets, scurvy, and tuberculosis), and dental health (carious lesions and calculus). These variables were studied using Chi-square, Siler model of mortality, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the Gompertz model of adult mortality. Our study found that overall, mortality risk and survivorship did not differ between cemetery types but when the data were examined by age, mortality risk was only significantly higher for urban subadults. Demographic differences were found, with urban cemeteries having more 0-10 and >35 year olds, and for health, urban cemeteries had significantly higher frequencies of enamel hypoplastic defects, carious lesions, and rickets. Interestingly, no significant difference in status was observed between rural and urban cemeteries. The most significant finding was the influence of the skeletal and funerary data from the Poundbury sites, which had different demographic profiles, significantly higher frequencies of the indicators of stress and dental health variables. In conclusion, there are significant health, demographic, and mortality differences between rural and urban populations in Roman Britain. PMID:25613696

  14. Remembrance of Dutch War Dead in Southeast Asia, 1942-1945

    OpenAIRE

    Fridus Steijlen

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of the war experience in Southeast Asia in the Netherlands was not easy. The Indisch community, those who had to leave the Netherlands East Indies after decolonization, did not feel that their war experience was accepted. Following the story of one man, a former POW, this article shows how unorthodox ways of protesting were used to command respect and acknowledgement. The arena for these actions was not only the Indisch monument in the Netherlands, but also the War cemetery in Tha...

  15. Motivations in Battlefield Tourism: the case of ‘1916 Easter Rising Rebellion’, Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkranikal, Jithendran; Sun Yang, Yeon; Powell, Raymond; Booth, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Journeys to battlefields or war-related sites are categorised as dark tourism. Dark tourism is travelling to sites associated with death, disasters or atrocities and has emerged as a major tourist attraction (Sharpley, 2009; Lennon and Foley, 2000). As it deals with a wide range of travel related to death and disaster, definitions and descriptions of dark tourism have been eclectic and fuzzy (Sharpley and Stone, 2009). It involves visiting concentration camps, war memorials, cemeteries, scene...

  16. In bits, bytes and stone:Making sense of digital afterlife, remembrance and heritage designs

    OpenAIRE

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline. Combined, the cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices dealing with death, mourning, memorialization and remembrance. Design pioneering company IDEO'S recent failed attempt t...

  17. Prof. Dr. Predrag Terzić 1918–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Solarić; Drago Špoljarić

    2012-01-01

    Our highly estimated Prof. Dr. Predrag Terzić left us suddenly on Tuesday, the 10 April 2012. On Friday, the 20 April, we have escorted him to his final rest at the City cemetery Mirogoj. In the name of the Faculty of Geodesy,University of Zagreb, the dean, Prof. Miodrag Roić gave euology, and Prof. Nikola Solarić, one of his closest associates made a commemorative speech.

  18. The Metallurgy of the Sicilian Final Bronze Age/Early Iron Age necropolis of Madonna del Piano (Catania, Sicily)

    OpenAIRE

    Giumlia-Mair, Alessandra; Albanese Procelli, Rosa Maria; Lo Schiavo, Fulvia

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis results of the copper- based finds, from the important Sicilian necropolis of Madonna del Piano, near Grammichele (Catania), dated between the local Final Bronze Age 2 and the Early Iron Age IA. 122 copper-based finds from the 273 graves (1970-71) of the large cemetery have been analysed. The sampled objects belong to different classes, there are for instance weapons of offence and defence, such as swords and greaves, small decorative objects for personal use,...

  19. A Lady of York: migration, ethnicity and identity in Roman Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, S.; Eckardt, H.; Chenery, C.; Muldner, G.; Lewis, M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern methods of analysis applied to cemeteries have often been used in our pages to suggest generalities about mobility and diet. But these same techniques applied to a single individual, together with the grave goods and burial rite, can open a special kind of personal window on the past. Here, the authors of a multidisciplinary project use a combination of scientific techniques to illuminate Roman York, and later Roman history in general, with their image of a glamorous mixed-race woman, ...

  20. Panteones regios leoneses (924-1109. Concatenaciones dinásticas y discontinuidades topográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boto Varela, Gerardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the royal cemeteries in Leon and Sahagún from an art-historical perspective. This topic demands analysing the documents as well as the architectonic settings. In the royal chronicles, the thread of historical narrative is the lineage of kings. For that reason, I discuss here the architectural and functional genealogy of the graveyards for the kings of Leon. This analysis explores both the links and the oppositions between these cemeteries. Studying the graves and cemeteries of the Kings facilitates understanding what order maintained the kingdom itself.Este examen histórico-artístico de los cementerios regios de León y Sahagún explora crónicas y edificios. Los análisis revelan diversidad de soluciones y actitudes. Por ello, deben cuestionarse los axiomas historiográficos de uniformidad de modelos, continuidad lineal y unicidad de una presunta tradición hispana. Ya que un motor del relato histórico es el linaje de los monarcas, se escruta la genealogía arquitectónica y funcional de los panteones constituidos por y para los reyes de León, atendiendo a los vínculos, sucesiones y discontinuidades. Desvelar algunas penumbras de los sepulcros de los soberanos ayuda a comprender dónde radica el encadenamiento y la subsistencia del reino mismo.

  1. A massacred village community? Agent-based modelling sheds new light on the demography of the Neolithic mass grave of Talheim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duering, Andreas; Wahl, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The virtual experiments presented below reveal the counterintuitive archaeological demography of the Neolithic mass grave of Talheim and underline the importance of distinguishing between the demographic structures of living and dead populations, as well as between attritional and catastrophic mortality patterns. We utilise a new agent-based modelling approach called Population & Cemetery Simulator based on the NetLogo programming language and the Behaviour Composer of the modelling4all project, which allows us to extrapolate from dead to living populations and vice versa. Contrary to received opinion, we argue that the population of the Neolithic mass grave holds specific demographic information only, as it represents a pure catastrophic mortality pattern, i.e. a living population at a single point in time rather than the population of a conventional cemetery. The first experiments illustrate why the published demographic data (e.g. mortality, life expectancy, mean age at death) is misleading. It is illogical to utilise mortality tables devised for conventional (attritional) cemeteries in the case of living populations. Modelled populations with the published mortality rates of the massacre site are, furthermore, unable to stand up to plausible human demographic circumstances. In the second part, we evaluate the actual demographic information content of the Talheim sample. Comparative modelling illustrates that the Talheim population appears to be similar to possible living populations based on the mortuary record of Schwetzingen, an isochronal site of the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK), and Bärenthal, a site which dates back to the early medieval period (7th to 10th centuries). It is therefore very likely that the Talheim population is a representative sample of a living population in the LBK and might even represent a massacred village community in its entirety. PMID:25774830

  2. Rewriting the Central European Early Bronze Age Chronology: Evidence from Large-Scale Radiocarbon Dating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp W Stockhammer

    Full Text Available The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Since the 1920s, archaeologists have divided the Early Bronze Age into two chronological phases (Bronze A1 and A2, which were also seen as stages of technical progress. On the basis of the early radiocarbon dates from the cemetery of Singen, southern Germany, the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe was originally dated around 2300/2200 BC and the transition to more complex casting techniques (i.e., Bronze A2 around 2000 BC. On the basis of 140 newly radiocarbon dated human remains from Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age cemeteries south of Augsburg (Bavaria and a re-dating of ten graves from the cemetery of Singen, we propose a significantly different dating range, which forces us to re-think the traditional relative and absolute chronologies as well as the narrative of technical development. We are now able to date the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to around 2150 BC and its end to around 1700 BC. Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze (Bz A1 and Bronze (Bz A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from 1900-1700 BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture. Finally, we propose that the traditional phases Bz A1 and Bz A2 do not represent a chronological sequence, but regionally different social phenomena connected to the willingness of local actors to appropriate the new bronze technology.

  3. Das Gräberfeld im Lumbe-Garten auf der Prager Burg - eine Fallstudie zur Untersuchung der Sozialstruktur des 10. Jahrhunderts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolík, Jan

    Langenweissbach: Beier & Beran, Archäologische Fachliteratur, 2013 - (Biermann, F.; Kersting, T.; Klammt, A.), s. 33-42. (Beiträge zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas. 70). ISBN 978-3-941171-85-5. [Soziale Gruppen und Gesellschaftsstrukturen im westslawischen Raum. Brandenburg an der Havel (DE), 16.04.2012-18.04.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2195 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : cemetery * Prague Castle * early Middle Ages Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Privacy with Public Access: Digital Memorials on QR Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotved, Stine

    2015-01-01

    takes the departure in gravestones with QR-codes; objects at once physical and digital, underhandedly putting presumably private content within public reach. A plethora of issues of privacy and publicness are at play within the study's two connected but rather different empirical spaces: the physical...... space with the stonecutters, the cemetery, and the grave, and the emotional space of significance and forms of expression. In this study, the gravestones with QR codes act as a prism for cultural change within the subjects of death, bereavement and memorials. The ongoing negotiation of definitions in...

  5. The AMS 14C dating of Iron Age rice chaff ceramic temper from Ban Non Wat, Thailand: First results and its interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Charles F. W.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Burr, G. S.

    2010-04-01

    Pottery tempered with rice chaff from the early Iron Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat site, northeast Thailand, has been subjected to direct AMS 14C dating, using low temperature combustion with oxygen as originally developed by authors. The carbon yield (0.2-0.5%) testifies the suitability of this pottery for dating. However, not all the results are in agreement with expected archaeological ages and other 14C dates from the studied site and neighboring site of Noen U-Loke. This calls for a thorough analysis and interpretation of pottery temper dates from the region.

  6. The AMS 14C dating of Iron Age rice chaff ceramic temper from Ban Non Wat, Thailand: First results and its interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottery tempered with rice chaff from the early Iron Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat site, northeast Thailand, has been subjected to direct AMS 14C dating, using low temperature combustion with oxygen as originally developed by authors. The carbon yield (0.2-0.5%) testifies the suitability of this pottery for dating. However, not all the results are in agreement with expected archaeological ages and other 14C dates from the studied site and neighboring site of Noen U-Loke. This calls for a thorough analysis and interpretation of pottery temper dates from the region.

  7. Il cimitero la Verbena: cinquant’anni di violenza politica e sociale a Città del Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Grassi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the ethnography of a specific place of Guatemala City – the cemetery of the barrio “la Verbena” – the paper will reconstruct the correlations that link the recent history of this country (marked by a civil war finished in 1996, after thirty-six years of conflicts with the actual explosion of social violence, which levels are actually among the highest in the world. The political and social violence of Guatemala embrace connections that have not been sufficiently investigated. The analysis of these connections is fundamental to understand some of the contemporary social dynamics affecting not only that country.

  8. Studies with Myrtus communis L.: Anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogur, Recai

    2014-01-01

    Myrtus communis (MC) L. is a well-known Mediterranean plant with important cultural significance in this region. In ancient times, MC was accepted as a symbol of immortality. Maybe due to this belief, it is used during cemetery visits in some regions. Although it is a well-known plant in cosmetics, and there is a lot of studies about its different medical properties, anticancer studies performed using its different extracts or oils are not so much, but increasing. We collected these anticancer property-related studies in this review. PMID:26401362

  9. Analysis of garnets from the archaeological sites in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž., E-mail: ziga.smit@fmf.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršek, M. [Slovenian Museum of National History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-06-01

    Garnets (62 individual stones) originating from the Migration Period cemeteries and hilltop settlements in Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE/PIGE method for their chemical composition. Typologically, the analyzed stones may be classified as almandines originating from the sites in India, belonging to types I and II according to Calligaro. A smaller group of pyraldines intermediate between almandines and pyropes was also determined; identified as type III, their source is most likely in Sri Lanka. No garnets from Bohemia (Czech Republic) have been discovered, which may be related to important political changes in the 7th c. AD, induced by Slavic and Avaric migrations.

  10. An Inscribed Silver Spoon from Ichtratzheim (Bas-Rhin)

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Svante; Graf, Martin Hannes; Fossurier, Carole; Châtelet, Madeleine; Soulat, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a Merovingian Period silver spoon that was recently discovered in an opulent female chamber grave in the “Niederfeld” row grave cemetery of Ichtratzheim (Bas-Rhin). The spoon has no less than three different inscriptions, one in seriffed Latin capitals and two in runes. The first contains a Latin male personal name, Matteus, the second a previously unattested runic lapela ‘spoon’, and the third a sequence abuda, presumably a female personal name. This makes it the second...

  11. Identification of the cadaver remains of Josef Mengele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, R P

    1987-11-01

    In 1985 at the cemetery in Embu near Sao Paulo, Brazil, parts of a skeleton were exhumed, and now these parts have been examined to determine whether they are the remains of the corpse of Dr. Josef Mengele, the camp doctor of the Auschwitz concentration camp. The osteometrical and osteological findings ascertained correspond completely and consistently without contradiction with all the available personal data of Josef Mengele. Through a method of electronic visual mixing for the identification of the skull, it was determined that all the authentic pictures available used for comparison correspond definitely and consistently to the exhumed skull. PMID:3323411

  12. [Identification of the cadaveric remains of Josef Mengele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, R

    1986-01-01

    In 1985 at the cemetery in Embu near Sao Paulo, Brazil, parts of a skeleton were exhumed, and now these parts have been examined in order to determine whether they are the remains of the corpse of Dr. Josef Mengele, the camp doctor of the Auschwitz Concentration Camp. The osteometrical and osteological findings ascertained correspond completely and consistently without contradiction with all the available personal data of Josef Mengele. Through a method of electronic visual mixing for the identification of the skull, it was determined that all the authentic pictures available used for comparison correspond definitely and consistently in all details to the exhumed skull. PMID:3527105

  13. An Archaeological Assessment of Taung Valley of Sindh-Kohistan Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasid Hussain Mallah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taung valley of Sindh – Kohistan is very rich in archaeological depositions. The present paper is an attempt to take an account of 43 sites in the said region, influx variety of evidences have been traced from microlithism to Hakra, Amri and Indus type. It also reveals traces of nomadic camp , circular structure of stones. Grave yards and gobra bunds. Nontheless Taung valley has big historical longitivity extending from ancient remains to medival cemetery to premodern nomadic activity and the most important structures witnessing local wisdom pertaining to water management.

  14. Marble weathering and air pollution in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, J. J.; Meierding, T. C.

    Maps of damage to marble tombstones in the urban region of Philadelphia demonstrate a close spatial correspondence with airborne pollutant concentrations. Mean recession rates on upper tombstone faces are an order of magnitude greater (3.5 mm (100a) -1) in the center of the city than they are 20 km away in the suburbs and countryside (cause sufficient gypsum accumulation within the stones to exfoliate the durable surface layer. Old photos of tombstones in central Philadelphia cemeteries show that exfoliation greatly accelerated between 1930 and 1960, concurrent with increases in SO 2 levels. Recent improvements in air quality are likely to have slowed stone deterioration.

  15. Skärvstenshögar med människoben i norra Mälarområdet

    OpenAIRE

    Noge, Anna-Sara

    2008-01-01

    Mounds of fire-cracked stones is a typical Bronze Age monument for the region around lake Mälaren. They are usually, because of their content, interpreted as piles of rubbish. But as they often have kerbs, are situated on cemeteries and sometimes contain human bones, the traditional interpretation is not fully satisfactory. The main focus of this essay is on the mounds of fire-cracked stones which contain human bones in the region north of lake Mälaren. With a detailed study of these, and a c...

  16. The Significance of Cremations in Early Neolithic Communities in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Trautmann, Iris

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends or patterns that could explain why certain individuals in the LBK were subjected to different burial rites from the rest: Cremation. In order to do so, the known cremations from the seven cemeteries in this study, including Elsloo in the Netherlands, Schwetzingen, Fellbach-Oeffingen, Wandersleben and Arnstadt, all in Germany, were analyzed. The data from the literature for the cremations from Stuttgart-Mühlhausen and Aiterhofen-Ödmühle were also in...

  17. Analiza umeščanja ljubljanske džamije

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, Drago

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the decades-long search for a site for an Islamic religious and cultural centre in Ljubljana highlights several key reasons which have caused the project to remain unfulfilled. The initial impulses and motives to erect a mosque were connected with piety values, and in the first phase specific ideas for the site of the mosque suggested the vicinity of Plečnik's Žale - Ljubljana's biggest cemetery. The political emancipation of the Islamic population in Yugoslavia played an impor...

  18. Analiza umeščanja ljubljanske džamije:

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, Drago

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of the decades-long search for a site for an Islamic religious and cultural centre in Ljubljana highlights several key reasons which have caused the project to remain unfulfilled. The initial impulses and motives to erect a mosque were connected with piety values, and in the first phase specific ideas for the site of the mosque suggested the vicinity of Plečnik's Žale - Ljubljana's biggest cemetery. The political emancipation of the Islamic population in Yugoslavia played an impor...

  19. Analysis of garnets from the archaeological sites in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnets (62 individual stones) originating from the Migration Period cemeteries and hilltop settlements in Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE/PIGE method for their chemical composition. Typologically, the analyzed stones may be classified as almandines originating from the sites in India, belonging to types I and II according to Calligaro. A smaller group of pyraldines intermediate between almandines and pyropes was also determined; identified as type III, their source is most likely in Sri Lanka. No garnets from Bohemia (Czech Republic) have been discovered, which may be related to important political changes in the 7th c. AD, induced by Slavic and Avaric migrations

  20. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-01-01

    similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger...... variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively...

  1. Vultures and others scavenger vertebrates associated with man-sized pig carcasses: a perspective in Forensic Taphonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Demo; Edison Rogério Cansi; Cecília Kosmann; José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2013-01-01

    The activity of vertebrates that feed on corpses can modify the chronology of the decomposition process and interfere with postmortem interval estimates. Further, by destroying the soft parts of the cadaver, scattering, burying or causing the disappearance of bones, it can entirely change the crime scene. In this study, we simulated a clandestine cemetery in an area of Cerrado located inside a farm in Brasília, Distrito Federal. Three domestic pigs of the size of a human of about 60 kg were p...

  2. The suitability of using death certificates as a data source for cancer mortality assessement in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ulus, Tumer; Yurtseven, Eray; Cavdar, Sabanur; Erginoz, Ethem; Erdogan, M. Sarper

    2012-01-01

    Aim To compare the quality of the 2008 cancer mortality data of the Istanbul Directorate of Cemeteries (IDC) with the 2008 data of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK), and discuss the suitability of using this databank for estimations of cancer mortality in the future. Methods We used 2008 and 2010 death records of the IDC and compared it to TUIK and IARC data. Results According to the WHO statistics, in Turkey in 2008 there were 67 255 ...

  3. The basilica of Santa Maria de Oviedo: from royal Pantheon to double cathedral. Restitution Hypothesis based on compositional and metrological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Borge Cordovilla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Basilica of Santa Maria de Oviedo (now “Rey Casto” Chapel of the Cathedral, was the lower church of the "Double Cathedral" Oviedo. For historians, the purpose of this building was the royal pantheon, creating a formal architectural framework around the tombs of the kings of Asturias, associated funerary cult in memory of the monarchs. This vision has been maintained, despite non-membership archeology shows the cemetery to the original draft of the building, which is deducted important morphological and functional changes in it. Analysis techniques based on computer graphics and numerical approach to serve the reasonable assumptions that allow the reconstruction of this building still missing.

  4. The 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' Collection: an Argentinian sample of modern skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda, S A; Desántolo, B; Mancuso, R García; Plischuk, M; Inda, A M

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' skeletal collection. The Lambre Collection is housed in the School of Medical Sciences of the National University of La Plata and it consists of skeletal remains ceded by the Municipal Cemetery of La Plata. The collection has more than four hundred skeletons, with information on age, sex, nationality, date and cause of death. It was created for teaching and research purposes in compliance with current legislation, and its management meets guidelines specified in the Declaration of the Argentinian Association for Biological Anthropology on Research Ethics on Human Remains (2007). PMID:22769855

  5. Diet, social differentiation and cultural change in Roman Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Christina; Schroeder, Hannes; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2011-01-01

    urban Gloucester with those of 46 individuals from two rural cemeteries at Horcott Quarry and Cotswold Community, respectively. Seven individuals from urban Gloucester were buried in a mass grave; all others were buried in single inhumations. Results show small but significant differences in stable...... isotope ratios between the urban and rural populations which indicate that the urban population might have consumed slightly more marine and/or freshwater resources than the people living in the rural communities. We interpret this difference as a direct reflection of Rome’s influence on Gloucester...

  6. The Archaeology of Late Antique Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dann, Rachael Jane

    This book constitutes a major reassessment of the mortuary remains from the two X-Group royal cemeteries at Qustul and Ballana in Lower Nubia (c. AD 380–500). Since their excavation more than seventy years ago, and the subsequent flooding of the sites following the building of the Aswan High Dam...... patterns (the ‘aesthetic’ basis of identity). This study explores the relationships between humans, animals, and artefacts. It demonstrates how a less stable society, which based control on aggressive public displays, became a more stable state, as power was mediated by magico-ritual performances, festal...

  7. Kirche Nr. 7 in Mikulčice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouřil, Pavel

    Brno : Archeologický ústav AV ČR Brno, 2010 - (Poláček, L.; Maříková-Kubková, J.), s. 57-69 ISBN 978-80-86023-92-2. - (Spisy Archeologického ústavu AV ČR Brno. Internationale Tagungen in Mikulčice. 8). [Frühmittelalterliche Kirchen als archäologische und historische Quelle. Mikulčice (CZ), 03.06.2009-05.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Great Moravia * church * cemetery * material culture * magnate's court Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  8. REST IN PEACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Keiko Nakamura, 73 and a mem- ber of a Japanese war orphans' delegation, kneels down at a cemetery for adoptive Chinese parents in Fangzheng County, northeast China's Heilongjiang Province, on July 13 dudng a visit to China. More than 4,000 Japanese chil- dren were abandoned by their birth parents during the retreat at the end of World War II in 1945. These orphans were taken in and raised by residents in northeast China, which Japan illegally occupied for over a decade. Most of them relocated to Japan after the two neighbors normalized relations in 1972.

  9. Application of radioisotopes in dating and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescent dating of ancient pottery requires the determination of the total radiation dose accumulated in the mineral grains of the sherd, partly due to U, Th and K present in the soil and sherd. Problems of dosimetry of these low intensity radiations are discussed and application in thermoluminescent dating of a Hungarian Copper-Age cemetery are summarized. Another field of our investigations is the time distribution of tritium in precipitation as input function for dating underground waters. Past environmental tritium levels were reconstructed analyzing Hungarian wines bottled from 1961 to 1979, a tree rings from the present back to the 50's. (author)

  10. Les cimetières de Saint-Denis de la Réunion: un territoire de reconquête identitaire pour les communautés indiennes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra de Cauna

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a geographical interpretation of the revival of identities on Reunion Island. The analysis looks at the marking of space in the seaside cemetery in Saint-Denis. It emphasises the strategies developed by the island’s Indian communities to differentiate themselves from each other in the «space of death» and focuses on the particular case of Muslim Indians. We see that, in their spatial dimension, patterns of social differentiation are no longer based on economic criteria, but now seem linked to cultural practices.

  11. Sous l’angle du genre: analyse de nécropoles de l’âge du Bronze (15e-13e siècle av. J.-C.) d’Italie du Nord et comparaisons avec le nord des Alpes

    OpenAIRE

    David-El Biali, Mireille

    2010-01-01

    The scope of my research is to examine the gender roles of women and men in parts of continental Europe during the Bronze Age. Northern Italy is a very interesting area from this point of view. It is divided into two cultural provinces: the Terramare culture east of the river Oglio and the Western province to its west. Many large cemeteries were established in the Middle Bronze Age and continued to be used in the Recent Bronze Age (Bronzo recente, the phase Bronze D of the Central European ch...

  12. Discovery and Excavation of the Jinsha Site in Chengdu%成都金沙遗址的发现与发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成都市文物考古研究所

    2002-01-01

    The Jinsha site discovered in 2001 lies in the western suburb of Chengdu City and occupies an area of over three sq km, with the vestiges laid out in certain order. Extensive excavation has revealed sacrificial plots, major and ordinary living areas, and cemeteries. The unearthed objects include more than 2,000 valuable gold, bronze, jade and stone articles, a large amount of ivory, and tens of thousands of pottery vessels and shards. Some peculiar phenomena are concerned with religious sacrificial activities. The site is left from a central settlement of the ancient Shu culture.

  13. A female burial with grave goods at the Roman villa of Almenara de Adaja (Valladolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GARCÍA MERINO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent works in an area placed North from the pars urbana of the late imperial roman villa at Almenara de Adaja (Valladolid, Spain have uncovered a female burial with grave goods. These finds suggest the likely situation of a necropolis corresponding to the villa lifetime period. We study the artifacts found in the burial. Results of an analysis on the content of a ceramic vessel found there are also given. This finding complements the available data on the distribution and organization of contemporary habitat and adds up to the known information on cemeteries dating from this time period in the Spanish north inner plateau.

  14. The further spread of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera, Culicidae) towards northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2013-10-01

    After its first detection in 2008 in the south German federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, another distinct population of the invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus was unexpectedly found in western Germany in 2012. Range expansion had already been observed for the southern German population and was anticipated for the western German one. Here, we report on a third, apparently independent and even more northerly German colonization area of Aedes j. japonicus in southern Lower Saxony and northeastern North Rhine-Westphalia, which was discovered in spring 2013. In a snapshot study, intended to determine the presence or absence of Aedes j. japonicus in an area close to Hanover, the capital of the northern German federal state of Lower Saxony, where a specimen had been collected in late 2012, central water basins of cemeteries were checked for pre-imaginal mosquito stages at the beginning of the mosquito season 2013. Almost 20% of the inspected cemeteries were found positive (25 out of 129), with many of them being located in towns and villages close to the motorways A2 and A7. Being of Far Eastern origin, the Asian bush mosquito is well adapted to moderate climates and appears to be further expanding its distribution area in Central Europe. As it is a proven laboratory vector of several mosquito-borne disease agents, its present and future distribution areas should be carefully monitored. PMID:23974325

  15. Evidence for Patterns of Selective Urban Migration in the Greater Indus Valley (2600-1900 BC: A Lead and Strontium Isotope Mortuary Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Valentine

    Full Text Available Just as modern nation-states struggle to manage the cultural and economic impacts of migration, ancient civilizations dealt with similar external pressures and set policies to regulate people's movements. In one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Civilization, mechanisms linking city populations to hinterland groups remain enigmatic in the absence of written documents. However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC cemetery burials at Harappa (Pakistan and Farmana (India provide individual biogeochemical life histories of migration. Strontium and lead isotope ratios allow us to reinterpret the Indus tradition of cemetery inhumation as part of a specific and highly regulated institution of migration. Intra-individual isotopic shifts are consistent with immigration from resource-rich hinterlands during childhood. Furthermore, mortuary populations formed over hundreds of years and composed almost entirely of first-generation immigrants suggest that inhumation was the final step in a process linking certain urban Indus communities to diverse hinterland groups. Additional multi disciplinary analyses are warranted to confirm inferred patterns of Indus mobility, but the available isotopic data suggest that efforts to classify and regulate human movement in the ancient Indus region likely helped structure socioeconomic integration across an ethnically diverse landscape.

  16. Paleopathology of the commoners at Tell Amarna, Egypt, Akhenaten's capital city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome C Rose

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten initiated worship of a single god and established a new capital city (Tell Amarna that was built and occupied only once from 1350-1330 BCE. This single short occupation offers a unique opportunity to study a short time period. The royal tombs have long been known and studied, but the location of graves for the common inhabitants has been an archaeological puzzle for more than 50 years. Recently four cemeteries have been located and the analysis of commingled bones from the South Tombs cemetery is presented here. The remains yield the following demographic profile: 53 adults with 19 females and 18 males; 14 juveniles between the ages of 5 and 17; and 3 infants. Arthritis and degenerative joint disease of the spine and joints indicates that DJD was not excessive. Only 2 to 8% of the adult population exhibits arthritis. There are 3 healed fractures of the arm (2 to 8% of the adult sample. There is 1 healed compressed fracture of the skull suggesting violence. The adult infection rate is between 2 and 8% with 3 healed and 1 active case of periostitis and no severe infections. Anemia is implicated by 23% of adult frontals exhibiting cribra orbitalia. Life for the common residents of Amarna appears to not have been as good as initially postulated.

  17. GIS Visualisations of Mortuary Data from Holešov, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Šmejda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case-study demonstrating the potential of GIS visualisations for analyses of mortuary data, recorded half a century ago at the site of Holešov, Kroměříž district, in the Czech Republic. This cemetery consists of 10 Bell Beaker and 420 Early Bronze Age graves, giving the impression of continuous development over a considerable period of time. The temporality of the cemetery is examined in detail, via its chronological development, as well as the inseparable aspects of its social use and structuring through time. The original data were converted from the printed catalogue into a Geographical Information System (GIS consisting of digitised plans and a database. Exploratory analyses of the data were conducted, based on two complementary perspectives: the spatial reference of recorded features and objects, and the formal similarity of burial assemblages. The former approach includes spatial density and trend surface analyses, the latter applies multivariate factor analysis visualised in GIS, where the extracted factor scores define a new reference system. The methods employed are sometimes unorthodox, specifically because such plots describing formal space have been little employed in GIS-based studies of mortuary behaviour. This article strives to highlight the positive aspects of contemporary computer software in order to encourage researchers to pursue new ways of conceptualising their research ideas through the integration of concepts and methods, which traditionally have been applied to different research domains.

  18. Gunshot wounds (resulting from execution) of exhumed victims of the communist regime in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Kawecki, Jerzy; Jurek, Tomasz

    2014-07-01

    This study presents the results of the analysis of the remains of 23 executed male individuals aged between 21 and 63 years, recovered from Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw (Poland), field 83B, in 2012. In 1948 and 1949, prisoners sentenced to death by firing squad--most of them associated with the post-war anti-communist underground independence movement in Poland--were buried there. The aim of the study was to analyse fatal wounds and the method of execution, and to compare the results to data from archival documents. The results were also compared with studies concerning executions during a later period, i.e. 1949-1954. The research on the method of execution during this period of history carried out during the exhumations in Osobowicki Cemetery was the first conducted on such a scale in Poland. Forensic analysis revealed a wide variety of gunshot wounds inflicted during executions, revealing both gunshots to the head, especially single shots to the back of the head, and cases corresponding to the use of a firing squad, probably equipped with machine guns. The results of the research indicate that capital punishment by shooting was carried out in ways both similar to those the specified in the regulations and completely different. PMID:24767546

  19. El cementerio judío medieval de ‘la Encarnación’ en Ávila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera González, Blas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Avila’s medieval community Jews is made evident by the existence of a cemetery. Although burial places of the other two religious communities, Christians and Muslims, have been documented, that of the Jews, while cited in medieval and early modern documents, had not been identified heretofore. Archeological excavations near the Encarnación convent recently brought to light the exact location of one Jewish cemetery, providing evidence of burial pits and their structural typology.La importancia de la aljama de judíos de Ávila durante la Edad Media hacía indudable la existencia, al menos, de un espacio funerario donde enterrar a sus muertos, de acuerdo con su particular ritual funerario. Conocidos, en parte, los lugares de enterramiento de las otras dos comunidades religiosas con las que convivieron, cristianos y musulmanes, tan solo la documentación histórica nos proporcionaba datos sobre su posible emplazamiento. Los trabajos arqueológicos junto al Convento de la Encarnación, han sacado a la luz la situación exacta de un cementerio judío, aportando las fosas de inhumación una característica tipología constructiva.

  20. Issues of affinity: exploring population structure in the Middle and Regional Developments Periods of San Pedro de Atacama, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Knudson, Kelly J; Hubbe, Mark

    2013-11-01

    The Middle Period (AD 400-1000) in northern Chile's Atacama oases is characterized by an increase in social complexity and regional interaction, much of which was organized around the power and impact of the Tiwanaku polity. Despite the strong cultural influence of Tiwanaku and numerous other groups evident in interactions with Atacameños, the role of immigration into the oases during this period is unclear. While archaeological and bioarchaeological research in the region has shown no evidence that clearly indicates large groups of foreign immigrants, the contemporary increase in interregional exchange networks connecting the oases to other parts of the Andes suggests residential mobility and the possibility that movement of people both into and out of the oases accompanied these foreign influences. Here, we analyze biodistance through cranial non-metric traits in a skeletal sample from prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama to elucidate the extent of foreign influence in the oases and discuss its implications. We analyzed 715 individuals from the Middle Period (AD 400-1000) and later Regional Developments Period (AD 1000-1450), and found greater phenotypic differences between Middle Period cemeteries than among cemeteries in the subsequent period. We argue that this greater diversity extends beyond the relationship between the oases and the renowned Tiwanaku polity and reflects the role of the oases and its different ayllus as a node and way station for the Middle Period's myriad interregional networks. PMID:24104607

  1. Delineation of graves using electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nero, Callistus; Aning, Akwasi Acheampong; Danuor, Sylvester K.; Noye, Reginald M.

    2016-03-01

    A suspected old royal cemetery has been surveyed at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) campus, Kumasi, Ghana using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) with the objective of detecting graves in order to make informed decisions with regard to the future use of the area. The survey was conducted on a 10,000 m2 area. Continuous Vertical Electrical Sounding (CVES) was combined with the roll along technique for 51 profiles with 1 m probe separation separated by 2 m. Inverted data results indicated wide resistivity variations ranging between 9.34 Ωm and 600 Ωm in the near surface. Such heterogeneity suggests a disturbance of the soil at this level. Both high (≥ 600 Ωm) and low resistivity (≤ 74.7 Ωm) anomalies, relative to background levels, were identified within the first 4 m of the subsurface. These were suspected to be burial tombs because of their rectangular geometries and resistivity contrasts. The results were validated with forward numerical modeling results. The study area is therefore an old cemetery and should be preserved as a cultural heritage site.

  2. Osteology of a slave burial population from Barbados, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corruccini, R S; Handler, J S; Mutaw, R J; Lange, F W

    1982-12-01

    A unique seventeenth-nineteenth century slave cemetery population from Newton plantation, Barbados, allows examination of craniodental characters in relation to ethnohistorical data. Age-at-death estimates suggest life expectancy at birth of 29 years and low infant mortality; historical demography, however, suggests life expectancy of 20 years and very high infant mortality. Tooth decay, bilateral tooth loss, periodontal disease, root hypercementosis, and severe enamel hypoplasia are high in frequency. The teeth yield evidence of such cultural practices as pipe-smoking and incisor mutilation. Several skeletal features reflect periodic near-starvation. Directional and fluctuating dental asymmetry, relative tooth size, and hypoplasia distribution suggest slaves experienced considerable weaning trauma; metabolic stress at this time exceeded that of prenatal and immediate postnatal periods. Odontometrics and dental and cranial nonmetric traits indicate that modern Blacks are intermediate between the ancestral slaves and modern Whites but more similar to the latter, suggesting effects of environmental covariance exceed those of genetic admixture. Nonmetric trait distributions show nonrandom patterns according to area of burial in the cemetery, a possible result of family segregation. PMID:6762099

  3. Bioarchaeological evidence for trophy-taking in prehistoric central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Latham, Kate A S; Grady, Diane L; Pastron, Allen G; Walker, Phillip L

    2005-08-01

    Fourteen adult burials in a large (N = 224) prehistoric central California cemetery (CA-SCL-674) lack forearm bones. Twelve of these otherwise well-articulated primary interments have distal humeri bearing cutmarks with a distribution like that seen in fur seals butchered by Native Californians. Most of the burials with missing forearms are young adult males, a demographic profile that differs significantly from the full sample. Three of these males show evidence of perimortem trauma in addition to forearm amputation. Drilled and polished human radii and ulnae were recovered from the CA-SCL-674 cemetery in archaeological contexts separate from burials with missing forearms. A warfare-related trophy-taking practice is strongly suggested by these bioarchaeological data. Based on these data, it seems likely that 20% (N = 10) or more of the adult males (N = 59) in this population were victims of violence. Evidence of perimortem violence was much less common among women, with only about 2% (N = 2) of adult females (N = 86) subjected to trophy-taking. Examination of museum collections produced further evidence for perimortem forearm amputation among the Native American inhabitants of this area during the transition between the Early and Middle periods. The emergence of more hierarchical social systems during this period may have fostered warfare-related trophy-taking as a symbolic tool for enhancing the power and prestige of individuals within competing social groups. PMID:15693027

  4. Evidence for Patterns of Selective Urban Migration in the Greater Indus Valley (2600-1900 BC): A Lead and Strontium Isotope Mortuary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Benjamin; Kamenov, George D; Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark; Shinde, Vasant; Mushrif-Tripathy, Veena; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Krigbaum, John

    2015-01-01

    Just as modern nation-states struggle to manage the cultural and economic impacts of migration, ancient civilizations dealt with similar external pressures and set policies to regulate people's movements. In one of the earliest urban societies, the Indus Civilization, mechanisms linking city populations to hinterland groups remain enigmatic in the absence of written documents. However, isotopic data from human tooth enamel associated with Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) cemetery burials at Harappa (Pakistan) and Farmana (India) provide individual biogeochemical life histories of migration. Strontium and lead isotope ratios allow us to reinterpret the Indus tradition of cemetery inhumation as part of a specific and highly regulated institution of migration. Intra-individual isotopic shifts are consistent with immigration from resource-rich hinterlands during childhood. Furthermore, mortuary populations formed over hundreds of years and composed almost entirely of first-generation immigrants suggest that inhumation was the final step in a process linking certain urban Indus communities to diverse hinterland groups. Additional multi disciplinary analyses are warranted to confirm inferred patterns of Indus mobility, but the available isotopic data suggest that efforts to classify and regulate human movement in the ancient Indus region likely helped structure socioeconomic integration across an ethnically diverse landscape. PMID:25923705

  5. Identification of kinship and occupant status in Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty through a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinqiu; Song, Li; Wei, Dong; Pang, Yuhong; Wang, Ning; Ning, Chao; Li, Chunmei; Feng, Binxiao; Tang, Wentao; Li, Hongjie; Ren, Yashan; Zhang, Chunchang; Huang, Yanyi; Hu, Yaowu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-01-19

    The Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271-1368) was the first dynasty in Chinese history where a minority ethnic group (Mongols) ruled. Few cemeteries containing Mongolian nobles have been found owing to their tradition of keeping burial grounds secret and their lack of historical records. Archaeological excavations at the Shuzhuanglou site in the Hebei province of China led to the discovery of 13 skeletons in six separate tombs. The style of the artefacts and burials indicate the cemetery occupants were Mongol nobles. However, the origin, relationships and status of the chief occupant (M1m) are unclear. To shed light on the identity of the principal occupant and resolve the kin relationships between individuals, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted, combining archaeological information, stable isotope data and molecular genetic data. Analysis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA show that some of the occupants were related. The available evidence strongly suggests that the principal occupant may have been the Mongol noble Korguz. Our study demonstrates the power of a multidisciplinary approach in elucidating information about the inhabitants of ancient historical sites. PMID:25487330

  6. Jean-Yves Hemery

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The family, friends and colleagues of Jean-Yves HEMERY are sad to announce his accidental death on 24 September, at the age of 63, in Priziac. A funeral service has already taken place in his native region of Brittany and a commemoration will be held at the Mairie de Cessy, on Tuesday 12 October at 1.30 p.m., prior to the burial at the cemetery. Jean-Yves joined CERN in 1973 and worked first at the ISR for ten years and then on the beam instrumentation at LEP. The last twelve years of his career were his most fulfilling as he did great work on the beam design for the LEAR facility at the PS. Since retiring in 2007 his main occupation had been the renovation of his small house in Brittany. His Family and friends

  7. Raw Materials, Production and Distribution of Xuejiagang Stone Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Lina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Xuejiagang culture is associated with the latter part of the Neolithic period in southern China. Since the 1970s, we have found many cemeteries associated with this culture, in which stone implements make up an important and significant part of the funerary objects. The perforated stone knife, the yue axe and the adze were especially important. Analysis of the frequency and relationships between raw material, technology and tool types provides a basis for distinguishing between the different production sites associated with the Xuejiagang stone industry. This article discusses the relationship between rock types and stone tools, and between stone artefacts from different production sites. Thin-section analysis was used to identify and characterise stone used for implement manufacture.

  8. Death before life: The legal status of cadaveric foetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    The issue of how to dispose of aborted foetuses is a sensitive ethical and legal issue which relates directly to the legal status of the foetus. An illustrative example of this issue’s practical legal relevance is the Danish Council of Ethics’ recommendation of March 3, 2011, in reply to the...... Municipality of Odense regarding the establishment of a separate anonymous lawn for aborted foetuses at the town’s principal cemetery in order to provide parents with a free and optional alternative to the current procedure.The aim of this article is to analyse death before life in Danish law and to offer some...... general reflections on the legal status of cadaveric foetuses....

  9. In bits, bytes and stone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices dealing with death, mourning, memorialization and remembrance. Design pioneering company IDEO'S recent failed attempt to 'redesign death' is an example of how delicate and difficult it is to work with digital and symbolic 'death......). Grounded in existential thinking and ethnographic fieldwork the paper discuss both subjective and shared meaning-making practices, emotive behavioral changes, ideas and concepts of memory and legacy afforded by the new digital online solutions and services. In asking whether or not 'digital death design......The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline. Combined, the cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites...

  10. Driven out by Hitler, a dental historian enriches America: the story of Curt Proskauer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Malvin E

    2007-01-01

    I n 1956, workers in Rome, Italy, digging for the foundation of a building, uncovered an extensively decorated catacomb. The Vatican declared it to be a hitherto unknown Christian cemetery, dating from around the year 300. The discoverers were amazed at the fresco paintings, most of them biblical scenes. But one particular fresco was destined to set the world of medical history on its ear! The scene was interpreted as a surgeon performing an operation, and it was duly reported as such by the New York Times. It took a renowned dental historian, Dr. Curt Proskauer, using logical deduction, to disprove that conclusion. The result was to push back our knowledge of certain medical procedures by a thousand years! PMID:17566301

  11. ABOUT PRISMATIC ANTLER PENDANTS FROM SÂNTANA DE MUREŞ-CERNJACHOV CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciucălău Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Sântana de Mureș-Cernjachov culture we distinguish numerous influences that have targeted not only the material aspects of daily life but also the spiritual life of its different ethnic components. Since the IVth century are signaled in the graves of women and children  a series of prismatic pendants made of antlers decorated with circles, which were seen by some scholars, such as J. Werner and I. Ionita as replicas of type Herkuleskeule amulets.  They were adopted in the Germanic world as symbols of the god Thor / Donau.  In this article we make a presentation of this type of amulets discovered in some of the cemeteries datated in the IVth century researched in Romania and Republic of Moldova.

  12. [Electric power generation and transmission: the impact on indigenous peoples in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koifman, S

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the effects of electric power generation and transmission on indigenous communities in Brazil. According to data from FUNAI (the Brazilian government's Board of Indian Affairs), there are 156 cases of direct impact, present or future, of the electric power sector on Indian settlements geographically distributed throughout Brazil, 65% of which are located in the Northern Region of the country. The principal complaints by indigenous communities relate to the direct effects of flooding following construction of hydroelectric dams, destruction of sacred sites like cemeteries, mosquito proliferation, and health-related hazards such as malaria and other infectious diseases, decrease in game for hunting, crowding out of farm land, and increased invasion of indigenous lands. Future perspectives include a scenario with further construction of hydroelectric dams, especially in the Amazon region, with possible similar effects on indigenous communities. PMID:11283772

  13. PAISAJES DE LA MODERNIDAD EN LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES: LA OBRA DEL ARQUITECTO FRANCISCO SALAMONE (1936-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Cruz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work seeks to understand the architecture as a part of the materiality of a social landscape and as an active element, produced by a society where he belongs. From this idea I make some considerations about the potential of the studies of the archaeology of architecture as a form of understand different problematics. I propose to illustrate this idea by studying the process of consolidation of the industrial capitalism in the Buenos Aires Province (Argentina during the 1930 decade through the changes that occurred in the urban landscape of that region. In order to accomplish that, the constructions and buildings designed by the architect Francisco Salamone were studied. They were part of an edification plan developed by the provincial government during the years 1936 to 1940. In this particular work, I consider the city of Azul, localized in the South of the Buenos Aires province where two buildings made by that architect, the cemetery and the slaughterhouse, are present.

  14. State conservation and chronological contextualization of the Bone Collection 'Gustavo Le Paige'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between the 1950s and 1970s Father Gustavo Le Paige excavated one of the largest osteological collections of Latin America, attracting the attention of numerous researchers over the past 40 years. In his field notes, Le Paige recorded the excavation of 5482 skulls and human bodies deposited in the Instituto de Investigaciones Arqueologicas y Museo of the Universidad Catolica del Norte (San Pedro de Atacama). However, cumulative processes of abandonment and the lack of preventive conservation resulted in the loss of context and a decrease in the quality of preservation of a significant portion of this skeletal collection. Here, we present the current state of preservation of this collection, and 50 new radiocarbon dates that helps the chronological contextualization of 21 of the larger and more representative cemeteries in the Le Paige collection

  15. The invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, F; Kaufmann, C; Hegglin, D; Mathis, A

    2009-12-01

    Complaints about a biting pest led to the recognition of invasive Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central Europe. Larval collections from cemetery vases revealed a colonized area of approximately 1400 km(2) in northern Switzerland spreading into bordering Germany, suggesting that the mosquito has been established in this region for several years. Within this range, larvae of Ae. japonicus were recovered from more containers than the most common resident culicid species Culex pipiens. Possible introduction sites (used tyre yards and international airports) revealed few or no larvae, and the mode of introduction remains unclear. Given the vector potential of this species for arboviruses, implementation of surveillance and control measures should be considered. PMID:19941611

  16. [Grmek, medical history, and paleopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillaud, P L

    2001-01-01

    Mirko Drazen Grmek died on 6 March 2000, defeated by an implacable enemy (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which had been diagnosed just 18 months earlier). He has now found peace in his final resting place, the Montparnasse cemetery in Paris. His immense body of work reveals an omniscient man of great wisdom, a cosmopolitan polyglot who devoted his life to the history of science, with particular emphasis on medicine and disease. He looked at paleopathology for what that discipline could bring to the study of populations in antiquity, and succeeded in anchoring it in history with his definitive concept of "pathocenose", created in 1969. Several years later, his most important work, "Les Maladies à l'aube de la civilisation occidentale", (1983) set forth with definitive and convincing illustrations the importance of paleopathology, which will therefore be forever associated with one of the most outstanding medical history books of the XXth. century. PMID:11908523

  17. Ubiquitous media in everyday practices of grief and commemoration on children’s graves and online memorial sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    Ubiquitous media is not just a matter of (digital) media being everywhere and embedded in various objects (clothing, household hardware, buildings…). Using the practices of bereavement and commemoration as displayed by parents on children’s graves and online memorial sites as a case, this paper......’s graves in urban cemeteries. It is, however, also similarly apparent in the formation of network and peer-to-peer associations and, not the least, in the establishment of online networks and sites of grief and commemoration on social media. Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are media alive with discussions...... studies of specific fields, such as practices related to burial traditions, grave traditions and so on, however, in recent years the field has developed into becoming increasingly cross-disciplinary and forming networks across countries. The research tradition has evolved out of clinical practices (Rando...

  18. VAUGRIGNON Y LAS FLUCTUACIONES ECONÓMICAS DE LOS GALOS DURANTE LOS SIGLOS II Y I A. C. (Vaugrignon and the Economic Fluctuations of the Gauls during the Second and First Centuries BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El cementerio galo de Vaugrignon (Esvres-sur-Indre, Francia arroja luz sobre las fluctuaciones económicas y los cambios sociales registrados en el territorio de los Turoni y en el resto de la Galia inmediatamente anterior y posterior a la conquista romana, entre finales del siglo II y finales del I antes de nuestra era. Sus monedas, cuyo sistema resulta perfectamente aislable, también evidencian las oscilaciones de su economía monetaria, mostrando devaluaciones, revalorizaciones o situaciones inflacionarias. ENGLISH: The Gaul cemetery at Vaugrignon—Esvres-sur-Indre, France—sheds light on the economic fluctuations and social changes in the territory of the Turoni and the rest of Gaul immediately before and after the Roman conquest, between the late second and late first centuries BC. Coins, whose system is perfectly isolable, also show the oscillations of their monetary economy, highlighting devaluations, revaluations or inflationary situations.

  19. Vultures and others scavenger vertebrates associated with man-sized pig carcasses: a perspective in Forensic Taphonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Demo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The activity of vertebrates that feed on corpses can modify the chronology of the decomposition process and interfere with postmortem interval estimates. Further, by destroying the soft parts of the cadaver, scattering, burying or causing the disappearance of bones, it can entirely change the crime scene. In this study, we simulated a clandestine cemetery in an area of Cerrado located inside a farm in Brasília, Distrito Federal. Three domestic pigs of the size of a human of about 60 kg were placed on the ground in different periods of 2010 and 2011. We recorded four species of birds and one of mammal eating the carcasses: 1 Cathartidae: Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1973, Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758, Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758; 2 Falconidae: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777; and 3 Felidae: Leopardus pardalis (Lund, 1840. The behavior of these animals interfered in the decomposition process and resulted in the dispersion and loss of bony parts.

  20. Determining Foundry Area of Bronze Vessel Using REE in Clay Mould Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The composition of casting clay core might provide clue to the foundry area of the bronze vessels. REE analysis of the residual clay mould was conducted by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Results reveal that characteristic of REE of clay mould from different region is dissimilar. It is feasible to restrict the possible foundry area of the bronze vessels on the basis of analysis of REE of clay mould residues on the bronzes. Meanwhile, this paper attempts to determine the foundry area of the bronze vessels unearthed at Jiuliandun tombs of Chu State, dated back to Warring States Period, in Zaoyang City, Hubei Province, and at Zuozhong cemetery, Spring and Autumn Period, in Jingmen City, Hubei Province. REE of clay core provides information on the foundry area of bronze vessels.

  1. Estimating of seismic return periods in Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of seismic risk in the site of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant and surroundings was made considering the different periods of seismic return and the probability of occurrence in distinct time intervals (50, 75, 100, 125, 150 years) starting with the distribution of first type of extreme values of Gumbel (G1), the value used for the assessment of lifetime of lump was 50 years, and the rest of the periods are used to evaluate temporary nuclear cemeteries, it is to say for reducing the radioactivity of burned fuel assemblies. The seismic data belongs to the seismicity catalog (1920-1982) elaborated around the site, which average magnitude was 5 in the Richter Scale and are considered as shallow and are located in the Continental crust of North American shelf, and are induced by the pressure of the cocos shelf, being 36 % of the seismic movements of intermediate value and two seismic movements of deep value. (Author)

  2. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories

  3. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Nathan W; McCants, Sarah A; Custodio, Joseph M; Ketterer, Michael E; Getty, Stephen R; Hoffman, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories. PMID:17126382

  4. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Nathan W. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States)]. E-mail: nbower@coloradocollege.edu; McCants, Sarah A. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Custodio, Joseph M. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Getty, Stephen R. [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Hoffman, J. Michael [Department of Anthropology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 8090-3294 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  5. Sample Acquisition Techniques for Exobiology Flight Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Stratton, David M.; Valentin, Jose R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Exobiology Flight Experiments involve complex analyses conducted in environments far different than those encountered in terrestrial applications. A major part of the analytical challenge is often the selection, acquisition, delivery and, in some cases, processing of a sample suitable for the analytical requirements of the mission. The added complications of severely limited resources and sometimes rigid time constraints combine to make sample acquisition potentially a major obstacle for successful analyses. Potential samples come in a wide range including planetary atmospheric gas and aerosols (from a wide variety of pressures), planetary soil or rocks, dust and ice particles streaming off of a comet, and cemetery surface ice and rocks. Methods to collect and process sample are often mission specific, requiring continual development of innovative concepts and mechanisms. These methods must also maintain the integrity of the sample for the experimental results to be meaningful. We present here sample acquisition systems employed from past missions and proposed for future missions.

  6. [Identification of male somatotype based on osteometric characteristics of the upper and lower extremities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Sineva, I M

    2009-01-01

    This osteologic study included examination of 101 skeletons from the collections of the Department of Anthropology, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, and Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Sankt-Peterburg). The results were compared with the data obtained by examining materials excavated from grave sites of an Yoshkar-Ola cemetery and from the Isupovo necropole (Kostroma) to evaluate the possibility of identifying human somatotypes from bone remains. Multidimensional discriminative analysis demonstrated that the equation derived by comparing characteristic signs of all long tubular bones of the extremities was of highest diagnostic value for the purpose of the study. Diagnostic equations are proposed for the identification of individual somatotypes based on the analysis of skeletal remains for the use in practical forensic medical examination. PMID:20058841

  7. Sacred and profane topography in a medieval Serbian parish - an outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanin Stanoje

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a basic research scope of the social importance of microtoponyms and topographical features of villages and their precincts, which in the Middle Ages were organized as parish communities. The social space of the rural environment is segmented by different entities important for the social and religious life of the local community, such as a parish church with its yard, a cemetery, other churches and chapels in the fields and groves, freestanding crosses, certain bodies of water or some marked trees, typically the oak. The issue of the methods of analysing medieval sources of different provenience and fragmented data is of major importance. In order to understand the sources properly, we have to be aware of the social segmentation of a medieval society, from which diverse interpretation and functions of the cultural artefacts and performances (rituals, festivities originated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177032: Tradition, innovation and identity in the Byzantine world

  8. Potential of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging for assessing bio-viability changes of biodeteriogen growths on stone monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osticioli, I.; Mascalchi, M.; Pinna, D.; Siano, S.

    2013-05-01

    A systematic study on the use of Chlorophyll Fluorescence (CF) imaging in Pulsed Amplitude Modulated (PAM) for assessing viability changes of biodeteriogen on stone artifacts has been carried out. The experimentation has been performed on different phototrophic organisms of gravestone slabs from the monumental British Cemetery of Florence (Italy). Since the viability of these organisms and then their chlorophyll fluorescence emission is strongly dependent on the environmental conditions, a preliminary study on the effects of local patterns during the season was carried out. The trend of the fluorescence quantum yield (QYmax) at different dark adapted times in different periods of the year was determined. The results achieved in our work proves the effectiveness of the CF-PAM imaging for in situ lichen characterizations in conservation studies and defines an optimized application protocol.

  9. Early Lapita skeletons from Vanuatu show Polynesian craniofacial shape: Implications for Remote Oceanic settlement and Lapita origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Frédérique; Détroit, Florent; Spriggs, Matthew J T; Bedford, Stuart

    2016-01-12

    With a cultural and linguistic origin in Island Southeast Asia the Lapita expansion is thought to have led ultimately to the Polynesian settlement of the east Polynesian region after a time of mixing/integration in north Melanesia and a nearly 2,000-y pause in West Polynesia. One of the major achievements of recent Lapita research in Vanuatu has been the discovery of the oldest cemetery found so far in the Pacific at Teouma on the south coast of Efate Island, opening up new prospects for the biological definition of the early settlers of the archipelago and of Remote Oceania in general. Using craniometric evidence from the skeletons in conjunction with archaeological data, we discuss here four debated issues: the Lapita-Asian connection, the degree of admixture, the Lapita-Polynesian connection, and the question of secondary population movement into Remote Oceania. PMID:26712019

  10. Examining the life history of an individual from Solcor 3, San Pedro de Atacama: Combining bioarchaeology and archaeological chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed life history information using multiple lines of evidence including the identification of geographic origins, health, and body use indicators, can be used to elucidate the complex process of acculturation in the San Pedro de Atacama oases of northern Chile during the Middle Horizon. This paper presents the results of bioarchaeological and archaeological chemical analyses of the skeletal remains of an adult male (tomb 50, catalog number 1948) from the cemetery of Solcor 3 (ca. AD 500-900). Strontium isotope ratios in human tooth enamel reveal information about where a person lived during their childhood, when enamel was being formed. Individual 1948 showed strontium isotope ratios decidedly outside the range of the local San Pedro de Atacama strontium isotope signature. Given these data implying that individual 1948 was originally from elsewhere, an examination of his health status, social role, and mortuary context provides insight into the treatment of foreigners in San Pedro de Atacama. Our data support the argument that individual 1948's foreign birth did not hinder his later assimilation into Atacameno society. He was buried in a local cemetery with a typical mortuary assemblage for a male of this time and no strong evidence of possible foreign origin. Skeletal indicators of diet and activity patterns do not distinguish individual 1948 from the local population, suggesting that his lifestyle was similar to that of other Atacamenos. Therefore, our analyses suggest that individual 1948's acculturation into Atacameno society during his adult life was nearly complete and he retained little to no indication of his probable foreign birth

  11. Dental enamel Hypoplasia. Investigations on the Bones Exhumed from the Medieval Necropole of Lozova (Republic of Moldova, XIVth–XVth Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Daniel Simalcsik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental hypoplasia is a developmental anomaly based on perturbations of amelogenesis. Hypoplasia defects are part of the unspecific quantitative indicators for the state of health and / or nutritional state during the formation of the dental buds. It is a response of the human organism to physiological stress. The incidence of this dysplasia in a past population can indicate its biological frailty in its attempt to adapt to the environmental changes. The osteological material was excavated in the interval 2010 – 2011 by archaeologists from the Archaeology Centre in Chisinau, from the Medieval cemetery of Lozova (Straseni County, Republic of Moldova, dated for the XIVth and XVth centuries. Fifty one skeletons from 50 inhumation graves have been excavated and analyzed so far. Only 40 individuals had most of their teeth present. The enamel hypoplasia is of linear transversal type, located on the labial surface of the dental crowns, in the median third. The canine is the most affected tooth, followed by the incisors. The incidence of dental enamel hypoplasia at population level (based on the data collected and on the number of graves excavates so far, which does not illustrate the entire population of the cemetery is 7.5%. The incidence of dental caries is 23.53%, of cribra orbitalia – 11.75%, and of cribra cranii externa – 1.96%. The results obtained for a relatively small rural community illustrate a good adaptation to the stressing environmental factors. The possible malnutrition and illness episodes suffered during early childhood were recovered along the growth and development processes.

  12. Interpersonal violence in prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama, Chile: behavioral implications of environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Costa Junqueira, María Antonietta

    2006-05-01

    The prehistoric population of San Pedro de Atacama lived through periods marked by prosperity and interregional interaction, as well as times of severe drought, social stress, and widespread poverty. A sample of 682 crania was analyzed for evidence of cranial trauma in order to assess changing patterns of interpersonal violence during the occupation of the oasis. It was hypothesized that the level of traumatic injuries in this population would parallel some of the changes seen in the archaeological record. Low fracture rates would be expected in periods of affluence and environmental stability, while periods characterized by environmental extremes and state collapse would yield elevated rates of aggression. This analysis found that rates of trauma escalated from 5.1% (5/99) in the earliest period, to 10.9% (10/92) in the Middle Horizon (AD 600-950). Although it may reflect problems related to increasing population density in the oasis, this increase is surprising, given that the early period witnessed the shift to permanent settlements, and the middle period was one of prosperity and plentiful resource availability. Trauma rates peaked at 35.6% (16/45) in an early Late Intermediate period (AD 950-1400) cemetery, with other Late Intermediate cemeteries demonstrating similarly high rates of traumatic injury. The elevated trauma rates during this period correlate with major droughts, the concentration of settlements on the oasis' east side, fortified structures, and material poverty, all reflected in the archaeological record. As the Late Intermediate waned and environmental conditions improved, trauma concomitantly decreased (7.0%), and remained low throughout the Inka occupation (AD 1400-1532). This indicates that while the Atacama was not peaceful, violence became commonplace only during periods of great social change and resource stress. PMID:16353221

  13. Ristripatsid Eesti 12.–13. sajandi laibakalmistutes: kas ehted või usu tunnused? / The cross-shaped pendants of inhumation burials in 12th-13th century Estonia: adornments or signs of belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Kurisoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shaped pendants are one of the most discussed symbolically laden artefacts among Estonian archaeological material. The beginning of the distribution of cross-shaped pendants dates back to 11th century when the artefacts, though scarce, appear. The number of such pendants increases noticeably at the very end of the Iron Age. Due to the ambiguous entity of cross and time context, cross-pendants have been interpreted either as symbols of Christian faith, as pieces of adornment not affiliated with Christianity, or as objects with magical qualities. In this paper I study pendants found in the inhumation cemeteries of Estonia. Only those provide us with an archaeological context which shows precisely who could have worn them and how. The analyzed cross-pendants were found at Pada, Kaberla, Kukruse, Haimre and Tammiku cemeteries and from the early burials in Viru-Nigula churchyard. As artefacts, the cross pendants are more or less stylized Greek crosses. In most cases the pendants were either used as a part of jewellery or worn singularly around the neck area. From the total of 48 analyzed cross-pendants one fourth could be interpreted as locally produced items. Of local origin are probably lead pendants from Pada cemetery, heads of decorative pins worn as cross-shaped pendants from Viru-Nigula and Kaberla cemeteries, and obvious scrap and unfinished pendant crosses. In addition, I would like to draw attention that cross-pendants from inhumation burials do not contain many widespread forms, such as ‘Scandinavian’ and some other widespread Russian origin types, which have been found in hoards, from hill-forts and cremation burials. This observation could confirm that cross pendants from 12th–13th century inhumation burials were communally recognized and some of them were locally manufactured. As the next stage of my investigation I studied different occurrence contexts of cross pendants in cemeteries and burials: the location of burials with

  14. Comment l’exemple des cimetières-jardins interprète la mémoire funéraire québécoise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Cornellier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Les cimetières-jardins sont un excellent laboratoire d’observation du traitement distinct de la mémoire funéraire à travers les époques. Ils font partie d’une période charnière dans la commémoration des morts, entre celle des cimetières urbains (du XVIIe au XIXe siècle et des parcs-cimetières d’aujourd’hui. Ils sont à la jonction de la gestion par les fabriques et la prise en charge par les entreprises privées qui offrent désormais des services et des biens funéraires selon la formule « tout-en-un ». Des sculpteurs professionnels taillent les pierres tombales, l’iconographie présente sur ces dernières est plus diversifiée et élaborée, de nouveaux matériaux deviennent la norme, des entreprises privées spécialisées dans les pompes funèbres ouvrent leurs portes. « L’industrialisation de la mort » débute peu à peu. Les monuments funéraires qu’on y retrouve témoignent d’une standardisation de certaines pratiques funéraires. Ayant connu leur âge d’or dans le premier quart du XXe siècle, les cimetières-jardins sont de moins en moins fréquentés. Ce texte propose de démontrer pourquoi ces cimetières ont été des lieux de commémoration, autant pour la mémoire à court et à long terme et pourquoi ils ne sont devenus, dans bien des cas, que des espaces mémoriels à court terme. En raison du désengagement social à leur égard, ces lieux voués à une mémoire à long terme sont en quelque sorte marqués par l’oubli, devenant ainsi les acteurs d’une mémoire à court terme.Garden cemeteries are great sites for the observation of different treatments of funerary memory throughout history. They belong to a transition period in the history of remembering the dead, between the urban cemeteries of the 16th-18th centuries and the contemporary cemetery parks and were at the junction of a management by factories and a support from private companies that offered funeral goods and services

  15. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2008- Malazgirt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe research was carried out with the permissions of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 22 July to 6 August 2008 at Malazgirt town of Muş Province and dependent villages.Some cultural assets composed of monumental architectural structures such as Mosques, Churches, Inns, Bridges, cemeteries and grave stones were identifiedA mosque, ruins of an Inn, two bridges at the center of Malazgirt, a house and a rock church,at Uzgörür village of Bulanık County, twelve cemeteries at Malazgirt town and two cemeteries at Uzgörür village were investigated..Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. A small number of identified works belong to Seljuk period and afterwards (XI-XV. Century, and most of the others usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period.The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region.Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors actually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction.ÖzetT.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 22 Temmuz- 06 Ağustos 2008 tarihleri arasında Muş ilinin Malazgirt ilçesinde ve köylerinde yüzey araştırması gerçekleştirilmiştir.Cami, Kilise, Han, Köprü, ve Ev’den oluşan anıtsal mimari yapılar ile mezarlıklar ve mezar taşlarından oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmanın son günlerinde Bulanık ilçesinin köylerine de girilmiştir.Araştırmada; Malazgirt merkezde iki, Dirimpınar Köyü’nde bir han kalıntısı, bir mescit ve bir cami, iki köprü, Bulanık ilçesi Uzg

  16. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2008- Malazgirt / A Survey on Medieval and Later Periods of Malazgirt, Muş (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was carried out with the permissions of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 22 July to 6 August 2008 at Malazgirt town of Muş Province and dependent villages. Some cultural assets composed of monumental architectural structures such as Mosques, Churches, Inns, Bridges, cemeteries and grave stones were identified A mosque, ruins of an Inn, two bridges at the center of Malazgirt, a house and a rock church,at Uzgörür village of Bulanık County, twelve cemeteries at Malazgirt town and two cemeteries at Uzgörür village were investigated.. Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. A small number of identified works belong to Seljuk period and afterwards (XI-XV. Century, and most of the others usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period. The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region. Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors actually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction. Özet T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 22 Temmuz- 06 Ağustos 2008 tarihleri arasında Muş ilinin Malazgirt ilçesinde ve köylerinde yüzey araştırması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Cami, Kilise, Han, Köprü, ve Ev’den oluşan anıtsal mimari yapılar ile mezarlıklar ve mezar taşlarından oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmanın son günlerinde Bulanık ilçesinin köylerine de girilmiştir. Araştırmada; Malazgirt merkezde iki, Dirimpınar Köyü’nde bir han kalıntısı, bir mescit ve bir cami, iki köprü, Bulanık il

  17. Aedes albopictus in northeast Mexico: An update on adult distribution and first report of parasitism by Ascogregarina taiwanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto Reyes-Villanueva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Aedes albopictus has been known as efficient vector of dengue in Asian countries and its wide displacement of Ae. aegypti has been documented in many parts of the world. The present survey was carried out to update the distribution of Ae. albopictus in northeast Mexico and to report the first record of parasitism of mosquitoes by Ascogregarina taiwanensis in Mexico. Methods: Human landing collections were conducted in the month of May every year between 2007 and 2009 across the three states, Nuevo Leon (NL, Tamaulipas and Coahuila in northeast Mexico. Six human bait collections were also organized at the cemetery of Gomez Farias (GF, a village in southern Tamaulipas during the rainy and dry seasons in 2010. Aedes albopictus caught in 2010 were dissected for parasitic protozoan gregarines. Results: The results of human landing collections carried out during 2007-10 across the three states of northeast zone of Mexico revealed that Ae. albopictus is invading along the route between Monterrey City in NL and Tampico, Tamaulipas, but not into the arid state of Coahuila. Aedes albopictus was recorded in nine new municipalities in addition to the 15 municipalities reported before 2005. Furthermore, six human-bait collections performed during the dry and rainy seasons in 2010 at the cemetery of GF suggest the exclusion of Ae. aegypti on that site. Dominance was shared by Ae. quadrivittatus, another container-inhabitant but indigenous species, and Ae. albopictus during the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The results of dissection of the mosquitoes for gregarines revealed the parasitism of Ae. albopictus by A. taiwanensis. Interpretation & conclusion: The results of this study showed that Ae. albopictus has spread to all the municipalities in the northeastern Mexico except the arid area and reported the first record of parasitic protozoan A. taiwanensis in Mexico. We recommend further studies on larval and adult populations of

  18. AJARAN SUNAN GESENG BAGI KEHIDUPAN KEAGAMAAN MASYARAKAT

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    Dina Faelasofa

    2013-04-01

    collected through interview and observation. Research results show the strong influence of Sunan Geseng’s religious teaching is apparent in Grabag, Magelang. Among the indicators are the use of Sunan Geseng’s cemetery as spiritual tourism site visited by people from many area. There is also selikuran tradition held annually at the 21st night of Ramadhan in Sunan Geseng cemetery area. There are also other rituals like slametan, gendurenan, and methoan. Another interesting thing is that many boarding schools still adopt the management system or learning process like those of Sunan Geseng. All of this enforce the society sentiment theory stating that historical memory in the the past and Sunan Geseng heritages are fondation for society sentiment.

  19. Environmental impact and natural hazards on Kharga Oasis monumental sites, Western Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, A. B.; Howari, F. M.; El-Sankary, M. M.; Wali, A. M.; Saleh, M. M.

    2010-09-01

    Kharga Oasis monumental sites are important to the cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The studied sites include the Hibis, EI-Nadura, EI-Ghueita and El-Zayyan temples as well as El-Bagawat Cemetery. The present study found that natural hazards have remarkable impacts on these sites. The impact of weathering processes, encroachment of sand dunes, stability of foundation beds and shallow groundwater seepage were documented. The present study found that humidity, temperature, sunlight and water content conditions seem to be favorable for biodegradation as evidenced by the presence of algae, bat blood and bird excretions. The radioactivity levels at the investigated sites are also measured via gamma-ray spectrometry. Sand dunes in the area pose a serious natural threat to the monumental sites. Active sand dunes are rapidly encroaching upon the components of these monuments, partially covering some monuments such as El-Ghueita Temple. These dunes load wind storms with fine sand particles. This causes wind erosion through sand blasting of these sites. Some monuments, such as EI-Nadura, EI-Ghueita and El-Zayyan temples were constructed on a suitable hard sandstone ground, whereas others, such as the Hibis Temple, were constructed on unsuitable soft shale ground in relatively topographically low area. The impact of the unstable foundation and shallow groundwater levels have caused severe structural damage as evidenced by tilted columns, cracked walls and salt-crystal growth in the porous building stones. These destructive elements threaten some other temples in Kharga Oasis and will eventually cause total physical collapse. Although rain is rare in this area, it can form a real threat to mud brick monuments such as El-Bagawat Cemetery. The natural radioactivity sources resulted in an annual effective dose equivalent values averaging 0.20, 0.13, 0.09 and 0.07 m

  20. The Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, A; Kuś, M; Kupiec, T; Bykowska, M; Zielińska, G; Jasiński, M E; March, A L

    2016-01-01

    members into a common database; (5) making a conclusive, final identification of the victim. PGBOT's first project was to identify victims of the Communist regime buried in hidden mass graves in the Powązki Military Cemetery in Warsaw. Throughout 2012 and 2013, PGBOT carried out archaeological exhumations in the Powązki Military Cemetery that resulted in the recovery of the skeletal remains of 194 victims in several mass graves. Of the 194 sets of remains, more than 50 victims have been successfully matched and identified through genetic evidence. PMID:26646737

  1. Memorial service: A means of communication with the dead

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    Ivanović-Barišić Milina M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A specific relationship toward the dead characterizes the traditional Serbian culture; this cult exists even today, in somewhat changed form. A death is always followed by the appropriate, traditional, ritual obligations that served to regulate behavior of a family, or even wider community members that has lost one of its members. The relationship with the dead does not cease after the funeral, but it continues to be maintained during general holidays dedicated to the dead-memorial service. These are the days dedicated to all dead, and when offerings were made especially for the deceased. The memorial services take place in particular days of the year: most often on Saturdays, on Saturdays before another holiday, the Spirits, and on Saturdays before the holiday Mitrovdan; memorial services are also connected with some other holidays during the year. In addition to the general memorial service dedicated to all dead, there are so-called special memorial services, which take place only in special occasions (on holidays like Petrovdan, Saint Ilija, Velika Gospojina, Trojice and more. Many different rituals performed during memorial services, as well as ritual objects used should provide the deceased with a safe residence in their new environment. The most important rituals that enabled the communication with the dead include: preparing and sharing food and drinks, visits to a cemetery, lighting candles, incense of graves, vine spilling, decoration with flowers and basilica. The most important ritual objects are: graves, food, drinks, candles, incense, vine, flowers and basilica.

  2. Why Sacred Lands Are Not Indivisible: The Cognitive Foundations of Sacralising Land

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    Richard Sosis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous political analysts have argued that conflicts over sacred land are intractable. These scholars maintain that sacred lands are psychologically perceived as indivisible, or alternatively, in the sociological tradition, their indivisibility is a social fact. Moreover, religious beliefs are viewed as stagnant and resistant to change. Consequently, resolving such conflicts is fraught with difficulty, and even if a truce could be imposed, it would be unstable and violence would eventually erupt. A cognitive and evolutionary account offers a less pessimistic view. Individuals do not conceive of sacred lands in the same way that they conceive of sacred space, such as cemeteries or houses of worship, or sacred objects, such as holy water or prayer beads. Unlike sacred space and objects, whose boundaries are clearly defined, conceptions of sacred land are typically abstract and may bear little resemblance to the contested physical land. While abstract notions of sacred land are indivisible and must remain intact, the physical land is not indivisible, and therefore there is often greater room for negotiation of sacred lands than is generally appreciated.

  3. The case of survivors of the Villatina slide (in Medellín, 1987: an ethnographic research, 2005

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    Claudia P. Isaza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This ethnographic research tries to understand the perception of the individuals who survived after the landslide of Villatina in 1987, the social processes related to it and the outcomes that still remain in the communitarian life of the Villatina and Héctor Abad Gómez suburbs in the city of Medellín. The discussion was focused in the information gathered from 16 semi-structured interviews, the revision of secondary sources and direct observation. Positive and negative outcomes were the result of the disaster, some of which still prevail. Among the negative causes are the lost of family members and friends which is shown in unsolved grief, handling and representation of the cemetery, lack of clarity due to the versions about the real causes of the tragedy and disagreement with the nomination of the place as a high risk zone. On the other hand, some other aspects are recognized as a social gain, such as organized social processes, new leaderships, organized meeting places; the family as a social support, contributions to the relocation process and an increasing social sensitivity. Finally, the survivors look forward to deserve worthy treatment from the investigators; in the hope that institutions taking part in the community be correspondent and that the government will clarify the causes of the tragedy.

  4. Mountains, Monuments, and other Matter: Environmental Affects at Manzanar

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    Ladino, Jennifer K.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the natural landscapes and built structures at the Manzanar National Historic Site, the first of ten incarceration camps to open in 1941 and a temporary home for over 11,000 Japanese Americans. Using former incarceree Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston’s writing as a touchstone, my essay foregrounds the environmental features of the (relocation: the extreme desert weather, the mountain vistas, the incarceree-created rock gardens, the reconstructed barracks, guard tower, and barbed wire fence, and the cemetery/monument. I bring together concepts from ecocriticism and from affect theory—particularly Ben Anderson’s “affective atmospheres,” Sianne Ngai’s “tone,” and Sara Ahmed’s characterization of affect as “sticky”—and develop the notion of affective agency to describe the impacts generated by environments and objects at this national memory site. I assess how the visual and written rhetoric at the site addresses what I call an implied tourist, and I show how powerful emotions of shame, anger, grief, and compassion—and sometimes, mixed, even contradictory, affects—are not only represented in visual and written rhetoric but are also, in a sense, communicated by the environment itself. More broadly, I suggest that ecocritical theory brings a useful lens to discussions of public memory, and that affect theory helps account for the less tangible, visceral, experiences visitors have at Manzanar and other fraught historical sites, as well as within our everyday environments.

  5. Flesh or fish? First results of archaeometric research of prehistoric burials from Sakhtysh IIa, Upper Volga region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Piezonka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Graves and their human remains not only shed light on burial customs and social structures of past populations, but also constitute an excellent archive of prehistoric environmental and living conditions. Especially 13C/15N isotope analysis has recently opened up promising perspectives for reconstructing changes in diet and their social, cultural and economic background. Such investigations have been started on material from the Stone and Early Metal Age hunter-gatherer cemetery of Sakhtysh IIa in the Upper Volga region of Central Russia, where 15 burials associated with the early Lyalovo culture (5th mill. calBC and 57 graves of the Volosovo culture (4th – 3rd mill. calBC have been excavated. In this paper, we present new AMS dates and isotopic data from four burials, two from the earlier and two from the later group. The results are discussed against the background of existing dates from Sakhtysh IIa burials and compared with information from other burial sites of Northern Europe.

  6. Laser assisted removal of synthetic painting-conservation materials using UV radiation of ns and fs pulse duration: Morphological studies on model samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouli, P., E-mail: ppouli@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion, 71110 Crete (Greece); Nevin, A. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion, 71110 Crete (Greece); Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London, Somerset House, Strand, WC2R 0RN, London (United Kingdom); Andreotti, A.; Colombini, P. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Pisa, via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Georgiou, S. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion, 71110 Crete (Greece); Fotakis, C. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (IESL-FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion, 71110 Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)

    2009-02-15

    In an effort to establish the optimal parameters for the cleaning of complex layers of polymers (mainly based on acrylics, vinyls, epoxys known as Elvacite, Laropal, Paraloid B72, among others) applied during past conservation treatments on the surface of wall paintings, laser cleaning tests were performed with particular emphasis on the plausible morphological modifications induced in the remaining polymeric material. Pulse duration effects were studied using laser systems of different pulse durations (ns and fs) at 248 nm. Prior to tests on real fragments from the Monumental Cemetery in Pisa (Italy) which were coated with different polymers, attention was focused on the study of model samples consisting of analogous polymer films cast on quartz disks. Ultraviolet irradiation is strongly absorbed by the studied materials both in ns and fs irradiation regimes. However, it is demonstrated that ultrashort laser pulses result in reduced morphological alterations in comparison to ns irradiation. In addition, the dependence of the observed alterations on the chemical composition of the consolidation materials in both regimes was examined. Most importantly, it was shown that in this specific conservation problem, an optimum cleaning process may rely not only on the minimization of laser-induced morphological changes but also on the exploitation of the conditions that favour the disruption of the adhesion between the synthetic material and the painting.

  7. Congreve and toulouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalettes, J.-P.; Jung, Ph.

    Toulouse is well known as probably the biggest European aerospace concentration with such names as Aerospatiale, Dassault, Thomson, MATRA, CNES, Air France and many others. What is less known, however, is that nearly two centuries ago an early rocketry pioneer, William Congreve, had his rockets used in anger during the Toulouse battle. Even more interesting, he later happened to stay in the Languedoc capital while trying to find his way to Nice on his boat: death caught him there before he could reach his final destination. This paper explains the significance of the use of Congreve rockets during the Toulouse battle, which was actually the last Napoleonic combat before exile. It also elaborates on the research trying to clarify the many unknowns about Congreve's stay in Toulouse at the end of his life. This includes a search for his grave since the original one has been displaced with the disappearance under the builder's axe of the original Protestant and Jewish Cemetery in the town centre.

  8. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th-12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe. PMID:26963389

  9. A transparent oversight policy for human anatomical specimen management: the University of California, Davis experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Brandi; Wacker, Charlotte; Ikemoto, Lisa; Meyers, Frederick J; Pomeroy, Claire

    2014-03-01

    The authors describe the development and implementation of a University of California (UC) system of oversight, education, tracking, and accountability for human anatomical specimen use in education and research activities. This program was created and initially implemented at UC Davis in 2005. Several incidents arising out of the handling of human anatomical specimens at UC campuses revealed significant challenges in the system for maintaining control of human anatomical specimens used in education and research. These events combined to undermine the public perception for research and educational endeavors involving anatomical materials at public institutions. Risks associated with the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of these specimens were not fully understood by the faculty, staff, and students who used them. Laws governing sources of specimens are grouped with those that govern organ procurement and tissue banking, and sometimes are found in cemetery and funeral regulations. These variables complicate interpretations and may hinder compliance. To regain confidence in the system, the need to set appropriate and realistic guidelines that mitigate risk and facilitate an institution's research and educational mission was identified. This article chronicles a multiyear process in which diverse stakeholders developed (1) a regulatory policy for oversight, (2) a policy education program, (3) procedures for tracking and accountability, and (4) a reporting and enforcement mechanism for appropriate and ethical use of human anatomical specimens in university education and research. PMID:24448034

  10. Excavation on the Halazhuang Site in Baodi District, Tianjin City%天津市宝坻区哈喇庄遗址的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅鹏云; 陈雍; 纪列敏; 张俊生; 刘建; 邸明

    2005-01-01

    In May to July 1997, the former Archaeological Department of Tianjin Municipal Museum of History excavated on a site at Halazhuang Village of Huogezhuang Township in Baodi District, Tianjing City. Within the area of above 170,000 sq m the site occupies, they revealed a house-foundation, 61 ash-pits, six ash-trenches and four tombs, and brought to light mainly pottery and porcelain. The pottery is largely of gray clay ware and belongs chiefly to the jar, basin, urn and fu cauldron types. The porcelain is principally white ware and includes dishes, bowls, and a small number of black-glazed articles. Judging from the unearthed objects, the site contains cultural deposits roughly of the late Liao, early Jin, and late Jin to early Yuan periods, with those of the latter two phases as the main remains. It can be preliminarily inferred that the site was a village from the late Liao to the early Yuan, which was abandoned and became a cemetery in the early Ming period.

  11. Early medical skull surgery for treatment of post-traumatic osteomyelitis 5,000 years ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Petrone

    Full Text Available Here we describe the findings of a unique example of the early techniques adopted in neurosurgery around 5000 years ago, consisting in a double well healed skull trephination associated with a post-cranial traumatic event occurring intra vitam to a young male from the Early Chalcolithic cemetery of Pontecagnano (South Italy, ca. 4,900 - 4,500 cal BP. Morphological, X-ray and 3D-CT scan skull-cap evaluation revealed that the main orifice was produced by scraping, obtained by clockwise rotary motion of a right-handed surgeon facing the patient, while the partial trephination was carried out by using a stone point as a drilling tool. In both cases, bone regrowth is indicative of the individual's prolonged postoperative survival and his near-complete recovery. The right femur shows a poorly healed mid-shaft fracture presumably induced by a high energy injury, and a resulting chronic osteomyelitis, affecting both femurs by hematogenous spread of the infection. Our observations on the visual and radiological features of skull and femur lesions, along with evidence on the timing of experimental bone regrowth vs. healing of lower limb fractures associated to long-term bone infections now suggest that this young man underwent a double skull trephination in order to alleviate his extremely painful condition induced by chronic osteomyelitis, which is thought to have been the cause of death.

  12. Urban landscape genetics: canopy cover predicts gene flow between white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi-South, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this study, I examine the influence of urban canopy cover on gene flow between 15 white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City parklands. Parks in the urban core are often highly fragmented, leading to rapid genetic differentiation of relatively nonvagile species. However, a diverse array of 'green' spaces may provide dispersal corridors through 'grey' urban infrastructure. I identify urban landscape features that promote genetic connectivity in an urban environment and compare the success of two different landscape connectivity approaches at explaining gene flow. Gene flow was associated with 'effective distances' between populations that were calculated based on per cent tree canopy cover using two different approaches: (i) isolation by effective distance (IED) that calculates the single best pathway to minimize passage through high-resistance (i.e. low canopy cover) areas, and (ii) isolation by resistance (IBR), an implementation of circuit theory that identifies all low-resistance paths through the landscape. IBR, but not IED, models were significantly associated with three measures of gene flow (Nm from F(ST) , BayesAss+ and Migrate-n) after factoring out the influence of isolation by distance using partial Mantel tests. Predicted corridors for gene flow between city parks were largely narrow, linear parklands or vegetated spaces that are not managed for wildlife, such as cemeteries and roadway medians. These results have implications for understanding the impacts of urbanization trends on native wildlife, as well as for urban reforestation efforts that aim to improve urban ecosystem processes. PMID:22320856

  13. The identification of Josef Mengele. A triumph of international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, W G; Teixeira, W R

    1985-09-01

    In recent weeks, world attention has been focused on the identification of skeletal remains suspected of being those of the most widely sought Nazi war criminal still at large--Josef Mengele. Several important turns in the investigation of his whereabouts led to a small city south of São Paulo, where he had been living until 1979. Mengele was reported to have drowned and to have been buried in a country cemetery near his last residence. The initial processing of the remains was done at the Medicolegal Institute of São Paulo by police officials in consultation with anthropologists and dentists as well as Dr. Wilmes Teixeira of Mogi das Cruzes, a suburb of São Paulo. Dr. Teixeira coordinated the team of authorized international forensic experts officially representing the governments of West Germany and the United States, as well as the Simon Wiesenthal Center of Los Angeles, who joined Brazilian scientists in completing identification. The success of the investigation was due to complete cooperation among members of the team, resulting in verification, within a reasonable scientific certainty, that these were the remains of Josef Mengele. PMID:3916651

  14. Death perception discourse as viewed by the family: a photoetnographic approach Discursos da percepção da morte na visão dos familiares: uma abordagem fotoetnográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ferreira Lahan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at analyzing the perspectives of the death and dying as expressed by relatives when searching for the simbology to be present in the grave. The research has a qualitative photoethnographic approach. The bibliography allowed for the basis to collect the narratives from the families of people deceased and buried in Umuarama (PR City Cemetery. The choice of this burial place considered the variety of the graves and the previous contact with relatives. Este trabalho analisa a perspectiva da morte e do morrer na visão de familiares ao escolher a simbologia presente no túmulo. A pesquisa é de abordagem qualitativa, do tipo fotoetnográfica. A bibliografia propiciou a fundamentação para coletar as narrativas das famílias de pessoas falecidas e sepultadas no Cemitério Municipal de Umuarama (PR. A escolha do cemitério considerou a variedade de túmulos e o pré-contato com alguns familiares das pessoas sepultadas.

  15. Determination of the elemental status of ancient human bones from Bockenheim/Rheinland-Pfalz by PIGE and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuing the investigations on ancient human bones of the Merowingian period (6-8th century AD) [St. Jankuhn, T. Butz, R.-H. Flagmeyer, T. Reinert, J. Vogt, J. Hammerl, R. Protsch von Zieten, M. Wolf, H. Baumann, K. Bethge, I. Symietz, in: J.L. Duggan, I.L. Morgan (Eds.), CP392, Appl. of Accelerators in Res. and Ind., AIP, Woodbury, NY, 1997, p. 575], we have prepared a series of 57 samples of bone from the so-called Ward's triangle. This region is an inner part of the femoral neck and one of the areas of high fracture risk in the case of osteoporosis. The bones were excavated from a former cemetery near Bockenheim/Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. Firstly, the sample preparation method will be described. Secondly, the experimental setup will be outlined for the ion beam methods proton backscattering (PBS), proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE), and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) which are implemented simultaneously at the 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of the Universitaet Leipzig. Thirdly, the concentrations of the main and trace elements will be presented in the form of a correlation matrix for the elements detected by PIGE and PIXE. From this, a correlation coefficient matrix is derived whose values will be discussed in detail

  16. A suicide in an online mental health support group: reactions of the group members, administrative responses, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Robert C

    2007-08-01

    Suicides in online mental health support groups are inevitable. This case report of such a suicide describes the responses of the group members and the moderator and makes recommendations. Members of a large, public, mental health message board supported each other, and the moderator, a mental health professional, managed the milieu. A member joined in February 2001 and killed herself in April 2002. The initial response of the members was grief. The moderator attempted to minimize suicide contagion by not making any special announcements and to facilitate mourning by starting a memorial thread. There were no reports of self-injury in response to the suicide, and the online ventilation of grief may in fact have had some preventative effect. One member went to the funeral, and gradually, the group moved on. The moderator later implemented a memorial page. The responses of online groups to suicide may, like those of real-life groups, have resuscitation, rehabilitation, and renewal phases. Diffusion of dependency, a searchable archive, and threaded, asynchronous discussion may facilitate mourning, but anonymity may increase vulnerability to false reports. A thread started in memory of a deceased member may function like a virtual memorial service. A memorial page may function like a virtual cemetery. Preliminary recommendations can be made regarding suicide prevention and responding to suicide in moderated online mental health support groups. PMID:17711356

  17. Yoginī e Streghe: luoghi isolati, animali selvatici, figure femminili di confine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Cangelosi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the folklore some female figures are related to border situations. Women, less relevant in the social and cultural context, can take a relevant role in the traditional, mythic and religious imagery. These figures are strictly linked to irrational and mystery. The analysis compares a group of tantric semi-deities, called Yogini, with witches: they are both confined in a border condition under the religious and social point of view since they are considered dangerous as well as respectful; they fly (sometimes after a metamorphosis in wild and dangerous birds like, they dance in circle, they turn into terrestrial animals (like snakes and toads they prefer isolated places and trees. They can live close to cemeteries but they can also be attracted by places where new born children are, in a sort of relation with both birth and death, the limits of human life. Following a comparison between these two groups that are very far away one from the other some interesting aspects appear: a major characteristic is their ambiguity. They are positive and negative at the same time, they are dangerous but attractive (being usually beautiful and sensual and even dangerous because so attractive. They are part of a wild  world which clash with a tidy and urbanized world: the first one is inhabited by demons which are not included in the official religious and cultural dimension; in the second one, which considers Yogini and witches as dangerous  entities, a rational and male-influenced approach prevails.

  18. Evaluation of the efficacy of spatiotemporal Pb isoscapes for provenancing of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Austin T; Regan, Laura A; Lundstrom, Craig C; Bower, Nathan W

    2016-04-01

    Geospatially distributed isotopes (isoscapes) from biogeochemically fractionated processes have been applied in many forensic investigations, such as authentication of food and sourcing of drugs. Provenancing of human remains using isotopes has been hindered by a lack of appropriate isoscapes, by changes in these isoscapes over time, and by various homogenization processes. In this study we create spatiotemporal isoscapes for anthropogenic lead (Pb) for the contiguous United States and Europe using literature data from dated sediments, soils and biological tissues. We compare (206)Pb/(207)Pb isoscapes with isoscapes of δ(13)C, δ(18)O and (87)Sr/(86)Sr to determine their relative efficacy for the forensic identification of human remains. We do this comparison using third molar enamel data from 22 United States Air Force Academy cadets with known life trajectories born between 1983 and 1985. We use these spatiotemporal isoscapes with osteologic analyses, hospital records and isotopic analyses of tooth enamel carbonate from permanent teeth to help identify 32 individuals from unmarked graves found in a forgotten 19th century mental asylum cemetery. PMID:26914828

  19. Vulnerability and hydrogeologic risk of SAG in the outcroupping zone of Rivera Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studied area belongs to the outcroupping zone of the Guarani Aquifer in the Department of Rivera, Uruguay. It comprises an approximate area of 2900 Km2. The outcropping Guarani Aquifer (AGa) is formed by two sections, an upper one corresponding to the Rivera Unit (UR) and a lower one corresponding to the Tacuarembo Unit (UT), both with vertical hydraulic continuity. The Rivera Unit is entirely represented by the homonymous formation and it consists of medium to fine sandstones with a mean effective porosity of 14% and mean Transmissivity of 88 m2/dia. The Tacuarembo Unit is constituted by fine to very fine sandstone levels interbedded with pelitic sandstone and shales. This unit behaves like unconfined aquifer in the upper section, where it contains the phreatic layer and it passes to semi-confined as the depth increases. The effective porosity is approximatelly of 9% and mean T 24 m2/dia. Chemically, both units are classified as calcicbicarbonated and magnesic-bicarbonated. To determine the vulnerability, it was applied the GOD method yielding high vulnerability for levels lower than 10m and moderate for levels of water larger than 10m. From the study of risk the conclusions are: high risk of groundwater contamination due to the lack of sewage systems and to the rubbish dump leakage. The industrial activity, cemeteries and mining activity represents moderated risks in most of the cases

  20. Modelling nitrate pollution pressure using a multivariate statistical approach: the case of Kinshasa groundwater body, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mfumu Kihumba, Antoine; Ndembo Longo, Jean; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-03-01

    A multivariate statistical modelling approach was applied to explain the anthropogenic pressure of nitrate pollution on the Kinshasa groundwater body (Democratic Republic of Congo). Multiple regression and regression tree models were compared and used to identify major environmental factors that control the groundwater nitrate concentration in this region. The analyses were made in terms of physical attributes related to the topography, land use, geology and hydrogeology in the capture zone of different groundwater sampling stations. For the nitrate data, groundwater datasets from two different surveys were used. The statistical models identified the topography, the residential area, the service land (cemetery), and the surface-water land-use classes as major factors explaining nitrate occurrence in the groundwater. Also, groundwater nitrate pollution depends not on one single factor but on the combined influence of factors representing nitrogen loading sources and aquifer susceptibility characteristics. The groundwater nitrate pressure was better predicted with the regression tree model than with the multiple regression model. Furthermore, the results elucidated the sensitivity of the model performance towards the method of delineation of the capture zones. For pollution modelling at the monitoring points, therefore, it is better to identify capture-zone shapes based on a conceptual hydrogeological model rather than to adopt arbitrary circular capture zones.

  1. Purple Staining of Archaeological Human Bone: An Investigation of Probable Cause and Implications for Other Tissues and Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrard Cole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excavations in the 1990s at the medieval Chapter House of Worcester Cathedral, UK, revealed medieval human skeletal remains, some of which exhibited a distinctive purple coloration. The nature of the colored bone was investigated using solvents for stain extraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, plane polarized (PPL and cross-polarized (XPL light microscopy, and auto fluorescence (AF microscopy. Normal bone from the cemetery was used as a control. The color does not arise from a stain soluble in normal organic solvents. EDX and XRD analysis showed no significant difference between purple and normal bone. XRF analysis shows the presence of trace levels of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper in the affected material. This exhibited a pink color in acid phase and a blue color in alkaline phase. These two states were reversible. The alkaline phase gradually changed irreversibly to yellow over time. These data suggest that the coloration is consistent with the presence of high levels of purple acid phosphatase (PAP enzyme. The presence of trace amounts of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper suggests a plant or fungal origin for the putative PAP, possibly a member of the Aspergillus ficuum species.

  2. Pollution par les nitrates des eaux souterraines du bassin d'Essaouira (Maroc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laftouhi, Nour-Eddine; Vanclooster, Marnik; Jalal, Mohammed; Witam, Omar; Aboufirassi, Mohamed; Bahir, Mohamed; Persoons, Étienne

    2003-03-01

    The Essaouira Basin (Morocco) contains a multi-layered aquifer situated in fractured and karstic materials from the Middle and Upper Cretaceous (the Cenomanian, Turonian and Senonian). Water percolates through the limestone and dolomite formations of the Turonian stage either through the marls and calcareous marls of the Cenomanian or through the calcareous marly materials of the Senonian. The aquifer system may be interconnected since the marl layer separating the Turonian, Cenomanian and Senonian aquifers is thin or intensively fractured. In that case, the water is transported through a network of fractures and stratification joints. This paper describes the extent of the nitrate pollution in the area and its origin. Most of the wells and drillholes located in the Kourimat perimeter are contaminated by nitrates with some concentrations over 400 mg l-1. Nitrate contamination is also observed in the surface water of the Qsob River, which constitutes the natural outlet of the multi-layered complex aquifer system. In this area, agriculture is more developed than in the rest of the Essaouira Basin. Diffuse pollution of the karstic groundwater body by agricultural fertiliser residues may therefore partially explain the observed nitrate pollution. However, point pollution around the wells, springs and drillholes from human wastewater, livestock faeces and the mineralisation of organic debris close to the Muslim cemeteries cannot be excluded.

  3. Alteration of the ethnic diversity and ethnic segregation index in Latvia during the first and second independence periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Németh

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the Baltic area is traditionally one of the most diverse regions of Europe in terms of ethnic concerns; we can observe in many settlements that four or even five religions have their own churches, cemeteries and at least as many ethnic groups are having their schools etc. Regarding geography literature, no generally accepted method has been applied yet to measure the population’s diversity and spatial segregation; in most cases only the number and ratio of ethnic groups were described. This research paper proposes a different approach: the adaptation of the so-called Simpson’s Diversity Index, based on probability theory and originally used by ecologists to measure biodiversity, to human geography. The study seeks the answers to: where, when, why and how has the Ethnic Diversity and Ethnic Segregation Index changed in Latvia during the first and second independence periods? What kind of spatial patterns are possible to observe on the basis of the transformation? The enormous data is processed by modern GIS software products and projected on thematic maps.

  4. Archaeological Investigations at the Upper Chapel, Norfolk Street, Sheffield, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Baker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheffield, in the north of England, grew rapidly in the 19th century and gained an international reputation for its cutlery, tableware, and steel products. The material legacy of this age of industrialisation is extensive, and archaeological work in the modern city over the last 20 years has, for the most part, focused on the above and below ground industrial archaeology relating to metals trades' production sites spanning the 19th and 20th centuries. This article describes recent archaeological work around the Upper Chapel, a Unitarian Meeting House in the city centre where archaeological work recovered a possible buried medieval soil deposit, which contained an assemblage of medieval pottery dating from the 12th to 15th centuries. The presence of waster sherds and fragments of kiln furniture within this assemblage suggests that pottery production may have taken place on or near the site, making this the first putative evidence for pottery production in medieval Sheffield. The archaeological investigations also recovered four human burials from the 18th- to 19th-century burial ground associated with the Upper Chapel. The Upper Chapel burial ground differs from other recently excavated cemeteries in Sheffield as it potentially contained graves of high-status individuals, with at least a proportion of the skeletons and coffins well-preserved owing to waterlogged ground conditions. Detailed studies of the human remains, coffins, and incorporated material, including brass shroud pins are also discussed.

  5. Effect of laser treatment on the surface of copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbacz, Halina, E-mail: hgarbacz@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Fortuna-Zalesna, Elzbieta [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Marczak, Jan [Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Koss, Andrzej; Zatorska, Anna [Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, Inter-Academy Institute for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Wybrzeze Kosciuszkowskie 37, 00-379 Warsaw (Poland); Zukowska, Grazyna Z. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Onyszczuk, Tomasz; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents the results of laser cleaning of the archaeological metal objects using two time widths of pulsed laser radiation, which are around 150 {mu}s and around 120 ns. Two archaeological objects made of copper alloys were studied: a bow and a ring. Both objects came from a cemetery which is located in the garden complex of Wilanow Palace in Warsaw and are dated from XII to XIII century. The bow and bronze ring had ornamental longitudinal grooving and were part of burial jewellery. The materials of which these artefacts were made of, as well as corrosion products on these objects, were studied by using a variety of analytical techniques. The phase composition of the corrosion layers was determined by using Raman spectroscopy. The surface topography as well as the chemical composition of the deposits and cleaned surfaces were investigated. The samples were examined using scanning electron microscopes equipped with EDS. The investigations included observations in SE and BSE modes and point analyses of the chemical composition by EDS.

  6. Excavation of the Settlement of Early Yangshao Culture on the Dadiwan Site in Qin'an County, Gansu%甘肃秦安县大地湾遗址仰韶文化早期聚落发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘肃省文物考古研究所

    2003-01-01

    The remains of Stage I of early Yangshao culture discovered on the Dadiwan site include 37 house-foundations, 12 fireplaces, 22 ash-pits, 20 tombs, one kiln-site and one moat (six sections), which combine to show a prehistoric settlement rather clear an layout. The main part of the settlement is built on the second terrace by the river, surrounded with a moat In the center, a little to the west, there is a square nearly one thousand sq m in area, with a common cemetery within it. On the western side of the square lies a large-sized house-foundation, round which and round the square mediumand small-sized house-foundations are spread like a folding fan. The whole settlement displays a strong cohesion. The present paper reports mainly the moat G100, large-sized house-foundation F229, medium-sized F310 and F360, small-sized F5, adult tombs M222 and M1 and urn-burial M213. Being the first discovered early Yangshao settlement in the Gansu region, this is again a noteworthy achievement following the revelation of the Banpo, Jiangzhai and Beishouling sites. It provides valuable material for studying the social organization of prehistoric China and the evolution of then settlements.

  7. Characterization of soils containing adipocere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, S; Schneckenberger, K; Graw, M

    2004-11-01

    The formation of adipocere (commonly known as grave wax), a spontaneous inhibition of postmortem changes, has been extensively analyzed in forensic science. However, soils in which adipocere formation occurs have never been described in detail. Therefore, this study is intended as a first step in the characterization of soils containing adipocere. Two grave soils (Gleyic Anthrosols) that prevent the timely reuse of graves due to the occurrence of adipocere and a control soil (Gleyic Luvisol) were selected from a cemetery in the Central Black Forest (Southwest Germany). Descriptions of soil morphology and a wide assay of physical, chemical, and microbiologic soil characteristics were accomplished. In contrast to the control soil, the grave soils were characterized by lower bulk density and pH. The degradation of the soil structure caused by digging led to a higher water table and the expansion of the reducing conditions in the graves where the prevalent absence of oxygen in range of the coffins inhibited decomposition processes. Although the formation of adipocere led to the conservation of the buried corpses, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and cadavarine leaching from the graves was observed. Microbial biomass and microbial activity were higher in the control soil and hence reflected the inert character of adipocere. The study results clearly show the need for additional approaches in forensic, pedologic, and microbiologic research. PMID:15499507

  8. Estimation of seismic return periods in the Laguna Verde nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of seismic risk in the area of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant (PNLV) and its surroundings, one carries out estimating the different return periods and the occurrence probability in different intervals of time (5, 75, 100, 125, 150 years starting from the distribution of first type of Gumbel (G1) of extreme values (Burton, 1986), the value that was used to evaluate the useful life of the PNLV was of 50 years, the other periods will be occupy to evaluate 'temporal' nuclear cemeteries, that is to say for diminish the radioactive activity of the fuel assemblies already burned in the reactor pool or in a near place to the place. The seismic data that were used for the analysis were of the seismic catalog that it was elaborated from (1920-1982), around the place whose seismic half magnitude was of 5 grades Richter and a depth 65 km, these earthquakes are classified as shallow earthquakes, which are located in the continental plaque of North-America, these they are induced by the efforts of push of the plaque of Cocos, existing 36% of intermediate and 2 of deep earthquakes. (Author)

  9. Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Quanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far. Results Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K, whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin.

  10. 3D Reconstruction and Restoration Monitoring of Sculptural Artworks by a Multi-Sensor Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Barone

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, optical sensors are used to digitize sculptural artworks by exploiting various contactless technologies. Cultural Heritage applications may concern 3D reconstructions of sculptural shapes distinguished by small details distributed over large surfaces. These applications require robust multi-view procedures based on aligning several high resolution 3D measurements. In this paper, the integration of a 3D structured light scanner and a stereo photogrammetric sensor is proposed with the aim of reliably reconstructing large free form artworks. The structured light scanner provides high resolution range maps captured from different views. The stereo photogrammetric sensor measures the spatial location of each view by tracking a marker frame integral to the optical scanner. This procedure allows the computation of the rotation-translation matrix to transpose the range maps from local view coordinate systems to a unique global reference system defined by the stereo photogrammetric sensor. The artwork reconstructions can be further augmented by referring metadata related to restoration processes. In this paper, a methodology has been developed to map metadata to 3D models by capturing spatial references using a passive stereo-photogrammetric sensor. The multi-sensor framework has been experienced through the 3D reconstruction of a Statue of Hope located at the English Cemetery in Florence. This sculptural artwork has been a severe test due to the non-cooperative environment and the complex shape features distributed over a large surface.

  11. Compact Integration of a GSM-19 Magnetic Sensor with High-Precision Positioning using VRS GNSS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Belda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic data consists of a sequence of collected points with spatial coordinates and magnetic information. The spatial location of these points needs to be as exact as possible in order to develop a precise interpretation of magnetic anomalies. GPS is a valuable tool for accomplishing this objective, especially if the RTK approach is used. In this paper the VRS (Virtual Reference Station technique is introduced as a new approach for real-time positioning of magnetic sensors. The main advantages of the VRS approach are, firstly, that only a single GPS receiver is needed (no base station is necessary, reducing field work and equipment costs. Secondly, VRS can operate at distances separated 50-70 km from the reference stations without degrading accuracy. A compact integration of a GSM-19 magnetometer sensor with a geodetic GPS antenna is presented; this integration does not diminish the operational flexibility of the original magnetometer and can work with the VRS approach. The coupled devices were tested in marshlands around Gandia, a city located approximately 100 km South of Valencia (Spain, thought to be the site of a Roman cemetery. The results obtained show adequate geometry and high-precision positioning for the structures to be studied (a comparison with the original low precision GPS of the magnetometer is presented. Finally, the results of the magnetic survey are of great interest for archaeological purposes.

  12. Incidence of Infestation and Larval Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) on White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Chinese Fringetree (Chionanthus retusus), and Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M

    2015-10-01

    We compared the incidence of infestation by emerald ash borer (EAB) and lilac borer on white fringetree to that of its Asian congener, Chinese fringetree, Chionanthus retusus, and a North American relative, devilwood, Osmanthus americanus. We also conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the suitability of these hosts for EAB larvae. At Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 of 28 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB. Most of the white fringetrees had lilac borer infestation, and most of the trees infested by EAB also had lilac borer infestation. None of the 11 Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either EAB or lilac borer. Each of the five devilwood individuals examined was infested by lilac borer, but not EAB. At The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois, 7 of 16 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB, while none of the seven Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either insect. A 40-d bioassay confirmed that white fringetree was an acceptable host, producing fourth-instar larvae that were smaller than those produced on a highly susceptible cultivar of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. No larvae survived on Chinese fringetree, and neonates were largely incapable of feeding on it. Two larvae survived on devilwood, reaching the second instar and excavating extensive galleries. Future work should be aimed at biotic and abiotic factors influencing the susceptibility of white fringetree, as well as further examination of close relatives for their vulnerability to EAB. PMID:26314014

  13. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th–12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe. PMID:26963389

  14. Nova Scotia: ``Feu Follet" At Cheticamp, and Also the Phenomena At L'Sitkuk of the Mi'Kmaw, May Be Electromagnetic In Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Michael Ann; McLeod, Roger D.

    2001-11-01

    There is a strong tradition that ``feu follet" exists at the cemetery associated with the Acadian French at Cheticamp. It is described as a blue light, and may actually be the equivalent of an ascending, positively charged stream of ions in the atmosphere, just like the blue-light column that is often a precursor of a storm's lightning-strike. Similar phenomena are at America's Stonehenge, at a stone serpent effigy site in Ohio, and just north of the Lakes Memphremagog and Magog of Vermont and Canada. At the Bear River L'sitkuk Reservation area, which seems to us to have been a most unsuitable site, was deliberately chosen by the Mi'kmaw for their living area. Was this because certain properties of the electromagnetic field (EMF) are evident to them there, which also seem to be reflected in their legends? We hope to establish that these disparate cultures and their separate worldviews can be confirmed by the presence of particular EMF signatures. *This paper does not represent the views of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

  15. Sentiment in New York City: A High Resolution Spatial and Temporal View

    CERN Document Server

    Bertrand, Karla Z; Virdee, Kawandeep; Gros, Andreas; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-01-01

    Measuring public sentiment is a key task for researchers and policymakers alike. The explosion of available social media data allows for a more time-sensitive and geographically specific analysis than ever before. In this paper we analyze data from the micro-blogging site Twitter and generate a sentiment map of New York City. We develop a classifier specifically tuned for 140-character Twitter messages, or tweets, using key words, phrases and emoticons to determine the mood of each tweet. This method, combined with geotagging provided by users, enables us to gauge public sentiment on extremely fine-grained spatial and temporal scales. We find that public mood is generally highest in public parks and lowest at transportation hubs, and locate other areas of strong sentiment such as cemeteries, medical centers, a jail, and a sewage facility. Sentiment progressively improves with proximity to Times Square. Periodic patterns of sentiment fluctuate on both a daily and a weekly scale: more positive tweets are posted...

  16. Analysis of a prehistoric Egyptian iron bead with implications for the use and perception of meteorite iron in ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Diane; Tyldesley, Joyce; Lowe, Tristan; Withers, Philip J.; Grady, Monica M.

    2013-06-01

    Tube-shaped beads excavated from grave pits at the prehistoric Gerzeh cemetery, approximately 3300 BCE, represent the earliest known use of iron in Egypt. Using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and micro X-ray microcomputer tomography, we show that microstructural and chemical analysis of a Gerzeh iron bead is consistent with a cold-worked iron meteorite. Thin fragments of parallel bands of taenite within a meteoritic Widmanstätten pattern are present, with structural distortion caused by cold-working. The metal fragments retain their original chemistry of approximately 30 wt% nickel. The bulk of the bead is highly oxidized, with only approximately 2.4% of the total bead volume remaining as metal. Our results show that the first known example of the use of iron in Egypt was produced from a meteorite, its celestial origin having implications for both the perception of meteorite iron by ancient Egyptians and the development of metallurgical knowledge in the Nile Valley.

  17. Evaluation of elemental status of ancient human bone samples from Northeastern Hungary dated to the 10th century AD by XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janos, I., E-mail: janosi2@zeus.nyf.hu [Agricultural and Molecular Research Institute, College of Nyiregyhaza, H-4400 Nyiregyhaza (Hungary); Szathmary, L. [Department of Evolutionary Zoology and Human Biology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen H-4010 (Hungary); Nadas, E. [Agricultural and Molecular Research Institute, College of Nyiregyhaza, H-4400 Nyiregyhaza (Hungary); Beni, A. [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Nyiregyhaza, H-4400 Nyiregyhaza (Hungary); Dinya, Z.; Mathe, E. [Agricultural and Molecular Research Institute, College of Nyiregyhaza, H-4400 Nyiregyhaza (Hungary)

    2011-11-01

    The present study is a multielemental analysis of bone samples belonging to skeletal individuals originating from two contemporaneous (10th century AD) cemeteries (Tiszavasvari Nagy-Gyeparos and Nagycserkesz-Nadasibokor sites) in Northeastern Hungary, using the XRF analytical technique. Emitted X-rays were detected in order to determine the elemental composition of bones and to appreciate the possible influence of the burial environment on the elemental content of the human skeletal remains. Lumbar vertebral bodies were used for analysis. Applying the ED(P)XRF technique concentration of the following elements were determined: P, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br and Sr. The results indicated post mortem mineral exchange between the burial environment (soil) and bones (e.g. the enhanced levels of Fe and Mn) and referred to diagenetic alteration processes during burials. However, other elements such as Zn, Sr and Br seemed to be accumulated during the past life. On the basis of statistical analysis, clear separation could not be observed between the two excavation sites in their bone elemental concentrations which denoted similar diagenetic influences, environmental conditions. The enhanced levels of Sr might be connected with the past dietary habits, especially consumption of plant food.

  18. Time of travel of solutes in the Vermilion River, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandro, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Dye-tracer studies were made in November 1978 and in June 1979 to define streamflow patterns in the Vermilion River. For the November 1978 study the tracer was injected at two locations, Surrey Street in Lafayette and about 7 miles downstream at State Highway 3073; the discharge at Surrey Street at the time of injection was 218 cubic feet per second. The two dye clouds merged at Broussard Cemetery, about 12.2 miles downstream from Surrey Street, after an elapsed time of about 270 hours. After 438 hours the dye cloud extended form the Abbeville bridge (Louisiana Highway 14 Bypass) upstream about 14.5 miles. In June 1979, a tracer was injected into the river at Surrey Street at Lafayette; the discharge at Surrey Street at the time of injection was 161 cubic feet per second. Forty-two hours after injection the leading edge of the tracer was located at the Milton pumping plant, 14 miles downstream from the injection site. The average pumping rate of the plant during the study was 440 cubic feet per second. Ninety hours after injection, no indication of the tracer was found in the river, but the tracer was found in a rice-irrigation cannal at State Highway 14, about 10 miles west of Abbeville. (USGS)

  19. Monuments and martyrdom: Memorializing the dead in post-conflict North Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Duncan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how certain Tobelo and Galela communities in the eastern Indonesian province of North Maluku have dealt with the dead in the aftermath of the ethnic and religious violence that swept the region in 1999-2001. It focuses on the issue of martyrdom and the construction of memorials to those who died during the conflict. I argue that these memorials have a dual purpose. First and foremost they are about mourning and martyrdom. They serve local needs to respect and remember those who were lost in the conflict and to recognize the sacrifices made in the name of religion. This notion of martyrdom directly relates to another aspect of these monuments, attempts by local communities in North Maluku, particularly the Christian communities I focus on in this paper, to solidify their version of events in the public narrative. As the local government encourages people to put the conflict behind them and to forget about the violence, the construction of these memorials maintains the focus on the religious framing of past events. In building these monuments and martyr cemeteries, people are publicly staking a claim on their interpretation of history and literally putting their version in stone. They seek to do so before official accounts (or denials of what happened become hegemonic and pave over the nature of the violence and suffering that occurred. I also explore how the construction and placement of Christian memorials in churchyards contradicts previous church burial practices.

  20. POZO MORO Y LOS CAMBIOS SOCIO-ECONÓMICOS DE LA PROTOHISTORIA IBÉRICA DURANTE LOS SIGLOS V Y IV ANTES DE NUESTRA ERA (Pozo Moro and the socio-economic changes of Iberian protohistory during the 5th and 4th centuries BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Años atrás desarrollamos y propusimos una nueva metodología para medir estadísticamente el gasto funerario y establecer su relación con las fluctuaciones económicas de la civilización ibérica, obteniendo resultados sumamente significativos. Ahora, sin perder de vista esa columna vertebral como referente obligado, la necrópolis de Pozo Moro aporta novedades esclarecedoras sobre el pasado protohistórico de estos pueblos prerromanos durante los siglos V y IV antes de nuestra era. ENGLISH: Years ago we developed and proposed a new methodology for measuring statistically the funeral expense and establish its relationship with the economic fluctuations of Iberian civilization, getting highly significant results. Now, without losing sight the spine as a point of reference, Pozo Moro cemetery provides enlightening updates on the protohistoric past of these pre-Roman peoples during the V and IV centuries BC.

  1. Evaluation of elemental status of ancient human bone samples from Northeastern Hungary dated to the 10th century AD by XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    János, I.; Szathmáry, L.; Nádas, E.; Béni, A.; Dinya, Z.; Máthé, E.

    2011-11-01

    The present study is a multielemental analysis of bone samples belonging to skeletal individuals originating from two contemporaneous (10th century AD) cemeteries (Tiszavasvári Nagy-Gyepáros and Nagycserkesz-Nádasibokor sites) in Northeastern Hungary, using the XRF analytical technique. Emitted X-rays were detected in order to determine the elemental composition of bones and to appreciate the possible influence of the burial environment on the elemental content of the human skeletal remains. Lumbar vertebral bodies were used for analysis. Applying the ED(P)XRF technique concentration of the following elements were determined: P, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br and Sr. The results indicated post mortem mineral exchange between the burial environment (soil) and bones (e.g. the enhanced levels of Fe and Mn) and referred to diagenetic alteration processes during burials. However, other elements such as Zn, Sr and Br seemed to be accumulated during the past life. On the basis of statistical analysis, clear separation could not be observed between the two excavation sites in their bone elemental concentrations which denoted similar diagenetic influences, environmental conditions. The enhanced levels of Sr might be connected with the past dietary habits, especially consumption of plant food.

  2. Pemesinan Laju Tinggi dan Pemesinan Kering Menggunakan Pahat Karbida pada Bahan Aluminium 6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Umroh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of high speed machining and dry machining use for the best cutting conditions on the roughness aluminum 6061 material surface using a carbide tool. Collection machining test data is performed 4 times trial with 3 main variable is the rate of cutting (V, Ingestion rate (f and depth of cut (a at three levels of scale. The best surface roughness conditions is determined by the rate of the cemetery, where the rate of feeding is recommended at f = 0.12 mm/rev or < 0:17 mm/rev. Effect of cutting force is inversely proportional to the value of rate of cuts. At the greater of the cutting force so the surface roughness also getting smaller. Depth of cut and rate cuts also affects on the surface roughness but not in any condition determined. At the lowest state with V = 1000 m/min f = 0:12 mm/rev and a = 1 mm, surface defects (surface defect. Possibly, this is caused by the vibration of the tool due to lack of dynamic balance in the cutting process.

  3. Problems and Countermeasures of illegal use of Forestland in Guangdong Province%广东省违法违规使用林地问题与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区汉明

    2012-01-01

    广东省违法违规使用林地的主要问题表现在毁林采矿、重点工程项目未批先占、毁林开垦、毁林建坟等方面.文中分析问题发生的原因,指出特点:突发性、复杂性、尖锐性、艰巨性、长期性.提出应对措施:提前介入重点工程项目使用林地,积极配合做好补充耕地工作,规范征占用林地审核审批管理,加强基层林地管理人员技术培训,加大对违法违规使用林地行为的打击力度等.%Problems of illegal use of forest land in the Guangdong Province have been listed i. e, deforestation for mining, deforestation for key projects, deforestation for farmland and cemetery. This paper analyzed the characteristics of those problems like sudden, complex, acute, arduous, and long-term. Countermeasures i. e, be prepared to use forestland for key projects, actively cooperate with additional land use, regulate reclaimed forestland management, strengthen forest land management and technical training, crackdown illegal use of forestland behavior etc, have also been carried out.

  4. Laser assisted removal of synthetic painting-conservation materials using UV radiation of ns and fs pulse duration: Morphological studies on model samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to establish the optimal parameters for the cleaning of complex layers of polymers (mainly based on acrylics, vinyls, epoxys known as Elvacite, Laropal, Paraloid B72, among others) applied during past conservation treatments on the surface of wall paintings, laser cleaning tests were performed with particular emphasis on the plausible morphological modifications induced in the remaining polymeric material. Pulse duration effects were studied using laser systems of different pulse durations (ns and fs) at 248 nm. Prior to tests on real fragments from the Monumental Cemetery in Pisa (Italy) which were coated with different polymers, attention was focused on the study of model samples consisting of analogous polymer films cast on quartz disks. Ultraviolet irradiation is strongly absorbed by the studied materials both in ns and fs irradiation regimes. However, it is demonstrated that ultrashort laser pulses result in reduced morphological alterations in comparison to ns irradiation. In addition, the dependence of the observed alterations on the chemical composition of the consolidation materials in both regimes was examined. Most importantly, it was shown that in this specific conservation problem, an optimum cleaning process may rely not only on the minimization of laser-induced morphological changes but also on the exploitation of the conditions that favour the disruption of the adhesion between the synthetic material and the painting.

  5. The General Urban Plan of Casimcea territorial administrative unit, map of natural and anthropogenic risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BĂNICĂ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The General Urban Plan represents the legal ground for any development action proposed. After endorsement and approval as required by law, GUP is act of authority of local government for the area in which it applies. The aim is to establish priorities regulations applied in land use planning and construction of structures. In terms of geographical location, the administrative territory of Casimcea, Tulcea county, falls in the central Northwest Plateau Casimcei. This is the second unit of the Central Dobrogea Plateau. Geographical location in southeastern Romania, climatic and relief conditions and anthropogenic pressure, expose the village administrative territorial unit Casimcea, permanent susceptibility to produce natural and antropogenical risks. In this context, we identified the following categories of natural and anthropogenic risks: i natural risk phenomena (earthquakes, strong winds, heavy rains, floods caused by overflowing or precipitation, erosion of river banks and torrents, gravitational processes, rain droplet erosion and surface soil erosion; and ii anthropogenic risk phenomena (overgrazing, chemicals use in agriculture, road transport infrastructure and electricity, wind turbines for electricity production, waste deposits, agro-zootechnical complexs, and human cemeteries. Extending their surface was materialized by creating a map of natural and anthropogenic risk on Casimcea territorial administrative unit, explaining the share of potentially affected areas as territorial balance

  6. Potential economic impact of introduction and spread of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutrich, J.J.; VanGelder, E.; Loope, L.

    2007-01-01

    Globally, many invasive alien species have caused extensive ecological and economic damage from either accidental or intentional introduction. The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has created billions of dollars in costs annually, spreading as an invasive species across the southern United States. In 1998, the red imported fire ant spread into California creating a highly probable future introduction via shipped products to Hawaii. This paper presents the estimation of potential economic impacts of the red imported fire ant (RIFA) to the state of Hawaii. Evaluation of impacts focuses on the economic sectors of (1) households, (2) agriculture (cattle and crop production), (3) infrastructure (cemeteries, churches, cities, electrical, telephone, and cable services, highways, hospitals and schools), (4) recreation, tourism and business (hotels/resort areas, golf courses, commercial businesses and tourists), and (5) government expenditures (with minimal intervention). The full annual economic costs of the red imported fire ant to Hawaii are estimated (in US$ 2006) to be $211 million/year, comprised of $77 million in damages and expenditures and $134 million in foregone outdoor opportunities to households and tourists. The present value of the projected costs of RIFA over a 20-year period after introduction total $2.5 billion. RIFA invasions across the globe indicate that economic cost-effective action in Hawaii entails implementation of prevention, early detection and rapid response treatment programs for RIFA. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Are the ‘new’ AMS Varna dates older?

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    Tanya Dzhanfezova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates on the AMS dating results obtained for the Chalcolithic cemetery near Varna, located on the western Black Sea coast in northeastern Bulgaria. The focus here is not on the comparison between absolute dates acquired for various sites from the middle and late Chalcolithic period in the region. It is rather on the examination of the main approaches towards suggested chronological frameworks. Divided into three parts, the text reviews regional methods for proceeding conventional radiocarbon dates (II A and such, related to the later AMS measurement of bone collagen (II B. Both approaches are considered as deserving more attention with regard to the problematic aspects that may affect the acquisition of reliable results. The 19 new AMS Varna dates are found important for chronological revisions. However, at this stage they alone are not considered sufficient for inarguable modifications of the schemes (III. Along with identification of major factors that should be taken into account when dealing with the chronological debates in the specified region, strategies for solving some of the issues are also suggested.

  8. Estimation of seismic return periods in the Laguna Verde nuclear plant; Estimacion de periodos de retorno sismico en la PNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores R, J.H

    1992-01-15

    The study of seismic risk in the area of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant (PNLV) and its surroundings, one carries out estimating the different return periods and the occurrence probability in different intervals of time (5, 75, 100, 125, 150 years starting from the distribution of first type of Gumbel (G1) of extreme values (Burton, 1986), the value that was used to evaluate the useful life of the PNLV was of 50 years, the other periods will be occupy to evaluate 'temporal' nuclear cemeteries, that is to say for diminish the radioactive activity of the fuel assemblies already burned in the reactor pool or in a near place to the place. The seismic data that were used for the analysis were of the seismic catalog that it was elaborated from (1920-1982), around the place whose seismic half magnitude was of 5 grades Richter and a depth 65 km, these earthquakes are classified as shallow earthquakes, which are located in the continental plaque of North-America, these they are induced by the efforts of push of the plaque of Cocos, existing 36% of intermediate and 2 of deep earthquakes. (Author)

  9. Aposentos de la memoria dinástica. Mudanza y estabilidad en los panteones regios leoneses (1157-1230

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boto Varela, Gerardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the royal burial places of the Kingdom of León culminates in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. It is possible to consider that in this cathedral, before occupying the chapel of Santa Catalina, the royal tombs had been kept elsewhere, perhaps in a place with specifi c burial purpose. The morphology of the burial places of the kings of León was not homogeneous throughout three centuries. My aim is to discuss whether or not the notion of continuity was observed in the royal cemeteries as a whole, or if this continuity is the result of the views of chroniclers and historians.

    En la catedral de Santiago de Compostela culmina la historia de los panteones del reino de León. Es plausible considerar que antes de ocupar la capilla de Santa Catalina, las tumbas regias se reservaron en otro lugar, quizá alguno con vocación cementerial. La morfología de los panteones leoneses no fue homogénea a lo largo de tres siglos. Planteo si el conjunto de cementerios observó o no una continuidad o si esta idea responde a la visión de cronistas e historiadores.

  10. Necrópolis chilotas: un caso en la diversidad patrimonial de un territorio insular/Chiloé’s necropolis: a case study

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    Bravo Sánchez, José

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chiloé, en su condición de ínsula, se expresa en una riqueza cultural fuertemente territorializada, capaz de defenderse de las invasivas influencias foráneas. Merece la pena destacar una de las vigas que sostiene su andamiaje cultural: el poder omnipresente de la religión. En este sentido, sobresalen los cementerios chilotes como un ejemplo claro de simbiosis cultural religiosa que se manifiesta en una arquitectura mortuoria singular que enriquece al espacio y paisaje religioso de cada localidad./Chiloé, in its condition of island, it's express in a cultural wealth, heavily territorialized, with a capacity of defense of the invaders foreign influences. It's worth while to highlight at one of the girders that supports its cultural scaffolding: the omnipresent power of the religion. In this sense, chilotes cemeteries project like a clearly example of cultural symbiosis that it's exposes in a singular mortuary architecture that riches at religious space and landscape of each settlement.

  11. Isotopic tracing of the impact of mobility on infectious disease: The origin of people with treponematosis buried in hull, England, in the late medieval period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C A; Millard, A R; Nowell, G M; Gröcke, D R; Macpherson, C G; Pearson, D G; Evans, D H

    2013-02-01

    Treponematosis has been one of the most studied and debated infectious diseases in paleopathology, particularly from the standpoint of its origin, evolution, and transmission. This study links evidence for treponematosis in skeletons from the 14th-16th century AD cemetery of the Augustinian friary of Hull Magistrates Court, England, with data from stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis that the people with treponemal disease buried at this site were not locally born and raised. The objective is to explore the potential of using stable isotope data to track the place of origin and extent of mobility of individuals with an infectious disease. Dental enamel samples of 12 skeletons were selected for strontium ((87) Sr/(86) Sr ratio) and oxygen (δ(18) O) stable isotope analysis based on the presence (six - diseased) or absence (six - controls) of bone changes associated with treponemal disease. The oxygen isotope ratios of all but three individuals (1047, 1121, 823) overlapped at two standard deviations with the inferred local precipitation range, and only one individual (1216) had a strontium isotope ratio outside the regional range. Two of the four had probable/possible treponemal bone changes. Those with treponemal bone changes were not demonstrably more likely to be migrants than those without such lesions. However, because of extensive documentary evidence for trade with the Baltic Sea area, and for merchants from towns such as Stralsund, Danzig and Elbing being in Hull, it is very plausible that the four migrants came from the Baltic area or even southern Sweden. PMID:23280256

  12. Geometrics used as projectile points. Economic, social and ideological implications for the Neolithic societies of the 5th-3rd Millennium Cal. BC in Northeast Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibaja, Juan Francisco

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are going to present the results of the usewear analysis of the geometrics found in the Neolithic settlements and cemeteries of Catalonian. If the use-wear analysis has demostrated that these geometrics were used as projectile points, the statistical analysis has demostrated that are one of the elements mostly closely associated with adult male burials. This ha allowed us to propose a socioeconomic approach of the human groups that occupied these places.

    En este artículo presentamos los resultados del análisis funcional realizado sobre numerosos geométricos hallados en asentamientos y necrópolis de Cataluña. Si el análisis traceológico nos ha demostrado que estos geométricos fueron usados como proyectiles, el tratamiento estadístico nos ha permitido observar que son uno de los instrumentos más estrechamente asociados con los enterramientos de individuos adultos masculinos. Ello nos ha permitido hacer algunas reflexiones relacionadas con aspectos socio-económicos de las comunidades que ocuparon estos yacimientos.

  13. EXCAVACIÓN ARQUEOLÓGICA Y ANÁLISIS BIOARQUEOLÓGICO EN EL CEMENTERIO DE LA CAPITAL (MENDOZA. REPATRIACIÓN DE LOS RESTOS DE SANTOS ORTIZ E INÉS VÉLEZ DE ORTIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansegosa,Daniela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discloses the results of archaeological excavations in two graves in the cemetery of the city of Mendoza and bioarchaeological analysis carried out on skeletal remains of five individuals exhumed. These studies were conducted under the request for repatriation of the remains of Don Jose Santos Ortiz and Doña Ines Velez de Ortiz, by the government of the province of San Luis and family members. The exhumation and study of skeletal remains was authorized by the general direction of the heritage of Mendoza. It presents the methodology for the identification of individuals, as well as the techniques used for anatomical reassembly disjointed sets. The high frequency of tooth loss recorded is probably associated with a diet rich in carbohydrates and with elderly individuals. On the other hand, the combination of evidence with information bioarchaeological documentary sources allowed for different interpretations adjusted on family relationships of individuals as well as the cause of death of individuals who showed signs of violence.

  14. Results of the first western coal availability study -- Hilight quadrangle, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnia, C.L.; Biewick, L.R.H.; Blake, D. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center; Tewalt, S.J.; Carter, M.D. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Gaskill, C. [Bureau of Land Management, Casper, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, Geological Survey of Wyoming, and US Bureau of Mines, has produced an estimate of the amount of available coal in an area about 35 miles south of Gillette, Wyoming, where the Wyodak coal bed is, in places, more than 100 ft thick. Available coal is coal that actually is accessible for development under current regulatory, land-use, and technologic conditions. The first western coal availability study, in the Hilight quadrangle, has shown that approximately 60% (2.7 billion tons) of the total 4.4 billion tons of original coal resources in the quadrangle is available for development. Of this total 4.4 billion tons, 2.9 billion tons are contained in the Main Wyodak coal bed; 67% (1.9 billion tons) of this coal bed is considered available. Local coal-development considerations include dwellings, railroads, pipelines, power lines, wildlife habitat (eagles), alluvial valley floors, cemeteries, the Hilight oil and gas field, and the Hilight gas plant. Some of these considerations would be mitigated so that surface mining could proceed; others presently preclude mining in their vicinity.

  15. Evaluation of elemental status of ancient human bone samples from Northeastern Hungary dated to the 10th century AD by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is a multielemental analysis of bone samples belonging to skeletal individuals originating from two contemporaneous (10th century AD) cemeteries (Tiszavasvari Nagy-Gyeparos and Nagycserkesz-Nadasibokor sites) in Northeastern Hungary, using the XRF analytical technique. Emitted X-rays were detected in order to determine the elemental composition of bones and to appreciate the possible influence of the burial environment on the elemental content of the human skeletal remains. Lumbar vertebral bodies were used for analysis. Applying the ED(P)XRF technique concentration of the following elements were determined: P, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br and Sr. The results indicated post mortem mineral exchange between the burial environment (soil) and bones (e.g. the enhanced levels of Fe and Mn) and referred to diagenetic alteration processes during burials. However, other elements such as Zn, Sr and Br seemed to be accumulated during the past life. On the basis of statistical analysis, clear separation could not be observed between the two excavation sites in their bone elemental concentrations which denoted similar diagenetic influences, environmental conditions. The enhanced levels of Sr might be connected with the past dietary habits, especially consumption of plant food.

  16. Recent extreme rainfall-induced landslides and government countermeasures in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Gon; Hencher, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    During 2011 a large number of landslides occurred in South Korea as a result of heavy rainfall (160~300mm/day) which fell between 19 June and 27 July. Fifty eight people were killed and 200 injured at 11 locations. Almost 80% of the fatal landslides can be attributed at least in part to human activities such as an army camp, pedestrian road, forest road, cemetery, tomb, irrigation for vegetable garden and fruit farm. This paper addresses the anthropogenic influences on recent landslides in Korea. In addition, this paper discusses the Korean government countermeasures related to landslides. Restoration works tends to start immediately without design reports and without investigating the causes of landslides. Restoration works tend to comprise simple erosion control such as hard-covering to failure surfaces and the provision of check dams. These measures are implemented without any input from specialist geotechnical engineers. Persons injured or subject to economic loss as a result of landslides have often taken legal action against the Korean government. The most usual result is that experts appointed by the courts side with Government and simply conclude that the disasters are the natural consequence of heavy rainfall. As a result claimants have generally lost their cases and received no compensation. Furthermore, because of the lack of proper investigations there are no lessons learned from past landslides and no department has been established within the Korean government, tasked with reducing landslide risk.

  17. Famous Funerals in 19th Century Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadeta Wilk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cracow, the old capital of Polish Kingdom, has always performed a particular role in the Polish history and culture. In the nineteenth century, particulary in the period of galician autonomy 1860-1914, Cracow became the spiritual capital of Poland for generations of Poles who lived in the partitioned country, which was ruled by the three foreign powers together. About this phenomenon decided not only the autonomy but also the old tradition and the symbolism of this town. In the 19 th century and before the First World War, Cracow was the most influential centre of the Polish national life. In this time Crakow’s citizens decided to continue the old tradition of the royal burial. Since there were no longer any Polish monarchs, they resolved that the remains of the greatest national heroes, of writers and artists be buried on the Wawel Cathedral in the cemetery Rakowice and later in the Church of Paulinites fathers “on the rock”. Famous funerals in 19 th century Cracow, of which the best known were those of prince Joseph Poniatowski in 1817, general Thaddeus Kosciusko in 1818, king Casmir the Great in 1869 and of poet Adam Mickiewicz in 1890 alluded to royal ceremonies from the time of Polish independence. These funerals have been one of the main elements in patriotic and religious ceremonies and important part of the nation’s patriotic educations.

  18. Romanian medieval earring analysis by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest, (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now used for the characterization of archaeological materials. The combination between archaeological and analytical information can provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, heritage authentication and restoration, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange. Surface mapping techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence have become a powerful tool for obtaining qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of cultural heritage materials, including metallic archaeological objects. In this study, the material comes from the Middle Age cemetery of Feldioara (Romania). The excavation of the site located between the evangelical church and the parsonage led to the discovery of several funeral artifacts in 18 graves among a total of 127 excavated. Even if the inventory was quite poor, some of the objects helped in establishing the chronology. Six anonymous Hungarian denarii (silver coins) were attributed to Geza II (1141-1161) and Stefan III (1162-1172), placing the cemetery in the second half of the XII century. This period was also confirmed by three loop shaped earrings with the end in 'S' form (one small and two large earrings). The small earring was found during the excavation in grave number 86, while the two others were discovered together in grave number 113. The anthropological study shown that skeletons excavated from graves 86 and 113 belonged respectively to a child (1 individual, medium level preservation, 9 months +/- 3 months) and to an adult (1 individual). In this work, elemental mapping were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique from Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument offering detailed elemental images with a spatial resolution of 100{mu}m. The analysis revealed that the earrings were composed of copper, zinc and tin as major elements. Minor elements were also determined. The comparison between the two

  19. Romanian medieval earring analysis by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now used for the characterization of archaeological materials. The combination between archaeological and analytical information can provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, heritage authentication and restoration, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange. Surface mapping techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence have become a powerful tool for obtaining qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of cultural heritage materials, including metallic archaeological objects. In this study, the material comes from the Middle Age cemetery of Feldioara (Romania). The excavation of the site located between the evangelical church and the parsonage led to the discovery of several funeral artifacts in 18 graves among a total of 127 excavated. Even if the inventory was quite poor, some of the objects helped in establishing the chronology. Six anonymous Hungarian denarii (silver coins) were attributed to Geza II (1141-1161) and Stefan III (1162-1172), placing the cemetery in the second half of the XII century. This period was also confirmed by three loop shaped earrings with the end in 'S' form (one small and two large earrings). The small earring was found during the excavation in grave number 86, while the two others were discovered together in grave number 113. The anthropological study shown that skeletons excavated from graves 86 and 113 belonged respectively to a child (1 individual, medium level preservation, 9 months +/- 3 months) and to an adult (1 individual). In this work, elemental mapping were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique from Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument offering detailed elemental images with a spatial resolution of 100μm. The analysis revealed that the earrings were composed of copper, zinc and tin as major elements. Minor elements were also determined. The comparison between the two large earrings

  20. New quantitative, in-situ characterization of weathering in geomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivano, Simona; Gaggero, Laura; Gisbert Aguilar, Josep; Yus Gonzalez, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    The mineralogical and microtextural analyses of weathered rocks and mortars are the main diagnostic tools to address the materials exposed under different environmental conditions in order to enucleate and mitigate the decay factors. The characterization of weathering intensity is mostly descriptive and non-quantitative (ICOMOS Glossary, 2008); the Fitzner indexes in arenites (Fitzner et al., 2002) and more recently applied to marbles (Scrivano et al., 2013) provide an operator dependent method. The current diagnostic of decay (Drdàcky & Slìzkovà, 2014) based on a scotch tape tearing off the surface was improved by a specifically adapted pocket penetrometer, and a joint gravimetric + minero-chemical analysis under SEM of ablational decay products. The steps are the following: i) Preparation of stubs for SEM with adherent conductive carbon tape (surface area 1.3 cm2) ii) Weighing of stub + tape + its plastic envelope at 0.001 g precision iii) Connecting the stub to a pocket penetrometer iv) Non invasive sampling of the incoherent dust applying a constant pressure of 2 kgf for 1 minute, and then packing away the stub without loosing grains v) Weighing of stub + tape + weathering products + their plastic envelope at 0.001 g precision vi) Recast the weight of removed material vii) Addressing the weathering products to SEM - EDS. Our quantitative peeling test was applied on a 96m long cladded wall in the Staglieno Monumental Cemetery in Genoa. The wall shows weathering gradients due to a neighbouring interred stream and to different insulation. Slabs of ophicalcite marble were tested from three different areas (5 samples were collected to the E, 5 samples at the centre, 5 samples to the W). The results highlighted capillary rise up to 2 meters height and a more weathered central area. On the whole, our protocol allows a delicate, virtually not impacting and reproducible factual sampling. Moreover, if carried out on a statistically significant population, the decay

  1. The potency of Bukit Tapak forest as means for traditional ceremony, environmental conservation, and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN SUMANTERA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Bukit Tapak (1903 m the natural reserve of Batukau I (816.4 ha is one of three natural reserve area of Batukau (1762.8 ha, 1974. Located at the tourism object of Bedugul, the eastern part boundaries to the Botanic Garden Eka Karya-LIPI (154.5 ha, 1959 and settlement of Candikuning area (1152 family, 4475 persons and near the three lakes of the water resources of Bali; Beratan, Buyan and Tamblingan lake. The special plants; cemara geseng (Casuarina junghuhniana Miq., cemara pandak (Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume de Laub., nyabah (Pinanga arinasaensis J.R. Witono, paku kidang (Dicksonia blumei Planch., and purnajiwa (Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch. Benth.. The pioneer plant of the hill is cemara geseng and the endemic is cemara pandak. The plant of needle leaves that basically the existence of Bali Botanical Garden as the conservation ex situ flora of noodle leaves especially at the eastern Indonesian area. Nyabah, which is supposed to be the new kind of palm named Arinasa, driven from the staff name who is the pioneer of the conservation. Paku kidang is rare. There are ethnobotany plants of ritual ceremony such as: kayu tulak (Schefflera sp., kayu tulung (Brasaia sp., penjalin (Calamus sp., paku pidpid (Nephrolepis sp., trijata (Medinilla speciosa (Blume ex Mart. Blume, etc. Balinese people believe that forest is holly and sacred. But because of the existence of Pura Teratai Bang (16 century at the slope, moslem cemetery (found in 1938 at the peak, and other needs (climbing, food, medicine, etc., it can not be avoided the entrances of people that caused the forest is damaged. The forest reservation needs the approach to the local people, so the solution are morally and integration. The use of the forest which is potential as the environment education facilities conservation and other alternatives such as: horticulture, the improvement of the people economy discussed here to be the input for the forest conservation wisely and continuously.

  2. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Higham, Thomas F G; Oldfield, Ron; O'Connor, Terry P; Buckley, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C.) bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C.), their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC). We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves) in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt). Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py)-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period. PMID:25118605

  3. Identification of the nitrate contamination sources of the Brusselian sands groundwater body (Belgium) using a dual-isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Samuel; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge of the groundwater pollution source is of primary importance to define appropriate remediation strategies. Yet, the identification of the contamination sources remains a complicated task. A dual isotope approach has been used to provide information for tracing sources of nitrate in water. In this study, we used the naturally occurring stable isotopic composition of groundwater nitrate (1) to evaluate the origin of nitrate in the Brussels sands aquifer (Belgium) and (2) to study the temporal dynamics of the isotope signature of groundwater nitrate in this region. Potential N sources sampled in the region, including e.g. ammonium and nitrate mineral fertilizers, sewage and rain, had isotopic signatures that fell within the corresponding typical ranges found in literature. Some of them however deviated from the isotopic ranges corresponding to typical N sources, illustrating the impact of processes affecting the isotopic signature of the nitrate sources. During a pluri-annual sampling campaign, groundwater samples were collected at 10 moments between June 2007 and February of 2009 over 9 monitoring stations located in the western part of the study area. The isotopic data time series suggest that, most of the time, N applied on the soil has been cycled in the soil by micro-organisms before leaching to the groundwater, while the isotopic data and the high nitrate concentrations strongly suggests that nitrate of the groundwater sampled in January 2008 principally originates from mineral fertilizers. The isotopic data measured at some of the 114 monitoring stations across the study area strongly suggests that the sources of nitrate are mineral fertilizers used in agriculture and golf courses, manure leaching from unprotected stockpiles in farms, domestic gardening practices, cesspools and probably cemeteries. Isotopic data are particularly helpful when associated with other information like historical data about monitoring stations, land use, chemical parameters

  4. Childbearing during adolescence and offspring mortality: findings from three population-based cohorts in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Fernando C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of young maternal age as a determinant of adverse child health outcomes is controversial, with existing studies providing conflicting results. This work assessed the association between adolescent childbearing and early offspring mortality in three birth cohort studies from the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Methods All hospital births from 1982 (6,011, 1993 (5,304, and 2004 (4,287 were identified and these infants were followed up. Deaths were monitored through vital registration, visits to hospitals and cemeteries. The analyses were restricted to women younger than 30 years who delivered singletons (72%, 70% and 67% of the original cohorts, respectively. Maternal age was categorized into three groups ( Results There were no interactions between maternal age and cohort year. After adjustment for confounding, pooled ORs for mothers aged 12-19 years were 0.6 (95% CI = 0.4; 1.0 for fetal death, 0.9 (0.6; 1.3 for perinatal death, 1.0 (0.7; 1.6 for early neonatal death, 1.6 (0.7; 3.4 for late neonatal death, 1.8 (1.1; 2.9 for postneonatal death, and 1.6 (1.2; 2.1 for infant death, when compared to mothers aged 20-29 years. Further adjustment for mediating variables led to the disappearance of the excess of postneonatal mortality. The number of mothers younger than 16 years was not sufficient for most analyses. Conclusion The slightly increased odds of postneonatal mortality among children of adolescent mothers suggest that social and environmental factors may be more important than maternal biologic immaturity.

  5. Burying dogs in ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: temporal trends and relationships with human diet and subsistence practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losey, Robert J; Garvie-Lok, Sandra; Leonard, Jennifer A; Katzenberg, M Anne; Germonpré, Mietje; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail V; Goriunova, Olga I; Berdnikova, Natalia E; Savel'ev, Nikolai A

    2013-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region's dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7-8000 B.P.), and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region's human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia. PMID:23696851

  6. Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials.

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    Jana Jones

    Full Text Available Traditional theories on ancient Egyptian mummification postulate that in the prehistoric period (i.e. the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, 5th and 4th millennia B.C. bodies were naturally desiccated through the action of the hot, dry desert sand. Although molding of the body with resin-impregnated linen is believed to be an early Pharaonic forerunner to more complex processes, scientific evidence for the early use of resins in artificial mummification has until now been limited to isolated occurrences during the late Old Kingdom (c. 2200 B.C., their use becoming more apparent during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1600 BC. We examined linen wrappings from bodies in securely provenanced tombs (pit graves in the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian cemeteries at Mostagedda in the Badari region (Upper Egypt. Our investigations of these prehistoric funerary wrappings using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thermal desorption/pyrolysis (TD/Py-GC-MS have identified a pine resin, an aromatic plant extract, a plant gum/sugar, a natural petroleum source, and a plant oil/animal fat in directly AMS-dated funerary wrappings. Predating the earliest scientific evidence by more than a millennium, these embalming agents constitute complex, processed recipes of the same natural products, in similar proportions, as those utilized at the zenith of Pharaonic mummification some 3,000 years later. The antibacterial properties of some of these ingredients and the localized soft-tissue preservation that they would have afforded lead us to conclude that these represent the very beginnings of experimentation that would evolve into the famous mummification practice of the Pharaonic period.

  7. Calculation of financial compensation due of municipalities hosting nuclear waste deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata A. da, E-mail: renata.amaral@ufrj.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Simoes, Francisco Fernando L.; Martins, Vivian B., E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LIMA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Impactos Ambientais

    2011-07-01

    The present work evaluates the math from monthly financial transfers to municipalities with technical viability for building of initial or intermediate repository for storing of radioactivity nuclear waste: gloves, sneakers, mask, resins and filters came from thermonuclear facilities. Several aspects have been considered as the geological factors of the site as presence of capable faults, groundwater vulnerability, infiltration of seawater. Also, it was take into account socioeconomic factors: population density, costs for construction, maintenance and operation of repository; size and activity of waste; among others. Hereafter, we have presented the key features of low and average activity repository and high activity repository even as initial, intermediate and final repository and the possible environment impact. The methodology for calculation of financial compensation of municipalities was established by CNEN will be applied for a specific assumed municipality. The analysis of financial compensation due to the specific nuclear waste deposit and the possible guidelines for the use of that compensation by the municipality will be analyzed. In addiction, it will be compared the model for compensation used for nuclear wastes with other plants receiving permanent wastes from cemeteries and sanitary landfills, where the land should not be allowed for the human activities the same as: crops, livestock and buildings. Also, comparison with royalties and indemnities were paid by facilities of energy production as hydroelectric dams as well as petroleum and gas exploration plants. The destination of financial compensation transfer to the municipality is in charge of the city administration. The compensation could be applied of investments in education and culture, health, sanitation works, improvement of public transport, environment, among others. It will be discussed the cost-benefit relation for the assumed municipality. (author)

  8. Osteoarchaeological Studies of Human Systemic Stress of Early Urbanization in Late Shang at Anyang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Merrett, Deborah C.; Jing, Zhichun; Tang, Jigen; He, Yuling; Yue, Hongbin; Yue, Zhanwei; Yang, Dongya Y.

    2016-01-01

    Through the analysis of human skeletal remains and mortuary practice in Yinxu, this study investigates the impact of early urbanization on the commoners during the Late Shang dynasty (ca. 1250–1046 B.C.). A total of 347 individuals examined in this study represent non-elites who were recovered from two different burial contexts (formally buried in lineage cemeteries and randomly scattered in refuse pits). Frequencies of enamel hypoplasia (childhood stress), cribra orbitalia (childhood stress and frailty) and osteoperiostitis (adult stress) were examined to assess systemic stress exposure. Our results reveal that there was no significant difference in the frequency of enamel hypoplasia between two burial groups and between sexes, suggesting these urban commoners experienced similar stresses during childhood, but significantly elevated levels of cribra orbitalia and osteoperiostitis were observed in the refuse pit female cohort. Theoretically, urbanization would have resulted in increased population density in the urban centre, declining sanitary conditions, and increased risk of resource shortage. Biologically, children would be more vulnerable to such physiological disturbance; as a result, high percentages of enamel hypoplasia (80.9% overall) and cribra orbitalia (30.3% overall) are observed in Yin commoners. Adults continued to suffer from stress, resulting in high frequencies of osteoperiostitis (40.0% total adults); in particular, in the refuse pit females who may also reflect a compound impact of gender inequality. Our data show that the non-elite urban population in the capital city of Late Shang Dynasty had experienced extensive stress exposure due to early urbanization with further social stratification only worsening the situation, and eventually contributing to collapse of the Shang Dynasty. PMID:27050400

  9. Soil creep as factor of landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Many erosion models assume that soils are transported grain-by-grain, and thus calculate loss and deposition according to parameters such as bulk density and average grain size. However, there are indications that clay-rich soils, such as the widespread Red Mediterranean Soils or Terrae Rossae, behave differently. This is illustrated by a case study of historic landscape changes in Jordan, where evidence for soil creep as main process of soil movement was found in the context of ancient cemeteries. Due to a dominance of smectites, the Red Mediterranean Soils in this area shrink and form cracks during the dry period. Because of the cracks and underlying limestone karst, they can swallow strong rains without high erosion risk. However, when water-saturated, these soils expand and can start creeping. Buried geoarchaeological features like small water channels on formerly cleared rocks suggest that soils can move a few cm uplslope when wet, and buried graves illustrate that soil creep can create new level surfaces, sealing cavities but not completely filling them. Such processes seem associated with slumping and earth flows as instable rocks might collapse under the weight of a creeping soil. While it is very difficult to measure such processes, landscape archaeology offers at least an indirect approach that could be suited to estimate the scale and impact of soil creep. Analogies with modern rainfalls, including record levels of precipitation during the winter 1991/1992, indicate that similar levels of soil moisture have not been reached during times of modern instrumental rainfall monitoring. This suggests that very strong deluges must have occurred during historical periods, that could potentially cause tremendous damage to modern infrastructure if happening again.

  10. La iglesia de Santo Domingo de La Iruela (Jaén. Excavación y Arqueología de la arquitectura

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    Salvatierra Cuenca, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the results of the archaeological interventions carried out in the church of Santo Domingo in La Iruela, Jaén. The excavations revealed that, prior to the present building constructed in the 16th century, there was another one that may also have had religious functions. The stratigraphic analysis permit knowing that the entire building was constructed at once, although the materials of the apse and the naves were very different; which allows for different interpretations. However, it has been proved that the deterioration of the building began between the seventeenth and the eighteenth century. The last stage is represented by the desecration and its use as a cemetery, which has caused important damages on the faces.En este artículo presentamos los resultados de la intervención arqueológica efectuada en la iglesia de Santo Domingo de La Iruela (Jaén. Las excavaciones han permitido comprobar que antes del edificio actual, levantado en el siglo XVI, existió otro, que quizá también tuvo funciones religiosas. El análisis estratigráfico de los restos emergentes ha demostrado que el último edificio se construyó en un solo momento, aunque se emplearon materiales muy diferentes en la cabecera y en las naves, lo que abre la puerta a diversas interpretaciones. Por otra parte se ha comprobado que entre los siglos XVII y XVIII debió comenzar el deterioro del edificio. La última fase viene representada por su desacralización y uso como cementerio, acción que ha provocado graves daños en sus paramentos.

  11. Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating of lime mortars: Methodological aspects and field study applications at CIRCE (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) has, recently, obtained some promising results in testing the feasibility of mortar radiocarbon dating by means of an ad hoc developed purification procedure (CryoSoniC: Cryobraking, Sonication, Centrifugation) applied to a series of laboratory mortars. Observed results encouraged CryoSoniC accuracy evaluation on genuine mortars sampled from archeological sites of known or independently constrained age (i.e., other 14C dates on different materials). In this study, some 14C measurements performed on genuine mortars will be discussed and compared with independently estimated (i.e., radiocarbon/archaeometrical dating) absolute chronologies of two Spanish sites. Observed results confirm the agreement of the CryoSoniC mortar dates with the archaeological expectations for both examined cases. Several authors reported the possibility of obtaining accurate radiocarbon dates of mortar matrices by analyzing lime lumps: binder-related particles of different sizes exclusively composed of calcium carbonate. In this paper, preliminary data for the absolute chronology reconstruction of the Basilica of the cemetery complex of Ponte della Lama (Canosa di Puglia, Italy) based on lime lumps will also be discussed. Dating accuracy will be quantified by comparing 14C data on mortar lime lumps from a funerary inscription of known age found near the Basilica, in the same study site. For this site, a comparison between absolute chronologies performed by bulk and CryoSoniC purified lime lumps, and charcoal incased in mortars (when found) will also be discussed. Observed results for this site provide evidence of how bulk lime lump dating may introduce systematic overestimations of the analyzed sample while CryoSoniC purification allows accurate dating.

  12. New results to discuss possibility of irrigation in Bat (Wadi Sharsah, northwestern Oman) before Hafit period (ca. 3100-2700 BCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouache, Eric; Desruelles, Stéphane; Eddargach, Wassel; Cammas, Cecilia; Wattez, Julia; Martin, Chloé; Tengberg, Margareta; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Cable, Charlotte; Thornton, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1989, the extensive archaeological site of Bat is situated within the Wadi Sharsah and around the modern village and palm grove of Bat, 24 km from the modern city of Ibri in northwestern Oman. The archaeological remains from the Bronze Age excavated by the Bat Archaeological Project are located in two mains areas. The northern area consists of a chain of low limestone hills cut by wadi tributaries leading to the main Wadi Sharsah. It is characterised by an exceptionnally high density of graves from two successive Bronze Age periods : Hafit (ca. 3100-2700 BCE) and Umm an-Nar (ca. 2700-2000 BCE). South of the Bat cemetery, in the flat part of the valley, there are several large circular structures (known historically as « towers ») and remains from both Hafit and Umm an-Nar periods, as well as later periods. Geomorphological mapping of the floodplain, associated with archaeological survey, have identified walls suggesting that during the Umm an-Nar period there was a system of irrigation which controlled flood water. Sedimentological, malacological, C14 dating and micromorphological studies of a 10 m long and 2.5 m high section located 143 m northeast of the Tower 1146 on the left bank of a small tributary of the Wadi Sharsah provide strong argument for the presence of an irrigation system that began before the Hafit period. New C14 datings confirm this hypothesis. Botanical macro-remains collected during the excavation of early Bronze Age structures at Bat further indicate the presence of date palm gardens since the 3rd millenium BCE allowing the cultivation of several crop species, in particular cereals. Most generally the global palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from our data supports a model of a general trend of aridification from Bronze Age to iron Age. Key words : Bronze Age, Holocene, Geomoephology, Micromorphology, Irrigation, Oman.

  13. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) underscore the importance of human intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Werner, Doreen; Schaffner, Francis; Kampen, Helge; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes). Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany. PMID:24992470

  14. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae underscore the importance of human intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee E Zielke

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes. Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany.

  15. Study of the production and distribution of middle horizon pottery of Cuzco, Peru by k0-based instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very important period of the Andean prehistory known as the Middle Horizon (A.D. 540-900) is associated with the widespread expansion of the Wari state from the region of Ayacucho. During this time, the Wari occupied much of Cuzco, building the large architectural complex of o Pikillacta and a large settlement located in Huaro Valley (southeast of Pikillacta), including the elite cemetery of Batan Urqu and a complex of domestic structures referred to as Ccotocotuyoc. The objective of the present research was to establish, in general terms, the provenience of certain pottery styles dating to the Middle Horizon which are known to the Southern Highlands, Cuzco region. The specific goal was to determine which of these ceramic styles were made in other regions and brought to Cuzco and which were imitations locally manufactured, and to compare their patterns of production and distribution with those of local ceramic styles. These data, in turn, being helpful for understanding some aspects of the social, economic and political dynamics of the Middle Horizon period at Cuzco. To reach the aforementioned objective, a set of 306 ceramic samples (taken from a population of more than 137000 specimens) were chemically analyzed by k0-based instrumental neutron activation analysis and the results processed by multivariate statistical methods. Special care was taken in our research to maintain quality control of the analytical results, which were produced in duplicate for every sample, and for repeated analysis of the NIST SRM 2704 (Buffalo River Sediment) and other reference materials as e.g. the well known Old Ohio Red Clay. All of the work was performed within the framework of the IAEA Regional Coordinated Research Program on Nuclear Analytical Techniques In Archaeological Investigations, under the terms of contract PER 9398/R1

  16. Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm

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    Erik Andersson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden—allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas—and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1 assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2 develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales. Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  17. Diet and social status on Taumako, a Polynesian outlier in the Southeastern Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinaston, Rebecca L; Buckley, Hallie R; Gray, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    Stable isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S) are used to characterize the diet of the adult individuals (n = 99) interred in the Namu burial ground located on the Polynesian outlier of Taumako (∼300-750 BP). Polynesian outliers are islands on the fringe of Remote Oceania that were inhabited by a back migration of populations from Polynesia during prehistory. As a result of admixture with nearby island communities, little is known about the social structure and social diversity of the prehistoric inhabitants of Taumako. The distribution of prestige grave goods within the Namu cemetery has been used as evidence to support the premise that Taumakoan social structure was stratified like Polynesian societies. Here we test the hypothesis that "wealthy" individuals and males will display isotopic ratios indicative of the consumption of "high status" foods in the Pacific islands such as pork, chicken, sea turtle, and pelagic fish. The isotope results suggest the δ(34) S values were diagenetically altered, possibly an effect of volcanism. The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios indicate that the diet of all the individuals included a mixture of C3 terrestrial plant foods (likely starchy staples such as yam, taro, and breadfruit, in addition to nuts) and a variety of marine resources, including reef and pelagic fish. The stable isotope results indicate that wealthy individuals and males were eating more foods from higher trophic levels, interpreted as being high status animal foods. The socially differentiated food consumption patterns are discussed within a Pacific island context. PMID:23868172

  18. Simon Newcomb, Other Aspects of His Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    Simon Newcomb (1835-1909) is perhaps the best known American astronomer of the late 19th century. Among the many aspects of his long career, he was one of the founders and the first president of what later became the American Astronomical Society. However, he wrote widely on subjects other than astronomy, even producing works of fiction. He was especially interested in economics and published such titles as A critical examination of our financial policy during the Southern rebellion, A plain man's talk on the labor question, Principles of political economy and others. The very interesting title, A statistical inquiry into the probability of causes of the production of sex in human offspring was written in 1904. Newcomb even produced a work of science fiction, His Wisdom, the Defender: a story, published in 1900. William Alvord, President of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, on awarding Newcomb the Bruce Medal stated “The essential quality of his mind is that of a philosopher rather than that of a mathematician or an astronomer merely.” It has been suggested (Bradley Schaefer and others) that Arthur Conan Doyle used Newcomb as the model for Prof. Moriarty in his Sherlock Holmes novels. He had close friendships with many scientists of his time including Alexander Graham Bell. On the other hand, it has been reported that he also had contentious relationships with some scientists and could be intimidating. A devoted family man, he encouraged his three daughters in their intellectual pursuits. Newcomb, who held naval rank in the Corps of Professors of Mathematics, was buried in Arlington National Cemetery with full military honors. His funeral was attended by many noted scientists and other dignitaries including President William Howard Taft.

  19. An archaeological reconnaissance and evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Reservation, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuVall, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    At the request of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee, an archaeological reconnaissance and evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed areas was conducted between June I and September 2, 1993. The project was conducted by Glyn D. DuVall, Principal Investigator. ORNL project representative, Peter Souza, accompanied the principal investigator during all project evaluations. The reconnaissance to assess adverse impacts to cultural resources located within the boundaries of federally licensed, permitted, funded or assisted projects was conducted in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (Public Law 89-665; 16 USC 470; 80 Stat. 915), National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Public Law 91-190; 91 Stat. 852; 42 USC 4321-4347) and Executive Order 11593 (May 13, 1971). Based upon the reconnaissance, a search of the site files at the Tennessee Division of Archaeology and a search of the National Register of Historic Places, the proposed construction on the site will have no impact on any property included in or eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places pursuant to 36 CFR 60.4. This judgement is based on the amount of prior disturbance associated with ORNL during the past 50 years. Construction in the vicinity of the New Bethel Baptist Church and Cemetery should allow sufficient buffer to avoid direct and visual impact to the property. The determination of sufficient buffer area, either distance or vegetative, should be coordinated with the Tennessee Historical Commission, Office of the State Historic Preservation Officer.

  20. Paleomobility in the Tiwanaku diaspora: biogeochemical analyses at Rio Muerto, Moquegua, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Kelly J; Goldstein, Paul S; Dahlstedt, Allisen; Somerville, Andrew; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2014-11-01

    Paleomobility has been a key element in the study of the expansion of ancient states and empires, including the Tiwanaku polity of the South Central Andes (AD 500-1000). We present radiogenic strontium and oxygen isotope data from human burials from three cemeteries in the Tiwanaku-affiliated Middle Horizon archaeological site complex of Rio Muerto in the Moquegua Valley of southern Peru. At Rio Muerto, archaeological human enamel and bone values range from (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70657-0.72018, with a mean of (87) Sr/(86) Sr = 0.70804 ± 0.00207 (1σ, n = 55). For the subset of samples analyzed for oxygen isotope values (n = 48), the data ranges from δ(18) Ocarbonate(VSMOW)  = +18.1 to +27.0‰. When contextualized with other lines of archaeological evidence, we interpret these data as evidence for an archaeological population in which the majority of individuals had "local" origins, and were likely second-generation, or more, immigrants from the Tiwanaku heartland in the altiplano. Based on detailed life history data, we argue a smaller number of individuals came at different ages from various regions within the Tiwanaku polity. We consider whether these individuals with isotopic values consistent with "nonlocal" geographic origins could represent first-generation migrants, marriage exchange partners, or occupationally mobile herders, traders or other travelers. By combining isotopic life history studies with mortuary treatment data, we use a person-centered migration history approach to state integration and expansion. Isotopic analyses of paleomobility at the Rio Muerto site complex contribute to the role of diversity in ancient states by demonstrating the range of geographic origins rather than simply colonists from the Lake Titicaca Basin. PMID:25066931

  1. Burying dogs in ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: temporal trends and relationships with human diet and subsistence practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Losey

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region's dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7-8000 B.P., and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica. Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region's human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia.

  2. Earliest evidence for caries and exploitation of starchy plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Louise T; De Groote, Isabelle; Morales, Jacob; Barton, Nick; Collcutt, Simon; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil

    2014-01-21

    Dental caries is an infectious disease that causes tooth decay. The high prevalence of dental caries in recent humans is attributed to more frequent consumption of plant foods rich in fermentable carbohydrates in food-producing societies. The transition from hunting and gathering to food production is associated with a change in the composition of the oral microbiota and broadly coincides with the estimated timing of a demographic expansion in Streptococcus mutans, a causative agent of human dental caries. Here we present evidence linking a high prevalence of caries to reliance on highly cariogenic wild plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from North Africa, predating other high caries populations and the first signs of food production by several thousand years. Archaeological deposits at Grotte des Pigeons in Morocco document extensive evidence for human occupation during the Middle Stone Age and Later Stone Age (Iberomaurusian), and incorporate numerous human burials representing the earliest known cemetery in the Maghreb. Macrobotanical remains from occupational deposits dated between 15,000 and 13,700 cal B.P. provide evidence for systematic harvesting and processing of edible wild plants, including acorns and pine nuts. Analysis of oral pathology reveals an exceptionally high prevalence of caries (51.2% of teeth in adult dentitions), comparable to modern industrialized populations with a diet high in refined sugars and processed cereals. We infer that increased reliance on wild plants rich in fermentable carbohydrates and changes in food processing caused an early shift toward a disease-associated oral microbiota in this population. PMID:24395774

  3. Osteoarchaeological Studies of Human Systemic Stress of Early Urbanization in Late Shang at Anyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Merrett, Deborah C; Jing, Zhichun; Tang, Jigen; He, Yuling; Yue, Hongbin; Yue, Zhanwei; Yang, Dongya Y

    2016-01-01

    Through the analysis of human skeletal remains and mortuary practice in Yinxu, this study investigates the impact of early urbanization on the commoners during the Late Shang dynasty (ca. 1250-1046 B.C.). A total of 347 individuals examined in this study represent non-elites who were recovered from two different burial contexts (formally buried in lineage cemeteries and randomly scattered in refuse pits). Frequencies of enamel hypoplasia (childhood stress), cribra orbitalia (childhood stress and frailty) and osteoperiostitis (adult stress) were examined to assess systemic stress exposure. Our results reveal that there was no significant difference in the frequency of enamel hypoplasia between two burial groups and between sexes, suggesting these urban commoners experienced similar stresses during childhood, but significantly elevated levels of cribra orbitalia and osteoperiostitis were observed in the refuse pit female cohort. Theoretically, urbanization would have resulted in increased population density in the urban centre, declining sanitary conditions, and increased risk of resource shortage. Biologically, children would be more vulnerable to such physiological disturbance; as a result, high percentages of enamel hypoplasia (80.9% overall) and cribra orbitalia (30.3% overall) are observed in Yin commoners. Adults continued to suffer from stress, resulting in high frequencies of osteoperiostitis (40.0% total adults); in particular, in the refuse pit females who may also reflect a compound impact of gender inequality. Our data show that the non-elite urban population in the capital city of Late Shang Dynasty had experienced extensive stress exposure due to early urbanization with further social stratification only worsening the situation, and eventually contributing to collapse of the Shang Dynasty. PMID:27050400

  4. Monitoring buried remains with a transparent 3D half bird's eye view of ground penetrating radar data in the Zeynel Bey tomb in the ancient city of Hasankeyf, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to show a new monitoring approximation for ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. The method was used to define buried archaeological remains inside and outside the Zeynel Bey tomb in Hasankeyf, an ancient city in south-eastern Turkey. The study examined whether the proposed GPR method could yield useful results at this highly restricted site, which has a maximum diameter inside the tomb of 4 m. A transparent three-dimensional (3D) half bird's eye view was constructed from a processed parallel-aligned two-dimensional GPR profile data set by using an opaque approximation instead of linear opacity. Interactive visualizations of transparent 3D sub-data volumes were conducted. The amplitude-colour scale was balanced by the amplitude range of the buried remains in a depth range, and appointed a different opaque value for this range, in order to distinguish the buried remains from one another. Therefore, the maximum amplitude values of the amplitude-colour scale were rearranged with the same colour range. This process clearly revealed buried remains in depth slices and transparent 3D data volumes. However, the transparent 3D half bird's eye views of the GPR data better revealed the remains than the depth slices of the same data. In addition, the results showed that the half bird's eye perspective was important in order to image the buried remains. Two rectangular walls were defined, one within and the other perpendicularly, in the basement structure of the Zeynel Bey tomb, and a cemetery was identified aligned in the east–west direction at the north side of the tomb. The transparent 3D half bird's eye view of the GPR data set also determined the buried walls outside the tomb. The findings of the excavation works at the Zeynel Bey tomb successfully overlapped with the new visualization results

  5. Accelerator mass spectrometry {sup 14}C dating of lime mortars: Methodological aspects and field study applications at CIRCE (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzaioli, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.marzaioli@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Nonni, Sara, E-mail: sara.nonni@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, ' Sapienza' Universita di Roma (Italy); Passariello, Isabella, E-mail: isabella.passariello@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Capano, Manuela, E-mail: manuela.capano@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Dipartimento di Studio delle Componenti Culturali del Territorio, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Caserta (Italy); Ricci, Paola, E-mail: paola.ricci@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Lubritto, Carmine, E-mail: carmine.lubritto@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); De Cesare, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.decesare@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Caserta (Italy); Eramo, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.eramo@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e Geoambientali, Universita degli Studi di Bari ' Aldo Moro' , Bari (Italy); Quiros Castillo, Juan Antonio, E-mail: quiros.castillo@ehu.es [Universidad del Pais Vasco-Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Dipartimento di Geografia, Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); and others

    2013-01-15

    Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) has, recently, obtained some promising results in testing the feasibility of mortar radiocarbon dating by means of an ad hoc developed purification procedure (CryoSoniC: Cryobraking, Sonication, Centrifugation) applied to a series of laboratory mortars. Observed results encouraged CryoSoniC accuracy evaluation on genuine mortars sampled from archeological sites of known or independently constrained age (i.e., other {sup 14}C dates on different materials). In this study, some {sup 14}C measurements performed on genuine mortars will be discussed and compared with independently estimated (i.e., radiocarbon/archaeometrical dating) absolute chronologies of two Spanish sites. Observed results confirm the agreement of the CryoSoniC mortar dates with the archaeological expectations for both examined cases. Several authors reported the possibility of obtaining accurate radiocarbon dates of mortar matrices by analyzing lime lumps: binder-related particles of different sizes exclusively composed of calcium carbonate. In this paper, preliminary data for the absolute chronology reconstruction of the Basilica of the cemetery complex of Ponte della Lama (Canosa di Puglia, Italy) based on lime lumps will also be discussed. Dating accuracy will be quantified by comparing {sup 14}C data on mortar lime lumps from a funerary inscription of known age found near the Basilica, in the same study site. For this site, a comparison between absolute chronologies performed by bulk and CryoSoniC purified lime lumps, and charcoal incased in mortars (when found) will also be discussed. Observed results for this site provide evidence of how bulk lime lump dating may introduce systematic overestimations of the analyzed sample while CryoSoniC purification allows accurate dating.

  6. Celebrating Benedict Kiely 2007 Benedict Kiely Weekend Keynote Address

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pierce

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Benedict Kiely (1919-2007 has an annual weekend devoted to his memory as one ofIreland’s leading writers in the modern period. The sixth such event was held in the newly-built Strule Arts Centre in Omagh in September 2007. Kiely lived most of his life in Dublin, pursuing a career as a journalist and a writer, but his roots were in County Tyrone. Educated by the Christian Brothers in Omagh, he embarked on a Jesuit novitiate in the Irish Midlands but this was cut short by a spinal injury, which meant a year of confinement on the broad of his back. Subsequently, he went on to read English and History at University College Dublin. His journalistic career took him first to the Irish Independent and then to the Irish Press, where he was literary editor. In the 1960s he took up visiting professorships at several North American colleges in Oregon and Tennessee. On his return he became well-known on Irish radio for talks and discussion programmes, and he was a regular contributor to Sunday Miscellany. A sharp observer of the Northern scene, he was particularly disturbed by the upsurge in violence in the recent Troubles, airing his grievances in imaginative works such as Proxopera (1977 andNothing Happens in Carmincross (1985. He died in Dublin on 9 February 2007 after a short illness, and after Requiem mass in Donnybrook he was laid to rest in the Dublin Road Cemetery in Omagh. The following is the text of the opening address I was invited to give at the sixth annual weekend. I spoke about Kiely’s sense of connection running through his writings.

  7. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume III. Cultural resource assessment socioeconomic background data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, Heather; Janzen, Donald E.

    1980-11-26

    This report has been prepared in conjunction with an environmental baseline study for a commercial coal conversion facility being conducted by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company (AECO). This report represents a cultural resource assessment for the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. This assessment presents data collected by Dames and Moore during a recent archaeological reconnaissance of the unsurveyed southeastern portion of the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. Also, results of two previous surveys on the northern and southwestern portion of the plant site for American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) and Kentucky Utilities are included. The Dames and Moore survey of the southeastern portion of the plant site identified one archaeological site, three standing structures and one historic cemetery. In addition 47 archaeological sites and six standing structures are known from two previous surveys of the remainder of the plant site (Cowan 1975 and Turnbow et al 1980). Eleven of the previously recorded archaeological sites were recommended for further assessment to evaluate their potential for inclusion within the Holt Bottoms Archaeological District currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places. None of the archaeological sites or standing structures located within the plant site during the Dames and Moore survey were recommended for further assessment. A total of eight archaeological sites were located during the Dames and Moore survey of the two potential solid waste disposal areas. Of this total only two sites were recommended for further assessment. Also, one previously unknown historic cemetry was located in the southernmost potential waste disposal area.

  8. Apotropaic practices and the undead: a biogeochemical assessment of deviant burials in post-medieval poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley A Gregoricka

    Full Text Available Apotropaic observances-traditional practices intended to prevent evil-were not uncommon in post-medieval Poland, and included specific treatment of the dead for those considered at risk for becoming vampires. Excavations at the Drawsko 1 cemetery (17th-18th c. AD have revealed multiple examples (n = 6 of such deviant burials amidst hundreds of normative interments. While historic records describe the many potential reasons why some were more susceptible to vampirism than others, no study has attempted to discern differences in social identity between individuals within standard and deviant burials using biogeochemical analyses of human skeletal remains. The hypothesis that the individuals selected for apotropaic burial rites were non-local immigrants whose geographic origins differed from the local community was tested using radiogenic strontium isotope ratios from archaeological dental enamel. 87Sr/86Sr ratios ( = 0.7112±0.0006, 1σ from the permanent molars of 60 individuals reflect a predominantly local population, with all individuals interred as potential vampires exhibiting local strontium isotope ratios. These data indicate that those targeted for apotropaic practices were not migrants to the region, but instead, represented local individuals whose social identity or manner of death marked them with suspicion in some other way. Cholera epidemics that swept across much of Eastern Europe during the 17th century may provide one alternate explanation as to the reason behind these apotropaic mortuary customs, as the first person to die from an infectious disease outbreak was presumed more likely to return from the dead as a vampire.

  9. Institutional arrangement and typology of community forests of Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland of North-East India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.K.Tiwari; H.Tynsong; M.M.Lynrah; E.Lapasam; S.Deb; D.Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Most community forests in hill regions of northeast India have been managed by traditional local institutions for centuries and most of these institutions remain functional even today.Higher forest coverage on private and community lands as compared to government land indicates that traditional institutions effectively manage community forests in the region.The present study was conducted through a survey of literature and field work using participatory research tools viz.,PRA exercises,group discussions and questionnaire interviews with key informants in northeast India.We categorized the institutions involved in conservation and management of forests into three major types:traditional,quasi-traditional and modern.Traditional institutions with hierarchal structure were found in all states and are intact and functional in the state of Meghalaya.Quasi-traditional institutions,a blend of traditional and modern institutions were prevalent in Nagaland while moderninstitutions have almost replaced traditional institutions in Mizoram.We recorded at least eleven types of community forests viz.,group of village forest,village forest,restricted forest,sacred forest,clan forest,cemetery forest,regeneration forest,bamboo forest,recreation forest,village reserved forest and medicinal plantation in villages of three states.The tribal people,through long-term trial and error experiments,have developed an elaborate,functional and generally democratic system of conservation and management of forests and associated natural ecosystems.Several forest and natural resource management lessons can be learnt from the institutional structure and decision making system of the evolving and dynamic institutions of tribal communities of the region.

  10. TIRO Y LAS FLUCTUACIONES DE LA ECONOMÍA FENICIA DURANTE EL SIGLO VIII ANTES DE NUESTRA ERA (Tyre and the Fluctuations of Phoenician Economy during the 8th Century BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación del método de valoración contextual al análisis de los ajuares funerarios hasta ahora publicados de la necrópolis fenicia de Tiro-Al Bass, Líbano, permite aislar las fluctuaciones económicas y los cambios sociales experimentados por la población tiria durante el siglo VIII a. C. En concreto, se detecta una larga prosperidad desde mediados del siglo IX hasta mediados del VIII antes de nuestra era, con un máximo de bonanza a lo largo del periodo 775-750 a. C. En cambio, la segunda mitad del siglo VIII muestra una aguda crisis económica asociada a una elevada conflictividad social. Estos resultados coinciden plenamente con los acontecimientos históricos conocidos a través de las fuentes literarias antiguas, aportando evidencias que las complementan. En todo caso, con este nuevo ejemplo se confirma, una vez más, la universalidad de la metodología empleada y su irrefutable validez científica. ENGLISH: By applying the contextual valuation method to the analysis of grave goods from the Phoenician cemetery of Tyre-Al Bass, Lebanon, we can isolate the economic fluctuations and social changes experienced by the Tyrian population during the 8th century BC. Based on the evidence, the mid-9th to the mid-8th century BC was a period of prosperity, with the most pronounced economic boom between 775-750 BC. In contrast, the second half of the 8th century BC shows a sharp economic crisis associated with a high level of social conflict. These results are fully consistent with the historical events known through ancient literary sources. This new example confirms the universality of this methodology and its irrefutable scientific validity.

  11. Intraskeletal isotopic compositions (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) of bone collagen: nonpathological and pathological variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Karyn C; White, Christine D; Longstaffe, Fred J; von Heyking, Kristin; McGlynn, George; Grupe, Gisela; Rühli, Frank J

    2014-04-01

    Paleodiet research traditionally interprets differences in collagen isotopic compositions (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) as indicators of dietary distinction even though physiological processes likely play some role in creating variation. This research investigates the degree to which bone collagen δ(13) C and δ(15) N values normally vary within the skeleton and examines the influence of several diseases common to ancient populations on these isotopic compositions. The samples derive from two medieval German cemeteries and one Swiss reference collection and include examples of metabolic disease (rickets/osteomalacia), degenerative joint disease (osteoarthritis), trauma (fracture), infection (osteomyelitis), and inflammation (periostitis). A separate subset of visibly nonpathological skeletal elements from the German collections established normal intraindividual variation. For each disease type, tests compared bone lesion samples to those near and distant to the lesions sites. Results show that normal (nonpathological) skeletons exhibit limited intraskeletal variation in carbon- and nitrogen-isotope ratios, suggesting that sampling of distinct elements is appropriate for paleodiet studies. In contrast, individuals with osteomyelitis, healed fractures, and osteoarthritis exhibit significant intraskeletal differences in isotope values, depending on whether one is comparing lesions to near or to distant sites. Skeletons with periostitis result in significant intraskeletal differences in nitrogen isotope values only, while those with rickets/osteomalacia do not exhibit significant intraskeletal differences. Based on these results, we suggest that paleodiet researchers avoid sampling collagen at or close to lesion sites because the isotope values may be reflecting both altered metabolic processes and differences in diet relative to others in the population. PMID:24374993

  12. Health in post-Black Death London (1350-1538): age patterns of periosteal new bone formation in a post-epidemic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2014-10-01

    Previous research has shown that the Black Death targeted older adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. This project investigates whether this selectivity of the Black Death, combined with post-epidemic rising standards of living, led to significant improvements in patterns of skeletal stress markers, and by inference in health, among survivors and their descendants. Patterns of periosteal lesions (which have been previously shown, using hazard analysis, to be associated with elevated risks of mortality in medieval London) are compared between samples from pre-Black Death (c. 1,000-1,300, n = 464) and post-Black Death (c. 1,350-1,538, n = 133) London cemeteries. To avoid the assumptions that stress markers alone provide a direct measure of health and that a change in frequencies of the stress marker by itself indicates changes in health, this study assesses age-patterns of the stress marker to obtain a more nuanced understanding of the population-level effects of an epidemic disease. Age-at-death in these samples is estimated using transition analysis, which provides point estimates of age even for the oldest adults in these samples and thus allows for an examination of physiological stress across the lifespan. The frequency of lesions is significantly higher in the post-Black Death sample, which, at face value, might indicate a general decline in health. However, a significant positive association between age and periosteal lesions, as well as a significantly higher number of older adults in the post-Black Death sample more likely suggests improvements in health following the epidemic. PMID:24740642

  13. Youth projects in Zamglay village in the Ripkynsky district of the Chernihiv region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population of Zamglay village is 1985 and about 400 inhabitants are young people. The village is located 70 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and experienced radioactive contamination during the disaster. As the years passed, radiation conditions fortunately improved, but unemployment and poverty caused by the closure of local enterprises became much worse. Impoverishment of the population has caused alcoholism and drug addiction of young people. Apathy and passivity towards life developed in people. People became accustomed to receiving low subsidies from the State authorized to 'chernobyltsy' (Chernobyl-affected people) and to doing nothing, dragging out a passive existence. People who were looking for a better life began to leave the village. The situation was difficult. People finally understood that they should not rely on the help of others. People said: 'If we don't help ourselves, who will help us?' 'We can help ourselves!' was the answer. We have understood that our power lies in our unity. In March 2003, the population of the village united in two organizations: 'Pobeda' (Victory) community organization and 'Ogonyok' (Light) community organization. We have jointly defined priorities and common projects for village recovery. We started by putting the cemetery in order, cleaning the streets, repairing the fences, water supply systems, wells and reconstruction of the local market. We then implemented projects on reconstruction of health clinics, repairing the school's workshop and sports ground, and laying a gas supply system. We implemented these projects with the assistance of the UNDP's Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme. There are also problems. The absence of telecommunications infrastructure does not allow reliable modern access to the internet. To implement business plans, available credit lines, training and experience are needed. This requires the assistance of the international community and the State. However, we have already

  14. Greening and “un”greening Adelaide, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The original design for Adelaide, the capital city of the state of South Australia, incorporated a green belt (known as the Park Lands around the city centre, itself laid out on a one square mile (2.59 km2 grid and including five large public squares. The Park Lands provided a barrier to urban sprawl and covered approximately 9.31 km2, of which 1.53 km2 has been used subsequently for cultural institutions, railways, cemeteries, sporting facilities and other constructions. In addressing issues of greening pertaining to Adelaide, the Park Lands and its management represents a core element in the evolving history of the city's growth. This paper will consider some of the contradictions within this growth, examining the changing attitudes of government and the populace to the Park Lands and also to the increasing sprawl of the city. It can be argued that this sprawl has been antithetical to maintenance of biodiversity and principles of “greening”, not only during the main phase of expansion in the 1960s and 1970s but also in recent years when planned development on prime farmland and other “green” areas is contributing to problems for provision of transport infrastructure and generally reducing capacity for sustainability. The potential for conflict between the desire to maintain biodiversity versus protection for the growing number of people moving into bushfire risk areas is just one of several examples of problems arising as a result of a relaxed attitude to low-density expansion. In examining these problems the paper will present maps of the changing footprint of Adelaide and will elaborate new “greening” initiatives that include green roofs, new systems of water harvesting, community-supported agriculture and schemes directly aimed at creating low-carbon living. A consistent theme will be the contradictions within plans for the city between greening and “un”greening.

  15. Metric sex estimation from the postcranial skeleton for the Colombian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Megan K; DiGangi, Elizabeth A; Niño Ruíz, Francis Paola; Hidalgo Davila, Oscar Joaquín; Sanabria Medina, César

    2016-05-01

    This research explores the best univariate and multivariate indicators for sex estimation using 51 standard osteometric measurements of all six major postcranial long bones, bones of the shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, and the calcaneus from a modern, Colombian skeletal collection. The hypotheses being tested are (1) that postcrania will yield accurate sex classification rates and (2) the shoulder girdle will demonstrate the highest discrimination, based on results from previous research. The sample consists of 134 individuals (50 females, 84 males) between the ages of 19 and 93 with a mean age of 47 years. The sample is from the Colombian Skeletal Collection, consisting of skeletons from cemeteries in Bogotá, with recent years of death. The methods include univariate and multivariate discriminant function analysis (DFA). The results for this sample indicate the same general pattern of univariate classification effectiveness as found in research on North Americans; however, here the humerus performs better than the distal femur and proximal tibia as demonstrated in some North American samples. The cross-validated percent correct univariate classification for the postcranial elements ranges from 64.8% to 86.1% (paids in forensic individuation, as the long bones of the postcranial elements are relatively resistant to taphonomic processes. Furthermore, the ability to achieve such a high degree of success from a single bone is preferable for the fast-paced forensic anthropology laboratories in Colombia that process hundreds to thousands of cases each year. This research plays an important role in the development of population standards in Colombia and South America and provides a robust method that can withstand courtroom scrutiny. PMID:27032896

  16. 河南淅川县阎杆岭83号墓发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In December 2005, in coordination with the heightening works of the Danjiangkou key water control facilities in the middle line of the project of shifting southern water to the north, the Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated Tomb 83 in Area II of the Yanganling Cemetery. The tomb pit is shaped like the character "甲" and filled with stone and charcoal. It yielded 99 funeral objects, which belong to the types of pottery ding tripod, jar, urn, pot and model granary, kitchen range and well, bronze basin, zeng steamer, fu cauldron, wuzhu coin, weapon and horse - and - chariot trappings, and iron sword. Dated to the late Western Han Period, it provided new material data for researching Han tombs and related problems.%2005年12月,为配合南水北调中线丹江口水利枢纽加高工程,河南省文物考古研究所对阎杆岭墓群Ⅱ区的83号墓进行发掘。该墓为“甲”字形积石积炭墓,出土鼎、罐、瓮、壶、仓、灶、井等陶器和铜盆、铜甑、铜釜、铜五铢钱、铜兵器、铜车马器、铁剑等随葬器物99件,年代为西汉晚期,为汉墓以及相关问题的研究提供了新资料。

  17. Editorial: Discovery from Lake Turkana and History of Human Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor S. P. Singh, Ph.D.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Very interesting finds have come to light of violently killed humans from Lake Turkana in the Kenyan Rift Valley around 10000 years ago. A stunning discovery of skeletons of 27 persons who are believed to have been killed at the same time and are supposed to have suffered violent wounds has been reported recently (Nature 529, 394–398, 21 January 2016. These finds belong to a period of late Pleistocene/early Holocene of the hunter-gatherer societies from Nataruk. Among the victims were men, women and children. The individuals were killed with projectiles and blunt weapons. These skeletons were found in the lagoon and were preserved very nicely. Such type of mass killing probably could never happen as a consequence of intra-group conflict. The evidence seems to be towards warfare and aggression in ancient societies. The experts ruled out the possibility of a cemetery and ceremonial burial. This discovery of 27 skeletons points to the fact that there may have been more causalities and many individuals might have escaped death at that time. According to one of the co-authors of this research Dr. R.A. Foley, the groups were elatively more densely packed populations than the hunter gatherers and had more chances of having inter-group conflicts because of sharing the resources which would have been plentiful near the lagoons and water bodies. Violence probably has been in the instinct of early humans and that the warfare among humans has a history of 10000 years or even earlier.

  18. Modernity in medicine and hygiene at the end of the 19th century: the example of cremation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Alessandro; Falconi, Bruno; Cristini, Carlo; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia F.

    2012-01-01

    Medicine in the second half of the nineteenth century takes on some characteristics of modernity. These characteristics are worthy of our attention because they help us to understand better some of the current problems of hygiene and public health. One of the topics that was most discussed in the scientific-academic milieu of the second half of the nineteenth century was cremation. There was a poetic precedent: the cremation of Percy Bysse Shelley (1792-1822). The earliest apparatus to completely destroy the corpse was made in Italy and Germany in the 1870s. As far as hygiene was concerned, the reasons for cremation were not to pollute the water-bearing strata and an attempt to streamline the cemetery structure. As in an apparent schizophrenia, scientists of the day worked to both destroy and preserve corpses. There is also the unusual paradox that when the first cremations took place, the corpses were first preserved then to be destroyed later. The catholic world (mainly in Italy) and forensic scientists opposed cremation. It was left to the hygienists to spread the practice of cremation. An analysis of scientific literature shows us that if we leave out the related forensic and ethical problems, recent years have seen attention paid to any harmful emissions from crematoria equipment which have poured into the environment. Another issue is the assessment of inadvertent damage which may be caused by the condition of the corpse. Some topics, however, such as the need for preventive autopsies (first proposed in 1884 in Milan) are still a subject of debate, and seem to pass virtually unchanged from one generation to the next. PMID:25170446

  19. Huellas del pasado, miradas del presente: la construcción social del patrimonio arqueológico del Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Mónica Cúneo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la relación entre aspectos teóricos pertinentes a la gestión del patrimonio arqueológico, la praxis profesional y el papel de las comunidades aborígenes y criollas, a partir de tres experiencias de arqueología de rescate en cementerios indígenas ubicados en la Provincia del Neuquén, República Argentina. En todas las ocasiones las comunidades locales manifestaron ser las propietarias de los materiales arqueológicos, por lo que estos casos constituyen un punto de partida para reflexionar acerca de "la construcción social del patrimonio arqueológico". Se plantea que la práctica profesional y la gestión del patrimonio arqueológico deben tener en cuenta los contextos socio-culturales y las percepciones simbólicas de las comunidades.The aim of this paper is to analyze theoretical issues related to the management of archaeological heritage, archaeological praxis, and the role of aboriginal and Creole communities. Three experiences of rescue archaeology conducted at indigenous cemeteries located in Neuquen Province, Argentina, form the basis of this analysis. In all cases local communities claimed to be the owners of the archaeological materials. These experiences are a starting point for thinking about "the social construction of cultural heritage". It is argued that archaeological praxis and the management of the archaeological heritage should take into account sociocultural contexts and the symbolic perceptions of communities.

  20. «La resurrección de los muertos»: significado del espacio sepulcral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez de Sánchez, Ana María

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The sepulchre, space which a death body gives meaning to, acquired in the collective imaginary of the Modem Age a special meaning related to traditional factors, such as prestige and wealth. Then a new and particular hope for ever lasting life related to the purgatory was added. The piece of land had to comply with certain conditions to be preferred or rejected by who would occupy them to wait for the resurrection. In Córdoba del Tucumán, the sepulture was mainly urban in temples and cemeteries in the colonial period, being then semiurban in the mid XIX century. The Borbonic change of burying out of the cities, shook the secular custom, not only of the worldly dwelling, but also the proper social imaginary.

    El sepulcro adquirió en el imaginario colectivo de la Edad Moderna una significación especial ligada a factores tradicionales, como el prestigio y la disponibilidad económica, al que se agregó una renovada esperanza en la vida eterna, relacionada con el purgatorio. El espacio terrenal debía reunir una serie de condiciones para ser motivo de preferencia o de rechazo por quienes debían ocuparlo a la espera de la «resurrección». En Córdoba del Tucumán la sepultura fue mayoritariamente urbana en templos y cementerios en el período colonial, pasando a semi urbana a mediados del siglo XIX. La modificación borbónica, de enterrar extra muros, conmovió la costumbre secular no sólo de la morada terrenal, sino del propio imaginario social.

  1. Neutron Diffraction in Archaeometallurgy: an Example of Possible Use in the SARAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron diffraction analyses of ancient metals show that this method is capable of detecting differences in the inner composition and microstructure of ancient metal objects. This gives archaeometallurgists a powerful non-destructive tool to help generate a better understanding of ancient modes of production (i.e. casting direction and mechanical and thermal treatment of selected parts of the original cast). Introducing this method here in Israel will allow us to study unique and precious archaeological metal artefacts that cannot be taken abroad or cut or drilled for sampling. We carried out neutron analysis (on KARL diffractometer in the IRR-I at NRC-Soreq) on two Middle Bronze Age I ''Eye'' axes, one made of bronze and the other of silver (Figure I) and found recently in the ancient cemetery of Mahzevat Shuni, Both are rare finds and the silver axe is unique in the archaeology of Israel. Preliminary results confirmed its ability to clearly identify and analyze metal compositions and phases, identify and estimate the content of the majority of crystallographic impurities, and obtain information on the texture of the studied alloy. Such analyses can be optimized further by refining the present instrument's parameters. We present this study as a good example out of many other possible studies that can be undertaken using the neutron diffraction method. One of our future aims in this study is to establish the limiting spatial resolution and to suggest improvements in the present instrument to achieve the highest resolution possible. Building an improved neutron diffractometer at the SARAF, based on the present instrument will enable us to farther establish the neutron diffraction method for materials science studies in Israel

  2. El ajuar como indicador de la presencia Inka en el Cementerio Aguada Orilla Norte (Provincia de Catamarca Grave Goods As Indicators Of Inka Presence In Aguada Orilla Norte Cementery, Catamarca Province

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    Reinaldo A. Moralejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la descripción del ajuar de cuatro enterratorios provenientes del sitio arqueológico Cementerio Aguada Orilla Norte (Belén, Catamarca. Dichos ajuares conforman la colección Benjamín Muñiz Barreto del Museo de La Plata. La metodología empleada consistió en la descripción morfológica y decorativa de las piezas que conforman cada uno de los ajuares; y en la revisión de las libretas de campo de la colección mencionada. A partir de estos análisis se determinó que tres de los cuatro enterratorios se encuadran cronológicamente en el período Inka (1471-1536 dC y que cada uno de ellos posee objetos estilísticamente diferentes pertenecientes a diversos grupos culturales del NOA. Sin embargo, el cuarto ajuar, que se encuentra por debajo de uno de los anteriores, posee piezas pertenecientes a grupos culturales preinkaicos.This paper describes the grave goods from four burials found at the archaeological site of Aguada Orila Norte Cemetery, Belén, Catamarca. The grave goods belong to the Benjamin Muñiz Barreto collection, housed at the Museum of La Plata. The methodology employed consisted in describing the morphology and decoration of the pieces that make up each set of grave goods, as well as going through the field notes related to the collection. The results of the analyses indicate that three of the four burials are chronologically within the Inka period (AD 1471-1536 and all posses objects that differ in style, belonging therefore to various cultural groups from NOA (Northwestern Argentina. The fourth burial, however, which was located below one of the other three, contains pieces from pre-Inkan cultural groups.

  3. The girl from the Church of the Sacrament: a case of congenital syphilis in XVIII century Lisbon

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    Sheila Mendonça de Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a sexually or congenitally transmitted infectious disease with an impact on the health of human populations that has undergone important cycles in different countries and periods of history. Its presence was first diagnosed in Europe in the late XIV century. In Portugal, although there are various written records of the infection in the last centuries, there are rare references to it in archeological findings (mummified bodies are also rare in Portugal. The current study describes a probable case of congenital syphilis in an 18-month-old girl buried in the Church of the Sacrament in Lisbon. Her body, dating to the XVIII century, was found mummified together with dozens of others, still not studied. Symmetrical periostitis of the long bones, osteitis, metaphyseal lesions, left knee articular, and epiphyseal destruction, and a rarefied lesion with a radiological appearance compatible with Wimberger's sign all point to a diagnosis of congenital syphilis. The diagnosis of this severe form of the infection, possibly related to the cause of death in this upper-class girl, calls attention to the disease's presence in XVIII century Lisbon and is consistent with the intense mobilization at the time in relation to the risks posed by so-called heredosyphilis. It is the first case of congenital syphilis in a child reported in archeological findings in Portugal, and can be correlated with other cases in skeletons of adults buried in cemeteries in Lisbon (in the XVI to XVIII centuries and Coimbra (XIX century. Finally, this finding highlights the need to study the entire series of mummified bodies in the Church of the Sacrament in order to compare the paleopathological findings and existing historical documents on syphilis, so as to expand the paleoepidemiological knowledge of this infection in XVIII century Lisbon.

  4. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2010- Varto

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    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe research carried out with the permission of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 9 to 26 July 2010 in the center of Muş, Varto, Korkut and Hasköy towns.In the research, cultural assets which were three churches, a store, a fountain, monument consisting of six houses and thirteen cemeteries were identified and examined.The houses in the center of Muş are generally made of mud brick with two-storey. The houses at Minaret, the castle and the River districts are disappearing rapidly, because they remain in the center of the city. They indicate the characteristic feature of Muş especially with front-side arrangements.The tombstones found in Varto district are noteworthy with human and animal figure forms. The tombstones identified in villages of Hasköy and Korkut towns stand with the sword and shield motifs.Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. The works identified usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period.The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region.Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors gradually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction.ÖzetT.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 09-26 Temmuz 2010 tarihleri arasında Muş merkez, Varto, Korkut ve Hasköy ilçelerinin köylerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir.Araştırmada; üç kilise, bir depo, bir çeşme, altı evden oluşan anıt eser ve on üç mezarlıktan oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilerek incelenmiştir.Muş merkezdeki evler genellikle kerpiç malzemeli ve iki

  5. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2009- Bulanık

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    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe research was carried out with the permission of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 20 July to 3 August 2009 at Bulanık town of Muş Province and dependent villages.Some monumental works consisting three churches, an inn, a cupola, four open tombs, a tomb, a bridge and three houses, also cultural assets composed of eighteen cemeteries in Bulanık town were identified.Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. Architectural monuments and gravestones in close Settlements; Günbatmaz, Mollakent and Esenlik villages which seem to have cultural interactions are similar to each other and the ones in Ahlat which is not far from the region.The oldest cultural assets belong to Islamic period were found in this region. A small number of identified works belong to Seljuk period and afterwards (XI-XV. Century, and most of the others usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period.The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region.Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors actually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction.ÖzetT.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 20 Temmuz- 03 Ağustos 2009 tarihleri arasında Muş ilinin Bulanık ilçesinde ve köylerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir.Araştırmada; üç kilise, bir han, bir kümbet, dört açık türbe, bir türbe, bir köprü ve üç evden oluşan anıtsal eserler; Bulanık ilçesinin köylerinde on sekiz mezarlıktan oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilerek incelenmiştir.Anıt eserler ve mezar ta

  6. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2010- Varto / A Survey on Medieval and Later Periods of Varto, Muş (2010

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    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research carried out with the permission of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 9 to 26 July 2010 in the center of Muş, Varto, Korkut and Hasköy towns. In the research, cultural assets which were three churches, a store, a fountain, monument consisting of six houses and thirteen cemeteries were identified and examined. The houses in the center of Muş are generally made of mud brick with two-storey. The houses at Minaret, the castle and the River districts are disappearing rapidly, because they remain in the center of the city. They indicate the characteristic feature of Muş especially with front-side arrangements. The tombstones found in Varto district are noteworthy with human and animal figure forms. The tombstones identified in villages of Hasköy and Korkut towns stand with the sword and shield motifs. Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. The works identified usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period. The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region. Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors gradually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction. Özet T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 09-26 Temmuz 2010 tarihleri arasında Muş merkez, Varto, Korkut ve Hasköy ilçelerinin köylerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada; üç kilise, bir depo, bir çeşme, altı evden oluşan anıt eser ve on üç mezarlıktan oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilerek incelenmiştir. Muş merkezdeki evler genellikle kerpiç malzemeli

  7. Ortaçağ ve Sonrası Muş İli Yüzey Araştırması -2009- Bulanık / A Survey on Medieval and Later Periods of Bulanık, Muş (2009

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    Bülent Nuri KILAVUZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was carried out with the permission of General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, Culture and Tourism Ministry of Turkish Republic, between 20 July to 3 August 2009 at Bulanık town of Muş Province and dependent villages. Some monumental works consisting three churches, an inn, a cupola, four open tombs, a tomb, a bridge and three houses, also cultural assets composed of eighteen cemeteries in Bulanık town were identified. Memorial monuments and tombstones vary in terms of materials, forms and style according to region and periods. Architectural monuments and gravestones in close Settlements; Günbatmaz, Mollakent and Esenlik villages which seem to have cultural interactions are similar to each other and the ones in Ahlat which is not far from the region.The oldest cultural assets belong to Islamic period were found in this region. A small number of identified works belong to Seljuk period and afterwards (XI-XV. Century, and most of the others usually belong to the Ottoman (XVI-XIX centuries period. The searched cemeteries were found to be different from each other. It is important to demonstrate the richness of the geography of Muş. Some of the motifs over the Headstones indicate differences, especially compared to other provinces in the region. Historical graves in the cemetery are rapidly destroyed by natural and human factors actually. In addition, all new burials in cemeteries today increase the destruction. Özet T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü’nün izinleri ile 20 Temmuz- 03 Ağustos 2009 tarihleri arasında Muş ilinin Bulanık ilçesinde ve köylerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada; üç kilise, bir han, bir kümbet, dört açık türbe, bir türbe, bir köprü ve üç evden oluşan anıtsal eserler; Bulanık ilçesinin köylerinde on sekiz mezarlıktan oluşan kültür varlıkları tespit edilerek incelenmiştir. Anıt eserler ve mezar

  8. Reconstructing diet by stable isotope analysis: Two case studies from Bronze Age and Early Medieval Lower Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis is nowadays a method frequently applied for the reconstruction of past human diets. The principles of this technique were developed in the late 1970s and 1980s, when it was shown that the isotopic composition of an animal's body reflected that of its diet. Given that the investigated material (often bone collagen) is well enough preserved, several aspects of diet can be investigated by carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures - expressed as δ13C- und δ15N-values - as e.g. whether nutrition was based on C3 or C4 plants. Furthermore, these signatures can be used for the detection of a marine component in the diet and they contain information about the trophic level of an individual. The goal of the work presented in this talk was to investigate certain aspects of diet using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of human and animal skeletal remains from Austrian archaeological sites. Two sites (both in Lower Austria) were selected for this study, the Bronze Age Cemetery of Gemeinlebarn and the Early Medieval settlement of Thunau/Gars am Kamp. Previous archaeological and anthropological examinations suggested that both sites were inhabited by socially differentiated populations. Hence, during the stable isotope analysis special attention was paid to the detection of variation in nutritional habits due to sociogenic or gender-related differences. δ13C- und δ15N-values were measured in collagen, extracted from bone samples, by means of elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The obtained stable isotope data were examined for significant differences between social groups and the sexes using statistical hypothesis testing (MANOVA and ANOVA). (author)

  9. Lichenometry and Cosmogenic Surface Exposure Dating of Possible Fossil Talus Deposits, Devil's Lake State Park, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knochenhauer, K. J.; Weber, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    Lichenometry and cosmogenic surface exposure dating have been highly successful in deciphering landform evolution in tectonically active regions, but have not been widely applied in mid-continent settings. We propose to test the idea that many of the talus deposits in Devil's Lake State Park (DLSP) are ancient, fossil, periglacial deposits that have been frozen in space and time not moving since ~18,000 years ago. Our results may provide valuable information that could be applied to other settings and may also offer information on the effects of 2nd order climatic events such as the Little Ice Age of the 16th-19th centuries, and also help determine the relation between the last glacial maximum about 18ky ago and its related timing to major mass sediment movements. Our preliminary data was collected methodologically offering tight, unimodal peaks of lichen diameters/ages for Aspicilia cinerea and Dimelaena oreina most consistent with the idea that the deposits have not moved since the last ice age. A growth curve for Dimelaena oreina was established through the use of a neighboring cemetery giving a local growth rate of 67.13mm/100yr with R=68. Size-distribution results for DLSP peaked at only 65.2mm. This suggests that current talus block lichen cover is not a record of the first generation. We will pair our lichenometric results with the future use of 10Be cosmogenic surface exposure dating to determine the ages of the 3 major talus deposits themselves (as opposed to lichen initialization ages) which should allow us to test our initial hypothesis, enhance our lichenometry data set, and begin to develop a more robust sampling strategy for further work. Deciphering the landform evolution of this area would offer insight to past landslides and mass debris flows.

  10. Social Consequences of Ebola Containment Measures in Liberia.

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    Umberto Pellecchia

    Full Text Available In the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD outbreak in Liberia, two major emergency disease-control measures were cremation of bodies and enforcement of quarantine for asymptomatic individuals suspected of being in contact with a positive case. Enforced by State-related actors, these were promoted as the only method to curtail transmissions as soon as possible. However, as with other harsh measures witnessed by Liberian citizens, in many cases those measures elicited uncontrolled negative reactions within the communities (stigma; fear that produced, in some cases, the opposite effect of that intended.The research has been conducted in two phases, for a total of 8 weeks. Ethnography of local practices was carried out in 7 neighbourhoods in Monrovia and 5 villages in Grand Cape Mount County in Liberia. 45 Focus Group Discussions (432 participants and 30 semi-structured interviews sustained the observing participation. Randomly selected people from different social layers were targeted. The principal investigator worked with the help of two local assistants. Perceptions and practices were both analysed.Participants stressed how cremation perpetuated the social breakdown that started with the isolation for the sickness. Socio-economical divides were created by inequitable management of the dead: those who could bribe the burial teams obtained a burial in a private cemetery or the use of Funeral Homes. Conversely, those in economic disadvantage were forced to send their dead for cremation. State-enforced quarantine, with a mandatory prohibition of movement, raised condemnation, strengthened stigmatization and created serious socio-economic distress. Food was distributed intermittently and some houses shared latrines with non-quarantined neighbours. Escapes were also recorded. Study participants narrated how they adopted local measures of containment, through local task forces and socially-rooted control of outsiders. They also stressed how information that was

  11. Tshuktshi ja mõnede tehiste rahvaste surnute ja matustega seotud kommetest ja uskumustest

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    Ülo Siimets

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article opens with a quotation from a novel by Lennart Meri, revealing that the Chukchi consider it pointless to visit cemeteries without reason. The article discusses the funeral rites and the fear for death of the Chukchi. The Chukchi believe that the souls of the dead will turn into the henchmen of keltja, and are therefore dangerous. Their fear for the deceased is so overwhelming that when the last member of a family dies, their jaranga is left to decompose in the tundra - no living creature is allowed touch it. The funeral tradition of the Chukchi is based on keeping the dead from harming the living. When somebody died, the Chukchi in the village were bound to silence. At least two people had to hold wake to the dead, because the dead may have overpowered one. The corpse was dressed in white leather clothes, because the dead might not be satisfied with everyday clothes and might come back to haunt the living. Some food is also given along. In order to satisfy the deceased and keep it from coming back, it is "consulted" on everything, for example, whether it "wishes" to be left in the tundra or to be cremated. The corpse is taken out of the jaranga through the back wall and all the traces to the burial site are carefully removed, so that it would not find its way back. During the funeral, one or two reindeers are sacrificed for the deceased. The performers of the funeral ceremony croak like crows three times to keep the evil spirits off the deceased. The dead body is covered with reindeer meat and several magico-protective rites are performed. Often the whole village visits the deceased the next day and sacrifice and share another reindeer. The living will be also protected by the items that belonged to the deceased. A belt worn by a dead man or pieces of the fur collar worn by a dead woman will be distributed among the living. The main purpose of the funeral ritual is to protect the living and keep the deceased satisfied, so that he

  12. Elemental mapping of medieval teeth using XRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent developments in X-Ray Fluorescence micro-analysis techniques made the traditional range of XRF applications expand, benefiting from the combination of single point analysis with high spatial element imaging. The sample is scanned through the X-Ray beam and corresponding spectra are continuously read from the detector and correlated to a particular position on the sample. In this work, elemental concentrations were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique (Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument) offering detailed elemental analysis. The instrument is equipped with a tungsten X-ray tube and a beryllium window, operating at 50 kV with a beam collimator of 100μm in diameter to irradiate the sample and with a Si detector. Tooth mapping provided semi-quantitative information and highlighted the regions of interest. Then multi-points analysis was used to obtain quantitative results on calcium, phosphorus, strontium and iron. As the chemical composition of dental tissues is similar to the one of bone tissue, the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were used for calibration. In this study, only permanent first molars were selected for analysis. The material comes from the medieval cemetery (XIIth . XIIIth) of Feldioara (Bra.ov County, Romania). In the same time, modern teeth were used as reference. The top of the tooth was removed using a diamond disk, with a cut lying perpendicular to the dental cusps, creating a flat transversal surface to be characterized. XRF elemental (Ca, P, Sr, Fe) and ratio (Ca/P, Sr/Ca, Sr/Fe) distribution images for dental tissues (enamel and dentin) were obtained from past and modern teeth with and without caries and the results are presented and discussed. The analysis of the spatial element distribution in the teeth tissues revealed severe alterations in elemental composition of both enamel and dentin from the regions affected by caries that were confirmed by the multi

  13. The Metallurgy of the Sicilian Final Bronze Age/Early Iron Age necropolis of Madonna del Piano (Catania, Sicily

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    Giumlia-Mair, Alessandra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis results of the copper- based finds, from the important Sicilian necropolis of Madonna del Piano, near Grammichele (Catania, dated between the local Final Bronze Age 2 and the Early Iron Age IA. 122 copper-based finds from the 273 graves (1970-71 of the large cemetery have been analysed. The sampled objects belong to different classes, there are for instance weapons of offence and defence, such as swords and greaves, small decorative objects for personal use, such as rings, fibulae, belt hooks, belt decorations, and small tools, such as the knives used by women, reels, needles and razors, but also small functional parts, such as rivets and nails, repairs and even a kind of musical instrument, such as the tintinnabula. The methods employed were AAS and SEM, where possible, and XRF in all cases. The aim of the research was that of evaluating the skill of the local artisans, of determining the most common copper-based alloys in use in Sicily in this period and comparing the data with the analysis results of contemporary groups of finds from other areas of the Italian peninsula and from other European regions.

    El artículo presenta el resultado de los análisis realizados a los metales de base cobre de la importante necrópolis siciliana de Madonna del Piano, próxima a Grammichele (Catania, fechada entre el Bronce Final 2 y la Primera Edad del Hierro IA. Se han estudiado un total de 122 objetos de base cobre procedentes de 273 tumbas excavadas entre 1970 y 1971. Los objetos muestreados pertenecen a diferentes tipos, armas ofensivas y defensivas tales como espadas y grebas, pequeños objetos de uso personal como anillos, fíbulas, broches de cinturón y pequeñas herramientas como cuchillos usados por las mujeres, carretes, agujas, navajas, pero también elementos funcionales como remaches, clavos y un tipo de instrumento como el tintinábulo. Los métodos de análisis utilizados fueron AAS y SEM, cuando fue

  14. APPROACHES ON THE INVASIVE ALIEN TAXA IN ROMANIA - AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA (RAGWEED II

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    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper we presented the localities in Romania where we identified populations of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Between 2008-2011, investigations were continuing. Our data clearly show that Ambrosia is present throughout the country. The territories heavily infested are railway embankments, along traffic routes, gravel pits, building sites, forest edges, industrial areas, cemeteries and recreational areas. It is quite common to find ragweed in many private gardens, or flower pots in urban areas. The few foci observed along riversides got there by household waste and construction waste. In many rural communities find it on the drainage ditches. Disturbed and neglected land (on city limits and outside the city, abandonment of land without subsequent turning of stubble and another wrong agricultural practice, absence of ruderal weed control are the main causes that favor the dissemination of our country. Intensity of anthropogenic influence is manifested mainly by transport of materials and soil movement during road rehabilitation and construction of highways. The recent observations show that could be expected to appear on agricultural fields, now being found only on the outskirts of cultivated land, at 5-6 meters from high traffic roads. Ambrosia benefits from human activities to spread. This implies a strong control strategy. The main objective of the fighting activities need to be to reduce damages caused by its pollen and to limit its expansion. If invasion by Ambrosia is left uncontrolled, increase of allergies could heavily augment the treatments. Knowledge about mechanical or chemical control of ragweed could be very important for road and rail services, agricultural institutions, farmers, staff responsible for managing natural areas, institutions that approves and oversees residential sites and factories, responsible personnel of the administrations from cities and rural localities. Reducing the population is more required than

  15. A new focus of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901 (Diptera, Culicidae distribution in Western Germany: rapid spread or a further introduction event?

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    Kampen Helge

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus, a potential vector of several viruses, was first detected in Germany in 2008 on the Swiss-German border. In the following years, this invasive species apparently succeeded in establishing populations in southern Germany and in spreading northwards. In 2011, its distribution area already covered large areas of the federal state of Baden-Wurttemberg, and its northernmost German collection point was reported to be close to Stuttgart. Several independent submissions to our laboratories of Ae. j. japonicus specimens in July 2012, originating from the same area in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, western Germany, prompted us to carry out an immediate surveillance in this region in the expectation of finding a further distribution focus of Ae. j. japonicus in Germany. Methods After inspecting the places of residence of the collectors of the submitted mosquito specimens, all kinds of water containers in 123 cemeteries in surrounding towns and villages were checked for mosquito developmental stages. These were collected and kept to produce adults for morphological species identification. One specimen per collection site was identified genetically by COI sequence analysis. Results Aedes j. japonicus adults and immature stages were found in 36 towns/villages that were checked (29% over an area of approximately 2,000 km2 in southern North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland Palatinate. The species could not be demonstrated further south when monitoring towards the northernmost previous collection sites in southern Germany. It therefore remains to be elucidated whether the species has entered western Germany from the south, from Belgium in the west where it has been demonstrated to occur locally since 2002, or through a new introduction. Conclusions Aedes j. japonicus is obviously much more widely distributed in Germany than previously thought. It appears to be well

  16. Comment devient-on français quand on est juif et polonais ? How becoming French when you are a Polish Jew ? Compared itineraries from Holocaust survivors

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    Alban Perrin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available De nombreux Juifs polonais, fuyant la misère et l’antisémitisme, vinrent s’installer en France avant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. En 1940, l’occupation allemande et l’avènement du régime de Vichy mirent fin brutalement à leurs espoirs d’intégration. Fichés, spoliés, raflés, déportés, ils périrent en masse durant la Shoah. Un tiers environ des victimes de la « Solution finale » en France étaient d’origine polonaise. À la Libération, les survivants furent bientôt rejoints par de nouveaux réfugiés, rescapés des ghettos et des camps, aux yeux desquels la Pologne n’était plus qu’un immense cimetière. Durant plus de quarante ans, le partage de l’Europe en deux blocs antagonistes acheva de les couper de leur pays d’origine. Aucun, ou presque, n’apprit le polonais à ses enfants. Tous, en revanche, déployèrent d’importants efforts pour s’intégrer à leur société d’accueil et devenir Français. Comparer leurs trajectoires individuelles offre une double perspective riche d’enseignements sur l’immigration en France et le destin des Juifs au xxe siècle.A lot of Polish Jews, fleeing misery and anti-Semitism, settled in France before the Second World War. In 1940, the German occupation and the establishment of the Vichy regime ended their hopes of integration. Filed, despoiled, rounded up, deported, they massively died during the Holocaust. One third of the victims of the “Final Solution” in France came from Poland. At the Liberation, new refugees, survivors from ghettos and camps, arrived. For them, Poland was just a huge cemetery. Hardly anyone of them spoke Polish with his children. On the other hand, they made important efforts to integrate French society and to become French citizens. To compare their individual trajectories gives a double viewpoint on the immigration in France and the fate of Jews during the twentieth century.

  17. The Late Mediaeval Necropolis of Lăpuşna (Hânceşti County, Republic of Moldova. Preliminary Anthropological Results

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    Angela Simalcsik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The osteological material was exhumed in 2013 by archaeologists from the Archaeology Department of the Cultural Heritage Institute of the Academy of Science of Moldova, in the mediaeval necropolis of Lăpuşna (Hânceşti County, Republic of Moldova. Thirty graves were fully or partially researched, the deceased having been buried lying on their backs, with the upper limbs placed on the chest or abdomen. Based on the funerary inventory (which includes six mediaeval coins, the graves were chronologically placed between the XVth and the XVIIth centuries. The cemetery belonged to a local Christian rural community. The preservation status of skeletons is satisfactory. Twenty-two human skeletons (seven males, ten females, and five children have been analyzed so far. Sex ratio in the osteological sample from Lăpuşna is subunitary, indicating a higher number of female skeletons, comparatively with the male ones. A quarter of the analysed subjects did not survive after adolescence. The maximum risk of mortality in this sample occurs during early childhood (0–7 years. 32% of deceases appear in the adultus category of age (20–30 years and 45%, respectively, in the matures one (30–60 years. Life expectancy at birth is of 30.7 years. For individuals older than 20 years, life expectancy after this age, calculated separately on sexes, was of 16 years in men and of 19 years in women. At cranial level eight nonmetric traits and only two pathologies were identified. Regarding dentition, seven nonmetric traits and six pathologies were reported. At postcranial level, 14 nonmetric traits were distinguished, most of them classified as occupational markers. The most frequent postcranial pathology is osteoarthritis; this disease is present in nine individuals. The subjects affected with osteoarthritis are mature persons. Traces of osteoarthritis appears especially in the spine, hip joint, lower limb (mainly femurs, upper limb (especially radiuses, and clavicle

  18. El registro arqueológico de las antiguas poblaciones de los valles orientales de la Provincia Arce, Tarija, Bolivia The Archaeological Record Of The Early Populations Of The Eastern Valleys Of Arce Province, Tarija, Bolivia

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    Beatriz Ventura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2001 iniciamos un Proyecto binacional de relevamiento del registro arqueológico de las antiguas poblaciones que habitaron los valles orientales del sur tarijeño y el norte salteño durante los últimos mil años. En este trabajo se presentan los datos de la primera parte del proyecto, en la cual hemos prospectado sectores de ocho valles en el Departamento Arce (Tarija detectando 32 sitios arqueológicos de diversas características. Entre los sitios hay un conglomerado con presencia de arquitectura y materiales incaicos y sectores de caminos empedrados. Hay sitios semi-conglomerados de unas 30 estructuras de paredes dobles de piedra y otros con unas pocas estructuras dispersas. Se hallaron entierros humanos en el interior de una cueva, a partir de los cuales se obtuvo una muestra que fue datada. Otras inhumaciones fueron relevadas tanto en aleros como en cementerios con estructuras de piedra en superficie. Se detectaron sitios con arte rupestre, tanto con motivos grabados como con pinturas. Se ubicaron también sitios posiblemente más antiguos. En todos los casos se verificó un alto grado de destrucción de los sitios y se plantea entonces la necesidad urgente de su preservación y estudio.In 2001, a bi-national project was initiated to study the archaeological record of the early populations that inhabited the eastern valleys of Southern Tarija and Northern Salta during the last thousand years. During stage one of the project, sectors of eight valleys in Arce County, Tarija, were explored, resulting in the detection of 32 archaeological sites. The sites include a conglomerate with presence of Inca materials and architecture, and sectors of stone-paved roads. In addition, there are semi-conglomerated sites approximately 30 structures of double-width stonewalls, and other sites a few dispersed structures. Human burials have been found in the interior of a cave, in rock shelters, and in cemeteries with superficial stone structures

  19. 城市游憩空间的发展历程及类型%The Evolution and Style of Urban Recreation Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈渝

    2013-01-01

    探讨了城市游憩空间的演变.游憩空间的发展表明:城市游憩空间系统是人口和经济活动集聚的产物,其发生和发展的过程与城市空间扩展和人类生活空间变迁具有密切的联系.重点分析了城市游憩空间的系统发展过程,探讨了近现代游憩空间的发展演变过程中不断出现的游憩空间类型:游憩墓地、公园体系、公共开放空间、城市周边游憩中心、附属于建筑的游憩空间、绿道等,努力寻找城市游憩空间系统伴随城市化过程而逐渐发展演变的脉络;挖掘游憩空间在发展演变过程中与城市及区域在空间上形成的有机联系.%There is exploration of the evolution of urban recreation space in this article. The development of recreation space indicates that: urban recreation space system is the product of the cluster of both population and economic activities, and its occurrence and development process are closely linked to urban space expansion and spatial Transformation of human life. This thesis focuses on analysis of spatial process of development and the mechanism of its formation of the city recreation system, and divide the evolution of modern recreation space into six style: recreation cemetery, park system, public open space, peri-urban recreation center, building attached recreation space, greenway; and seeks the context of the progressive development and evolution of the city recreation space system along with the urbanization process; and reflects the connections between the city recreation space and the space of city and region during their development and evolution.

  20. Direct and indirect effects of land use on floral resources and flower-visiting insects across an urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, K.C.; Grace, James B.; Minor, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Although urban areas are often considered to have uniformly negative effects on biodiversity, cities are most accurately characterized as heterogeneous mosaics of buildings, streets, parks, and gardens that include both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ areas for wildlife. However, to date, few studies have evaluated how human impacts vary in direction and magnitude across a heterogeneous urban landscape. In this study, we assessed the distribution of floral resources and flower-visiting insects across a variety of land uses in New York City. We visited both green spaces (e.g. parks, cemeteries) and heavily developed neighborhood blocks (e.g. with high or low density residential zoning) and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of median income, vegetation, and development intensity on floral resources and insects in both settings. Abundance and taxonomic richness of flower-visiting insects was significantly greater in green spaces than neighborhood blocks. The SEM results indicated that heavily-developed neighborhoods generally had fewer flower-visiting insects consistent with reductions in floral resources. However, some low-density residential neighborhoods maintained high levels of floral resources and flower-visiting insects. We found that the effects of surrounding vegetation on floral resources, and thus indirect effects on insects, varied considerably between green spaces and neighborhood blocks. Along neighborhood blocks, vegetation consisted of a mosaic of open gardens and sparsely distributed trees and had a positive indirect effect on flower-visiting insects. In contrast, vegetation in urban green spaces was associated with increased canopy cover and thus had a negative indirect effect on flower-visiting insects through reductions in floral resources. In both neighborhood blocks and green spaces, vegetation had a positive direct effect on flower-visiting insects independent of the influence of vegetation on floral

  1. Master of Science Teaching: Encouraging Teachers and their Students in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Master of Science Teaching program is designed to encourage more content knowledge among teachers. Thirty credit hours are required, chosen from 12 hours of Earth science courses, 12 hours of space science courses, a chemistry course, a math course, and research or education credits. A thesis is not required but each teacher must have a special project (either research or curriculum). A number of students chose as their project using ground penetrating radar to look for buried graves in an African-American cemetery. Others became Heliospheric Ambassadors, Messenger Ambassadors, or PolarTrec teachers. Nineteen teachers have graduated as of 2010 with six presently in the program. A survey of the participants has fifteen responses so far, with a good mixture of responses from early in the program to present students. Many (69%) were grade 6-8 teachers when they entered the program. After earning their MST, many had increased their teaching level: (93% reported that it helped their career path, 39% have upgraded to administration or science supervision, and 53% reported receiving a better or higher level job position as a result). Only one student no longer teaches (completing a PhD in Administration). Given that 20% of the respondents are still in the program, two thirds of the alumni (8 of 12) have earned better jobs. All respondents said that they learned from both the Earth and space science courses, and all respondents (except the person no longer in the classroom) say they use the earth and space science material in the classrooms, with 80% "frequently" and 13% "sometimes". They also report that they are more likely to encourage their students to become scientists (80%), more likely to encourage their students to support NASA (93%), and think that their students are getting better scores on the state standardized tests (60%). It is certainly not easy for teachers to perform publishable research (although some have), and it is even more difficult for students

  2. The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Michelle M.

    2000-11-01

    This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community

  3. Social Consequences of Ebola Containment Measures in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellecchia, Umberto; Crestani, Rosa; Decroo, Tom; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Al-Kourdi, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in Liberia, two major emergency disease-control measures were cremation of bodies and enforcement of quarantine for asymptomatic individuals suspected of being in contact with a positive case. Enforced by State-related actors, these were promoted as the only method to curtail transmissions as soon as possible. However, as with other harsh measures witnessed by Liberian citizens, in many cases those measures elicited uncontrolled negative reactions within the communities (stigma; fear) that produced, in some cases, the opposite effect of that intended. Methodology The research has been conducted in two phases, for a total of 8 weeks. Ethnography of local practices was carried out in 7 neighbourhoods in Monrovia and 5 villages in Grand Cape Mount County in Liberia. 45 Focus Group Discussions (432 participants) and 30 semi-structured interviews sustained the observing participation. Randomly selected people from different social layers were targeted. The principal investigator worked with the help of two local assistants. Perceptions and practices were both analysed. Results Participants stressed how cremation perpetuated the social breakdown that started with the isolation for the sickness. Socio-economical divides were created by inequitable management of the dead: those who could bribe the burial teams obtained a burial in a private cemetery or the use of Funeral Homes. Conversely, those in economic disadvantage were forced to send their dead for cremation. State-enforced quarantine, with a mandatory prohibition of movement, raised condemnation, strengthened stigmatization and created serious socio-economic distress. Food was distributed intermittently and some houses shared latrines with non-quarantined neighbours. Escapes were also recorded. Study participants narrated how they adopted local measures of containment, through local task forces and socially-rooted control of outsiders. They also stressed how

  4. Geração e transmissão da energia elétrica: impacto sobre os povos indígenas no Brasil Electric power generation and transmission: the impact on indigenous peoples in Brazil

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    Sergio Koifman

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca retratar a distribuição de intercorrências nas comunidades indígenas no Brasil associadas à geração e à distribuição da energia elétrica. De acordo com dados da Fundação Nacional do Índio, há 156 áreas geograficamente distribuídas no país caracterizadas por afetarem, presente ou futuramente, assentamentos indígenas através da expansão do setor elétrico - 65% das quais situadas na Região Norte. As principais reclamações destas comunidades dizem respeito aos efeitos diretos acarretados pelo alagamento originado com a construção das barragens hidroelétricas: submersão de territórios sagrados (como cemitérios; proliferação de mosquitos (ampliando a difusão da malária e de outras doenças infecciosas; escassez de caça; restrição das terras para a agricultura; e a criação de condições facilitadoras da invasão de terras indígenas. O cenário de perspectivas futuras é esboçado em quadro marcado pelo planejamento da construção de novas usinas hidrelétricas - em especial, na região amazônica - com possíveis efeitos similares nas comunidades indígenas.This paper presents an overview of the effects of electric power generation and transmission on indigenous communities in Brazil. According to data from FUNAI (the Brazilian government's Board of Indian Affairs, there are 156 cases of direct impact, present or future, of the electric power sector on Indian settlements geographically distributed throughout Brazil, 65% of which are located in the Northern Region of the country. The principal complaints by indigenous communities relate to the direct effects of flooding following construction of hydroelectric dams, destruction of sacred sites like cemeteries, mosquito proliferation, and health-related hazards such as malaria and other infectious diseases, decrease in game for hunting, crowding out of farm land, and increased invasion of indigenous lands. Future perspectives include a

  5. The Tacziya ecstasy as political expression

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    Jan Hjärpe

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Ta'ziya, "consolation", has become the Shi technical term for the liturgical mourning and commemoration of the martyred Imams, particularly the ritual lamentation for the death of Husayn, celebrated formerly often in the form of passion plays in which the heart is the drama of Kerbela, but in which in addition the whole of human history is viewed sub specie Kerbelae. Nowadays the celebration is first and foremost in the form of processions (in our Western mass media called "demonstrations", enga ing huge masses of people in emotion-evokingbehaviour, also including processions to the cemetery. For the contents of the classical Shi'i passion plays and their performance, and for the theological interpretation of the sacrifice of Husayn and the other martyrs, we refer the reader to the available literature on the subject. The Ta`ziya of Husayn falls in the month of Muharram, with its culmination on the 10th day (ruz-i katl, "the day of the murder", the Ashara' festival, and is followed up by the mourning ceremony on the 40th day (naziarba' in from the 'Ashura' (20th day of Safar. It is important to note the immense impact of the Ta'ziya on the emotions of the participant masses, emotions aroused by several means. We have here the suggestive sentimentality of the speeches held by the Mullas, dwelling on the tribulations and sufferings of Husayn and his family and followers, on the cruelty and baseness of his enemies, and on the courage of the 72 noble-hearted martyrs of Kerbela. In the processions, the emotions are aroused by the rhythmical repetition of formulae expressing mourning for the martyrs and hatred of their murderers. Many of the participants are dressed in shrouds, many wear chains, ropes and scourges, and the lamentations are accompanied by self-flagellation of the naked backs. People beat their breasts, some have put earth on their heads. Women weep, bewailing the pains of Husayn and the 72.

  6. UNDERSTANDING THE HIGH MIND: HUMANS ARE STILL EVOLVING GENETICALLY

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    Blum K et al

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The total population of the United States at the turn of the 21 st century was 281,421,906. The total number of people above the age of 12 years old was estimated at 249 million. The National Institutes on Drug Abuse and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA have surveyed persons age 12 and older and found that in the year 2001, a total of 104 million people have used illegal drugs in their life (ever used, 32 million used a psychoactive drug in the past year (2000-2001 and 18 million used a psychoactive drug in the past 30 days. Interestingly this does not include Alcohol. We must ask then, who are the people that could just say NO? When almost half-of the US population have indulged in illegal drug practices, when our presidential candidates are forced to dodge the tricky question of their past history involving illegal drug use, and when almost every American has sloshed down a martini or two in their life time, there must be a reason, there must be a need, there must be a natural response for humans to imbibe at such high rates. There is even a more compelling question surrounding the millions who seek out high risk novelty. Why do millions have this innate drive in face of putting themselves in harms-way? Why are millions paying the price of their indiscretions in our jails, in hospitals, in wheel chairs and are lying dead in our cemeteries. What price must we pay for pleasure seeking or just plain getting “HIGH”? Maybe the answer lies within our brain. Maybe it is in our genome? Utilization of the candidate vs the common variant approach may be parsimonious as it relates to unraveling the addiction riddle. In this commentary we have discussed evidence, theories and conjecture about the “High Mind” and its relationship to evolutionary genetics and drug seeking behavior as impacted by genetic polymorphisms. We consider the meaning of recent findings in genetic research including an exploration of the

  7. A Review on John Snow’s (1813-1858 CE Contributions to the Epidemiology and Anesthesiology

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    Samad EJ Golzari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available “In riding his hobby very hard, he has fallen down through a gully hole and has never since been able to get out again” “Has he any facts to show in proof? No!”** From an Editorial on John Snow’s theories published in the Lancet in 1855 BiographyJohn Snow, the famous physician, epidemiologist and anesthetist, was born on March 15th, 1813 in York, England (Image 1. He was the eldest of nine children born to William and Frances Snow in their North Street home. His first 12 years of life were spent in a poor and unsanitary area in Michaelgate. River Ouse, which provided the drinking water for the people and often contaminated with excreta, was in the vicinity of his home. This exposed him and his family to the danger of flooding and contamination with excrements of drinking water (1.After financial status of his father improved, they moved to a more wholesome area which was appropriate for the children's education. When he was 14, he was apprenticed to William Hardcastle, a surgeon in Newcastle upon Tyne School of Medicine. Later, he attended in lectures and visited the different wards of the local infirmary (2.His apprenticeship was finished in 1833. Between 1833 and 1836 Snow worked as an assistant to a colliery surgeon. He returned to London after completing his education to get a London degree and became a student in the Royal College of Surgeons and began working at the Westminster Hospital. Snow finished his education in 1844. Then he was elected as the chancellor of the London Medical Society. Snow suffered a stroke while working in his London office on June 10th, 1858. He was 45 years old at the time. This valuable and memorable researcher and scientist died in London on June 16th, 1858 aged 45 years from a stroke. He was buried in Brompton Cemetery (3. Many books, papers, and letters to journals on various topics such as rickets, chest deformities, the circulation of the blood, lead poisoning, and scarlet fever have been written

  8. The structure and differentiation of the synanthropic flora of the botanical gardens in Poland

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    Halina Galera

    2011-04-01

    flora of Warsaw and that of the two botanical gardens established in the city revealed that the proportion of alien species was lower in case of these gardens. In Warsaw the flora of areas, which had been managed in the same way as those of the botanical gardens, was also investigated. It was found that the botanical gardens in Warsaw were more similar to cemeteries with respect to the structure of flora than they were to the allotments. The present study showed that the high variability of flora within the particular gardens is attributed to the different ways the area is utilized.

  9. Management of city aquifers from anthropogenic activities: Example of the Windhoek aquifer, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapani, Benjamin S.; Schreiber, Ute

    are much more adverse, as they are able to reside in soils for long periods of time. The weathering of soils in humid climes produces silicic acid, which has an effect in sealing the conduits due to soil generation from rocks; an element lacking in Windhoek due to the arid climate. Thus the close monitoring of all sewage pipes, filling stations, dump sites including cemeteries preferably on a GIS based model is the best possible way to save the aquifer from future pollution.

  10. Elemental mapping of medieval teeth using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest (Romania); Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Recent developments in X-Ray Fluorescence micro-analysis techniques made the traditional range of XRF applications expand, benefiting from the combination of single point analysis with high spatial element imaging. The sample is scanned through the X-Ray beam and corresponding spectra are continuously read from the detector and correlated to a particular position on the sample. In this work, elemental concentrations were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique (Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument) offering detailed elemental analysis. The instrument is equipped with a tungsten X-ray tube and a beryllium window, operating at 50 kV with a beam collimator of 100{mu}m in diameter to irradiate the sample and with a Si detector. Tooth mapping provided semi-quantitative information and highlighted the regions of interest. Then multi-points analysis was used to obtain quantitative results on calcium, phosphorus, strontium and iron. As the chemical composition of dental tissues is similar to the one of bone tissue, the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were used for calibration. In this study, only permanent first molars were selected for analysis. The material comes from the medieval cemetery (XII{sup th} . XIII{sup th}) of Feldioara (Bra.ov County, Romania). In the same time, modern teeth were used as reference. The top of the tooth was removed using a diamond disk, with a cut lying perpendicular to the dental cusps, creating a flat transversal surface to be characterized. XRF elemental (Ca, P, Sr, Fe) and ratio (Ca/P, Sr/Ca, Sr/Fe) distribution images for dental tissues (enamel and dentin) were obtained from past and modern teeth with and without caries and the results are presented and discussed. The analysis of the spatial element distribution in the teeth tissues revealed severe alterations in elemental composition of both enamel and dentin from the regions affected by caries that were confirmed by the

  11. MAILHAC Y LAS FLUCTUACIONES ECONÓMICAS DE LA PROTOHISTORIA IBÉRICA ARCAICA (550-450 A. C. (Mailhac and the economic fluctuations of early Iberian protohistory, 550-450 BC

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    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de la necrópolis Grand Bassin II de Mailhac (Aude, Francia, mediante el método de valoración contextual de sus ajuares, ha mejorado nuestro conocimiento científico sobre las fluctuaciones económicas de la protohistoria ibérica arcaica, arrojando abundante luz no solo sobre esta cuestión sino también acerca de los acontecimientos del Mediterráneo occidental a lo largo de un período escasamente conocido. En síntesis, el registro funerario de Mailhac evidencia una espectacular bonanza durante el tercer cuarto del siglo VI antes de nuestra era; por el contrario, el último cuarto de dicha centuria muestra un acusado descenso de la acumulación económica, coincidente con el ocaso del comercio griego con las comunidades galas a través del Ródano; mientras que el primer cuarto del siglo V indica una nueva prosperidad más acentuada que la anterior, en conexión directa con la etapa expansiva del iberismo levantino. ENGLISH: The analysis of the Grand Bassin II cemetery at Mailhac (Aude, France, using the contextual appraisal method for grave goods, has improved our scientific understanding of economic fluctuations in early Iberian protohistory, throwing much light not only on this issue but also on the events of the western Mediterranean during a little known period. In short, the funerary record shows a dramatic boom at Mailhac during the third quarter of the 6th century BC; on the other hand, the last quarter of this century shows a sharp decline in economic accumulation, coinciding with the fall of Greek trade with the Gaul communities across the Rhône while the first quarter of the 5th century indicates a new prosperity more marked than the previous one, in direct connection with the upswing of the Levantine Iberians.

  12. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

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    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    healing. We can note also the left humerus of a middle aged man with a healed fracture at the distal end (photo 5, a fibula with a healed fracture (photo 5 and a talus with osteochondritis dissecans. Some bones exhibited markers of periostitis that could have been caused by trauma, infection or physical stress. Apart from diseases and traumas, anomalies of bone growth were present in osteological finds. For instance a sacrum with sacralization can be identified. Some adults and children had open suture between frontal cranial bones (metopic suture; sutura metopica, these bones usually knit at the age of 2–4 years.The analysed bones belonged to adults and children in all age groups, representing osteological material typical for an ordinary and peacetime cemetery.

  13. SPECIFICITIES OF MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY

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    A Nadim

    1971-07-01

    Full Text Available Mortality case registration is one of the oldest statistical data keeping, more for the legal reasons. Mortality statistical data are used for demographic and health purposes, if they classified and adjusted for factors such as age, gender, etc. Deficiencies in mortality registration are absence of descriptive factors, absence of some case reports, inaccuracy in reported cases, and changes of description of the cause of disease in time. Specificities of mortality are: age, gender, and disease. Of the age related one, three categories are the most important, children under the age of one, 1-4 years group, and relative death rate, that is, percentage of death related to the group of over 50 years. In present time, the mortality specific data are based on reports on the Ministry of Health which is obtained from the reports of the cemeteries in Tehran and several large cities. According to these reports, children mortality in the large cities is 29 to 145 in 1000. Independent studies in the rural areas showed this rate to be 112.8 to 217 in 1000. Reported figures for the mortality rate of 1-4 years old age group in the large cities vary from 281 to 2206 per 1000. The reason for this difference is considered to be the deficiencies in the methods of reports of the regions. In all reported figures, the sex related group showed higher mortality rate in men, but due to deficiencies of the system of registration, this difference can not be considered real. The more important causes of death in Iran are related to malnutrition and infections. Sources of data for determination of morbidity rates are consistent reports of the contagious diseases, registration of all cases of chronic and non contagious diseases, and collection of data from the people as morbidity survey. In Iran, most of the cases are not reported; also, diagnoses are mostly on the bases of suspicions and guesses. For these reasons, the published statistical data and their variations can not

  14. Lake Level Changes in the Mono Basin During the Last Deglacial Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Ali, G.; Hemming, S. R.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Stine, S. W.; Hemming, G.

    2014-12-01

    Mono Basin, located in the southwestern corner of the US Great Basin, has long been known to have experienced large lake level changes, particularly during the last deglaciation. But until recently it was not possible to establish a reliable lake level time series. We discovered many visually clean, white, shiny, dense calcite samples in the basin, associated with tufa deposits from high terraces. Their low thorium, but high uranium contents allow precise and reproducible U/Th age determinations. A highly resolved history of a minimum lake level through the last deglaciation can therefore be inferred based on sample locations and their ages. We found that the lake level reached ~2030 m asl at ~20.4 ka, evidenced by calcite coatings on a tufa mound at the upper Wilson Creek. The lake then rose to ~2075 m by ~19.1 ka, shown by calcite cements on conglomerates from the Hansen Cut terrace. The lake climbed to at least ~2140 m at ~15.9 ka, indicated by beach calcites from the east Sierra slope. Such timing of the highest lake stand, occurring within Heinrich Stadial 1, is reinforced by U/Th dates on calcite coatings from widespread locations in the basin, including the Bodie Hills and Cowtrack Mountains. The lake then dropped rapidly to ~2075 m at ~14.5 ka. It stood near this height over the next ~300 years, evidenced by a few-centimeter thick, laminated calcite rims on the Goat Ranch tufa mounds. It subsequently plunged to ~2007 m at ~13.8 ka, indicated by calcite coatings from cemetery road tufa mounds. The lake level came back to ~2030 m at ~12.9 ka, as seen in upper Wilson Creek tufa mounds. The lake level had a few fluctuations within the Younger Dryas, and even shot up to ~2075 m at ~12.0 ka. It then fell to levels in accord with Holocene climatic conditions. Relative to the present lake level of ~1950 m, Mono Lake broadly stood high during Heinrich Stadial 1 and Younger Dryas, when the climate was extremely cold over the North Atlantic, and the Asian monsoon was

  15. Exclusiones post mortem. Esclavitud, suicidio y derecho de sepultura

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    Pedro Marqués de Armas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La negación del derecho de sepultura a esclavos y colonos asiáticos no bautizados fue una práctica de exclusión que se extendió casi hasta el final de la esclavitud. Este artículo explora las tensiones que, en torno al enterramiento de suicidas, se suscitaron entre la Iglesia católica y los dispositivos médico-civiles desde finales del siglo XVIII hasta la década de 1870. Indaga, al efecto, en debates de época y documentos de archivo poco conocidos, a fin de mostrar las diversas estrategias a que apelaron las autoridades religiosas, civiles, así como médicos y hacendados. Explora de paso en el desigual tratamiento según clases y condiciones y en los cambios en la presentación del suicidio motivados por el discurso médico, la secularización y su vulgarización por parte de la prensa.________________________________________________________________________________________ Post-mortem exclusions. Slavery, suicide and right of burialAbstract: The denial of the right of burial to unbaptized slaves and Asian settlers was a practice of exclusion that lasted almost until the end of slavery. This article explores the tensions around the burial of suicide victims, which occurred between the Catholic Church and medical and civil devices since the late eighteenth century until the 1870s. For that purpose, the study focuses on little known debates and archival materials in order to show the different strategies used not only by religious authorities and civilians, but also doctors and hacienda owners. The article also explores the unequal treatment according to classes and conditions, and the changes in the presentation of suicide motivated by medical discourse, secularization and its popularization by the press.Keywords: Slavery; Right of Burial; Suicide; African Slaves; Asian Settlers; Cemeteries*****Cómo citar este artículo: MARQUÉS DE ARMAS, Pedro (2015. "Exclusiones post mortem. Esclavitud, suicidio y derecho de sepultura

  16. Regalismo y policía sanitaria. El episcopado y la creación de cementerios en el reinado de Carlos III

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    Carreras Panchón, Antonio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available On February 1781, the enlightened Government started taking steps in order to forbid the burials in churches and reintroduce the practice of burying in cemeteries located on outskirts of towns. The Consejo de Castilla asked for the 56 bishop's in the peninsular territory. Canaries and Balearic Islands opinion about this subject. Most of them agreed the sanitary policy, also based on ancient canonical laws. However a lot of them noticed the trouble of defraying the costs of these graveyards, and also the falling off in the parish priestess's incomes. The different points of view were not based on the bishop's personal ideology (the «Mayoral circle», jansenists..., in fact was the socioeconomic position of the dioceses (interior versus coastal towns and his personal relation with the authorities (Toledo, Barcelona, Tarazona, Orense, Osma, Málaga...

    En febrero de 1781 el gobierno ilustrado inició una serie de medidas para prohibir los enterramientos en las iglesias y reintroducir la práctica de inhumar en cementerios apartados de la población. Desde el Consejo de Castilla se solicitó el parecer de los obispos de las 56 diócesis de la Península, y las islas Baleares y Canarias. La mayoría de los obispos asumieron los principios higiénico-sanitarios de los gobernantes y la existencia de normas canónicas muy antiguas en favor de los cementerios. Sin embargo muchos de ellos advirtieron de la dificultad de financiar su construcción y su temor por la disminución de los ingresos de los párrocos por derechos de sepultura. Las opiniones de los obispos estuvieron condicionadas más que por su adscripción ideológica (círculo de Mayoral, «jansenistas», por la situación socioeconómica de sus diócesis (periferia geográfica frente al interior peninsular y su posición personal ante las autoridades (Toledo, Barcelona, Tarazona, Orense, Osma, Málaga....

  17. Communicating Science to Officials and People at Risk During a Slow-Motion Lava Flow Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. A.; Babb, J.; Brantley, S.; Kauahikaua, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    From June 2014 through March 2015, Kīlauea Volcano's Púu ´Ō´ō vent on the East Rift Zone produced a tube-fed pāhoehoe lava flow -the "June 27th flow" - that extended 20 km downslope. Within 2 months of onset, flow trajectory towards populated areas in the Puna District caused much concern. The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) issued a news release of increased hazard on August 22 and began participating in public meetings organized by Hawai`i County Mayor and Civil Defense two days later. On September 4, HVO upgraded the volcano alert level to WARNING based on an increased potential for lava to reach homes and infrastructure. Ultimately, direct impacts were modest: lava destroyed one unoccupied home and one utility pole, crossed a rural roadway, and partially inundated a waste transfer station, a cemetery, and agricultural land. Anticipation that lava could reach Pāhoa Village and cross the only major access highway, however, caused significant disruption. HVO scientists employed numerous methods to communicate science and hazard information to officials and the at-risk public: daily (or more frequent) written updates of the lava activity, flow front locations and advance rates; frequent updates of web-hosted maps and images; use of the 'lines of steepest descent' method to indicate likely lava flow paths; consistent participation in well-attended community meetings; bi-weekly briefings to County, State, and Federal officials; correspondence with the public via email and recorded phone messages; participation in press conferences and congressional briefings; and weekly newspaper articles (Volcano Watch). Communication lessons both learned and reinforced include: (1) direct, frequent interaction between scientists and officials and at-risk public builds critical trust and understanding; (2) images, maps, and presentations must be tailored to audience needs; (3) many people are unfamiliar with maps (oblique aerial photographs were more effective); (4

  18. A geometric-morphometric study of the Cretan humerus for sex identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranioti, Elena F; Bastir, Markus; Sánchez-Meseguer, Andrea; Rosas, Antonio

    2009-08-10

    Various scholars have pioneered sex assessment from different parts of the skeleton based on metrical or qualitative morphological characteristics. Lately though, a new technique which combines both traditional methods is becoming popular in forensic anthropology. Geometric-morphometrics is a field of multivariate statistical biometric analysis which allows the quantification of the shape and size components of morphological variation. The purpose of this investigation is to assess sex from the humerus in a contemporary Greek population using geometric-morphometric analysis of shape data derived from digital radiographs. The study population consists of 97 well-preserved adult humeri from two cemeteries of Heraklion, Crete. The left humeri are radiographed using digital radiograph machine (TCA 4R PLUS). Assuming fragmentary patterns, the proximal and distal ends are studied separately. Five landmarks are selected on the radiograph of the proximal epiphysis and seven landmarks on the distal. Generalised Procrustes analysis (GPA) and thin-plate splines are used to obtain the shape and size variables for statistical analysis. Then three discriminant function analyses were carried out: one uses the PC scores from Procrustes shape space, the second the centroid size alone and the third the PC scores of GPA residuals plus lnCS for analysis in Procrustes form space. Results indicate the existence of shape differences between the sexes. In females the greater tubercle is smoother, with its superior border less pronounced. Additionally, females have a relatively squared distal epiphysis, while males exhibit a more rectangular shape. Shape differences between genders, for the cross-validated data, give slightly better classification results in the proximal humerus (73%) compared with the distal humerus (71%). Size alone performed better (86.5% for proximal and 85.6% for distal humerus). As anticipated, the classification accuracy improves (89.6% for proximal and 89.7% for

  19. Paisajes sagrados, paisajes eclesiásticos: de la necrópolis a la parroquia en el centro de la península ibérica Paisajes sagrados, paisajes eclesiásticos: de la necrópolis a la parroquia en el centro de la península ibérica Sacred landscapes, ecclesiastical landscapes: from necropolis to parish in central Iberia

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    Iñaki Martín Viso

    2012-10-01

    been used by the members of these communities as a reference of the kin-group memory from 7th to 10th century, so they could be explained like a significant fragment of a sacred landscape, although they were placed in areas where there was not any ecclesiastical organization. The implementation of the parish system between 12th and 13th centuries, which was a consequence of the political integration of the Central-Western Iberia into the Christian monarchies (a process described by the traditional Spanish historiography as repoblación broke the previous model of burial practices. The cemeteries were linked to parishes, which were built in new places, and it was imposed by the new ecclesiastical organization. Therefore an ecclesiastical landscape was created, and, as a consequence, a new local identity was shaped. However, the row-organised cemeteries of some central places related to the Leonese repoblación in 10th century were an exception. The Church could use the symbolic capital of these ancient burials to shape the new ecclesiastical landscape. They were the places where some parishes were built during 12th century.

  20. The geographic distribution of Sr isotopes from surface waters and soil extracts over the island of Bornholm (Denmark) – A base for provenance studies in archaeology and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    source with lower [Sr] delivering radiogenic Sr to the surface waters, which we equate with Sr leached from the products of mineral weathering (soils). A feasibility study for using Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters and soil extracts as a proxy for bioavailable Sr signatures was performed with a few samples collected in the vicinity of the eleventh century AD Ndr. Grødbygård cemetery site in SW Bornholm, from where Sr isotope compositions of modern fauna samples and tooth enamel of humans buried in the cemetery have been reported. Waters and soil extracts studied herein from around this site range from 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7104–0.7166 and correspond to Sr compositions extracted from snail shells in this area which span a range of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7095–0.7160. Some human tooth enamel is characterized by more radiogenic values (87Sr/86Sr up to 0.718) which points to a possible provenance of these humans from the granite–gneiss terrain in the north of the island and/or to immigration of these humans in their childhood from other places (for example from mainland Sweden) to Bornholm. If the total compositional range of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.709–0.718 (n = 44) recorded in human enamel from the Ndr. Grødbygård site is considered representative for the variation of bioavailable Sr on Bornholm, then our soil leachate and surface water data entirely covers this range. We therefore propose that the combination of Sr isotope analyses of surface waters and soil leachates are an easy, fast and relatively cost efficient way to characterize a local bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr signature, and consequently propose that the overall average of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7153 ± 0.0048 (1σ; n = 50) can be taken as a band for bioavailable Sr fractions suitable to discriminate between local and non-local signatures in provenance studies in the field of archaeology and for food and plant authenticity control in agricultural applications

  1. SOTUNKI: An Island Of Education and Adventure

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    Heidi HEIKKILÄ

    2011-08-01

    .Information points:Ø amphitheatre and Mount Olympus for Ancient Greece and RomeØ Medieval tavern for Medieval literatureØ Midsummer Night’s fairy cave for RenaissanceØ Robinson Crusoe’s island for 18th century EnlightenmentØ cemetery and crypt for RomanticismØ a small, poor cottage for RealismØ a lighthouse (as in Virginia Woolf’s novel for ModernismØ a hobbit’s home for PostmodernismIt was crucial that the information points were in chronological order -that way students can “walk” through the history of Western literature themselves instead of just reading about it from a book and chronological order makes it is easier to remember the order of different time periods. I wish to share here the information points to reflect the stylistic periods they presented so it would be easy to learn something of a stylistic period by just looking around: it activates visual memory and helps to connect information with the place where it was found. For instance, students can learn things about 19th century Romanticism in a cemetery and in a mad scientist’s lab and remember that the era was not all about sweet, romantic dreams about love and more about monsters, death and mad scientists -and love with ruinous consequences.On every information point there are both theory and exercises available. There is at least one big board that holds the most important information about that time period written on it. When a student clicks on a board he gets an English translation and all the board’s information on a Notecard that can be saved in the student’s personal inventory. Then he can for instance go to sit on a beach, watch a sunset and study.Most of the information points have “talking” objects, by which I mean objects with scripts in them: when you click them, the object sends a chat-message with some information about literature. Below every information board there is an object (usually an apple and by clicking it a student gets a set of questions about that time period

  2. Padrão de mortalidade da comunidade judaica de Belo Horizonte no século XX Mortality pattern of jewish community of Belo Horizonte in the XXth century

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    Débora Balabram

    2006-12-01

    . It has been consolidated in the 20th decade of the last century. Nowadays the Federação Israelita de Minas Gerais (FISEMG has records of approximately 600 families. The purpose of this study is to define the mortality pattern in this community, and how it has changed since the community's formation. METHODS: Data was recovered from the files of the Instituto Histórico Israelita Mineiro, the FISEMG and from the cemeteries Israelita and Bonfim. RESULTS: 601 death registries have been studied, 61,6% belonging to men and 38,4% to women. The diseases of the circulatory system were the most frequent cause of death since the decade of 40, and infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, deserve note in the decades of 30 and 40. CONCLUSION: There was a change in death pattern of the jewish community of Belo Horizonte.

  3. SRTM Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height/EarthKam Optical Honolulu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These two images of the eastern part of the island of Oahu, Hawaii provide information on regional topography and show the relationship between urban development and sensitive ecosystems. On the left is a topographic radar image collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM.) On the right is an optical image acquired by a digital camera on the Space Shuttle Endeavour, which carried SRTM. Features of interest in this scene include Diamond Head (an extinct volcano at the lower center), Waikiki Beach (just left of Diamond Head), the Punchbowl National Cemetery (another extinct volcano, at the foot of the Koolau Mountains), downtown Honolulu and Honolulu airport (lower left of center), and Pearl Harbor (at the left edge.)The topography shows the steep, high central part of the island surrounded by flatter coastal areas. The optical image shows the urban areas and a darker, forested region on the mountain slopes. The clouds in the optical image and the black areas on the topographic image are both a result of the steep topography. In this tropical region, high mountain peaks are usually covered in clouds. These steep peaks also cause shadows in the radar data, resulting in missing data 'holes.' A second pass over the island was obtained by SRTM and will be used to fill in the holes.The left image combines two types of SRTM data. Brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation. Each color cycle (from pink through blue and back to pink) represents 400 meters (1,300 feet) of elevation difference, like the contour lines on a topographic map. This image contains about 2,400 meters (8,000 feet) of total relief. The optical image was acquired by the Shuttle Electronic Still Camera with a lens focal length of 64 millimeters (2.5 inches) for the Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle school students (EarthKAM) project. EarthKAM has flown on five space shuttle missions since 1996. Additional information

  4. “De Beach Belong to We!” Socio-economic Disparity and Islanders’ Rights of Access to the Coast in a Tourist Paradise

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    Christine Toppin-Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean islands share a history of plantation economy in which the "1%" not only controlled the natural resources and economies of the region, but also owned the majority of the "99%" who were enslaved. This disparity in wealth approximated a racial divide in the society, as the wealthy minority was predominantly "white" while the dispossessed majority was mainly non-whites. While the coastlands were always of importance in these export-oriented agricultural colonies, beach and backshore lands unsuitable for agriculture were less so, often being utilized for boatyards/fishing depots, cemeteries and "tenantries" or squatter settlements housing the landless. Since World War II, and particularly since the Cuban revolution in 1960, beach-oriented tourism has become the leading economic activity in most Caribbean countries. Competition for coastal resources has generally been resolved in favour of foreign currency, transferring much coastal property to foreign ownership and increasingly shutting off the local population's access to the sea. As the majority of foreign investors and tourists are white, this also has racial connotations. This paper examines the legal and administrative responses to the challenges that this situation presents which have been adopted by the Anglo-Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS, with particular reference to the islands of Jamaica, Barbados, Tobago and some of the member countries of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS. Las islas del Caribe comparten una historia de economía basada en plantaciones, en el que el 1% de la población controlaba los recursos naturales y la economía de la región, y al 99% restante, que vivía esclavizado. Esta diferencia en la riqueza traía consigo una división racial en la sociedad, ya que la minoría rica era principalmente "blanca", mientras que la mayoría desposeía era principalmente "no blanca". Mientras que las tierras costeras tenían siempre

  5. Undeath in Paradise: The Humanity of the Zombie in (Religious Utopias

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    Madelon Hoedt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The words ‘utopia’ and ‘zombie’ are likely to conjure up strong images in the mind of the reader. The first makes one think of perfection, of happiness, of something new and better; the other, of the monstrous, of death and decay. Despite the fact that these images are arguably the most common, one can question their validity: can it be said that utopias are always perfect, and are the undead always monstrous? In this paper, I aim to explore the concepts relating to both utopias and zombies and the possible connections between the two, including a reading of the undead in light of the ultimate utopia: Paradise. In the light of these analyses, I propose a more positive approach to the figure of the zombie, which will be discussed as a counterpoint to the commonly held views of (religious utopias. Keywords: utopia, dystopia, Christianity, Revelation, Paradise, Second Coming, zombie, post-zombieA man, dressed in an old, torn and dusty suit, is seen in the distance, staggering between the tombstones as he makes his way towards the two young people, who have come to the cemetery to visit their father’s grave. They notice the man, but make fun of him; to them, the figure is not dangerous. Until he attacks them. Part of the opening sequence of George A. Romero’s Night of the Living Dead (1968, it was in this film that audiences were introduced to the now iconic figure of the shambling, flesh-eating undead. Cinemagoers saw the dead come back to life, crawling out of the earth as if it were Judgement Day. These creatures may have looked human, but were unmistakably evil, attacking and feeding on anything they could find. This negative image of the zombie existed in horror media before Romero’s reinvention of the narrative in the shape of the voodoo zombi of Haitian origins, and this vision has persisted ever since. The undead are the monstrous Other and perhaps the ultimate threat to humanity: as their numbers grow, they replace and

  6. Thematic trip: "Save Roşia MontanÄă"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2015-04-01

    The name Roşia Montană, situated in Transylvania, became well known after a Romanian-Canadian company, Roşia Montană Gold Company (RMGC), obtained the concession license on exploitation for gold and silver minerals in the Roşia Montană area. The project consists of opening the largest surface gold mines in Europe using cyanide, which will include four open pits and a processing plant for gold and silver in The Roşia Valley and a tailings facility with an area of 367 hectares in the Corna Valley. One of the main fears is related to a possible ecological accident like the one in Baia Mare in 2000, when a tailing facility dam break led to cyanide pollution of Tisa and Danube rivers that resulted in the death of 1,200 tons of fish and contamination of water resources for 2 million people. This thematic trip is important for the scientific preparation of students and an opportunity to educate them in the spirit of environmental protection. The training and education of students will require assimilation and understanding, actively and consciously, using the knowledge acquired during the compulsory curriculum and training skills. REASON: The continuous degradation of the environment is a major crisis due to human intervention in nature, and the proposed Roşia Montană mining project will continue this trend. The company proposes to extract gold from mines by using the gold separation technique using cyanide, a process that involves destroying a total area of 16 km² which includes 5 mountains, 7 churches, 11 cemeteries and the ruins of Alburnus Maior Citadel, as well as creating pollution that would last for hundreds of years. The extraction of gold from low-grade ores using cyanide processes was estimated to result in a worldwide emission of 45,300 tons of hydrogen cyanide. Environmental education for a healthy life has children as target group, because they are the trustees and beneficiaries of tomorrow's natural resources and can influence the attitudes of

  7. Las armas en los poblados ibéricos: teoría, método y resultados

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    Quesada Sanz, Fernando

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively few weapons have been found in settlements of the Iron Age in the Iberian Peninsula. We analyze the methodological problems posed by the study of these contexts in comparison with cemetery fi nds, where most weapons have been found. Using the spatial distribution of weapons in a representative sample of Iberian Iron Age oppida and settlements, we show that there is not a concentration of fi nds in aristocratic houses or special buildings that we could identify as arsenals or magazines. Both in big settlements and small fortifi ed hamlets the available evidence points towards a generalized access to weapons by free men, land owners, a pattern that fi ts well with information given by a number of quite specifi c Graeco-Roman literary sources, and that matches information gleaned from grave goods.

    Conocemos comparativamente pocas armas procedentes de poblados en la Edad del Hierro en la Península Ibérica en la Edad del Hierro. Se plantean los problemas metodológicos que plantea el estudio en estos contextos en comparación con las necrópolis, de donde proceden la mayoría de las armas conocidas. A través del análisis de la distribución de armas en una serie representativa de yacimientos ibéricos se aprecia que no hay una concentración en casas aristocráticas o recintos especiales habilitados como arsenales. Tanto en grandes yacimientos como en recintos pequeños la dispersión habitual apunta en la Segunda Edad del Hierro hacia un acceso generalizado de las armas por parte de los habitantes libres propietarios, situación que coincide con la que plantean las fuentes literarias y se deduce de los ajuares funerarios. [fr] Nous connaissons comparativement peu d’armes provenant de sites d’habitat de l’âge du Fer dans la péninsule Ibérique. Ce travail met en évidence les diffi cultés méthodologiques que présente l’étude de ce mobilier dans de tels contextes, par comparaison avec les n

  8. Book Reviews

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    Soemarsaid Moertono

    1969-07-01

    Full Text Available - D. van der Horst, Albert Herrmann, An historical atlas of China. New edition by Norton Ginsburg. Djambatan N.V., Amsterdam 1966. 88 pp. - A.F.P. Hulsewé, F.S. Drake, Symposium of historical, archaeological and linguistic studies on Southern China, South-East Asia and the Hongkong region. Proceedings of a meeting held in September 1961 as part of the Golden Jubilee Congress of the University of Hongkong. Hongkong, Hongkong University Press, 1967. X + 370 pp. - D.R. Jonker, Liu Shih-Shun, One hundred and one Chinese poems. With English translations and preface. UNESCO Collection of Representative Works, Chinese Series; Hong Kong University Press, 1967. XXXIX + 173 pp. - M.A.P. Meilink-Roelofsz, A. Das Gupta, Malabar in Asian trade 1740-1800. Cambridge South Asian Studies. Cambridge U.P. 1967. XII, 204 blz. Met krt. - C.R. Hooijer, Per Sorensen, Ban-Kao, Neolithic settlements with cemeteries in the Kanchanaburi Province. 140 pp., 140 plates, 4 maps, figs. The Thai-Danish Prehistoric Expedition 1960-62, Archaeological Excavations in Thailand, Vol. II. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 1967. - C.R. Hooijer, H.R. van Heekeren, Sai-Yok, Stone-age settlements in the Kanchanaburi Province. 129 pp., 33 plates, 47 figs. The Thai-Danish Prehistoric Expedition 1960-1962, Archaeological Excavations in Thailand, Vol. I. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 1967., Eigil Knuth (eds. - Th. G. Th. Pigeaud, C. Hooykaas, Bagus Umbara, Prince of Koripan. The story of a prince of Bali and a princess of Java, illustrated on palm leaves by a Balines artist. With Balinese text and English translation by Dr C. Hooykaas, Reader in Old Javanese, University of London. Published by the Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1968. 55 pp., 9 illustrations, 31 x 25 cm. - H.J. de Graaf, Soemarsaid Moertono, State and statecraft in old Java: A study of the late Mataram period 16th to 19th century. Monograph series Modern Indonesia Project. Southeast Asia Program Department of Asian Studies. Cornell

  9. Turismo em Foz do Iguaçu, PR: O Patrimônio Cultural Libanês

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    Poliana Fabiula Cardozo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem o objetivo de descrever e analisar o patrimônio cultural libanês presente em Foz do Iguaçu, PR, de modo a anuir que ele cumpre dupla função: atender a demanda turística local e servir como fonte de identidade cultural para os imigrantes libaneses e seus descendentes. A metodologia da pesquisa buscou fontes secundárias, na forma de pesquisa bibliográfica para revisão teórica, e fontes primárias, oriundas de entrevistas. Como resultados, conclui-se que a comunidade libanesa chegou a Foz do Iguaçu na década de 1950 e desde então acumulou importante patrimônio no local, presente como arquitetura [mesquitas, escolas], monumentos [cemitério], gastronomia [restaurantes]; costumes [associações, festividades], grupos folclóricos, entre outros, visível no espaço urbano e listados como oferta turística. Tal exposição também resulta em fonte de identidade para este grupo, que tem apresentado discernimento em relação à quais marcas culturais estarão disponíveis e quais será resguardadas para a intimidade da comunidade. Palavras-chave: Turismo. Identidade Étnica. Imigração Libanesa. Patrimônio Cultural Libanês. Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brasil. Tourism in Foz do Iguaçu, PR: The Lebanese Cultural Heritage - This paper aims to describe and analyze the Lebanese cultural heritage present in Foz do Iguaçu, PR, in order to aquiesce that it fulfills two functions: meet the local tourist demand and serve as a cultural identity source for the Lebanese immigrants and their descendants. The research methodology sought secondary sources in the form of literature for theoretical revision, and primary sources, derived from interviews. As a result, it is concluded that the Lebanese community came to Foz do Iguaçu in the 1950s and since then has accumulated significant assets in place, as this architecture [mosques, schools], monuments [cemetery], food [restaurants]; customs [associations, festivities], folklore groups

  10. Mobility and Safety: a Challenge to Win for Everyone

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    FIABA Onlus

    2009-07-01

    human being: mothers and their children are part of the environment and it should be able to hold them. An environment that is suitable to growing up children is respectful of people’s elementar needs. We have to cultivate our sensitivity in order to prevent the appearing of new barriers, being it architectural features or not. This argument is strictly connected with the reorganization of our urban spaces trough the so called PUT (Urban Traffic Plans and the National Plan. We also never forget that a convenient, universal-accessible environment help us increasing the value of our time and our lives. If we can have back the value of our environment we can increase the inner value of ourselves. In conclusion, architectural features that are commonly found in apartment blocks and cemeteries make clear that the planning wasn’t for everyone. FIABA deeply wants to develop a different awareness of mobility problems, in the hope it can trigger off a new way of planning. We want, in the next future, that every building and every road will be thought without architectural features, in order to simplify everyday life and to assure us and our relatives the accesses.

  11. Adaptation of sentimental (ethnic tourism on tourist route «Golden Horseshoe» for tourist flows from Poland

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    N.Ie. Tomczewska-Popowycz

    2016-03-01

    tourist product. It must be at a sufficiently high level. To investigate the level of tourism infrastructure the survey was conducted among visitors from abroad. Studies have shown that road infrastructure outside the city needs immediate improvement, especially the road surface. This also applies to public toilets. In many places the lack of road signs and tables of interesting places that are nearby. Gastronomy is assessed mostly well. Possibly that is the lack of manual in English. It should do even the menu in English and Polish. Polish tourists in the territory of Lviv region staying mainly from few days to a week. During this time, it is very important to propose the adequate level of infrastructure and attractions. Foreign tourists often come due to local history, cognitive tourism. A lot of them are coming to find they roots. It is very necessary to make tourist expectation to come true. Conclusions and directions for futher researches. The author suggested how to adapt not used facilities and other potential in sentimental tourism. For example, revitalize Polish (Catholic cemeteries, gravestones important for Poles. Further studies should direct to improving of “Golden Horseshoe” at the international level for sentimental tourists not only from Poland but also from Austria, Hungary, Germany and Turkey. The territory of Lviv region has great potential for development of new tourism products. It seems that the most promising direction is genealogical and culinary tourism.

  12. Mobility and Safety: a Challenge to Win for All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Pannacciulli

    2010-04-01

    a human being: mothers and their children are part of the environment and it should be able to hold them. An environment that is suitable to growing up children is respectful of people’s elementar needs. We have to cultivate our sensitivity in order to prevent the appearing of new barriers, being it architectural features or not. This argument is strictly connected with the reorganization of our urban spaces trough the so called PUT (Urban Traffic Plans and the National Plan. We also never forget that a convenient, universal-accessible environment help us increasing the value of our time and our lives. If we can have back the value of our environment we can increase the inner value of ourselves. In conclusion, architectural features that are commonly found in apartment blocks and cemeteries make clear that the planning wasn’t for everyone. FIABA deeply wants to develop a different awareness of mobility problems, in the hope it can trigger off a new way of planning. We want, in the next future, that every building and every road will be thought without architectural features, in order to simplify everyday life and to assure us and our relatives the accesses.

  13. Neonatal mortality: description and effect of hospital of birth after risk adjustment Mortalidade neonatal: descrição e efeito do hospital de nascimento após ajuste de risco

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    Aluísio J D Barros

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of hospital of birth on neonatal mortality. METHODS: A birth cohort study was carried out in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2004. All hospital births were assessed by daily visits to all maternity hospitals and 4558 deliveries were included in the study. Mothers were interviewed regarding potential risk factors. Deaths were monitored through regular visits to hospitals, cemeteries and register offices. Two independent pediatricians established the underlying cause of death based on information obtained from medical records and home visits to parents. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of hospital of birth, controlling for confounders related to maternal and newborn characteristics, according to a conceptual model. RESULTS: Neonatal mortality rate was 12.7‰ and it was highly influenced by birthweight, gestational age, and socioeconomic variables. Immaturity was responsible for 65% of neonatal deaths, followed by congenital anomalies, infections and intrapartum asphyxia. Adjusting for maternal characteristics, a three-fold increase in neonatal mortality was seen between similar complexity hospitals. The effect of hospital remained, though lower, after controlling for newborn characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal mortality was high, mainly related to immaturity, and varied significantly across maternity hospitals. Further investigations comparing delivery care practices across hospitals are needed to better understand NMR variation and to develop strategies for neonatal mortality reduction.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de hospital de nascimento na ocorrência de mortalidade neonatal. MÉTODOS: Uma coorte de nascimentos foi iniciada em Pelotas, em 2004. Todos os nascimentos hospitalares foram estudados em visitas diárias às maternidades da cidade, incluindo-se 4.558 recém-nascidos. As mães foram entrevistadas sobre fatores de risco em potencial e as mortes, monitoradas com visitas regulares aos

  14. Mortalidade infantil em duas coortes de base populacional no Sul do Brasil: tendências e diferenciais Infant mortality in two population-based cohorts in southern Brazil: trends and differentials

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    Ana M. B. Menezes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a tendência temporal da mortalidade infantil através de dois estudos de coorte realizados em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, em 1982 e 1993. Ambas coortes incluíram todos os nascimentos hospitalares e óbitos verificados através de visitas regulares aos hospitais, cartórios e cemitérios. As informações sobre a causa de morte foram obtidas através de entrevistas com pediatras, revisão do prontuário, necrópsias e entrevista com os pais das crianças. O coeficiente de mortalidade infantil caiu de 36,4 por mil nascidos vivos para 21,1 na década. As principais causas de mortalidade infantil em 1993 foram as perinatais, malformações congênitas, diarréia e infecções respiratórias. Crianças com baixo peso ao nascer apresentaram mortalidade 12 vezes maior do que crianças com peso adequado, e crianças pré-termo, duas vezes mais do que crianças com retardo de crescimento intra-uterino. Crianças de famílias com renda baixa (um salário mínimo apresentaram mortalidade sete vezes superior àquelas com renda alta (10 salários mínimos. A mortalidade de crianças de baixo peso ao nascer e alta renda familiar decresceu em 67%, contra apenas 36% para as de baixa renda. Conclui-se que, mesmo com uma queda expressiva da mortalidade infantil na década, persistem importantes desigualdades sociais.Time trends in infant mortality were assessed through two cohort studies carried out in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1982 and 1993. Both cohorts included all hospital deliveries, and deaths were monitored through regular visits to hospitals, cemeteries, and notary publics. Information on cause of death was obtained from pediatricians, case notes, autopsies, and home visits to parents. The infant mortality rate fell from 36.4 in 1982 to 21.1 per thousand live births in 1993. The main causes of death in 1993 were perinatal, congenital malformations, diarrhea, and respiratory infections. Low birthweight babies were twelve times more likely

  15. Marcadores óseos de actividad física en la población aborigen de Gáldar (Siglos XI-XV DNE

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    Jonathan A. Santana Cabrera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La división social del trabajo es uno de los aspectos fundamentales que definen las relaciones sociales de producción. El ob­jetivo de este trabajo de investigación es apre­der cómo se materializa de esta división social del trabajo en la última fase del poblamiento prehispánico de Gáldar. Con este fin se ana­lizaron los marcadores óseos de actividad fí­sica en la extremidad superior de las series esqueléticas de los cementerios de El Agujero (n=41 y Juan Primo (n=9, ambos localizados en Gáldar y datados por métodos radiocarbó­nicos entre los siglos XI y XV d.n.e. Los mar­cadores óseos de actividad física son reaccio­nes óseas que se originan como respuesta a la actividad física y, por lo tanto, su análisis es una herramienta válida para el estudio de los patrones cotidianos de actividad laboral. Los resultados obtenidos manifestaron desigual­dades estadísticamente significativas entre ambas poblaciones, entre sexos y, en menor grado, entre la lateralidad de las extremidades y la edad. Estos datos ponen de relieve dife­rencias en los patrones de actividad cotidianos llevados a cabo por estas poblaciones. Estas desigualdades en la expresión de los marca­dores de actividad sugieren diferencias entre individuos en su posición dentro de la organi­zación del proceso productivo y, más concre­tamente, de la división social del trabajo.The social division of labor is one of the key aspects that define the social relations of production. The objective of this research was to verify the existence of this social divi­sion of labor during the final period of the pre- Hispanic occupation of Gáldar. For this pur­pose we have analyzed markers of physical activity in the upper limb from skeletal series of the cemeteries of El Agujero (No 41 and Juan Primo (No 9, both located in Gáldar and dated by radiocarbon methods between the 11th and 15th centuries AD. Skeletal markers of physi­cal activity are bone reactions which

  16. Geomorphic Response to Neotectonic Rise of the Middle Russian Upland: the case of the Ostrogozhsk Uplift (European Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskaya, Maria; Bessudnov, Alexandr; Kosevich, Natalya; Kuznetsova, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    The Ostrogozhsk Neotectonic Uplift is located in the south of the Middle Russian Upland (East European Plain). Tectonically, it is associated with the northeastern wing of the Voronezh Anteclise. Our geomorphological study of the area has shown that the Ostrogozhsk Uplift is an actively growing structure (Romanovskaya, 2015). According to recent studies neotectonic uplift amplitude can be estimated at more than 200 m. This growth has played a major role in landscape formation all around. This is clearly demonstrated by the following: recent dramatic changes in the flow directions of the rivers Don and Tikhaya Sosna as they had to bypass growing upland; instances of damming up, which created numerous oxbow lakes and led to waterlogging in floodplains; increase in the density of the erosion grid on the upland itself. On three sides, the Uplift slopes down towards neotectonic depressions. Lying at markedly different altitudes, the upland and the river floodplains connected with the depressions now possess contrasting local climates and support contrasting ecosystems. Land rise and concomitant fall of the groundwater table intensified erosion, weathering, karst and slope wash processes. These, in turn, have created numerous canyon-shaped ravines, very steep slopes (>60°) and interconnected bastion-like relief forms. Surrounded by protections in the form of steep slopes and water courses, the area is now a natural fortress which has favored human habitation since the Late Paleolithic Age. In a location in the Tikhaya Sosna river basin, gully erosion has exposed a large accumulation of ancient horse bones and human-made stone artifacts (Upper Paleolithic Multi-Level Archaeological Site Divnogorie-9, 13.5 ka - 14 ka BP) (Kuznetsova, 2014) and a cemetery left by the Mayatskoye medieval settlement (9th-10th centuries AD). Superimposed on the geology of the area, neotectonic movements and erosion have led to the formation of a very peculiar relief type - an assemblage of

  17. Lichenometry dating of rock collapse related to the great Lisbon Earthquake (1755) at the SE part of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Raul; Rodriguez-Pascua, Miguel Angel; Silva, Pablo G.; Bischoff, James L.; Owen, Lewis A.; Giner-Robles, Jorge L.; Díez-Herrero, Andres

    2010-05-01

    "De una montaña, se desprendió una parte" (A large part of a mountain has fallen down). This sentence was extracted from an ancient text written at the end of the 18th Century, in relation with the great Earthquake of Lisbon in 1755 (Martínez-Solares, 2001), and describing the rock collapse recorded near the small town of Agramón, 50 km southeastward of Albacete city (SE of Spain). Up to now, archaeologists have suggested this rock collapse to the archaeological site of "El Tolmo de Minateda", a small butte (420 m long) of calcarenitic sandstone bedrock with a flat top and scarped cliffs (20m high) bordering the butte. This ancient city was habited by several civilizations from Bronze Ages to modern times (i.e. Iberians, Roman, Visigoths, Muslims, Medieval ages, etc.). The landscape of this area is characterized by a flat terrain with isolated relict structural buttes consisting of Late Neogene marine sandstones created by differential erosion. The site exhibits three different stages of massive rock collapse. The oldest is located at the north of the site while the younger is located at the south part of the site and affecting Visigothic stone carved tombs. Archaeologists have postulated that the youngest of these was triggered by the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. We have carried out a lichenometric analysis over the free-faces of the rock blocks, with the aim of testing the postulate. For our purpose, we have calculated the calibrated growth curve for Aspicilia Radiosa (Hoff.), which yields a linear growth of 0.2425 mm per yr (R2 = 0.97, N=20). This growth rate was determined for the time interval from 800 BP yrs to the present by two different approaches: (1) rates obtained from cemetery measurements (200 yrs BP) and (2) rates determined from well-dated archaeological monuments (200-800 yrs BP). Our analysis revealed that the age of the rock-falling was in the year 1754 AD ±4. Thus, our results confirm that this collapse of ca. 5000 m3 of volume was triggered

  18. Using Caesium-137 Techniques to Estimate Soil Erosion and Deposition Rates on Agricultural Fields with Specific Conservation Measures in the Tutova Rolling Hills, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the period from 2003 until 2007 a study was conducted at four representative micro-catchments in the Tutova Rolling Hills of Romania to estimate soil erosion and deposition rates on agricultural fields and to assess the efficiency of soil conservation measures. In the study several categories of soil conservation measures were evaluated, such as strip farming, bench terraces and forest belts. As a first step in the analysis, two reference sites were selected on an uneroded meadow and in an old rural cemetery. The 137Cs inventory calculated for the first site was 6.90 kBq m-2 and for the second site 4.98 kBq m-2. The 137Cs results revealed that the highest erosion rates could be found in the centre of the strip crops where 137Cs inventory varied between 2.12 and 4.77 kBq m-2, while deposition of sediments was the largest on the bench terraces with a maximum inventory of 137Cs of 14 kBq m-2 (exceptionally 44 kBq m-2). The forest belts were characterized by high spatial variability in the deposition pattern; 137Cs inventory ranged between 7.98 and 11.22 kBq m-2. The comparative analysis between in situ and laboratory measurements of the 137Cs inventories revealed that the portable detector has to be used with care, especially on steep slopes with strong roughness. Nevertheless, generally in situ measurements gave good estimates of soil erosion and sedimentation rates. Conventional measurements made on the runoff plots at the Perieni Center in the period of 1985-2006 indicated that annual erosion rates ranged between 2.1 and 8.9 t ha-1 a-1, depending on the crop rotation. A maximum value of 52.3 t ha-1 a-1 was registered for the plot of 150 m2 under bare fallow. The smallest differences between the conventionally measured and the empirically and 137Cs based estimated values have been observed in the case of those plots well covered by vegetation throughout the years, especially by brome grass. On the plots with annual crops like maize, bean, soybean and especially

  19. Uusi andmeid Mihkli kiriku vanemast ajaloost / New data on the early history of the church of Mihkli

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    Ain Mäesalu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The church of Mihkli is located in Pärnumaa County, approximately 40 km north-west of Pärnu. It is unknown when the limestone building of the church was constructed. The current vaulted church was probably built in the fourth quarter of the 13th century.Preparatory works for building a new roof for the church of Mihkli were carried out in August 2011. The removal of a layer of debris, which had cumulated on top of the vaults of the church, uncovered a layer of soil containing human bones. The results of the archaeological excavations there have led to the assumption that the human bones were brought there in the 19th century together with soil taken from the immediate vicinity of the church, where there used to be a cemetery during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern periodSome of the 55 finds were originally grave goods. A bronze ring, three iron knives, an iron belt-buckle and four silver coins can be considered as such. The artefacts have been dated to the 15th and 16th centuries, whereas the coins were minted in 1515 (?, 1577, 1621 and 1664.The 26 shards of window-glass, some with traces of painting, which were found in the soil, are probably remnants of the church windows. The extraordinary finds were two bronze book clasps that are similar to book clasps used in Northern-Germany and the Netherlands in the 16th century.Three three-ponged sconces produced at the end of the 19th century were found in the holes in the walls located 80–90 cm below the top of the northern and southern walls of the church. The sconces were taken apart and hid in these holes in 1943 during the Second World War.It is now clear, as a result of the excavations that the original stone church had been without vaults, with a simple beam ceiling and plastered from the inside. A two metre long passage within the upper part of the northern wall of the church revealed that it had originally been a fortified church.This paper also discusses if priest Henry, the author

  20. Book Reviews

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    Redactie KITLV

    1992-01-01

    cemetery in Barbados, West Indies: a bioarcheological and ethnohistorical investigation, Carbondale IL: Center for archaeological investigations, Southern Illinois University, 1989. xviii + 125 pp., Michael D. Conner, Keith P. Jacobi (eds -Gert Oostindie, Cornelis Ch. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and in Surinam 1791/1942, Assen, Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1990. xii + 812 pp. -Rosemarijn Hoefte, Alfons Martinus Gerardus Rutten, Apothekers en chirurgijns: gezondheidszorg op de Benedenwindse eilanden van de Nederlandse Antillen in de negentiende eeuw, Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1989. xx + 330 pp. -Rene A. Römer, Luc Alofs ,Ken ta Arubiano? sociale integratie en natievorming op Aruba, Leiden: Department of Caribbean studies, Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. xi + 232 pp., Leontine Merkies (eds -Michiel van Kempen, Benny Ooft et al., De nacht op de Courage - Caraïbische vertellingen, Vreeland, the Netherlands: Basispers, 1990. -M. Stevens, F.E.R. Derveld ,Winti-religie: een Afro-Surinaamse godsdienst in Nederland, Amersfoort, the Netherlands: Academische Uitgeverij Amersfoort, 1988. 188 pp., H. Noordegraaf (eds -Dirk H. van der Elst, H.U.E. Thoden van Velzen ,The great Father and the danger: religious cults, material forces, and collective fantasies in the world of the Surinamese Maroons, Dordrecht, the Netherlands and Providence RI: Foris Publications, 1988. xiv + 451 pp. [Second printing, Leiden: KITLV Press, 1991], W. van Wetering (eds -Johannes M. Postma, Gert Oostindie, Roosenburg en Mon Bijou: twee Surinaamse plantages, 1720-1870, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Foris Publications, 1989. x + 548 pp. -Elizabeth Ann Schneider, John W. Nunley ,Caribbean festival arts: each and every bit of difference, Seattle/St. Louis: University of Washington Press / Saint Louis Art Museum, 1989. 217 pp., Judith Bettelheim (eds -Bridget Brereton, Howard S. Pactor, Colonial British Caribbean newspapers: a bibliography and directory, Westport CT: Greenwood, 1990. xiii