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Sample records for cemented polyethylene cups

  1. Migration and head penetration of Vitamin-E diffused cemented polyethylene cup compared to standard cemented cup in total hip arthroplasty: study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial (E1 HIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköldenberg, Olof; Rysinska, Agata; Chammout, Ghazi; Salemyr, Mats; Muren, Olle; Bodén, Henrik; Eisler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In vitro, Vitamin-E-diffused, highly cross-linked polyethylene (PE) has been shown to have superior wear resistance and improved mechanical properties when compared to those of standard highly cross-linked PE liners used in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety of a new cemented acetabular cup with Vitamin-E-doped PE regarding migration, head penetration and clinical results. Methods and analysis In this single-centre, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial, we will include 50 patients with primary hip osteoarthritis scheduled for THA and randomise them in a 1:1 ratio to a cemented cup with either argon gas-sterilised PE (control group) or Vitamin-E-diffused PE (vitamin-e group). All patients and the assessor of the primary outcome will be blinded and the same uncemented stem will be used for all participants. The primary end point will be proximal migration of the cup at 2 years after surgery measured with radiostereometry. Secondary end points include proximal migration at other follow-ups, total migration, femoral head penetration, clinical outcome scores and hip-related complications. Patients will be followed up at 3 months and at 1, 2, 5 and 10 years postoperatively. Results Results will be analysed using 95% CIs for the effect size. A regression model will also be used to adjust for stratification factors. Ethics and dissemination The ethical committee at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study. The first results from the study will be disseminated to the medical community via presentations and publications in relevant medical journals when the last patient included has been followed up for 2 years. Trial registration number NCT02254980. PMID:27388352

  2. Wear, bone density, functional outcome and survival in vitamin E-incorporated polyethylene cups in reversed hybrid total hip arthroplasty: design of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    van der Veen Hugo C; van den Akker-Scheek Inge; Bulstra Sjoerd K; van Raay Jos JAM

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Aseptic loosening of total hip arthroplasties is generally caused by periprosthetic bone resorption due to tissue reactions on polyethylene wear particles. In vitro testing of polyethylene cups incorporated with vitamin E shows increased wear resistance. The objective of this study is to compare vitamin E-stabilized highly cross-linked polyethylene with conventional cross-linked polyethylene in “reversed hybrid” total hip arthroplasties (cemented all-polyethylene cups comb...

  3. The effect of geometry and abduction angle on the stresses in cemented UHMWPE acetabular cups – finite element simulations and experimental tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santavirta Seppo S

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contact pressure of UHMWPE acetabular cup has been shown to correlate with wear in total hip replacement (THR. The aim of the present study was to test the hypotheses that the cup geometry, abduction angle, thickness and clearance can modify the stresses in cemented polyethylene cups. Methods Acetabular cups with different geometries (Link®: IP and Lubinus eccentric were tested cyclically in a simulator at 45° and 60° abduction angles. Finite element (FE meshes were generated and two additional designs were reconstructed to test the effects of the cup clearance and thickness. Contact pressures at cup-head and cup-cement interfaces were calculated as a function of loading force at 45°, 60° and 80° abduction angles. Results At the cup-head interface, IP experienced lower contact pressures than the Lubinus eccentric at low loading forces. However, at higher loading forces, much higher contact pressures were produced on the surface of IP cup. An increase in the abduction angle increased contact pressure in the IP model, but this did not occur to any major extent with the Lubinus eccentric model. At the cup-cement interface, IP experienced lower contact pressures. Increased clearance between cup and head increased contact pressure both at cup-head and cup-cement interfaces, whereas a decreased thickness of polyethylene layer increased contact pressure only at the cup-cement interface. FE results were consistent with experimental tests and acetabular cup deformations. Conclusion FE analyses showed that geometrical design, thickness and abduction angle of the acetabular cup, as well as the clearance between the cup and head do change significantly the mechanical stresses experienced by a cemented UHMWPE acetabular cup. These factors should be taken into account in future development of THR prostheses. FE technique is a useful tool with which to address these issues.

  4. Elastoplastic cup model for cement-based materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan ZHANG

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on experimental data obtained from triaxial tests and a hydrostatic test, a cup model was formulated. Two plastic mechanisms, respectively a deviatoric shearing and a pore collapse, are taken into account. This model also considers the influence of confining pressure. In this paper, the calibration of the model is detailed and numerical simulations of the main mechanical behavior of cement paste over a large range of stress are described, showing good agreement with experimental results. The case study shows that this cup model has extensive applicability for cement-based materials and other quasi-brittle and high-porosity materials in a complex stress state.

  5. Wear, bone density, functional outcome and survival in vitamin E-incorporated polyethylene cups in reversed hybrid total hip arthroplasty: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Veen Hugo C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic loosening of total hip arthroplasties is generally caused by periprosthetic bone resorption due to tissue reactions on polyethylene wear particles. In vitro testing of polyethylene cups incorporated with vitamin E shows increased wear resistance. The objective of this study is to compare vitamin E-stabilized highly cross-linked polyethylene with conventional cross-linked polyethylene in “reversed hybrid” total hip arthroplasties (cemented all-polyethylene cups combined with uncemented femoral stems. We hypothesize that the adjunction of vitamin E leads to a decrease in polyethylene wear in the long-term. We also expect changes in bone mineral density, less osteolysis, equal functional scores and increased implant survival in polyethylene cemented cups incorporated with vitamin E in the long-term. Design A double-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted. Patients to be included are aged under 70, suffer from non-inflammatory degenerative joint disease of the hip and are scheduled for a primary total hip arthroplasty. The study group will receive a reversed hybrid total hip arthroplasty with a vitamin E-stabilized highly cross-linked polyethylene cemented cup. The control group will receive a reversed hybrid total hip arthroplasty with a conventional cross-linked polyethylene cemented cup. Radiological follow-up will be assessed at 6 weeks and at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years postoperatively, to determine polyethylene wear and osteolysis. Patient-reported functional status (HOOS, physician-reported functional status (Harris Hip Score and patients’ physical activity behavior (SQUASH will also be assessed at these intervals. Acetabular bone mineral density will be assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at 6 weeks and at 1 year and 2 years postoperatively. Implant survival will be determined at 10 years postoperatively. Discussion In vitro results of vitamin E-stabilized polyethylene are promising

  6. Effects of metal-inlay thickness in polyethylene cups with metal-on-metal bearings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Vena, P.; Stolk, J.; Huiskes, R.

    2002-01-01

    A way to prevent polyethylene wear in total hip replacements is to use metal-on-metal bearings. The cup design of these bearings may be a metal inlay in a polyethylene cup. However, these metal inlays are relatively thin and may deform on loading. The purpose of the current study was to determine wh

  7. Testing and evaluation of polyethylene and sulfur cement waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies related to the use of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement as new binder materials for the improved solidification of low-level wastes. Waste streams selected for this study include those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those that remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion-exchange resins). Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported for polyethylene. For sulfur cement the recommended waste loadings of 40 wt % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt % incinerator ash are reported. However, incorporation of ion-exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended due to poor waste form performance. The work presented in this paper will, in part, present data that can be used to assess the acceptability of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement waste forms to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. 8 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Testing and evaluation of polyethylene and sulfur cement waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies related to the use of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement as new binder materials for the improved solidification of low-level wastes. Waste streams selected for this study include those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those that remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt% sodium sulfate, 50 wt% boric acid, 40 wt% incinerator ash and 30 wt% ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported for polyethylene. For sulfur cement the recommended waste loadings of 40 wt% sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt% incinerator ash are reported. However, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended due to poor waste form performance. Data is presented that can be used to assess the acceptability of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement waste forms to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. 8 references, 10 figures, 6 tables

  9. A Novel Method for Assessment of Polyethylene Liner Wear in Radiopaque Tantalum Acetabular Cups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Anders; Greene, Meridith E; Ayers, David C;

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiostereometric analysis (RSA) for wear is not possible in patients with tantalum cups. We propose a novel method for wear analysis in tantalum cups. Wear was assessed by gold standard RSA and the novel method in total hip arthroplasty patients enrolled in a randomized controlled...

  10. Three Year RSA Evaluation of Vitamin E Diffused Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene Liners and Cup Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Greene, Meridith E; Nebergall, Audrey K;

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E diffusion into highly cross-linked polyethylene (E-XLPE) is a method for enhancing oxidative stability of acetabular liners. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo penetration of E-XLPE using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Eighty-four hips were recruited into a prospective...... 10-year RSA. This is the first evaluation of the multicenter cohort after 3-years. All patients received E-XLPE liners (E1, Biomet) and porous-titanium coated cups (Regenerex, Biomet). There was no difference (P=0.450) in median femoral head penetration into the E-XLPE liners at 3-years comparing...

  11. Alumina Inlay Failure in Cemented Polyethylene-backed Total Hip Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Iwakiri, Kentaro; Iwaki, Hiroyoshi; Minoda, Yukihide; Ohashi, Hirotsugu; Takaoka, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    Alumina-on-alumina bearings for THA have markedly improved in mechanical properties through advances in technology; however, alumina fracture is still a concern. We retrospectively reviewed 77 patients (82 hips) with cemented alumina-on-alumina THAs to identify factors relating to alumina failure. The mean age of the patients at surgery was 63 years. The prostheses had a cemented polyethylene-backed acetabular component with an alumina inlay and a 28-mm alumina head. Revision surgery was perf...

  12. No Superiority of Cemented Metal-on-Metal vs Metal-on-Polyethylene THA at 5-Year Follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wierd P.; Cheung, John; Sietsma, Maurits S.; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Deutman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the cemented Stanmore metal-on-metal (Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana) total hip arthroplasty (THA; 102 hips) to the cemented Stanmore metal-on-polyethylene (Biomet) THA (98 hips). The primary outcome was clinical performance. Radiological performance,

  13. The effect of bone cement particles on the friction of polyethylene and polyurethane knee bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compliant layer knee joints have been considered for use in an attempt to increase the serviceable life of artificial joints. If designed correctly, these joints should operate within the full-fluid film lubrication regime. However, adverse tribological conditions, such as the presence of bone and bone cement particles, may breach the fluid film and cause surface wear. The frictional behaviour of both polyurethane (PU) and conventional polyethylene (PE) tibial components against a metallic femoral component was therefore assessed when bone cement particles were introduced into the lubricant. The bone cement particles caused a large increase in the frictional torque of both the PE and PU bearings; however, the friction produced by the PU bearings was still considerably lower than that produced by the PE bearings. The volume of bone cement particles between each of the bearings and the resultant frictional torque both decreased over time. This occurred more quickly with the PE bearings but greater damage was caused to the surface of the PE bearings than the PU components

  14. The effect of bone cement particles on the friction of polyethylene and polyurethane knee bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ash, H E [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Scholes, S C [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Unsworth, A [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Jones, E [Stryker Howmedica Osteonics, Raheen Industrial Estate, Limerick (Ireland)

    2004-08-07

    Compliant layer knee joints have been considered for use in an attempt to increase the serviceable life of artificial joints. If designed correctly, these joints should operate within the full-fluid film lubrication regime. However, adverse tribological conditions, such as the presence of bone and bone cement particles, may breach the fluid film and cause surface wear. The frictional behaviour of both polyurethane (PU) and conventional polyethylene (PE) tibial components against a metallic femoral component was therefore assessed when bone cement particles were introduced into the lubricant. The bone cement particles caused a large increase in the frictional torque of both the PE and PU bearings; however, the friction produced by the PU bearings was still considerably lower than that produced by the PE bearings. The volume of bone cement particles between each of the bearings and the resultant frictional torque both decreased over time. This occurred more quickly with the PE bearings but greater damage was caused to the surface of the PE bearings than the PU components.

  15. FE Analysis of Non-Uniform Cement Layer in Acetabular Cup of Hip Joint Implant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyčichl, Jan; Kunecký, Jiří; Kytýř, Daniel; Jírová, Jitka

    Plzeň : Západočeská univerzita, 2007, s. 30-31. ISBN 978-80-7043-607-3. [The 1st IMACS International Conference on Computational Biomechanics and Biology ICCBB 2007. Plzeň (CZ), 10.09.2007-13.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200710504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : pelvic bone * acetabulum * cement layer * FE model Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  16. Size of metallic and polyethylene debris particles in failed cemented total hip replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. M.; Salvati, E. A.; Betts, F.; DiCarlo, E. F.; Doty, S. B.; Bullough, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    Reports of differing failure rates of total hip prostheses made of various metals prompted us to measure the size of metallic and polyethylene particulate debris around failed cemented arthroplasties. We used an isolation method, in which metallic debris was extracted from the tissues, and a non-isolation method of routine preparation for light and electron microscopy. Specimens were taken from 30 cases in which the femoral component was of titanium alloy (10), cobalt-chrome alloy (10), or stainless steel (10). The mean size of metallic particles with the isolation method was 0.8 to 1.0 microns by 1.5 to 1.8 microns. The non-isolation method gave a significantly smaller mean size of 0.3 to 0.4 microns by 0.6 to 0.7 microns. For each technique the particle sizes of the three metals were similar. The mean size of polyethylene particles was 2 to 4 microns by 8 to 13 microns. They were larger in tissue retrieved from failed titanium-alloy implants than from cobalt-chrome and stainless-steel implants. Our results suggest that factors other than the size of the metal particles, such as the constituents of the alloy, and the amount and speed of generation of debris, may be more important in the failure of hip replacements.

  17. Precision of radiostereometric analysis (RSA) of acetabular cup stability and polyethylene wear improved by adding tantalum beads to the liner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Rader, Kevin; Palm, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose - In traditional radiostereometric analysis (RSA), 1 segment defines both the acetabular shell and the polyethylene liner. However, inserting beads into the polyethylene liner permits employment of the shell and liner as 2 separate segments, enabling distinct analysis of the...... precision of 3 measurement methods in determining femoral head penetration and shell migration. Patients and methods - The UmRSA program was used to analyze the double examinations of 51 hips to determine if there was a difference in using the shell-only segment, the liner-only segment, or the shell + liner...

  18. A comparison of linear polyethylene wear measured by optical and radiologic methods in 88 retrieved ABG 1 cups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gallo, J.; Havránek, Vítězslav; Florschutz, A. V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2005), s. 185-187. ISSN 0447-6441 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : total hip arthroplasty * polyethylene wear * optical measurement * x-ray measurement * ABG 1 Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  19. Mechanical property and in vitro biocompatibility of brushite cement modified by polyethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD) cement, owing to its high solubility in physiological condition and ability to guide new bone formation, is widely used to treat bone defects. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of poly ethylene glycol (PEG) addition on the setting time, compressive strength and in vitro biocompatibility of brushite cement. The brushite cements were prepared by mixing β-tricalcium phosphate [β-TCP, Ca3(PO4)2] and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [MCPM, Ca(H2PO4)2 ⋅ H2O]. PEG was introduced at 2.0 and 5.0 wt% with the liquid. Introduction of PEG resulted in marginal increase in both initial and final setting time, however, significantly affected the compressive strength. Effects of PEG incorporation on in vitro biocompatibility of brushite cements were studied by using human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB) cells. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that pure and PEG incorporated brushite cement facilitates cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Fewer cells expressed vinculin protein with increased PEG content in the cement. Cell proliferation was found to decrease with increased PEG concentration while the cell differentiation increased with PEG content. Our results provide a better understanding of in vitro biocompatibility of PEG added brushite cements that can be used to customize the cement compositions based on application need. - Highlights: ► Setting time was not altered for brushite cement with PEG addition. ► hFOB cell proliferation was found to decrease with increased PEG concentration in brushite cement. ► Enhanced ALP activity was noticed with addition of PEG in brushite cements.

  20. Performance of Non-Cemented, Hemispherical, Rim-Fit, Hydroxyapatite Coated Acetabular Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Thomas K; Ghosh, Gaurav; Ranawat, Chitranjan S; Ranawat, Amar S; Meftah, Morteza

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the durability of a non-cemented, hemispherical rim-fit, hydroxyapatite coated cup with a highly cross-linked polyethylene in 223 total hip arthroplasties. At 6-years follow-up (range, 5-9), there were no cup revisions for osteolysis or loosening. Radiologic evidence of osseointegration was based on presence of Stress Induced Reactive Cancellous Bone and radial trabeculae, seen in 47% and 93% of cups, respectively; both were most prevalent in Zone 1. There was no interference demarcation in any zones. Two cups were revised (0.9%): one for dislocation and another for infection. The Kaplan-Meier survivorship for cup revision for any failure (infection, dislocation) was 99% and for mechanical failure (osteolysis, loosening) was 100%. This design has excellent safety, efficacy and durability. PMID:26235521

  1. Evaluation of compressive strength and water absorption of soil-cement bricks manufactured with addition of pet (polyethylene terephthalate wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Paschoalin Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of compressive strength of soil-cement bricks obtained by the inclusion in their mixture of PET flakes through mineral water bottles grinding. The Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET has been characterized by its difficulty of disaggregation in nature, requiring a long period for this. On the other hand, with the increase in civil construction activities the demand for raw material also increases, causing considerable environmental impacts. In this context, the objective of this research is to propose a simple methodology, preventing its dumping and accumulation in irregular areas, and reducing the demand of raw materials by the civil construction industry. The results showed that compressive strengths obtained were lower than recommended by NBR 8491 (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas [ABNT], 2012b at seven days of curing time. However, they may be used as an alternative solution in masonry works in order to not submit themselves to great loads or structural functions. The studied bricks also presented water absorption near to recommended values by NBR 8491 (ABNT, 2012b. Manufacturing costs were also determined for this brick, comparing it with the costs of other brick types. Each brick withdrew from circulation approximately 300 g of PET waste. Thus, for an area of 1 m2 the studied bricks can promote the withdrawal of approximately 180 beverage bottles of 2 L capacity.

  2. Physico-mechanical Properties of Electron Beam Irradiated Particle boards Based on Wood flour/ Polyethylene/Cement Kiln Dust Impregnated with Unsaturated Polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle boards were fabricated by mixing wood flour (WF), low density polyethylene (LDPE) and cement kiln dust (CKD) under hot pressure; and then impregnated in unsaturated polyester resin. These impregnated particle boards were subjected to various doses of electron beam irradiation up to 50 kGy. The physico-mechanical properties were characterized in terms of flexural strength, impact strength, water absorption, thickness swelling, and the thermal stability. The results showed that the partial replacement of wood flour with cement kiln dust up to 20% by weight improved the values of flexural strength, and impact strength. However, the water absorption percentage and thickness swelling values decreased with increasing the CKD ratio up to 40%. Furthermore, the treatment with electron beam irradiation doses improved the physico-mechanical properties of the impregnated particle boards up to 50 kGy. The improved results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  3. Dislocation of a dual mobility total hip replacement following fracture of the polyethylene liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedrine, Bertrand; Guillaumot, Pierre; Chancrin, Jean-Luc

    2016-05-18

    An eight-year-old male English Setter was referred for management of a dislocation of a cemented dual mobility canine total hip prosthesis that occurred four months after the initial surgery. Revision surgery showed that the dislocation was associated with fracture of the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene liner. The dislocation was successfully reduced after replacing the liner. A dual mobility acetabular component is composed of a mobile polyethylene liner inside a metallic cemented cup. Chronic wear of the components of a canine dual mobility total hip replacement has not been described previously. The use of this type of implant is fairly recent and limited long term follow-up of the implanted cases may be the explanation. Acute rupture of a polyethylene liner has never been described in humans, the only case of rupture of a polyethylene liner occurred 10 years after implantation. The case presented here of rupture of the polyethylene liner of a dual mobility total hip replacement is a hitherto unreported failure mode in this model of acetabular cup in the dog. PMID:26991949

  4. Femoral and obturator nerves palsy caused by pelvic cement extrusion after hip arthroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Zwolak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cement extrusion into the pelvis with subsequent palsy of the obturator and femoral nerves is a rare entity after hip replacement surgery. Cemented fixation of the acetabular cup has been considered as a safe and reliable standard procedure with very good long term results. We present a case of fifty year old female patient after hip arthroplasty procedure which suffered an obturator and femoral nerve palsy caused by extrusion of bone cement into the pelvis. Postoperative X-rays and CT-scan of the pelvis demonstrated a huge mass consisted of bone cement in close proximity of femoral and obturator nerves. The surgery charts reported shallow and weak bony substance in postero-superior aspect of the acetabulum. This weak bony acetabular substance may have caused extrusion of bone cement during press-fitting of the polyethylene cup into the acetabulum, and the following damage of the both nerves produced by polymerization of bone cement. The bone cement fragment has been surgically removed 3 weeks after arthroplasty. The female patient underwent intensive postoperative physical therapy and electro stimulation which resulted in full recovery of the patient to daily routine and almost normal electromyography results.

  5. Field evaluation of a cement-bentonite grout and a chlorosulfonated polyethylene fabric liner in hydrologically isolating low-level radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two engineered modifications, trench lining and grouting, have been demonstrated and evaluated. Reinforced chlorosulfonated polyethylene (Hypalon) fabric and a Portland cement-bentonite grout were selected for demonstration within a group of nine 28-m3 experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Groundwater monitoring has shown that standing water is present in all nine experimental trenches (both treated and untreated); however, depth of water and water level fluctuation patterns differed according to trench treatment and were minimal in the case of the grouted trenches. Both water pump-in and water pump-out tests conducted on the lined trenches showed that the original goal of watertight liners was not achieved and that water was entering and leaving these trenches with each precipitation event. Water entering into the grouted trenches was inhibited by the cement-bentonite grout backfill, as reflected in the lower values of hydraulic conductivities that were measured in these three trenches compared with those in the three control (untreated) trenches. In examining engineering properties of the grout and liner material, it was found that no significant change in liner tensile strength or liner aging study, indicating that there were no short-term changes in these engineering properties with field weathering. Cover subsidence has not occurred over the grouted or control trenches, while 2 of the lined trenches have settled 7 to 10 cm (2 to 3% of the trench depth) in the first two years. Based on these treatment evaluation tests, the cement-bentonite grouted trenches appear to offer the highest level of water protection compared to the Hypalon lined and the control trenches

  6. Exploring volumetrically indexed cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-03-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.

  7. Hiboo International Football Cup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Hiboo International Cup Soccer Friendly, sponsored by the Hiboo International Group, kicked off on May 13 in Dongguangtou, Fengtai District, Beijing. The event will last until June 10 when the first whistle blows at the FIFA 2006 World Cup games in Germany, and provides the perfect teaser for local soccer fans to get in the World Cup mood. The Hiboo Cup is played between teams from China and seven foreign embassies' representatives, from the United States, Mexico, France, the African Union, Malaysia,...

  8. Fixation strength analysis of cup to bone material using finite element simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Iwan Budiwan; Saputra, Eko; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-04-01

    Fixation of acetabular cup to bone material is an important initial stability for artificial hip joint. In general, the fixation in cement less-type acetabular cup uses press-fit and screw methods. These methods can be applied alone or together. Based on literature survey, the additional screw inside of cup is effective; however, it has little effect in whole fixation. Therefore, an acetabular cup with good fixation, easy manufacture and easy installation is required. This paper is aiming at evaluating and proposing a new cup fixation design. To prove the strength of the present cup fixation design, the finite element simulation of three dimensional cup with new fixation design was performed. The present cup design was examined with twist axial and radial rotation. Results showed that the proposed cup design was better than the general version.

  9. Isolated Polyethylene Exchange versus Acetabular Revision for Polyethylene Wear

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo, Camilo; Ghanem, Elie; Houssock, Carrie; Austin, Mathew; Parvizi, Javad; Hozack, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Polyethylene wear and osteolysis are not uncommon in THA mid- and long-term. In asymptomatic patients the dilemma faced by the orthopaedic surgeon is whether to revise the cup and risk damage to the supporting columns and even pelvic discontinuity or to perform isolated polyethylene exchange and risk a high rate of postoperative recurrent instability and dislocation that will necessitate further surgery. We retrospectively reviewed 62 patients (67 hips) who underwent revision arthroplasty for...

  10. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  11. POLYETHYLENE ENCAPSULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyethylene microencapsulation physically homogenizes and incorporates mixed waste particles within a molten polymer matrix, forming a solidified final waste form upon cooling. Each individual particle of waste is embedded within the polymer block and is surrounded by a durable, leach-resistant coating. The process has been successfully applied for the treatment of a broad range of mixed wastes, including evaporator concentrate salts, soil, sludges, incinerator ash, off-gas blowdown solutions, decontamination solutions, molten salt oxidation process residuals, ion exchange resins, granular activated carbon, shredded dry active waste, spill clean-up residuals, depleted uranium powders, and failed grout waste forms. For waste streams containing high concentrations of soluble toxic metal contaminants, additives can be used to further reduce leachability, thus improving waste loadings while meeting or exceeding regulatory disposal criteria. In this configuration, contaminants are both chemically stabilized and physically solidified, making the process a true stabilization/solidification (S/S) technology. Unlike conventional hydraulic cement grouts or thermosetting polymers, thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene require no chemical. reaction for solidification. Thus, a stable, solid, final waste form product is assured on cooling. Variations in waste chemistry over time do not affect processing parameters and do not require reformulation of the recipe. Incorporation of waste particles within the polymer matrix serves as an aggregate and improves the mechanical strength and integrity of the waste form. The compressive strength of polyethylene microencapsulated waste forms varies based on the type and quantity of waste encapsulated, but is typically between 7 and 17.2 MPa (1000 and 2500 psi), well above the minimum strength of 0.4 MPa (160 psi) recommended by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for low-level radioactive waste forms in support of 10 CFR 61

  12. Orienteering World Cup hosted by CERN Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Elite runners took to the streets of Geneva for the last leg of the Orienteering World Cup, from 8-10 October. The Geneva finals were hosted by the CERN Orienteering Club and concluded months of competitions held across 5 countries.   Women's World-Cup winner, Simone Niggli (centre).  © Ilknur Colak The final events of the Orienteering World Cup took place in the Old Town of Geneva and Saint-Cergue, with runners following routes prepared by the CERN Orienteering Club. Orienteering is a sport of navigation, using only a compass, map and your sense of direction. The objective is to get to all the points on the map as quickly as possible, choosing your own paths as you run. This was the CERN club’s first successful participation in the World Cup, cementing its reputation as a fixture in the international orienteering world. Orienteering is not your typical Swiss pastime. Developed in Scandinavia, the sport has been gaining popularity internationally. “...

  13. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-01-01

    Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  14. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  15. Cup Anemometer Overspeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, N. E.; Kristensen, Leif

    1976-01-01

    Statistical considerations are applied to a general equation of motion for cup anemometers in a turbulent wind. It is shown that the relative overspeeding ΔS/S can be expressed as ΔS/S = Ih2 · Js(l0/Λs) + cIw2, where Is and Iw are the horizontal and the vertical turbulence intensifies, respectively...

  16. Ten-year results with the Morscher press-fit cup: an uncemented, non-modular, porous-coated cup inserted without screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Guido; Lübbeke, Anne; Barea, Christophe; Roussos, Constantinos; Peter, Robin; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) with well designed cementless acetabular implants has shown excellent results. The purpose of this study was to assess our clinical and radiological outcomes using an uncemented cup. We conducted a prospective cohort study including all consecutive primary THAs performed with the Morscher press-fit cup, an uncemented non-modular acetabular component, between March 1996 and December 1998. Patients were evaluated at ten years with clinical and radiological follow-up, patient satisfaction and questionnaire assessment using the Harris hip score (HHS), Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score, the UCLA score, the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12) and a visual analog scale. Five hundred sixty-one THAs were performed in 518 patients. At 120 months (± 7.3 months), 303 patients with 335 THAs were still available for follow-up. None of the patients had required cup revision for aseptic loosening. At ten years, the cup survivorship was 98.8% (95% CI 97.4-99.5) with cup revision for any cause as an endpoint. No radiolucencies were seen around the cups, but osteolytic defects involved 21 stems (8.3%). Mean total linear polyethylene wear was 0.9 mm. The Morscher acetabular replacement cup provides excellent results at ten years. There were no revisions for aseptic loosening of the cup, and no osteolytic defects were found around the cup. Patient satisfaction was high and the clinical results were very good. PMID:20524114

  17. Cup mixing type cup drink vending machine; Cup mixing shiki cup jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    Fuji Electric Co. developed a new series of the cup mixing type cup drink vending machine. The system of this machine is not the conventional one in which drink is prepared in the existing mixing ball and pored into the cup, but the system in which raw materials are stirred directly. Main characteristics are as follows. This machine is responsive to the drinks highly viscous which could not be sold by the mixing ball type such as soup and shake and also to new drinks which can be prepared in the future. Moreover, the stirring does not leave the raw material unmelted, and remove gaps among temperatures and among concentrations. Further, complete discharge of the raw material and high cooling conservation of the regular coffee material make the sale of fresh and good-tasted drinks possible. There are few parts of the mixing ball and drink piping being dirty by raw materials. Therefore, the cleaning is not so hard, and the operational efficiency is heightened. (NEDO)

  18. A newly designed big cup nitinol stent for gastric outlet obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To find out whether a newly designed big cup nitinol stent is suitable for treatment of patients with gastric outlet obstruction resulting from gastric cancer.METHODS:The new stent is composed of a proximal big cup segment(20 mm in length and 48-55 mm in diameter),a middle part(60 mm in length and 20 mm in diameter)covered by a polyethylene membrane and a distal sphericity(20 mm in length and 28 mm in diameter).Half of the proximal big cup segment is also covered by a polyethlene membrane,which is adjac...

  19. Field calibration of cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    A field calibration method and results are described along with the experience gained with the method. The cup anemometers to be calibrated are mounted in a row on a 10-m high rig and calibrated in the free wind against a reference cup anemometer. The method has been reported [1] to improve the...... statistical bias on the data relative to calibrations carried out in a wind tunnel. The methodology is sufficiently accurate for calibration of cup anemometers used for wind resource assessments and provides a simple, reliable and cost-effective solution to cup anemometer calibration, especially suited for...

  20. World Cup television

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Felisbela; Loureiro, Luís Miguel Nunes da Silva; Vieira, Phillipe Carlos Mota

    2012-01-01

    In the last year of the first decade of the 21st century, in the verge of breaking into the era of digital television, it is important to know what kind of television model is available in Portugal. The analysis of the news coverage of the FIFA 2010 World Cup will certainly help in finding the answers. In this article, we present a study that centers its focus on news formats related to this great media event, broadcasted in both generalist as well as cable news networks between the 11th of J...

  1. Cement Conundrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China aims to streamline the crowded cement industry Policymakers are looking to build a concrete wall around the cement-making industry as they seek to solidify the fluid cement market and cut excessive production.

  2. Is Cup Positioning Challenged in Hips Previously Treated With Periacetabular Osteotomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartig-Andreasen, Charlotte; Stilling, Maiken; Søballe, Kjeld;

    2014-01-01

    After periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), some patients develop osteoarthritis with need of a total hip arthroplasty (THA). We evaluated the outcome of THA following PAO and explored factors associated with inferior cup position and increased polyethylene wear. Follow-up were performed 4 to 10years...... after THA in 34 patients (38 hips) with previous PAO. Computer analysis evaluated cup position and wear rates. No patient had dislocations or revision surgery. Median scores were: Harris hip 96, Oxford hip 38 and WOMAC 78. Mean cup anteversion and abduction angles were 22(o) (range 7°-43°) and 45......° (range 28°-65°). Outliers of cup abduction were associated with persisting dysplasia (CE...

  3. Spoon-to-Cup Fading as Treatment for Cup Drinking in a Child with Intestinal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Rebecca A.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Zeleny, Jason R.; Dempsey, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    We treated a child with intestinal failure who consumed solids on a spoon but not liquids from a cup. We used spoon-to-cup fading, which consisted of taping a spoon to a cup and then gradually moving the bowl of the spoon closer to the edge of the cup. Spoon-to-cup fading was effective for increasing consumption of liquids from a cup. (Contains 2…

  4. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including an...... overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  5. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6290 Prophylaxis cup. (a) Identification. A prophylaxis... agents during prophylaxis (cleaning). The dental handpiece spins the rubber cup holding the...

  6. CUP: Cooperative Learning That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, David; McKittrick, Brian; Mulhall, Pam; Feteris, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Presents the Conceptual Understanding Program (CUP) as a means of helping first-year university physics students overcome their misconceptions in mechanics. Students work on exercises alone, then in threes, and finally as a class, which has resulted in high levels of participation and satisfaction among students. This strategy can be implemented…

  7. Field calibration of cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Jensen, G.; Hansen, A.;

    2001-01-01

    An outdoor calibration facility for cup anemometers, where the signals from 10 anemometers of which at least one is a reference can be can be recorded simultaneously, has been established. The results are discussed with special emphasis on the statisticalsignificance of the calibration expressions...

  8. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  9. Cupping for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-In Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the evidence for or against the effectiveness of cupping as a treatment option for pain. Fourteen databases were searched. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs testing cupping in patients with pain of any origin were considered. Trials using cupping with or without drawing blood were included, while trials comparing cupping with other treatments of unproven efficacy were excluded. Trials with cupping as concomitant treatment together with other treatments of unproven efficacy were excluded. Trials were also excluded if pain was not a central symptom of the condition. The selection of studies, data extraction and validation were performed independently by three reviewers. Seven RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested significant pain reduction for cupping in low back pain compared with usual care (P < .01 and analgesia (P < .001. Another two RCTs also showed positive effects of cupping in cancer pain (P < .05 and trigeminal neuralgia (P < .01 compared with anticancer drugs and analgesics, respectively. Two RCTs reported favorable effects of cupping on pain in brachialgia compared with usual care (P = .03 or heat pad (P < .001. The other RCT failed to show superior effects of cupping on pain in herpes zoster compared with anti-viral medication (P = .065. Currently there are few RCTs testing the effectiveness of cupping in the management of pain. Most of the existing trials are of poor quality. Therefore, more rigorous studies are required before the effectiveness of cupping for the treatment of pain can be determined.

  10. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    OpenAIRE

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec; Davorin Matanović; Gracijan Krklec

    1994-01-01

    During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures) and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production...

  11. Inferior Survival of Hydroxyapatite versus Titanium-coated Cups at 15 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Stilling, Maiken; Rahbek, Ole; Søballe, Kjeld

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles have long been suspected to disintegrate from implant surfaces, become entrapped in joint spaces of orthopaedic bearing couples, and start a cascade leading to progressive polyethylene (PE) wear, increased osteolysis, and aseptic loosening. We compared cup revision at 15 years’ followup in a randomized group of patients with 26 cementless THA components with titanium (Ti) versus first-generation HA coating. We also assessed radiographic PE wear and osteolysis to ...

  12. Femoral and obturator nerves palsy caused by pelvic cement extrusion after hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Pawel Zwolak; Peer Eysel; Joern William-Patrick Michael

    2011-01-01

    Cement extrusion into the pelvis with subsequent palsy of the obturator and femoral nerves is a rare entity after hip replacement surgery. Cemented fixation of the acetabular cup has been considered as a safe and reliable standard procedure with very good long term results. We present a case of fifty year old female patient after hip arthroplasty procedure which suffered an obturator and femoral nerve palsy caused by extrusion of bone cement into the pelvis. Postoperative X-rays and CT-scan ...

  13. Polyethylene Glycol 3350

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyethylene glycol 3350 is used to treat occasional constipation. Polyethylene glycol 3350 is in a class of medications ... Polyethylene glycol 3350 comes as a powder to be mixed with a liquid and taken by mouth. ...

  14. Assessing Wear of the Acetabular Cup Using Computed Tomography: an ex vivo Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To validate a clinically useful method for measuring acetabular cup wear using computed tomography (CT). Material and Methods: Eight uncemented acetabular cups were scanned twice ex vivo using CT. The linear penetration depth of the femoral component head into the cup and the thickness of the remaining polyethylene liner were measured in the CT volumes using dedicated software. Two independent examiners twice assessed each volume. The CT measurements were compared to direct measurements using a coordinate measuring device and micrometer measurements. Results: Accuracy of wear measurements expressed as penetration depth was ±0.6 and ±1.0 mm for the two examiners, respectively, with no significant differences between examiners, trials, and CT scans. Accuracy of measurements of remaining polyethylene was ±1.3 and ±1.0 mm, respectively, for the two examiners. Systematic differences between examiners were found, but no significant differences between trials and CT scans. These differences were due to different interpretations of metal artifacts in the volumes. Conclusion: The proposed CT method for evaluating wear as head penetration depth allows for reliable wear detection at a clinically relevant level. Measurements of remaining polyethylene on CT volumes are not as reliable as wear measurements owing to metal artifacts

  15. Analysis of bone ingrowth on a tantalum cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D′Angelo F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trabecular Metal (TM is a new highly porous material made of tantalum (Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana, USA. Its three-dimensional structure is composed of a series of interconnected dodecahedron pores that are on average 550 μm in diameter. This size is considered optimal for bone ingrowth and is similar to trabecular bone. The elastic modulus of TM (3 GPa is more similar to that of cancellous (0,1-1,5 GPa or cortical (112-18 GPa bone and is significantly less similar to that of Titanium (110 GPa and Co-Cr alloys (220 GPa. These features enable bone apposition and remodeling. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the histology of the bone-implant interface in a human specimen. Materials and Methods: A highly porous tantalum cup (Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana, USA was removed for recurrent dislocations three years after implantation. In order to obtain a slice of the cup, two cuts were made on the centre using an Exakt cutting machine. Then the slice was embedded in a Technovit resin and a Hematoxylin-eosin stain was used to study the bone tissue. Bone ingrowth was calculated using a method based on simple calculations of planar geometry. Results: The histological evaluation of the periprosthetic tissues revealed a typical chronic inflammation with few particles of polyethylene that were birefringent using polarized light. The quantitative evaluation of bone ingrowth revealed that more than 95% of voids were filled with bone. Discussion: In the literature, a lot of studies focused on tantalum were carried on animal model. Up to now little information is available about the histology of the bone-tantalum interface in a human artificial joint. We had an opportunity to remove a well integrated cup hence this study. The histology confirmed the strong relationship between the structure of this material and bone. The morphometric analysis revealed a high percentage of bone ingrowth.

  16. Density enhancement of polyethylene solidified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To overcome the impediment against practical utilization of the technically already available process of solidifying low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes for disposal in ocean bottom, arising from the regulatory minimum density of 1.2 prescribed for such solidified wastes, a method is proposed of thickening the polyethylene with 36 -- 38 w/o sodium sulfate anhydride to raise the density above 1.2. The resulting thickened polyethylene loaded with simulated radioactive waste showed a monoaxial compressive strength far exceeding 150 kg/cm2, and proved to possess good stability in deionized water in immersion tests lasting 400 days. Polyethylene was also found to provide a volume reduction factor far higher than obtained with cement or asphalt solidification. (author)

  17. Soccer jersey sponsors and the world cup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.; Ferwerda, J.

    2014-01-01

    The market for soccer jerseys is a multibillion market dominated by Adidas, Nike and Puma. This paper investigates whether jersey sponsorship has a non-arbitrary effect on the outcomes of World Cup knockout matches. The results show that in the knockout stages of the last four World Cup tournaments,

  18. Sound analysis of a cup drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide tournament that evaluates a high-school student's ability to solve various physics conundrums that have not been fully resolved in the past. The research presented here is my solution to the cup drum problem. The physics behind a cup drum has never been explored or modelled. A cup drum is a musical instrument that can generate different frequencies and amplitudes depending on the location of a cup held upside-down over, on or under a water surface. The tapping sound of a cup drum can be divided into two components: standing waves and plate vibration. By individually researching the nature of these two sounds, I arrived at conclusions that could accurately predict the frequencies in most cases. When the drum is very close to the surface, qualitative explanations are given. In addition, I examined the trend of the tapping sound amplitude at various distances and qualitatively explained the experimental results. (paper)

  19. [Evaluation of the histocompatibility of endodontic cement in subcutaneous connective tissue using three methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, S L; Birman, E G; Antoniazzi, J H; Magalhães, J

    1990-01-01

    It was employed three methods to evaluate the histocompatibility of a root canal filling cement, as the N-Rickert paste: implantation of round glass cover slips, polyethylene tubes and pellets of the cement. The results demonstrated qualitative and quantitative differences among the methods utilized indicating as a good toll the use of glass cover slips covered by the cement, since they provide good conditions of work, major areas of study, as also facilities in obtaining the specimens for study. The pellets didn't simulate the clinical conditions of the cement and the very small areas of study of the polyethylene tubes don't give definitive conclusions. PMID:2135431

  20. Fourier analysis of the aerodynamic behavior of cup anemometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calibration results (the transfer function) of an anemometer equipped with several cup rotors were analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic forces measured on the isolated cups in a wind tunnel. The correlation was based on a Fourier analysis of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force. Three different cup shapes were studied: typical conical cups, elliptical cups and porous cups (conical-truncated shape). Results indicated a good correlation between the anemometer factor, K, and the ratio between the first two coefficients in the Fourier series decomposition of the normal-to-the-cup aerodynamic force. (paper)

  1. A radioactive football world cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of the 2014 football world cup by Brazil is an opportunity to recall how the level of natural radioactivity can change from a country to another. Brazil is with Iran and India one of the 3 countries where the level of natural radioactivity is the highest. In Brazil the average value for natural radioactivity is about 10 mSv/year but you can find spots on the Brazilian 'planalto' where natural radioactivity ranges from 10 to a few tens of mSv/year. The mean value of natural radioactivity at the world scale is about 2.5 mSv/year. The value of 10 mSv/year is the radiation threshold that may trigger the evacuation of the local population in case of a nuclear accident in France. These various figures show that radiation dose limits are very low and should not be considered as representative of actual health hazards. (A.C.)

  2. A study on the UNDEX cup forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. El Mokadem*, A.S. Wifi, I. Salama

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work investigates the use of the underwater explosion (UNDEX for the free and plug assisted cup forming processes.Design/methodology/approach: A 3D finite element model is built to simulate the process of the UNDEX cup forming using ABAQUS finite element code. Johnson-Cook (JC material plasticity model is used to represent strain rate sensitivity of the used materials. Johnson- Cook damage criterion is employed to detect the onset of damage in the cup forming process.Findings: Both relatively hard and soft plugs are considered and the effects of using different plug materials on cup profile, strains and the limiting drawing ratios are given. The onset of damage in this process is also indicated. The results suggest that a relatively hard plug can enhance the control of the cup shape and the uniformity of strain distribution leading to increased limiting drawing ratio.Research limitations/implications: This work suggests a methodology for the prediction of shape, different strain distribution, the limiting drawing ratio and the energy required for UNDEX cup forming process.Practical implications: This study could be useful in non-conventional high energy rate forming industry.Originality/value: The study reveals the possibility of producing flat-bottomed cup by the relatively hard plug assisted UNDEX forming technique.

  3. Applied exploration of shape-stabilized polyethylene glycol/silicon dioxide composites as phase change materials in asphalt and cement environment%PEG/SiO2定形相变材料在沥青及水泥环境中应用的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽红; 李菁若; 曹长斌; 罗阳明; 朱洪洲

    2013-01-01

    Based on physical blend methods,asphalt or cement shape-stabilized phase change materials composites (CPCMs) were prepared by polyethylene glycol/silicon dioxide shape-stabilized phase change materials (PEG/SiO2 ss-PCMs) and asphalt or cement.Thermal energy storage and thermal stability of CPCMs are characterized using synthesized thermal analyzer,and the chemical compatibility of CPCMs is characterized using FT-IR.The feasibility of ss-PCMs applied to asphalt and cement environment was explored.The results showed that CPCMs had high phase change enthalpy,good thermal stability and chemical compatibility.Ss-PCMs can be used in road to achieve solar energy conversion or storage and actively control pavement temperature,and this is a more effective way of reducing pavement surface temperature and temperature diseases in high temperature conditions and at the same time,relieving urban heat island effect,therefore,ss-PCMs have broad application foregrounds in road engineering.%以聚乙二醇/二氧化硅(PEG/SiO2)定形相变材料与沥青、水泥为原料,采用物理共混法制备出沥青或水泥复合定形相变材料.利用综合热分析仪(TG-DSC)测试复合相变材料的储热性能及热稳定性,通过FT-IR对复合相变材料的兼容性进行了表征,探讨PEG/SiO2定形相变材料在沥青、水泥环境中应用的可行性.试验表明,复合定形相变材料具有较高的相变焓,良好的热稳定性和兼容性.将PEG/SiO2定形相变材料应用于公路工程中,可实现太阳能量转换与储存,主动调节路面的使用温度,并在高温条件下可有效降低路表温度,减少温度对路面的病害,缓解城市热岛效应,改善人居环境,其应用前景广阔.

  4. Failure of Polyethylene Inlays in Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Retrieval Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mueller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrieval analysis has been performed on 50 polyethylene inlays of cementless screw ring implants (Mecring, Mecron, Berlin, Germany to investigate the failure mechanism of this specific open cup hip arthroplasty design that has shown a high clinical failure rate. Design-specific damage modes like rim creep, collar fatigue, and backside wear were assessed. Furthermore, the inlays were measured using a CMM to determine deformation. In 90% backside wear was observed and collar fatigue occurred in 68% of the cases. Rim creep was present in 38% of the polyethylene inlays. In 90% of the cases the cup opening diameter was 32.1 mm or less and 46% had a diameter less than 32 mm. It seems that creep and deformation of the polyethylene leads to a reduced diameter at the cup opening and consequently decreased clearance. To avoid this type of failure, polyethylene inlays should be supported at the back by the cup to reduce the risk of ongoing creep deformation.

  5. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  6. Radiological diagnostics in CUP syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging plays an essential role in the therapeutic management of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) patients for localizing the primary tumor, for the identification of tumor entities for which a dedicated therapy regimen is available and for the characterization of clinicopathological subentities that direct the subsequent diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Modalities include conventional x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound as well as positron emission tomography (PET)-CT and MRI-PET. In whole body imaging CT has a high sensitivity for tumor entities which frequently present as a metastasized cancer illness. According to the current literature CT is diagnostic in 86% of patients with pancreatic carcinoma, in 36% of patients with colon carcinoma and in 74% of patients with lung carcinoma. Additionally a meta-analysis showed that for patients with squamous cell carcinoma and cervical lymph node metastases a positive diagnosis was possible in 22% of the cases using CT, in 36% using MRI and in 28-57% using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT (18F-FDG PET-CT). In addition, MRI plays an important role in the localization of primary occult tumors (e.g. breast and prostate) because of its high soft tissue contrast and options for functional imaging. At the beginning of the diagnostic algorithm stands the search for a possible primary tumor and CT of the neck, thorax and abdomen is most frequently used for whole body staging. Subsequent organ-specific imaging examinations follow, e.g. mammography in women with axillary lymphadenopathy. For histological and immunohistochemical characterization of tumor tissue, imaging is also applied to identify the most accessible and representative tumor manifestation for biopsy. Tumor biopsy may be guided by CT, MRI or ultrasound and MRI also plays a central role in the localization of primary occult tumors because of superior soft tissue contrast and options for functional imaging (perfusion

  7. ACCUWIND - Methods for classification of cup anemometers

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlberg, J.-Å.; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Busche, P.

    2006-01-01

    Errors associated with the measurement of wind speed are the major sources of uncertainties in power performance testing of wind turbines. Field comparisons of well-calibrated anemometers show significant and not acceptable difference. The EuropeanCLASSCUP project posed the objectives to quantify the errors associated with the use of cup anemometers, and to develop a classification system for quantification of systematic errors of cup anemometers. This classification system has now been imple...

  8. Soccer jersey sponsors and the world cup

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, L.F.M.; Ferwerda, J

    2014-01-01

    The market for soccer jerseys is a multibillion market dominated by Adidas, Nike and Puma. This paper investigates whether jersey sponsorship has a non-arbitrary effect on the outcomes of World Cup knockout matches. The results show that in the knockout stages of the last four World Cup tournaments, especially national teams sponsored by Adidas perform significantly better than expected, while teams sponsored by any other company than Adidas, Puma or Nike perform worse. The average advantage ...

  9. A 10-year minimum follow-up of hydroxyapatite-coated threaded cups: clinical, radiographic and survivorship analyses with comparison to the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epinette, Jean-Alain; Manley, Michael T; D'Antonio, James A; Edidin, Avram A; Capello, William N

    2003-02-01

    We evaluated the clinical, radiographic, and survivorship outcomes in a series of 418 threaded hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular cups (Arc2f; Osteonics, Allendale, NJ) implanted in a consecutive series of 384 patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty. In all cases, the cup was screwed into the prepared acetabulum. Bone screws were used to provide secondary fixation. At a minimum 10-year follow-up, 304 cups were available for analysis. The cumulative survivorship (mechanical failure as endpoint) at that time was 99.43% +/- 0.0104. Two hundred seventy-six hips were available for full clinical and radiographic review at or after the tenth anniversary. No unstable implants were noted; all implant fixation interfaces were classified as "stable bone ingrown," and the cup migration rate was zero. Based on the survivorship achieved with this implant, our results compare favorably with survivorship reported for the best cemented and cementless acetabular implant designs. PMID:12629602

  10. Improved mathematical model of the wear of the cup articular surface in hip joint prostheses and comparison with retrieved components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, M T; Santambrogio, C; Pietrabissa, R; Raffelini, F; Molfetta, L

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical model of the cobalt-based alloy-ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear coupling. Based on a previous model in which the cup wear volume over a gait cycle (WG) was calculated under the simplifying assumption of an ideal rigid coupling, the current version proposes a more realistic wear simulation. All three components of the hip loading force were considered for the contact pressure calculation and all three components of the hip motion were taken into account for the sliding distance calculation. The contact pressure distribution was calculated on the basis of the Hertzian theory for the elastic contact of two bodies with non-conforming geometrical shapes. The wear factor was taken from hip simulator wear tests. The calculated WG is 67 x 10(-6) mm3 for a standard reference patient. The parametric model simulations show that WG increases linearly with the patient weight, femoral head diameter and surface roughness. It increases non-linearly to a maximum and decreases to an asymptotic value with increasing cup/head clearance and with cup isotropic elastic modulus. The cup orientation in the pelvis affects only slightly the total amount of WG whereas it is the dominant factor affecting the shape of the wear distribution. The iso-wear maps show paracentral patterns at low cup inclination angles and marginal patterns at higher inclination angles. The maximum wear depth is supero-posterior when the cup is in neutral alignment and supero-anterior at increasing anteversion angles. Complex patterns with a combination of paracentral and marginal wear were obtained at specific clearance values and cup orientations. The results of the simulations are discussed in relation to the wear distribution measured on the articular surface of 12 UHMWPE components retrieved from failed hip joint prostheses, after a period of in situ functioning. PMID:11521761

  11. Design of the Faraday Cups in Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, A F D

    2005-01-01

    This paper details the work done on the design of the Faraday cups for the Diamond injector. Faraday cups are a basic charge capture device which can be used as reference points for current measurement calibration. Diamond has Faraday cups in positions covering the complete energy range of the injector from the electron gun to the booster synchrotron extraction. Specifically there are cups at 90 keV, 4 MeV, 100 MeV and 3 GeV. An initial design decision was made to make the designs passive to increase reliability and reduce complexity. The 90 keV and 4 MeV cups were modified from an existing design using analytical formulae and MathCAD, while the high energy 100 MeV and 3 GeV designs were done using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code and MatLAB. The EGSnrc led designs achieved a theoretical electron capture of around 99%, allowing them to be used with reasonable certainty as calibration references. Due to the modest 5Hz repetition rate, power loading of the structures is minimal and active cooling is not required for...

  12. ACCUWIND - Methods for classification of cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, J.-Å.; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Busche, P.

    2006-01-01

    the errors associated with the use of cup anemometers, and to develop a classification system for quantification of systematic errors of cup anemometers. This classification system has now been implementedin the IEC 61400-12-1 standard on power performance measurements in annex I and J. The...... classification of cup anemometers requires general external climatic operational ranges to be applied for the analysis of systematic errors. A Class A categoryclassification is connected to reasonably flat sites, and another Class B category is connected to complex terrain, General classification indices are the...... theclassification process in order to assess the robustness of methods. The results of the analysis are presented as classification indices, which are compared and discussed....

  13. An updated review of the efficacy of cupping therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 1950, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM cupping therapy has been applied as a formal modality in hospitals throughout China and elsewhere in the world. Based on a previous systematic literature review of clinical studies on cupping therapy, this study presents a thorough review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy. METHOD: Six databases were searched for articles published through 2010. RCTs on cupping therapy for various diseases were included. Studies on cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments versus non-TCM therapies were excluded. RESULTS: 135 RCTs published from 1992 through 2010 were identified. The studies were generally of low methodological quality. Diseases for which cupping therapy was commonly applied were herpes zoster, facial paralysis (Bell palsy, cough and dyspnea, acne, lumbar disc herniation, and cervical spondylosis. Wet cupping was used in most trials, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, and flash cupping. Meta-analysis showed cupping therapy combined with other TCM treatments was significantly superior to other treatments alone in increasing the number of cured patients with herpes zoster, facial paralysis, acne, and cervical spondylosis. No serious adverse effects were reported in the trials. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous RCTs on cupping therapy have been conducted and published during the past decades. This review showed that cupping has potential effect in the treatment of herpes zoster and other specific conditions. However, further rigorously designed trials on its use for other conditions are warranted.

  14. Management of knee osteoarthritis with cupping therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Ali Khan; Umar Jahangir; Shaista Urooj

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy at a clinical setting for knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Cupping was performed on 0-6 th day; 9-11 th day and 14 th day, i.e., 11 sittings follow-up to determine longer term carryover of treatment effects utilizing both objective and subjective assessment. The assessment was performed before and after treatment spreading over a period of 15 days. The results of this study shows significant a...

  15. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gottschall, Julia;

    In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models...... are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers...

  16. Modulo computably enumerable degrees by cupping partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WANG; De-cheng DING

    2007-01-01

    Cupping partners of an element in an upper semilattice with a greatest element 1 are those joining the element to 1. We define a congruence relation on such an upper semilattice by considering the elements having the same cupping partners as equivalent. It is interesting that this congruence relation induces a non-dense quotient structure of computably enumerable Turing degrees. Another main interesting phenomenon in this article is that on the computably enumerable degrees, this relation is different from that modulo the noncuppable ideal, though they define a same equivalent class for the computable Turing degree.

  17. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  18. Deformation process and interaction of acetabular cup

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jíra, J.; Jírová, Jitka; Micka, Michal

    Dusseldorf, Německo: VDI Verlag GmbH, 2001, s. 197-202. ISBN 3-18-091599-4. [GESA-Symposium 2001. Chemnitz (DE), 17.05.2001-18.05.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/00/0831 Keywords : acetabular cup migration, computation modelling,straingauge measurement. Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics

  19. ACCUWIND - Methods for classification of cup anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Busche, P.

    2006-05-15

    Errors associated with the measurement of wind speed are the major sources of uncertainties in power performance testing of wind turbines. Field comparisons of well-calibrated anemometers show significant and not acceptable difference. The European CLASSCUP project posed the objectives to quantify the errors associated with the use of cup anemometers, and to develop a classification system for quantification of systematic errors of cup anemometers. This classification system has now been implemented in the IEC 61400-12-1 standard on power performance measurements in annex I and J. The classification of cup anemometers requires general external climatic operational ranges to be applied for the analysis of systematic errors. A Class A category classification is connected to reasonably flat sites, and another Class B category is connected to complex terrain, General classification indices are the result of assessment of systematic deviations. The present report focuses on methods that can be applied for assessment of such systematic deviations. A new alternative method for torque coefficient measurements at inclined flow have been developed, which have then been applied and compared to the existing methods developed in the CLASSCUP project and earlier. A number of approaches including the use of two cup anemometer models, two methods of torque coefficient measurement, two angular response measurements, and inclusion and exclusion of influence of friction have been implemented in the classification process in order to assess the robustness of methods. The results of the analysis are presented as classification indices, which are compared and discussed. (au)

  20. A Procedure for Classification of Cup-Anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Paulsen, Uwe Schmidt

    1997-01-01

    The paper proposes a classification procedure for cup-anemometers based on similar principles as for power converters. A range of operational parameters are established within which the response of the cup-anemometer is evaluated. The characteristics of real cup-anemometers are fitted to a...... realistic 3D cup-anemometer model. Afterwards, the model is used to calculate the response under the range of operational conditions which are set up for the classification. Responses are compared to the normal linear calibration relationship, derived from Wind tunnel calibrations. Results of the 3D cup...

  1. Recent advances in uranium exploration with electronic alpha cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from a new radon measuring device, based on electronic alpha cups are compared with data from the nonelectronic, plastic alpha cups commonly used in exploring for uranium. A burial time of three days appears to be adequate for the electronic alpha cups to collect exploration data equivalent to those from plastic sensing devices. The advantages of the electronic cups are short time of burial and instant readout in the field; the major disadvantages is the capital expenditure required for the instruments. It is possible the cups may be useful for copper exploration too. 5 refs

  2. Oxidation and Wear of 100-Mrad Cross-linked Polyethylene Shelf-aged for 30 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Oonishi, Hironobu; Kim, Sok Chol; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Masuda, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    Some previous studies suggest that aging influences wear and oxidatively degraded nonsterilized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) exhibits decreased wear resistance. We therefore asked whether shelf-aging storage conditions influenced degradation and wear resistance of gamma-irradiated UHMWPE. We examined oxidation and wear of 100-Mrad gamma-irradiated UHMWPE (100-Mrad polyethylene) cups shelf-aged for 30 years without (n = 2) or with (n = 2) packages. The oxidation index of t...

  3. Management of knee osteoarthritis with cupping therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Ali Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy at a clinical setting for knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Cupping was performed on 0-6 th day; 9-11 th day and 14 th day, i.e., 11 sittings follow-up to determine longer term carryover of treatment effects utilizing both objective and subjective assessment. The assessment was performed before and after treatment spreading over a period of 15 days. The results of this study shows significant and better results in the overall management of knee osteoarthritis, particularly in relieving pain, edema, stiffness and disability. The efficacy of treatment with cupping therapy in relieving signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis is comparable to that of acetaminophen 650 mg thrice a day orally, in terms of analgesia, anti-inflammatory and resolution of edema with minimal and temporary side-effects like echymosis and blister formation while as control drug has greater side-effects particularly on upper gastrointestinal tract. It is recommended that further studies are conducted with a larger study samples and of longer duration.

  4. Management of knee osteoarthritis with cupping therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asim Ali; Jahangir, Umar; Urooj, Shaista

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy at a clinical setting for knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Cupping was performed on 0-6(th) day; 9-11(th) day and 14(th) day, i.e., 11 sittings follow-up to determine longer term carryover of treatment effects utilizing both objective and subjective assessment. The assessment was performed before and after treatment spreading over a period of 15 days. The results of this study shows significant and better results in the overall management of knee osteoarthritis, particularly in relieving pain, edema, stiffness and disability. The efficacy of treatment with cupping therapy in relieving signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis is comparable to that of acetaminophen 650 mg thrice a day orally, in terms of analgesia, anti-inflammatory and resolution of edema with minimal and temporary side-effects like echymosis and blister formation while as control drug has greater side-effects particularly on upper gastrointestinal tract. It is recommended that further studies are conducted with a larger study samples and of longer duration. PMID:24350053

  5. Superior accuracy of model-based radiostereometric analysis for measurement of polyethylene wear

    OpenAIRE

    Stilling, M.; Kold, S.; De Raedt, S.; Andersen, N. T.; Rahbek, O.; Søballe, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The accuracy and precision of two new methods of model-based radiostereometric analysis (RSA) were hypothesised to be superior to a plain radiograph method in the assessment of polyethylene (PE) wear. Methods A phantom device was constructed to simulate three-dimensional (3D) PE wear. Images were obtained consecutively for each simulated wear position for each modality. Three commercially available packages were evaluated: model-based RSA using laser-scanned cup models (MB-RSA), mo...

  6. Cemented total hip arthroplasty with impacted morcellized bone-grafts to restore acetabular bone defects in congenital hip dysplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.B.T.; Melenhorst, J.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Slooff, T.J.J.H.; Veth, R.P.H.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the results of 27 acetabular reconstructions in 21 patients with secondary osteoarthritis resulting from congenital dysplasia of the hip in which the acetabular bone defects were restored with impacted morcellized bone-grafts in combination with a cemented cup. At an average follow-up o

  7. Vibrational spectroscopy of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene hip prostheses: influence of the sterilisation method on crystallinity and surface oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Paola; Affatato, Saverio; Fagnano, Concezio; Bordini, Barbara; Tinti, Anna; Toni, Aldo

    2002-08-01

    Due to its high strength and low creep, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been used for 30 years in the replacement of damaged articulating cartilage for total joint replacement surgery. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the effects of the sterilisation method (gamma and ethylene oxide (EtO) treatment) on the crystallinity changes of UHMWPE acetabular cups. The crystallinity of the cups was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy coupled to the partial least square (PLS) regression as a function of the inner surface position. Unworn gamma-sterilised cups were found to be significantly more crystalline than the EtO-sterilised ones. No significant differences were observed between the crystallinity values of worn (in in vitro tests) and unworn cups for each type of sterilisation, showing that the changes in surface crystallinity were mainly caused by irradiation rather than by mechanical friction during the in vitro wear tests. These results were discussed in relation to gravimetric measurements, which revealed at the end of the in vitro tests, a higher mean weight loss for the EtO-sterilised cups than for the gamma-sterilised ones. No significant amounts of oxidative degradation products were detected by IR spectroscopy in the inner surface of the EtO-sterilised worn and unworn cups. Regarding the gamma-sterilised cups, the oxidation level appeared to be slightly higher in the centre of the worn cups than on their borders.

  8. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Issues, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements, and Task 8: Develop Field ULHS Cement Blending and Mixing Techniques. Results reported this quarter include: preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; laboratory tests comparing ULHS slurries to foamed slurries and sodium silicate slurries for two different applications; and initial laboratory studies with ULHS in preparation for a field job

  9. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice. PMID:27056255

  10. Development of a classification system for cup anemometers - CLASSCUP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2003-01-01

    objectives to quantify the errors associated with the use of cup anemometers, and to determine the requirements for an optimum design of a cup anemometer, and to develop a classification system forquantification of systematic errors of cup anemometers. The present report describes this proposed...... classification system. A classification method for cup anemometers has been developed, which proposes general external operational ranges to be used. Anormal category range connected to ideal sites of the IEC power performance standard was made, and another extended category range for complex terrain was...... proposed. General classification indices were proposed for all types of cup anemometers. As a resultof the classification, the cup anemometer will be assigned to a certain class: 0.5, 1, 2, 3 or 5 with corresponding intrinsic errors (%) as a vector instrument (3D) or as a horizontal instrument (2D). The...

  11. RoboCup: A Challenge Problem for AI

    OpenAIRE

    Kitano, Hiroaki; Asada, Minoru; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo; Noda, Itsuki; Osawa, Eiichi; Matsubara, Hitoshi

    1997-01-01

    The Robot World-Cup Soccer (RoboCup) is an attempt to foster AI and intelligent robotics research by providing a standard problem where a wide range of technologies can be integrated and examined. The first RoboCup competition will be held at the Fifteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Nagoya, Japan. A robot team must actually perform a soccer game, incorporating various technologies, including design principles of autonomous agents, multiagent collaboration, st...

  12. Plus cupping degrees do not form an ideal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Angsheng; ZHAO Yicheng

    2004-01-01

    A computably enumerable (c.e., for short) degree a is called plus cupping, if every c.e.degree x with o<x≤a is cuppable. Let PC be the set of all plus cupping degrees. In the present paper, we show that PC is not closed under the join operation ∨ by constructing two plus cupping degrees which join to a high degree. So by the Harrington's noncupping theorem, PC is not an ideal of ε.

  13. Does cyclic stress and accelerated ageing influence the wear behavior of highly crosslinked polyethylene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affatato, Saverio; De Mattia, Jonathan Salvatore; Bracco, Pierangiola; Pavoni, Eleonora; Taddei, Paola

    2016-06-01

    First-generation (irradiated and remelted or annealed) and second-generation (irradiated and vitamin E blended or doped) highly crosslinked polyethylenes were introduced in the last decade to solve the problems of wear and osteolysis. In this study, the influence of the Vitamin-E addition on crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE_VE) was evaluated by comparing the in vitro wear behavior of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) versus Vitamin-E blended polyethylene XLPE and conventional ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (STD_PE) acetabular cups, after accelerated ageing according to ASTM F2003-02 (70.0±0.1°C, pure oxygen at 5bar for 14 days). The test was performed using a hip joint simulator run for two millions cycles, under bovine calf serum as lubricant. Mass loss was found to decrease along the series XLPE_VE>STD_PE>XLPE, although no statistically significant differences were found between the mass losses of the three sets of cups. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate at a molecular level the morphology changes induced by wear. The spectroscopic analyses showed that the accelerated ageing determined different wear mechanisms and molecular rearrangements during testing with regards to the changes in both the chain orientation and the distribution of the all-trans sequences within the orthorhombic, amorphous and third phases. The results of the present study showed that the addition of vitamin E was not effective to improve the gravimetric wear of PE after accelerated ageing. However, from a molecular point of view, the XLPE_VE acetabular cups tested after accelerated ageing appeared definitely less damaged than the STD_PE ones and comparable to XLPE samples. PMID:26970299

  14. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweigh cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary surface pipe and intermediate casing cementing conditions historically encountered in the US and establishment of average design conditions for ULHS cements. Russian literature concerning development and use of ultra-lightweight cements employing either nitrogen or ULHS was reviewed, and a summary is presented. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was conducted to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS. This protocol is presented and discussed. finally, results of initial testing of ULHS cements is presented along with analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project

  15. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific ''problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs

  16. Sponsoroinnin hakija : case KaleidosCup-opiskelijakilpailu

    OpenAIRE

    Multanen, Matti

    2013-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytteessä tarkasteltiin sponsorointia erityisesti tapahtuman näkökannalta. Opinnäytetyö liittyi Kaleidoskooppi-hankkeeseen ja siinä järjestettyyn KaleidosCup- opiskelijakilpailuun. Hankkeen tavoitteena oli luoda yhteistyöverkosto meri- ja metalliteollisuuden sekä luovan alan yritysten, korkeakoulujen ja aluekehittäjien välille. Yhteistyöllä pyrittiin uudenlaisiin ratkaisuihin yritysten kilpailukyvyn kasvattamiseksi. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kehittää kilpailun sponsorointia teo...

  17. Aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of aspects concerning the reorientation of polymer, water and ion hydration complexes have been studied in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer dynamics are investigated by 1H-PEO and 13C-PEO nuclear relaxation experiments. 162 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  18. Polyethylene/clay nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Měřínská, D.; Kovářová, L.; Kalendová, A.; Chmielová, M.; Weiss, Z.; Hromádková, Jiřina; Šimoník, J.

    Akron: Polymer Processing Society, 2004. s. 245. [Polymer Processing Society Annual Meeting. 20.06.2004-24.06.2004, Akron] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Keywords : polyethylene * clay * polymer nanotechnology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  19. Porous polyethylene and proplast

    OpenAIRE

    Berghaus, Alexander; Mulch, G.; Handrock, M

    1984-01-01

    A comparative animal study showed that, after implantation in skull defects in guinea pigs, porous high-density polyethylene (PHDPE) was substantially better anchored in the bone than Proplast, and had greater stability of form and structure. In Proplast, ingrowth of fibrous tissue caused partial structural dilatation and fragmentation, which could limit its suitability for use in reconstructive surgery.

  20. FEA OF RECTANGULAR CUP DEEP DRAWING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad D.S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep drawing is a process for shaping flat sheets into cup shaped articles without fracture or excessive localized thinning. The complex deep drawing of thin metallic sheets is widely used during industrial material forming applications. It allows production of thin walled parts with complicated shapes such as automotive panels or structural parts. The process consists of the plastic deformation of an initial at blank subjected to the action of a rigid punch and die while constrained on the periphery by a blank holder. Conventional design processes for sheet metal forming are usually based on a empirical approach. However, due to the requirement of high precision and reliability in shaped parts, these methods are far away from a final and reliable solution. Nowadays, Finite Element Method (FEM is being gradually adopted by industry to envisage the formability properties of sheet metals. The design and control of a deep drawing process depends not only on the work piece material, but also on the condition at the tool work piece interface, the mechanics of plastic deformation and the equipment used. In this paper, rectangular cup component of EDDQ Steel and Mild Steel is simulated using HYPERMESH 11 by varying various process parameters.

  1. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeloew-Marsden, P.; Pedersen, Troels F.; Gottschall, J.; Vesth, A.; Paulsen, R.W.U.; Courtney, M.S.

    2010-08-15

    In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted with booms at the same height but pointing in 60 deg. different directions. In the examined case of a 1.9 m wide equilateral triangular lattice tower with booms protruding 4.1 m at 80 m height the measurement errors are observed to reach up to +- 2 %. Errors of this magnitude are severely problematic in the measurement of wind turbine power performance, wind resource assessment and for providing purposeful in-field comparisons between different sensors, e.g. lidar anemometers. With the proposed method, direction dependent errors can be extracted and the mast flow distortion effect on the wind measurements corrected to an uncertainty estimated to better than 0.5%. This level of uncertainty is probably acceptable for the above mentioned applications. (author)

  2. Polystyrene cups and containers: styrene migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, M S; Huyghebaert, A

    1998-07-01

    The level of styrene migration from polystyrene cups was monitored in different food systems including: water, milk (0.5, 1.55 and 3.6% fat), cold beverages (apple juice, orange juice, carbonated water, cola, beer and chocolate drink), hot beverages (tea, coffee, chocolate and soup (0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3.6% fat), take away foods (yogurt, jelly, pudding and ice-cream), as well as aqueous food simulants (3% acetic acid, 15, 50, and 100% ethanol) and olive oil. Styrene migration was found to be strongly dependent upon the fat content and storage temperature. Drinking water gave migration values considerably lower than all of the fatty foods. Ethanol at 15% showed a migration level equivalent to milk or soup containing 3.6% fat. Maximum observed migration for cold or hot beverages and take-away foods was 0.025% of the total styrene in the cup. Food simulants were responsible for higher migration (0.37% in 100% ethanol). A total of 60 food samples (yogurt, rice with milk, fromage, biogardes, and cheese) packed in polystyrene containers were collected from retail markets in Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands. The level of styrene detected in the foods was always fat dependent. PMID:9829045

  3. A critical comparison of ten disposable cup LCAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harst, Eugenie van der, E-mail: eugenie.vanderharst@wur.nl [Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Potting, José, E-mail: jose.potting@wur.nl [Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Environmental Strategies Research (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-110 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    Disposable cups can be made from conventional petro-plastics, bioplastics, or paperboard (coated with petro-plastics or bioplastics). This study compared ten life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of disposable cups with the aim to evaluate the robustness of their results. The selected studies have only one impact category in common, namely climate change with global warming potential (GWP) as its category indicator. Quantitative GWP results of the studies were closer examined. GWPs within and across each study show none of the cup materials to be consistently better than the others. Comparison of the absolute GWPs (after correction for the cup volume) also shows no consistent better or worse cup material. An evaluation of the methodological choices and the data sets used in the studies revealed their influence on the GWP. The differences in GWP can be attributed to a multitude of factors, i.e., cup material and weight, production processes, waste processes, allocation options, and data used. These factors basically represent different types of uncertainty. Sensitivity and scenario analyses provided only the influence of one factor at once. A systematic and simultaneous use of sensitivity and scenario analyses could, in a next research, result in more robust outcomes. -- Highlights: • Conflicting results from life cycle assessment (LCA) on disposable cups • GWP results of LCAs did not point to a best or worst cup material. • Differences in GWP results are due to methodological choices and data sets used. • Standardized LCA: transparency of LCA studies, but still different in approaches.

  4. Nutrient disorders of 'Evolution' mealy-cup sage

    Science.gov (United States)

    To produce popular floriculture crops like mealy-cup sage (Salvia farinacea (Benth.)), growers must be equipped with cultural information including the ability to recognize and characterize disorders. Diagnostic criteria of nutrient disorders of mealy-cup sage are absent from the literature. Theref...

  5. A critical comparison of ten disposable cup LCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposable cups can be made from conventional petro-plastics, bioplastics, or paperboard (coated with petro-plastics or bioplastics). This study compared ten life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of disposable cups with the aim to evaluate the robustness of their results. The selected studies have only one impact category in common, namely climate change with global warming potential (GWP) as its category indicator. Quantitative GWP results of the studies were closer examined. GWPs within and across each study show none of the cup materials to be consistently better than the others. Comparison of the absolute GWPs (after correction for the cup volume) also shows no consistent better or worse cup material. An evaluation of the methodological choices and the data sets used in the studies revealed their influence on the GWP. The differences in GWP can be attributed to a multitude of factors, i.e., cup material and weight, production processes, waste processes, allocation options, and data used. These factors basically represent different types of uncertainty. Sensitivity and scenario analyses provided only the influence of one factor at once. A systematic and simultaneous use of sensitivity and scenario analyses could, in a next research, result in more robust outcomes. -- Highlights: • Conflicting results from life cycle assessment (LCA) on disposable cups • GWP results of LCAs did not point to a best or worst cup material. • Differences in GWP results are due to methodological choices and data sets used. • Standardized LCA: transparency of LCA studies, but still different in approaches

  6. Distance constant of the Risø cup anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Frost Hansen, O.

    2002-01-01

    The theory for cup-anemometer dynamics is presented in some detail and two methods of obtaining the distance constant lo are discussed. The first method is based on wind tunnel measurements: with a constant wind speed the cup anemometer is released from alocked position of the rotor and the...... increasing rotation rate recorded. It is concluded that the rapid increase in rotation rate makes the method very inaccurate. The second method consists of an analysis of turbulent, atmospheric of wind speed asmeasured by the cup anemometer and a fast-responding sonic anemometer with a spatial eddy...... resolution which is significantly better than that which can be obtained by a cup anemometer. The ratio between the measured power spectra of the horizontal windspeed by the two instruments contains the necessary information for determining the response characteristics of the cup anemometer and thereby lo...

  7. Advanced cementation concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this programme of work was to investigate whether improvements could be made to existing formulations for cement suitable for the immobilization of intermediate level radioactive waste. Two additives were selected, microsilica and limestone flour. Improvements to the cement were only slight. (author)

  8. Polyethylene-montmorillonite nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Christopher Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Nanocomposite materials are currently attracting much interest due to their possibility of global property improvement – mechanical strength, toughness, electrical breakdown strength, electrical erosion resistance and flame retardancy. In order to disperse montmorillonite clay (MMT) into polyethylene (PE), the clay sheets need to be rendered organophilic. Masterbatches with a high level (~40 %wt) of organomodified clay can then be dispersed into a host by a simple mechanical process. Two c...

  9. Biodiesel permeability in polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    RICHAUD, Emmanuel; FLACONNÈCHE, Bruno; Verdu, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports solubility and diffusivity data for soy and rapeseed methyl esters in polyethylene together with comparisons with methyl oleate and linoleate. These data showed that there is no significant difference in diffusivity and solubility between all these penetrants. Data were used to discuss the reliability of predictive models for diffusion and solubility of additive type molecules into semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers. Permeability data were monitored by a new device, th...

  10. The biomaterials challenge: A comparison of polyethylene wear using a hip joint simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affatato, Saverio; Freccero, Nadia; Taddei, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Although hip arthroplasty is an established procedure that relieves pain and improves functions, problems remain with wear and osteolysis. Highly cross-linked polyethylene and Vitamin-E-stabilized polyethylene were introduced in the last years to solve these problems. In this study we compared the in vitro wear behaviour of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) versus Vitamin-E diffused XLPE (XLPE_VE) versus conventional ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) acetabular cups. The test was performed using a hip joint simulator run for two millions cycles under bovine calf serum as lubricant. Mass loss was found to decrease along the series UHMWPE>XLPE_VE>XLPE, although statistically significant differences were found only between the mass losses of XLPE and UHMWPE at 1.2 and 2 million cycles. The mass loss data were explained in relation to the crystalline morphology of the control unworn cups, as investigated by non-destructive micro-Raman spectroscopy. This technique allowed to disclose a different wear behaviour of the three sets of cups. Wear testing produced a stress-induced crystallisation in UHMWPE, with increases in both amorphous (αa) and orthorhombic (αo) phases at the expense of the third phase (αb), which decreased upon wear. Moreover, the all-trans content decreased, while the ortho-trans content increased, contrarily to the trend observed for XLPE and XLPE_VE, for which no statistically significant changes in αo, αa and αb contents were detected. The XLPE_VE specimens underwent the least significant changes in the spectroscopic markers of micromorphology upon mechanical stress, probably due to their lower starting amorphous content. PMID:26301318

  11. Male gender, Charnley class C, and severity of bone defects predict the risk for aseptic loosening in the cup of ABG I hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lostak Jiri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied which factor could predict aseptic loosening in ABG I hip prosthesis with hydroxyapatite coating. Aseptic loosening and periprosthetic osteolysis are believed to be caused, at least in part, by increased polyethylene (PE wear rate via particle disease. Based on it, increased PE wear rate should be associated with aseptic loosening regardless of the type of implant. Methods We analyzed data from 155 revisions of ABG I hip prostheses to examine the influence of patient, implant, surgery, and wear related factors on the rate of aseptic loosening at the site of the cup. This was calculated by stepwise logistic regression analysis. The stability of the implant and severity of bone defects were evaluated intraoperatively. Results We found that men (odds ratio, OR = 5.6; p = 0.004, patients with Charnley class C (OR = 6.71; p = 0.013, those having more severe acetabular bone defects (OR = 4 for each degree of severity; p = 0.002, and longer time to revision surgery (OR = 1.51 for each additional year; p = 0.012 had a greater chance of aseptic loosening of the cup. However, aseptic loosening was not directly predicted by polyethylene wear rate in our patients. Conclusion Severity of bone defects predicts the risk for aseptic loosening in ABG I cup. Factors potentially associated with the quality of bone bed and biomechanics of the hip might influence on the risk of aseptic loosening in this implant.

  12. Feeding Neonates by Cup: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Christy M; Glass, Robin P; Coffey, Patricia; Rue, Tessa; Vaughn, Matthew G; Cunningham, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Objective WHO and UNICEF recommend cup feeding for neonates unable to breastfeed in low-resource settings. In developed countries, cup feeding in lieu of bottle feeding in the neonatal period is hypothesized to improve breastfeeding outcomes for those initially unable to breastfeed. Our aim was to synthesize the entire body of evidence on cup feeding. Methods We searched domestic and international databases for original research. Our search criteria required original data on cup feeding in neonates published in English between January 1990 and December 2014. Results We identified 28 original research papers. Ten were randomized clinical trials, 7 non-randomized intervention studies, and 11 observational studies; 11 were conducted in developing country. Outcomes evaluated included physiologic stability, safety, intake, duration, spillage, weight gain, any and exclusive breastfeeding, length of hospital stay, compliance, and acceptability. Cup feeding appears to be safe though intake may be less and spillage greater relative to bottle or tube feeding. Overall, slightly higher proportions of cup fed versus bottle fed infants report any breastfeeding; a greater proportion of cup fed infants reported exclusive breastfeeding at discharge and beyond. Cup feeding increases breastfeeding in subgroups (e.g. those who intend to breastfeed or women who had a Caesarean section). Compliance and acceptability is problematic in certain settings. Conclusions Further research on long-term breastfeeding outcomes and in low-resource settings would be helpful. Research data on high risk infants (e.g. those with cleft palates) would be informative. Innovative cup feeding approaches to minimize spillage, optimize compliance, and increase breastfeeding feeding are needed. PMID:27016350

  13. Assessment of Accuracy and Reliability in Acetabular Cup Placement Using an iPhone/iPad System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Kenji; Fukunishi, Shigeo; Fukui, Tomokazu; Nishio, Shoji; Fujihara, Yuki; Okahisa, Shohei; Takeda, Yu; Daimon, Takashi; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Implant positioning is one of the critical factors that influences postoperative outcome of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Malpositioning of the implant may lead to an increased risk of postoperative complications such as prosthetic impingement, dislocation, restricted range of motion, polyethylene wear, and loosening. In 2012, the intraoperative use of smartphone technology in THA for improved accuracy of acetabular cup placement was reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of an iPhone/iPad-guided technique in positioning the acetabular cup in THA compared with the reference values obtained from the image-free navigation system in a cadaveric experiment. Five hips of 5 embalmed whole-body cadavers were used in the study. Seven orthopedic surgeons (4 residents and 3 senior hip surgeons) participated in the study. All of the surgeons examined each of the 5 hips 3 times. The target angle was 38°/19° for operative inclination/anteversion angles, which corresponded to radiographic inclination/anteversion angles of 40°/15°. The simultaneous assessment using the navigation system showed mean±SD radiographic alignment angles of 39.4°±2.6° and 16.4°±2.6° for inclination and anteversion, respectively. Assessment of cup positioning based on Lewinnek's safe zone criteria showed all of the procedures (n=105) achieved acceptable alignment within the safe zone. A comparison of the performances by resident and senior hip surgeons showed no significant difference between the groups (P=.74 for inclination and P=.81 for anteversion). The iPhone/iPad technique examined in this study could achieve acceptable performance in determining cup alignment in THA regardless of the surgeon's expertise. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e621-e626.]. PMID:27322169

  14. Comparison of cooling ability of asbestic-cement and mesh sprinkler of cooling tower

    OpenAIRE

    Кравченко, Владимир Петрович; Морозов, Евгений Николаевич; Галацан, Марк Петрович

    2012-01-01

    The technological calculation of a cooling tower with a pass checker from the asbestos-cement and modern reticulated checker from a polyethylene is executed. Got results, allow executing the feasibility study of reconstruction of cooling tower with pass checker substituting by a modern construction

  15. Miniature modified Faraday cup for micro electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruya, Alan T.; Elmer, John W.; Palmer, Todd A.; Walton, Chris C.

    2008-05-27

    A micro beam Faraday cup assembly includes a refractory metal layer with an odd number of thin, radially positioned traces in this refractory metal layer. Some of the radially positioned traces are located at the edge of the micro modified Faraday cup body and some of the radially positioned traces are located in the central portion of the micro modified Faraday cup body. Each set of traces is connected to a separate data acquisition channel to form multiple independent diagnostic networks. The data obtained from the two diagnostic networks are combined and inputted into a computed tomography algorithm to reconstruct the beam shape, size, and power density distribution.

  16. Tympanoplasty with ionomeric cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    isolated erosion of the long incus process have been treated with a new surgical technique in which the ossicular chain was rebuilt with ionomeric cement. The results in hearing performance (mean pure-tone average (PTA) 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz) were evaluated pre- and post-surgery, and compared to those in a...... > 10 dB, in 4 there was a slight improvement and in 2 a decline. The difference was not statistically significant. Hearing improvement using ionomeric cement in type II tympanoplasty was satisfactory. Reconstruction of the ossicular chain with ionomeric cement is recommended, as the procedure is easy...

  17. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2003-01-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. DOE joined the Materials Management Service (MMS)-sponsored joint industry project ''Long-Term Integrity of Deepwater Cement under Stress/Compaction Conditions.'' Results of the project contained in two progress reports are also presented in this report.

  18. Can a cup anemometer 'underspeed'? A heretical question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.

    2002-01-01

    calibration function is included. The conclusion is that neither longitudinal nor lateral velocity fluctuations can contribute significantly to a negative bias. However, if a cup anemometer has an angular response that falls below the ideal cosine response, there will, as demonstrated in the concluding......An analysis of cup-anemometer dynamics has been carried out in order to determine whether the mean-wind velocity can have a negative bias. This would be contrary to the general belief that cup anemometers always overspeed. Compared to prior analyses, the effect of a possible nonlinearity of the...... discussion, be a negative contribution from the vertical velocity fluctuations to the total bias, and this contribution may even outbalance the positive contributions from the longitudinal velocity fluctuations. Concrete evidence of such exotic cup anemometer behaviour has not been reported in the literature....

  19. Figuring out the Statistics of the ICC World Cup 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwalkar, Jyoti P.; Deshpande, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of cricket match results from the ICC World Cup 2011. We believe that such data provide good material for interesting classroom exercises. (Contains 7 tables and 1 figure.)

  20. Coffee to Go: Woman "Thinks" First Cup in 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: NIBIB Robotics Coffee to Go: Woman "Thinks" First Cup in ... own—using her thoughts alone to direct a robotic arm to her lips. The feat was made ...

  1. Degradation of protective organic coatings after cupping test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deflorian, F.; Fedrizzi, L.; Rossi, S.

    1999-11-01

    Coil coating products generally are shaped by deforming and bending after coating. These deformations can produce defects inducing a significant deterioration of the protective properties of the organic coating. An empirical method for the evaluation of the deformation effects is the cupping test. in the present work, effects of the cupping test were studied by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements to study the influence of deformation conditions on the mechanisms of degradation of the protective properties. The materials studied were environmentally friendly coatings based on ion exchange pigments. In addition to the electrochemical characterizations, a finite element model was developed for the estimation of the strain after the cupping test and some adhesion measurements were performed. The cupping test with an electrochemical characterization with EIS is a valid method for the evaluation of the protective behavior of coil coating products after deformation.

  2. Hip Revision with Cup Removal System and Revision Shell

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available The Zimmer® Explant® Cup Removal System and Trabecular Metal™ Revision Shell You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view ...

  3. Intraoperative monitoring for safety of total hip arthroplasty using third-generation cementing technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-jian; ZHANG Ke; YANG Hong; LIU Yan; L(U) Jing-qiao

    2009-01-01

    Background Controversies on the safety of the cement application between cemented and uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been existing for decades. The purpose of this study was to observe the changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and oxygen pressure (PaO2) during cemented THA, and to evaluate the intraoperative safety of using the third-generation cementing technique and investigate whether the intraoperative risk is higher in acute femoral neck fracture patients than non-traumatic patients. Methods Forty-two patients who underwent cemented THA between November 2005 and September 2007 were prospectively included in this study. The third-generation cementing technique as vacuum mixing and pulsatile lavage was used strictly. The MAP and HR were monitored and documented during each operation. Blood gas analysis was performed at exposure, cup implantation, stem implantation and wound closure. MAP, HR and PaO2 were compared between pre- and post-cement application. Comparisons of MAP, HR and PaO2 between patients with acute femoral neck fracture and non-traumatic patiens were performed as well. Results No intraoperative cardiopulmonary complication occurred in these cases. No obvious changes were observed in MAP, HR and PaO2 after cement application. There was no significant difference in MAP, HR and PaO2 between acute femoral fracture patients (18 patients) and non-traumatic patients (24 patients).Conclusions The results of this study suggested that the invasive blood pressure monitoring and blood gas analysis are essential for patients undergoing cemented THA, especially for patients with femoral neck fracture. The third-generation cementing technique is safe to use in THA.

  4. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt; Pavement ... The substances in asphalt that can be harmful are: Hydrocarbons Industrial glues Industrial solvents Tar ... Asphalt is found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for ...

  5. Prevalence of disc cupping in non-glaucomatous eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Chiappe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed optic disc size and cupping, using a commercially available ophthalmoscope, in order to show norms of these values for clinical practice. Subjects were office-workers referred from their respective workplaces for a routine medical examination, which included eye examination. The optic disc size was classified as small, medium or large, for having a diameter 1.5 times (respectively the diameter of the ophthalmoscope's selected light spot on the posterior pole. The cupping was classified as the ratio of the vertical cupping diameter and the vertical disc diameter on a relative decimal scale from 0.0 to 1.0.This study included 184 subjects with a mean age of 40.5 ± 9.5 years; 149 (81% were males. Their mean ocular pressure was 12.4 ± 1.5 mmHg (range 10-17 mmHg. There was a high correlation between optic disc sizes and cupping in the right and left eyes (Pearson Correlation r = 0.866, p < 0.001; therefore, for simplicity only the data for right eyes are presented. According to our definition, the optic discs in these eyes comprised 27 (14.7% small, 141 (76.6% medium and 16 (8.7% large. The small optic discs were rarely cupped, and the large optic discs were always cupped. Optic disc cupping greater than 0.7 was rarely found and should be suspect of glaucoma. Clinical doctors should be aware of this and refer those subjects with abnormal cupping to the specialist.

  6. Manipulating Tournaments in Cup and Round Robin Competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Tyrel; 10.1007/978-3-642-04428-1_3

    2009-01-01

    In sports competitions, teams can manipulate the result by, for instance, throwing games. We show that we can decide how to manipulate round robin and cup competitions, two of the most popular types of sporting competitions in polynomial time. In addition, we show that finding the minimal number of games that need to be thrown to manipulate the result can also be determined in polynomial time. Finally, we show that there are several different variations of standard cup competitions where manipulation remains polynomial.

  7. Reducing Background Noise Through a Stethoscope Cup Using Adaptive Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Bryce E.; Christensen, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    An adaptive filtering algorithm was used to test the validity of adaptively filtering respiratory signals recorded at the trachea with an external reference microphone. Two different setups were tested. The first used a microphone in open air, the second used a microphone that was housed inside a second stethoscope cup. The primary microphone was affixed to a phantom material. External sounds and music were played via aloud speaker to record additive noise data from within the stethoscope cup...

  8. Analysis of movement pattern among referee in 2012 Malaysian Cup

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan, Rahmat; Muzayin, Nasriq; Sulaiman, Norasrudin

    2013-01-01

    This study is to determine the contributing factors of the movement patterns toward the total distance covered by the football referees during the Malaysia Soccer Cup 2012. Seven (7) of referees who officiated the 2012 Malaysian Cup matches were been chosen into this study. All seven matches from the tournament were recorded using Astro beyond decoder and were coding with SportCode Elite Software on the selected performance indicators (P.I) as main movement patterns variables. This movement p...

  9. Determination of the radiation from an orange fiestaware cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential hazard of a cup decorated with an uranium-containing glaze was determined. The radiation dose was measured by taping film badges to the cup for 24 hours. It was concluded there was no significant health hazard. The only potentially hazardous exposure would be to beta radiation, and direct contact for 20 h/day would be required to reach occupational exposure limits. 16 references, 8 figures, 8 tables

  10. FIFA World Cup 2006 Germany: An opportunity for union revitalisation?

    OpenAIRE

    Schwetz, Wilfried; McGuire, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Given their global dimension and centrality to late modern capitalist development mega sports events like the Olympics and the FIFA World Cup can provide space for public discussion about the impact of globalisation and the opportunity for union revitalisation. This paper examines the activities of selected German unions and civil society organisations, both in the lead up to and during the FIFA World Cup in Germany 2006, in order to determine the extent to which unions were able to utilise s...

  11. Development of an external Faraday cup for beam current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, beam current measurements are very important for many kinds of experiments using highly energetic particle beams at accelerators, such as cyclotrons, linacs, etc. The Faraday cup is known to be one of the most popular beam current measurement tools. We developed an external Faraday cup to measure the beam current at a dedicated beam line for low-flux experiments installed at the MC-50 cyclotron of Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). It was designed for external beam current measurements and is composed of a vacuum chamber, an entrance window, a collimator, a electrostatic suppressor ring, and a cup. The window is made of 75-um-thick Kapton film, and the diameter of the collimator is 10 mm or 20 mm. The ring and the cup has 5-cm inner diameters, and the thickness of the bottom of the cup is 2 cm, which is enough to absorb the total proton energy up to 45 MeV. Using this external Faraday cup, we measured the beam current from the cyclotron, and we compared measured flux to the results from film dosimetry using GAF films.

  12. COMPOSITE POLYMERICADDITIVESDESIGNATED FORCONCRETEMIXES BASED ONPOLYACRYLATES, PRODUCTS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF POLYAMIDE-6 AND LOW-MOLECULAR POLYETHYLENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Vyacheslav Sergeevich

    2012-07-01

    4 the optimal composite additive that increases the time period of stiffening of the cement grout , improves the water resistance and the compressive strength of concrete, represents the composition of polyacrylates and polymethacrylates, products of thermal decomposition of polyamide-6 and low-molecular polyethylene in the weight ratio of 1:1:0.5.

  13. Photo destruction of polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to photo destruction of polyethylene terephthalate. The photo destruction of polyethylene terephthalate was studied by means of different methods under the conditions of irradiation of fibers in the open air and in the vacuum by wide ultraviolet spectre and monochromatic radiation.

  14. Topological Twistons in Crystalline Polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    D. Bazeia; Ventura, E.

    1998-01-01

    We introduce an alternate model to describe twistons in crystalline polyethylene. The model couples torsional and longitudinal degrees of freedom and appears as an extension of a model that describes only the torsional motion. We find exact solutions that describe stable topological twistons, in good agreement with the torsional and longitudinal interactions in polyethylene.

  15. Musik sebagai Wujud Eksistensi dalam Gelaran World Cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael HB Raditya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We Are One atau “Ole Ola” merupakan lagu resmi dari gelaran World Cup. Setiap World Cupmempunyai lagu resminya ditiap gelarannya. Dalam keberlangsungannya, setiap lagu world cupmembutuhkan pertimbangan dalam pembentukannya. Aspek-aspek seperti budaya, sosial, politikdan lainya menjadi alasan penting dalam pembentukannya. Pembentukan Ole Ola didasarkan padaproses hibriditas budaya lokal dan global. Perpaduan samba dan hip hop menjadi variant dalampembentukannya. Perpaduan tersebut membentuk identitas untuk lagu itu sendiri, dan untuk gelaranworld cup. Eksistensi dari lagu sehingga makin terasa karena perpaduan yang membentuk identitas.Terlebih lagu tersebut tercipta tidak hanya karena gelaran, tetapi mempunyai fungsi dan guna untukmasyarakat. Musik sebagai media dalam mengkonstruksi pesan atas kepentingan. Musik membentukidentitas, dan mempunyai eksistensi dalam keberlangsungannya. Musik tidak lagi hanya berfungsisebagai musik saja, tetapi musik mempunyai peran dalam pembentukan identitas dan menjamineksistensi.Music as a form of Existance in the World Cup Performance. We are one or Ole Ola is the officialsong of the world cup performance. Every world cup has its official song in each event. In its development ofexistance, every song in world cup needs requires of consideration for creating process. Aspects such as cultural,social, politics and others become the important reason for creation. The creating proses of Ole Ola song isbased on the local and global cultural hybridity. The combination of samba and hip hop is a primary varianton creating process. The combination creates an identity for the song itself, and for world cup identity. Theexistance of Ole Ola is stronger because the combination may create the new identity. Moreover, the songcreated is not only for the event, but also has a function and purpose to society. Music is as a medium inconstructing the messages of interest. Music creates an identity, and has an existance in its

  16. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-10-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses tasks performed in the fourth quarter as well as the other three quarters of the past year. The subjects that were covered in previous reports and that are also discussed in this report include: Analysis of field laboratory data of active cement applications from three oil-well service companies; Preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; Summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; and Comparison of compressive strengths of ULHS systems using ultrasonic and crush methods Results reported from the fourth quarter include laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems--foamed and sodium silicate slurries. These comparison studies were completed for two different densities (10.0 and 11.5 lb/gal) and three different field application scenarios. Additional testing included the mechanical properties of ULHS systems and other lightweight systems. Studies were also performed to examine the effect that circulation by centrifugal pump during mixing has on breakage of ULHS.

  17. PART II. HYDRATED CEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Drabik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential focus of the study has been to acquire thermoanalytical events, incl. enthalpies of decompositions - ΔH, of technological materials based on two types of Portland cements. The values of thermoanalytical events and also ΔH of probes of technological compositions, if related with the data of a choice of minerals of calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates, served as a valued input for the assessment of phases present and phase changes due to the topical hydraulic processes. The results indicate mainly the effects of "standard humidity" or "wet storage" of the entire hydration/hydraulic treatment, but also the presence of cement residues alongside calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates (during the tested period of treatment. "A diluting" effect of unhydrated cement residues upon the values of decomposition enthalpies in the studied multiphase system is postulated and discussed

  18. Development of shrinkage resistant microfibre-reinforced cement-based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedanimojarrad, P.; Adam, G.; Ray, A.; Thomas, P.; Vessalas, K.

    2012-06-01

    Different shrinkage types may cause serious durability dilemma on restrained concrete parts due to crack formation and propagation. Several classes of fibres are used by concrete industry in order to reduce crack size and crack number. In previous studies, most of these fibre types were found to be effective in reducing the number and sizes of the cracks, but not in shrinkage strain reduction. This study deals with the influence of a newly introduced type of polyethylene fibre on drying shrinkage reduction. The novel fibre is a polyethylene microfibre in a new geometry, which is proved to reduce the amount of total shrinkage in mortars. This special hydrophobic polyethylene microfibre also reduces moisture loss of mortar samples. The experimental results on short and long-term drying shrinkage as well as on several other properties are reported. The hydrophobic polyethylene microfibre showed promising improvement in shrinkage reduction even at very low concentrations (0.1% of cement weight).

  19. Dielectric elastomer actuators for octopus inspired suction cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms. (paper)

  20. Octopus-like suction cups: from natural to artificial solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, F; Follador, M; Pugno, N M; Mazzolai, B

    2015-06-01

    Octopus suckers are able to attach to all nonporous surfaces and generate a very strong attachment force. The well-known attachment features of this animal result from the softness of the sucker tissues and the surface morphology of the portion of the sucker that is in contact with objects or substrates. Unlike artificial suction cups, octopus suckers are characterized by a series of radial grooves that increase the area subjected to pressure reduction during attachment. In this study, we constructed artificial suction cups with different surface geometries and tested their attachment performances using a pull-off setup. First, smooth suction cups were obtained for casting; then, sucker surfaces were engraved with a laser cutter. As expected, for all the tested cases, the engraving treatment enhanced the attachment performance of the elastomeric suction cups compared with that of the smooth versions. Moreover, the results indicated that the surface geometry with the best attachment performance was the geometry most similar to octopus sucker morphology. The results obtained in this work can be utilized to design artificial suction cups with higher wet attachment performance. PMID:25970079

  1. Classification of operational characteristics of commercial cup-anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T.; Schmidt Paulsen, U. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The present classification of cup-anemometers is based on a procedure for classification of operational characteristics of cup-anemometers that was proposed at the EWEC `97 conference in Dublin 1997. Three definitions of wind speed are considered. The average longitudinal wind speed (ID), the average horizontal wind speed (2D) and the average vector wind speed (3D). The classification is provided in these terms, and additionally, the turbulence intensities, which are defined from the same wind speed definitions. The commercial cup-anemometers have all been calibrated in wind tunnel for the normal calibrations and angular characteristics. Friction was measured by blywheel testing, where the surrounding temperatures were varied over a wide range. The characteristics of the cup-anemometers have been fitted to the heuristic dynamic model, and the response has been calculated in time domain for prescribed ranges of external operational conditions. The results are presented in ranges of maximum deviations of `measured` average wind speed. For each definition of wind speed and turbulence intensity, the cup-anemometers are ranked according to the most precise instrument. Finally, the most important systematic error sources are commented. (au)

  2. Technology Roadmaps: Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    To support its roadmap work focusing on key technologies for emissions reductions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) also investigated one particular industry: cement. Cement production includes technologies that are both specific to this industry and those that are shared with other industries (e.g., grinding, fuel preparation, combustion, crushing, transport). An industry specific roadmap provides an effective mechanism to bring together several technology options. It outlines the potential for technological advancement for emissions reductions in one industry, as well as potential cross-industry collaboration.

  3. Concrete = aggregate, cement, water?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concrete for the Temelin nuclear power plant is produced to about 70 different formulae. For quality production, homogeneous properties of aggregates, accurate proportioning devices, technological discipline and systematic inspections and tests should be assured. The results are reported of measuring compression strength after 28 days for different concrete samples. The results of such tests allow reducing the proportion of cement, which brings about considerable savings. Reduction in cement quantities can also be achieved by adding ash to the concrete mixes. Ligoplast, a plasticizer addition is used for improving workability. (M.D). 8 figs

  4. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2016-08-16

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  5. The mechanical effect of the existing cement mantle on the in-cement femoral revision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Parnell

    2012-08-01

    Cement-in-cement revision hip arthroplasty is an increasingly popular technique to replace a loose femoral stem which retains much of the original cement mantle. However, some concern exists regarding the retention of the existing fatigued and aged cement in such cement-in-cement revisions. This study investigates whether leaving an existing fatigued and aged cement mantle degrades the mechanical performance of a cement-in-cement revision construct.

  6. An integral test of FLUKA nuclear models with 160 MeV proton beams in multi-layer Faraday cups

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, I; Parodi, K; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Mairani, A

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) codes are useful tools to simulate the complex processes of proton beam interactions with matter. In proton therapy, nuclear reactions influence the dose distribution. Therefore, the validation of nuclear models adopted in MC codes is a critical requisite for their use in this field. A simple integral test can be performed using a multi-layer Faraday cup (MLFC). This method allows separation of the nuclear and atomic interaction processes, which are responsible for secondary particle emission and the finite primary proton range, respectively. In this work, the propagation of 160 MeV protons stopping in two MLFCs made of polyethylene and copper has been simulated by the FLUKA MC code. The calculations have been performed with and without secondary electron emission and transport, as well as charge sharing in the dielectric layers. Previous results with other codes neglected those two effects. The impact of this approximation has been investigated and found to be relevant only in the proximity ...

  7. Treatment of Obstinate Diseases by Acupuncture and Cupping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨容

    2001-01-01

    @@Acupuncture treatment integrated with cupping for enhancing the therapeutic effect is a technique in Yang's school of acupuncture carried forward from generation to generation. The author's grandfather created Yang's shallow puncturing and cupping therapy to enhance the effect of promoting blood flow and removing blood stasis in the light of his clinical experience. In this therapy, the gentle puncturing and heavy tapping are carried out with the seven-star needle until light bleeding occurs, followed by drawing out of pituita or stagnant blood and coagula by cupping, in an attempt to promote tissue regeneration by removing blood stasis for promoting the flow of qi and blood in the meridians. The therapy has been developed by Dr. Yang Yifang (the author's father) in clinical practice over the past six decades. Satisfactory therapeutic results have been obtained in clinical practice, which are introduced with examples below.

  8. Characterisation and classification of RISØ P2546 cup anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of the RISØ P2546 cup anemometer were investigated in detail by wind tunnel and laboratory tests. The characteristics include accredited calibration, tilt response measurements for tilt angles between -40° to 40°, gust responsemeasurements at 8m/s and turbulence intensities of...... 10%, 16% and 23%, step response measurements at step wind speeds 3,7, 8, 11,9 and 15,2m/s, measurement of torque characteristics at 8m/s, rotor inertia measurements and measurements of friction ofbearings at temperatures -20°C to 40°C. Characteristics were fitted to a time domain cup anemometer model....... The characteristics were transformed into the CLASSCUP classification scheme, and were related to the cup anemometer requirements in the Danishcertification system and in the IEC 61400-121 Committee Draft....

  9. Characterisation and classification of RISØ P2546 cup anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of the RISØ P2546 cup anemometer were investigated in detail by wind tunnel and laboratory tests. The characteristics include accredited calibration, tilt response measurements for tilt angles between -40° to 40°, gust responsemeasurements at 8m/s and turbulence intensities of...... 10%, 16% and 23%, step response measurements at step wind speeds 3,7, 8, 11,9 and 15,2m/s, measurement of torque characteristics at 8m/s, rotor inertia measurements and measurements of friction ofbearings at temperatures -20°C to 40°C. Characteristics were fitted to a time domain cup anemometer model....... The characteristics were transformed into the CLASSCUP classification scheme, and were related to the cup anemometer requirements in the Danishcertification system and in the IEC 61400-121 Committee Draft....

  10. Process for irradiation of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of polyethylene affects its processabiltiy in the fabrication of products and affects the properties of products already fabricated. The present invention relates to a process for the irradiation of polyethylene, and especially to a process for the irradiation of homopolymers of ethylene and copolymers of ethylene and higher α-olefins, in the form of granules, with low levels of electron or gamma irradiation in the presence of an atomsphere of steam

  11. Comparative studies of indoor radon concentration levels in Jordan using CR-39 based bag and cup dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N; Matiullah; Khatibeh, A J

    1998-07-01

    Indoor radon concentration levels have been measured in 9 major cities of Jordan using CR(-3)9 detectors placed in punched polyethylene bags to measure both radon and thoron, and in cups to measure radon only. The average value of indoor radon and thoron concentration levels measured with bag dosimeters vary from 32 to 107 Bq m(-3) and the indoor radon concentration levels measured with cup dosimeters vary from 27 to 88 Bq m(-3). The indoor radon concentration levels in Irbid and Zaraka are comparable to the world average of 27 Bq m(-3). In Ajloun, Jerash, Salt, Tafilah and Amman, the indoor radon levels are greater than the world average by a factor of up to 2, and in Madaba and Karak these levels are greater than the world average by a factor of more than 3. The large variation in the measured radon levels may be attributed to the large variation in the 226Ra activity in the soil of the region. PMID:9645667

  12. Produktie van cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit JRK; Coenen PWHG; Matthijsen AJCM; LAE; TAUW

    1995-01-01

    This document on cement production has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sou

  13. DTU-team vinder kategori i VentureCup 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Teamet EDS, Ecological Disposal Systems, har vundet kategorien Cleantech & Environment i VentureCup’s årlige konkurrence StartUp Competition, og som vinder går holdet videre sammen med de andre vindere til University Startup World Cup som afholdes i København i midten af september.......Teamet EDS, Ecological Disposal Systems, har vundet kategorien Cleantech & Environment i VentureCup’s årlige konkurrence StartUp Competition, og som vinder går holdet videre sammen med de andre vindere til University Startup World Cup som afholdes i København i midten af september....

  14. Numerical Analysis of Hydroforming DeepDrawing of Conical Cup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Aided by the FE-code, analysis is carried to find the proper hydroforming deep-drawing condition for the perfect forming of a conical cup that can not be drawn successfully by conventional deep drawing method. Hydraulic counter pressure must be reasonably controlled, otherwise defects such as fracture and wrinkling can not be avoided. Therefore, the forming procedure is divided into three stages, and the counter pressure is adjusted intentionally to make the blank clamped onto the punch at a suitable time, then deformation at dangerous area is resisted by the effect of the counter pressure and the conical cup can be formed without defects.

  15. Sectoral labour market effects of the 2006 FIFA World Cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Maennig, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Using the case of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, this study is the first to test the employment effects of a mega-sporting event on the basis of data that combines both regional and sectoral data. It is also the first study of sporting events to use a semi-parametric test method. Earlier studies on the...... World Cup could hardly identify any employment effects. In contrast, we find a small but significant positive employment effect on the hospitality sector. © 2012 Elsevier B.V....

  16. The age grading and the Chen-Ruan cup product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the obstruction bundle used to define the cup-product in Chen-Ruan cohomology is determined by the so-called `age grading' or `degree-shifting numbers'. Indeed, the obstruction bundle can be directly computed using the age grading. We obtain a Kunneth Theorem for Chen-Ruan cohomology...... as a direct consequence of an elementary property of the age grading, and explain how several other results - including associativity of the cup-product - can be proved in a similar way....

  17. Analysis of Femoral Components of Cemented Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shantanu; Harsha, A. P.

    2015-10-01

    There have been continuous on-going revisions in design of prosthesis in Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) to improve the endurance of hip replacement. In the present work, Finite Element Analysis was performed on cemented THA with CoCrMo trapezoidal, CoCrMo circular, Ti6Al4V trapezoidal and Ti6Al4V circular stem. It was observed that cross section and material of femoral stem proved to be critical parameters for stress distribution in femoral components, distribution of interfacial stress and micro movements. In the first part of analysis, designs were investigated for micro movements and stress developed, for different stem materials. Later part of the analysis focused on investigations with respect to different stem cross sections. Femoral stem made of Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) resulted in larger debonding of stem at cement-stem interface and increased stress within the cement mantle in contrast to chromium alloy (CoCrMo) stem. Thus, CoCrMo proved to be a better choice for cemented THA. Comparison between CoCrMo femoral stem of trapezium and circular cross section showed that trapezoidal stem experiences lesser sliding and debonding at interfaces than circular cross section stem. Also, trapezium cross section generated lower peak stress in femoral stem and cortical femur. In present study, femur head with diameter of 36 mm was considered for the analysis in order to avoid dislocation of the stem. Also, metallic femur head was coupled with cross linked polyethylene liner as it experiences negligible wear compared to conventional polyethylene liner and unlike metallic liner it is non carcinogenic.

  18. Analysis of wear, wear particles, and reduced inflammatory potential of vitamin E ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene for use in total joint replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Bladen, C L; Teramura, S; Russell, S. L.; Fujiwara, K; Fisher, J; E Ingham; Tomita, N; Tipper, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin E (VE) has been added to ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) acetabular cups and tibial trays primarily to reduce oxidative damage to the polymer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative wear rates of UHMWPE-containing VE compared with virgin UHMWPE. The ability of VE to reduce the amount of inflammatory cytokines produced from stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) was also investigated. Stimulation was achieved by exposure of PBMNCs to eith...

  19. More than 50% reduction of wear in polyethylene liners with alumina heads compared to cobalt-chrome heads in hip replacements

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Jon; Snorrason, Finnur; Nordsletten, Lars; Röhrl, Stephan M

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Excessive wear of acetabular liners in hip replacements may lead to osteolysis and cup loosening. Different head materials are currently used. We measured differences in wear between alumina and cobalt-chrome heads with the same polyethylene liner. Patients and methods 39 patients (43 hips) with osteoarthritis were included in a study with 10-year follow-up. Wear was measured as proximal and 3D penetration of the head in the liner with radiostereometry (RSA). All the pa...

  20. Facility arrangements and the environmental performance of disposable and reusable cups

    OpenAIRE

    Potting, José; Harst-Wintraecken, van der, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper integrates two complementary life cycle assessment (LCA) studies with the aim to advice facility managers on the sustainable use of cups, either disposable or reusable. Study 1 compares three disposable cups, i.e., made from fossil-based polystyrene (PS), biobased and compostable plastic (polylactic acid; PLA) and paper lined with PLA (biopaper). Study 2 compares the disposable PS cup with reusable cups that are handwashed or dishwashed. Methods: Existing LCA studies show ...

  1. 76 FR 58108 - Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot, Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot, Chicago.... Background and Purpose The Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot event takes place on the Chicago River near.... 165.T09-0847 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0847 Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf...

  2. The Sorption Behavior of Wood Studied by Means of an Improved Cup Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitelberger, Johannes; Svensson, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    inwards the cup. In contrast to the common cup method, the herein presented method uses a data logger for relative humidity and temperature placed inside the cup. The use of thin cross-cut specimens allows for explicit separation of the different processes occurring during transient moisture transport...

  3. 77 FR 20846 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof... importation of certain food containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items and packaging thereof by... importation of certain food containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items and packaging thereof...

  4. Faraday cup on board Japan's first interplanetary probe 'SAKIGAKE'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraday cup on board Japan's 1st interplanetary test probe 'SAKIGAKE' is described. The contents include the description of the principle of the measurement, structure of the sensor, accuracy of the measurement of bulk velocity, ion density and temperature of the solar wind plasma, data processing, and the thorough system of the experiment including telemetry allocation, status words and command system. (author)

  5. Leidos Reclaims Defelice Cup at Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Leidos Biomedical Research reclaimed the Defelice Cup trophy from NCI at the eighth annual Ronald H. Defelice golf tournament, held October 14. The final score was 15–7, with Leidos Biomed tying the series 4 to 4. Fourteen players on each team battled it out at Rattlewood golf course in Mount Airy, Md.

  6. Three-dimensional model of cementless acetabular cup migration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jíra, J.; Jiroušek, Ondřej; Jírová, Jitka; Micka, Michal

    Lisbon : CivilComp Press, 2004 - (Tooping, B.; Mota Soares, C.), s. 699 ISBN 0-948749-93-8. [The Seventh International Conference on Computational Structures Technology. Lisabon (PT), 07.09.2004-09.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : loosening and migration of cementless acetabular cup * pelvis * FE model Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics

  7. Ryder Cup ning rahvusvaheline kogemus teenindusvaldkonnast / Liis Meeras

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meeras, Liis

    2006-01-01

    Iirimaal Dublini lähedal Kildare maakonna provintsis asuvas K-Clubis 22.-24. septembrini toimunud 36. Ryder Cup turniirist, mis on üks prestiizhikaim golfiüritus maailmas. Oma muljetest räägivad üritusel teenindanud turismitudengid TÜ Pärnu kolledzhist

  8. Treatment of Acute Lumbar Sprain by Acupuncture plus Cupping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-ying; WANG Si-you

    2003-01-01

    Fifty cases of acute lumbar sprain were treated by the combination of acupuncture, cupping and kinesitherapy. Forty-three cases were cured and 7 cases improved, the total effective rate being 100%. This therapy has an exact effect with a short course of treatment.

  9. Teaching Transport Phenomena around a Cup of Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoret, Jean Stephane

    2007-01-01

    The very common situation of waiting for the cooling of a cup of coffee is addressed through a conventional engineering approach, where several important concepts of heat and mass transfer are used. A numerical and analytical solution of the differential equations of the problem are proposed, and assessed by comparing to simple experiments.…

  10. The economic value of the 2010 Soccer World Cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saayman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the potential economic value of the 2010 Soccer World Cup for South Africa. Problem investigated: The Soccer World Cup (SWC is regarded as the largest sporting event to be hosted and South Africa is investing billions of Rand in the hosting thereof. Based on this the question that comes to mind is, what is the potential economic value of such an event? Previous research attempts to determine the economic value were limited in their focus on what should be included when economic modelling of events is conducted. Most of these studies were done by consultants on behalf of various government departments and consequently, the results of these attempts are criticised for their over-inflating and overestimations by various other researchers. Methodology: The literature review identified many aspects that need to be taken into account when modelling the economic impact of such an event together with aspects identified in the literature review. Lessons from the 2002 Korea/Japan and 2006 Germany Soccer World Cups were used as premise for our estimations. In this article, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE modelling is used to estimate the potential economic value. Findings: The results showed that the 2010 Soccer World Cup would in all probability have positive impacts on the economy of the country in terms of GDP growth and employment, with possible negative effects that include higher inflation and net export losses. Value of research: The value of this research lies in the approach that was followed firstly, by introducing lessons learned from previous World Cups as well as aspects not taken into consideration previously in economic modelling and secondly, by using CGE modelling in determining the economic value. Conclusion: The hosting of the 2010 Soccer World Cup is a major achievement not only for South Africa, but also for the rest of Africa, especially from a marketing point of view. From an

  11. Degradable polyethylene: fantasy or reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Prasun K; Hakkarainen, Minna; Varma, Indra K; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2011-05-15

    Plastic waste disposal is one of the serious environmental issues being tackled by our society today. Polyethylene, particularly in packaging films, has received criticism as it tends to accumulate over a period of time, leaving behind an undesirable visual footprint. Degradable polyethylene, which would enter the eco-cycle harmlessly through biodegradation would be a desirable solution to this problem. However, the "degradable polyethylene" which is presently being promoted as an environmentally friendly alternative to the nondegradable counterpart, does not seem to meet this criterion. This article reviews the state of the art on the aspect of degradability of polyethylene containing pro-oxidants, and more importantly the effect these polymers could have on the environment in the long run. On exposure to heat, light, and oxygen, these polymers disintegrate into small fragments, thereby reducing or increasing the visual presence. However, these fragments can remain in the environment for prolonged time periods. This article also outlines important questions, particularly in terms of time scale of complete degradation, environmental fate of the polymer residues, and possible accumulation of toxins, the answers to which need to be established prior to accepting these polymers as environmentally benign alternatives to their nondegradable equivalents. It appears from the existing literature that our search for biodegradable polyethylene has not yet been realized. PMID:21495645

  12. Automatic cup vending machine series (1999 machine); Cup jido hanbaiki series (99 nenki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    A new automatic cup vending machine series is developed, higher in operating efficiency and energy saving, which will attract more customers. The external design and internal layout were completely changed, and new types have joined the series, such as a BIB (bag in box) machine or a flavor card machine to enrich the series. The new product is characterized in that (1) it is equipped with a door on which a bill validator (paper money identifier) and a card reader are installed to enable the machine to accept both money and card for attracting customers without missing a selling opportunity; that (2) it is equipped with novel mixing bowls that may be attached or removed with an one-touch action; that (3) it is equipped with a novel coffee brewer for which paper filters may be loaded from the front side; and that (4) it runs on an energy saving mode with help of temperature and time controls to work for the devices in the chamber. (translated by NEDO)

  13. Radiological diagnostics in CUP syndrome; Radiologische Diagnostik des CUP-Syndroms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierczak, P.M.; Nikolaou, K.; Graser, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Cyran, C.C. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Rominger, A. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Grosshadern, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Imaging plays an essential role in the therapeutic management of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) patients for localizing the primary tumor, for the identification of tumor entities for which a dedicated therapy regimen is available and for the characterization of clinicopathological subentities that direct the subsequent diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Modalities include conventional x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound as well as positron emission tomography (PET)-CT and MRI-PET. In whole body imaging CT has a high sensitivity for tumor entities which frequently present as a metastasized cancer illness. According to the current literature CT is diagnostic in 86% of patients with pancreatic carcinoma, in 36% of patients with colon carcinoma and in 74% of patients with lung carcinoma. Additionally a meta-analysis showed that for patients with squamous cell carcinoma and cervical lymph node metastases a positive diagnosis was possible in 22% of the cases using CT, in 36% using MRI and in 28-57% using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT ({sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT). In addition, MRI plays an important role in the localization of primary occult tumors (e.g. breast and prostate) because of its high soft tissue contrast and options for functional imaging. At the beginning of the diagnostic algorithm stands the search for a possible primary tumor and CT of the neck, thorax and abdomen is most frequently used for whole body staging. Subsequent organ-specific imaging examinations follow, e.g. mammography in women with axillary lymphadenopathy. For histological and immunohistochemical characterization of tumor tissue, imaging is also applied to identify the most accessible and representative tumor manifestation for biopsy. Tumor biopsy may be guided by CT, MRI or ultrasound and MRI also plays a central role in the localization of primary occult tumors because of superior soft tissue contrast and options for functional imaging (perfusion

  14. US cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisbet, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the cement and concrete industry, and provides data on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. The potential impact of an energy tax on the industry is briefly assessed. Opportunities identified for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include improved energy efficiency, alternative fuels, and alternative materials. The key factor in determining CO{sub 2} emissions is the level of domestic production. The projected improvement in energy efficiency and the relatively slow growth in domestic shipments indicate that CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 should be about 5% above the 1990 target. However, due to the cyclical nature of cement demand, emissions will probably be above target levels during peak demand and below target levels during demand troughs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Performance of Cement Containing Laterite as Supplementary Cementing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bukhari, Z. S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of different industrial waste, by-products or other materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, fly ash, limestone, and kiln dust, etc. as supplemen- tary cementing materials has received considerable attention in recent years. A study has been conducted to look into the performance of laterite as Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM. The study focuses on compressive strength performance of blended cement containing different percentage of laterite. The cement is replaced accordingly with percentage of 2 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % by weight. In addition, the effect of use of three chemically different laterites have been studied on physical performance of cement as in setting time, Le-Chatlier expansion, loss on ignition, insoluble residue, free lime and specifically compressive strength of cement cubes tested at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days. The results show that the strength of cement blended with laterite as SCM is enhanced. Key words: Portland cement, supplementary cementing materials (SCM, laterite, compressive strength KUI – 6/2013 Received January 4, 2012 Accepted February 11, 2013

  16. Tympanoplasty with ionomeric cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    Patients with isolated erosion of the long incus process suffer from severe hearing loss caused by lack of continuity of the ossicular chain. This study is a retrospective evaluation of the hearing results using two different surgical procedures. Since January 1993, 12 consecutive patients with isolated erosion of the long incus process have been treated with a new surgical technique in which the ossicular chain was rebuilt with ionomeric cement. The results in hearing performance (mean pure-tone average (PTA) 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz) were evaluated pre- and post-surgery, and compared to those in a group of 20 historical controls who underwent surgery in 1991 and 1992 using incus autograft interposition. Among the 12 index patients, 7 (58%) achieved improvement in PTA of > 10 dB, in 3 there was no difference and in 2 a slight decline. Among the 20 controls, 14 (70%) achieved improvement in PTA of > 10 dB, in 4 there was a slight improvement and in 2 a decline. The difference was not statistically significant. Hearing improvement using ionomeric cement in type II tympanoplasty was satisfactory. Reconstruction of the ossicular chain with ionomeric cement is recommended, as the procedure is easy to perform, presents less risk of damage to the stapes and cochlea, requires less extensive surgery and does not exclude other surgical methods in cases of reoperation. PMID:10909000

  17. Barium aluminate cement: its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology of manufacturing barium aluminate cement from barium sulfate and alumina, using a rotary kiln for firing the clinker is described. The method of granulation of the homogenized charge was used. Conditions of using the ''to mud'' method in industry were indicated. The physical and chemical properties of barium aluminate cement are determined and the quality of several batches of cement prepared on a semi-industrial scale and their suitability for making highly refractory concretes are tested. The optimal composition of the concretes is determined as a function of the mixing water and barium aluminate cement contents. Several experimental batches of concretes were used in the linings of furnaces in the steel industry. The suitability of these cements for use in fields other than steelmaking is examined. It is established that calcium aluminate cement has certain limited applications

  18. Phase equilibria in polyethylene systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmingsen, Pål Viggo

    2000-01-01

    The background for this work is a need to better understand the production of high density polythylene (HDPE). HDPE particles grow in a loop slurry reactor, and particle swelling and slurry viscosity are critical parts in the process. This thesis is concerned with the thermodynamic aspects of liquid and solid polyethylene, and liquid-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria in solvent-polyethylene systems. It also covers studies of vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria in solvent-n-alkane system...

  19. Mechanical properties of polyethylene foils

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubomír KUBÍK; Stanislav Zeman

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the mechanical properties of the polyethylene foils such as the stress, strain, modulus of elasticity and stress and strain in the moment of breaking. The thin foils (50 mm) which contained 91 % of polyethylene Bralen RA 2–63 and 9 % colored concentrate Maxithen were studied. Four sorts of foils were examined: Maxithen HP 1510 – white, Maxithen HP 231111 – yellow, Maxithen HP 533031 – blue and Maxithen HP 533 041 – violet. Longitudinal and transversal te...

  20. From Tonic-cups to Bitter-cups : Kwasi bita beker from Suriname Determination, past and present use of an ancient galenic artefact

    OpenAIRE

    Odonne, Guillaume; Bourdy, Geneviève; Beauchene, J.; Houel, E.; Stien, D.; Chevolot, L.; Deharo, Eric

    2007-01-01

    In the main markets of Paramaribo (Suriname), many stands offer what is locally called "Bitter-cups", or "Kwasi bita beker", small footed-cups, roughly carved from a whitish wood. The use of these cups is strictly medicinal and it seems to be restricted to Suriname, as they are not found in neighbouring countries (Guyana, French Guiana). The aim of this study was to identify the botanical origin of Bitter-cups still in use in the Saramaka traditional medicine (as information from field people...

  1. [Haemotoxicity of dental luting cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, A; Welker, D

    1989-06-01

    A glass ionomer luting cement (AquaCem) shows a relatively low haemolytic activity in comparison with two zinc phosphate cements. Especially the initial irritation by this cement is smaller. Although it is possible that AquaCem particularly, in unfavourable cases, may damage the pulpa dentin system; this is due to the slowly decrease of the haemolytic activity with increasing of the probes. We found that Adhesor showed in dependence of the batches a varying quality. PMID:2626769

  2. Cement penetration after patella venting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher W; Lam, Li-On; Butler, Adam; Wood, David J; Walsh, William R

    2009-01-01

    There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement-bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration. Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or non-vented. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA scanning. In vented specimens, a 1.6 mm Kirschner wire was used to breach the anterior cortex at the center. Specimens were resurfaced with standard Profix instrumentation and Versabond bone cement (Smith and Nephew PLC, UK). Cement penetration was assessed from Faxitron and sectioned images by a digital image software package (ImageJ V1.38, NIH, USA). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess the difference in cement penetration between groups. The relationship between BMD and cement penetration was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a strong negative correlation between peak BMD and cement penetration when analyzed independent of experimental grouping (r(2)=-0.812, p=0.004). Wilcoxon rank sum testing demonstrated no significant difference (rank sum statistic W=27, p=0.579) in cement penetration between vented (10.53%+/-4.66; mean+/-std dev) and non-vented patellae (11.51%+/-6.23; mean+/-std dev). Venting the patella using a Kirschner wire does not have a significant effect on the amount of cement penetration achieved in vitro using Profix instrumentation and Versabond cement. PMID:19010682

  3. Photo destruction of mechanically stressed polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to photo destruction of mechanically stressed polyethylene terephthalate. The influence of tensile load on photo processes which pass in polyethylene terephthalate was studied by means of spectroscopy method.

  4. Design and Research on Auto-vending Machine for Cupped Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to design an auto-vending machine for cupped beverage, specifically researching its working principle, the design of beverage powder transporting mechanism, paper cups detaching mechanism and paper cups slide mechanism. The article elaborates that the design of beverage powder transporting mechanism is mainly the selection of electromagnet and the determination of electromagnet stroke, requiring that the electromagnet stroke and the maximum weight that the electromagnet could bear should have rationality, to ensure its safe operation; the design of paper cups detaching mechanism mainly includes selecting electric motor and V belt; the design of paper cups slide mechanism includes the design of slide structure and the force analysis when the paper cup slides on the slide. And then the working principle and working process of the auto-vending machine for cupped beverage is introduced, based on which the conclusion has been reached.

  5. Respiratory Health among Cement Workers in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zeleke, Zeyede K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known on dust exposure and respiratory health among cement cleaners. There are only a few follow-up studies on respiratory health among cement factory workers and also studies on acute effects of cement dust exposure are limited in numbers. Objective: This study aimed at assessing cement dust exposure and adverse respiratory health effects among Ethiopian cement production workers, with particular focus on cement cleaners. Method: The first paper was...

  6. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved

  7. HYMNOGRAPHIC TRADITION IN IVAN SHMELEV'S SHORT NOVEL "THE INEXHAUSTIBLE CUP"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Ivanovich Sobolev

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the influence of the Orthodox hymnography on Ivan Shmelev's works, using his short novel The Inexhaustible Cup as an example. The author analyzes the hymnographic level of the novel; identifies specific features of adapting liturgical poetry to the literary (fiction text; defines the functionality of liturgical texts in the ideological and thematic, as well as imaginative and motive structure of a literary work. Comparative analysis shows that novel's poetic attributes are similar to theological terminological metaphors typical for hymnography. Moreover, the content plane of The Inexhaustible Cup, due to the semantic parallelism with Akathist and, more broadly, with the hymnographic tradition, forms the Christian dogmatic metatext, which can be called Being in Christ. This enables the reader to identify intuitively Shmelev's novel as a piece of writing, related to poetic and didactic Christian texts in its spirit and language.

  8. Amylase polymorphism affects growth in the cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas

    OpenAIRE

    Huvet, Arnaud; Samain, Jean-francois; Boudry, Pierre; Bedier, Edouard; Ropert, Michel; Van Wormhoudt, A

    2005-01-01

    The better understanding of physiological and environmental factors that determine optimal food conversion efficiencies is of major interest for the cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas for which the strong increase of aquaculture has been correlated in France with a decrease in productivity due to competition between aquatic species for limited food supplies at grow-out sites. To investigate the non-neutrality of the polymorphism of amylase, a key enzyme for carbohydrate assimilation, in oyster p...

  9. Development of movable faraday cup for precise charge measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high brightness electron beam is required for the 8-GeV linac in SACLA in order to generate an x-ray free electron laser. The high peak current beam is generated by bunch compressors, which shorten a bunch length up to several tens of femto-seconds. The precise charge measurement of the bunched beam is indispensable for estimation of the peak current, which is important to determine the characteristics of the x-ray free-electron laser, such as a FEL gain length. The longitudinal charge distribution of the bunched beam is measured by an rf deflector. Simultaneously, the total beam charge is measured by using a current transformer (CT), which is a non-destructive beam current monitor. By using both the distribution and total charge, we can estimate the peak current value. To calibrate the current monitor, we had installed a Faraday cup, which was designed to achieve a resolution of less than 1 pC. The geometry of a collector in the Faraday cup was determined by estimations of energy loss, charge loss and thermal analyses. The collector is designed to be retractable with an actuator, in order that the beam for the user experiment is supplied without intercepting beam transport. To reduce the charge loss due to secondary emission in the collector, a bias voltage can be applied between the collector and a vacuum chamber. In order to check the performance of the Faraday cup, the beam test was carried out. An absolute accuracy of beam charge measurement of the single bunch beam with a bunch length of 20 fs or less was achieved ±2% by using the Faraday cup. The CT was calibrated with sufficient accuracy. (author)

  10. Brazilian World cup 2014: Terrorism, tourism, and social conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Tzanelli, R; Korstanje, M.; Clayton, A

    2014-01-01

    The World cup transcends the interests of culture and nations worldwide. Every 4 years, delegations from the four corners of the world compete for a month. The mass tourist demand an event of this caliber generates prompts policy makers and tourism scholars to devote considerable time in planning in detail the infrastructure and service industry for the benefit of incomers. Unfortunately, in areas of the world plagued by political instability, some groups may use the media events to communica...

  11. Infrared Imaging of Uninhibited Cup-Burner Flame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nevrlý, Václav; Bitala, P.; Střižík, Michal; Zelinger, Zdeněk; Danihelka, P.; Kollárik, T.; Grigorová, E.; Jánošík, L.; Jelínková, R.; Mikoczy, A.; Filipi, B.; Dudáček, A.

    Vienna: Verlag ProcessEng Engineering GmbH, 2009. s. 317-317. ISBN 978-3-902655-06-6. [European Combustion Meeting /4./. 14.04.2009–17.04.2009, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : cup burner * flame * infrared imaging * soot Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  12. Does it pay to win the Stanley Cup?

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Lanoue

    2015-01-01

    Yes, it does indeed pay to win the Stanley Cup (SC). Professional sports offer a unique opportunity to examine the relationship between a player’s salary and their performance. Salary statistics have become widely available and enable individual performance scrutiny in relation to remuneration level. There is an extensive literature explaining which factors in‡uence the players’ salary in the National Hockey League (NHL), using data sets from different seasons and including various performanc...

  13. World Cup 2014 – Professional Training Program for Brazilian Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvone Alves Assis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experience of implementing a professional training program for the Brazilian hospitality industry in the 12 cities that will be the headquarters of the World Cup in 2014. This project was developed in the context of the program “Welcoming Cup”, of the Brazilian Ministry of Tourism, whose objective is to enable the tourism industry to attain international standards of quality in tourism services.

  14. HYMNOGRAPHIC TRADITION IN IVAN SHMELEV'S SHORT NOVEL "THE INEXHAUSTIBLE CUP"

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Ivanovich Sobolev

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the influence of the Orthodox hymnography on Ivan Shmelev's works, using his short novel The Inexhaustible Cup as an example. The author analyzes the hymnographic level of the novel; identifies specific features of adapting liturgical poetry to the literary (fiction) text; defines the functionality of liturgical texts in the ideological and thematic, as well as imaginative and motive structure of a literary work. Comparative analysis shows that novel's poetic attributes a...

  15. Sphere anemometer - a faster alternative solution to cup anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölling, M.; Schulte, B.; Barth, S.; Peinke, J.

    2007-07-01

    We present an anemometer technique characterized by an instrument in a sealed enclosure without moving parts. Measurements taken with our improved sphere anemometer in comparison to cup anemometer and hot-wire anemometer data subjected to wind gusts are discussed. The hot-wire anemometer serves as a reference with high temporal and spacial resolution. A manually driven "gust generator" produced gusts at low frequencies of about 1Hz. All measurements were carried out in the wind tunnel at the University of Oldenburg.

  16. Health hazards of cement dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ven in the 21st century, millions of people are working daily in a dusty environment. They are exposed to different types of health hazards such as fume, gases and dust, which are risk factors in developing occupational disease. Cement industry is involved in the development of structure of this advanced and modern world but generates dust during its production. Cement dust causes lung function impairment, chronic obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lungs, stomach and colon. Other studies have shown that cement dust may enter into the systemic circulation and thereby reach the essentially all the organs of body and affects the different tissues including heart, liver, spleen, bone, muscles and hairs and ultimately affecting their micro-structure and physiological performance. Most of the studies have been previously attempted to evaluate the effects of cement dust exposure on the basis of spirometry or radiology, or both. However, collective effort describing the general effects of cement dust on different organ and systems in humans or animals, or both has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of cement dust and to minimize the health risks in cement mill workers by providing them with information regarding the hazards of cement dust. (author)

  17. Energy balance and dietary habits of America's Cup sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Elisabetta; Delussu, Sofia A; Quattrini, Filippo M; Rodio, Angelo; Bernardi, Marco

    2007-08-01

    This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, and improve their food habits. Energy expenditure was estimated on 15 sailors using direct measurements (oxygen consumption) and a 3-day activity questionnaire. Oxygen consumption was measured on sailors during both on-water America's Cup sailing training and dry-land fitness training. Composition of the diet was estimated using a 3-day food record. Average daily energy expenditure of the sailors ranged from 14.95 to 24.4 MJ, depending on body mass and boat role, with the highest values found in grinders and mastmen. Daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 23.3 MJ (from +6% to -18% of energy expenditure). The contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy intake were 43%, 18%, and 39% respectively, values that are not in accord with the recommended guidelines for athletes. Our results show the importance of assessing energy balance and food habits for America's Cup sailors performing different roles. The practical outcome of this study was that the sailors were given dietary advice and prescribed a Mediterranean diet, explained in specific nutrition lectures. PMID:17613739

  18. Supercritical CO2 impregnation of polyethylene components for medical purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamse Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modem hip and knee endoprosthesis are produced in titanium and to reduce the friction at the contact area polymer parts, mainly ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE, are installed. The polyethylene is impregnated with a-tocopherol (vitamin E before processing for remarkable decrease of oxidative degradation. Cross linked UHMW-PE offers much higher stability, but a-tocopherol cannot be added before processing, because a-tocopherol hinders the cross linking process accompanied by a heavy degradation of the vitamin. The impregnation of UHMW-PE with a-tocopherol has to be performed after the cross linking process and an accurate concentration has to be achieved over the cross section of the whole material. In the first tests UHMW-PE-cubes were stored in pure a-tocopherol under inert atmosphere at temperatures from 100 to 150 °C resulting in a high mass fraction of a-tocopherol in the edge zones and no constant concentration over the cross section. For better distribution and for regulating the mass fraction of a-tocopherol in the cross linked UHMW-PE material supercritical CO2 impregnation tests were investigated. Again UHMW-PE-cubes were impregnated in an autoclave with a-tocopherol dissolved in supercritical CO2 at different pressures and temperatures with variable impregnation times and vitamin E concentrations. Based on the excellent results of supercritical CO2 impregnation standard hip and knee cups were stabilized nearly homogeneously with varying mass fraction of a-tocopherol.

  19. From Tonic-cups to Bitter-cups: Kwasi bita beker from Suriname Determination, past and present use of an ancient galenic artefact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonne, G; Bourdy, G; Beauchêne, J; Houël, E; Stien, D; Chevolot, L; Deharo, E

    2007-03-21

    In the main markets of Paramaribo (Suriname), many stands offer what is locally called "Bitter-cups", or "Kwasi bita beker", small footed-cups, roughly carved from a whitish wood. The use of these cups is strictly medicinal and it seems to be restricted to Suriname, as they are not found in neighbouring countries (Guyana, French Guiana). The aim of this study was to identify the botanical origin of Bitter-cups still in use in the Saramaka traditional medicine (as information from field people was controversial), and document the ethnopharmacology of this original galenical artefact. Microscopic and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses were carried out on Bitter-cup, and anatomical criteria (marginal parenchyma band, size of intervessel and vessel-ray pits, rays width and rays composition, vessels clustering, frequency and size of parenchyma pits) together with HPLC profiles of the macerates showed that the wood cup was similar to Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) wood. Ethnopharmacological investigation indicates that the use of these cups is simply due to the pharmacological properties attributed to "bitters", and is strongly linked to tradition and cultural attitudes. This study also emphasizes the long lasting use of these cups, now restricted to Suriname only, with almost no variation over one century. PMID:17134861

  20. No effect of additional screw fixation of a cementless, all-polyethylene press-fit socket on migration, wear, and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minten, Michiel J M; Heesterbeek, Petra J C; Spruit, Maarten

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Additional screw fixation of the all-polyethylene press-fit RM cup (Mathys) has no additional value for migration, in the first 2 years after surgery. However, the medium-term and long-term effects of screw fixation remain unclear. We therefore evaluated the influence of screw fixation on migration, wear, and clinical outcome at 6.5 years using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Patients and methods - This study involved prolonged follow-up from a previous randomized controlled trial (RCT). We analyzed RSA radiographs taken at baseline and at 1-, 2-, and 6.5-year follow-up. Cup migration and wear were assessed using model-based RSA software. Wear was calculated as translation of the femoral head model in relation to the cup model. Total translation, rotation, and wear were calculated mathematically from results of the orthogonal components. Results - 27 patients (15 with screw fixation and 12 without) were available for follow-up at 6.5 (5.6-7.2) years. Total translation (0.50 mm vs. 0.56 mm) and rotation (1.01 degrees vs. 1.33 degrees) of the cup was low, and was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Wear increased over time, and was similar between the 2 groups (0.58 mm vs. 0.53 mm). Wear rate (0.08 mm/year vs. 0.09 mm/year) and clinical outcomes were also similar. Interpretation - Our results indicate that additional screw fixation of all-polyethylene press-fit RM cups has no additional value regarding medium-term migration and clinical outcome. The wear rate was low in both groups. PMID:27299418

  1. Prediction of the Setting Properties of Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmud Rabiee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting properties of bone substitutes are improved using an injectable system. The injectable bone graft substitutes can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ when injected. Such system is useful for surgical operation. The powder part of the injectable bone cement is included of β-tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and dicalcium phosphate and the liquid part contains poly ethylene glycol solution with different concentrations. In this way, prediction of the mechanical properties, setting times, and injectability helps to optimize the calcium phosphate bone cement properties. The objective of this study is development of three different adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFISs for estimation of compression strength, setting time, and injectability using the data generated based on experimental observations. The input parameters of models are polyethylene glycol percent and liquid/powder ratio. Comparison of the predicted values and measured data indicates that the ANFIS model has an acceptable performance to the estimation of calcium phosphate bone cement properties.

  2. Prediction of the setting properties of calcium phosphate bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee, Seyed Mahmud; Baseri, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Setting properties of bone substitutes are improved using an injectable system. The injectable bone graft substitutes can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ when injected. Such system is useful for surgical operation. The powder part of the injectable bone cement is included of β-tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and dicalcium phosphate and the liquid part contains poly ethylene glycol solution with different concentrations. In this way, prediction of the mechanical properties, setting times, and injectability helps to optimize the calcium phosphate bone cement properties. The objective of this study is development of three different adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) for estimation of compression strength, setting time, and injectability using the data generated based on experimental observations. The input parameters of models are polyethylene glycol percent and liquid/powder ratio. Comparison of the predicted values and measured data indicates that the ANFIS model has an acceptable performance to the estimation of calcium phosphate bone cement properties. PMID:22919372

  3. Magnesium oxychloride cement concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Misra; Renu Mathur

    2007-06-01

    The scope of magnesium oxychloride (MOC) cement in concrete works has been evaluated. MOC cement concrete compositions of varying strengths having good placing and finishing characteristics were prepared and investigated for their compressive and flexural strengths, -values, abrasion resistance etc. The durability of MOC concrete compositions against extreme environmental conditions viz. heating–cooling, freezing–thawing, wetting–drying and penetration and deposition of salts etc were investigated. The results reveal that MOC concrete has high compressive strength associated with high flexural strength and the ratio of compressive to flexural strength varies between 6 and 8. The elastic moduli of the compositions studied are found to be 23–85 GPa and the abrasion losses between 0.11 and 0.20%. While alternate heating–cooling cycles have no adverse effect on MOC concrete, it can be made durable against freezing–thawing and the excessive exposure to water and salt attack by replacing 10% magnesium chloride solution by magnesium sulphate solution of the same concentration.

  4. High performance polyethylene nanocomposite fibers

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dorigato; M. D'Amato; L. Fambri; A. Pegoretti

    2012-01-01

    A high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix was melt compounded with 2 vol% of dimethyldichlorosilane treated fumed silica nanoparticles. Nanocomposite fibers were prepared by melt spinning through a co-rotating twin screw extruder and drawing at 125°C in air. Thermo-mechanical and morphological properties of the resulting fibers were then investigated. The introduction of nanosilica improved the drawability of the fibers, allowing the achievement of higher draw ratios with respect to the neat ...

  5. Drying poly(ethylene glycol)

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Lucas Kinard, Kurtis Kasper & Antonios Mikos ### Abstract This protocol describes the drying of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) by a simple 6 step procedure. One can implement this protocol using common lab glass and lab equipment. Water is removed from PEG by azeotropic distillation in toluene. The two components are mixed and toluene and water are distilled off by heating the solution to 170°C. This procedure can be implemented in ~2 h. ### Introduction In many ...

  6. Single Lamella Nanoparticles of Polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Christa H. M.; Chiche, Arnaud; Krausch, Georg; Rosenfeldt, Sabine; Ballauff, Matthias; Harnau, Ludger; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Tong, Qiong; Mecking, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    We present a complete analysis of the structure of polyethylene (PE) nanoparticles synthesized and stabilized in water under very mild conditions (15 °C, 40 atm) by a nickel-catalyzed polymerization in aqueous solution. Combining cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) with X-ray scattering, we demonstrate that this new synthetic route leads to a stable dispersion of individual PE nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. Most of the semicrystalline particles have a hexagon...

  7. Ethylene polymerization and polyethylene functionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Càmara, Ariadna

    2010-01-01

    Polyolefins have become ubiquitous and are large volume commodity materials. Of current interest is the preparation of speciality polymers incorporating polyethylene (PE), which often requires polymer chain-end manipulation. Ethylene polymerization by a neodymium catalyst in conjunction with n-butyloctylmagnesium (BOMg) is based on a reversible chain-transfer between Nd (where PE chains grow) and Mg (where PE chains rest). Using a large BOMg/Nd ratio for ethylene polymerization leads to m...

  8. Single electron states in polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y; MacKernan, D.; Cubero, David; Coker, David F.; Quirke, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We report computer simulations of an excess electron in various structural motifs of polyethylene at room temperature, including lamellar and interfacial regions between amorphous and lamellae, as well as nanometre-sized voids. Electronic properties such as density of states, mobility edges, and mobilities are computed on the different phases using a block Lanczos algorithm. Our results suggest that the electronic density of states for a heterogeneous material can be approximated by summing t...

  9. Molecular deformation mechanisms in polyethylene.

    OpenAIRE

    Coutry, Sandry

    2001-01-01

    This work is concerned with details of the molecular changes caused by deformation and also establishes any conformational differences between linear and branched polyethylene before, during and after deformation. Four blends of isotopically labelled polymers of different types, rapidly quenched from the melt, have been studied by Mixed Crystal Infra-red Spectroscopy and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), in order to clarify any differences in the molecular basis of drawing...

  10. Research on Design Method of Intelligent Vending Machine for Cupped Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design an intelligent vending machine for cupped beverage, specifically researching its humanized design, shape design, color design and the main mechanism design including the beverage powder transporting mechanism, paper cups detaching mechanism and paper cups slide mechanism. The study elaborates that the design of beverage powder transporting mechanism is mainly the selection of electromagnet and the determination of electromagnet stroke, requiring that the electromagnet stroke and the maximum weight that the electromagnet could bear should have rationality, to ensure its safe operation; the design of paper cups detaching mechanism mainly includes selecting electric motor and V belt; the design of paper cups slide mechanism mainly presents the design of slide structure. And then the design of control modules of the intelligent vending machine for cupped beverage is introduced, based on which the conclusion has been reached.

  11. Influence of bismuth oxide concentration on the pH level and biocompatibility of white Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Angélica MARCIANO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate if there is a relation between the increase of bismuth oxide and the decrease of pH levels and an intensification of toxicity in the Portland cement. Material and Methods: White Portland cement (WPC was mixed with 0, 15, 20, 30 and 50% bismuth oxide, in weight. For the pH level test, polyethylene tubes were filled with the cements and immersed in Milli-Q water for 15, 30 and 60 days. After each period, the increase of the pH level was assessed. For the biocompatibility, two polyethylene tubes filled with the cements were implanted in ninety albino rats (n=6. The analysis of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate was performed after 15, 30 and 60 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Friedman tests for the pH level and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for the biological analysis (p0.05. For the inflammatory infiltrates, no significant statistical differences were found among the groups in each period (p>0.05. The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (p<0.05. Conclusions: The addition of bismuth oxide into Portland cement did not affect the pH level and the biological response. The concentration of 15% of bismuth oxide resulted in significant reduction in inflammatory response in comparison with the other concentrations evaluated.

  12. Accuracy and Precision of Three-Dimensional Low Dose CT Compared to Standard RSA in Acetabular Cups: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivecrona, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q.; Noz, Marilyn E.; Zeleznik, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The gold standard for detection of implant wear and migration is currently radiostereometry (RSA). The purpose of this study is to compare a three-dimensional computed tomography technique (3D CT) to standard RSA as an alternative technique for measuring migration of acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods. With tantalum beads, we marked one cemented and one uncemented cup and mounted these on a similarly marked pelvic model. A comparison was made between 3D CT and standard RSA for measuring migration. Twelve repeated stereoradiographs and CT scans with double examinations in each position and gradual migration of the implants were made. Precision and accuracy of the 3D CT were calculated. Results. The accuracy of the 3D CT ranged between 0.07 and 0.32 mm for translations and 0.21 and 0.82° for rotation. The precision ranged between 0.01 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.06 and 0.29° for rotations, respectively. For standard RSA, the precision ranged between 0.04 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.08 and 0.32° for rotations, respectively. There was no significant difference in precision between 3D CT and standard RSA. The effective radiation dose of the 3D CT method, comparable to RSA, was estimated to be 0.33 mSv. Interpretation. Low dose 3D CT is a comparable method to standard RSA in an experimental setting. PMID:27478832

  13. Primary structure and transcription of an amplified genetic locus: the CUP1 locus of yeast.

    OpenAIRE

    Karin, M; Najarian, R; Haslinger, A; Valenzuela, P; Welch, J; Fogel, S

    1984-01-01

    Copper resistance in yeast is controlled by the CUP1 locus. The level of resistance is proportional to the copy number of this locus, which can be found in up to 15 tandemly iterated copies. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling the amplification and expression of the CUP1, locus, we determined its full nucleotide sequence. We have also identified and mapped two transcription units within the basic amplification unit of CUP1 in laboratory yeast strains. One of those transcription ...

  14. Design and Research on Auto-vending Machine for Cupped Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Jiang; Yonghong Sun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to design an auto-vending machine for cupped beverage, specifically researching its working principle, the design of beverage powder transporting mechanism, paper cups detaching mechanism and paper cups slide mechanism. The article elaborates that the design of beverage powder transporting mechanism is mainly the selection of electromagnet and the determination of electromagnet stroke, requiring that the electromagnet stroke and the maximum weight that the electrom...

  15. Research on Design Method of Intelligent Vending Machine for Cupped Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design an intelligent vending machine for cupped beverage, specifically researching its humanized design, shape design, color design and the main mechanism design including the beverage powder transporting mechanism, paper cups detaching mechanism and paper cups slide mechanism. The study elaborates that the design of beverage powder transporting mechanism is mainly the selection of electromagnet and the determination of electromagnet stroke, requiring that the...

  16. Cements in Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of cement and concrete to immobilise radioactive waste is complicated by the wide- ranging nature of inorganic cementing agents available as well as the range of service environments in which cement is used and the different functions expected of cement. For example, Portland cement based concretes are widely used as structural materials for construction of vaults and tunnels. These constructions may experience a long pre-closure performance lifetime during which they are required to protect against collapse and ingress of water: strength and impermeability are key desirable characteristics. On the other hand, cement and concrete may be used to form backfills, ranging in permeability. Permeable formulations allow gas readily to escape, while impermeable barriers retard radionuclide transport and reduce access of ground water to the waste. A key feature of cements is that, while fresh, they pass through a fluid phase and can be formed into any shape desired or used to infiltrate other materials thereby enclosing them into a sealed matrix. Thereafter, setting and hardening is automatic and irreversible. Where concrete is used to form structural elements, it is also natural to use cement in other applications as it minimises potential for materials incompatibility. Thus cement- mainly Portland cement- has been widely used as an encapsulant for storage, transport and as a radiation shield for active wastes. Also, to form and stabilise structures such as vaults and silos. Relative to other potential matrices, cement also has a chemical immobilisation potential, reacting with and binding with many radionuclides. The chemical potential of cements is essentially sacrificial, thus limiting their performance lifetime. However performance may also be required in the civil engineering sense, where strength is important, so many factors, including a geochemical description of service conditions, may require to be assessed in order to predict performance lifetime. The

  17. Cement/slag chemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of cement-based matrices intended for radwaste immobilization is assessed. The long-term performance of the matrix is characterized by thermodynamic evaluation of experimental data. The results are presented in a general form, amenable to a range of specific formulations. The interaction of specific radwaste components with cements has been studied, using Iodine as an example. It occurs as both I- and IO3- species, but these differ sharply in sorption characteristics. The effect of ionizing radiation of the pH and Eh of cement matrices is reported. (author)

  18. Comparison of 10-year clinical wear of annealed and remelted highly cross-linked polyethylene: A propensity-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Mashima, Naohiko; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Kamada, Tomomi; Motomura, Goro; Imai, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Jun-Ichi; Miura, Hiromasa; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-06-01

    No previous studies comparing the clinical wear rates of the two different kinds of cross-linked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (XLPE), annealed and remelted, are available. We compared the creep and steady wear rates of 36 matched pairs (72 hips in total) adjusting for baseline characteristics with propensity score matching techniques. Zirconia femoral heads with 26-mm diameter were used in all cases. The femoral-head cup penetration was measured digitally on radiographs. Significantly greater creep (p=0.006) was detected in the remelted (0.234mm) than annealed (0.159mm) XLPE. However, no significant difference (p=0.19) was found between the steady wear rates (0.003 and 0.008mm/year, respectively) of the annealed and remelted XLPE. Multiple regression analyses showed that remelted XLPE is significant independent variable (pweight, cup size, the liner thickness, cup inclination, follow-up periods, and postoperative Merle d'Aubigné hip score had no significant effects (p>0.05) on the steady wear rates. No patients exhibited above the osteolysis threshold of 0.1mm/year, progressive radiolucencies, osteolysis, or polyethylene fracture. This propensity-matched cohort study document no significant difference in wear resistant performances of annealed and remelted XLPE over an average period of 10 years. PMID:26751705

  19. Power output during women's World Cup road cycle racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Tammie R; Martin, David T; McDonald, Warren; Victor, James; Plummer, John; Withers, Robert T

    2005-12-01

    Little information exists on the power output demands of competitive women's road cycle racing. The purpose of our investigation was to document the power output generated by elite female road cyclists who achieved success in FLAT and HILLY World Cup races. Power output data were collected from 27 top-20 World Cup finishes (19 FLAT and 8 HILLY) achieved by 15 nationally ranked cyclists (mean +/- SD; age: 24.1+/-4.0 years; body mass: 57.9+/-3.6 kg; height: 168.7+/-5.6 cm; VO2max 63.6+/-2.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1); peak power during graded exercise test (GXT(peak power)): 310+/-25 W). The GXT determined GXT(peak power), VO2peak lactate threshold (LT) and anaerobic threshold (AT). Bicycles were fitted with SRM powermeters, which recorded power (W), cadence (rpm), distance (km) and speed (km h(-1)). Racing data were analysed to establish time in power output and metabolic threshold bands and maximal mean power (MMP) over different durations. When compared to HILLY, FLAT were raced at a similar cadence (75+/-8 vs. 75+/-4 rpm, P=0.93) but higher speed (37.6+/-2.6 vs. 33.9+/-2.7 km h(-1), P=0.008) and power output (192+/-21 vs. 169+/-17 W, P=0.04; 3.3+/-0.3 vs. 3.0+/-0.4 W kg(-1), P=0.04). During FLAT races, riders spent significantly more time above 500 W, while greater race time was spent between 100 and 300 W (LT-AT) for HILLY races, with higher MMPs for 180-300 s. Racing terrain influenced the power output profiles of our internationally competitive female road cyclists. These data are the first to define the unique power output requirements associated with placing well in both flat and hilly women's World Cup cycling events. PMID:16151832

  20. Cementing porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadachkoria, D

    2009-12-01

    The clinical success of fixed prosthodontic restorations can be complex and involve multifaceted procedures. Preparation design, oral hygiene/micro flora, mechanical forces, and restorative materials are only a few of the factors which contribute to overall success. One key factor to success is choosing the proper cement. Popular use of cements for PFM crowns has shifted from zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements to resin-reinforced glass ionomer, or RRGI, cements. This change has been rapid and profound. Dental cements have always been less than ideal materials, but this is shift to the relatively new RRGI category justified. Resin-reinforced glass ionomer (RRGI) cements appear to be better than zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements when placing porcelain-to-metal crowns. RRGI cements, such as RelyX Luting, Fuji Plus and Vitremer Luting Cement, satisfy more of the ideal characteristics of PFM cementation than any other previous cement. Expansion of all three cements has not caused any apparent problems with the cements when used with PFM or metal crowns, but these cements, however, should be avoided when cementing all-ceramic crowns. PMID:20090144

  1. Mild pro-p-groups with trivial cup-product

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Generalizing previous results due to A. Schmidt and J. Labute, we prove sufficient criteria involving higher Massey products for finitely presented pro-p-groups to be mild and hence of cohomological dimension 2. Further investigations are pursued in the special case of one-relator pro-p-groups. We construct a class of mild pro-2-groups having trivial cup-product, which occur as Galois groups of the maximal 2-extensions of the rationals with ramification restricted to given finite sets of plac...

  2. Team Handball World Cup Championship 2013 - Analysis Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Amr

    2014-01-01

    The world cup of men’s handball team championships was analysed using data from all matches in order to determine tactical differences at the elite level. The first aim of this study was to conduct a technical analysis of current handball and to determine factors related to success in this sport discipline. The second aim was to compare the data of first eight teams with other next teams. An analysis of the performance of the participating teams’ video tapes and CD’s, in the collection of mat...

  3. Kajaani Cup : Juniorijalkapalloturnauksen järjestämisohje

    OpenAIRE

    Kulju, Matti; Eskelinen, Tero; Lampinen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tuottaa järjestämisohje Kajaani Cup juniorijalkapalloturnauksen järjestämiseen. Tuotteistetun opinnäytetyön tilaaja oli kajaanilainen jalkapalloseura nimeltä Kajaanin Palloilijat. Toimeksiantajan kannalta tärkeintä oli selvittää asiat, joita juniorijalkapalloturnauksen järjestäminen Kajaanissa vaatii. Järjestämisohje sisältää kaikki turnauksen kannalta oleelliset seikat. Opinnäytetyön kautta saatiin selkeän kuvan siitä, mitkä kaikki asiat ovat juniorijalkapallotu...

  4. Sliding wear of cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemented carbides are known to be very hard and wear resistant and are therefor often used in applications involving surface damage and wear. The wear rate of cemented carbides is often measured in abrasion. In such tests it has been shown that the wear rate is inversely dependent on the material hardness. The sliding wear is even more of a surface phenomenon than a abrasion, making it difficult to predict friction and wear from bulk properties. This paper concentrates on the sliding wear of cemented carbides and elucidates some wear mechanisms. It is especially shown that a fragmenting wear mechanism of WC is very important for the description of wear of cemented carbides. (author)

  5. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted for...... the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability in...

  6. Calcium Aluminate Cement Hydration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusinović, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium aluminate cement (AC is a very versatile special cement used for specific applications. As the hydration of AC is highly temperature dependent, yielding structurally different hydration products that continuously alter material properties, a good knowledge of thermal properties at early stages of hydration is essential. The kinetics of AC hydration is a complex process and the use of single mechanisms models cannot describe the rate of hydration during the whole stage.This paper examines the influence of temperature (ϑ=5–20 °C and water-to-cement mass ratio (mH /mAC = 0.4; 0.5 and 1.0 on hydration of commercial iron-rich AC ISTRA 40 (producer: Istra Cement, Pula, Croatia, which is a part of CALUCEM group, Figs 1–3. The flow rate of heat generation of cement pastes as a result of the hydration reactions was measured with differential microcalorimeter. Chemically bonded water in the hydrated cement samples was determined by thermo-gravimetry.Far less heat is liberated when cement and water come in contact for the first time, Fig. 1, than in the case for portland cement (PC. Higher water-to-cement ratio increases the heat evolved at later ages (Fig. 3 due to higher quantity of water available for hydration. A significant effect of the water-to-cement ratio on the hydration rate and hydration degree showed the importance of water as being the limiting reactant that slows down the reaction early. A simplified stoichiometric model of early age AC hydration (eq. (8 based on reaction schemes of principal minerals, nominally CA, C12A7 and C4AF (Table 1, was employed. Hydration kinetics after the induction period (ϑ < 20 °C had been successfully described (Fig. 4 and Table 2 by a proposed model (eq. (23 which simultaneously comprised three main mechanisms: nucleation and growth, interaction at phase boundary, and mass transfer. In the proposed kinetic model the nucleation and growth is proportional to the amount of reacted minerals (eq

  7. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Eštoková; Lenka Palaščáková

    2013-01-01

    The radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radiological parameters (radium equivalent activity, gamma and alpha indices, the absorbed gamma dose rate and external and internal hazard indices) of cements and cement composites commonly used in the Slovak Republic have been studied in this paper. The cement samples of 8 types of cements from Slovak cement plants and five types of composites made from cement type CEM I were analyzed in the experiment. The radionuclide activities in t...

  8. Assessment of the compatibility of wood and plastic with cement for their recycling in cement composites

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, André De; Caldeira, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The compatibility between maritime pine wood and cement, and between plastic (LDPE) and cement, was assessed for the recycling of wood and plastic in cement composites. Temperature vs. time profiles of cement setting were registered and compatibility indices were calculated. Results indicate that recycling of plastics in plastic-cement composites does not pose any questions regarding chemical compatibility. However, maritime pine hinders cement setting in some extent. So, in or...

  9. Clinical research evidence of cupping therapy in China: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though cupping therapy has been used in China for thousands of years, there has been no systematic summary of clinical research on it. This review is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cupping therapy using evidence-based approach based on all available clinical studies. Methods We included all clinical studies on cupping therapy for all kinds of diseases. We searched six electronic databases, all searches ended in December 2008. We extracted data on the type of cupping and type of diseases treated. Results 550 clinical studies were identified published between 1959 and 2008, including 73 randomized controlled trials (RCTs, 22 clinical controlled trials, 373 case series, and 82 case reports. Number of RCTs obviously increased during past decades, but the quality of the RCTs was generally poor according to the risk of bias of the Cochrane standard for important outcome within each trials. The diseases in which cupping was commonly employed included pain conditions, herpes zoster, cough or asthma, etc. Wet cupping was used in majority studies, followed by retained cupping, moving cupping, medicinal cupping, etc. 38 studies used combination of two types of cupping therapies. No serious adverse effects were reported in the studies. Conclusions According to the above results, quality and quantity of RCTs on cupping therapy appears to be improved during the past 50 years in China, and majority of studies show potential benefit on pain conditions, herpes zoster and other diseases. However, further rigorous designed trials in relevant conditions are warranted to support their use in practice.

  10. Phasenverhalten von Polyethylen in Mischsystemen

    OpenAIRE

    Schnell, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Phasenverhalten von Polyethylen (PE) in nicht-reaktiven und in reaktiven Systemen. Von drei eng verteilten Polyethylenen (Mw = 6,4, 82 bzw. 380 kg/mol) in n-Hexan sowie für das System 2,2-Dimethylbutan / PE 82 wurde die Entmischung in Abhängigkeit von der Zusammensetzung, dem Druck und der Temperatur experimentell bestimmt. Die Modellierung der Trübungskurven erfolgte nach der Theorie von Sanchez und Lacombe. Dieser Ansatz beschreibt die Ergebni...

  11. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  12. Single electron states in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report computer simulations of an excess electron in various structural motifs of polyethylene at room temperature, including lamellar and interfacial regions between amorphous and lamellae, as well as nanometre-sized voids. Electronic properties such as density of states, mobility edges, and mobilities are computed on the different phases using a block Lanczos algorithm. Our results suggest that the electronic density of states for a heterogeneous material can be approximated by summing the single phase density of states weighted by their corresponding volume fractions. Additionally, a quantitative connection between the localized states of the excess electron and the local atomic structure is presented

  13. Reaction of rat subcutaneous tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement: A secondary level biocompatibility test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Karanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This secondary-level animal study was conducted to assess and compare the subcutaneous tissue reaction to implantation of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and white Portland cement. Study Design: Polyethylene tubes filled with either freshly mixed white MTA (Group I or white Portland cement (Group II were implanted subcutaneously into 12 Wistar Albino rats. Each animal also received an empty polyethylene tube as the control (Group III. After 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, the implants, together with surrounding tissues were excised. Two pathologists blinded to the experimental procedure, evaluated sections taken from the biopsy specimens for the severity of the inflammatory response, calcification and the presence and thickness of fibrous capsule surrounding the implant. Statistical analysis was performed using the Cross-tabs procedure, Univariate analysis of the variance two-way and the Pearson product moment correlation to assess inter-rater variability between the two evaluators. Results: At 7 days, there was no significant difference in the severity of inflammation between the control group, white MTA, and white Portland cement groups. In the 14 day, 21 day and 30 day test periods, control group had significantly less inflammation than white MTA and white Portland cement. There was no significant difference in the grading of inflammation between white MTA and white Portland cement. All materials exhibited thick capsule at 7 days and thin capsule by 30 days. Conclusion: Both white MTA and white Portland cement were not completely non-irritating at the end of 30 days as evidenced by the presence of mild inflammation. However, the presence of a thin capsule around the materials, similar to the control group, indicates good tissue tolerance. White MTA and white Portland cement seem to be materials of comparable biocompatibility.

  14. Manufacture and properties of fluoride cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malata-Chirwa, Charles David

    This research work aimed at characterising composition, hydration and physical properties of fluoride cement, by studying samples of the cement obtained from Malawi, and comparing them to ordinary Portland cement. By confirming the suitable characteristics of fluoride cement through this work, the results of the research work provide a good basis for the wider adoption of fluoride cement as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement, especially in developing economies. Numerous accounts have been cited regarding the production and use of fluoride cement. Since there have not been conclusive agreement as to its properties, this study was limited to the theories of successful incorporation of fluoride compounds in the manufacture of fluoride cement. Hence, the properties and characteristics reported in this study relate to the cement currently manufactured in Malawi, and, on a comparative basis only, to that manufactured in other parts of the world. Samples of the fluoride cement used in the study were obtained by synthetic manufacture of the cement using common raw materials for the manufacture of fluoride cement that is limestone, silica sand, and fluorspar. These samples were subjected to several comparative tests used to characterise cements including examination under x-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and tests for setting time and compressive strength. Under similar laboratory conditions, it was possible to prove that fluoride cement hardens more rapidly than ordinary Portland cement. Also observed during the experimental work is that fluoride cement develops higher compressive strengths than ordinary Portland cement. The hardening and setting times are significantly different between the two cements. Also the nature of the hydration products, that is the microstructural development is significantly different in the two cements. The differences brought about between the two cements are because of the presence of fluorine during the clinkering

  15. Low pH Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit {<=} 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio {<=} 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  16. Low pH Cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit ≤ 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio ≤ 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  17. Studies in Cup Drawing Behavior of Polymer Laminated Sheet Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnagmi, M.; Jain, M.; Bruhis, M.; Nielsen, K.

    2011-08-01

    Axisymmetric deep drawing behavior of a polymer laminated sheet metal (PLSM) is investigated using an axisymmetric cup drawing test. PLSMs are of interest as a replacement for painted finishes for automotive applications as they have the potential to achieve good quality long lasting and aesthetically appealing surfaces on stamped parts. However, there is limited understanding of PLSMs in automotive deep drawing situations to produce complex 3-D parts. The tests are carried out using well-controlled, laboratory-based, dual-action, servo-hydraulic forming presses under blank-holder force and punch displacement control conditions. An optical strain mapping system is used to measure the surface strains (and to construct 3D strain maps) from the film side of the deformed samples for a range of forming conditions. Deep drawing characteristics such as punch load versus punch displacement traces, strain distribution along the cup profile, flange wrinkling and fracture characteristics are experimentally assessed for stainless steel-plastic film laminated sheet materials. Also the effect of lamination pressure on wrinkling and delamination is investigated for a decorative pressure sensitive adhesive film affixed to the stainless steel sheet.

  18. A congested football calendar and the wellbeing of players: correlation between match exposure of European footballers before the World Cup 2002 and their injuries and performances during that World Cup

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, J; Walden, M; Hagglund, M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the correlation between exposure of footballers in European clubs to match play in the months before the World Cup 2002 and their injuries and performances during that World Cup.

  19. The effect of cement creep and cement fatigue damage on the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A; Verdonschot, Nico

    2010-11-16

    The cement-bone interface provides fixation for the cement mantle within the bone. The cement-bone interface is affected by fatigue loading in terms of fatigue damage or microcracks and creep, both mostly in the cement. This study investigates how fatigue damage and cement creep separately affect the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface at various load levels in terms of plastic displacement and crack formation. Two FEA models were created, which were based on micro-computed tomography data of two physical cement-bone interface specimens. These models were subjected to tensile fatigue loads with four different magnitudes. Three deformation modes of the cement were considered: 'only creep', 'only damage' or 'creep and damage'. The interfacial plastic deformation, the crack reduction as a result of creep and the interfacial stresses in the bone were monitored. The results demonstrate that, although some models failed early, the majority of plastic displacement was caused by fatigue damage, rather than cement creep. However, cement creep does decrease the crack formation in the cement up to 20%. Finally, while cement creep hardly influences the stress levels in the bone, fatigue damage of the cement considerably increases the stress levels in the bone. We conclude that at low load levels the plastic displacement is mainly caused by creep. At moderate to high load levels, however, the plastic displacement is dominated by fatigue damage and is hardly affected by creep, although creep reduced the number of cracks in moderate to high load region. PMID:20692663

  20. Cementation of Loose Sand Particles based on Bio-cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Hui; QIAN Chunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Loose sand particles could be cemented to sandstone by bio-cement (microbial induced magnesium carbonate). The bio-sandstone was firstly prepared, and then the compressive strength and the porosity of the sandstone cemented by microbial induced magnesium carbonate were tested to characterize the cementation effectiveness. In addition, the formed mineral composition and the microstructure of bio-sandstone were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The experimental results show that the feasibility of binding loose sand particles using microbial induced magnesium carbonate precipitation is available and the acquired compressive strength of bio-sandstone can be excellent at certain ages. Moreover, the compressive strength and the porosity could be improved with the increase of microbial induced magnesium carbonate content. XRD results indicate that the morphology of magnesium carbonate induced by microbe appears as needles and SEM results show that the cementation of loose sand particles to sandstone mainly relies on the microbial induced formation of magnesium carbonate precipitation around individual particles and at particle-particle contacts.

  1. Athletic Departments' Operating Expenses as a Predictor of Their Directors' Cup Standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, Amber

    2014-01-01

    The NACDA Directors' Cup is a competition utilizing an unbiased scoring system that encourages a broad based athletic department as the standard for defining intercollegiate athletic success. Therefore, for NCAA DI athletic administrators the Directors' Cup should be the standard for defining intercollegiate athletic success. The purpose of this…

  2. FIFA World Cup 2018: An Ex Ante Input Output Analysis for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.; Jongenburger, B.

    2011-01-01

    Together with Belgium, the Netherlands was one of the candidates to host the FIFA World Cup 2018. There is an ongoing debate about whether this event would have been beneficiary for the Netherlands. Several studies point out that the expected benefits for previous FIFA World Cups did not materialize

  3. 77 FR 25073 - Special Local Regulation; Hebda Cup Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Hebda Cup Rowing Regatta... on the navigable waters immediately prior to, during, and immediately after the Hebda Cup Rowing... Purpose On April 28, 2012, the Wyandotte Boat Club is holding a rowing race that will require...

  4. 78 FR 24063 - Special Local Regulation; Hebda Cup Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Hebda Cup Rowing Regatta... on the navigable waters immediately prior to, during, and immediately after the Hebda Cup...

  5. 77 FR 54815 - Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Regattas, San Francisco Bay; San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms ACRM America's Cup Race Management DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... Alcatraz Island. This rule will regulate the on-water activities associated with 2012 America's Cup...

  6. 77 FR 14423 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items, and Packaging Thereof; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items, and Packaging Thereof; Notice... Related Items, and Packaging Thereof, DN 2883; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public... containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items, and packaging thereof. The complaint names...

  7. 77 FR 75187 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Fabri-Kal Corporation of Kalamazoo, Michigan (``Fabri-Kal''). 77 FR 20846 (April 6, 2012). The complaint... COMMISSION Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof... containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of...

  8. Automated detection of kinks from blood vessels for optic cup segmentation in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D. W. K.; Liu, J.; Lim, J. H.; Li, H.; Wong, T. Y.

    2009-02-01

    The accurate localization of the optic cup in retinal images is important to assess the cup to disc ratio (CDR) for glaucoma screening and management. Glaucoma is physiologically assessed by the increased excavation of the optic cup within the optic nerve head, also known as the optic disc. The CDR is thus an important indicator of risk and severity of glaucoma. In this paper, we propose a method of determining the cup boundary using non-stereographic retinal images by the automatic detection of a morphological feature within the optic disc known as kinks. Kinks are defined as the bendings of small vessels as they traverse from the disc to the cup, providing physiological validation for the cup boundary. To detect kinks, localized patches are first generated from a preliminary cup boundary obtained via level set. Features obtained using edge detection and wavelet transform are combined using a statistical approach rule to identify likely vessel edges. The kinks are then obtained automatically by analyzing the detected vessel edges for angular changes, and these kinks are subsequently used to obtain the cup boundary. A set of retinal images from the Singapore Eye Research Institute was obtained to assess the performance of the method, with each image being clinically graded for the CDR. From experiments, when kinks were used, the error on the CDR was reduced to less than 0.1 CDR units relative to the clinical CDR, which is within the intra-observer variability of 0.2 CDR units.

  9. Calcium phosphate cement reinforcement by polymer infiltration and in situ curing: a method for 3D scaffold reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alge, Daniel L; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2010-08-01

    This study describes a novel method of calcium phosphate cement reinforcement based on infiltrating a pre-set cement with a reactive polymer and then cross-linking the polymer in situ. This method can be used to reinforce 3D calcium phosphate cement scaffolds, which we demonstrate using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as a model reinforcing polymer. The compressive strength of a 3D scaffold comprised of orthogonally intersecting beams was increased from 0.31 +/- 0.06 MPa to 1.65 +/- 0.13 MPa using PEGDA 600. In addition, the mechanical properties of reinforced cement were characterized using three PEGDA molecular weights (200, 400, and 600 Da) and three cement powder to liquid (P/L) ratios (0.8, 1.0, and 1.43). Higher molecular weight increased reinforcement efficacy, and P/L controlled cement porosity and determined the extent of polymer incorporation. Although increasing polymer incorporation resulted in a transition from brittle, cement-like behavior to ductile, polymer-like behavior, maximizing polymer incorporation was not advantageous. Polymerization shrinkage produced microcracks in the cement, which reduced the mechanical properties. The most effective reinforcement was achieved with P/L of 1.43 and PEGDA 600. In this group, flexural strength increased from 0.44 +/- 0.12 MPa to 7.04 +/- 0.51 MPa, maximum displacement from 0.05 +/- 0.01 mm to 1.44 +/- 0.17 mm, and work of fracture from 0.64 +/- 0.10 J/m(2) to 677.96 +/- 70.88 J/m(2) compared to non-reinforced controls. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of our novel reinforcement method, as well as its potential for fabricating reinforced 3D calcium phosphate cement scaffolds useful for bone tissue engineering. PMID:20186776

  10. A Study To Evaluate Skills Of Ophthalmic Assistants For Assessment Of Cup Disc Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: 1. Whether paramedical ophthalmic assistants can be trained to examine vertical cup disc ratio? 2. Can the PMO As detect abnormal cup disc ratio after training? Objectives: 1. T o train ophthalmic assistants in cup disc ratio examination 2. To evaluate skills of trained ophthalmic assistants in cup disc ratio examination Study design: Cross sectional Setting: OPD of Ophthalmology department, Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak Participants: Five paramedical ophthalmic assistants, one ophthalmologist and 322 patients above 40 years of age. Statistical analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, Kappa values. Results: Data analysis of 322 cases was found by PMO As and ophthalmologist revealed sensitivity between 50-65% and specificity between 84.5-92.62%. A good agreement was found among all the examiners on computation of Kappa Values. It was concluded that ophthalmic assistants can examine vertical cup disc ratio after five days training.

  11. The efficacy of wet-cupping in the treatment of tension and migraine headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Schwebel, David C; Rezaei, Mansour

    2008-01-01

    Wet-cupping is an ancient medical technique still used in several contemporary societies, but little empirical study has been devoted to test its efficacy to treat tension and migraine headache. Using a pre-post research design, 70 patients with chronic tension or migraine headache were treated with wet-cupping. Three primary outcome measures were considered at the baseline and 3 months following treatment: headache severity, days of headache per month, and use of medication. Results suggest that, compared to the baseline, mean headache severity decreased by 66% following wet-cupping treatment. Treated patients also experienced the equivalent of 12.6 fewer days of headache per month. We conclude that wet-cupping leads to clinical relevant benefits for primary care patients with headache. Possible mechanisms of wet-cupping's efficacy, as well as directions for future research are discussed. PMID:18306448

  12. Research on the 2-axis cup-wheel dressing technology of arc-diamond grinding wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, X. L.; Wu, H. Y.; Peng, Y. F.

    2014-08-01

    The precision dressing of arc-diamond wheel is very hard, expensive and time-consuming because of the super-hard diamond particles and complicated geometrical shape. This paper aims to investigate the cup-wheel dressing technology to realize the high-efficiency regeneration of the arc-diamond wheel. A two-axis cup-wheel dressing technique for precision dressing arc-diamond wheel was suggested and tested. The dressing mechanism of 2-axis cup-wheel was studied. The dressing algorithm and error compensation method were further investigated to improve the dressing precision and efficiency. The experimental results show that the 2-axis cup-wheel dressing technique is valid and applicable to realize the precision dressing of arc-diamond wheel. The machined optical surface condition was apparently improved with the cup-wheel dressed diamond wheel and even became much better when the error compensation algorithm was performed on the arc-diamond wheel.

  13. 21 CFR 573.780 - Polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyethylene. 573.780 Section 573.780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.780 Polyethylene. (a)...

  14. Properties of Polyethylene Naphthalate Track Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Akimenko, S N; Orelovich, O L; Maekawa, J; Ioshida, M; Apel, P Yu

    2002-01-01

    Basic characteristics of track membranes made of polyethylene naphthalate (which is a polyester synthesized from dimethyl naphthalate and ethylene glycol) are studied and presented. Polyethylene naphthalate possesses some properties (mechanical strength, thermal and chemical stability), which make this polymer a promising material for the production of track membranes. Water flow rate and air flow rate characteristics, burst strength, wettability, and amount of extractables are determined. Surface structure and pore structure are examined using scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the pores in the membranes are cylindrical in shape. The measured water and air flow rates follow known theoretical relations for the transport in narrow capillaries. The burst strength of polyethylene naphthalate membranes is found to be similar to that of polyethylene terephthalate track membranes. Polyethylene naphthalate track membranes can be categorized as moderately hydrophilic. Being treated with boiling water, pol...

  15. How competitive is linear low density polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crimmin, S.M.

    1982-12-01

    Predicts that as convertors adapt new techniques to exploit properties of linear low density polyethylene, use will shift away from other polyethylenes. The basic manufacturing process for all types of polyethylene centers around 4 variables: monomers, catalysts, heat and pressure. Comparing production costs for high pressure low density polyethylene (HPLDPE) and low pressure low density polyethylene (LPLDPE) begins with the 4 variables. Monomer and catalysts remain fairly constant as a main component of total cost. The large differences occur with heat and pressure. Estimated cost saving of operating a LPLDPE reactor is almost 25% less than that of a HPLDPE reactor. Areas where LPLDPE will begin to dominate include the film market, injection molding, rotomolding, wire and cable jacketing, and blow molding. Concludes that it is only a matter of time before existing HPLDPE plants reach obsolescence. The only negatives in LPLDPE concern the plastic convertors and extrusion equipment producers.

  16. The pvc Operon Regulates the Expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Fimbrial Chaperone/Usher Pathway (Cup) Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Uzma Qaisar; Liming Luo; Haley, Cecily L.; Brady, Sean F.; Carty, Nancy L.; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A.; Hamood, Abdul N.

    2013-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fimbrial structures encoded by the cup gene clusters (cupB and cupC) contribute to its attachment to abiotic surfaces and biofilm formation. The P. aeruginosa pvcABCD gene cluster encodes enzymes that synthesize a novel isonitrile functionalized cumarin, paerucumarin. Paerucumarin has already been characterized chemically, but this is the first report elucidating its role in bacterial biology. We examined the relationship between the pvc operon and the cup gene clus...

  17. The pvc operon regulates the expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fimbrial chaperone/usher pathway (cup genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Qaisar

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fimbrial structures encoded by the cup gene clusters (cupB and cupC contribute to its attachment to abiotic surfaces and biofilm formation. The P. aeruginosa pvcABCD gene cluster encodes enzymes that synthesize a novel isonitrile functionalized cumarin, paerucumarin. Paerucumarin has already been characterized chemically, but this is the first report elucidating its role in bacterial biology. We examined the relationship between the pvc operon and the cup gene clusters in the P. aeruginosa strain MPAO1. Mutations within the pvc genes compromised biofilm development and significantly reduced the expression of cupB1-6 and cupC1-3, as well as different genes of the cupB/cupC two-component regulatory systems, roc1/roc2. Adjacent to pvc is the transcriptional regulator ptxR. A ptxR mutation in MPAO1 significantly reduced the expression of the pvc genes, the cupB/cupC genes, and the roc1/roc2 genes. Overexpression of the intact chromosomally-encoded pvc operon by a ptxR plasmid significantly enhanced cupB2, cupC2, rocS1, and rocS2 expression and biofilm development. Exogenously added paerucumarin significantly increased the expression of cupB2, cupC2, rocS1 and rocS2 in the pvcA mutant. Our results suggest that pvc influences P. aeruginosa biofilm development through the cup gene clusters in a pathway that involves paerucumarin, PtxR, and different cup regulators.

  18. The pvc operon regulates the expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fimbrial chaperone/usher pathway (cup) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisar, Uzma; Luo, Liming; Haley, Cecily L; Brady, Sean F; Carty, Nancy L; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A; Hamood, Abdul N

    2013-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fimbrial structures encoded by the cup gene clusters (cupB and cupC) contribute to its attachment to abiotic surfaces and biofilm formation. The P. aeruginosa pvcABCD gene cluster encodes enzymes that synthesize a novel isonitrile functionalized cumarin, paerucumarin. Paerucumarin has already been characterized chemically, but this is the first report elucidating its role in bacterial biology. We examined the relationship between the pvc operon and the cup gene clusters in the P. aeruginosa strain MPAO1. Mutations within the pvc genes compromised biofilm development and significantly reduced the expression of cupB1-6 and cupC1-3, as well as different genes of the cupB/cupC two-component regulatory systems, roc1/roc2. Adjacent to pvc is the transcriptional regulator ptxR. A ptxR mutation in MPAO1 significantly reduced the expression of the pvc genes, the cupB/cupC genes, and the roc1/roc2 genes. Overexpression of the intact chromosomally-encoded pvc operon by a ptxR plasmid significantly enhanced cupB2, cupC2, rocS1, and rocS2 expression and biofilm development. Exogenously added paerucumarin significantly increased the expression of cupB2, cupC2, rocS1 and rocS2 in the pvcA mutant. Our results suggest that pvc influences P. aeruginosa biofilm development through the cup gene clusters in a pathway that involves paerucumarin, PtxR, and different cup regulators. PMID:23646138

  19. An integral test of FLUKA nuclear models with 160 MeV proton beams in multi-layer Faraday cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo (MC) codes are useful tools to simulate the complex processes of proton beam interactions with matter. In proton therapy, nuclear reactions influence the dose distribution. Therefore, the validation of nuclear models adopted in MC codes is a critical requisite for their use in this field. A simple integral test can be performed using a multi-layer Faraday cup (MLFC). This method allows separation of the nuclear and atomic interaction processes, which are responsible for secondary particle emission and the finite primary proton range, respectively. In this work, the propagation of 160 MeV protons stopping in two MLFCs made of polyethylene and copper has been simulated by the FLUKA MC code. The calculations have been performed with and without secondary electron emission and transport, as well as charge sharing in the dielectric layers. Previous results with other codes neglected those two effects. The impact of this approximation has been investigated and found to be relevant only in the proximity of the Bragg peak. Longitudinal charge distributions computed with FLUKA with both approaches have been compared with experimental data from the literature. Moreover, the contribution of different processes to the measurable signal has been addressed. A thorough analysis of the results has demonstrated that the nuclear and electromagnetic models of FLUKA reproduce the two sets of experimental data reasonably well.

  20. Failure analysis of sandwich-type ceramic-on-ceramic hip joints: A spectroscopic investigation into the role of the polyethylene shell component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Shinya; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Takahashi, Yasuhito; Puppulin, Leonardo; Sudo, Akihiro; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    The mechanisms leading to systematic failure in modular acetabular components with a sandwich insertion (alumina/polyethylene/titanium) have been reconsidered in light of the newly collected Raman spectroscopic results. Raman assessments were conducted on the polyethylene shells, which belonged to a series of six failed sandwich implants with in vivo lifetimes ranging between 2 and 9yr. With only one exception, all implants commonly showed dislodgment of the polyethylene shell during radiographic analyses prior to revision surgery. The polyethylene shell slipped out of the backing titanium shell, while always remaining integer to the ceramic liner. Four implants fractured at the ceramic liners, but their fractures occurred according to distinctly different patterns, which could be rationalized and classified. The insertion of the polyethylene layer, originally conceived to reduce the rigidity of the ceramic-on-ceramic bearing and to prevent impingement between the ceramic liner rim and the femoral neck, played a role in implant failure with its initial (asymmetric) thickness reduction due to creep deformation (eventually followed by cup rotation and backside wear). The results of the present spectroscopic investigation suggest that a simplistic failure classification of the sandwich-type implant as a "ceramic fracture failure" could be misleading and might represent a confounding factor in judging about the reliability of modern ceramic implants. PMID:23466283

  1. Seepage/Cement Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Development Plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a) pertaining to this task defines the work scopes and objectives for development of various submodels for the Physical and Chemical Environment Abstraction Model for TSPA-LA. The Development Plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a) for this specific task establishes that an evaluation be performed of the chemical reactions between seepage that has entered the drift and concrete which might be used in the repository emplacement drifts. The Development Plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a) then states that the potential effects of these water/grout reactions on chemical conditions in the drift be assessed factoring in the influence of carbonation and the relatively small amount of grout. This task is also directed at: (1) developing a conceptualization of important cement/seepage interactions and potential impacts on EBS performance, (2) performing a screening analysis to assess the importance of cement/seepage interactions. As the work progresses and evolves on other studies, specifically the Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment (P andCE) Model (in progress), many of the issues associated with items 1 and 2, above, will be assessed. Such issues include: (1) Describing the mineralogy of the specified cementitious grout and its evolution over time. (2) Describing the composition of the water before contacting the grout. (3) Developing reasonable upper-bound estimates for the composition of water contacting grout, emphasizing pH and concentrations for anions such as sulfate. (4) Evaluating the equilibration of cement-influenced water with backfill and gas-phase CO2. (5) Developing reasonable-bound estimates for flow rate of affected water into the drift. The concept of estimating an ''upper-bound'' range for reaction between the grout and the seepage, particularly in terms of pH is based on equilibrium being established between the seepage and the grout. For example, this analysis can be based on equilibrium being established as

  2. A modified PMMA cement (Sub-cement) for accelerated fatigue testing of cemented implant constructs using cadaveric bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Amos; Miller, Mark A; Mann, Kenneth A

    2008-10-20

    Pre-clinical screening of cemented implant systems could be improved by modeling the longer-term response of the implant/cement/bone construct to cyclic loading. We formulated bone cement with degraded fatigue fracture properties (Sub-cement) such that long-term fatigue could be simulated in short-term cadaver tests. Sub-cement was made by adding a chain-transfer agent to standard polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement. This reduced the molecular weight of the inter-bead matrix without changing reaction-rate or handling characteristics. Static mechanical properties were approximately equivalent to normal cement. Over a physiologically reasonable range of stress-intensity factor, fatigue crack propagation rates for Sub-cement were higher by a factor of 25+/-19. When tested in a simplified 2 1/2-D physical model of a stem-cement-bone system, crack growth from the stem was accelerated by a factor of 100. Sub-cement accelerated both crack initiation and growth rate. Sub-cement is now being evaluated in full stem/cement/femur models. PMID:18774136

  3. Seating load parameters impact on dental ceramic reinforcement conferred by cementation with resin-cements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Addison, Owen

    2010-09-01

    Cementation of all-ceramic restorations with resin-cements has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of fracture in service. The aim was to investigate the influence of loading force and loading duration applied during cementation on the reinforcement conferred by a resin-cement on a leucite reinforced glass-ceramic.

  4. Retention of Root Canal Posts: Effect of Cement Film Thickness, Luting Cement, and Post Pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, Alireza; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Flury, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc...

  5. [Antimicrobial activity of orthodontic band cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavic, J; Arriagada, M; Elgueta, J; García, C

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of enamel decalcification and caries beneath orthodontic bands, has indicated the need for a new enamel binding adhesive orthodontic cement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, in vitro, on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus, acidophillus, of three materials used to cements the orthodontic bands. The cements studied were: Zinc phosphate cement, Glass-ionomer cement, and Policarboxylate cement. Thirty petri plates were seeded with S. mutans, and thirty with L. acidophillus; on each plate three pellet were placed, one of each cement studied. Petri plates were incubated under microaerophilic conditions at 37 C, and checked at 72 hrs. for Streptococcus, mutans, and four days for Lactobacillus acidophillus to evaluate the inhibition zone. The results were tabulated for each material. It was demonstrated that exists important variations in the antimicrobial properties of the materials studied, as in the microbial sensitivity to these cements. PMID:2135908

  6. Lycurgus Cup: inverse problem using photographs for characterization of matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchiesi, Dominique

    2015-08-01

    Photographs of the Lycurgus Cup with a source light inside and outside exhibit purple and green colors, respectively (dichroism). A model relying on the scattering of light to colors in the photographs is proposed and used within an inverse problem algorithm, to deduce radius and composition of metallic particles, and the refractive index of the surrounding glass medium. The inverse problem algorithm is based on a hybridization of particle swarm optimization and of the simulated annealing methods. The results are compared to experimental measurements on a small sample of glass. The linear laws that are deduced from sets of possible parameters producing the same color in the photographs help simplify the understanding of phenomena. The proportion of silver to gold in nanoparticles is found to be in agreement, but a large proportion of copper is also found. The retrieved refractive index of the surrounding glass is close to 2. PMID:26367298

  7. Cup waveguide antenna with integrated polarizer and OMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J. (Inventor); Kory, Carol (Inventor); Lambert, Kevin M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cup waveguide antenna with integrated polarizer and OMT for simultaneously communicating left and right hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves is adjustable to obtain efficient propagation and reception of electromagnetic waves. The antenna includes a circular waveguide having an orthomode transducer utilizing first and second pins longitudinally spaced apart and oriented orthogonally with respect to each other. Six radially-oriented adjustable polarizer screws extend from the exterior to the interior of the waveguide. A septum intermediate the first and second pins is aligned with the first pin. Adjustment of the polarizer screws enables maximized propagation of and/or response to left hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves by the first pin while simultaneously enabling maximized propagation of and/or response to right hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves by the second pin.

  8. Media value of the Basketball World Cup 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia-del-Barrio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of businesses whose activities are based on immaterial assets is growing very rapidly, which demands new ways of evaluating the economic relevance of intangible assets. The aim of this study is precisely to examine the Basketball World Cup 2006 -a particular experience within the industry of spectacle - through applying a novel methodology. The analysis of this sport event is an interesting exercise in itself, since it allows achieving important lessons and conclusions. Yet, the scope of this paper is broader, including another major goal. Effectively, the present study illustrates the potential capacity that ESIrg methodology has for evaluating intangible assets of different types and character (that must not necessary be linked to the sport industry.

  9. The Sphere Anemometer - A Fast Alternative to Cup Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heißelmann, Hendrik; Hölling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

    The main problem of cup anemometry is the different response time for increasing and decreasing wind velocities due to its moment of inertia. This results in an overestimation of wind speed under turbulent wind conditions, the so-called over-speeding. Additionally, routine calibrations are necessary due to the wear of bearings. Motivated by these problems the sphere anemometer, a new simple and robust sensor for wind velocity measurements without moving parts, was developed at the University of Oldenburg. In contrast to other known thrust-based sensors, the sphere anemometer uses the light pointer principle to detect the deflection of a bending tube caused by the drag force acting on a sphere mounted at its top. This technique allows the simultaneous determination of wind speed and direction via a two-dimensional position sensitive detector.

  10. Molecular deformation mechanisms in polyethylene

    CERN Document Server

    Coutry, S

    2001-01-01

    adjacent labelled stems is significantly larger when the DPE guest is a copolymer molecule. Our comparative studies on various types of polyethylene lead to the conclusion that their deformation behaviour under drawing has the same basis, with additional effects imputed to the presence of tie-molecules and branches. Three major points were identified in this thesis. The changes produced by drawing imply (1) the crystallisation of some of the amorphous polymer and the subsequent orientation of the newly formed crystals, (2) the re-orientation of the crystalline ribbons and (3) the beginning of crystallite break-up. However, additional effects were observed for the high molecular weight linear sample and the copolymer sample and were attributed, respectively, to the presence of tie-molecules and of branches. It was concluded that both the tie-molecules and the branches are restricting the molecular movement during deformation, and that the branches may be acting as 'anchors'. This work is concerned with details...

  11. Cement radwaste solidification studies third annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises cement radwaste studies carried out at AEE Winfrith during 1981 on the encapsulation of medium and low active waste in cement. During the year more emphasis has been placed on the work which is directly related to the solidification of SGHWR active sludge. Information has been obtained on the properties of 220 dm3 drums of cemented waste. The use of cement grouts for the encapsulation of solid items has also been investigated during 1981. (U.K.)

  12. Cement Sheath Integrity During Thermal Cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Jesús De

    2015-01-01

    In the construction process of oil and gas wells, primary cementing constitutes a critical procedure of placing a cement sheath in the annulus between casing and formation, or between the casing strings. The main purpose is to provide mechanical stability to the wellbore and to ensure zonal isolation through the entire well service lifetime. Failures to achieve a proper primary cementing, and to ensure long-term sealing capabilities of the cement sheath, may severely limit the abi...

  13. Neutron Scattering Studies of Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Despite more than a century of research, basic questions remain regarding both the internal structure and the role of water in Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete, the world's most widely used manufactured material. Most such questions concern the primary hydration product and strength-building phase of OPC paste, the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. When cement and water are mixed, this phase precipitates as clusters of nanoscale (nearly amorphous) colloidal particles with an associated water-filled inter-particle pore system. Most attempts to characterize the C-S-H gel and the behavior of the associated water involve drying or other processes that, themselves, change the bound water content within and around the gel. Neutron scattering methods do not suffer from this disadvantage. Furthermore, the neutron isotope effect and the neutron's sensitivity to molecular motion have enabled considerable progress to be made in recent years by: (i) determining the C-S-H composition, density and gel structure in small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) H/D contrast variation studies; (ii) elucidating the changing state of water within cement as hydration progresses using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS); and (iii) measuring the production and consumption of nanoscale calcium hydroxide (CH), a by-product of cement hydration that co-exists with the C-S-H gel, using inelastic neutron scattering (INS). These experiments have provided new insights into the physics and chemistry of cement hydration, and have implications for the design of new concretes with pozzolanic cement additions that are intended to address environmental concerns and sustainability issues.

  14. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well

  15. PERFORMANCE OF PULVERIZED SLAG-SUBSTITUTED CEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The Portland cement is equivalently substituted by slag micropowders with various specific areas. The workability,activity and acid-corrosion resistance of the slag-substituted cements are investigated,the activation of gypsum is discussed,also the porosity and pore distribution of mortars of the slag micropowders cement are determined by mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  16. Microscale Investigation of Arsenic Distribution and Species in Cement Product from Cement Kiln Coprocessing Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Yufei Yang; Jingchuan Xue; Qifei Huang

    2013-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the immobilization mechanism and the leaching risk of Arsenic (As) in the cement product from coprocessing wastes using cement kiln, distribution and species of As in cement product were determined by microscale investigation methods, including electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In this study, sodium arsenate crystals (Na3AsO412H2O) were mixed with cement production raw materials and calcined to produce cement clinker. Then, ...

  17. The comparison between sulfate salt weathering of portland cement paste and calcium sulfoaluminate cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zanqun; Deng, Dehua; De Schutter, Geert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the damage performances of sulfate salt weathering of Portland cement paste and calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement paste were compared according to authors' previous studies. It was found that the evaporation zone of speciments partially immersed in 10% Na2SO4 solution were both severely deteriorated for Portland cement and CSA cement. However, the differences were more significant: (1) the CSA cement paste were damaged just after 7 days exposure compared to the 5 months expos...

  18. Fabrication of Faraday Cup Array for the Measurement of 2-Dimensional Proton Beam Profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has an advantage of easy-to-use and possible to visually check, immediately; on the other hand, the measurement range is very limited. Another method is using the CCD camera-scintillator device such as p43 phosphor screen or chromox. A variety of faraday cup detectors have been recently introduced. The faraday cup is one of the powerful and popular tools for the measurement of beam current. By using several faraday cups in array geometry, it is possible to observe current distribution. In this study, we developed an external faraday cup array for the measure the beam current and profile at a KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) beam utilization facility. To measure the beam profile, before fabrication of faraday cup array, we use gafchromic film. By making the faraday cup array we were able to reduce the consumption of Gafchromic film and a more accurate diagnosis of the proton beam is possible. The use of faraday cup array, experiment using the proton beam is more reliable and confident

  19. A Facile Approach to Evaluate Thermal Insulation Performance of Paper Cups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper cups are ubiquitous in daily life for serving water, soup, coffee, tea, and milk due to their convenience, biodegradability, recyclability, and sustainability. The thermal insulation performance of paper cups is of significance because they are used to supply hot food or drinks. Using an effective thermal conductivity to accurately evaluate the thermal insulation performance of paper cups is complex due to the inclusion of complicated components and a multilayer structure. Moreover, an effective thermal conductivity is unsuitable for evaluating thermal insulation performance of paper cups in the case of fluctuating temperature. In this work, we propose a facile approach to precisely analyze the thermal insulation performance of paper cups in a particular range of temperature by using an evaluation model based on the MISO (Multiple-Input Single-Output technical theory, which includes a characterization parameter (temperature factor and a measurement apparatus. A series of experiments was conducted according to this evaluation model, and the results show that this evaluation model enables accurate characterization of the thermal insulation performance of paper cups and provides an efficient theoretical basis for selecting paper materials for paper cups.

  20. Fabrication of Faraday Cup Array for the Measurement of 2-Dimensional Proton Beam Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Bom Sok; Kim, Kyeryung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It has an advantage of easy-to-use and possible to visually check, immediately; on the other hand, the measurement range is very limited. Another method is using the CCD camera-scintillator device such as p43 phosphor screen or chromox. A variety of faraday cup detectors have been recently introduced. The faraday cup is one of the powerful and popular tools for the measurement of beam current. By using several faraday cups in array geometry, it is possible to observe current distribution. In this study, we developed an external faraday cup array for the measure the beam current and profile at a KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) beam utilization facility. To measure the beam profile, before fabrication of faraday cup array, we use gafchromic film. By making the faraday cup array we were able to reduce the consumption of Gafchromic film and a more accurate diagnosis of the proton beam is possible. The use of faraday cup array, experiment using the proton beam is more reliable and confident.

  1. Comparison of the results between polyethylene liners articulated with zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chrome femoral heads in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Liu; James P. Waddell

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aseptic loosening of the implants is the main contributor to the long-term failure of hip arthroplasty.One of the alternatives is to choose ceramic head instead of the traditional CoCr head. This study is conducted to determine the clinicalefficacy of a zirconia ceramic head. Methods: Twenty-six cementless total hip arthroplasties in 24 patients were performed using a zirconiahead coupled with polyethylene. All hips were followed for an average of 9 years (range, 6-13 years). A matched group of 26 hips in 26patients using cobalt-chrome heads coupled with polyethylene were also followed for average of 10 years (range, 5-14 years). The twogroups of patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically respectively. Results: The average scores of functional hip according toHarris standard improved from 46 (preoperatively) to 86 (at the final follow-up) in the Zirconia group, and from 50 to 88 in the CrCogroup. The mean liner wear rate of zirconia-polyethylene coupling was 0. 118 mm/year (range, 0. 064-0. 175 mm/year), and the linearwear rate of CrCo-polyethylene was 0.113 mm/year (range, 0.056-0.190 mm/year). There were 10 hips (27%) revised due to looseningor extensive osteolysis of the.cup in the Zirconia group, and only 4 hips (11.5%) in CrCo group. Conclusion: Results of the studysuggest that a zirconia ceramic femoral head has little advantage over a cobalt-chrome head in decreasing polyethylene wear in vivo. Ourstudy demonstrates that although changes in designs and materials may offer theoretical advantages over current components, their effectsremain questionable in vivo.

  2. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed. PMID:26838420

  3. ACCUWIND - Accurate wind speed measurements in wind energy - Summary report[Cup and sonic anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T.; Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Cuerva, A.; Mouzakis, F.; Busche, P.; Eecen, P.; Sanz-Andres, A.; Franchini, S.; Markkilde Petersen, S.

    2006-07-15

    The cup anemometer is at present the standard instrument used for mean wind speed measurement in wind energy. It is being applied in high numbers around the world for wind energy assessments. It is also applied exclusively for accredited power performance measurements for certification and verification purposes, and for purposes of optimisation in research and development. The revised IEC standard on power performance measurements has now included requirements for classification of cup anemometers. The basis for setting up such requirements of cup anemometers is two EU projects SITEPARIDEN and CLASSCUP from which the proposed classification method for cup anemometers was developed for the IEC standard. While cup anemometers at present are the standard anemometer being used for average wind speed measurements, sonic anemometers have been developed significantly over the last years, and prices have come down. The application of sonic anemometers may increase in wind energy if they prove to have comparable or better operational characteristics compared to cup anemometers, and if similar requirements to sonic anemometers are established as for cup anemometers. Sonic anemometers have historically been used by meteorologists for turbulence measurements, but have also found a role on wind turbine nacelles for wind speed and yaw control purposes. The report on cup and sonic anemometry deals with establishment of robustness in assessment and classification by focus on methods and procedures for analysis of characteristics of cup and sonic anemometers. The methods and procedures provide a platform, hopefully for use in meeting the requirements of the IEC standard on power performance measurements, as well as for development of improved instruments. (au)

  4. Temperature Dependent Neutron Scattering Sections for Polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Roger E.; Liu, C. -Y.

    2003-01-01

    This note presents neutron scattering cross sections for polyethylene at 296 K, 77 K and 4 K derived from a new scattering kernel for neutron scattering off of hydrogen in polyethylene. The kernel was developed in ENDF-6 format as a set of S(alpha,beta) tables using the LEAPR module of the NJOY94 code package. The polyethylene density of states (from 0 to sub eV) adopted to derive the new kernel is presented. We compare our calculated room temperature total scattering cross sections and doubl...

  5. RoboCupRescue - Robot League Team RescueRobots Freiburg (Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Alexander; Dornhege, Christian; Kümmerle, Rainer; Ruhnke, Michael; Steder, Bastian; Nebel, Bernhard; Doherty, Patrick; Wzorek, Mariusz; Rudol, Piotr; Conte, Gianpaolo; Duranti, Simone; Lundström, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the approach of the RescueRobots Freiburg team. RescueRobots Freiburg is a team of students from the university of Freiburg, that originates from the former CS Freiburg team (RoboCupSoccer) and the ResQ Freiburg team (RoboCupRescue Simulation). Due to the high versatility of the RoboCupRescue competition we tackle the three arenas by a a twofold approach: On the one hand we want to introduce robust vehicles that can safely be teleoperated through rubble and building debri...

  6. Design and Application on Auto-vending Machine for Cupped Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Jiang; Yonghong Sun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design an auto-vending machine for cupped beverage, specifically studying its shape design and color design. The article elaborates that the shape design of this auto-vending machine for cupped beverage should follow the art rule of variation and unity and meanwhile the whole shape still should be simple and direct; the color design of the auto-vending machine for cupped beverage not only should satisfy the request of man-machine coordination and environment an...

  7. Crystallization studies of polyethylene -poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, P. R.; Hovey, G. E.; Murthy, N. S.; Breitenkamp, K.; Kade, M.; Emerick, T.

    2006-03-01

    Structure and crystallization behavior of three copolymers obtained by grafting poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains to polyethylene (PE) main chain was investigated by variable temperature x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The results show that PEG side chains and PE main chains crystallize into separate domains. This is especially true when grafted chains are long (50 and 100 repeat units), in which the PEG domains are same as in PEG homopolymer both in structure and in melting behavior. In the copolymer with shorter chains (25 repeat units), the PEG crystals are not distinct and melting is broad. The PEG domains can be dissolved in water or ethanol without altering the mechanical integrity of the film. PE crystallites in both samples are similar to that in PE homopolymer. For instance, the thermal expansion of the basal cell plane (a- and b-axes) of the PE domains agrees well with that of PE homopolymer over the entire temperature range from ambient to melt. However, the chain-axis dimension PE-lattice in the copolymer is shorter by ˜ 0.05 å and the basal dimensions are larger by ˜ 0.05 å. The changes in these dimensions due to the changes in the length of the grafted PEG chains were investigated.

  8. Thoughts on the Current Cement Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Zhihe

    2003-01-01

    According to the analysis of cement capacity andits relations with macro economy running index, the mainreasons for the present rapid development of cement capacityare the rapid development of economy and the shot up ofwhole society fixed asset investment. According to the presentspeed of economy development, cement still enjoys a po-tential increase, So here has not been an overall excessivepopularity of cement industry. The best way to prevent lowlevel repeated construction is to promote the development ofnew dry- process cement as well as try to get rid of blindness.

  9. Special recipe for cement solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABB Atom's MOSS is a compact, mobile system for immobilizing radwaste in cement. Various ''recipes'' have been developed to meet stringent end product requirements. A version of MOSS, described here, was delivered to Borssele last year and has completed two solidification campaigns to date. (author)

  10. Effect of temporary cements on the shear bond strength of luting cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fiori-Júnior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by shear bond strength (SBS testing, the influence of different types of temporary cements on the final cementation using conventional and self-etching resin-based luting cements. Material and Methods: Forty human teeth divided in two halves were assigned to 8 groups (n=10: I and V (no temporary cementation; II and VI: Ca(OH2-based cement; III and VII: zinc oxide (ZO-based cement; IV and VIII: ZO-eugenol (ZOE-based cement. Final cementation was done with RelyX ARC cement (groups I to IV and RelyX Unicem cement (groups V to VIII. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. RESULTS: Means were (MPa: I - 3.80 (±1.481; II - 5.24 (±2.297; III - 6.98 (±1.885; IV - 6.54 (±1.459; V - 5.22 (±2.465; VI - 4.48 (±1.705; VII - 6.29 (±2.280; VIII - 2.47 (±2.076. Comparison of the groups that had the same temporary cementation (Groups II and VI; III and VII; IV and VIII showed statistically significant difference (p0.05 for the different luting cements (RelyX TM ARC and RelyX TM Unicem. The groups that had no temporary cementation (Groups I and V did not differ significantly from each other either (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: When temporary cementation was done with ZO- or ZOE-based cements and final cementation was done with RelyX ARC, there was an increase in the SBS compared to the control. In the groups cemented with RelyX Unicem, however, the use of a ZOE-based temporary cement affected negatively the SBS of the luting agent used for final cementation.

  11. CERAMIC ON CROSSLINKED POLYETHYLENE IN TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT: ANY BETTER THAN METAL ON CROSSLINKED POLYETHYLENE?

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, John J.; Liu, Steve S

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated the use of ceramic femoral heads on crosslinked polyethylene bearing couples versus metal on crosslinked polyethylene couples in a consecutive series of hips performed by a single surgeon over a one year interval. Ceramic femoral heads and more extensively crosslinked polyethylene were used more commonly in the younger aged patients with utilization of ceramic heads in patients average age 50.2 versus 63.9 for metal heads, and utilization of more extensively crosslinked ...

  12. Characterization of cement and bitumen waste forms containing simulated low-level waste incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incinerator ash from the combustion of general trash and ion exchange resins was immobilized in cement and bitumen. Tests were conducted on the resulting waste forms to provide a data base for the acceptability of actual low-level waste forms. The testing was done in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Position on Waste Form. Bitumen had a measured compressive strength of 130 psi and a leachability index of 13 as measured with the ANS 16.1 leach test procedure. Cement demonstrated a compressive strength of 1400 psi and a leachability index of 7. Both waste forms easily exceed the minimum compressive strength of 50 psi and leachability index of 6 specified in the Technical Position. Irradiation to 108 Rad and exposure to 31 thermal cycles ranging from +600) to -300C did not significantly impact these properties. Neither waste form supported bacterial or fungal growth as measured with ASTM G21 and G22 procedures. However, there is some indication of biodegradation due to co-metabolic processes. Concentration of organic complexants in leachates of the ash, cement and bitumen were too low to significantly affect the release of radionuclides from the waste forms. Neither bitumen nor cement containing incinerator ash caused any corrosion or degradation of potential container materials including steel, polyethylene and fiberglass. However, moist ash did cause corrosion of the steel

  13. The Effect Of Felspar On the Results Of Low Level Radioactive Waste Treatment By Cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine an optimum composition of the mixture for waste treatment by cementation in the environmental condition. Mixture of cement and water by weight ratio of water/cement (w/c) = 0.35 was added by waste from various concentration of 5; 7.5; and 12.5 % weight from cement-water mixture. The mixture of water /cement was filled into polyethylene tube cover which has diameter = height = 3.7. Firstly none radioactive waste contained 300 g/l NaNO3 was added. The same work was done again for the edition of NaNO3 waste. After having cured for 28 days the mixture was the tube. Further examination was done by Paul Wreber compressive strength, irradiation at dose rate of 2250.900 rad/hr from 60Co sources, thermal test by Sykron furnace, and leaching rate test of active nuclide by Ortec analyzer, and non active nuclide was analyzed in BTKL Yogyakarta. In leach rate test 90Sr with a final activity of 1.10-4μCi/ml was added. The compressive strength (CS) of solid water-cement = 0.35 was 40/07 N/mm2. Solidification waste cement was 38.05 N/mm2 at pH 6, and was 39,10 N/mm at pH 10, because NaOH supported to inhibit cracking. After felspar mineral has been added CS was 39,95 N/mm2, because the function of additive was to close all pores and to inhibit cracking and bleeding . Thermal tested at 600oC during 1 hour indicated that CS was 24.65 N/mm2 and the beginning of cracking occurred at 400oC, and at 900oC . The CS was 44,95 N/mm2 Irradiation effect on CS of solid waste was not significant . Leaching test indicated that active nitrate waste cured into water at last three months were between 2.12x10-5 until 9.54x10-5 g.cm2 day1. Composition of the optimum solid content 1:65.625 wt % cement 22.968 wt % low level active nitrate waste; and 4,763 wt % felspar additive. Key words : cementation, low level radioactive waste,felspar

  14. Polyethylene encapsulation of mixed wastes: Scale-up feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polyethylene process for the improved encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Improvements in waste loading and waste form performance have been demonstrated through bench-scale development and testing. Maximum waste loadings of up to 70 dry wt% mixed waste nitrate salt were achieved, compared with 13-20 dry wt% using conventional cement processes. Stability under anticipated storage and disposal conditions and compliance with applicable hazardous waste regulations were demonstrated through a series of tab-scale waste form performance tests. Full-scale demonstration of this process using actual or surrogate waste is currently planned. A scale-up feasibility test was successfully conducted, demonstrating the ability to process nitrate salts at production rates (up to 450 kg/hr) and the close agreement between bench- and full-scale process parameters. Cored samples from the resulting pilot-scale (114 liter) waste form were used to verify homogeneity and to provide additional specimens for confirmatory performance testing. (author)

  15. Mesoscale texture of cement hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, Katerina; Krakowiak, Konrad J; Bauchy, Mathieu; Hoover, Christian G; Masoero, Enrico; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Levitz, Pierre; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Del Gado, Emanuela

    2016-02-23

    Strength and other mechanical properties of cement and concrete rely upon the formation of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) during cement hydration. Controlling structure and properties of the C-S-H phase is a challenge, due to the complexity of this hydration product and of the mechanisms that drive its precipitation from the ionic solution upon dissolution of cement grains in water. Departing from traditional models mostly focused on length scales above the micrometer, recent research addressed the molecular structure of C-S-H. However, small-angle neutron scattering, electron-microscopy imaging, and nanoindentation experiments suggest that its mesoscale organization, extending over hundreds of nanometers, may be more important. Here we unveil the C-S-H mesoscale texture, a crucial step to connect the fundamental scales to the macroscale of engineering properties. We use simulations that combine information of the nanoscale building units of C-S-H and their effective interactions, obtained from atomistic simulations and experiments, into a statistical physics framework for aggregating nanoparticles. We compute small-angle scattering intensities, pore size distributions, specific surface area, local densities, indentation modulus, and hardness of the material, providing quantitative understanding of different experimental investigations. Our results provide insight into how the heterogeneities developed during the early stages of hydration persist in the structure of C-S-H and impact the mechanical performance of the hardened cement paste. Unraveling such links in cement hydrates can be groundbreaking and controlling them can be the key to smarter mix designs of cementitious materials. PMID:26858450

  16. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Hjuler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used as the...... sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... capacity (Xr). This shows that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  17. Leaching of tritium from a cement composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching of tritium from cement composites into an aqueous phase has been studied to evaluate the safety of incorporation of the tritiated liquid waste into cement. Leaching tests were performed by the method recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Leaching fraction was measured as functions of waste-cement ratio (Wa/C), temperature of leachant and curing time. The tritium leachability of cement in the long term test follows the order: alumina cement portland cement slag cement. The fraction of tritium leached increases with increasing Wa/C and temperature and decreasing curing period. A deionized water as a leachant gives a slightly higher leachability than synthetic sea water. The amount leached of tritium from a 200 l drum size specimen was estimated on the basis of the above results. (author)

  18. Positrons trapped in polyethylene: Electric field effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensity of the iot2-component of positrons annihilated in polyethylene is found to increase with increasing electric field, while the formation probability of the positron state responsible for this component remains independent of the field. (orig.) 891 HPOE

  19. 21 CFR 177.1620 - Polyethylene, oxidized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... table in § 177.1520(c). Such oxidized polyethylene has a minimum number average molecular weight of 1... weight of total oxygen, and has an acid value of 9 to 19. (b) The finished food-contact article,...

  20. Blending of polyethylene materials for pipe applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Wayne Clifton Augustus

    1989-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Melt blending of polyethylene, in particularly HDPE and LLDPE, have been shown to be a major success, especially in the film markets. In this thesis studies are reported on the stress rupture performance of pipes produced from selected polyethylene materials blended to a chosen MDPE pipe grade. The pipes were tested, notched or unnotched, at a single temperature of 80oC and at internal pressu...

  1. Mechanism of electric charge formation polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric charge formation in irradiated dielectrics is a phenomenon resulting from interaction of radiation with matter. Using pressure-pulse techniques the general mechanism of eletric charge accumulation and space distribution in electron- and gamma-irradiated polyethylene (low and high density) was studied. The relationship between the charge accumulation and structural and radiation-induced defects in polyethylene was established. Results obtained are applied to other organic materials

  2. Polyethylene in knee arthroplasty: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty, Gautam; Vashishtha, Mayank; Leeder, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) has been used extensively in knee arthroplasty since the mid 20th century. Progress in material manufacturing and processing has led to newer polyethylenes over last few decades with different material properties. It has been established that PE wear in knee arthroplasty causes particle induced osteolysis which is the main reason for late failure and requires revision surgery. Although there are various causes of wear, the properties of PE have long been a matter of investig...

  3. The water permeability of blended polyethylene films

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, ACY

    1995-01-01

    Water vapour transmission (WVT) characteristics of blended polyethylene films blown from a 45 mm single-screw extruder were examined. For a given die gap size and blow-up ratio, it was found that WVT basically had an exponential decaying relationship with increasing film thickness. For a given film thickness, molecular orientation on the film in the machine direction could be increased by increasing the size of the die gap. It was found that WVT of blended polyethylene films which involved so...

  4. Ultrasonic methods in diagnostics of polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Ł. Wierzbicki; G. Wróbel

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the work was to find relationship between the ultrasonic wave velocity and the strenght and stess in a polyethylene specimens.Design/methodology/approach: The experiments have been performed in three distinct phases. During the first phase, typical polyethylene was ageing to get different mechanical properties. In the second phase, strength and ultrasonic properties of composite was testing. In the last of phases we compare changes of properties.Findings: The experimenta...

  5. Exact Topological Twistons in Crystalline Polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, E.; Simas, A. M.; D. Bazeia

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the presence of topological twistons in crystalline polyethylene. We describe crystalline polyethylene with a model that couples the torsional and longitudinal degrees of freedom of the polymeric chain by means of a system of two real scalar fields. This model supports topological twistons, which are described by exact and stable topological solutions that appear when the interaction between torsional and longitudinal fields is polynomial, containing up to the sixth power in th...

  6. Amorphous Phase Properties Of Oriented Polyethylene Solids

    OpenAIRE

    Zahran, R. R; Kardos, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Solid-state deformation of polyethylene results in a preferential orientation of both crystalline and amorphous regions. Usually, one major problem in the prediction of the mechanical and thermal expansion properties of anisotropic polyethylene lies in determining values for the amorphous phase properties and, particularly, at a given level of solid-state deformation. This paper outlines simple procedures for determining the two-dimensional amorphous orientation function and values for the...

  7. Forecasting a winner for Malaysian Cup 2013 using soccer simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Muhammad Mat; Fauzee, Mohd Soffian Omar; Latif, Rozita Abdul

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates through soccer simulation the calculation of the probability for each team winning Malaysia Cup 2013. Our methodology used here is we predict the outcomes of individual matches and then we simulate the Malaysia Cup 2013 tournament 5000 times. As match outcomes are always a matter of uncertainty, statistical model, in particular a double Poisson model is used to predict the number of goals scored and conceded for each team. Maximum likelihood estimation is use to measure the attacking strength and defensive weakness for each team. Based on our simulation result, LionXII has a higher probability in becoming the winner, followed by Selangor, ATM, JDT and Kelantan. Meanwhile, T-Team, Negeri Sembilan and Felda United have lower probabilities to win Malaysia Cup 2013. In summary, we find that the probability for each team becominga winner is small, indicating that the level of competitive balance in Malaysia Cup 2013 is quite high.

  8. HIE-ISOLDE Faraday cups tested with ion beams at TRIUMF

    CERN Document Server

    Cantero, E D

    2014-01-01

    The future HIE-ISOLDE Faraday cups for both the intercryomodule regions and the HEBTs have been tested using 34S+7, 4He+, 23Na+6 and 20Ne+5 beams from the ISAC-II accelerator at TRIUMF. Their performance has been characterized together with the Faraday cups from REX-ISOLDE and those from ISAC-II. The measurements were done at E/A = 1.5, 2.85 and 5.5 MeV/u, with beam intensities in the range of 100 pA to 4 nA. The performance of these Faraday cups has been compared under the same beam conditions for different bias voltages up to -350 V. Within the experimental uncertainties, most of them coming from fluctuations in beam intensity, all devices showed similar results. Biasing the Faraday cup repeller ring to voltages of at least -60 V, the escape of secondary electrons was suppressed.

  9. Application of rare- earth and nano elements on diamond cup wheels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Diamond cup wheel is used widely as an important tool for machining ceramic tile. In this paper,nano rare - earth oxide and nano carbide were added in the segments of seven kinds of diamond cup wheels.The performance of diamond cup wheels were tested on a special designed test machine by grinding two kinds of ceramic tiles. The surface morphology of the segments was examined by Scanning Election Microscopy (SEM) and the micro-hardness of segments was measured. The results showed that nano rare-earth oxide and nano carbide can fine segment micro structure, make grain boundary clear and increase grasping of diamond grits. They can increase also the wear resistance of diamond cup wheels as well as the grinding ratio.

  10. Announcement on the 10th FOSECO Cup for Excellent Foundry Papers (2007)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The final evaluation of the 10th FOSECO Cup for Excellent Foundry Papers (2007) organized by Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMES) was carried out on July 21-24, 2008 in Guiyang, Guizhou province.

  11. Announcement on the 9th FOSECO Cup for Excellent Foundry Papers (2006)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The final evaluation of the 9th FOSECO Cup for Excellent Foundry Papers (2006) organized by Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMES) was carried out on April 14-17, 2007 in Guilin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  12. Clinical Observation of 82 Cases of Enuresis Treated by Ginger-partitioned Moxibustion plus Cupping Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei-ping; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect in the treatment of enuresis by ginger-partitioned moxibustion plus cupping therapy. Methods: Ginger-par -titioned moxibustion was applied on Guanyuan (CV 4)and bilateral Zusanli (ST 36) and cupping therapy was applied on Shenque (CV 8) in the treatment of 82 cases of enuresis, in comparison with 76 cases treated by Chinese herbal medicine. Results: The effective rate was 84.1% in the treatment by ginger-partitioned moxibustion plus cupping therapy and was 64.5% in the treatment by Chinese herbal medicine. Conclusion: Ginger-partitio -ned moxibustion plus cupping therapy was better than Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of enuresis (P <0.05).

  13. Design and Application on Auto-vending Machine for Cupped Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design an auto-vending machine for cupped beverage, specifically studying its shape design and color design. The article elaborates that the shape design of this auto-vending machine for cupped beverage should follow the art rule of variation and unity and meanwhile the whole shape still should be simple and direct; the color design of the auto-vending machine for cupped beverage not only should satisfy the request of man-machine coordination and environment and function, but also should value the choice of tone, match the new age request of appreciation beauty and notice novelty. And then the working principle and working process of the auto-vending machine for cupped beverage is introduced, based on which the conclusion has been reached.

  14. An overview of systematic reviews of clinical evidence for cupping therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Cao

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Cupping therapy may be beneficial for pain-related conditions, acne, and facial paralysis. However, a firm conclusion could not be drawn due to the insufficient number of included reviews and the low quality of the original studies.

  15. Coffee to Go: Woman "Thinks" First Cup in 15 Years | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: NIBIB Robotics Coffee to Go: Woman "Thinks" First Cup in ... own—using her thoughts alone to direct a robotic arm to her lips. The feat was made ...

  16. Preparation and characterization of injectable calcium phosphate cement paste modified by polyethylene glycol-6000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Fangping, E-mail: chenfangping06@yahoo.com.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu Changsheng, E-mail: liucs@ecust.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wei Jie [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chen Xiao; Zhao Zhen; Gao Yanli [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2011-02-15

    An ICPC with high structure recoverability and paste stability was successfully developed directly incorporating PEG-6000 into the liquid phase of CPC. The rheological behavior of ICPC was investigated with rheometric scientific ARES902-30004 controlled strain rheometer. Novel approaches of flow rate, shear thinning index (SI), shear stress slowdown ({Delta}{tau}) and thixotropy loop area have been applied to assess the injectability and structure recoverability of the ICPC paste. The addition of PEG-6000 to ICPC resulted in a thixotrophic structure with shortened setting time, slightly increased viscosity, larger thixotropic hysteresis loop area and lower {Delta}{tau}, with the improvement largely dependent on the PEG-6000 content. With acceptable injectability and shortened setting time, ICPC (1%) showed the lowest {Delta}{tau} and the highest SI, endowing the paste good structure recoverability and paste stability. The ICPC (1%) was bioactive and facilitated cell attachment and proliferation. The optimized ICPC (1%) paste with a relatively good structure stability and paste stability may serve as a good candidate for tooth root-canal fillings and percutaneous vertebroplasty in microinvasive surgery.

  17. Preparation and characterization of injectable calcium phosphate cement paste modified by polyethylene glycol-6000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ICPC with high structure recoverability and paste stability was successfully developed directly incorporating PEG-6000 into the liquid phase of CPC. The rheological behavior of ICPC was investigated with rheometric scientific ARES902-30004 controlled strain rheometer. Novel approaches of flow rate, shear thinning index (SI), shear stress slowdown (Δτ) and thixotropy loop area have been applied to assess the injectability and structure recoverability of the ICPC paste. The addition of PEG-6000 to ICPC resulted in a thixotrophic structure with shortened setting time, slightly increased viscosity, larger thixotropic hysteresis loop area and lower Δτ, with the improvement largely dependent on the PEG-6000 content. With acceptable injectability and shortened setting time, ICPC (1%) showed the lowest Δτ and the highest SI, endowing the paste good structure recoverability and paste stability. The ICPC (1%) was bioactive and facilitated cell attachment and proliferation. The optimized ICPC (1%) paste with a relatively good structure stability and paste stability may serve as a good candidate for tooth root-canal fillings and percutaneous vertebroplasty in microinvasive surgery.

  18. The cement recycling of the earthquake disaster debris by Hachinohe Cement Co., Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tremendous quantity of earthquake disaster debris and tsunami sediment was resulted by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Hachinohe Cement Co., Ltd., a Sumitomo Osaka Cement subsidiary, was the first cement industry company to receive and process such waste materials outside of their usual prefecture area, while the company is performing their treatment and recycling services locally in Hachinohe City and Aomori Prefecture. This report provides an explanation about the recycling mechanism of waste materials and by-products in cement manufacturing process, and introduces an example of actual achievements for the disaster debris treatment by utilizing the cement recycling technologies at the Hachinohe Cement Plant. (author)

  19. Effects of wet-cupping on blood pressure in hypertensive patients:a randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nouran A Aleyeidi; Khaled S Aseri; Shadia M Matbouli; Albaraa A Sulaiamani; Sumayyah A Kobeisy

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although cupping remains a popular treatment modality worldwide, its efficacy for most diseases, including hypertension, has not been scientifical y evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the efficacy of wet-cupping for high blood pressure, and the incidence of the procedure’s side effects in the intervention group. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: This is a randomized control ed trial conducted in the General Practice Department at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between May 2013 and February 2014. There were two groups (40 participants each):intervention group undergoing wet-cupping (hijama) in addition to conventional hypertension treatment, and a control group undergoing only conventional hypertension treatment. Three wet-cupping sessions were performed every other day. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured using a validated automatic sphygmomanometer. The fol ow-up period was 8 weeks. RESULTS: Wet-cupping provided an immediate reduction of systolic blood pressure. After 4 weeks of fol ow-up, the mean systolic blood pressure in the intervention group was 8.4 mmHg less than in the control group (P = 0.046). After 8 weeks, there were no significant differences in blood pressures between the intervention and control groups. In this study, wet-cupping did not result in any serious side effects. CONCLUSION: Wet-cupping therapy is effective for reducing systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients for up to 4 weeks, without serious side effects. Wet-cupping should be considered as a complementary hypertension treatment, and further studies are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01987583.

  20. Faraday Cup - it is used to measure beam intensities at low energy beams.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    A Faraday Cup is used to measure beam intensities at low energy beams. An electrically isolated metallic electrode intercepts the beam and captures all its charges. These charges are integrated using an current sensitive amplifier. When the beam impinges onto the electrode surface low energy electrons are liberated. In order to prevent these electrons from escaping the cup and thus falsifying the measurement, a repeller electrode with negative potential pushes the electrons back onto the electrode.

  1. The " Bitter-cup " from Suriname: an ethnopharmacological, histological and chemical study.

    OpenAIRE

    Odonne, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    In Suriname, Saramaka (descendants from fugitives slaves of the XVIIth century) still have a widely used traditional pharmacopoeia. The Bitter-cup is a good example because of the place it keeps on the Paramaribo's markets stands. We conducted an ethnopharmacological study in order to detail its uses: rum or water left to macerate in the cup overnight, the content is drunk straight in the morning either as a tonic, stomachic, febrifuge or antimalarial remedy. In order to close the controversy...

  2. Bio-inspired Miniature Suction Cups Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Bing-shan; Wang Li-wen; Fu Zhuang; Zhao Yan-zheng

    2009-01-01

    Wall climbing robots using negative pressure suction always employ air pumps which have great noise and large volume. Two prototypes of bio-inspired miniature suction cup actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA) are designed based on studying characteristics of biologic suction apparatuses, and the suction cups in this paper can be used as adhesion mechanisms for miniature wall climbing robots without air pumps. The first prototype with a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) extension TiNi spring ...

  3. 教你正确用(二十八)%A Cup of English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Holidays--美国的节假日(上) My favorite days are, of course,holidays.On those days ,I don't have to go to workand can put my up feet to enjoy a cup of tea and catch up with the writing of "A Cup ofEnglish."There are many holidays in the U.s.,on some of which you can take a day off but on others you can't.

  4. The cup anemometer, a fundamental meteorological instrument for the wind energy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pindado Carrion, Santiago; Cubas Cano, Javier; Sorribes Palmer, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The cup anemometer has been used widely by the wind energy industry since its early beginning, covering two fundamental aspects: wind mill performance control and wind energy production forecast. Furthermore, despite modern technological advances such as LIDAR and SODAR, the cup anemometer remains clearly the most used instrument by the wind energy industry. Together with the major advantages of this instrument (precision, robustness), some issues must be taken into account by scientists a...

  5. Football and sex: The 2006 FIFA World Cup and sex trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Milivojević Sanja; Pickering Sharon

    2008-01-01

    The staging of the 2006 Federation of International Football Association (FIFA) World Cup brought together a wide ranging coalition of interests in fuelling a moral panic around sex trafficking in Europe. This coalition of diverse groups aimed to protect innocent third world women and prevent organized crime networks from luring them into the sex industry. In this article we will argue that as a result of increased attention prior to the World Cup 'protective measures' imposed by nation-state...

  6. FIFA Women's World Cup 2011: Pre-Competition Medical Assessment of female referees and assistant referees

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Dagmar I; Bizzini, Mario; Feddermann, Nina; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Precompetition screening was implemented for male referees during the 2010 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Word Cup. In contrast, female football referees have been neglected in this respect although they experience similar physical work loads compared to male referees. METHODS: The standardised football-specific Pre-Competition Medical Assessment (PCMA) was performed in 51 referees and assistant referees selected for the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. RES...

  7. Values and marketing communication with fragmented markets : Case study in the UEFA Euro Cup 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Koljonen, Saana

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental idea behind the research problem of the thesis is marketing communication with fragmented markets. The purpose of the study was to discover if consumer values could enrich customer segmentation and marketing communication. This study examines three research questions: what kind of values football fans have, what kind of values UEFA communicated in the Euro Cup 2012 and to what extend these values met. The study was conducted in UEFA Euro Cup 2012 in Gdansk, Poland 13....

  8. NETWORK ANALYSIS OF PORTUGUESE TEAM ON FIFA WORLD CUP 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sousa Mendes,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Match analysis has been using in football case to identify properties and patterns of teams (Sarmento et al., 2014. From the regular notational analysis until the most recent computational tactical metrics, a lot of different outcomes can be possible to extract from a single match (Clemente, Couceiro, Martins, & Mendes, 2015. In the specific case of football, the cooperation among team-members is one of the main factors that contribute for a better performance (Grund, 2012. Thus, to analyse such cooperation the Social Network Analysis have been used to identify how team-members are connected and if there are cooperation tendencies inside the team (Clemente et al., 2015. The prominent players have been also analysed in order to identify the central players in the team (Clemente, Couceiro, Martins, & Mendes, 2014.Objectives: Therefore, using the social network analysis approach the aim of this study was to analyse the centrality levels of Portuguese positional roles during the FIFA World Cup 2014 and to identify the prominent tactical positions that determined the moments with ball.

  9. Study on simulation and experiment of array micro Faraday cup ion detector for FAIMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An array micro Faraday cup ion detector for FAIMS (High-field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry) was introduced, with which the size of the FAIMS system was reduced. With simple structure, good stability, low noise, large measurements range, this detector can work under the condition of atmospheric pressure. The array micro Faraday cup was composed of gate electrode, sensitive electrode and shielding electrode. The sensitive electrode was made of tens of crossing silicon columns with diameter of 200 μm. It was fabricated through typical MEMS technology, which was compatible completely with plane FAIMS. It was shown from FLUENT simulation result that the resistance to gas motion was low and the flow field distribution was helpful for full absorption of the ion in this array design. Through electricity simulation, the method to reduce interference on the detection signal of the micro Faraday cup was given out. Connecting with KEITHLEY 237 ampere meter, the noise level of the array micro Faraday cup was lower than 0.5 pA. The output signal of the acetone sample measured by experiment was about 210 pA. Through contrast experiment, the design parameter of the micro Faraday cup was obtained primarily. This array micro Faraday cup can meet the requirements of the FAIMS system.

  10. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether. 721.1729 Section 721.1729 Protection... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene......

  11. Formation of positronium in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of positronium (Ps) in polyethylene (PE) depends strongly on structure, temperature, electric field and irradiation with high energy electrons or positrons. The purpose of this work is to study the Ps formation under the influence of all these parameters in well defined PE samples. The electric field influences the stopping of the positrons in solids too. This gives rise to a field dependence of the linear absorption coefficient, which was measured up to 2 MV/cm. The absolute Ps-yield as a function of the electric field up to 1.75 MV/cm was determined here for the first time. This determination was made with two independent measurements: lifetime of positrons and angular correlation of annihilation radiation. The absolute Ps-yield decreases at first with the electric field, passes through a minimum, then suddenly increases and approaches 1 for a field higher than 1 MV/cm, i.e. all positrons form Ps at high field. Between 0 and 0.3 MV/cm the Ps formation is controlled by two mechanisms described by the Ore gap model and the spur model. Above 0.3 MV/cm the Ps formation can only be explained by the Ore gap model; the positrons are heated up in the electric field, their energy distribution reaches the Ore gap, where they can form Ps. The analogy with hot electrons is obvious. It is well known that the electron-phonon interaction is stronger in quartz than in PE. We have measured the field-dependence of Ps formation in fused quartz as high as 1.5 MV/cm. Only a decrease of the Ps-yield was observed. Like electrons the positrons remain thermalized in quartz for field as high as 1.5 MV/cm. (author) 27 figs., 7 tabs., 86 refs

  12. Carbonation on ternary cement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Ramírez, Sagrario; Fernández Carrasco, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    The main hydration reaction product in the ternary system fly ash, calcium sulphate and calcium aluminate cement (40/20/40) at 20°C is a hydrated calcium sulfoaluminate compound, an AFt phase slightly different from “traditional ettringite”. The carbonation of ettringite develops gypsum but in this case rapidcreekite is formed. For the first time it has been observed that carbonation of the mentioned calcium sulfoaluminate compound (AFt), an hydrated calcium sulphate carbonated phase (Ca2(SO4...

  13. WHITE CEMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Y.C.P RAMANA BABU; B.SAI DOONDI; N. M .V .VAMSI KRISHNA; K.Prasanthi

    2013-01-01

    India is one among the fast developing countries in the world in the areas of Infrastructure. Now a day, Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the temporary atmospheric pollutants in the environment chiefly emitted from the fuel burning vehicles and street lights which lead to global warming and pose a major threat tothe survival and sustainable development. This paper deals with the principal purpose of use of white cement in pavement design which will take care of the Green hous...

  14. ROTARY SCREW SYSTEMS IN CEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Taratuta V. D.; Belokur K. A.; Serga G. V.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents results of research of rotary-screw systems in relation to the creation of rotary kilns for the annealing of-cuttings in the preparation of cement clinker. Using the proposed design, in comparison with known designs of similar purpose, it significantly improves performance, reduces size and power consumption through the use of rotary screw systems in the form of screw rotors and drums made hollow with sidewalls assembled from separate strips or plates of different geometr...

  15. WHITE CEMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C.P RAMANA BABU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available India is one among the fast developing countries in the world in the areas of Infrastructure. Now a day, Carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 are the temporary atmospheric pollutants in the environment chiefly emitted from the fuel burning vehicles and street lights which lead to global warming and pose a major threat tothe survival and sustainable development. This paper deals with the principal purpose of use of white cement in pavement design which will take care of the Green house gases (i.e., CO and CO2 and also saves lot of money in the long run process. A small amount of these gases in environment can cause major problems over time. Use of white cement in composite pavement design where there is heavy traffic loads are acting as well as number of vehicles are more such as junctions, bus stops, check posts etc., can perform better and acts asenvironment friendly. Its light colour reflects more than bituminous pavement so that it can be easily identified and avoid accidents to some extent. White cement helps to lower the average bus stop, junction temperature providing comfort to the people because it has high solar reflectance there by reducing “urban heat island” effect. In addition to this it has some more advantages which increase the sustainability, durability and workability of the pavements.

  16. Cement replacement materials. Properties, durability, sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezanianpour, Ali Akbar [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Concrete Technology Center

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this book is to present the latest findings in the properties and application of Supplementary Cementing Materials and blended cements currently used in the world in concrete. Sustainability is an important issue all over the world. Carbon dioxide emission has been a serious problem in the world due to the greenhouse effect. Today many countries agreed to reduce the emission of CO2. Many phases of cement and concrete technology can affect sustainability. Cement and concrete industry is responsible for the production of 7% carbon dioxide of the total world CO2 emission. The use of supplementary cementing materials (SCM), design of concrete mixtures with optimum content of cement and enhancement of concrete durability are the main issues towards sustainability in concrete industry.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of dental cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Radivoje D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the characteristics of different types of luting cements (zinc phosphate, glass-ionomer and resin based composite cement using scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis and microleakage for the quality range of materials. Dental cements were mixed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and formed with posts in dental root canals of extracted teeth. The quality of cement was determined by SEM observation on horizontal sectioned roots with fixed posts according to specific pore and marginal gap diameter. The microleakage was measured on specimens immersed in Lofler (methylene blue solution. The mean values of the maximal diameter of pores, marginal gaps and microleakage of conventional cements are remarkably larger in comparison with composite luting agents. In conclusion, the quality and efficiency of composite luting agents in comparison with conventional cements are more successful in protecting the interior of tooth from penetration of oral fluids, bacteria and bacterial toxins into unprotected dentine.

  18. Sustainable Development of the Cement Industry and Blended Cements to Meet Ecological Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Sobolev

    2003-01-01

    The world production of cement has greatly increased in the past 10 years. This trend is the most significant factor affecting technological development and the updating of manufacturing facilities in the cement industry. Existing technology for the production of cement clinker is ecologically damaging; it consumes much energy and natural resources and also emits pollutants. A new approach to the production of blended or high-volume mineral additive (HVMA) cement helps to improve its ecologi...

  19. Global Cement Industry: Competitive and Institutional Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Selim, Tarek; Salem, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The cement industry is a capital intensive, energy consuming, and vital industry for sustaining infrastructure of nations. The international cement market –while constituting a small share of world industry output—has been growing at an increasing rate relative to local production in recent years. Attempts to protect the environment in developed countries –especially Europe—have caused cement production plants to shift to countries with less stringent environmental regulations. Along with con...

  20. Characterization of cement composites with mineral additives

    OpenAIRE

    Korat, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral dissertation is aimed at characterizing cement composites with mineral additives representing the industrial waste material (fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag and biomass fly ash). Their usage can replace high cement shares in individual cases and is, however, favourable due to the production costs reduction and environment burden decrease, including the decreased emission of greenhouse gases as well as lower energy use. Cement composites (in fresh or hardened state)...

  1. Premixed calcium silicate cement for endodontic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Calcium silicate-based materials (also called MTA) are increasingly being used in endodontic applications. However, the handling properties of MTA are not optimal when it comes to injectability and cohesion. Premixing the cements using glycerol avoids these issues. However, there is a lack of data on the effect of common cement variables on important properties of premixed cements for endodontic applications. In this study, the effects of liquid-to-powder ratio, amount of radiopacifier and am...

  2. Water dynamics in glass ionomer cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M. C.; Jacobsen, J.; Momsen, N. C. R.; Benetti, A. R.; Telling, M. T. F.; Seydel, T.; Bordallo, H. N.

    2016-07-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are an alternative for preventive dentistry. However, these dental cements are complex systems where important motions related to the different states of the hydrogen atoms evolve in a confined porous structure. In this paper, we studied the water dynamics of two different liquids used to prepare either conventional or resin-modified glass ionomer cement. By combining thermal analysis with neutron scattering data we were able to relate the water structure in the liquids to the materials properties.

  3. Making continuous bubble type polyethylene foam incombustible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since continuous bubble type plastic foam has excellent compression characteristics and sound absorption characteristics, it has been widely used as cushion material, sealing material, sound insulating material and so on. However, the most part of plastic foam is taken by air, therefore at the time of fires, it becomes a very dangerous material. At present, the material used mostly as the seat cushions for airliners, railroad coaches, automobiles and others is polyurethane foam, but since it contains C-N couples in its molecules, it is feared to generate cyanic gas according to the condition of combustion. As the plastic foam that does not generate harmful gas at the time of fires, there is continuous bubble type polyethylene which is excellent in its weathering property and chemical resistance. A reactive, phosphorus-containing oligomer has large molecular weight and two or more double couplings in a molecule, therefore, it does not enter the inside of polyethylene, and polymerizes and crosslinks on the surfaces of bubble walls in the foam, accordingly it is expected that the apparent graft polymerization is carried out, and it is very effective for making polyethylene foam incombustible. The method of making graft foam, the properties of graft foam and so on are reported. When the graft polymerization of this oligomer to continuous bubble type polyethylene foam was tried, highly incombustible polyethylene foam was obtained. (K.I.)

  4. Retention of Root Canal Posts: Effect of Cement Film Thickness, Luting Cement, and Post Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, A R; Flury, S; Peutzfeldt, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement, pretreatment with tribochemical silicate coating significantly increased retention of the posts. Increased cement film thickness resulted in decreased retention of untreated posts and of pretreated posts luted with zinc phosphate cement. Increased cement film thickness had no influence on retention of pretreated posts luted with resin cement. Thus, retention of the posts was influenced by the type of luting cement, by the cement film thickness, and by the post pretreatment. PMID:25764045

  5. The influence of ultrasound on removal of prefabricated metal post cemented with different resin cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh Feiz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasonic energy did not decrease the retention of posts cemented with Panavia or Maxcem Elite cements. Furthermore, it seems that there is no significant difference between removal force of self-etch (Panavia and the self-etch self-adhesive (Maxcem Elite resin cements.

  6. Case Study of the California Cement Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Coito, Fred; Powell, Frank; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Friedmann, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    California is the largest cement producing state in the U.S., accounting for between 10 percent and 15 percent of U.S. cement production and cement industry employment. The cement industry in California consists of 31 sites that consume large amounts of energy, annually: 1,600 GWh of electricity, 22 million therms of natural gas, 2.3 million tons of coal, 0.25 tons of coke, and smaller amounts of waste materials, including tires. The case study summarized in this paper focused on providi...

  7. Immobilisation of radwaste in cement based matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubilities and influence on cement pH are reported for calcium aluminate and aluminosulphate hydrates. The solubility of Ca(OH)2 is reported to 700 bars. Polymerization of C-S-H is investigated by NMR. Specific interactions of U6+ and iodine (I-, IO3-) with cement components are described. The impact of radiation on cements and the influence of higher temperature are documented. The role of dissolved Ca and CO2 in groundwaters as dissolution media for cements are reported. (author)

  8. A new method to analyze copolymer based superplasticizer traces in cement leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérandel, Cyril; Vernex-Loset, Lionel; Krier, Gabriel; De Lanève, Michel; Guillot, Xavier; Pierre, Christian; Muller, Jean François

    2011-03-15

    Enhancing the flowing properties of fresh concrete is a crucial step for cement based materials users. This is done by adding polymeric admixtures. Such additives have enabled to improve final mechanicals properties and the development of new materials like high performance or self compacting concrete. Like this, the superplasticizers are used in almost cement based materials, in particular for concrete structures that can have a potential interaction with drinking water. It is then essential to have suitable detection techniques to assess whether these organic compounds are dissolved in water after a leaching process or not. The main constituent of the last generation superplasticizer is a PolyCarboxylate-Ester copolymer (PCE), in addition this organic admixture contains polyethylene oxide (free PEO) which constitutes a synthesis residue. Numerous analytical methods are available to characterize superplasticizer content. Although these techniques work well, they do not bring suitable detection threshold to analyze superplasticizer traces in solution with high mineral content such as leachates of hardened cement based materials formulated with superplasticizers. Moreover those techniques do not enable to distinguish free PEO from PCE in the superplasticizer. Here we discuss two highly sensitive analytical methods based on mass spectrometry suitable to perform a rapid detection of superplasticizer compounds traces in CEM I cement paste leachates: MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, is used to determine the free PEO content in the leachate. However, industrial copolymers (such as PCE) are characterized by high molecular weight and polymolecular index. These two parameters lead to limitation concerning analysis of copolymers by MALDI-TOFMS. In this study, we demonstrate how pyrolysis and a Thermally assisted Hydrolysis/Methylation coupled with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, provides good results for the detection of PCE copolymer traces in CEM I cement paste

  9. Yeast CUP1 protects HeLa cells against copper-induced stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an essential trace element, copper can be toxic in mammalian cells when present in excess. Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich proteins that avidly bind copper and thus play an important role in detoxification. YeastCUP1 is a member of the MT gene family. The aim of this study was to determine whether yeast CUP1 could bind copper effectively and protect cells against copper stress. In this study,CUP1 expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and copper content was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Cellular viability was detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the cell cycle distribution of CUP1 was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The data indicated that overexpression of yeast CUP1 in HeLa cells played a protective role against copper-induced stress, leading to increased cellular viability (P<0.05) and decreased ROS production (P<0.05). It was also observed that overexpression of yeast CUP1 reduced the percentage of G1 cells and increased the percentage of S cells, which suggested that it contributed to cell viability. We found that overexpression of yeast CUP1 protected HeLa cells against copper stress. These results offer useful data to elucidate the mechanism of the MT gene on copper metabolism in mammalian cells

  10. Yeast CUP1 protects HeLa cells against copper-induced stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, X.X. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai (China); College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China); Ma, Y.F.; Wang, Q.S.; Chen, Z.L.; Liao, R.R.; Pan, Y.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-12

    As an essential trace element, copper can be toxic in mammalian cells when present in excess. Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich proteins that avidly bind copper and thus play an important role in detoxification. YeastCUP1 is a member of the MT gene family. The aim of this study was to determine whether yeast CUP1 could bind copper effectively and protect cells against copper stress. In this study,CUP1 expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and copper content was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Cellular viability was detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the cell cycle distribution of CUP1 was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The data indicated that overexpression of yeast CUP1 in HeLa cells played a protective role against copper-induced stress, leading to increased cellular viability (P<0.05) and decreased ROS production (P<0.05). It was also observed that overexpression of yeast CUP1 reduced the percentage of G1 cells and increased the percentage of S cells, which suggested that it contributed to cell viability. We found that overexpression of yeast CUP1 protected HeLa cells against copper stress. These results offer useful data to elucidate the mechanism of the MT gene on copper metabolism in mammalian cells.

  11. Acoustic evaluation of cementing quality using obliquely incident ultrasonic signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Wen-Xing; Qiao Wen-Xiao; Che Xiao-Hua; Xie Hui

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic cement bond logging is a widely used method for evaluating cementing quality. Conventional ultrasonic cement bond logging uses vertical incidence and cannot accurately evaluate lightweight cement bonding. Oblique incidence is a new technology for evaluating cement quality with improved accuracy for lightweight cements. In this study, we simulated models of acoustic impedance of cement and cementing quality using ultrasonic oblique incidence, and we obtained the relation between cementing quality, acoustic impedance of cement, and the acoustic attenuation coeffi cient of the A0-mode and S0-mode Lamb waves. Then, we simulated models of different cement thickness and we obtained the relation between cement thickness and the time difference of the arrival between the A0 and A0′ modes.

  12. Initial stability of cementless acetabular cups: press-fit and screw fixation interaction—an in vitro biomechanical study

    OpenAIRE

    Tabata, Tomonori; Kaku, Nobuhiro; Hara, Katsutoshi; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Press-fit and screw fixation are important technical factors to achieve initial stability of a cementless acetabular cup for good clinical results of total hip arthroplasty. However, how these factors affect one another in initial cup fixation remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the mutual influence between press-fit and screw fixation on initial cup stability. Methods Foam bone was subjected to exact hemispherical-shape machining to diameters of 48, 48.5 and 4...

  13. Temperature Dependent Neutron Scattering Sections for Polyethylene

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, R E; Hill, Roger E.

    2003-01-01

    This note presents neutron scattering cross sections for polyethylene at 296 K, 77 K and 4 K derived from a new scattering kernel for neutron scattering off of hydrogen in polyethylene. The kernel was developed in ENDF-6 format as a set of S(alpha,beta) tables using the LEAPR module of the NJOY94 code package. The polyethylene density of states (from 0 to sub eV) adopted to derive the new kernel is presented. We compare our calculated room temperature total scattering cross sections and double differential cross sections at 232 meV at various angles with the available experimental data (at room temperature), and then extrapolate the calculations to lower temperatures (77K and 4K). The new temperature dependent scattering kernel gives a good quantitative fit to the available room temperature data and has a temperature dependence that is qualitatively consistent with thermodynamics.

  14. Design and manufacture of Portland cement Application of statistical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Svinning, Ketil

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the work is to enable design and manufacture of cement with emphasis on the quality and the properties of cement. Data used in the design and manufacture were collected from predictions of properties and characteristics of cement. The properties of cement were predicted from its characteristics and from the production conditions in cement kiln and mill. The cement characteristics were in some investigations predicted from the production conditions. The design was based on sensi...

  15. Extremely high fracture rate of a modular acetabular component with a sandwich polyethylene ceramic insertion for THA: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Jörn; Bader, Rainer; Schroeder, Bettina; Mittelmeier, Wolfram

    2009-09-01

    Improvements of ceramic components and design changes have reduced failure rates over the past 30 years in total hip arthroplasty. We present a series of n = 11 cases with ceramic failure out of n = 113 implantations, from which n = 66 were ceramic-on-ceramic (n = 50 with ceramic insert with sandwich in polyethylene and n = 16 with directly fixed ceramic inlay) and n = 47 ceramic on polyethylene bearings, between 1999 and 2001 after introduction of a new implantation system to the market. The overall fracture rate of ceramic for the whole series (n = 113) was 9.7%. For the combination ceramic head with UHMW-PE (n = 47) the fracture rate was 2.1%. For the combination ceramic with ceramic (n = 66) the fracture rate was 15.2%. For the combination ceramic with ceramic sandwich in PE (n = 50) the failure rate was 18%. Only three patients experienced a trauma. Demography of patients (age, gender, body weight and BMI) was not statistically different between patients with failed ceramics and the rest of the patients making patient-specific risk factors unlikely to be an explanation for the failures. Retrospective X-ray analysis of the cup positioning did not show significant difference between failed and non-failed implants in terms of mean cup inclination and version making also operation-specific factors unlikely to be the only reason of this high failure rate. Therefore, manufacturer-specific factors such as design features may have contributed to this high failure rate. Further analysis of the whole series with biomechanical testing of the retrieved material needs to be performed. PMID:18568354

  16. CONFORMATIONAL PROPERTIES OF STRETCHED POLYETHYLENE CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-xi Zhang; De-lu Zhao

    2000-01-01

    When polyethylene chains are stretched, the chains are regarded as being confined in an infinite cylinder with decreasing diameter. The conformational properties of polyethylene chains confined in an infinite cylinder are investigated by using rotational isomeric state model. Using the average conformational energy and entropy and the average length, we can determine the elastic force f, or the fraction of the energy term to the total force fe/f, where fe=(б)/(б)/(б). Comparisons with experimental data are also made. The results of these microscopic calculations are discussed in terms of the macroscopic phenomena of rubber elasticity.

  17. Development of radiation crosslinked of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polyethylene, LDPE, LLDPE, and HDPE were subjected to electron beam irradiation at doses ranging from 0 to 250 kGy. The effect of irradiation dose and dose rate, various additives such as crosslinking accelerator, anti-oxidant (AO), flame retardant (FR) and pigments were evaluated in relation to changes of physical and mechanical properties of the crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE). The objective of the studies is to establish relevant data required in development PE compounds suitable for certain applications such as wire and cables insulation, foamed products and shrinkable tubes. 43 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Tensile Deformation of Polyethylenes: Crystallinity Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Buckley; Metaxas, Costas

    2004-03-01

    The crystalline fraction of polyethylene can be reduced by increasing the cooling rate, the molecular weight or the fraction of comonomer. All three methods have been used in this study of tensile deformation which shows that true stress - true strain behavior depends systematically on morphology. The dependence of uniaxial yield stress on crystal thickness is well understood in terms of dislocation nucleation. Post yield flow is dominated by the strain hardening rate that is larger in polyethylenes of lower crystallinity. Noncrystalline polymer evidently reduces the plastic compliance while providing for elastic (reversible) strains. These observations are examined in terms of old and new theories for deformation of semicrystalline polymers.

  19. Exact Topological Twistons in Crystalline Polyethylene

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, E; Bazeia, D

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the presence of topological twistons in crystalline polyethylene. We describe crystalline polyethylene with a model that couples the torsional and longitudinal degrees of freedom of the polymeric chain by means of a system of two real scalar fields. This model supports topological twistons, which are described by exact and stable topological solutions that appear when the interaction between torsional and longitudinal fields is polynomial, containing up to the sixth power in the fields. We calculate the energy of the topological twiston, and the result is in very good agreement with the value obtained via molecular simulation.

  20. Microscopic evaluation regarding time behavior of orthodontic cements used for disjunctor cementing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Bartok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill their function, orthodontic devices must be cemented on teeth using orthodontic rings. The retention of the orthodontic ring is influenced mainly by the type of dental-ring adhesion. This study was initiated to determine possible microleakage events while using zinc phosphate cement Adhesor (Spofa Dental, conventional glass ionomer Ketac Cem (3M ESPE and Fuji Ortho (GC and a compomer Transbond Plus (3M Unitek. The results of the study are consistent with those reported in the literature reference, the compomer is the preferred adhesive material for cementing the orthodontic rings, compared to conventional glass ionomer cements and zinc-phosphate cement.

  1. Thermo-catalytic pyrolysis of waste polyethylene bottles in a packed bed reactor with different bed materials and catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermo-catalytic pyrolysis of waste polyethylene bottles was investigated. • The highest yield of liquid (82%) was obtained over a cement powder bed. • Acidic catalysts narrowed the carbon chain length of the paraffins to C10–C28. • Combination of cement bed with HBeta catalyst gave the highest yield of liquid. • Significant yield of aromatics was obtained mainly naphthalene and D-limonene. - Abstract: Plastic waste is an increasing economic and environmental problem as such there is a great need to process this waste and reduce its environmental impact. In this work, the pyrolysis of high density polyethylene (HDPE) waste products was investigated using both thermal and catalytic cracking techniques. The experimental work was carried out using packed bed reactor operating under an inert atmosphere at 450 °C. Different reactor bed materials, including sand, cement and white clay were used to enhance the thermal cracking of HDPE. In addition, the catalytic effect of sodium hydroxide, HUSY and HBeta zeolite catalysts on the degradation of HDPE waste was also investigated. The reactor beds were found to significantly alter the yield as well as the product composition. Products such as paraffins (⩽C44), olefins (⩽C22), aromatics (⩽C14) and alcohols (C16 and C17) were obtained at varying rates. The highest yield of liquid (82%) was obtained over a cement powder bed with a paraffin yield of 58%. The yield of paraffins and olefins followed separate paths, for paraffins it was found to increase in the order or Cement > White clay > Silica Sand, whereas for the olefins it was in the reverse order Silica Sand > White clay > Cement. The results obtained in this work exhibited a higher P/O ratio than expected, where the amount of generated paraffins was greater than 60% in most cases. Less olefin was generated as a consequence. This indicates that the product generated is more suited to be used as a fuel rather than as a chemical feedstock. The

  2. Radiological and migration results of the DURALOC(R)-cup after two years

    CERN Document Server

    Juen, F

    2000-01-01

    4 years of implantation was assessed to be 1.23 mm, however a decreasing speed of migration over the final 2-year-period was indicated. Our results demonstrate that statements relating to migration results of particular cups are more accurate after four years. However, statements about mean migration values are possible after two years. A migration speed of 1 mm total migration within the first 2 years after operation was predictive for radiological loosening of the cup after four years (p=0,0004). Further, appearance of postoperative gaps in zone one of the cup correlate with high migration values later leading to radiological loosening and may be a result of errors during implantation. However, we could demonstrate that presence of gaps around the cup postoperatively is an important factor for later loosening. With consideration to the findings concerning the DURALOC(R) cup within four years of implantation, predictions of results over a long term may be undesirable. In 1997 a study was conduced concerning ...

  3. The Effects of Dry Cupping Therapy on the Shoulder Pain and Fatigue of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Sohn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was done to identify the effects of dry cupping therapy on the shoulder pain and fatigue of nurses. Methods: The research design was time series design. The participants were 27 nurses with shoulder pain at P University Hospital in Busan metropolitan city from July 6, 2009 to August 3, 2009. The dry cupping therapy was done 4 times, twice a week for 2 weeks. Before intervention, the severity and frequency of pain and fatigue were measured three times at one week intervals, and then those were measured after one week and two weeks of experimental treatment. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test and repeated measure ANOVA with the SPSS program. Results: There were statistically significant difference in severity and frequency of shoulder pain,and fatigue after dry cupping therapy. Dry cupping therapy was effective for the management of shoulder pain and fatigue among nurses in this study. Conclusion: Therefore dry cupping therapy can be considered an effective nursing intervention that relieves shoulder pain and fatigue of nurses.

  4. Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) is used to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) before a ... Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) comes as a powder to mix with water and take by ...

  5. A porous tantalum uncemented acetabular cup in acetabular revision arthroplasty%生物学固定骨小梁金属杯在髋臼翻修中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卫东; 陈刚; 张东华

    2009-01-01

    前后X射线平片显示无假体移位下沉等不稳迹象,骨小梁金属杯周围骨质向内长入.本组患者无置换后并发症发生,截至最后1次随访有14例行走时无疼痛,2例轻度疼痛伴轻度跛行.未出现症状性深静脉血栓或神经损伤.无需要再度翻修病例.结论:初次固定人工髋臼杯失败的病例,若无骨缺损,翻修时使用骨小梁金属杯可以获得良好的早期效果.%BACKGROUND: Biological fixation refers to the treatment of coarse or porous prosthetic surface. It is favorable to "bone ingrowth" prosthesis to achieve long-term stability. Porous tantalum is the latest scientific product that appears suitable to prosthetic surface owing to its porous feature and has been attracting a great deal attention.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of a porous tantalum uncemented acetabular cup in acetabular revision arthroplasty.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A retrospective case analysis was performed at the Department of Orthopedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between April and November 2006.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS: Sixteen patients (16 hips), 7 males and 9 females, aged 54-81 years old, who received treatment at the Department of Orthopedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA were included in this study. Of these patients, 2 suffered from femoral neck fracture, 6 from aseptic femoral head necrosis, and 8 from osteoarthritis. Trabecular metal cup (Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana) provided a titanium alloy bottom layer and porous tantalum-coated surface, which was realized by technical combination of bone trabecular tantalum and titanium alloy. The prosthesis contained an ultrahigh modulus polyethylene lining.METHODS: All patients underwent acetabular revision with modular porous tantalum uncemented acetabular cup. Prior to replacement, acetabular defects and femoral prosthesis were evaluated. A posterolateral approach of hip joint was made. Following

  6. The influence of cement type and temperature on chloride binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Korzen, Migge Sofie Hoffmann; Skibsted, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes effects of cement type and temperature on chloride binding in cement paste, which is an important subject in relation to life-time modelling of reinforced concrete structures. The influence of cement type on chloride binding is investigated by substituting cement with pure...... cement clinker. Both theoretical considerations and experimental data for chloride binding in cement pastes are presented. A physico-chemically based model to describe the influence of temperature on physical binding of chloride is presented. Solid-state 27Al and 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear...... magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used for quantification of the anhydrous and hydrated aluminate and silicate phases in the chloride exposed cement pastes. The 27Al isotropic chemical shift and nuclear quadrupole coupling is reported for a synthetic sample of Friedel's salt, Ca2Al(OH)6Cl×2H2O....

  7. Cements in radioactive waste management. Characterization requirements of cement products for acceptance and quality assurance purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementitious materials are used as immobilizing matrices for low (LLW) and medium-level wastes (MLW) and are also components of the construction materials in the secondary barriers and the repositories. This report has concerned itself with a critical assessment of the quality assurance aspects of the immobilization and disposal of MLW and LLW cemented wastes. This report has collated the existing knowledge of the use and potential of cementitious materials in radioactive waste immobilization and highlighted the physico-chemical parameters. Subject areas include an assessment of immobilization objectives and cement as a durable material, waste stream and matrix characterization, quality assurance concepts, nature of cement-based systems, chemistry and modelling of cement hydration, role and effect of blending agents, radwaste-cement interaction, assessment of durability, degradative and radiolytic processes in cements and the behaviour of cement-based matrices and their near-field interactions with the environment and the repository conditions

  8. Copper Slag Blended Cement: An Environmental Sustainable Approach for Cement Industry in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmeet Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indian cement industry is facing environmental issue of emission of carbon dioxide (CO2, a greenhouse gas. Blended cements including supplementary cementitious materials are substitute of Portland cement to reduce CO2 emission. The present paper investigates theappropriateness of copper slag (CS as supplementary cementitious material. Strength properties and hydration of mixes were determined at different replacement levels of CS with cement. Compressive, flexural and tensile strength of each mix was found out at different curing periods. The hydration of cement was investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD. The strength test results showed that substitution of up to 20% of CS can significantly replace Portland cement.XRD test results were corresponding to strength test results. The present study encourages the utilization of CS as supplementary cementitious material to make economical and environmentally sustainable blended cement

  9. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification. Zinc oxide-eugenol is a device composed of zinc oxide-eugenol intended to serve as a temporary tooth... chapter subject to § 872.9. (b) Dental cement other than zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification....

  10. A Pause for China's Cement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cement industry suffers excess productionWith the advent of global financial crisis,the Chinese government has laid out a stimulus package on infrastructure construction.Driven by the investment spree,China's cement makers are flocking to expand output capacity,which is now leading the industry into a much-higher-thanneeded state.

  11. Pre-portland cements and geopolymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Perná, Ivana; Ertl, Z.; Miller, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2012), s. 57-62. ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : caementum * cement itious * calcareous cement Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2012_01/5_Hanzlicek.pdf

  12. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements are...

  13. Synthesis of pure Portland cement phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselsky, Andreas; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    Pure phases commonly found in Portland cement clinkers are often used to test cement hydration behaviour in simplified experimental conditions. The synthesis of these phases is covered in this paper, starting with a description of phase relations and possible polymorphs of the four main phases in...

  14. Investigation of a Hardened Cement Paste Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S.......This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S....

  15. A note on cement in asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Bilalbegovic, G

    2016-01-01

    Cement mineral tobermorite was formed in hydrothermal experiments on alternation of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Unidentified bands at 14 microns were measured for CAIs and the matrix of the Allende meteorite sample, as well as for Hektor and Agamemnon asteroids. The presence of cement nanoparticles may explain the feature at 14 microns.

  16. Conditioning of radioactive waste solutions by cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the cementation of the low and intermediate level evaporator concentrates resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuel numerous experiments were performed to optimize the waste form composition and to characterize the final waste form. Concerning the cementation process, properties of the waste/cement suspension were investigated. These investigations include the dependence of viscosity, bleeding, setting time and hydration heat from the waste cement slurry composition. For the characterization of the waste forms, the mechanical, thermal and chemical stability were determined. For special cases detailed investigations were performed to determine the activity release from waste packages under defined mechanical and thermal stresses. The investigations of the interaction of the waste forms with aqueous solutions include the determination of the Cs/Sr release, the corrosion resistance and the release of actinides. The Cs/Sr release was determined in dependence of the cement type, additives, setting time and sample size. (orig./DG)

  17. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll;

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used as the...... sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in...

  18. Energetically Modified Cement (EMC) - Performance Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, Vladimir; Elfgren, Lennart [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Centre for High Performance Cement

    2003-03-01

    Energetically Modified Cements, EMC, made of intensively milled cement (50%) and fillers (50%) of quartz or fly ash have been compared to blends of Ordinary Portland Cement, OPC, and fillers. The EMCs have better properties than other blends and are comparable to unblended OPC. This remarkable fact can probably be explained as follows. The grinding process reduces the size of both cement grains and fillers. This combined with the creation of micro defects gives the ground cement a very high degree of hydration. The increased early hydration and a better distribution of hydration products results in an extensive pore size refinement of the hardened binder. This pore size refinement leads to a favorably reduced permeability and diffusivity and very good mechanical properties.

  19. 76 FR 70896 - Polyethylene Glycol; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... tolerance for residues of -Hydro- - hydroxypoly(oxyethylene), minimum number average molecular weight (in...(oxyethylene), minimum number average molecular weight (in amu), 17,000 on food or feed commodities. DATES...(oxyethylene, minimum number average molecular weight (in amu), 17,000; also known as polyethylene...

  20. Polyethylene glycol-grafted polystyrene particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Fenghua; Engbers, Gerard H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Densely pegylated particles that can serve as a model system for artificial cells were prepared by covalently grafting amino polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 3400 or 5000) onto carboxyl polystyrene particles (PS-COOH) using carbodiimide chemistry. PEG-modified particles (PS-PEG) were chara

  1. STRESS CRACK TESTING OF POLYETHYLENE GEOMEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sensitivity of high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes to stress cracking is evaluated under accelerated conditions at a constant stress. he test specimens are according to ASTM D-1822, and are of the dumbbell shape with a constant length in the central section. he acce...

  2. Dynamic compressive behavior of foamed polyethylene film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tateyama Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foamed film as the shock absorption material has attracted much attention because it is thin (100 μm ∼ 400 μm and has a closed cell structure. However, the dynamic mechanical properties have not been reported in the foamed film. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the compressive behavior of the foamed polyethylene film at the wide strain rate range. First, the new compressive test apparatus for the dynamic strain rate, the drop-weight testing machine with opposed load cell, was developed, which can be also evaluated the dynamic stress equilibrium of the specimen. It is confirmed that the compressive flow stress increased with increasing the strain rate, regardless of the film thickness. The foamed polyethylene film has the high strain rate sensitivity in the quasi-static deformation. On the other hand, there is almost no change of the strain rate sensitivity in the dynamic and the impact deformation. In order to investigate the mechanism of strain rate dependence, the foamed polyethylene film was observed by X-ray computed tomography scanner before and after compressive test. The fracture of the closed cell only occurred in the quasi-static deformation. It was clarified that the strain rate sensitivity of the foamed film depends strongly on that of the construction material, polyethylene.

  3. 21 CFR 172.260 - Oxidized polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oxidized polyethylene. 172.260 Section 172.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances...

  4. DNP with Trityl Radicals in Deuterated Polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Meyer, W.; Berlin, A.; Herick, J.; Hess, C.; Reicherz, G.

    2016-02-01

    Chemically doping with trityl radicals was performed in fully deuterated polyethylene. The behavior of paramagnetic centers has been investigated by ESR X-band spectrometer. The highest deuteron polarization was 8% at 2.5 T and 1 K with a spin concentration of 3 × 1019 spins/g.

  5. Thin surface layer of plasma treated polyethylene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotál, V.; Stopka, Pavel; Sajdl, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2008), s. 86-89. ISSN 0039-2316 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : argon plasma * high density polyethylene * goniometry * X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  6. Thermoviscoelastic models for polyethylene thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jun; Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a constitutive thermoviscoelastic model for thin films of linear low-density polyethylene subject to strains up to yielding. The model is based on the free volume theory of nonlinear thermoviscoelasticity, extended to orthotropic membranes. An ingredient of the present approach...

  7. Neutron Compton scattering studies of stretched polyethylene

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrys, B J; Mayers, J; Kalhoro, M S

    2002-01-01

    The mean kinetic energy of hydrogen and carbon atoms in unstretched and stretched polyethylene samples has been measured by neutron Compton scattering. The vibrational frequencies of the ground state and torsional energies have been calculated and compared with the existing data and calculations. The results obtained on deuterated and non-deuterated samples are compared. (orig.)

  8. Charge-exchanged beam measurement by using a grid-biased Faraday cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for neutral beam measurement by using a Faraday cup is proposed in this paper. The method enables us to detect neutral beams by controlling secondary electrons by using a biasing grid in front of the Faraday cup. A procedure is also proposed for in situ determination of the secondary electron emission coefficient of the Faraday cup. Experimental results show that appropriate emission coefficients are determined for helium beams with energies of 2-10 keV. The neutral flux charge-exchanged from a helium ion beam passing through a helium gas is also measured. Saturation of the neutral flux is observed above the pressure expected from the solution of a rate equation. The method is promising for neutral beam measurement, especially for small current-neutral beams. (author)

  9. Acupuncture and Cupping for Treatment of Hiccup in Cases of Cerebrovascular Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Hongliang; Cao Xuemei; Huang Shizhao; Liao Chaofeng

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To observe the therapeutic effects of acupuncture and cupping for hiccup in cases of cerebrovascular accident.Method:80 cases of hiccup due to cerebrovascular accident were randomly divided into the treatment group of 40 cases treated by acupuncture and cupping and the control group of 40 cases treated with Ritaline.Result:In the treatment group,24 cases were cured,8 cases markedly effective,5 cases improved,and 3 cases failed,with a total effective rate of 92.5%.In the control group,9 cases were cured,12 cases markedly effective,8 cases improved,and 11 cases failed,with a total effective rate of 72.5%.There was a statistically significant difference in the therapeutic effects between the two groups(μ=3.3259,P=0.0009).Conclusion:The effect of acupuncture and cupping for hiccup due to cerebrovascular accident was noticeably superior to Ritaline.

  10. On Parameters Affecting Metal Flow and Friction in the Double Cup Extrusion Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Xincai; Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi

    1998-01-01

    in numerical simulations often involve strain hardening because friction is expressed as a function of the flow stress or the flow shear stress. The double cup extrusion test is considered to be one of the process tests for determination of friction. In this test, varying heights of the upper and...... lower cups will develop with different friction and strain hardening conditions. In the present paper, an investigation of this test has been carried out experimentally and theoretically. Both annealed and work-hardened AA6082 specimens were extruded with varying degree of reduction and different...... lubricants. A friction model with constant absolute value excluding the influence of strain hardening on friction was adopted in FEM simulations, in order to more clearly study the individual influence of strain hardening and friction on the metal flow (upper and lower cup height ratio) without interference...

  11. Validation of 3D sonic-anemometer against cup anemometer response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Courtney, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Determination and validation of wind turbine power curves traditionally rely on single point wind speed measurements recorded with a calibrated cup-anemometer. The power curve verification process, which is typically performed in different terrain types, does not always result in satisfactory...... agreement between measures- and predicted power curves. The observed disagreement is premarily believed to relate to the cup-anemometers being sensitive to tilted flow i.e. that the measurement of the horizontal flow component is sensible to flow in a plane perpendicular to the horizontal plane. Furthermore......, the limited cup-anemometer response due to high turbulence can explain some of the diviations. The present paper investigates this problem, by analysing full-scale time series data extracted from "Database on Wind Characteristics" (http://www.winddata.com/), which represents a wide range of sites...

  12. Numerical simulation of wrinkle phenomenon during multi-point forming process of shallow rectangle cup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴永生; 李明哲; 李雪; 隋振

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the principle of multi-point forming (MPF) technique is presented. One of the most serious defects, wrinkling, during the multi-point forming process of a shallow rectangle cup is discussed by means of numerical simulation on the shallow rectangle cup forming process. The effects of thickness, material of sheet metal and the pressure of the blank holder are investigated. Based on the simulation results, the reasons and control methods of wrinkling are pointed out. Moreover, the experiment on the multi-point die forming of the shallow rectangle cup by the MPF machine is done to validate the efficiency of the numerical simulation,and the result proves that the application of an elastic cushion in the forming can restrain wrinkling efficiently.

  13. Basic research for development of the beam profile monitor based on a Faraday cup array system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mook-Kwang

    2015-10-01

    The basic design used to develop a beam profile monitor based on a Faraday cup array (FCA), which has the advantages of high robustness, reliability, and long-term stability, along with the ability to measure the ion current over a wide dynamic range, was developed. The total system is divided into three parts: i.e., a faraday cup, measuring electronics, and a display program part. The FCA was considered to consist of a collimator, suppressor, insulator frame, and 64 (8 × 8 array) tiny Faraday cups (FC). An electronic circuit using a multiplexer was applied to effectively address many signal lines and the printed circuit board (PCB) was designed to be divided into three parts, i.e., an electrode PCB (ELEC PCB), capacitance PCB (CAP PCB), and control PCB (CON PCB).

  14. ACCUWIND - Classification of five cup anemometers according to IEC61400-12-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T.; Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Busche, P.

    2006-05-15

    The characteristics of five cup anemometers were investigated in detail, and data are presented in figures and tables. The characteristics include: normal wind tunnel calibrations; angular response measurements at 5, 8 and 11m/s; torque coefficient curve measurements from combined tilt and ramp-gust tests, torque coefficient curve measurements for non-tilted conditions; rotor inertia measurements and measurements of friction of bearings at temperatures -10 deg. C to 40 deg. C. The characteristics are fitted to two different time domain cup anemometer models, and simulations of the cup anemometers are made with artificial wind generators to make classifications according to annex I and J of the standard IEC 61400-12-1 on power performance measurements. Results of classification are shown in graphs of systematic deviations and class index tables. (au)

  15. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  16. ROTARY SCREW SYSTEMS IN CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taratuta V. D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research of rotary-screw systems in relation to the creation of rotary kilns for the annealing of-cuttings in the preparation of cement clinker. Using the proposed design, in comparison with known designs of similar purpose, it significantly improves performance, reduces size and power consumption through the use of rotary screw systems in the form of screw rotors and drums made hollow with sidewalls assembled from separate strips or plates of different geometrical shapes with form inside the screw breaks or smooth edges, screw surfaces and screw grooves. It is shown that the housing of the rotary kiln is expedient to produce helical surfaces whose centers of curvature are located within the housing. Using the proposed constructions rotary kiln during the firing when preparing cement wedge can increase the speed of rotation of the housing, furnaces 5-10 times due to changes in the rotary-screw systems increase efficiency and reduce the size of furnaces

  17. Cements with low Clinker Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lodeiro, I.; Fernández-Jiménez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2015-11-01

    Hybrid alkaline cements are multi-component systems containing a high percentage of mineral additions (fly ash, blast furnace slag), low proportions (alkaline activators. The substantially lower amount of clinker needed to manufacture these binders in comparison to ordinary Portland cement is both economically and ecologically beneficial. Their enormous versatility in terms of the raw materials used has made them the object of considerable interest. The present study explored the mechanical strength of binary blends mixes; B1= 20% clinker (CK) + 80% fly ash (FA) and B2=20% clinker + 80% blast furnace slag (BFS), both hydrated in the presence and absence of an alkaline activator specifically designed for this purpose. The use of the activator enhanced the development of early age strength considerably. All the hydrated matrices were characterised with XRD, SEM/EDX and (29Si and 27Al) NMR. The use of the alkaline activator generated reaction products consisting primarily of a mix of gels ((N,C)-A-S-H and C-A-S-H) whose respective proportions were found to depend upon system composition and initial reactivity.

  18. Cement and concrete options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of concrete are projected to increase from 10.5 million tonnes in 1990 to almost 14 million tonnes in 2010. Over half of this amount will be non-energy related emissions of carbon dioxide resulting from the conversion of limestone to lime. According to this report by industry experts, the industry has an excellent record of improving energy efficiency and there are few easy gains remaining. Nevertheless, improvements in energy efficiency and fuel use, increased use of concrete where it can be shown to result in net reduction of GHG emissions, and partial replacement of cement by supplementary cementitious materials that involve no additional generation of GHGs, could yield an approximate reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of nearly seven million tons in 2010. The industry proposes three measures to realise these benefits: (1) encouraging replacement of fossil fuels by otherwise waste material, (2) encouraging increased use of concrete in constructing houses and roads, and (3) encouraging increased use of supplementary cementing materials. The industry is opposed to carbon or energy taxes that increase the cost of doing business, on the grounds that such taxes would adversely affect the industry's competitive position internationally. tabs

  19. Polyethylene Oxide (PEO) and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Polymer Sieving Matrix for RNA Capillary Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Li, Zhenqing; Zhu, Xifang; Liu, Chenchen; Zhang, Dawei; Dou, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    The selection of sieving polymer for RNA fragments separation by capillary electrophoresis is imperative. We investigated the separation of RNA fragments ranged from 100 to 10,000 nt in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) solutions with different molecular weight and different concentration. We found that the separation performance of the small RNA fragments (4000 nt) deteriorated in PEG/PEO solutions when the concentration was above 1.0%/0.6%, respectively. By double logar...

  20. Surface modification of polyethylene with multi-end-functional polyethylene additives.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardman, S.J.; Hutchings, L.R.; Clarke, N.; Kimani, S.M.; Mears, L.L.E.; Smith, E F; Webster, J.R.P.; Thompson, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    We have prepared and characterized a series of multifluorocarbon end-functional polyethylene additives, which when blended with polyethylene matrices increase surface hydrophobicity and lipophobicity. Water contact angles of >112° were observed on spin-cast blended film surfaces containing less than 1% fluorocarbon in the bulk, compared to 98° in the absence of any additive. Crystallinity in these films gives rise to surface roughness that is an order of magnitude greater than is typical for ...

  1. Biological characterization of two xenografts derived from human CUPs (carcinomas of unknown primary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinomas of unknown primary site (CUP) are epithelial malignancies revealed by metastatic lesions in the absence of any detectable primary tumor. Although they often adopt an aggressive clinical pattern, their basic biology remains poorly understood. Laboratory research on their biology have been hampered so far by the absence of cell lines representative of CUPs. We attempted xenografts of CUP clinical specimens in immunodeficient mice and subsequent in vitro culture of transplanted malignant cells. Whenever possible, malignant xenografted or cultured cells were characterized by microsatellite genotyping, immunohistology, electron microscopy, multifish chromosome analysis and search of TP 53 gene mutations. Successful xenografts were achieved in 2 cases out of 4. One of them (Capi1) was lost after 3 passages whereas the other one (Capi3) has been adapted to in vitro culture and is currently available to the scientific community with reliable identification based on microsatellite genotyping. Both Capi1 and Capi3 have histological characteristics of adenocarcinomas and display intense expression of EMA, CEA and cytokeratin 7. Multifish chromosome analysis demonstrated a translocation involving chromosomes 4 and 21 in both specimens. Distinct rare missense mutations of the TP53 gene were detected in Capi1 (codon 312) and Capi3 (codon 181); the codon 181 mutation is consistent with a previously reported similar finding in a small series of CUP specimens. Finally, intense membrane expression of c-kit was recorded in Capi3. Our data suggest that xenografted tumors can be obtained from a substantial fraction of CUP clinical specimens. The hypothesis of a preferential association of CUPs with TP 53 mutations of codon 181 deserves further investigations. The Capi3 cell line will be a useful tool for assessment of novel c-kit inhibitors

  2. An analytical incremental model for the analysis of the cup drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gharib

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper Develop an analytical model for the cup drawing process to solve for the induced stresses and strains over the deforming sheet at any stage of deformation until a full cup is formed.Design/methodology/approach: An analytical model is developed for the cup drawing process by determining the variation of stresses and strains over the deforming sheet. The model uses finite difference approach and numerical procedures to solve for equilibrium, continuity, and plasticity equations in an incremental fashion.Findings: The developed analytical model results showed good correlation with experimental ones from the literature. Also, the analytical model was found to be useful in conducting parametric studies in order to determine how the different process parameters can affect the deforming cup.Research limitations/implications: This paper includes the development of an analytical model to analyze the deep drawing of axisymmetric cups. This model is then used as the solution engine for the optimization of the blank holder force for such cups avoiding failure by wrinkling or tearing. This model also gives an insight of the modes of deformation in the deep drawing process.Practical implications: This paper is part of a procedure that leads to the optimization of the blank holder loading scheme. The full procedure as presented in the two parts of the work may be applied in industry to minimize the maximum punch load or the work done during deep drawing process by modifying the blank holder force and at the same time avoid failures by wrinkling or tearing.Originality/value: Developing a predictive/corrective technique for solving the unknown boundaries of the deforming sheet.

  3. Some progress on high energy density physics under the China-Japan CUP collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last 10 years we have witnessed rapidly increasing collaboration between China and Japan from economy to scientific research. From today's perspective, the China-Japan Core-University-Program (CUP) came timely when it was initiated 10 years ago. In the catalogues of I-5A (Study of Ultrahigh Density Plasma -- Inertial Confinement Fusion) and I-5B (Theory and simulation on Inertial Fusion Plasmas) of the program, there are totally 10 institutions from China, engaged in the research of high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy, have participated in the CUP collaboration. The program involves a large number of personal exchanges, quite a few joint experiments, more than 10 bi-lateral meetings and workshops. I find it is a very successful program from viewpoints of scientific achievements, cultural exchange, educating young generation of scientists. Based upon the CUP exchange program, we become real partners with our Japanese colleagues. Lots of young people (e.g. graduate students) have been involved in the program, which shall become the main force of future collaboration. Because of the CUP program, collaboration to work on the large facilities in both sides appears very fruitful. This may help to promote the share of using large facilities in the future. Thus CUP has paved a bright way for future long term collaboration. As a participant (and a key person in the last 5 years) of CUP, I have benefited greatly from this program both for my research and career development through close collaboration with Japanese colleagues. In this report, I will briefly introduce some Chinese programs and institutions working on high energy density physics (HEDP) and fundamental laser plasmas, including our Laboratory for Laser Plasmas newly established in Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Then I will highlight some recent research progress on fast ignition of fusion targets (theory and simulation) by some groups in China. (author)

  4. Effects of the 2010 World Cup football tournament on emergency department assault attendances in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    We explore the impact of the 2010 World Cup, held in South Africa, on levels of assault attendances to 15 emergency departments in England. The majority (70.1%) of assault attendees during the 2010 World Cup was male and aged 18-34 years (52.5%). Assault attendances increased by 37.5% on the days that England played (P 001). Preparation for major sporting events in non-host countries should include violence prevention activity. Emergency department data can be used to identify violence associated with such events and thus inform both the targeting of prevention efforts and assessments of their effectiveness. PMID:22874732

  5. NCI Takes Back the Defelice Cup at Ninth Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer After being down by a point in the morning, NCI reclaimed the Defelice Cup trophy from Leidos Biomedical Research, with a final score of 12 ½ to 11 ½, at the ninth annual Ronald H. Defelice Golf Tournament, held Oct. 13. “The tightest matches in the nine-year history of this cup competition resulted in a narrow victory for NCI and allowed NCI to take a 5–4 victory total,” said Denny Dougherty, one of the team captains for Leidos Biomed and a retired senior subcontracts advisor at what was formerly SAIC-Frederick.

  6. Analysis of nitrogen ion beam produced in dense plasma focus device using Faraday cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nanosecond response Faraday cup was fabricated and employed to characterize pulsed ion beam of a 2.2 kJ Mather type dense plasma focus device. The Faraday cup operating in bias ion collector mode was used to determine the energy spectrum and flux of fast nitrogen ion beam along the electrode axis (0 deg) of the device. It has been possible to register the ion energy up to a lower kinetic energy threshold of ∼ 7 keV which is a value much lower than that obtained in any previous works. The correlation of the ion beam intensity with filling gas pressure is also reported. (author)

  7. Multi Stage Strategies for Single Point Incremental Forming of a Cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Bay, Niels; Endelt, Benny;

    2008-01-01

    comparing explicit FE analysis with experiments. Good agreement is found between calculated and measured thickness distribution, overall geometry and strains. Using the proposed multi stage strategy it is shown possible to produce a cup with a height close to the radius and side parallel to the symmetry......A five stage forming strategy for forming of a circular cylindrical cup with a height/radius ratio of one is presented. Geometrical relations are discussed and theoretical strains are calculated. The influence of forming direction (upwards or downwards) is investigated for the second stage...

  8. Machine Learning of Multi Agents for RoboCup Soccer Domain:A Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadeem Iqbal; LUO Qing(罗青); LU Tian-sheng(吕恬生)

    2003-01-01

    Machine learning has been widely applied to deal with problems in complex environment such asRoboCup, which is assumed as the ideal platform for research on AI and robotic. In RoboCup simulation league,software agents play soccer games on an official soccer server over the network. When constructing these softwareagents, issues in area of agents learning techniques arise to satisfy the properties specified by agent theorists. Thispaper presented an overview of the agents learning used in the simulator teams. Many kinds of agents learningtechniques were reported and compared. It also provided open questions for discussing and pointed out some possi-ble answers to verify in near future.

  9. Fooled by bursts. A Goal per Minute model for the World Cup

    OpenAIRE

    Mingotti, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    On the occasion of the last FIFA World Cup in Brazil, The Economist published a plot depicting how many goals have been scored in all World Cup competitions until present, minute by minute. The plot was followed by a naive and poorly grounded qualitative analysis. In the present article we use The Economist dataset to check its conclusions, update previous results from literature and offer a new model. In particular, it will be shown that first and second half game have different scoring rate...

  10. Learning for RoboCup Soccer : Policy Gradient Reinforcement Learning inmulti-agent systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lidström, Christian; Leskelä, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Robo Cup Soccer is a long-running yearly world wide robotics competition,in which teams of autonomous robot agents play soccer against each other.This report focuses on the 2D simulator variant, where no actual robots are needed and the agents instead communicate with a server which keeps trackof the game state. RoboCup Soccer 2D simulation has become a major topic of research for articial intelligence, cooperative behaviour in multi-agent systems, and the learning thereof. Some form of machi...

  11. Developing the behaviours for use in RoboCup 2015 based on rUNSWift architecture.

    OpenAIRE

    Keerdo, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The RoboCup Standard Platform League has two teams, each consisting of five robots play football against each other in a semi-controlled setting. The robots used have the same hardware and modifications are not allowed. The purpose of this thesis was to find a method to improve the overall performance displayed during 2014 RoboCup and implement the method(s). During the course of the project, a new codebase, developed by team rUNSWift, was evaluated, tested and then adopted as it offered i...

  12. Analysis of world biathlon leaders’ participation in biathlon World Cup (on example of women’s biathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubrilov R.A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: optimization of elite female biathlons’ training, considering modern structure of international competitions. Material: we analyzed materials of three recent IBU Congresses and more than 3300 protocols of competitions of World cup stages, world championships, winter Olympic Games (women, sport seasons from 2005 to 2015. Results: it was found that, when preparing for winter Olympic Games 63.9% of sportsmen - prize winners missed 13.6% of stages of World Cup, when preparing for world championships 47.2% of prize-winners missed 9.5% of stages. Before the main start of the season in Europe prize winners missed in conditions of plain: 42.1% - 7.9% of World Cup stages; in midlands conditions 61.9% - 13.9%; in competitions with preliminary trans-meridian travel 54.2% of prize-winners missed 13.1% of stages. Conclusions: most of medals are won at world championships and Olympic Games by sportswomen, who are in top-10 of World Cup. The World Cup calendar of events forces sportsmen to miss some stages of World Cup, when they prepare to main start of season. Attitude of world biathlon leaders to missing of World Cup stages before main start of season depends on main character of main start of season. With it main condition for taking decision about missing of World Cup stages is rank of competitions and geographical characteristics of places of competitions.

  13. 16 CFR 1500.43 - Method of test for flashpoint of volatile flammable materials by Tagliabue open-cup apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES... overflow so placed as to maintain the bath liquid level 1/8-inch below the rim of the glass cup. (b...-inch below the level of the edge or rim of the cup. EC03OC91.053 (f) “Micro,” or small gas burner...

  14. Cancers of unknown primary origin (CUP) are characterized by chromosomal instability (CIN) compared to metastasis of know origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikeså, Jonas; Møller, Anne Kirstine H; Kaczkowski, Bogumil;

    2015-01-01

    genome wide transcriptome analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), we defined the putative origins of a large series of CUP and how closely related a particular CUP was to corresponding metastases of known origin. LDA predictions were subsequently used to...

  15. Economic analysis of a volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the economic feasibility of a fluidized bed volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes. These results are compared with the ''null'' alternative of no volume reduction and solidification of aqueous waste streams in hydraulic cement. The economic analysis employed a levelized revenue requirement (LRR) technique conducted over a ten year period. An interactive computer program was written to conduct the LRR calculations. Both of the treatment/solidification options were considered for a number of scenarios including type of plant (BWR or PWR) and transportation distance to the disposal site. If current trends in the escalation rates of cost components continue, the volume reduction/polyethylene solidification option will be cost effective for both BWRs and PWRs. Data indicate that a minimum net annual savings of $0.8 million per year (for a PWR shipping its waste 750 miles) and a maximum net annual savings of $9 million per year (for a BWR shipping its waste 2500 miles) can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the burial cost escalation rate, which indicated that variation of this factor will impact the total levelized revenue requirement. The burial cost escalation rate which yields a break-even condition was determined for each scenario considered. 11 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs

  16. Extraoral Cementation Technique to Minimize Cement-Associated Peri-implant Marginal Bone Loss: Can a Thin Layer of Zinc Oxide Cement Provide Sufficient Retention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Eberhard; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Weigl, Paul; Woelber, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the use of laboratory-fabricated crown intaglio replicas for extraorally prepared cementation of fixed restorations to implants. This technique minimizes excess cement and may therefore reduce the risk of cement-related marginal peri-implant bone loss. It is unclear whether the remaining thin layer of luting agent provides sufficient retention if low-adhesive zinc oxide (ZnO) cement is used. In 85 consecutive patients, 113 single crowns were cemented to implants using extraoral cementation technique (ECT) and ZnO cement. All patients were followed for 6 months and investigated for decementation. Seven events of decementation (incidence: 6.19%) were found in 7 patients (8.24%). ECT may represent a viable cementation technique for implant-supported single crowns, even using low-adhesion cements. PMID:27479343

  17. Measuring splash erosion potential under vegetation using sand-filled splash cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, C.; Scholten, T.; Kühn, P.

    2009-04-01

    In soil erosion research it is widely accepted that vegetation is not only protecting the soil from the erosive power of rainfall. Under specific circumstances (like they occur e.g. in forests) vegetation can enhance the erosive power of rainfall by modifying its properties (esp. drop size distribution, kinetic energy). The adjacent processes are very complex and variable in time and space and depend on numerous variables (e.g. rainfall intensity, drop size distribution, drop fall velocity, height of the canopy, density of the canopy, crown and leaf traits, LAI). In the last decades a large number of studies focused this process-system using different methods and came to often different results (Brandt 1989; Calder 2001; Foot & Morgan 2005; Hall & Calder 1993; Mosley 1982; Nanko et al. 2006; Park & Cameron 2008; Vis 1986). The main objective of our field experiments in subtropical China is to quantify the modification of precipitation by its pass through the canopy layer for six different tree species, three different successional stages and three different biodiversity classes. For this, new splash cups were developed based on the archetype of Ellison (1947). In contrast to previous studies with splash cups (Vis 1986) or other forms of splash cups (Kinnell 1974; Morgan 1981) we measured the unit sand remaining inside the cup after single natural rainfall events. The new splash cups contain of a PE-flask to which a carrier system has been attached. In this carrier system a cup filled with unit sand of 125-200 µm particle size is inserted. At the bottom of the cup a silk cover is attached to avoid the loss of sand and to guarantee free drainage of water from the cup to the carrier and vice versa. Cup and PE-flask are hydraulically connected by a cotton wick to assure constant moisture content throughout the time of measuring. Additionally, vents in the carrier system ensure that the pressure arising from the insertion of the cup doesn't lead to a loss of sand. The

  18. In vivo evaluation of the effects of hydraulic calcium silicate dental cements on plasma and liver aluminium levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, Kadriye; Can Demirdöğen, Birsen; Öncel Torun, Zeynep; Erdem, Onur; Çetinkaya, Serdar; Akay, Cemal

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to test whether the presence of three hydraulic calcium silicate dental cements--MTA Angelus, MTA Fillapex, and Theracal LC--in the dental extraction socket of an in vivo model, would affect the levels of aluminium (Al) in the plasma and liver. Following anesthesia, the right upper incisor of each male Wistar albino rat was extracted and polyethylene tubes filled with MTA Angelus, MTA Fillapex, or Theracal LC were inserted into the depth of the extraction socket and gingival tissue was sutured. The rats were killed 7, 30, or 60 d after the operation. Blood and liver samples were obtained from the rats before they were killed, and the levels of Al were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Plasma Al levels were higher in the rats in which the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cements were implanted, especially MTA Angelus and MTA Fillapex, compared with control rats. In liver samples, however, the differences in Al level were not statistically significant. Our results show that Al might have been released into the circulation from the three dental cements tested, especially MTA Angelus and MTA Fillapex. Further research should be carried out on the possible biological effects of Al liberated from dental cements. PMID:26706154

  19. Modelling Quartz Cementation of Quartzose Sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangen, Magnus

    1999-10-01

    Porosity estimation in sandstones is an important part of oil reservoir quality estimations, as porosity is lost during burial because of mechanical compaction and quartz cementation. In this report, cementation of quartzose sandstones is modelled assuming that the main source of silica is quartz dissolved at stylolites. The cementation process is shown to operate in one of two different regimes depending on the Damkohler number for diffusion. The regime, where diffusion of silica from the stylolites is a faster process than precipitation, is characterized by a nearly constant supersaturation between the stylolites. This regime, which spans the depth interval of quartz cementation for close stylolites, allows approximate analytical expressions for the porosity evolution as a function of time and temperature. An expression is derived for the temperature where half the initial porosity is lost during constant burial along constant thermal gradient. This expression is used to study the sensitivity of all parameters which enter the cementation process. The cementation process is shown to be particularly sensitive to the activation energy for quartz dissolution. The expression for the porosity decrease under constant burial is generalized to any piecewise linear burial and temperature history. The influence of the burial histories on the cementation process is studied. 32 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Three big Cs: climate, cement and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordqvist, Joakim [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Boyd, Christopher [Lafarge (France); Klee, Howard [World Business Council for Sustainable Development (Switzerland)

    2003-09-30

    Cement is a low-cost construction material whose manufacture generates significant carbon dioxide emissions. As these emissions enter a carbon-constrained world, they may ultimately have a significant impact on the industry's financial performance. Consequently, the cement industry is developing a response to climate change management and the connected political process. Ten of the world's leading cement-producing corporations, representing more than one-third of global cement production, published a joint Agenda for Action in 2002 to address sustainability issues for the industry, including climate change. Other issues identified are emissions reduction, use of fuels and raw materials, employee health and safety, local impacts on land and communities, and internal business processes. Examining the rationale for, and the effects of, proactive climate initiatives in the cement sector, this paper elaborates on the conditions for the spread of cement-related climate action to China, where more than one-third of global cement production occurs, 80% of which involves inefficient kilns using outdated, highly polluting technology. (Author)

  1. Effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Mouhat, Mathieu; Nergård, John Magnus; Lægreid, Solveig Jenssen; Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The present study investigated the effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns in relation to their compressive strength. Materials and methods Four different cements were tested: zinc phosphate cement (ZPC), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), self-adhesive resin-based cement (SRC) and resin-based cement (RC). RC was used in both dual cure mode (RC-D) and chemical cure mode (RC-C). First, the compressive strength of each cement was tested according to a...

  2. Laboratory studies on the longevity of cement grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes laboratory studies of the longevity of cement-based grouts being carried out as part of the International Stripa Project Phase III. The longevity properties determined for a reference grout (90% Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement, 10% silica fume, 0.4< water/cement<0.6 and superplasticizer) are compared with those of a slag cement grout. Laboratory tests have been carried out to determine the following: the mechanistic function of superplasticizer in fresh cement pastes; the leachability of the sorbed superplasticizer and its location in the structure of hardened cement paste; and the general leaching properties of selected cement-based grouts

  3. Geochemical modelling of long-term cement degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate geochemical reactions related to long-term cement degradation caused by interaction with groundwater using a geochemical model. The results from modelling showed changes in chemical composition of pore water and cement compounds resulted from cement hydration and degradation. In this study, the volume of each cement compound was also calculated using a geochemical model. The porosity of cement caused by degradation was estimated using the change in volume of each cement compound. The results from this study provide important information to evaluate long-term durability of cement in groundwater system, which is closely related to the safety of radioactive waste disposal repository

  4. Fracture model for cemented aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Zubelewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanisms-based fracture model applicable to a broad class of cemented aggregates and, among them, plastic-bonded explosive (PBX composites, is presented. The model is calibrated for PBX 9502 using the available experimental data under uniaxial compression and tension gathered at various strain rates and temperatures. We show that the model correctly captures inelastic stress-strain responses prior to the load peak and it predicts the post-critical macro-fracture processes, which result from the growth and coalescence of micro-cracks. In our approach, the fracture zone is embedded into elastic matrix and effectively weakens the material's strength along the plane of the dominant fracture.

  5. Thermal behavior of asphalt cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asphalt cements are highly complex mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules whose thermal behavior is of prime importance for petroleum and road industry. From DSC, the determination of several thermal properties of asphalts is given, e.g. glass-transition temperature and crystallized fraction content.The dissolution of a pure n-paraffin CnH2n+2 in an asphalt, as seen by DSC, should be a single peak. For 20g of these glasses change with time and temperature. The formation of the crystallized phases is superposed to the enthalpic relaxation of the glasses, making a kinetic study very difficult. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Roles of CUP-5, the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue of human TRPML1, in lysosome and gut granule biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Hanna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CUP-5 is a Transient Receptor Potential protein in C. elegans that is the orthologue of mammalian TRPML1. Loss of TRPML1 results in the lysosomal storage disorder Mucolipidosis type IV. Loss of CUP-5 results in embryonic lethality and the accumulation of enlarged yolk granules in developing intestinal cells. The embryonic lethality of cup-5 mutants is rescued by mutations in mrp-4, which is required for gut granule differentiation. Gut granules are intestine-specific lysosome-related organelles that accumulate birefringent material. This link between CUP-5 and gut granules led us to determine the roles of CUP-5 in lysosome and gut granule biogenesis in developing intestinal cells. Results We show that CUP-5 protein localizes to lysosomes, but not to gut granules, in developing intestinal cells. Loss of CUP-5 results in defects in endo-lysosomal transport in developing intestinal cells of C. elegans embryos. This ultimately leads to the appearance of enlarged terminal vacuoles that show defective lysosomal degradation and that have lysosomal and endosomal markers. In contrast, gut granule biogenesis is normal in the absence of CUP-5. Furthermore, loss of CUP-5 does not result in inappropriate fusion or mixing of content between lysosomes and gut granules. Conclusions Using an in vivo model of MLIV, we show that there is a defect in lysosomal transport/biogenesis that is earlier than the presumed function of TRPML1 in terminal lysosomes. Our results indicate that CUP-5 is required for the biogenesis of lysosomes but not of gut granules. Thus, cellular phenotypes in Mucolipidosis type IV are likely not due to defects in lysosome-related organelle biogenesis, but due to progressive defects in lysosomal transport that lead to severe lysosomal dysfunction.

  7. Silica Transport and Cementation in Quartz Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebble, C.; Farver, J.; Onasch, C.; Winslow, D.

    2008-12-01

    Silica transport and cementation in quartz aggregates have been experimentally investigated. Starting materials include a natural quartz arenite (Pocono sandstone), sized clasts of synthetic quartz, and sized grains of disaggregated natural sandstones. Experimental charges consisted of amorphous silica powder (~25 mg), AlCl3 powder (~3 mg), 25 wt% NaCl brine solution (~20 mg), and the starting material (~150 mg). The charges were weld-sealed in gold capsules and run in cold-seal pressure vessels at 300°C to 600°C at 150 MPa confining pressure for up to 4 weeks. Detailed calibrations of the furnaces indicate the maximum temperature variation across the length of the sample charges (3-7mm) was vacuum impregnated with epoxy containing a blue dye and sawn in half along the long axis of the sample charge. The nature and amount of silica transport and cementation in the samples was determined by a combination of Cathodoluminescence (CL), Light Microscopy (LM), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Photomosaics of the samples were collected and the amount of cement, porosity, and average grain sizes were determined by point-counting. The cement was easily recognized from the quartz grains by the difference in luminescence. The experiments indicate that the presence of amorphous silica results in rapid silica cementation in quartz aggregates (e.g., up to 12% cement by volume in 4 weeks at 450°C). The amount of cementation is a function of substrate type, time, temperature, and ionic strength of the brine. The rate of silica transport through the length of the experimental charge appears to be limited by the silica solubility and its rapid depletion by cementation. Although most of the cement was derived from the amorphous silica, evidence for local dissolution-precipitation was observed. The experiments demonstrate that the mobility of silica, and consequent precipitation of cement, does not require a temperature or pressure gradient as is commonly assumed. Rather

  8. INFLUENCE OF GLASS CULLET IN CEMENT PASTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Karamberi; E.Chaniotakis; D.Papageorgiou; A.Moutsatsou

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates glass and cement compatibility with a view to use glass as a cement replacement. Amber, flint and green glasses were chosen due to their prevalence in the Greek market as packaging materials. The factors under investigation were the pozzolanicity of the glass cullet, the hydration rate and the mechanical strength development of the cement pastes, as well as the expansion of the specimens due to alkali-silica reaction.Moreover, the potential enhancement of glass pozzolanic activity was examined. The results of the study were encouraging to show the potentiality of utilising glass cullet in cementitious products.

  9. Shrinkage Properties of Cement Stabilized Gravel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    shrinkage properties of cement stabilized gravel have been documented under various temperature and relative humidity conditions. Two cement contents corresponding to a 28-days compressive strength of 6.2 MPa and 12.3 MPa have been tested and compared. It is found that the coefficient of linear expansion...... for the two cement contents is 9.9 × 10-6 ⁰C-1 and 11.3 × 10-6 ⁰C-1, respectively. Furthermore, it is found that reflecting cracking can mainly be explained by temperature dependent shrinkage rather than moisture dependent shrinkage....

  10. Operating experience with KRAFTWERK UNION cementation line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility is described designed for fixation in a cement matrix of the radioactive concentrate produced by thickening waste water from the Bohunice nuclear power plant. The cementation line output is 0.6 m3 concentrate/h. The concentrate is put in 200 l drums. The individual operating units, cement management, air conditioning, dosimetric monitoring and the building part are described. The requirements for the operators and the assessment of the quality of raw materials and the product are discussed. (M.D.). 3 figs., 4 refs

  11. Reinforcement of osteosynthesis screws with brushite cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landuyt, P; Peter, B; Beluze, L; Lemaître, J

    1999-08-01

    The fixation of osteosynthesis screws remains a severe problem for fracture repair among osteoporotic patients. Polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) is routinely used to improve screw fixation, but this material has well-known drawbacks such as monomer toxicity, exothermic polymerization, and nonresorbability. Calcium phosphate cements have been developed for several years. Among these new bone substitution materials, brushite cements have the advantage of being injectable and resorbable. The aim of this study is to assess the reinforcement of osteosynthesis screws with brushite cement. Polyurethane foams, whose density is close to that of cancellous bone, were used as bone model. A hole was tapped in a foam sample, then brushite cement was injected. Trabecular osteosynthesis screws were inserted. After 24 h of aging in water, the stripping force was measured by a pull-out test. Screws (4.0 and 6.5 mm diameter) and two foam densities (0.14 and 0.28 g/cm3) were compared. Cements with varying solid/liquid ratios and xanthan contents were used in order to obtain the best screw reinforcement. During the pull-out test, the stripping force first increases to a maximum, then drops to a steady-state value until complete screw extraction. Both maximum force and plateau value increase drastically in the presence of cement. The highest stripping force is observed for 6.5-mm screws reinforced with cement in low-density foams. In this case, the stripping force is multiplied by 3.3 in the presence of cement. In a second experiment, cements with solid/liquid ratio ranging from 2.0 to 3.5 g/mL were used with 6.5-mm diameter screws. In some compositions, xanthan was added to improve injectability. The best results were obtained with 2.5 g/mL cement containing xanthan and with 3.0 g/mL cements without xanthan. A 0.9-kN maximal stripping force was observed with nonreinforced screws, while 1.9 kN was reached with reinforced screws. These first results are very promising regarding screw

  12. Effect of cementing technique and cement type on thermal necrosis in hip resurfacing arthroplasty - a numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, D.; Srinivasan, P.; Scheerlinck, T.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Femoral fractures within resurfacing implants have been associated with bone necrosis, possibly resulting from heat generated by cement polymerization. The amount of heat generated depends on cement mantle volume and type of cement. Using finite element analysis, the effect of cement type and volume

  13. Foamed cement for squeeze cementing low-pressure, highly permeable reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four different cement squeezing techniques have been used on wells producing from the Keg River formation in the Rainbow Lake area of Alberta, Canada. This paper evaluates 151 cement squeeze treatments performed at 96 wellsites and compares the use of foam cement vs. conventional squeeze treatments and techniques. Discussion includes key aspects, such as candidate selection, slurry design, treatment design, economic evaluation, and operational considerations

  14. Voids/Cement Ratio Controlling Tensile Strength of Cement-Treated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Nilo Cesar Consoli; Antonio Viana da Fonseca; Rodrigo Caberlon Cruz; Sara Rios Silva

    2011-01-01

    The improvement of locally available soils with cement can provide great advantages, including avoiding the need to borrow volumes of appropriate material and disposing of the local soil in deposits. This research aims to quantify the influence of the amount of cement, the porosity, and the voids/cement ratio in the assessment of splitting tensile strength (q(t)), also known as indirect diametrical tensile (IDT) strength, of three distinct soils from Brazil and Portugal. From Brazil, clayey s...

  15. Effect of Abutment Modification and Cement Type on Retention of Cement-Retained Implant Supported Crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra Farzin; Kianoosh Torabi; Ahmad Hasan Ahangari; Reza Derafshi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Provisional cements are commonly used to facilitate retrievability of cement-retained fixed implant restorations; but compromised abutment preparation may affect the retention of implant-retained crowns.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abutment design and type of luting agent on the retentive strength of cement-retained implant restorations. Materials and Method: Two prefabricated abutments were attached to their corresponding analogs and embedded in an ac...

  16. ANALYSIS OF UNCERTAINTIES IN CEMENT INDUSTRY IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Kemal Yildirim; Omer Arioz

    2013-01-01

    Cement industry having 4,5 billion Dollars revenue and 1 billion Dollar export volume plays very important role in Turkey’s economy. Turkish cement industry is very sensitive to economic crisis and involves many uncertainties. In this study, price uncertainties, technological uncertainties, and price-technological uncertainties in Turkish cement industry were analyzed. The cement demand is mostly affected by demand to ready mixed concrete. Demand to cement is also related to the picture of co...

  17. Composite cements containing natural pozzolan and granulated blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Irassar, E. F.; Rahhal, V.F.; Donza, H. A.; Menéndez, G.; Bonavetti, V. L.

    2006-01-01

    For reasons of market demand and Portland cement production,the manufacture of cements with two or more separately ground additions to produce customized cements is becoming common practice.When pozzolan or slag content in this type of cements is high, however, the initial strength of the resulting product may be adversely impacted. This problem can be minimized by activating one or both of the replacement materials. The present study analyzes the effect of Portland cement additions such as p...

  18. Preliminary study using pulsating water jet for bone cement demolition

    OpenAIRE

    S. Hloch; Kloc, J.; Foldyna, J.; Pude, F.; Smolko, I.; M. Zeleňák; Sitek, L. (Libor); Hvizdoš, P.; Monka, P.; Monková, K.; Kozak, D.; A. Stoić; A. Sedmak; Milosevic, M; Lehocká, D.

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of using the selective property of ultrasonic pulsating water jet for the disintegration of bone cement which creates the interface between femoral stem and trabecular bone tissue. For investigation, commercial bone cements were used. Bone cements were tested by nanoindentation in order to review their mechanical properties. A representative sample Palacos R+G was selected for disintegration of bone cement. Bone cements samples fixed between two plexiglass...

  19. Radiation effect on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) can be used at a substitute of the bone of human body skeleton. Before being set in to human body, it needs to be sterilized with high energy radiation. Therefore, it is of considerable significance to study the effect of radiation on UHMWPE. Because of ultrahigh molecular weight of this material, there would be a lot of entanglements at molecular chain, its radiation effect would be quite different from that of polyethylene with normal molecular weight. The radiation effect on UHMWPE was studied by means of density and DSC analysis. It has been shown that the density increases with the increase of radiation dose up to 1.13 MGy monotonically. The heat of fusion per unit weight of sample and melting point of UHMWPE increase with dose too, especially at the lower dose of radiation. It could be concluded that during the period of radiation, there would be additional crystallization or crystal perfection taken place

  20. Pulsed laser treatments of polyethylene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L. [Physic Department, Messina University, Ctr. Papardo 31, 98186 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Visco, A.M., E-mail: avisco@unime.i [Industrial Chemistry and Material Engineering Department, Messina University, Ctr. Di Dio, 98186 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Campo, N. [Industrial Chemistry and Material Engineering Department, Messina University, Ctr. Di Dio, 98186 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Caridi, F. [Physic Department, Messina University, Ctr. Papardo 31, 98186 S. Agata, Messina (Italy)

    2010-10-01

    A Nd:Yag pulsed laser, 3 ns pulse width, 150 mJ pulse energy, operating at the second harmonics (532 nm) has been used to irradiate in air polyethylene thin films. The thermal and chemical effects induced by the laser irradiation in the polymer are responsible of the hydrogen and C{sub x}H{sub y} groups emission at long irradiation times. A special study, concerning the welding effect between two different types of polyethylene films, one transparent and the other strong absorbent the laser light, was performed. The welding, at the interface of the two pressed polymers, depends on the optical and micro-structural material properties besides the irradiation time. In particular, polymers with different viscosity, melting temperature and crystalline degree exhibit different mechanical behaviour. Different techniques were employed to investigate on the polymeric welding effects, such as the mass quadrupole spectrometry, the scanning electron microscope, the surface profiler and the mechanical strength measurement.

  1. 78 FR 21260 - Safety Zone; Lubbers Cup Regatta; Spring Lake, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR PART 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lubbers Cup Regatta; Spring Lake, MI AGENCY... safety zone on Spring Lake in Spring Lake, Michigan. This safety zone is intended to restrict...

  2. Identification and Correction of Mechanisms Underlying Inherited Blindness in Human iPSC-Derived Optic Cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, David A; Lane, Amelia; Ramsden, Conor M; Carr, Amanda-Jayne F; Munro, Peter M; Jovanovic, Katarina; Schwarz, Nele; Kanuga, Naheed; Muthiah, Manickam N; Hull, Sarah; Gallo, Jean-Marc; da Cruz, Lyndon; Moore, Anthony T; Hardcastle, Alison J; Coffey, Peter J; Cheetham, Michael E

    2016-06-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is an inherited retinal dystrophy that causes childhood blindness. Photoreceptors are especially sensitive to an intronic mutation in the cilia-related gene CEP290, which causes missplicing and premature termination, but the basis of this sensitivity is unclear. Here, we generated differentiated photoreceptors in three-dimensional optic cups and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from iPSCs with this common CEP290 mutation to investigate disease mechanisms and evaluate candidate therapies. iPSCs differentiated normally into RPE and optic cups, despite abnormal CEP290 splicing and cilia defects. The highest levels of aberrant splicing and cilia defects were observed in optic cups, explaining the retinal-specific manifestation of this CEP290 mutation. Treating optic cups with an antisense morpholino effectively blocked aberrant splicing and restored expression of full-length CEP290, restoring normal cilia-based protein trafficking. These results provide a mechanistic understanding of the retina-specific phenotypes in CEP290 LCA patients and potential strategies for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27151457

  3. Effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the performance of cup anemometers in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, K.H.; Stefantos, N.C.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Morfiadakis, E.

    2001-01-01

    Four commercial and one research cup anemometers were comparatively tested in a complex terrain site to quantify the effects of turbulence and flow inclination on the wind speed measurements. The difference of the mean wind speed reading between the anemometers was as much as 2% for wind directio...

  4. Electrochemical propertiesand thermal stability of cup-like shape gold nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Kynclová, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured surfaces are useful in enlargement of electroactive area of sensing electrodes. The electrodes are very sensitive with maintaining small electrode geometry. In this study, surfaces modified by cup-like gold nanoparticles were fabricated by electrochemical methods. Subsequently, electrochemical properties and thermal stability of fabricated nanostructured electrodes were studied. Thereafter, the electrochemical results were compared with unmodified flat gold layer and contributi...

  5. Evaluation of morphologic changes of mandibular symphysis after chin cup therapy in skeletally Cl III patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinzadeh Nik T.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Chin cup is an orthopedic appliance for treating growing skeletally Cl III patients. The amount of chin forward movement in addition to morphologic changes in bony structure, determines the final profile of treated patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of morphologic changes of symphysis after chin cup therapy in skeletally Cl III patients.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, twenty eight cephalometries before and after chin cup therapy of 14 skeletally Cl III patients were analyzed. Landmarks introduced by Ricketts were determined to evaluate the symphysis and describe its relation to mandible. َAlso four additional measurements regarding the symphysis individually were evaluated and analyzed. Data were analyzed by paired t and pearson tests with P<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: The results showed that the height of symphysis increased after treatment (P=0.02, but its depth decreased (P=0.04. The sysmphysis turned down and back.Conclusion: These findings suggest that in Cl III malocclusions with a prognathic mandible, chin cup therapy creates changes in the horizontal dimension of symphysis morphology, which improves the Cl III profile. If the patient isn't a vertical grower, vertical changes of symphysis would be desirable. In addition, changes in the vertical dimension of the mandible (body and ramus could be observed as a backward and downward rotation.

  6. Taking up an event: Brand image transfer during the FIFA World Cup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Neijens; E. Smit; M. Moorman

    2009-01-01

    A real-life study (N = 1299) into brand images during and after the 2006 FIFA World Cup football tournament showed that the event was a good platform for the creation of brand images through ‘take-up’ advertising in which the brand was associated with the event. Exposure level and involvement with t

  7. Extending virtual robots towards RoboCup Soccer Simulation and @Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Noort; A. Visser

    2012-01-01

    The RoboCup is an initiative to promote the development of robotics in a social relevant way. The competition consists of several leagues and it would be beneficial if developments in one league could be reused in other leagues. This paper describes the development of a simulation model for a humano

  8. The Role of Bee Pollinators in Improving Berry Weight and Coffee Cup Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca H.N. Karanja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at Kiambu County in Kenya. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pollination improves the coffee yield and quality of processed coffee in terms of taste and aroma. Among the parameters evaluated when grading coffee for sale in world market are berry weight and cup quality. No previous work in Kenya describes the role of bee pollinators in enhancement of coffee yields and quality. Data on berry weights and the resulting processed coffee quality from different pollination levels in organically grown coffee were analyzed. Results from this study indicate that coffee benefits immensely from pollinators. The highest berry weight and coffee cup quality were recorded in open pollinated and cross pollinated coffee. There were significant differences in weight and cup quality (p<0.001 between open pollinated coffee and wind pollination, self pollination and autogamy. The study concludes that pollination not only improves the coffee yields but also enhance the coffee cup taste and aroma. High quality coffee fetches higher prices in the world coffee market.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of an additive type super plasticizers obtained from plastics cups of polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to describe the synthesis of an additive type superplasticizer from alternative material - plastic cups used of polystyrene - and characterize it physically and chemically in order to verify their efficiency and compare it with a commercial use superplasticizer. Following the search, the synthesized superplasticizer is used in mortars to assess their efficiency

  10. Spinal Epidural Hematoma Following Cupping Glass Treatment in an Infant With Hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchtman, Yariv; Dardik, Rima; Barg, Assaf Arie; Livnat, Tami; Feldman, Zeev; Rubinstein, Marina; Grinberg, Gahl; Rosenberg, Nurit; Kenet, Gili

    2016-06-01

    A 6 months old infant, diagnosed with a rare mutation causing severe hemophilia A, presented with spinal epidural hematoma. Parents later admitted the infant had glass cupping therapy performed within 2 weeks of the onset of symptoms. The rare mutation, rare bleeding complication, and the eventual course of therapy applied in this case will be discussed in our case report. PMID:26844816

  11. Empirical cupping correction: A first-order raw data precorrection for cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an empirical cupping correction (ECC) algorithm to correct for CT cupping artifacts that are induced by nonlinearities in the projection data. The method is raw data based, empirical, and requires neither knowledge of the x-ray spectrum nor of the attenuation coefficients. It aims at linearizing the attenuation data using a precorrection function of polynomial form. The coefficients of the polynomial are determined once using a calibration scan of a homogeneous phantom. Computing the coefficients is done in image domain by fitting a series of basis images to a template image. The template image is obtained directly from the uncorrected phantom image and no assumptions on the phantom size or of its positioning are made. Raw data are precorrected by passing them through the once-determined polynomial. As an example we demonstrate how ECC can be used to perform water precorrection for an in vivo micro-CT scanner (TomoScope 30 s, VAMP GmbH, Erlangen, Germany). For this particular case, practical considerations regarding the definition of the template image are given. ECC strives to remove the cupping artifacts and to obtain well-calibrated CT values. Although ECC is a first-order correction and cannot compete with iterative higher-order beam hardening or scatter correction algorithms, our in vivo mouse images show a significant reduction of bone-induced artifacts as well. A combination of ECC with analytical techniques yielding a hybrid cupping correction method is possible and allows for channel-dependent correction functions

  12. Football and sex: The 2006 FIFA World Cup and sex trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivojević Sanja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The staging of the 2006 Federation of International Football Association (FIFA World Cup brought together a wide ranging coalition of interests in fuelling a moral panic around sex trafficking in Europe. This coalition of diverse groups aimed to protect innocent third world women and prevent organized crime networks from luring them into the sex industry. In this article we will argue that as a result of increased attention prior to the World Cup 'protective measures' imposed by nation-states and the international community to prevent "disastrous human right abuses" (Crouse, 2006 have seriously undermined women's human rights, especially in relation to migration and mobility. We survey media sources in the lead up to the World Cup to identify the nature of the coalition seeking to protect women considered to be vulnerable to trafficking and the discourses relied upon that have served to undermine women's agency and diverse experiences of increased border and mobility controls. We conclude that measures introduced around the 2006 World Cup in relation to sex trafficking did not end with its final whistle.

  13. 77 FR 60897 - Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Finish-Line, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms APA Administrative Procedure Act DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Finish-Line, San... race finishes that will occur in vicinity of San Francisco West Yacht Harbor Light 2....

  14. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of seven phthalates in total and migrated portions of paper cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Na; Choi, Min Sun; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Gye, Myung Chan; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Phthalate acid esters are widely used as plasticizers to impart plastic flexibility in various industrial applications. In this study, the content of seven phthalates, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) were determined in paper cups using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the potential migration of these seven phthalates from paper cups into various food stimulants under different conditions was evaluated. The levels of DBP, DEHA, DEHP, and DNOP were in the ranges of 0.07-3.14, 0.16-42.69, 0.45-58.56, and 0.3-2.4 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, BBP, DINP, and DIDP were not detected in most of the tested samples. In the migration test, DEHA was released to 50 % ethanol and n-heptane in a time-dependent manner and the maximum migration levels were 65.62 ± 3.61 and 95.56 ± 19.76 μg/L, respectively. The release of other phthalates was very low or negligible. These results demonstrated that paper cups are not a significant source of phthalate exposure; however, DEHA could be released from paper cups into alcoholic beverages or oily liquid beverages in the human diet. PMID:27053047

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy modified with Cu-P

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Henghua; DUAN Haiti; SHAO Guangjie; XU Luoping

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-14.6Si castings modified by Cu-P master alloy under different conditions were studied with optical microscope (OM) and mechanical testing and simulation (MTS).The results indicate that the Cu-P master alloy possesses not only obvious modification effect,but also longevity effect with more than 8 h on the hypereutectic Al-Si alloy.It is shown from thermal calculation,scanning electron microscope (SEM),and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) that the modification mechanism of Cu-P on primary silicon in the castings is heterogeneous nucleation around AlP particles.The Cu-P master alloy has no or little modifying effect on eutectic silicon,even though it has obvious modification on primary silicon in the castings.This may be because of the fast transformation of eutectic silicon at a very narrow temperature,which will notably weaken the role of AlP particles as heterogeneous nuclei for eutectic silicon.

  16. Enamel fluoride levels after orthodontic band cementation with glass ionomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, S; Uner, O; Alaçam, A; Değim, T

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the fluoride uptake by enamel after application of glass ionomer cement for orthodontic band cementation compared with zinc phosphate cement. The study was conducted on 21 children whose mean age was 14 years. All the children were reared in the Middle Anatolian cities where the water fluoride concentration was below the level of 0.50 ppm. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups. The first experimental group, had seven subjects whose teeth were topically fluoridated with 2 per cent NaF solution, before orthodontic band cementation with zinc phosphate cement. The second experimental group also had seven subjects whose orthodontic bands were cemented with glass ionomer cement. The third group, consisted of seven control subjects and no dental procedures were performed in this group. All the participants were followed for 3 months and at the end of this period maxillary first premolars, which were in the ninth developmental stage according to Nolla (1960), were extracted for orthodontic purposes. The enamel fluoride concentrations were determined on the left maxillary first premolars at three successive etch depths by means of a fluor ion electrode, whereas the calcium concentrations were determined with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results of this investigation showed that in both cementation groups enamel fluoride concentrations at three successive etch depths were highly increased compared with the control group. However, the difference between the cementation groups was not statistically significant. PMID:8746180

  17. Exposure to cement dust at a Portland cement factory and the risk of cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Vestbo, J; Knudsen, K.M.; Raffn, E; Korsgaard, B; Rasmussen, F V

    1991-01-01

    The relation between exposure to cement dust and cancer was examined in a population of 546 cement workers and a reference population of 858 randomly sampled men of similar age and area of residence. In 1974 all men gave lifelong occupational and smoking histories; information on incidence of cancer in the period 1974-85 was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. No increased risk of overall cancer was found among cement workers. Among men with more than 20 years exposure to cement dust, 1...

  18. INFLUENCE OF WINE ACID ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WELL BORE CEMENT SLURRIES AND HARDENED CEMENT PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of commercial types of domestic cements for use in cementing the deep wells is a process by which Yugoslav oil industry tends to solve problems of completion of those wells independently. In order to design a domestic, cheep and effective retarder, tests of applicability of wine acid on cement slurries have been carried out. Besides examining the necessary wine acid content to achieve desirable Theological properties, the influence of this additive on properties of hardened cement samples has been tested too (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. IMPORTANT DEGRADATIONS IN POLYETHYLENE TERAPHTALATE EXTRUSION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Şule ALTUN; ULCAY, Yusuf

    2003-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most used thermo-plastic polymers. The total consumption of PET has been about 30 million tons in the year 2000. Polyester fibers constitute about 60 % of total synthetic fibers consumption. During extrusion, PET polymer is faced to thermal, thermo-oxidative and hydrolytic degradation, which result in severe reduction in its molecular weight, thereby adversely affecting its subsequent melt processability. Therefore, it is essential to understan...

  20. The mechanical behaviour of polyethylene pipe systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Michael

    1982-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The design of polyethylene (PE) pipelines for applications in the gas, water and chemical process industries has been based on data mainly obtained from stress rupture testing pipes only. In practice, installations are composed of both extruded pipe and injection moulded fittings which are joined by a fusion welding technique and are very often subjected to internal pressures of a fl...

  1. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers

    OpenAIRE

    VACHEETHASANEE, KATANCHALEE; WANG, SHUWU; QIU, YONGXING; Marchant, Roger E.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO) were simultaneously att...

  2. Poly(ethylene glycol) interactions with proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 23 (2006), s. 613-618. ISSN 0044-2968. [European Powder Diffraction Conference /9./. Prague, 02.09.2004-05.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/02/0843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(ethylene glycol) * PEO * protein-polymer interaction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  3. Degradation of Green Polyethylene by Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz; Sirlaine Albino Paes; Karla Veloso Gonçalves Ribeiro; Igor Rodrigues Mendes; Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya

    2015-01-01

    We studied the biodegradation of green polyethylene (GP) by Pleurotus ostreatus. The GP was developed from renewable raw materials to help to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, little information regarding the biodegradation of GP discarded in the environment is available. P. ostreatus is a lignocellulolytic fungus that has been used in bioremediation processes for agroindustrial residues, pollutants, and recalcitrant compounds. Recently, we showed the potential of this fungus...

  4. Analysis of polyethylene wear in plain radiographs

    OpenAIRE

    Stilling, Maiken; Søballe, Kjeld; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Larsen, Kristian; Rahbek, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Two-dimensional computerized radiographic techniques are frequently used to measure in vivo polyethylene (PE) wear after total hip arthroplasty (THA), and several variables in the clinical set-up may influence the amount of wear that is measured. We compared the repeatability and concurrent validity of linear PE wear on plain radiographs using the same software but a different number of radiographs. Methods We used either 1, 2, or 6 anteroposterior (AP) hip radiographs ...

  5. Improved streptococcal grouping antisera containing polyethylene glycol.

    OpenAIRE

    George, J R; Ashworth, H; Facklam, R R; Harrell, W K; Palmer, D F

    1981-01-01

    Antisera to streptococcal groups A through G containing 4% polyethylene glycol 6000 were prepared and evaluated. Seventy strains of homologous and heterologous beta- and non-beta-hemolytic streptococci were included in the evaluation. Homologous reactions were determined against extracts prepared by four extraction methods: hot hydrochloric acid (Lancefield) extraction, autoclave extraction, hot formamide extraction, and nitrous acid extraction. Enhancement of the precipitin reaction in the p...

  6. Hydration of polyethylene glycol-grafted liposomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tirosh, O; Barenholz, Y; Katzhendler, J; Priev, A

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the effect of polyethylene glycol of 2000 molecular weight (PEG2000) attached to a dialkylphosphatidic acid (dihexadecylphosphatidyl (DHP)-PEG2000) on the hydration and thermodynamic stability of lipid assemblies. Differential scanning calorimetry, densitometry, and ultrasound velocity and absorption measurements were used for thermodynamic and hydrational characterization. Using a differential scanning calorimetry technique we showed that each molecule of PEG...

  7. Polyethylene Terephthalate May Yield Endocrine Disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Sax, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent reports suggest that endocrine disruptors may leach into the contents of bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET is the main ingredient in most clear plastic containers used for beverages and condiments worldwide and has previously been generally assumed not to be a source of endocrine disruptors. Objective I begin by considering evidence that bottles made from PET may leach various phthalates that have been putatively identified as endocrine disruptors. I al...

  8. Thermal Analyse sof Cross-Linked Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Polansky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes results obtained during the structural analyses measurements (Differential Scanning Calorimetry DSC, Thermogravimetry TG, Thermomechanical analysis TMA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FT-IR. The samples of cross-linked polyethylene cable insulation were tested via these analyses. The DSC and TG were carried out using simultaneous thermal analyzer TA Instruments SDT Q600 with connection of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer Nicolet 380. Thermomechanical analysis was carried out by TMA Q400EM TA Instruments apparatus.

  9. Single chain elasticity and thermoelasticity of polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Titantah, John T.; Pierleoni, Carlo; Ryckaert, Jean-Paul

    2002-01-01

    Single-chain elasticity of polyethylene at $\\theta$ point up to 90% of stretching with respect to its contour length is computed by Monte-Carlo simulation of an atomistic model in continuous space. The elasticity law together with the free-energy and the internal energy variations with stretching are found to be very well represented by the wormlike chain model up to 65% of the chain elongation, provided the persistence length is treated as a temperature dependent parameter. Beyond this value...

  10. Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on polyethylene terephthalate

    OpenAIRE

    Reznickova, Alena; Novotna, Zdenka; Kolska, Zdenka; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2014-01-01

    Two different procedures of grafting with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), activated by plasma treatment, are studied. In the first procedure, the PET foil was grafted with biphenyl-4,4′-dithiol and subsequently with silver nanoparticles. In the second one, the PET foil was grafted with silver nanoparticles previously coated with the same dithiol. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrokinetic analysis were used for characterization of the polymer surface ...

  11. Surface properties of polyethylene grafted by plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, I.; Nedelčev, T.; Krupa, I.; Števiar, M.; Chodák, I.; Mosnáček, J.; Špírková, Milena; Chehimi, M. M.

    Praha: Česká společnost průmyslové chemie, 2008, s. 2130-2134. [Konference Aprochem 2008 a Odpadové fórum. Milovy (CZ), 14.04.2008-16.04.2008] Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/7103/27 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyethylene * surface properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  12. Plasma surface modification of polystyrene and polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Guruvenket, S; Rao, Mohan G; Komath, Manoj; Raichur, Ashok M.

    2004-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) samples were treated with argon and oxygen plasmas. Microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) was used to generate the argon and oxygen plasmas and these plasmas were used to modify the surface of the polymers. The samples were processed at different microwave powers and treatment time and the surface modification of the polymer was evaluated by measuring the water contact angle of the samples before and after the modification.Decrease in the contact ...

  13. Diffusion of phenolic compounds through polyethylene films

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mendes; Touze Foltz, N.; Gardoni, M.; Mazéas, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the diffusion of phenolic compounds through virgin and aged polyethylene (PE) films. The study considers five chlorophenols contaminants (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-tricholophenol, 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol) that are known to be toxic even at very low concentrations. The concentration dynamics in the source and receptor chambers of the diffusion cells is interpreted using the numerical code Pollute. For virgin P...

  14. Hopping Conductivity in Low-Density Polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Brunson, Jerilyn; Dennison, JR

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of resistivity of low density polyethylene (LDPE) have been made using the standard constant voltage method to determine the temperature dependence of resistivity. Where electrons are assumed to serve as the primary charge carriers, their mobility is believed to be dependent on their probability of hopping between trapping sites treated as potential wells. We consider our measurements of this relatively simple polymeric material using temperature-dependant models of conduction me...

  15. Electron dynamics of shocked polyethylene crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Theofanis, Patrick L.; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres; Goddard, William A.; Mattsson, Thomas R.; Thompson, Aidan P.

    2012-01-01

    Electron force field (eFF) wave-packet molecular-dynamics simulations of the single shock Hugoniot are reported for a crystalline polyethylene (PE) model. The eFF results are in good agreement with previous density-functional theories and experimental data, which are available up to 80 GPa. We predict shock Hugoniots for PE up to 350 GPa. In addition, we analyze the structural transformations that occur due to heating. Our analysis includes ionization fraction, molecular decomposition, and el...

  16. Morphological changes during annealing of polyethylene nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Nandita; Osichow, Anna; Mecking, Stefan; Reiter, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Polymer crystals are metastable and exhibit morphological changes when being annealed. To observe morphological changes on molecular scales we started from small nanometer-sized crystals of highly folded long-chain polymers. Micron-sized stripes consisting of monolayers or stacks of several layers of flat-on oriented polyethylene nanocrystals were generated via evaporative dewetting from an aqueous dispersion. We followed the morphological changes in time and at progressively higher annealing...

  17. Cell adhesion and proliferation on modified polyethylene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasálková, N.; Kolářová, K.; Bačáková, Lucie; Pařízek, Martin; Macková, Anna; Švorčík, V.

    ZURICH: TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2008 - (Sandera, P.), s. 269-272. (MATERIALS SCIENCE FORUM. 567-568). ISSN 0255-5476. [5th International Conference on Materials Structure & Micromechanics of Fracture. Brno (CZ), 27.06.2007-29.06.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : polyethylene * plasma modification * cell adhesion and proliferation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  18. High density polyethylene and zirconium phosphate nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Adan Santos Lino; Luis Claudio Mendes; Daniela de França da Silva; Olaf Malm

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nanocomposite based on high density polyethylene (HDPE) and layered zirconium phosphate organically modified with octadecylamine (ZrPOct) was obtained through melt processing. The ZrPOct was synthesized by precipitation and modified by suspension and sonication procedures. The initial and maximum degradation temperatures (Tonset and Tmax) were increased. A slight decrease of crystallinity degree was detected. Reduction of elastic modulus and elongation at break were noticed. The lame...

  19. Theory of the deformation of aligned polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, A.; Swinburne, T. D.; Hasan, H.; Del Rosso, S.; Iannucci, L; Sutton, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Solitons are proposed as the agents of plastic and viscoelastic deformation in aligned polyethylene. Interactions between straight, parallel molecules are mapped rigorously onto the Frenkel–Kontorova model. It is shown that these molecular interactions distribute an applied load between molecules, with a characteristic transfer length equal to the soliton width. Load transfer leads to the introduction of tensile and compressive solitons at the chain ends to mark the onset of plasticity at a w...

  20. Wear of highly crosslinked polyethylene acetabular components

    OpenAIRE

    Callary, Stuart A.; Solomon, Lucian B; Holubowycz, Oksana T; Campbell, David G; Munn, Zachary; Howie, Donald W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Wear rates of highly crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) acetabular components have varied considerably between different published studies. This variation is in part due to the different techniques used to measure wear and to the errors inherent in measuring the relatively low amounts of wear in XLPE bearings. We undertook a scoping review of studies that have examined the in vivo wear of XLPE acetabular components using the most sensitive method available, radiostereometr...

  1. Polyethylene glycolated PAMAM dendrimers-Efavirenz conjugates

    OpenAIRE

    Pyreddy, Suneela; Kumar, Pandurangan Dinesh; KUMAR, PALANIRAJAN VIJAYARAJ

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The preparation of novel PEGylated PAMAM (poly-amidoamine) dendrimers for delivery of anti-HIV drug Efavirenz is reported. Method and Materials: About 5.0 G PAMAM dendrimers are prepared by ethylene diamine core via Michael addition by divergent method. PEGylation is done by polyethylene glycol 600 using epichlorhydrin as linker. PEGylated 5.0 G PAMAM dendrimers loaded with Efavirenz (EFV) are evaluated for FTIR, DSC, SEM, drug release, and stability studies. Results and Conclusion: From...

  2. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs

  3. Phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xiao-Hui; Zhang Lin-Xi; Xia A-Gen; Chen Hong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations.In this paper, we focus on the collapse of the polyethylene knotted ring chain, and also present the results of linear and ring chains for comparison. At high temperatures, a fully extensive knot structure is observed. The mean-square radius of gyration per bond〈S2〉/(Nb2)and the shape factor(δ*)depend on not only the chain length but also the knot type.With temperature decreasing, chain collapse is observed, and the collapse temperature decreases with the chain length increasing. The actual collapse transition can be determined by the specific heat capacity Cv, and the knotted ring chain undergoes gas-liquid-solid-like transition directly. The phase transition of a knotted ring chain is only one-stage collapse, which is different from the polyethylene linear and ring chains. This investigation can provide some insights into the statistical properties of knotted polymer chains.

  4. Grafting functional antioxidants on highly crosslinked polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malaika, S.; Riasat, S.; Lewucha, C.

    2016-05-01

    The problem of interference of antioxidants, such as hindered phenols, with peroxide-initiated crosslinking of polyethylene was addressed through the use of functional (reactive) graftable antioxidants (g-AO). Reactive derivatives of hindered phenol and hindered amine antioxidants were synthesised, characterised and used to investigate their grafting reactions in high density polyethylene; both non-crosslinked (PE) and highly peroxide-crosslinked (PEXa). Assessment of the extent of in-situ grafting of the antioxidants, their retention after exhaustive solvent extraction in PE and PEXa, and the stabilising performance of the grafted antioxidants (g-AO) in the polymer were examined and benchmarked against conventionally stabilised crosslinked & non-crosslinked polyethylene. It was shown that the functional antioxidants graft to a high extent in PEXa, and that the level of interference of the g-AOs with the polymer crosslinking process was minimal compared to that of conventional antioxidants which bear the same antioxidant function. The much higher level of retention of the g-AOs in PEXa after exhaustive solvent extraction, compared to that of the corresponding conventional antioxidants, accounts for their superior long-term thermal stabilising performance under severe extractive conditions.

  5. Cementation of radioactive liquid scintillator waste simulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid scintillation counting is an important analytical tool with extensive applications in medicine and basic applied research and used in quantification of □ -particles, weak □ and x-rays. The generated spent liquid scintillator radioactive waste should be limited and controlled to protect man and his environment. In this study, the radioactive spent liquid scintillator waste simulate (SLS) was immobilized in cement matrix using a surfactant in order to facilitate and increase the amount of SLS incorporated into the cementitious materials. Mechanical properties of the final cement waste form were acceptable for blocks containing up to 20% SLS in presence of surfactant. X-ray diffraction, IR analysis and scanning electron microscope proved that the hydration of cement materials is not significantly affected by organic scintillator waste. Therefore, the cement matrix could be recommended for solidification of SLS for the acceptable mechanical, physical and chemical characterizations reached.

  6. Calcium phosphate cements properties with polymers addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) have attracted great interest to use in orthopedics and dentistry as replacements for damaged parts of the skeletal system, showing good biocompatibility and osseointegration, allowing its use as bone graft. Several studies have shown that the addition of polymer additives have a strong influence on the cement properties. The low mechanical strength is the main obstacle to greater use of CPC as an implant material. The objective of this study was to evaluate properties of a cement based on α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), added polymers. PVA (10%, 8%, 6%), sodium alginate (2%) and polyacrylate ammonia (3%), all in weight, were added to the synthesized α-TCP powder. The samples were molded and evaluated for density, porosity in vitro test (Simulated Body Fluid), crystalline phases and mechanical strength. The results show increased the mechanical properties of the cement when added these polymers

  7. Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup Development for High Energy TNSA Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, S.; Simone, A.; Turner, E.; Ginnane, M. K.; Glisic, M.; Kousar, B.; Smith, A.; Sangster, C.; Regan, S.

    2015-11-01

    MTW and OMEGA EP Lasers at LLE utilize ultra-intense laser light to produce high-energy ion pulses through Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). A Time Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup (TRTF) was designed and built to collect and differentiate protons from heavy ions (HI) produced during TNSA. The TRTF includes a replaceable thickness absorber capable of stopping a range of user-selectable HI emitted from TNSA plasma. HI stop within the primary cup, while less massive particles continue through and deposit their remaining charge in the secondary cup, releasing secondary electrons in the process. The time-resolved beam current generated in each cup will be measured on a fast storage scope in multiple channels. A charge-exchange foil at the TRTF entrance modifies the charge state distribution of HI to a known distribution. Using this distribution and the time of flight of the HI, the total HI current can be determined. Initial tests of the TRTF have been made using a proton beam produced by SUNY Geneseo's 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator. A substantial reduction in secondary electron production, from 70% of the proton beam current at 2MeV down to 0.7%, was achieved by installing a pair of dipole magnet deflectors which successfully returned the electrons to the cups in the TRTF. Ultimately the TRTF will be used to normalize a variety of nuclear physics cross sections and stopping power measurements. Based in part upon work supported by a DOE NNSA Award#DE-NA0001944.

  8. Stability of Commercially Available Grape and Compounded Cherry Oral Vancomycin Preparations Stored in Syringes and Cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Loren; Lewis, Paul; Luu, Yao; Brown, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of two preparations of vancomycin oral solution in two different storage containers, capped amber oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed oral-dosing cups, stored under refrigerated conditions. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation and compounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation were divided into 5-mL aliquots into heat-sealed plastic dosing cups and capped oral-dosing syringes. All samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) and evaluated at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. For each evaluation, samples were visually inspected and analyzed for potency using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection. Over the study period, at least 90% of the initial concentrations for the preparation and the product in both storage containers were retained at 60 days. The commercially available oral vancomycin further demonstrated stability within 90% out to 90 days in the syringe and the unit-dose cups. Visual inspection revealed no changes in the grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation, but a detectable red-dye precipitate could be seen in the crevices of the dosing cups from the vancomycin in cherry syrup oral preparation after 60 days. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation was stable up to 90 days, and com- pounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation maintained stability for 60 days when dispensed in capped amber polypropylene oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed plastic dosing cups when stored at refrigerated conditions. PMID:27323427

  9. Improvement of Cement Strength by Induction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-yuan; LIN Zong-shou

    2004-01-01

    The induction method of improving the strength of Portland cement by adding fine slag powder,high aluminate component and hydrated paste was investigated through determining the physical properties,hydration heat and pore size distribution,and its mechanism was discussed.The experimental results reveal that a certain content of high aluminate component,fine slag powder and hydrated paste can improve remarkably the strength of Portland cement.

  10. Study and Characterization of Expansive Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Guerra Menéndez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to characterize commercial expansive cement for subsequent development of national formulation, with consequent economic effect and independence of the international market. On the other hand the results contribute to the development of scientific and technological potential. Expansive cement is a product that enables non-explosive demolition, rock and concrete demolition. To characterize the composition of these products, techniques used infrared spectroscopy with Fourier Transforms and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  11. Study and Characterization of Expansive Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Guerra Menéndez; Eduardo Peón Avés; Julio E. Lanza Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize commercial expansive cement for subsequent development of national formulation, with consequent economic effect and independence of the international market. On the other hand the results contribute to the development of scientific and technological potential. Expansive cement is a product that enables non-explosive demolition, rock and concrete demolition. To characterize the composition of these products, techniques used infrared spectroscopy w...

  12. Radiological changes in asbestos cement workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, K; Strömberg, U; Albin, M; Welinder, H; Hagmar, L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To explore associations between exposure to asbestos cement dust and radiographic findings in lung parenchyma and pleura. METHODS--Radiographs from 174 blue collar workers and 29 white collar workers from an asbestos cement plant formed one part of the study. Progression of small opacities was further studied in those 124 blue collar workers, for whom two radiographs taken after the end of employment were available. The median readings from five readers who used the full ILO 1980 c...

  13. Dynamic properties of composite cemented clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡袁强; 梁旭

    2004-01-01

    In this work,the dynamic properties of composite cemented clay under a wide range of strains were studied considering the effect of different mixing ratio and the change of confining pressures through dynamic triaxial test. A simple and practical method to estimate the dynamic elastic modulus and damping ratio is proposed in this paper and a related empirical normalized formula is also presented. The results provide useful guidelines for preliminary estimation of cement requirements to improve the dynamic properties of clays.

  14. Influence of polysaccharides on cement hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Peschard, Arnaud; Govin, Alexandre; Fredon, Emmanuel; Grosseau, Philippe; Fantozzi, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    This paper is about the influence of polysaccharides on cement hydration. Three polysaccharides were studied: a cellulose ether (CE), a starch ether (SE) and a dextrin (YD). In a concentrated media as well as in a dilute media, admixture CE only revealed a slight effect on cement hydration. Portlandite and ettringite formation and gypsum consumption were slowed down by SE adjunction. Admixture YD induced an acceleration of ettringite formation as well as gypsum consumption whereas portiandite...

  15. Microstructure Analysis of Heated Portland Cement Paste

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Zhang; Ye, G.

    2011-01-01

    When a concrete structure is exposed to high temperature, the mechanical damage and chemical transformation take place simultaneously, which will change the microstructure of material. On the other hand, the mechanical properties and transport properties depend on the development of microstructure of cement paste. In order to study the microstructure changes at high temperature, in this contribution the cement paste samples were firstly heated to varied temperatures from 100 °C to 1000 °C wit...

  16. Acrylic Bone Cements Modified with Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Krilova, V; Vītiņš, V

    2010-01-01

    The successful result of restorative and replacement surgical operation depends significantly on properties of used bone cement. Acrylic bone cements are usually based on methylmethacrylate polymer, while monomer polymerization begins after mixing of components in mixing device and terminates in living tissue. Polymerization of methylmethacrylate is exothermic process, and temperature increase might cause tissue necrosis with concomitant implant aseptic loosening. Developed non-ionogenic and ...

  17. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  18. Topics in Cement and Concrete Research

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwers, H. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper addresses several topics in regard to the sustainable design and use of concrete. First, major features concerning the sustainable aspects of the material concrete are summarised. Then the major constituent, from an environmental point of view, cement is discussed in detail, particularly the hydration and application of slag cement. The intelligent combining of mineral oxides, which are found in clinker, slag, fly ashes etc., is designated as mineral oxide engineering. It re...

  19. A coarse-grained model for polyethylene oxide and polyethylene glycol: conformation and hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hwankyu; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert-Jan; Pastor, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    A coarse-grained (CG) model for polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) developed within the framework of the MARTINI CG force field (FF) using the distributions of bonds, angles, and dihedrals from the CHARMM all-atom FF is presented. Densities of neat low molecular weight PEO agree with experiment, and the radius of gyration R-g = 19.1 angstrom +/- 0.7 for 76-mers of PEO (M-w approximate to 3400), in excellent agreement with neutron scattering results for an equal sized PEG. ...

  20. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Polyethylene Oxide and Polyethylene Glycol: Hydrodynamic Radius and Shape Anisotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hwankyu; Venable, Richard M.; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Pastor, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    A revision (C35r) to the CHARMM ether force field is shown to reproduce experimentally observed conformational populations of dimethoxyethane. Molecular dynamics simulations of 9, 18, 27, and 36-mers of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and 27-mers of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in water based on C35r yield a persistence length λ = 3.7 Å, in quantitative agreement with experimentally obtained values of 3.7 Å for PEO and 3.8 Å for PEG; agreement with experimental values for hydrodynamic radii of comparab...