WorldWideScience

Sample records for cementation process project

  1. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included in the original project design. That is, that the design and operation of existing Cementation Process equipment and processes allows for the minimization of personnel exposure in its operation, maintenance and decommissioning and that the generation of radioactive waste is kept to a minimum

  2. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Dayley, L

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included...

  3. Quantitative modelling of the degradation processes of cement grout. Project CEMMOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Galindez, Juan-Manuel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-05-15

    Grout cement is planned to be used in the sealing of water-conducting fractures in the deep geological storage of spent nuclear fuel waste. The integrity of such cementitious materials should be ensured in a time framework of decades to a hundred of years as mimum. However, their durability must be quantified since grout degradation may jeopardize the stability of other components in the repository due to the potential release of hyperalkaline plumes. The model prediction of the cement alteration has been challenging in the last years mainly due to the difficulty to reproduce the progressive change in composition of the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) compounds as the alteration proceeds. In general, the data obtained from laboratory experiments show a rather similar dependence between the pH of pore water and the Ca-Si ratio of the CSH phases. The Ca-Si ratio decreases as the CSH is progressively replaced by Si-enriched phases. An elegant and reasonable approach is the use of solid solution models even keeping in mind that CSH phases are not crystalline solids but gels. An additional obstacle is the uncertainty in the initial composition of the grout to be considered in the calculations because only the recipe of low-pH clinker is commonly provided by the manufacturer. The hydration process leads to the formation of new phases and, importantly, creates porosity. A number of solid solution models have been reported in literature. Most of them assumed a strong non-ideal binary solid solution series to account for the observed changes in the Ca-Si ratios in CSH. However, it results very difficult to reproduce the degradation of the CSH in the whole Ca-Si range of compositions (commonly Ca/Si=0.5-2.5) by considering only two end-members and fixed nonideality parameters. Models with multiple non-ideal end-members with interaction parameters as a function of the solid composition can solve the problem but these can not be managed in the existing codes of reactive

  4. Quantitative modelling of the degradation processes of cement grout. Project CEMMOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grout cement is planned to be used in the sealing of water-conducting fractures in the deep geological storage of spent nuclear fuel waste. The integrity of such cementitious materials should be ensured in a time framework of decades to a hundred of years as mimum. However, their durability must be quantified since grout degradation may jeopardize the stability of other components in the repository due to the potential release of hyperalkaline plumes. The model prediction of the cement alteration has been challenging in the last years mainly due to the difficulty to reproduce the progressive change in composition of the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) compounds as the alteration proceeds. In general, the data obtained from laboratory experiments show a rather similar dependence between the pH of pore water and the Ca-Si ratio of the CSH phases. The Ca-Si ratio decreases as the CSH is progressively replaced by Si-enriched phases. An elegant and reasonable approach is the use of solid solution models even keeping in mind that CSH phases are not crystalline solids but gels. An additional obstacle is the uncertainty in the initial composition of the grout to be considered in the calculations because only the recipe of low-pH clinker is commonly provided by the manufacturer. The hydration process leads to the formation of new phases and, importantly, creates porosity. A number of solid solution models have been reported in literature. Most of them assumed a strong non-ideal binary solid solution series to account for the observed changes in the Ca-Si ratios in CSH. However, it results very difficult to reproduce the degradation of the CSH in the whole Ca-Si range of compositions (commonly Ca/Si=0.5-2.5) by considering only two end-members and fixed nonideality parameters. Models with multiple non-ideal end-members with interaction parameters as a function of the solid composition can solve the problem but these can not be managed in the existing codes of reactive

  5. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  6. Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber(trademark) for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe(trademark) concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising

  7. Qualification of radioactive waste cement conditioning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleco Qualification Process Laboratory activities are focused on qualification of cement matrix conditioning processes of Low and Intermediate Level Waste produced by the decommissioning of old Nuclear Power Plants and research centres. Radioactive waste management strategies for Second- and Third Category wastes (according to the ENEA Technical Guide n. 26), involve specific processes (treatment and conditioning) aimed at producing a final waste form in which the radionuclides are incorporated into a solid matrix in order to reduce their potential migration or dispersion. The qualification of conditioning processes consists of all those activities demonstrating that the final waste form and waste package have the minimum requirements (mechanical, chemical and physical characteristics) compliant with all the subsequent management phases: long term interim storage, transport and long term disposal of the waste (in accordance with UNI 11193- 2006 standard). First, the paper recalls the classification into 3 categories of radioactive wastes by the Italian authorities. Cementation is one of the most common method for conditioning radioactive wastes into a solid, safe form suitable for long term storage. 3 tables list the qualification tests that are assigned to waste form, containers and final packages, the minimum requirements for second category wastes and the results of qualification tests

  8. Logistics Cost Modeling in Strategic Benchmarking Project : cases: CEL Consulting & Cement Group A

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Cong Minh, Vu

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with logistics cost modeling for a benchmarking project as consulting service from CEL Consulting for Cement Group A. The project aims at providing flows and cost comparison of bagged cement of all cement players to relevant markets in Indonesia. The results of the project yielded strategic elements for Cement Group A in planning their penetration strategy with new investments. Due to the specific needs, Cement Group A requested a flexible costing approach taking into ...

  9. Use of residual wood in the cement manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of wood residuals in the cement manufacturing process. An outline of the cement manufacturing process was presented. Raw materials are combined in exact proportions to create a chemically correct mix, which is then pulverized in a mill. The mix is then burned in a kiln. The end product is cooled to form the pellet sized material known as clinker, which is then milled to form cement. The combustion and destruction characteristics of a cement kiln were presented. Modern cement kilns require approximately 3.2 Gj of energy to produce one tonne of cement. It was noted that wood residuals do not contain halogens, sulfur or other materials detrimental to the cement manufacturing process. Possible injection points for kilns were presented. Various studies have shown that wood residuals can be safely used as a fuel in the manufacture of cement. Environmental benefits derived from using wood included the complete destruction of organic portions, and the fact that residual ash becomes an indistinguishable part of the final product. It was concluded that wood residual materials are a satisfactory alternative fuel for the cement industry. tabs., figs

  10. Elemental metals for environmental remediation: learning from cementation process.

    OpenAIRE

    Noubactep, C.

    2010-01-01

    The further development of Fe(0)-based remediation technology depends on the profound understanding of the mechanisms involved in the process of aqueous contaminant removal. The view that adsorption and co-precipitation are the fundamental contaminant removal mechanisms is currently facing a harsh scepticism. Results from electrochemical cementation are used to bring new insights in the process of contaminant removal in Fe(0)/H(2)O systems. The common feature of hydrometallurgical cementation...

  11. Technical benefit and risk analysis on cement clinkering process with compact internal burning of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article demonstrates the potential technical benefit and risk for cement clinkering process with compact internal burning of carbon, a laboratory-phase developing technique, from 9 aspects, including the heat consumption of clinkering and exhaust heat utilization, clinker quality, adaptability to alternative fuels, the disposal ability of industrial offal and civil garbage, adaptability to the raw materials and fuels with high content of chlorine, sulphur and alkali, the feasibility of process scale up, the briquetting process of the coal-containing cement raw meal pellet, NOx emission and the capital cost and benefit of conversion project. It is concluded that it will be able to replace the modern precalciner rotary kiln process and to become the main stream technique of cement clinkering process in low carbon economy times. - Highlights: • Compact internal burning of carbon enables cement shaft kiln to run stably. • Compact internal burning of carbon enables cement shaft kiln to scale up. • New process triples energy efficiency with excellent environmental performance. • It will be able to compete with and replace the existing precalciner kiln process. • It will become the mainstream clinkering process in low carbon economy

  12. Influence of relationship water/cement upon the processing of cements with pozzolana in standard mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener Rizo, M.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The processing of standard mortar is completed following different methods in accordance with the country, but they exist two fundamental tendecies, the ISO and the ASTM. The cuban norm for mechanic-physic tests is based in ISO, and so they use a constant relationship water/cement in the processing of standard mortar a great problem concerning the cement users when they tested those mixed with puzzolanes, because they don't take care of the bigger water needs of those materials. In this work we present an study of the behaviour of Pozzolanic Portland cements (PP-250 elaborates with a fix and changeable relationship water/cement, obtained starting from the fluidity of the pure Portland cement. (P-350 The results obtained shows that the mechanical resistance decreased in cement mortars PP-250 realised with changeable relationship water/cement. So we recommend the adoption of an optional procedure to elaborate a quality mortar with pozzolana cements.

    La elaboración del mortero normalizado se realiza internacionalmente por diferentes métodos, pero existen dos tendencias fundamentales, la enunciada por ISO y por ASTM. La norma cubana de ensayos físico-mecánicos de cemento se basa en la norma ISO, por lo que para la elaboración del mortero normalizado se utiliza una relación agua/cemento constante. Esto ha provocado discrepancias con los usuarios del cemento, especialmente cuando se ensayan los cementos que contienen puzolanas, ya que se plantea que no se tiene en cuenta la mayor demanda de agua de estos materiales. En el presente trabajo se presenta un estudio del comportamiento de cementos Portland Puzolánicos (PP-250 elaborados con una relación agua/ cemento fija y variable, lograda a partir de la fluidez de la pasta de cemento Portland puro (P-350. Los resultados obtenidos indican que se producen disminuciones en la resistencia mecánica en los morteros de cemento PP-250 elaborados con agua/ cemento variable y recomienda la

  13. Study on EIA Technology in the Project of Waste Co-processing Using Cement Kiln%水泥窑协同处置废物环评技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷捷; 钱炜

    2016-01-01

    利用水泥窑协同处置废物一般是通过新增预处理设施并对水泥窑进行一定的改造而实现的,对此类项目的环境影响评价时首先需要注意收集相关的标准、规范,在水泥生产线现状调查时应结合标准规范关注其规模和除尘设施的运行情况,同时需要协助企业依据周边市场调查结果,合理确定处理的废物种类,并依据需处理的固体废物的量及其重金属、元素氯和氟的含量论证处理规模是否合理,熟悉预处理工艺及其产排污环节,合理确定防护距离。%Utilizing the waste co-processing with cement kiln is usually achieved by adding pretreatment facilities and reforming the cement kiln. First of all, it is important to collect the relevant standards and specifications for the environmental impact assessment in such projects, and attention should be paid to the scale and operation status of the dust removal facilities to investigate the status of cement production line in accordance with the standards and regulations. Meanwhile, it is necessary to assist enterprises, on the basis of investigation results of surrounding market, to reasonably confirm the types of disposed waste, and discuss whether the disposal scale matches with the quantity of solid wastes and the content of heavy metal, chlorine and fluorine for disposal. At last, it's imperative to well understand the pre-processing technology and its steps of producing and eliminating wastes, and reasonably determine the protection distance.

  14. [Release amount of heavy metals in cement product from co-processing waste in cement kiln].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fei; Huang, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Xia; Yang, Yu; Wang, Qi

    2009-05-15

    Clinker was produced by Simulating cement calcination test, and concrete samples were also prepared according to national standard GB/T 17671-1999. Long-term cumulative release amount of heavy metals in cement product from co-processing waste in cement kiln was researched through leaching test which refers to EA NEN 7371 and EA NEN 7375, and one-dimensional diffusion model which is on the base of Fick diffusion law. The results show that availabilities of heavy metals are lower than the total amounts in concrete. The diffusion coefficients of heavy metals are different (Cr > As > Ni > Cd). During 30 years service, the cumulative release amounts of Cr, As, Ni and Cd are 4.43 mg/kg, 0.46 mg/kg, 1.50 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively, and the ratios of release which is the division of cumulative release amount and availability are 27.0%, 18.0%, 3.0% and 0.2%, respectively. The most important influence factor of cumulative release amount of heavy metal is the diffusion coefficient, and it is correlative to cumulative release amount. The diffusion coefficient of Cr and As should be controlled exactly in the processing of input the cement-kiln. PMID:19558131

  15. Reactive transport modeling of interaction processes between clay stone and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in clayey formations may require the use of large amounts of concrete and cement. The chemical interactions between these industrial materials and the host rock are modeled with the reactive transport code HYTEC for time scales and a geometry representative of disposal projects. The pH evolution, a key parameter in element mobility, is studied more specifically. It depends on several interdependent processes: i) diffusion of highly alkaline cement pore solution, ii) strong buffering related to important mineral transformations both in the cement and in the clay, and iii) cation exchange processes, beyond the zone of intense mineral transformations. In addition, precipitation of secondary minerals may lead to a partial or complete clogging of the pore space, almost stopping the propagation of the high pH plume. In a second step, preliminary results on the migration of strontium and uranium in these strongly coupled systems are presented as an example of transport parameter derivation. (authors)

  16. Elemental metals for environmental remediation: Learning from cementation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The further development of Fe0-based remediation technology depends on the profound understanding of the mechanisms involved in the process of aqueous contaminant removal. The view that adsorption and co-precipitation are the fundamental contaminant removal mechanisms is currently facing a harsh scepticism. Results from electrochemical cementation are used to bring new insights in the process of contaminant removal in Fe0/H2O systems. The common feature of hydrometallurgical cementation and metal-based remediation is the heterogeneous nature of the processes which inevitably occurs in the presence of a surface scale. The major difference between both processes is that the surface of remediation metals is covered by layers of own oxide(s) while the surface of the reducing metal in covered by porous layers of the cemented metal. The porous cemented metal is necessarily electronic conductive and favours further dissolution of the reducing metal. For the remediation metal, neither a porous layer nor a conductive layer could be warrant. Therefore, the continuation of the remediation process depends on the long-term porosity of oxide scales on the metal surfaces. These considerations rationalized the superiority of Fe0 as remediation agent compared to thermodynamically more favourable Al0 and Zn0. The validity of the adsorption/co-precipitation concept is corroborated.

  17. Effect of Microwave Processing on Aluminate Cement Clinkering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Jianmiao; LONG Shizong

    2005-01-01

    When raw materials were preheated to 1000-1300 ℃ by electricity and microwave was inputted for 1 min 5 s-4 mins, then alunminate clinkers were obtained. The f-CaO contents,XRD patterns and lithofacies analysis show that the microwave processing accelerates the clinkering reaction,and Fe2O3 is contributed to the aluminate cement clinkering. The appearance of liquid phase in process of microwave heating increases the microwave absorbability of materials greatly.

  18. Early Implementation of Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Removal Projects through the Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    The development of large-scale carbon dioxide reduction projects requires high purity CO2and a reactive cation source. A project seeking to provide both of these requirements will likely face cost barriers with current carbon prices. The cement industry is a suitable early implementation site for such projects by virtue of the properties of its exhaust gases and those of waste concrete. Cement plants are the second largest source of industrial CO2 emissions, globally. It is also the second largest commodity after water, has no ready substitute and is literally the foundation of society. Finally, half of the CO2 emissions originate from process reactions rather than fossil fuel combustion resulting in higher flue gas CO2concentrations. These properties, with the co-benefits of oxygen combustion, create a favorable environment for spatially suitable projects. Oxygen combustion involves substituting produced oxygen for air in a combustion reaction. The absence of gaseous N2 necessitates the recirculation of exhaust gases to maintain kiln temperatures, which increase the CO2 concentrations from 28% to 80% or more. Gas exit temperatures are also elevated (>300oC) and can reach higher temperatures if the multi stage pre-heater towers, that recover heat, are re-designed in light of FGR. A ready source of cations can be found in waste concrete, a by-product of construction and demolition activities. These wastes can be processed to remove cations and then reacted with atmospheric CO2 to produce carbonate minerals. While not carbon negative, they represent a demonstration opportunity for binding atmospheric CO2while producing a saleable product (precipitated calcium carbonate). This paper will present experimental results on PCC production from waste concrete along with modeling results for oxygen combustion at cement facilities. The results will be presented with a view to mineral sequestration process design and implementation.

  19. Characteristics of mercury cycling in the cement production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-25

    The mercury cycling caused by dust shuttling significantly increases the atmospheric emissions from cement production. A comprehensive understanding of this mercury cycling can promote the development of mercury emission control technologies. In this study, the characteristics of mercury cycling in the cement production process were first investigated. Furthermore, the mercury enrichment and effects of dust treatment were evaluated based on the field tests conducted in two Chinese cement plants. The mercury cycling between the kiln system and the raw mill system was the most important aspect and contributed 57-73% to the total amount of mercury emitted from the kiln system. Mercury emitted from the kiln system with flue gas was enriched as high as 3.4-8.8 times in the two tested plants compared to the amount of mercury in the raw materials and coal due to mercury cycling. The mercury enrichment can be significantly affected by the proportion of mercury cycled back to the kiln system. The effects of dust treatment were evaluated, and dust treatment can efficiently reduce approximately 31-70% of atmospheric mercury emissions in the two plants. The reduction proportion approximately linearly decreased with the proportion of mercury removed from the collected dust. PMID:26448491

  20. NEURO-FUZZY MODELLING OF BLENDING PROCESS IN CEMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Olarotimi Araromi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of a cement plant depends largely on the efficient operation of the blending stage, therefore, there is a need to control the process at the blending stage in order to maintain the chemical composition of the raw mix near or at the desired value with minimum variance despite variation in the raw material composition. In this work, neuro-fuzzy model is developed for a dynamic behaviour of the system to predict the total carbonate content in the raw mix at different clay feed rates. The data used for parameter estimation and model validation was obtained from one of the cement plants in Nigeria. The data was pre-processed to remove outliers and filtered using smoothening technique in order to reveal its dynamic nature. Autoregressive exogenous (ARX model was developed for comparison purpose. ARX model gave high root mean square error (RMSE of 5.408 and 4.0199 for training and validation respectively. Poor fit resulting from ARX model is an indication of nonlinear nature of the process. However, both visual and statistical analyses on neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS model gave a far better result. RMSE of training and validation are 0.28167 and 0.7436 respectively, and the sum of square error (SSE and R-square are 39.6692 and 0.9969 respectively. All these are an indication of good performance of ANFIS model. This model can be used for control design of the process.

  1. Cement degradation and the alteration of host rocks. Studies within the Grimsel Test Site Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Cement is a major component of the engineered barrier system in proposed underground repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Cement grouting of highly-conductive fractures in the vicinity of such repositories is also planned. The interaction between the hyperalkaline solutions derived from the degradation of cement and the rocks hosting such repositories may change the physical and chemical properties of the host rocks. The HPF project (Hyperalkaline Plume in Fractured Rock; ANDRA-FR-, DOE-USA-, JAEA-JP-, NAGRA-CH-, POSIVA-FI-, SKB-SE-) studied the alteration of a fractured granite due to the circulation of a synthetic high-pH solution. A significant decrease in fracture permeability was observed both in the laboratory (core infiltration experiment; decimeter scale) and in the Grimsel Test Site (circulation along a fracture; meter scale), despite the relatively minor mineralogical alteration. Coupling of mineralogical alteration and permeability changes was incorporated into reactive transport modeling of the experiments. The hydration and degradation of cement are being explicitly incorporated into the new LCS (Long-Term Cement Studies; JAEA-JP-, NAGRA-CH-, NDA-GB-, POSIVA-FI-) project at Grimsel. New laboratory and field experiments including a cement source are being designed. Reactive transport modeling of the degradation of cement, causing the formation of hyperalkaline solutions and the alteration of the host rock, will be an essential part of the experiment.

  2. Exergetic life cycle assessment of cement production process with waste heat power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exergetic life cycle assessment was performed for the cement production process. • Each system’s efficiency before and after waste heat power generation was analyzed. • The waste heat power generation improved the efficiency of each production system. • It provided technical support for the implementation of energy-saving schemes. - Abstract: The cement industry is an industry that consumes a considerable quantity of resources and energy and has a very large influence on the efficient use of global resources and energy. In this study, exergetic life cycle assessment is performed for the cement production process, and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of each system before and after waste heat power generation is investigated. The study indicates that, before carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies of the raw material preparation system, pulverized coal preparation system and rotary kiln system are 39.4%, 10.8% and 50.2%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 4.5%, 1.4% and 33.7%, respectively; after carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies are 45.8%, 15.5% and 55.1%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 7.8%, 2.8% and 38.1%, respectively. The waste heat power generation project can recover 3.7% of the total input exergy of a rotary kiln system and improve the objective exergy efficiencies of the above three systems. The study can identify degree of resource and energy utilization and the energy-saving effect of a waste heat power generation project on each system, and provide technical support for managers in the implementation of energy-saving schemes

  3. Cementation processes of naturally aged Hawaiian calcarerous [i.e. calcareous] sands: a thesis …

    OpenAIRE

    McLemore, Thomas B.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers have studied cementation calcareous sands for decades. While cementation increases static and cyclic strengths, it also reduces skin friction on piles. Cementation sands in their own environment varies widely with many different factors. Obtaining undisturbed samples can be difficult and costly, and laboratory reproduction of samples has become an accepted method for testing calcareous materials. The focus of this research is on understanding the processes and effects of early cem...

  4. Microwave processing of cement and concrete materials – towards an industrial reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year a substantial body of literature is published on the use of microwave to process cement and concrete materials. Yet to date, very few if any have lead the realisation of a commercial scale industrial system and is the context under which this review has been undertaken. The state-of the–art is evaluated for opportunities, and the key barriers to the development of new microwave-based processing techniques to enhance production, processing and recycling of cement and concrete materials. Applications reviewed include pyro-processing of cement clinker; accelerated curing, non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E), and end-of-life processing including radionuclide decontamination

  5. Microwave processing of cement and concrete materials – towards an industrial reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttress, Adam, E-mail: adam.buttress@nottingham.ac.uk; Jones, Aled; Kingman, Sam

    2015-02-15

    Each year a substantial body of literature is published on the use of microwave to process cement and concrete materials. Yet to date, very few if any have lead the realisation of a commercial scale industrial system and is the context under which this review has been undertaken. The state-of the–art is evaluated for opportunities, and the key barriers to the development of new microwave-based processing techniques to enhance production, processing and recycling of cement and concrete materials. Applications reviewed include pyro-processing of cement clinker; accelerated curing, non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E), and end-of-life processing including radionuclide decontamination.

  6. IT Project Prioritization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shollo, Arisa; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    In most of the large companies IT project prioritization process is designed based on principles of evidencebased management. We investigate a case of IT project prioritization in a financial institution, and in particular, how managers practice evidence-based management during this process. We use...... a rich dataset built from a longitudinal study of the prioritization process for the IT projects. Our findings indicate that managers reach a decision not only by using evidence but from the interplay between the evidence and the judgment devices that managers employ. The interplay between evidence...

  7. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  8. Control of structurization processes in wood-cement systems at fixed pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, Natalia; Gorlenko, Nikolay; Sarkisov, Yuriy; Naumova, Ludmila; Minakova, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study of structurization processes in the wood-cement systemmixed with the buffer solutions and the improvement of service properties of products produced therefrom. Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis, and pH measurements show that structurization processes in wood-cement systems depend on the acidity of aqueous solution, the behavior of hydration, neutralization, and polycondensation reactions with the formation of polymer products including those with cement grout components and functional groups of wood. It is shown that phosphate buffer solutions used for mixing wood-cement compositions improve their strength properties and reduce water absorption. The optimum acidity of the buffered medium for service properties of the wood-cement systemis pH = 4.8.

  9. The use of calcium phosphate cement in vertebroplasty of the base of odontoid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapałowicz, Krzysztof; Wojdyn, Maciej; Zieliński, Krzysztof Włodzimierz; Snopkowska-Wiaderna, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe the use of bone cement containing calcium phosphate for vertebroplasty of the cavity in the base of odontoid process. A 23-year-old female patient was operated on by incision in lateral cervical area (anterior open access). After a blunt dissection, the working cannula (Kyphon) was introduced under fluoroscopic guidance through the C2 vertebral body to the cavity in the base of the odontoid process. Intraoperatively, biopsy of the lesion was taken and histo-pathological examination excluded the presence of neoplasm. The cavity, presumably haemangioma, was successfully filled with calcium phosphate bone cement KyphOsTM FS (Ky-phon). The proper filling without paravertebral cement leak was confirmed by postoperative computed tomography (CT). The CT and magnetic resonance imaging performed 9 months after the procedure showed that cement was still present in the cavity. This is the first use of calcium phosphate cement to conduct the vertebroplasty of C2 vertebra. PMID:24375006

  10. Produktie van cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit JRK; Coenen PWHG; Matthijsen AJCM; LAE; TAUW

    1995-01-01

    This document on cement production has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sou

  11. Effect of process variables on the preparation of artificial bone cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Junior, J.G.F.; Melo, P.A.; Pinto, J.C., E-mail: pinto@peq.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: jjunior@peq.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: melo@peq.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Pita, V.J.R.R., E-mail: vjpita@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas; Nele, M., E-mail: nele@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2013-10-15

    The present work concerns the preparation of bone cements based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), used mainly for prosthesis fixation and cavity filling for correction of human bone failures. A typical bone cement recipe contains methyl methacrylate, which polymerizes in situ during cement application. An inherent problem of this reaction is the large amount of heat released during the cement preparation, which may lead to irreparable damage of living tissues. Optimization of PMMA-based bone cement recipes is thus an important step towards safe and reliable clinical usage of these materials. Important process variables related to the reaction temperature profile and the mixing of the recipe constituents were studied in order to allow for the adequate production of bone cements. It is shown that the average molar mass and size of the PMMA particles used in the production of the bone cement, as well as incorporation of radiopaque contrast, co-monomers and fillers into the bone recipe play fundamental roles in the course of the polymerization reaction. Furthermore, the injection vessel geometry may interfere dramatically with the temperature profile and the time for its occurrence. Finally, it has been observed that the morphology of the PMMA particles strongly affects the mixing of the bone cement components. (author)

  12. Effect of process variables on the preparation of artificial bone cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work concerns the preparation of bone cements based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), used mainly for prosthesis fixation and cavity filling for correction of human bone failures. A typical bone cement recipe contains methyl methacrylate, which polymerizes in situ during cement application. An inherent problem of this reaction is the large amount of heat released during the cement preparation, which may lead to irreparable damage of living tissues. Optimization of PMMA-based bone cement recipes is thus an important step towards safe and reliable clinical usage of these materials. Important process variables related to the reaction temperature profile and the mixing of the recipe constituents were studied in order to allow for the adequate production of bone cements. It is shown that the average molar mass and size of the PMMA particles used in the production of the bone cement, as well as incorporation of radiopaque contrast, co-monomers and fillers into the bone recipe play fundamental roles in the course of the polymerization reaction. Furthermore, the injection vessel geometry may interfere dramatically with the temperature profile and the time for its occurrence. Finally, it has been observed that the morphology of the PMMA particles strongly affects the mixing of the bone cement components. (author)

  13. Processes and Equipment for the Cementation of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article a short selection of different cement mixer types provided by NUKEM Technologies is given. The variety stems on one hand from historical development, but more especially from specific customer demands to meet their local and technical requirements. The Slant Batch Mixer is successfully installed in several Waste Treatment Centers (WTC). NUKEM Technologies set up these mixers with necessary auxiliary systems to facilitate all the cementation tasks of a WTC. By the slant design of the mixer a homogeneous intermixing and a rapid and comprehensive emptying is achieved. The High Shear Mixer is a batch mixer producing a thixotropic, fast flowing colloidal cement slurry. NUKEM Technologies uses this cement slurry to bubble-free/ empty space-free grouting of pre-packed solid waste items in container. The High Throughput Continuous Mixer is a continuously operating screw mixer that provides a high throughput. One or more dry components are continuously fed to the mixer where liquid waste or water is added. The High Performance In-Drum Mixer is a combination of planetary mixer with double helical mixer. NUKEM Technologies recently has developed a new High Capacity Mixer (HCM) based on a well proven conventional concrete mixer. The HCM is the successor of the slant mixer and will expend NUKEM Technologies' portfolio of cementation units. (A.C.)

  14. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including an...... overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  15. Methods and Production of Cementation Materials for Immobilisation into Waste Form. Research of Cementation Processes for Specific Liquid Radioactive Waste Streams of Radiochemical Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future Russian Federation is planning to use industrial cementation facilities at two radiochemical combines - PA 'Mayak' and Mountain Chemical Combine. Scope of the research within the IAEA CRP contact No. 14176 included the development of cementation processes for specfic liquid radioactive waste streams that are present in these enterprisers. The research on cementation of liquid waste from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing at PA 'Mayak' allowed obtaining experimental data characterizing the technological process and basic characteristics of the produced cement compounds (e.g. mechanical strength, water resistance, frost resistance, flowability, etc.) immobilizing different streams of waste (e.g. hydrated-salt sludges, filter material pulps, mixture of hydrated salt slurries and filter material pulps, tritium liquid waste). Determined optimum technological parameters will allow industrial scale production of cement compound with required quality and higher flowability that is necessary for providing uniform filling of compartments of storage facilities at these sites. The research has been also carried out for the development of cementation technology for immobilization of pulps from storage tanks of Mountain Chemical Combine radiochemical plant. Cementation of such pulps is a difficult technological task because pulps are of complex chemical composition (e.g. hydroxides of manganese, iron, nickel, etc., as well as silicon oxide) and a relatively high activity. The research of cementation process selection for these pulps included studies of the impact of sorbing additive type and content on cement compounds leachability, flowability, impact of cement compound age to its mechanical strength, heat generation of cement compounds and others. The research results obtained allowed testing of cementation facility with a pulse type mixer on the full-scale. Use of such mixer for pulp cementation makes possible to prepare a homogeneous cement compound with the

  16. Modeling and simulation of cement clinkering process with compact internal burning of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes a mathematical model of the thermodynamic process for Cement Clinkering Process with Compact Internal Burning of Carbon. Using simplifying assumptions, results of calculations are presented based on relevant computerized numerical simulation for a set of typical process parameters obtained from the existing cement shaft kiln operation and the electrical furnace test on the mechanical and chemical performance of the compact coal containing cement raw meal pellets. It is revealed that, the carbon internal burning mode, combining fuel combustion and gas solid heat transfer together as well as preheating, calcining, clinkering and cooling of the raw pellets together, is the origin of the process superiority in respect of equipment simplicity, process enhancement, high energy efficiency and low pollution. Important process details are determined, e.g. the features and lengths of the process zones, the material residence time and the burning mode of carbon in each zone, the clinkering reaction course and the maximum burning temperature. It is concluded that numerical simulations could be useful tool for understanding the new process ideas, as well as conducting the technical development and optimizing the process design. - Highlights: • Twin subsystem model is used to simulate a new type of cement shaft kiln process. • Grain-particle structural model is used to describe the pellet solid gas reactions. • The process superiority resulted from the carbon internal burning mode is revealed. • A series of important process details are determined. • An unprecedented comprehensive picture for cement clinkering process is depicted

  17. Characterization of vapor phase mercury released from concrete processing with baghouse filter dust added cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hayes, Josh; Wu, Chang-Yu; Townsend, Timothy; Schert, John; Vinson, Tim; Deliz, Katherine; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude

    2014-02-18

    The fate of mercury (Hg) in cement processing and products has drawn intense attention due to its contribution to the ambient emission inventory. Feeding Hg-loaded coal fly ash to the cement kiln introduces additional Hg into the kiln's baghouse filter dust (BFD), and the practice of replacing 5% of cement with the Hg-loaded BFD by cement plants has recently raised environmental and occupational health concerns. The objective of this study was to determine Hg concentration and speciation in BFD as well as to investigate the release of vapor phase Hg from storing and processing BFD-added cement. The results showed that Hg content in the BFD from different seasons ranged from 0.91-1.44 mg/kg (ppm), with 62-73% as soluble inorganic Hg, while Hg in the other concrete constituents were 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than the BFD. Up to 21% of Hg loss was observed in the time-series study while storing the BFD in the open environment by the end of the seventh day. Real-time monitoring in the bench system indicated that high temperature and moisture can facilitate Hg release at the early stage. Ontario Hydro (OH) traps showed that total Hg emission from BFD is dictated by the air exchange surface area. In the bench simulation of concrete processing, only 0.4-0.5% of Hg escaped from mixing and curing BFD-added cement. A follow-up headspace study did not detect Hg release in the following 7 days. In summary, replacing 5% of cement with the BFD investigated in this study has minimal occupational health concerns for concrete workers, and proper storing and mixing of BFD with cement can minimize Hg emission burden for the cement plant. PMID:24444016

  18. A comprehensive model to describe radiolytic processes in cement medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouniol, P.; Bjergbakke, Erling

    2008-01-01

    Basic mechanisms controlling the radiolysis in cementitious matrices are reviewed in the specific context of the gamma irradiation, in closed system without upper vapour space, at 25 degrees C, with a pore solution representative of a Portland cement paste. A general survey of data corresponding ...

  19. Carbonization-cementation process for treatment of spent IX resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent IX resins containing radioactive fission and activation products of reactor structural materials are highly active solid wastes generated during operations of nuclear reactors. Feasibility tests were conducted for carbonization of IX resins to achieve weight and volume reduction and destruction of functional groups so as to make them compatible for immobilization in cement matrix. Carbonization of non-radioactive resins was studied at 250 to 350 degC. Carbonization residues were 20 to 32 wt% depending upon the type of resin and temperature of carbonization. The release of 137Cs activity to off-gases was 0.004% at 300 degC and 0.05 % at 350 degC. Based on these tests, a 50 liter/batch capacity inactive resin carbonization pilot plant was set up. Carbonization residues could be immobilized into cement matrix with 60 wt % loading using vermiculite and precipitated silica as admixtures. The cumulative fraction of 137Cs leached from the selected cement matrix was 0.0066 in 200 days. Based on pilot plant studies and cementation tests, the swollen spent resins waste volume could be minimized by 2.7 times. (author)

  20. Processing of Sugarcane Bagasse ash and Reactivity of Ash-blended Cement Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, Goyal; Hattori, Kunio; Ogata, Hidehiko; Ashraf, Muhammad

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA), a sugar-mill waste, has the potential of a partial cement replacement material if processed and obtained under controlled conditions. This paper discusses the reactivity of SCBA obtained by control burning of sugarcane bagasse procured from Punjab province of India. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed to ascertain the amorphousness and morphology of the minerals ash particles. Destructive and non-destructive tests were conducted on SCBA-blended mortar specimens. Ash-blended cement paste specimens were analyzed by XRD, thermal analysis, and SEM methods to evaluate the hydration reaction of SCBA with cement. Results showed that the SCBA processed at 600°C for 5 hours was reactive as ash-blended mortar specimens with up to 15% substitution of cement gave better strength than control specimens.

  1. CSER 96-013: Cementation Process, glovebox HA-20MB at PFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This evaluation provides criticality safety controls for the cementation processing in Glovebox HA-2OMB at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Slag and crucible residues from Pu button making will be blended with Portland cement in 5k-in. diam. x 7-in. tall cans, for eventual disposition in special DOT 17C drums. A maximum of 180 g Pu is allowed per liquid-bearing container (mixing bowl, filter funnel, or cement can). In this SD revision, three separate areas with 500 g Pu limits each are established; the airlock cell for input S ampersand C cans, the reaction- and mixing-process area, and a cemented-can storage area. Number and spacing of containers within an area is not restricted, for areas spaced 6 inches apart. Acid addition in the reaction stage is allowed to the extent that plutonium dissolution will not occur

  2. Using portland cement for encapsulation of epipremnum aureum generated from phytoremediation process of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phyto remediation process was recommended for treatment of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive waste. Epipremnum aureum (golden pothas plant) was used to bioabsorbe, bioaccumulate and biostabilize Cs-137 and Co-60 from simulated waste solution containing both radionuclides. After the phyto remediation process, the collected golden pothas was solidified using portland cement aiming at complete and safe management scheme. In this part of work x-ray diffraction , infrared analysis and electron microscope examination as non-destructive techniques were used to evaluate the characteristics of obtained final waste forms of cemented golden pothas. In addition, mechanical, porosity and chemical optimizations were performed under various experimental parameters to asses the suitability of the two processes i.e. phyto remediation and cementation for managing these wastes categories. The experimental results obtained confirmed that encapsulation of 3 % dry ground golden pothas that collected from treatment process of radioactive waste solution, in cement materials did not affect the hydration, setting and curing of the cement matrix. In addition , the obtained cemented waste form exhibits acceptable constitutions that comply with the final disposal requirements.

  3. Cement solidification processing method for incombustible miscellaneous solid waste and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When wastes mixed with light metals are solidified, H2 is generated at an alkalinity higher than a predetermined value in a case where a solidifying material is alkaline. Then, in the present invention, less alkaline cement is used as solidifying cement and, only when pH of the mixed paste is greater than 13.3, a pH reducing material is charged to lower the pH value of the mixed paste to less than 13.3, and the wastes are solidified by using the same. As the pH reducing agent, a powdery material, for example, white cement, fly ash and blast furnace slag may be used. This can avoid generation of H2 during a cement solidification processing. (T.M.)

  4. Cement solidification method for liquid waste generated from primary loop resin elution process of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since primary loop resin waste is eluted by sulfuric acid in The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Mihama, Takahama and Ohi nuclear power station, liquid waste containing large amounts of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) was stored in these plants. This liquid waste is planned to be solidified with cement, thus, we have carried out the cement solidification tests by use of some cement materials, and discussed a range of chemical composition and crud concentration of waste solution from resin elution process. In cases of using alumina cement material and ordinary portland cement material for solidification, properties of solidification have been examined and leaching tests of solid form for sulfate ion has been carried out. Volume reduction ratio of over 0.5 was achieved for 5 to 25wt% of sulfate ion and <5,000ppm of borate. Lithium ion restrained the solidification delay by borate. Based on this study, we concluded that these cement materials are applicable to all range of composition of waste solution from the resin elution process. (author)

  5. Effect of curing temperatura on hydration process of different cement

    OpenAIRE

    Elkhadiri, I.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2009-01-01

    [EN]Hydration was studied in two cements (CEM I 42.5R and CEM II/A-V 42.5R) cured at temperatures ranging from 4 to 85°C. Hydration was monitored with a number of instrumental techniques: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Backscattered Electron (BSE) imaging in conjunction with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR). The mechanical strength of the pastes was likewise determined at different ages, while mercury int...

  6. Co-Processing Trial of Spent Carbon at Wadi Cement Works Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Bundela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Co-processing in cement kiln perforce provides high temperature and long residence condition during the operation and is an effective technology for the management of waste in an environmentally friendly and safe manner. It fully absorbs the energy and material value of the waste without any harmful emissions. Approach: Co-processing in cement kiln ranks higher in the waste management hierarchy, when compared to other disposal options such as incineration and landfill. Unlike incineration and landfill, co-processing does not leave behind any residue that might have harmful impacts on the environment. Thus, co-processing is an ecologically sustainable solution for waste management. The co-processing trial run results concluded that the waste material, namely, Spent Carbon, can be safely co-processed in cement kilns. Results: The co-processing technology can provide a better, economically and ecologically more sustainable solution to industrial waste management problem. Conclusion/Recommendations: The trial burn of Spent Carbon waste has shown that it can be co-processed/disposed regularly in cement kiln without any adverse impact on process, quality and emissions.

  7. Method for qualification of cementation process and its application to a vibration mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of homogeneity is discussed and methods to measure the 'degree of heterogeneity' of waste forms are proposed. The proposed methods were applied to a vibration assisted mixing process. There are many methods to evaluate homogeneity of waste form. The following methods were considered; visual inspection, the use of cement dye as a tracer, scanning of radioactive tracers and measurements of variations of density, water absorption, proposity and mechanical strength across the waste form. The process variables were waste/cement and water/cement ratios, mixer geometry, mixing time, and vibration intensity. Experimental methods and results were statistically analysed and compared with data obtained from samples adopted as the homogeneity standard. (Author)

  8. Energetic and exergetic assessment of a trass mill process in a cement plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cement production has become one of the most intensive energy industries in the world. For producing it, addition materials have been widely used in cement factories. The main objective of this study is to assess the performance of a trass mill in a cement plant based on the actual operational data using energy and exergy analysis method. In this regard, the values for energy consumption and losses throughout the production process are described. In the process, the overall exergy efficiencies are found to be slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies; e.g. 74% and 10.68% for energy and exergy efficiency, respectively. Using energy recovery systems, waste heat energy may be captured, while energy and exergy efficiency values can be improved to 84% and 48%, respectively. It may also be concluded that the analyses reported here will provide the investigators with knowledge about how effectively and efficiently a sector uses its energy resources.

  9. Study on applicability of low alkaline cement in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project (3) (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Horonobe URL) Project, construction practicality test with HFSC (Highly Flyash contained Silica-fume Cement) is planned in a part of the gallery. Before HFSC is placed in the gallery, it is necessary to check that HFSC has performance as tunnel support under the actual construction. The research results in 2008 were as follows. For liner concrete of shaft in Horonobe URL, 4 types of mix proportion suggested for ordinary concrete and high strength concrete which contains polypropylene fiber or not. As early age strength, 5N/mm2 is required because of concrete formwork. HFSC424 with low water binder ratio can fulfill this requirement in combination with super plasticizer. On laboratory tests in lowering behavior of pH in HFSC concrete, the pH of immersion fluid was measured and components of the immersion fluid and the solid phase were analyzed using test specimens in a long-term immersion test which had been continued since 2003. An experiment which investigates dissolution of HFSC cement hydrates to ground water around Horonobe URL was carried out. According to the experiment, dissolving depth of HFSC is 1/4 compared with the depth of Ordinary Portland Cement hydrates after 90 days. (author)

  10. Asbestos--cement pipeline experience at the Raft River Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.G.; Kunze, J.F.; Sanders, R.D.

    1977-04-01

    The first buried asbestos-cement (Transite) pipeline used in high temperature (approximately 300/sup 0/F) service for transport of geothermal fluids was installed in the fall of 1975, and has seen 1/sup 1///sub 2/ years of service. The line is 4000 ft long, between the deep geothermal wells No. 1 and No. 2, in the Raft River Valley of Idaho. The experience in using this pipeline has been satisfactory, and methods have been developed for minimizing the thermal expansion/thermal shock breakage problems. Recommendations on improved design and construction practices for future pipelines are given. The substantially reduced cost (factor of 2) of an asbestos-cement pipeline compared to the conventional steel pipeline, plus the esthetically desirable effect of a buried pipeline dictate adoption of this type as standard practice for moderate temperature geothermal developments. The Raft River Geothermal Project intends to connect all future wells with pipelines of asbestos-cement, insulated with 1 to 2-inches of urethane, and buried between 2 and 3 ft. Total cost will be approximately $110,000/mile for 10-inch diameter pipe, $125,000/mile for 12-inch diameter.

  11. Characterization of waste products prepared from radioactive contaminated clayey soil cemented according to the GEODUR process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contaminated soil may arise due to accidents of various types or may be detected during decommisioning of nuclear installations. Ordinary surface soil cannot normally be conditioned using conventional cementation processes since the content of humic materials retards or prevents the solidification. An additive available from the Danish firm Geodur A/S makes it possible to circumvent this difficulty and to produce a monolithic, nondusting waste type using rather small amounts of cement. The report describes work on characterization of such a cemented waste product prepared on basis of clayey top soil from the Risoe area. The claimed advantages of the process was verified, and data for the compression strength (low), hydraulic conductivity (satisfactory) and other pore structure-related properties are given for the obtained products. Unfortunately the behaviour of cesium and strontium, representing two of the most relevant radionuclides, was not too promising. The retention of cesium is satisfactory, but less good than for the untreated soil. Greatly improved cesium retention after drying of the materials was noticed. Good retention of strontium is only obtained after reaction of the material with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The behaviour of the two isotopes in other types of cemented waste is somewhat similar, but the decrease in retention compared with untreated soil makes the process less interesting as a possibility for remedial actions after accidents, etc. Some further studies of the cemented soil waste are beeing made within the frame of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Studies. Elements forming low solublity components in the high pH environment in the cemented soil will probably be retained quite efficiently. This was demonstrated in case of Zn. (author) 11 tabs., 22 ills., 8 refs

  12. The Specification of Cement Powders for Waste Encapsulation Processes at Sellafield site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements are described for Portland Cement (CEM I), Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS) and Fly Ash (FA) powders used for the encapsulation of Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (ILW) in UK, with particular reference to Sellafield site encapsulation processes. Differences between the powders used by the UK nuclear industry and the equivalent British and European cement standards are explained. Research over the last 20 years to respond to changes in the performance of these powders is summarised and options for dealing with potential future changes are discussed. These include the use of special blends of GGBS to achieve the desired flow properties or alternatively poly-carboxylate super-plasticizers to produce grouts with consistent performance using cement powders with a wide range of composition. (authors)

  13. Effect of the sterilization process on physical and mechanical properties of the bonacryl bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of bone cements of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to fix artificial prosthesis to the human body is a habitual method in orthopedic surgery. The hip and the knee joints have a very complex biomechanics and support high loads, for these reasons, acrylic bone cements have to comply with international standards in order to secure the biofuncionality and durability of the implant. In this work we report the effect of sterilization by ethylene oxide or gamma radiation on the BONACRYL Cuban cement. We determined how sterilization methods affect the molecular weight of the polymer as well as its quasi-static mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the gamma radiation modifies the molecular weight of the PMMA although the compression and bending strength were not affected by the sterilization process applied. (authors)

  14. Effect of PCs superplasticizers on the rheological properties and hydration process of slag-blended cement pastes

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.; Bowen, P.; Houst, Y. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of polycarboxylate (PC) superplasticizers with different structure on the rheological properties and hydration process of slag-blended cement pastes with a slag content between 0 and 75% has been studied. Fluidizing properties of PCs admixtures are significantly higher in slag-blended cement with respect to non-blended Portland cement. Also, it has been observed that the rise of the fluidity induced by the PCs on the cement pastes increases with the slag content. This effect is mainl...

  15. Optimizing the control system of cement milling: process modeling and controller tuning based on loop shaping procedures and process simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Tsamatsoulis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on a dynamical model of the grinding process in closed circuit mills, efficient efforts have been made to optimize PID controllers of cement milling. The process simulation is combined with an autoregressive model of the errors between the actual process values and the computed ones. Long term industrial data have been used to determine the model parameters. The data include grinding of various cement types. The M - Constrained Integral Gain Optimization (MIGO loop shaping method is utilized to determine PID sets satisfying a certain robustness constraint. The maximum sensitivity is considered as such a criterion. Both dynamical parameters and PID sets constitute the inputs of a detailed simulator which involves all the main process characteristics. The simulation is applied over all the PID sets aiming to find the parameter region that provides the minimum integral of absolute error, which functions as a performance criterion. For each cement type a PID set is selected and put in operation in a closed circuit cement mill. The performance of the regulation is evaluated after a sufficient time period, concluding that the developed design combining criteria of both robustness and performance leads to PID controllers of high efficiency.

  16. Silicon Carbide Coating for Carbon Materials Produced by a Pack-Cementation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Paccaud, O.; Derré, A.

    1995-01-01

    A pack-cementation process has been developed in order to produce SiC coating on carbon materials. At high temperature gaseous silicon monoxide generated from a SiC-SiO2 powders mixture reacts with carbon substrate by converting the outer surfaces into silicon carbide. The correlation between density measurements and thermochemical calculations allows to determine the reaction path mechanism for the SiC layer formation. Iridium marker experiments are proposed to localize the substrate initial...

  17. Reengineering the Project Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casani, E.; Metzger, R.

    1994-01-01

    In response to NASA's goal of working faster, better and cheaper, JPL has developed extensive plans to minimize cost, maximize customer and employee satisfaction, and implement small- and moderate-size missions. These plans include improved management structures and processes, enhanced technical design processes, the incorporation of new technology, and the development of more economical space- and ground-system designs. The Laboratory's new Flight Projects Implementation Office has been chartered to oversee these innovations and the reengineering of JPL's project design process, including establishment of the Project Design Center and the Flight System Testbed. Reengineering at JPL implies a cultural change whereby the character of its design process will change from sequential to concurrent and from hierarchical to parallel. The Project Design Center will support missions offering high science return, design to cost, demonstrations of new technology, and rapid development. Its computer-supported environment will foster high-fidelity project life-cycle development and cost estimating.

  18. Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi\t, Gibran L

    2012-02-10

    In this study, the microwave materials interactions were studied through dielectric property measurements, process modeling, and lab scale microwave hybrid calcination tests. Characterization and analysis were performed to evaluate material reactions and energy usage. Processing parameters for laboratory scale and larger scale calcining experiments were developed for MAT limestone calcination. Early stage equipment design concepts were developed, with a focus on microwave post heating treatment. The retrofitting of existing rotary calcine equipment in the lime industry was assessed and found to be feasible. Ceralink sought to address some of the major barriers to the uptake of MAT identified as the need for (1) team approach with end users, technology partners, and equipment manufacturers, (2) modeling that incorporates kiln materials and variations to the design of industrial microwave equipment. This project has furthered the commercialization effort of MAT by working closely with an industrial lime manufacturer to educate them regarding MAT, identifying equipment manufacturer to supply microwave equipment, and developing a sophisticated MAT modeling with WPI, the university partner. MAT was shown to enhance calcining through lower energy consumption and faster reaction rates compared to conventional processing. Laboratory testing concluded that a 23% reduction in energy was possible for calcining small batches (5kg). Scale-up testing indicated that the energy savings increased as a function of load size and 36% energy savings was demonstrated (22 kg). A sophisticated model was developed which combines simultaneous microwave and conventional heating. Continued development of this modeling software could be used for larger scale calcining simulations, which would be a beneficial low-cost tool for exploring equipment design prior to actual building. Based on these findings, estimates for production scale MAT calcining benefits were calculated, assuming uptake of

  19. Effect of rheology on flow displacement during cementing process in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braghini, Andre; Naccache, Monica F.; Fonseca, Marcos I. [Dept. Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUR-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: mnaccache@puc-rio.br; Miranda, Cristiane R. de; Martins, Andre L.; Aranha, Pedro E. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: crisrichard@petrobras.com.br, aleibsohn@petrobras.com.br, pearanha@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes a set of numerical simulations of the displacement flow of three non-Newtonian fluids through annular eccentric wells. The main application of this work is the studying of drilling and completion processes of oil wells where a cement slurry pushes the drilling mud, used in the drilling process to lubricate the drill and to remove the produced drilling cuts. To avoid contamination, a spacer fluid is usually inserted between them. Both drilling mud and cement slurry behave as non-Newtonian fluids, and the spacer fluid can be Newtonian or non-Newtonian. The analysis of flow and interface configuration between these fluids helps to determine contamination, and is an important tool for the process optimization. The numerical solution of the governing conservation equations of mass and momentum is obtained with the Fluent software, using the finite volume technique and the volume of fluid method. The effects of rheological parameters, density ratios and pumped volume of the spacer fluid are investigated. The results obtained show that the displacement is better when a more viscous spacer fluid is used. The results also show that using lower amounts of the spacer fluid can lead to contamination, which is worse in the smaller gap region of the annular space, in the case of non-rectilinear well. It was also observed that the density ratios play a major role in the cementing operation. (author)

  20. Industrial symbiosis for improving the CO2-performance of cement production : Final report of the CEMEX-Linköping University industrial ecology project, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Ammenberg, Jonas; Feizaghaii, Roozbeh; Helgstrand, Anton; Eklund, Mats; Baas, Leenard

    2011-01-01

    This report contains information about a research project lead by researchers from Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping University in Sweden. It has been conducted in cooperation with staff from the global cement company CEMEX. The study has been focused on three cement plants in the western parts of Germany, referred to as CEMEX Cluster West. They form a kind of work alliance, together producing several intermediate products and final products. One of the plants is a cement p...

  1. Energy audit and conservation opportunities for pyroprocessing unit of a typical dry process cement plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cement production process has been highly energy and cost intensive. The cement plant requires 8784 h per year of the total operating hours to produce 640,809 tonnes of clinker. To achieve effective and efficient energy management scheme, thermal energy audit analysis was employed on the pyroprocessing unit of the cement plant. Fuel combustion generates the bulk of the thermal energy for the process, amounting to 95.48% (4164.02 kJ/kgcl) of the total thermal energy input. Thermal efficiency of the unit stands at 41%, below 50-54% achieved in modern plants. The exhaust gases and kiln shell heat energy losses are in significant quantity, amounting to 27.9% and 11.97% of the total heat input respectively. To enhance the energy performance of the unit, heat losses conservation systems are considered. Waste heat recovery steam generator (WHRSG) and Secondary kiln shell were studied. Power and thermal energy savings of 42.88 MWh/year and 5.30 MW can be achieved respectively. Financial benefits for use of the conservation methods are substantial. Environmental benefit of 14.10% reduction in Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions could be achieved.

  2. Towards optimization of the silanization process of hydroxyapatite for its use in bone cement formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisneros-Pineda, Olga G.; Herrera Kao, Wilberth; Loría-Bastarrachea, María I. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Veranes-Pantoja, Yaymarilis [Centro de Biomateriales, Universidad de la Habana, Avenida Universidad, s/n, e/G y Ronda, C.P. 10600 C. de La Habana (Cuba); Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Cervantes-Uc, José M., E-mail: manceruc@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to provide some fundamental information for optimization of silanization of hydroxyapatite intended for bone cement formulations. The effect of 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS) concentration and solvent system (acetone/water or methanol/water mixtures) during HA silanization was monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy and EDX analysis. The effect of silanized HA on the mechanical properties of acrylic bone cements is also reported. It was found that the silanization process rendered hydroxyapatite with lower crystallinity compared to untreated HA. Through EDX, it was observed that the silicon concentration in the HA particles was higher for acetone–water than that obtained for methanol–water system, although the mechanical performance of cements prepared with these particles exhibited the opposite behavior. Taking all these results together, it is concluded that methanol–water system containing MPS at 3 wt.% provides the better results during silanization process of HA. - Highlights: • Effect of MPS concentration and solvents during HA silanization was studied. • Silanization rendered HA has lower crystallinity compared to untreated HA. • Silicon concentration was higher for acetone than that obtained using methanol. • Methanol–water system containing MPS at 3 wt.% provides the better results.

  3. Investigation of a Gas-Solid Separation Process for Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Clement, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    The gas/solid heat exchanger (2D-HX), developed to replace the cyclone preheaters in cement plants is presented. This design aims at reducing construction height and operation costs. The separation process in the 2D-HX is experimentally investigated, and the results show that separation...... efficiencies up to 90% can be achieved in the gravitationally driven process. Based on the data, a model of the separation process is developed, utilizing relations from pneumatic transport and cyclone theory. The model fit is acceptable, especially in the area of interest. Based on experimental data, further...

  4. Process Simulation of Oxy-combustion CO2 Capture in Cement Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Skinnemoen, Maria Magnussen

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this master thesis have been to model and simulate oxy-combustion CO2 capture in a cement plant. The model developed is a process simulation of the calcination process with varying degree of air in-leakage, where heat is supplied by combustion in an oxygen rich environment, followed by capture of the CO2. The further gas separation after H2O condensation to achieve the required CO2 quality was evaluated. In addition to the process simulations, a review of literature related ...

  5. Research on a Defects Detection Method in the Ferrite Phase Shifter Cementing Process Based on a Multi-Sensor Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Bo; Fu, Guicui; Li, Yanruoyue; Zhao, Youhu

    2016-01-01

    The cementing manufacturing process of ferrite phase shifters has the defect that cementing strength is insufficient and fractures always appear. A detection method of these defects was studied utilizing the multi-sensors Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) theory. Aiming at these process defects, the reasons that lead to defects are analyzed in this paper. In the meanwhile, the key process parameters were determined and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) tests during the cure process of resin cementing were carried out. At the same time, in order to get data on changing cementing strength, multiple-group cementing process tests of different key process parameters were designed and conducted. A relational model of cementing strength and cure temperature, time and pressure was established, by combining data of DSC and process tests as well as based on the Avrami formula. Through sensitivity analysis for three process parameters, the on-line detection decision criterion and the process parameters which have obvious impact on cementing strength were determined. A PHM system with multiple temperature and pressure sensors was established on this basis, and then, on-line detection, diagnosis and control for ferrite phase shifter cementing process defects were realized. It was verified by subsequent process that the on-line detection system improved the reliability of the ferrite phase shifter cementing process and reduced the incidence of insufficient cementing strength defects. PMID:27517935

  6. Project management of business process

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Slaviša

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents one of the hottest areas in today's software industry, business process management (. Business Process Management has become an important tool for companies to hone their capabilities and business processes to adjust rapid and sudden changes in the marketplace and achieve the set of plans. Thesis is divided into two parts. The first section provides an overview of the scope of business process management through the project approach, historically defined its...

  7. Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, which is incorporated into the impregnation of the sodium mono-fluorophosphate (Na-MFP) solution. The model of the self-healing process is built under the assumption that the position of the carbonation front changes in time where the rate of diffusion of Na-MFP into the carbonated cement matrix and the reaction rates of the free phosphate and fluorophosphate with the components of the cement are comparable to the speed of the carbonation front under accelerated carbonation conditions. The model is based on an initial-boundary value problem for a system of partial differential equations which is solved using a Galerkin finite element method. The results obtained are discussed and generalized to a three-dimensional case.

  8. Compressive Strength and Hydration Process of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) mixed with Sea Water, Marine Sand and Portland Composite Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Tjaronge, Wihardi; Irmawaty, Rita

    2014-01-01

    In order to eliminate the main problems of shortage of clean water and fine aggregate in the low land areas and the distant islands, this research utilized sea water and marine sand and Portland composite cement to produce high performance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC). Portland composite cement containing of fly ash. The evaluation result on the mix design, workability (slumpflow, segregation), mechanical properties (compressive strength-static modulus) and hydration process of SCC were ...

  9. Characterization of cement alteration process by transmission electron microscopy with high spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application tests for advanced TEM analysis techniques were carried out to study the cement alteration processes associated with water penetration at high spatial resolution. Prior to TEM analysis, we measured the changes in the penetration coefficient and determined the characteristics of the penetrating water in order to gain in a fuller understanding of the overall process. These experiments revealed that the process begins with the preferential dissolution of Ca(OH)2. After most of the Ca(OH)2 is dissolved out, the penetration coefficient increases, while the pH value of the water decreases. It has been demonstrated that scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) techniques are quite useful for determining local structures and compositions in the cement at sub-micron meter spatial resolution. The preferential dissolution of Ca ions results in refinement of cement grains. When the Ca/Si ratio decreases to 1.05, most grains have a round shape in the sub-micron range. X-ray mapping suggests the formation of 3CaO·Al2O3·xSiO2·(6-2x)H2O(x=0-3). Ettringite has been mostly dissolved out. But Mg ions remain still in form of brucite. When Ca/Si reaches 0.91, the morphology has changed to a mixture of fibers and granules. The fibers have been identified as a mixture of Calcium Silicate Hydrate Gel and silica gel. Quantitative EDX composition analyses have demonstrated that the granules are altered products of hydrogrossular, 3CaO·Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O, which have been predicted by previous theoretical studies. It is also been shown that hydrotalcite with Mg and Al has been also formed. The results thus obtained are in principle in accordance with the process predicted by previously proposed thermodynamic models. (author)

  10. Markovian Projection of Stochastic Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bentata, Amel

    2012-01-01

    This PhD thesis studies various mathematical aspects of problems related to the Markovian projection of stochastic processes, and explores some ap- plications of the results obtained to mathematical finance, in the context of semimartingale models. Given a stochastic process ξ, modeled as a semimartingale, our aim is to build a Markov process X whose marginal laws are the same as ξ. This construction allows us to use analytical tools such as integro-differential equa- tions to explore or comp...

  11. Fluor Fernald - Project Controls Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will look at the project controls process Fluor has developed to ensure cleanup can be declared and verified by the contract in the shortest time possible. In November 2000 the Department of Energy and Fluor Fernald entered into a closure contract that incentivized Fluor Fernald to reduce the cost and schedule of the cleanup. Original schedule estimates to complete the job went well beyond 2010. In 2002 the Department of Energy (DOE) renegotiated the contract with emphasis on completing the cleanup by December 2006. This model for site closure was developed and has worked effectively to move the project through the cleanup phase, to change a culture and set in motion the steps necessary to declare closure and ultimately leave the project in a timely manner. It is Fluor's goal to complete the project safely, ahead of schedule and cost estimates thereby maximizing profit for company shareholders. This paper will demonstrate the successful implementation for an integrated project management system that has been proven and used on the Fluor Fernald project. The objective is to summarize the approach used at Fernald in setting forth those management processes to accelerate schedule and reduce cost while managing the project safely. (authors)

  12. Process development for utilizing asbestos cement waste in rotary kilns for the cement industry. Final report; Erarbeitung eines Verfahrens zur stofflichen Verwertung von zementgebundenen Asbestprodukten in Drehrohroefen fuer die Zementindustrie. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, R.; Kieser, J.; Kraehner, A.

    1999-11-01

    The law for recycling and waste demands the utilization also for waste of asbestos cement (ac). The procedure of thermal utilization of ac in the flame of a rotary cement kiln was developed and patented by the research institute IBU-tec Weimar, Germany. The ac-material has to be pre-pulverized and grinded to a degree of fineness of R{sub 90}<15%. Considerations of safety engineering lead to the idea of common fine grinding of old oil (oo) and ac. This new procedure was searched in FuE-project in 1998/99 (financial support by BMBF). A mash of ac and oo was generated as a utilization product ready for firing which was injected into the flame of the rotary cement kiln. This particles of ac smelt to spherical shaped particles at a temperature above 1500 C. They were utilized by clinker formation. The material and gas stream leaving the kiln does not contain fibres of asbestos. This was demonstrated in a small equipment burning test. The industrial realization concerning cement plant Ruedersdorf, near Berlin, was searched, technologically described and safety engineeringly and financially assessed by a project study. Process-technical and financial advantages were seen for the dry fine grinding. The wet fine grinding with old oil could be used in cement plants using old oil as fuel. (orig.) [German] Das Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz (1994) fordert u.a. die stoffliche Verwertung auch fuer Asbestzementabfaelle (AZ). Das vom Institut fuer Baustoff- und Umweltschutz-Technologie Weimar 1995 entwickelte und patentierte Verfahren zur thermischen Verwertung von AZ in der Flamme eines Zementdrehrohrofens erfuellt diese Forderung. Das AZ-Material muss vorzerkleinert und bis zur Rohmehlfeinheit (R{sub 90}<15%) feingemahlen werden. Sicherheitstechnische Ueberlegungen fuehrten zu der Idee, die Feinmahlung zusammen mit Altoel (AOe) zu erproben. Diese Verfahrensvariante wurde im Rahmen eines FuE-Projektes 1998/99 untersucht (finanzielle Foerderung durch das BMBF). Als

  13. Sealing properties of cement-based grout materials. Final report on the Rock sealing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of laboratory studies of material properties. A number of different high performance grouts were investigated. The laboratory studies focused on mixtures of sulphate resistant portland cement, silica fume, superplasticizer and water. The ability of the thin films to self seal was confirmed. The surface reactions were studied in specimens of hardened grouts. The leach rates were found to vary with grout and water composition and with temperature. The short-term hydraulic and strength or properties of the hardened grout were determined. These properties were determined for the grouts both in-bulk and as thin-films. The hydraulic conductivities of the bulk, hardened material were found to be less than 10-14 m/s. The hydraulic conductivities of thin films were found to be less than 10-11 m/s. Broken, the hydraulic conductivity of the thin films could be increased to 10-7 m/s. Examination of the leached grout specimens revealed a trend for the pore sizes to decrease with time. The propensity for fractured grouts to self seal was also observed in tests in which the hydraulic conductivity of recompacted mechanically disrupted, granulated grouts was determined. These tests showed that the hydraulic conductivity decreased rapidly with time. The decreases were associated with decreases in mean pore size. In view of the very low hydraulic conductivity it is likely that surface leaching at the grout/groundwater interface will be that major process by which bulk high-performance grouts may degrade. With the completion of the laboratory, in situ and modelling studies it appears that high-performance cement based grouts can be considered as viable materials for some repository sealing applications. Some of the uncertainties that remain are identified in this report. (54 refs.)

  14. Change in relative density of WC-Co cemented carbides in spark plasma sintering process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lan; LIN Chenguang; JIA Chengchang; JIA Xian; XIAN Min

    2008-01-01

    The relative density of WC-Co cemented carbides during spark plasma sintering (SPS) was analyzed.Based on the change in displacement of the ram in the SPS system,the relative densities in the sintering process can be achieved at different temperatures.The results indicated that densification of the samples started at near 900℃,the density rapidly reached its maximum at the increasing temperature stage,in which the temperature was lower than the sintering temperature of 1200℃,and most of the densification took place in the stage.Besides,the theoretcal values were consistent with the experimental results.

  15. Review of technologies for mercury removal from flue gas from cement production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker Degn; Windelin, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a pollutant of concern and mercury emissions from cement plants are under environmental regulation. After coal-fired power plants, mercury emissions from cement and mineral production are the second largest anthropogenic sources. Compared to fuels, cement raw materials are the major...... sources of mercury in the cement kiln flue gas. Cement plants are quite different from power plants and waste incinerators regarding the flue gas composition, temperature, residence time, and material circulation. Cement kiln systems have some inherent ability to retain mercury in the solid materials due...... to the adsorption of mercury on the solids in the cold zone. However, recirculation of the kiln dust to the kiln will cause release of the captured mercury. The mercury chemistry in cement kiln systems is complicated and knowledge obtained from power plants and incinerators cannot be directly applied in cement...

  16. Processing of concentrated radioactive wastes into cement and bitumens following calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief characteristic is presented of the most frequently used processes of solidification of liquid radioactive wastes, viz., bituminization, cementation and their combination with calcination. The effect of individual parameters is assessed on the choice of the type of solidification process as is their importance in the actual process, in temporary storage, during transportation and under conditions of long-term storage. It has been found that a combination of the procedures could lead to a modular system of methods and equipment. This would allow to approach optimal solidification of wastes in the present period and to establish a research reserve for the development of more modern, economically advantageous and safer procedures. A rough estimate is made of the costs of the solidification of 1 m3 of radioactive concentrate from the V-1 power plant at a production of 380 m3/year, this for the cementation-calcination and bituminization-calcination procedures. The said rough economic analysis only serves to identify the major operating components which have the greatest effect on the economic evaluation of the solidification procedures. (Z.M.)

  17. Long-term model-based projections of energy use and CO2emissions from the global steel and cement industries

    OpenAIRE

    van Ruijven, Bas J.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Boskaljon, Willem; Neelis, Maarten L.; Saygin, Deger; Martin K. Patel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a global simulation-model for the steel and cement industries. The model covers the full modelling chain from economic activity, to materials consumption, trade, technology choice, production capacity, energy use and CO2emissions. Without climate policy, the future projections based on the SSP2 scenario show a rapid increase in the consumption of steel and cement over the next few decades, after which demand levels are projected to stabilize. This implies that over the sce...

  18. Effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dong; Zhu, Tianle; Liu, Runwei; Lv, Qingzhi; Sun, Ye; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-09-01

    The effects of co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln on NOx, NH3 and PAHs emissions were systematically investigated in a cement production line in Beijing. The results show that co-processing the sewage sludge was helpful to reduce NOx emission, which primarily depends on the NH3 amount released from the sewage sludge. Meanwhile, NOx and NH3 concentrations in the flue gas have a negative correlation, and the contribution of feeding the sewage sludge to NOx removal decreased with the increase of injection amount of ammonia water in the SNCR system. Therefore, it is suggested that the injection amount of ammonia water in SNCR system may reduce to cut down the operating costs during co-processing the sewage sludge in cement kiln. In addition, the emission of total PAHs seems to increase with the increased amount of the sewage sludge feeding to the cement kiln. However, the distributions of PAHs were barely changed, and lower molecular weight PAHs were mainly distributed in gaseous phase, accounted for the major portion of PAHs when co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln. PMID:27343866

  19. Distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes in cement kilns co-processing municipal waste incinerator fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zhan, Jiayu; Zhao, Yuyang; Li, Li; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Fu, Jianjie; Li, Chunping; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-07-01

    Co-processing municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in cement kilns is challenging because the unintentional production of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the process is not well understood. The distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) as new POPs covered under Stockholm Convention in two cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash were studied. The average concentrations of PCNs in stack gas samples were 710 ng m(-3). The PCN concentration in particle samples collected from different process stages in the cement kilns ranged from 1.1 to 84.7 ng g(-1). Three process sites including suspension pre-heater boiler, humidifier tower, and the kiln back-end bag filter were identified to be the major formation sites of PCNs in cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash. The PCN distribution patterns were similar to that of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs), which indicates the possibility for simultaneous control of PCNs and PCDD/Fs in cement kilns co-processing fly ash. Chlorination was suggested to be an important formation mechanism of PCNs, and chlorination pathways of PCN congeners are proposed based on the congener profiles. Thermodynamic calculations, including relative thermal energies (ΔE) and standard free energy of formation (ΔG), and the charge densities of the carbon atoms in PCN supported the proposed chlorination mechanisms for PCN formation. The results presented in this study might provide helpful information for developing techniques and strategies to control PCN emissions during cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash. PMID:27135696

  20. Microstructural and bulk property changes in hardened cement paste during the first drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Ippei, E-mail: ippei@dali.nuac.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, ES Building, No. 546, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464–8603 (Japan); Nishioka, Yukiko; Igarashi, Go [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, ES Building, No. 539, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464–8603 (Japan); Matsui, Kunio [Products and Marketing Development Dept. Asahi-KASEI Construction Materials Corporation, 106 Someya, Sakai-machi, Sashima-gun, Ibaraki, 306–0493 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports the microstructural changes and resultant bulk physical property changes in hardened cement paste (hcp) during the first desorption process. The microstructural changes and solid-phase changes were evaluated by water vapor sorption, nitrogen sorption, ultrasonic velocity, and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance. Strength, Young's modulus, and drying shrinkage were also examined. The first drying process increased the volume of macropores and decreased the volume of mesopores and interlayer spaces. Furthermore, in the first drying process globule clusters were interconnected. During the first desorption, the strength increased for samples cured at 100% to 90% RH, decreased for 90% to 40% RH, and increased again for 40% to 11% RH. This behavior is explained by both microstructural changes in hcp and C–S–H globule densification. The drying shrinkage strains during rapid drying and slow drying were compared and the effects of the microstructural changes and evaporation were separated.

  1. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER AS MODELING TOOL FOR THE BURNING PROCESS OF A CEMENT PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Osofisan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A comprehensive optimisation of the cement production process presents a problem since the input variables as well as the output variables are non-linear, interdependent and contain uncertainties. To arrive at a solution, a Fuzzy Logic controller has been designed to achieve a well-defined relationship between the main and vital variables through the instrumentality of a Fuzzy Model. The Fuzzy Logic controller has been simulated on a digital computer using MATLAB 5.0 Fuzzy Logic Tool Box, using data from a local cement production plant.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die omvattende optimisering van 'n proses wat sement vervaardig, word beskryf deur nie-linieêre inset- en uitsetveranderlikes wat onderling afhanklik is, en ook van onsekere aard is. Om 'n optimum oplossing te verkry, word 'n Wasigheidsmodel gebruik. Die model word getoets deur gebruik te maak van die MATLAB 5.0 Fuzzy Logic Tool Box en data vanaf 'n lokale sementvervaardigingsaanleg.

  2. Investigation of environmental and exergetic performance for coal-preparation units in cement production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of the present study are to perform energy and exergy analyses of a coal-preparation unit in a cement plant and investigate the effect of varying dead state (ambient) temperatures on exergy efficiency. This is the first study conducted on a coal-preparation unit located in a cement plant with respect to the perspective of exergy. The consumption of exergy, the potential improvement of the unit and the effects of CO2 emission by the unit are also examined in terms of the chosen type of fuel. Based on the results of the analyses, the mean values of energy and exergy efficiencies of the unit are found to be 74.03% and 21.36%, respectively while the average potential improvement of the unit is calculated as 78.24%. The analyses demonstrate that the exergy destruction ratio affects the CO2 emission rate of the unit. Consequently, the present technique is proposed as a useful tool for purposes of developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures, especially concerning similar types of industrial processes.

  3. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT GRINDING PROCESS OF CEMENT CLINKER IN A BALL MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova M.M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of theoretical and experimental research of grinding process of bulk materials in a ball mill. The new method of determination of energy efficiently mode of operation of ball mills in a process of a cement clinker grinding is proposed and experimentally tested.

  4. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Issues, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements, and Task 8: Develop Field ULHS Cement Blending and Mixing Techniques. Results reported this quarter include: preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; laboratory tests comparing ULHS slurries to foamed slurries and sodium silicate slurries for two different applications; and initial laboratory studies with ULHS in preparation for a field job

  5. Characterization of a calcium phosphate cement based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate obtained by wet precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several systems of calcium phosphate cements being studied. Those based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate are of particular interest. After setting they produce calcium deficient hydroxyapatite similar to bone like hydroxyapatite. This work aims to obtain alpha-tricalcium phosphate powders by the wet precipitation process, using calcium nitrate and phosphoric acid as reagents. This powder was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution. In order to prepare the calcium phosphate cement, the powder was mixed with an accelerator in an aqueous solution. The mechanical properties of the cement were assessed and it was evaluated by means of apparent density, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The described method produced crystalline alpha-tricalcium phosphate as the major phase. The calcium phosphate cement showed high values of compression strength (50 MPa). The soaking of the cement in a simulated body fluid (SBF) formed a layer of hydroxyapatite like crystals in the surface of the samples. (author)

  6. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweigh cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary surface pipe and intermediate casing cementing conditions historically encountered in the US and establishment of average design conditions for ULHS cements. Russian literature concerning development and use of ultra-lightweight cements employing either nitrogen or ULHS was reviewed, and a summary is presented. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was conducted to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS. This protocol is presented and discussed. finally, results of initial testing of ULHS cements is presented along with analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project

  7. Assessment of ferrous chloride and Portland cement for the remediation of chromite ore processing residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagupilla, Santhi C; Wazne, Mahmoud; Moon, Deok Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) is an industrial waste containing up to 7% chromium (Cr) including up to 5% hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. The remediation of COPR has been challenging due to the slow release of Cr(VI) from a clinker like material and thereby the incomplete detoxification of Cr(VI) by chemical reagents. The use of sulfur based reagents such as ferrous sulfate and calcium polysulfide to detoxify Cr(VI) has exasperated the swell potential of COPR upon treatment. This study investigated the use of ferrous chloride alone and in combination with Portland cement to address the detoxification of Cr(VI) in COPR and the potential swell of COPR. Chromium regulatory tests, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses were used to assess the treatment results. The treatment results indicated that Cr(VI) concentrations for the acid pretreated micronized COPR as measured by XANES analyses were below the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) standard of 20 mg kg(-1). The Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) Cr concentrations for all acid pretreated samples also were reduced below the TCLP regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1). Moreover, the TCLP Cr concentration for the acid pretreated COPR with particle size ⩽0.010 mm were less than the universal treatment standard (UTS) of 0.6 mg L(-1). The treatment appears to have destabilized all COPR potential swell causing minerals. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) for the treated samples increased significantly upon treatment with Portland cement. PMID:25966327

  8. Influence of the nitrogen-containing compositions on the grinding process and physico-mechanical properties of cements

    OpenAIRE

    Флейшер, Ганна Юріївна; Токарчук, Володимир Володимирович; Сокольцов, Володимир Юрійович; Свідерський, Валентин Анатолійович

    2014-01-01

    To utilize the waste, accumulated in Ukraine, and optimize the clinker grinding process, chemical additive, which is a product of processing the polymer fraction of solid domestic waste was developed. The polymer fraction was used to obtain nitrogen-containing organic compounds, which have a significant influence on the clinker grinding process and physico-mechanical properties of cements and products based on them in the composition of additive.It was found that additive effectively influenc...

  9. Cement Conundrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China aims to streamline the crowded cement industry Policymakers are looking to build a concrete wall around the cement-making industry as they seek to solidify the fluid cement market and cut excessive production.

  10. SNF Project Engineering Process Improvement Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan documents the SNF Project activities and plans to support its engineering process. It describes five SNF Project Engineering initiatives: new engineering procedures, qualification cards process; configuration management, engineering self assessments, and integrated schedule for engineering activities

  11. Testing and evaluation of alternative process systems for immobilizing radioactive mixed particulate waste in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive and Hazardous Mixed Wastes have accumulated at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Ongoing operations and planned facilities at Hanford will also contribute to this waste stream. To meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions most of this waste will need to be treated to permit disposal. In general this treatment will need to include stabilization/solidification either as a sole method or as part of a treatment train. A planned DOE facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A, is scoped to provide this required treatment for containerized contact-handled (CH), mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at Hanford. An engineering development program has been conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to select the best system for utilizing a cement based process in WRAP Module 2A. Three mixing processes were developed for analysis and testing; in-drum mixing, continuous mixing, and batch mixing. Some full scale tests were conducted and 55 gallon drums of solidified product were produced. These drums were core sampled and examined to evaluate mixing effectiveness. Total solids loading and the order of addition of waste and binder constituents were also varied. The highest confidence approach to meet the WRAP Module 2A waste immobilization system needs appears to be the out-of-drum batch mixing concept. This system is believed to offer the most flexibility and efficiency, given the highly variable and troublesome waste streams feeding the facility

  12. From Project Management to Process Management - Effectively Organising Transdisciplinary Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Moschitz, Heidrun

    2013-01-01

    In transdisciplinary projects, the roles of researchers change. In addition to being a source of knowledge, they are required to engage in knowledge exchange processes. This results in an alteration at project level: researchers need to creatively manage projects as group processes.

  13. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2003-01-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. DOE joined the Materials Management Service (MMS)-sponsored joint industry project ''Long-Term Integrity of Deepwater Cement under Stress/Compaction Conditions.'' Results of the project contained in two progress reports are also presented in this report.

  14. Variations and factors that influence the formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in cement kilns co-processing solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Zhan, Jiayu; Liu, Guorui; Zhao, Yuyang; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-09-01

    Pilot studies of unintentionally produced pollutants should be performed before waste being co-processed in cement kilns. Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) formation and emission from cement kilns co-processing sorted municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and waste acid, however, have not previously been studied. Here, PCNs were analyzed in stack gas samples and solid samples from different stages of three cement production runs. PCN destruction efficiencies were higher when waste was co-processed (93.1% and 88.7% in two tests) than when waste was not co-processed (39.1%), so co-processing waste would not increase PCN outputs. The PCN concentrations were higher in particle samples from the C1 preheater and stages at back end of kiln than in particle samples from other stages, suggesting that cyclone preheater and back end of kiln should be focused for controlling PCN emissions. Besides that, based on the variation of PCN concentrations and corresponding operating conditions in different stages, the temperature, feeding materials, and chlorine content were suggested as the main factors influencing PCN formation. The PCN homologue and congener profiles suggested chlorination and dechlorination were the main PCN formation and decomposition pathways, and congeners CN-23, CN-46, and CN-59 appear to be appropriate indicators of PCNs emitted from coal-burning sources. PMID:27187059

  15. Processing of diamond enhanced cemented tungsten carbide insert for rock drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-chang; SUN You-hong; ZHANG Zu-pei

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure, component and sintering procedure of the Diamond/WC-Co composite insert fabricated by high pressure and high temper ature (HPHT) method as well as by hot pressing method. In HPHT method, to avoid breakage and delamination of the diamond layer, two transition layers were added between the most outer diamond layer and the WC-Co body. The transition layers compensate for differences in thermal expansion coefficient and elastic modulus of diamond layer and WC-Co substrate. Thus reduces the residual stress induced by cooling the inserts from sintering temperature to room temperature. In hot pressing method, to decrease sintering temperature so as to protect diamond, an active sintering process which achieved by adding nickel and phosphorus into the starting mixed powder is adopted. To increase the toughness of the inserts to resist breakage, proper amount of rare earth compound, LaNi5 and CeO2, are added into the original mixed powder, too. Laboratory tests indicated that both of the diamond enhanced inserts fabricated by HPHT method and by hot pressing method have relatively high hardness and impact toughness, while their wear resistance is about hundreds of times greater than that of conventional cemented tungsten carbide inserts. The results of field drilling test indicated that the diamond enhanced inserts can meet the demands of rotary percussion drilling.

  16. Study on applicability of low alkaline cement in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Horonobe Underground Research Center, construction of underground facility began in 2005 and in-situ experiment using the low alkaline cement: HFSC (Highly Fly-ash contained Silica-fume Cement) is planned in a part of the gallery. Before the experiment will be constructed in the gallery, it is necessary to check that the HFSC has performance as tunnel support under the actual construction. The main work in 2007 is making a detailed the plan of the in-situ experiment, that is scheduled after 2008 and laboratory tests on lowering behavior of pH in the HFSC concrete were conducted. On the construction practicality experiment with low alkaline concrete, HFSC in-situ experiment plan was studied in case using HSFC424N as shotcrete. The aims of the experiment are the validation in applicability of low alkaline concrete as a support member for underground opening in the realistic geological environment and building the method to evaluate influence to the surrounding geological environment. The location of the in-situ test is in the connection tunnel of a depth of 140m and the geology is the Koetoi formation. The period of the test is approximately 10 years. The test plan was designed to be able to make a comparison with Ordinary Portland Cement. As it is necessary to confirm the strength property of the HFSC concrete with materials produced at construction site, strength of the base concrete using local procured fine aggregate and coarse aggregate based on the result of the selection of mix proportion in 2005 research was checked. On laboratory tests on lowering behavior of pH in HFSC concrete, the pH of immersion fluid was measured and components of the immersion fluid and the solid phase were analyzed using test specimens in a long-term immersion test which had been continued since 2005. (author)

  17. Information processing in global virtual NPD projects

    OpenAIRE

    Lohikoski, P. (Päivi)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In knowledge-based economy an increasing amount of work is conducted in projects in dispersed virtual organisational settings. Information is the raw material of virtual knowledge-based project work and therefore an understanding of information processing in virtual NPD (New Product Development) projects is essential. Information processing is particularly crucial for virtual NPD projects, which are typically implemented in demanding, turbulent and complex institutional settings,...

  18. PORE STRUCTURE MODEL OF CEMENT HYDRATES CONSIDERING PORE WATER CONTENT AND REACTION PROCESS UNDER ARBITRARY HUMIDITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Yusuke; Oshita, Hideki

    A simulation model to estimate the pore structure of cement hydrates by curing in arbitrary relative humidity is presented. This paper describes procedures for predicting phase compositions based on the classical hydration model of Portland cement, calculating the particle size distribution of constituent phases and evaluating the pore size distribution by stereological and statistical considerations. And to estimate the water content in pore structure under any relative humidity, we proposed the simulation model of adsorption isotherm model based on the pore structure. To evaluate the effectiveness of this model, simulation results were compared with experimental results of the pore size distribution measured by mercury porosimetry. As a result, it was found that the experimental and simulated results were in close agreement, and the simulated results indicated characterization of the po re structure of cement hydrates.

  19. Process-based software project management

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, F Alan

    2006-01-01

    Not connecting software project management (SPM) to actual, real-world development processes can lead to a complete divorcing of SPM to software engineering that can undermine any successful software project. By explaining how a layered process architectural model improves operational efficiency, Process-Based Software Project Management outlines a new method that is more effective than the traditional method when dealing with SPM. With a clear and easy-to-read approach, the book discusses the benefits of an integrated project management-process management connection. The described tight coup

  20. Evaluation of long-term interaction between cement and bentonite for geological disposal (1) - Project Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonitic and cementitious materials are both planned for use as engineered barrier materials in the geological disposal of high level vitrified waste and TRU (transuranic) waste in Japan. As shown in Figure 1, bentonitic material will be placed around the waste packages as buffer material and a large amount of cementitious material is specified for use as filler, structure, support and grout. Cementitious material supplies an alkaline solution with high calcium concentration through reaction with groundwater. However, the alkaline solution will cause chemical and physical alteration of the bentonitic material. Since many important functions of an engineered barrier system (EBS), such as watertightness, chemical buffering, and sorption of radioactive nuclides, will be maintained by the properties of the buffer material, evaluation of long-term chemical or mechanical alteration of the buffer material is necessary to demonstrate the robustness of the EBS. Although many researches on chemical and mechanical alteration of bentonitic material, there was large uncertainty because the chemical alteration of bentonitic material is very slow and the altered region is very limited. In this project, the dissolution rate of montmorillonite under compaction and the spatial distribution of secondary C-S-H precipitation were obtained and mechanical and hydrological changes caused by the mineralogical change of bentonite material were modeled to reduce the uncertainty in the safety assessment of EBS performance. To improve the accuracy of the long term evaluation of the EBS performance, coupled analyses between hydraulic/mechanical calculations and geochemical-mass transport coupled calculations were performed. Alteration of mechanical properties caused by chemical degradation should be modeled for the coupled calculations. Because the mechanical properties of bentonitic material depend strongly on the montmorillonite content and

  1. Long-term model-based projections of energy use and CO2emissions from the global steel and cement industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ruijven, Bas J.; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Boskaljon, Willem; Neelis, Maarten L.; Saygin, Deger; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a global simulation-model for the steel and cement industries. The model covers the full modelling chain from economic activity, to materials consumption, trade, technology choice, production capacity, energy use and CO2emissions. Without climate policy, the future projections ba

  2. Quantification of the Reduced Environmental Impacts with Use of Co-Processing in Cement Kilns in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Tiwary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupled with resource conservation and reduced carbon emissions, co-processing technology is a preferable alternative for sound and environmental friendly waste disposal over incinerators & non-scientific methods. It is not only solution to the waste disposal menace, but also reduces burden on secured landfills & TSDFs. Apart from using energy and material value of wastes, co-processing not only fixes the inorganic content of the wastes within the clinker, but also, it destroys the wastes completely due to high temperature and long residence time, avoiding need of further processing as in case of incineration. Trial run identifies wastes suitable for co-processing, source emission monitoring assesses environmental impacts and the quantification of reduced environmental impacts gives a clear picture of actual benefits of co-processing. The results show that the suggested process is efficient, economized and environmental friendly, particularly for a populated country, such as India, as there was no adverse effect on quality of cement, stack emission and air quality of environment due to co-processing of variety of identified wastes in cement kiln. Also, the quantified data of coal saved, CO2 emissions reduced & landfill volume avoided by the waste utilization will help in convincing all the stakeholders that co-processing of waste is the best environmentally sound technology for waste disposal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.69.3.6736

  3. Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zemskov, S.V.; Ahmad, B.; Copuroglu, O.; Vermolen, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, whi

  4. Sustainable Building through Project Planning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Anuar Alias; Nor Kalsum Mohd Isa; Zulkiflee Abdul Samad

    2014-01-01

    Planning process has a significant impact on the ability of a construction project to success. This is the stage where the detailed directions are given which would affect thewhole course of the project. The process is argued to be the most crucial stage which the principles of sustainability are integrated throughout the whole life of building. The purpose of this research was to investigate the Malaysian building project stakeholders’ perspectives on the most significant strategies to integ...

  5. Optimization and validation of a chemical process for uranium, mercury and cesium leaching from cemented radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is developing a treatment and long-term management strategy for a legacy cemented radioactive waste that contains uranium, mercury and fission products. Extracting the uranium would be advantageous for decreasing the waste classification and reducing the cost of long-term management. Consequently, there are safety and economic and environmental incentives for the extraction of uranium, mercury and cesium before subjecting the cemented waste to a stabilization process. The mineralogical analysis of the surrogate cemented waste (SCW) indicated that uranium forms calcium uranate, CaUO4, occurring as layers of several millimeters or as grains of 20 μm. Hg is found mostly as large (∼50 μm) and small grains (5-8 μm) of HgO. The chemical leachability of three key elements (U, Hg, and Cs) from a SCW was studied with several leaching materials. The results showed that the most promising approach to leach and recover U, Hg, and Cs is the direct leaching of the SCW with H2SO4 in strong saline media. Operating parameters such as particle size, temperature, pulp density, leaching time, acid and salt concentrations, number of leaching/rinsing step, etc. were optimized to improve key elements solubilization. Sulfuric leaching in saline media of a SCW (U5) containing 1182 ppm of U, 1598 ppm of Hg, and 7.9 ppm of Cs in the optimized conditions allows key elements recovery of 98.5 ± 0.4%, 96.6 ± 0.1%, and 93.8 ± 1.1% of U, Hg, and Cs respectively. This solubilization process was then applied in triplicate to seven other SCW prepared with different cement, liquid ratio and at different aging time and temperature. Concentrated sulfuric acid is added to the slurry until the pH is about 2, which causes the complete degradation of cement and the formation of CaSO4. At this pH, the acid consumption is moderate and the formation of amorphous silica gel is avoided. Sulfuric acid is particularly useful because it produces a leachate that is

  6. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is an innovative method to produce useful building materials from Martian regolith. Acids and bases produced from the regolith...

  7. Mars Aqueous Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is a novel technology for recovering oxygen, iron, and other constituents from lunar and Mars soils. The closed-loop...

  8. SNF project engineering process improvement plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Engineering Process Improvement Plan documents the activities and plans to be taken by the SNF Project (the Project) to support its engineering process and to produce a consolidated set of engineering procedures that are fully compliant with the requirements of HNF-PRO-1819 (1819). These requirements are imposed on all engineering activities performed for the Project and apply to all life-cycle stages of the Project's systems, structures and components (SSCs). This Plan describes the steps that will be taken by the Project during the transition period to ensure that new procedures are effectively integrated into the Project's work process as these procedures are issued. The consolidated procedures will be issued and implemented by September 30, 1999

  9. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe international best practices for pre-processing and coprocessing of MSW and sewage sludge in cement plants, for the benefit of countries that wish to develop co-processing capacity. The report is divided into three main sections. Section 2 describes the fundamentals of co-processing, Section 3 describes exemplary international regulatory and institutional frameworks for co-processing, and Section 4 describes international best practices related to the technological aspects of co-processing.

  10. Structure and properties of selected cemented carbides and cermets covered with TiN/(Ti,Al,Si)N/TiN coatings obtained by the cathodic arc evaporation process

    OpenAIRE

    Leszek A. Dobrzañski; Klaudiusz Golombek

    2005-01-01

    This study presents the results of microstructural examinations, mechanical tests and service performance tests carried out on thin TiN/(Ti,Al,Si)N/TiN wear resistance coatings obtained by the CAE process on cermet and cemented carbide substrates. Microstructural examinations of the applied coatings and the substrate were made with an OPTON DSM 940 SEM and a LEICA MEF4A light microscope. Adhesion of the coatings on cemented carbides and cermets was measured using the scratch test. The cutting...

  11. GMTI processing using back projection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-07-01

    Backprojection has long been applied to SAR image formation. It has equal utility in forming the range-velocity maps for Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar processing. In particular, it overcomes the problem of targets migrating through range resolution cells.

  12. Processing and characterisation of calcium sulphoaluminate (CSA) eco-cements with tailored performances

    OpenAIRE

    García-Maté, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Climate change mitigation usually involves the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Every tonne of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) produces about one tonne of CO2. Consequently, OPC accounts for 5-6% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and for 4% of total global warming. Due to these environmental problems the industry of building materials is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in the production of OPC and the greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, t...

  13. A nanoscale study of dissolution and growth processes in cement hydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Rheinheimer, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims at providing new knowledge on the, otherwise poorly known, molecular-scale mechanisms that operate during hydration of cement phases and dissolution of their hydrates. In order to pursue this objective, a novel approach has been followed, including the development of a new procedure to synthesize thin films of calcium silicates, real time characterization of grain growth and dissolution with liquid-cell atomic force microscopy, and monitoring of their chemical evolution by X-...

  14. A software for project management process

    OpenAIRE

    Banica, Logica; Doina ROSCA; Stefan, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    Research Project Management Process, implies the allocation of important human and financial resources to guarantee fulfilling of the goal by respecting the pre-defined schedule, under the conditions of expected quality. Considering that, informatics is looking for solutions to support the teams to develop complex projects. In this paper we propose a new software for project management, along with a new approach but at the same time complying to the requests formulated by the TenStep methodol...

  15. Human-Systems Integration Processes (HSIP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In FY12, this project removed the commercial-specific content from the Commercial Human-Systems Integration Design Processes (CHSIP), identified gaps in the...

  16. Recycling of water from manufacturing of asbestos/cement panels and pipes. Monograph; Fabrication de panneaux et tuyaux en amiante-ciment avec recyclage des eaux de process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-15

    The company manufactures asbestos-cement panels and pipes and recycles the water used in the process. The asbestos and the cement are mixed in water. The resulting mixture is placed on a cloth rolling at high speed, is drained and forms a thin layer that serves as a base for the panels and pipes. The water drained off in both processes is decanted twice. The residue from the first decanting is recycled; that from the second is also recycled in the low pollution process, while it is discharged in the standard process.

  17. Project Management of SAP ERP Implementation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Necas, Josef

    2016-01-01

    This paper‘s aim is primarily to identify and analyze critical success factors of SAP ERP implementation process. Secondary aim is to provide an overall summary of all topics directly related to SAP ERP implementation, including project management. The overall target is to address the issue of the implementation process management. The theoretical part provides an overview of project management concepts as well as the specifics of IS/IT implementation. SAP ERP system is presented. ERP syst...

  18. Itataia project - Development of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for treating the phosphorous uraniferous ore, from Itataia-CE mine in Brazil, was developed, establishing the basic flow chart for recovery two products: uranium concentrate and phosphoric acid. The developed process consists in physical concentration, chemical separation, solvent extraction, and it presented, in laboratory and pilot scales, recovery leves which assure the project viability technically and economically. The consolidation of project and the description of installations are presented by a documentary film. (M.C.K.)

  19. Electromagnetic interference shielding with Portland cement paste containing carbon materials and processed fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Zornoza, E.; Catalá, G.; Jiménez, F.; Andión, L. Gª; Garcés, P.

    2010-01-01

    The study described in this article explored the effect of adding different types of carbon materials (graphite powder and three types of carbon fibre), fly ash (with 5.6%, 15.9% and 24.3% Fe2O3), and a mix of both on electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding in Portland cement pastes. The parameters studied included the type and aspect ratio of the carbonic material, composite material thickness, the frequency of the incident electromagnetic r...

  20. MeCrAl coatings obtained by arc PVD and pack cementation processes on nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of researches on obtaining and structure of high temperature resistance coatings on superalloys. The coatings were deposited on nickel and nickel base superalloys in two stages. During the first stage, the NiCr and NiCrHf coatings were obtained by arc-PVD method. Basic technology, bias, arc current, rotation, parameters of deposition of NiCr and MeCrHf coatings were defined. The high efficiency of deposition of both single and two sources was observed. The targets were made by vacuum melting and machining. An influence of targets chemical composition on coating structure and chemical coatings composition was described. The second stage was made by pack cementation HTLA (high temperature low activity) on 1323 K chromoaluminizing process. These arc-PVD and diffusion (pack cementation) connected processes permitted to obtain MeCrAl and MeCrAlHf type of coatings. The morphology, structure and microchemical composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. (orig.)

  1. Tympanoplasty with ionomeric cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    isolated erosion of the long incus process have been treated with a new surgical technique in which the ossicular chain was rebuilt with ionomeric cement. The results in hearing performance (mean pure-tone average (PTA) 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz) were evaluated pre- and post-surgery, and compared to those in a...... > 10 dB, in 4 there was a slight improvement and in 2 a decline. The difference was not statistically significant. Hearing improvement using ionomeric cement in type II tympanoplasty was satisfactory. Reconstruction of the ossicular chain with ionomeric cement is recommended, as the procedure is easy...

  2. SNF project engineering process improvement plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Engineering Process Improvement Plan documents the activities and plans to be taken by the SNF Project to support its engineering process and to produce a consolidated set of engineering procedures that are fully compliant with the requirements of HNF-PRO-1819. All new procedures will be issued and implemented by September 30, 1999

  3. Screening process : oil and gas industry projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An updated version of the screening process used by Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management (SERM) under the Environmental Assessment Act is presented. Improvements have been made to increase the effectiveness and timeliness of oil and gas project proposal reviews. Each year, SERM reviews hundreds of proposals for oil and gas projects which vary from small geophysical exploration programs to intensive production programs involving wells and related facilities. As of February 1, 1999 companies must contact the Oil and Gas Coordinator in the ecoregion where an exploration or production project is planned. This paper also describes other changes under SERM's review process including regulated pipelines, hydrostatic tests, exploration and production. There have been no changes for waste treatment and National Energy Board (NEB) projects. These will continue to be handled by the Environmental Assessment Branch in Regina. 1 fig

  4. PROJECT INITIATION PROCESS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Cupet

    2012-01-01

    Increasing interest in the topic of sustainable development is observable in business context (Porter & Kramer, 2011). The necessity to integrate sustainability principles into core processes of a company to receive performance benefits are widely discussed (Wagner 2007). During the last years increasing attention on the consideration of sustainability principles in projects was provided in the research as well as practice community. Projects strongly contribute to value creation in companies...

  5. A risk management process for complex projects

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert G

    1995-01-01

    A more effective and efficient method to identify, assess, track and document project risks was explored. Using the systems engineering approach, an adaptable, repeatable risk management process was designed for complex projects (typically multi-million dollar electronics I defense contracts with advanced technology, aggressive schedules and multiple contractors I subcontractors). Structured tools and techniques were synthesized to increase the probability of risk identification, to facili...

  6. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    OpenAIRE

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec; Davorin Matanović; Gracijan Krklec

    1994-01-01

    During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures) and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production...

  7. Dust occurring in the processing of asbestos cement as complex mixture of toxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedelsperger, K.; Manke, J.; Brueckel, B.; Knecht, U.; Woitowitz, H.J.

    1982-10-01

    In a study on construction sites in Hessen asbestos cement fine and total dust mass concentrations were measured on 89 construction sites by static and personal sampling. For craftsmen themselves cutting with the grinding machine the mean fine dust mass concentration amounts to 1,8 mg/m/sup 3/ during roof coverings with corrugated sheets, 1,3 mg/m/sup 3/ during siding work, 2,8 mg/m/sup 3/ during installation of ventilation shafts and 1,8 mg/m/sup 3/ during installation of pipes. During fire insulation 1,5 mg/m/sup 3/ were reached without the grinding machine. The analysis of harmful components was performed by infrared spectroscopy, analytical electron microscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Asbestos fine dust mass concentration above the limit value (TRK) especially resulted from personal sampling during the use of the grinding machine and from operation within doors.

  8. Tokamak exhaust process for the ITER project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER project calls for an unprecedented amount of hydrogen isotopes to be processed. To facilitate environmental responsibility and economic application of fusion technology, the re-use of hydrogen isotopes is vital. The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the front end of the ITER Tritium Plant, the Tokamak Exhaust Processing (TEP) System. The TEP system must separate the Tokamak exhaust gases into a stream containing only hydrogen isotopes and a stream containing only non-hydrogen gases. The USIPO has selected the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in partnership with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to complete the TEP portion of the project. SRNL's participation builds on the laboratory's decades of work with hydrogen and its isotopes deuterium and tritium - providing the applied research and development that supports the Savannah River Site's handling of tritium. SRNL's experience and expertise in large-scale tritium processing systems and its track record of effective project execution are a unique combination that is key to the success of the ITER project. LANL brings to the partnership experience and expertise in tritium processing technologies specific to the fusion program. This knowledge and understanding were gained through the development and operation of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos for over 20 years starting in the late 1970's. The US's implementation of the tokamak exhaust processing (TEP) system will provide a technically mature, robust, and cost-effective solution for the separation of hydrogen isotopes from the tokamak exhaust stream. The TEP technology, design challenges, and project status will be presented. (orig.)

  9. Analysing the effect of DSM projects at South African cement factories / Johannes Paulus Spangenberg

    OpenAIRE

    Spangenberg, Johannes Paulus

    2015-01-01

    In any developing country an increasingly higher demand for electricity supply exists. South Africa experienced load shedding during late 2007 and early 2008 and again in 2014 due to a supply shortfall. New power stations are being built to increase the capacity of the national power grid. However this is a lengthy process. Demand Side Management (DSM) was adopted by Eskom’s Integrated Demand Management (IDM) division. DSM is a short-term solution to stabilise the national grid in South Af...

  10. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (4) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Conducting bench-scale tests to produce coke and acceptable tar from the process to satisfy Koppers, a prospective stakeholder; Consolidation of the project team players to execute the full size commercial cokemaking reactor demonstration; and Progress made in advancing the design of the full size commercial cokemaking reactor

  11. Orthographic Projection for Optical Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Jean, Yves D.

    2008-01-01

    Controlled illumination is a powerful tool for solving scene recognition problems. Binary and high frequency illumination primitives are projected into the scene to spatially encode or probe the optical environment. Recently, computer vision researchers have shown that orthogonal functions and computational techniques from the signal processing framework can be mapped directly into the scene using projector-camera systems. These scene-space signal processing algorithms are achieved with illum...

  12. Accumulating project management knowledge through process theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederman, Fred; March, Salvatore T.; Mueller, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how the general notion of process theory can provide a foundational component in a portfolio of project management theories. The paper begins by outlining a variety of views pertaining to the nature of theory and theory development. This forms a basis for understanding how theor

  13. Cement Kiln Process Control Methods%水泥窑头工艺控制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰; 何云霄

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍了系统对水泥窑头生产线的组态方法,它使用西门子新型全集成控制系统PCS7,重点分析了关键工艺参数---入窑的二次风量,及其控制要求和影响因素,并提出了它的控制方法。%This paper describes the system configuration method for cement kiln production line that using Siemens new fully integrated control system PCS7, mainly analyzes the critical process parameter- secondary air volume when entering the kiln, the control requirements and influencing factors, and proposes control methods.

  14. Effect of temperature on the hydration process and strength development in blends of Portland cement and activated coal gangue or fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-ming WANG; Xian-ping LIU

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation into the effect of the variation of curing temperatures between 0 and 60 ℃ on the hydration process,pore structure variation,and compressive strength development of activated coal gangue-cement blend (ACGC).Hardened ACGC pastes cured for hydration periods from 1 to 360 d were examined using the non-evaporable water method,thermal analysis,mercury intrusion porosimetry,and mechanical testing.To evaluate the specific effect of activated coal gangue (ACG) as a supplementary cementing material (SCM),a fly ash-cement blend (FAC) was used as a control.Results show that raising the curing temperature accelerates pozzolanic reactions involving the SCMs,increasing the degree of hydration of the cement blends,and hence increasing the rate of improvement in strength.The effect of curing temperature on FAC is greater than that on ACGC.The pore structure of the hardened cement paste is improved by increasing the curing temperature up to 40 ℃,but when the curing temperature reaches 60 ℃,the changing nature of the pore structure leads to a decrease in strength.The correlation between compressive strength and the degree of hydration and porosity is linear in nature.

  15. Acid attack on hydrated cement — Effect of mineral acids on the degradation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, T.; Hilbig, H.; Beddoe, R.E., E-mail: robin.beddoe@tum.de

    2015-08-15

    During acid attack on concrete structural components, a degraded layer develops whose properties as a protective barrier are decisive for durability. {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy and {sup 27}Al NMR spectroscopy were used with XRD to investigate the degraded layer on hardened cement paste exposed to HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The layer comprises an amorphous silica gel with framework silicates, geminate and single silanol groups in which Si is substituted by Al. Amorphous Al(OH){sub 3} and Fe(OH){sub 3} are present. The gel forms by polycondensation and cross-linking of C-A-S-H chains at AlO{sub 4} bridging tetrahedra. In the transition zone between the degraded layer and the undamaged material, portlandite dissolves and Ca is removed from the C-A-S-H phases maintaining their polymer structure at first. With HCl, monosulphate in the transition zone is converted into Friedel's salt and ettringite. With H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, gypsum precipitates near the degradation front reducing the thickness of the transition zone and the rate of degradation.

  16. Acid attack on hydrated cement — Effect of mineral acids on the degradation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During acid attack on concrete structural components, a degraded layer develops whose properties as a protective barrier are decisive for durability. 29Si NMR spectroscopy and 27Al NMR spectroscopy were used with XRD to investigate the degraded layer on hardened cement paste exposed to HCl and H2SO4. The layer comprises an amorphous silica gel with framework silicates, geminate and single silanol groups in which Si is substituted by Al. Amorphous Al(OH)3 and Fe(OH)3 are present. The gel forms by polycondensation and cross-linking of C-A-S-H chains at AlO4 bridging tetrahedra. In the transition zone between the degraded layer and the undamaged material, portlandite dissolves and Ca is removed from the C-A-S-H phases maintaining their polymer structure at first. With HCl, monosulphate in the transition zone is converted into Friedel's salt and ettringite. With H2SO4, gypsum precipitates near the degradation front reducing the thickness of the transition zone and the rate of degradation

  17. Itataia project - Development of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphoro-uraniferous ore body of Itataia/Ceara is located 170 Km far from Fortaleza and has resources of 142,000 t U3O8 and 14 000 000 t P2O5. NUCLEBRAS studied and developed processes for the ore treatment at 'Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear-CDTN' and established conditions for process flowsheets to recover uranium (as a concentrate) and phosphoric acid. The developed processes include: physical concentration, leaching and solvent extraction. Laboratory and pilot plant investigation showed that the percentage recovery obtained guarantees the technical-economic feasibility of the project. (Author)

  18. A RISK MANAGEMENT APPROACH FOR THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    D.K. Kohlmeyer; J.K. Visser

    2012-01-01

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A number of project management and project risk management processes have been developed by various researchers, consultants and project managers. Most project managers apply some project management process that comprises a number of steps or phases that are executed in a systematic way. At some point in the project management process a risk management process, also comprising a number of steps, is usually initiated and executed. An initial risk analysis process is ...

  19. Manufacture and properties of fluoride cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malata-Chirwa, Charles David

    process. It was observed in the laboratory simulated production of fluoride cement, that the clinkering temperature is much lower (around 1 170 °C) compared to that for the production of ordinary Portland cement. The other observed differences were attributed to the different mineralogical composition as a result of fluoride incorporation into the cement. While fluorine content is very minimal in fluoride cement, not more than 2 %, the resulting cementitious products are altered significantly as was observed from the study. Part of the experimental results has been used as reference material in the preparation of a draft Malawi Standard on fluoride cement. This draft standard will be submitted to the Malawi Bureau of Standards for further processing before it can be officially endorsed as a Malawi Standard.

  20. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-10-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses tasks performed in the fourth quarter as well as the other three quarters of the past year. The subjects that were covered in previous reports and that are also discussed in this report include: Analysis of field laboratory data of active cement applications from three oil-well service companies; Preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; Summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; and Comparison of compressive strengths of ULHS systems using ultrasonic and crush methods Results reported from the fourth quarter include laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems--foamed and sodium silicate slurries. These comparison studies were completed for two different densities (10.0 and 11.5 lb/gal) and three different field application scenarios. Additional testing included the mechanical properties of ULHS systems and other lightweight systems. Studies were also performed to examine the effect that circulation by centrifugal pump during mixing has on breakage of ULHS.

  1. Calderon cokemaking process/demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (iv) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Consolidation of the project team-players; Recruiting Koppers Industries as an additional stakeholder; Developing a closed system for the production of binder pitch from tar in the Calderon coking process as the incentive for Koppers to join the team; Gathering appropriate equipment for conducting a set of experiments at bench scale to simulate tar quality produced from the Calderon coking process for the production of binder pitch; and Further progress made in the design of the commercial coking reactor

  2. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Calderon

    1998-04-08

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking reactor (Process Development Unit-- PDU-11) using Calderon's proprietary technology for making commercially acceptable coke. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: 1. Testing and Designing of the Submerged Quenching Closed System for the Process; 2. Usage of the Cracked Desulfurized Gas as a Reducing Gas to Make Directly Reduced Iron (DRI) in Order to Make the Process Economics Viable; 3. Changes in the Ceramic Liners for Supporting Them in the Coking Reactor; 4. Work Towards Testing of U.S. Steel's Coal in the Existing Process Development Unit in Alliance (PDU-1); 5. Permitting.

  3. Electromagnetic interference shielding with Portland cement paste containing carbon materials and processed fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornoza, E.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study described in this article explored the effect of adding different types of carbon materials (graphite powder and three types of carbon fibre, fly ash (with 5.6%, 15.9% and 24.3% Fe2O3, and a mix of both on electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding in Portland cement pastes. The parameters studied included the type and aspect ratio of the carbonic material, composite material thickness, the frequency of the incident electromagnetic radiation and the percentage of the magnetic fraction in the fly ash. The findings showed that the polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibres, which had the highest aspect ratio, provided more effective shielding than any of the other carbon materials studied. Shielding was more effective in thicker specimens and at higher radiation frequencies. Raising the magnetic fraction of the fly ash, in turn, also enhanced paste shielding performance. Finally, adding both carbon fibre and fly ash to the paste resulted in the most effective EMI shielding as a result of the synergies generated.

    En el presente trabajo se investiga la influencia de la adición de diferentes tipos de materiales carbonosos (polvo de grafito y 3 tipos de fibra de carbono, de una ceniza volante con diferentes contenidos de fase magnética (5,6%, 15,9% y 24,3% de Fe2O3 y de una mezcla de ambos, sobre la capacidad de apantallar interferencias electromagnéticas de pastas de cemento Pórtland. Entre los parámetros estudiados se encuentra: el tipo de material carbonoso, la relación de aspecto del material carbonoso, el espesor del material compuesto, la frecuencia de la radiación electromagnética incidente y el porcentaje de fracción magnética en la ceniza volante. Los resultados obtenidos indican que entre los materiales carbonosos estudiados son las fibras de carbono basadas en poliacrilonitrilo con una mayor relación de aspecto las que dan mejores resultados de apantallamiento. Al aumentar

  4. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (4) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Consolidation of the team of stakeholders; Move the site for the commercial demonstration to LTV Steel, Cleveland, Ohio; Permitting for new site; Site specific engineering; Cost update of the project as it relates to the Cleveland location; FETC update; DCAA audit; and Updated endorsement of Calderon process by Ohio EPA and U.S. EPA, Region 5

  5. Cellular automata modelling of the cementation process of the Turin (Italy) subsoil conglomerate (``ceppo''),based on a three-dimensional geological model of the city subsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, S.; de Rienzo, F.; Nardi, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Turin (Italy) subsoil is mainly made up by alluvial gravels and sands (Pleistocene), characterised by high cementation degree variability, covered by a thin thickness of loess. These alluvial sediments, of about 40 m deep, overlay lacustrine clays (Villafranchiano), locally heteropic with marine sandstones (Pliocene). The reconstruction of the areal distribution of cementation phenomena of the Turin urban subsoil is of fundamental importance within the context of planning and carrying out works in the city subsoil, as well as for preliminary evaluating the stability of such underground works. Moreover, analyses of spatial distribution of soil cementation could be usefully applied for estimating the propagation of waste-polluted fluids, and for reducing either the natural or human-induced risk, related to the overworking of urban area subsoils. The development of mathematical models commonly needs to deal with several interacting physical and chemical phenomena. A deterministic Cellular Automata (CA) model for the evaluation of cementation processes in the conglomerates of the Turin urban subsoil has recently been developed, by using a three-dimensional geological model of the city subsoil based on boreholes data. The model is able to simulate the spatial distribution of the cementation process in the studied area: it has been derived from two pre-existing CA models, i.e. SCAVATU and CABOTO. Geological, mineralogical-petrographic and sedimentological studies of the soil cementation, and a chemical-physical study of the carbonatic equilibria, have first been carried out. These studies pointed out the presence of meniscus cements (which suggest a meteoric diagenesis) and gave fundamental cues for the development of base hypothesis on the genesis of cementation in the considered area. A macroscopic Cellular Automata model has accordingly been developed, in order to simulate the principal phenomena which take place during the cementation process. The model has a

  6. Status of PBMR process heat plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional nuclear power plants only supply energy in a portion of the electricity sector, while the transportation and industrial energy sectors remain to rely exclusively on fossil fuels for its energy needs. However, the transportation and industrial sectors are vast consumers of energy and jointly contribute to approximately 66% of global CO2 emissions. Industry concerns for escalating cost of natural gas and petroleum, energy security and environmental acceptability are driving interest in using nuclear energy as primary energy source for transportation and industrial applications. An opportunity exists to introduce nuclear process heat into the world's energy market, but to succeed any technology must be available commercially in the needed timeframe, be demonstrably safe in order to be located close to the process plant, be economical, match the process energy needs and must produce the required temperatures. The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development in South Africa, fits each of these requirements. The PBMR is an advanced helium-cooled, graphite-moderated High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). A 400 MWt (165 MWe) Demonstration Power Plant (DPP) for the production of electricity is being developed in South Africa for its national utility Eskom. The DPP project is envisioned to form the platform to launch future commercial PBMR products, notably including a variety of process heat applications for the transport and industrial sectors. PBMR Company has partnered with the Shaw Group, Westinghouse and others to develop and pilot its nuclear process heat technology. The team proposes that the first demonstration facility involve a consortium of industrial clients and is currently working to that end. One of these collaborative projects includes the Westinghouse-led consortium that was awarded the principal contract for the initial phase of pre-conceptual engineering services and planning for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) by the U

  7. The cement recycling of the earthquake disaster debris by Hachinohe Cement Co., Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tremendous quantity of earthquake disaster debris and tsunami sediment was resulted by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Hachinohe Cement Co., Ltd., a Sumitomo Osaka Cement subsidiary, was the first cement industry company to receive and process such waste materials outside of their usual prefecture area, while the company is performing their treatment and recycling services locally in Hachinohe City and Aomori Prefecture. This report provides an explanation about the recycling mechanism of waste materials and by-products in cement manufacturing process, and introduces an example of actual achievements for the disaster debris treatment by utilizing the cement recycling technologies at the Hachinohe Cement Plant. (author)

  8. Determinantal correlations for classical projection processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Peter J.; Nagao, Taro

    2011-08-01

    Recent applications in queuing theory and statistical mechanics have isolated the process formed by the eigenvalues of successive sub-matrices of the GUE. Analogous eigenvalue processes, formed in general from the eigenvalues of nested sequences of matrices resulting from random corank-1 projections of classical random matrix ensembles, are identified for the LUE and JUE. The correlations for all these processes can be computed in a unified way. The resulting expressions can then be analyzed in various scaling limits. At the soft edge, with the rank of the sub-matrices differing by an amount proportional to N2/3, the scaled correlations coincide with those known from the soft edge scaling of the Dyson Brownian motion model.

  9. Kiln process impact of alternative solid fuel combustion in the cement kiln main burner - Mathematical modelling and full-scale experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, Hiromi Wijesinghe; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Tokheim, Lars André; Manjula, Edirisinghe V. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased use of alternative fuels in cement kilns is a trend in the world. However, replacing fossil fuels like coal with different alternative fuels will give various impacts on the overall kiln process due to the fuel characteristics. Hence, it is important to know to what extent the fossil fuels can be replaced by different alternative fuels without severely changing process conditions, product quality or emissions. In the present study, a mass and energy balance for the combustion of dif...

  10. Cement Sheath Integrity During Thermal Cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Jesús De

    2015-01-01

    In the construction process of oil and gas wells, primary cementing constitutes a critical procedure of placing a cement sheath in the annulus between casing and formation, or between the casing strings. The main purpose is to provide mechanical stability to the wellbore and to ensure zonal isolation through the entire well service lifetime. Failures to achieve a proper primary cementing, and to ensure long-term sealing capabilities of the cement sheath, may severely limit the abi...

  11. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Hjuler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used as the...... sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... capacity (Xr). This shows that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  12. Laboratory studies on the longevity of cement grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes laboratory studies of the longevity of cement-based grouts being carried out as part of the International Stripa Project Phase III. The longevity properties determined for a reference grout (90% Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement, 10% silica fume, 0.4< water/cement<0.6 and superplasticizer) are compared with those of a slag cement grout. Laboratory tests have been carried out to determine the following: the mechanistic function of superplasticizer in fresh cement pastes; the leachability of the sorbed superplasticizer and its location in the structure of hardened cement paste; and the general leaching properties of selected cement-based grouts

  13. PART II. HYDRATED CEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Drabik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential focus of the study has been to acquire thermoanalytical events, incl. enthalpies of decompositions - ΔH, of technological materials based on two types of Portland cements. The values of thermoanalytical events and also ΔH of probes of technological compositions, if related with the data of a choice of minerals of calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates, served as a valued input for the assessment of phases present and phase changes due to the topical hydraulic processes. The results indicate mainly the effects of "standard humidity" or "wet storage" of the entire hydration/hydraulic treatment, but also the presence of cement residues alongside calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates (during the tested period of treatment. "A diluting" effect of unhydrated cement residues upon the values of decomposition enthalpies in the studied multiphase system is postulated and discussed

  14. Managing Software Development Projects, The Project Management Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Software development projects are logically divided into phases that are composing the project life cycle. The name and number of these phases are industry dependent, so they are completely different from one field of activity to another. Typically, the phases are scheduled sequentially but in some cases a project may take clear advantages by running the phases concurrently.

  15. Technological, economic and financial prospects of carbon dioxide capture in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cement is the second largest anthropogenic emission source, contributing approximately 7% of global CO2 emissions. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is considered by the International Energy Agency (IEA) as an essential technology capable of reducing CO2 emissions in the cement sector by 56% by 2050. The study compares CO2 capture technologies for the cement manufacturing process and analyses the economic and financial issues in deploying CO2 capture in the cement industry. Post-combustion capture with chemical absorption is regarded as a proven technology to capture CO2 from the calcination process. Oxyfuel is less mature but Oxyfuel partial capture—which only recycles O2/CO2 gas in the precalciner—is estimated to be more economic than post-combustion capture. Carbonate looping technologies are not yet commercial, but they have theoretical advantages in terms of energy consumption. In contrast with coal-fired power plants, CO2 capture in the cement industry benefits from a higher concentration of CO2 in the flue gas, but the benefit is offset by higher SOx and NOx levels and the smaller scale of emissions from each plant. Concerning the prospects for financing cement plant CO2 capture, large cement manufacturers on average have a higher ROE (return on equity) and lower debt ratio, thus a higher discount rate should be considered for the cost analysis than in power plants. IEA estimates that the incremental cost for deploying CCS to decarbonise the global cement sector is in the range US$350–840 billion. The cost estimates for deploying state-of-the art post-combustion CO2 capture technologies in cement plants are above $60 to avoid each tonne of CO2 emissions. However, the expectation is that the current market can only provide a minority of financial support for CO2 capture in cement plants. Public financial support and/or CO2 utilisation will be essential to trigger large-scale CCS demonstration projects in the cement industry

  16. IV&V Project Assessment Process Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) will launch NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). This launch vehicle will provide American launch capability for human exploration and travelling beyond Earth orbit. SLS is designed to be flexible for crew or cargo missions. The first test flight is scheduled for December 2017. The SLS SRR/SDR provided insight into the project development life cycle. NASA IV&V ran the standard Risk Based Assessment and Portfolio Based Risk Assessment to identify analysis tasking for the SLS program. This presentation examines the SLS System Requirements Review/System Definition Review (SRR/SDR), IV&V findings for IV&V process validation correlation to/from the selected IV&V tasking and capabilities. It also provides a reusable IEEE 1012 scorecard for programmatic completeness across the software development life cycle.

  17. Thoughts on the Current Cement Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Zhihe

    2003-01-01

    According to the analysis of cement capacity andits relations with macro economy running index, the mainreasons for the present rapid development of cement capacityare the rapid development of economy and the shot up ofwhole society fixed asset investment. According to the presentspeed of economy development, cement still enjoys a po-tential increase, So here has not been an overall excessivepopularity of cement industry. The best way to prevent lowlevel repeated construction is to promote the development ofnew dry- process cement as well as try to get rid of blindness.

  18. PRINCIPLES OF RE-ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY FOR TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS IN PROCESSING OF RAW MATERIAL COMPONENTS WHILE PRODUCING CEMENT AND SILICATE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Busel

    2014-01-01

    necessity to modernize technological equipment used for grinding raw material components with the purpose to improve efficiency and quality, power- and resource saving. The possibility of using various grinding aids that permit to increase grinding productivity is shown in the paper. The paper studies an automation concept of the control system which used for grinding process of mineral raw material. A conceptual model for complexation of various methods grinding aids has been proposed in the paper. The paper presents methodological principles for simulation of technological process used for processing of mineral raw material while producing cement and silicate products. The parameters which are to be controlled and which are necessary for development of computer simulations of technological grinding process have been determined in the paper. The paper justifies an application of imitation simulation for creation of computer models. Methodology for imitation simulation of the technological process has been studied in the paper. The paper confirms the possibility to use analytical and probability methods. Imitation simulations of a grinding mill operation have been developed on the basis of experimental data and probability functions. The possibility of controlling technological process of raw material grinding has been demonstrated in the paper.While implementing the proposed complex of organizational and technical recommendations it is possible to increase grinding productivity up to 30-50 % and significantly reduce и существенно снизить energy consumption for mineral raw material grinding during production of cement and silicate products. The combined reengineering methodology for grinding process including all the mentioned intensification methods substantially increases quality of final products and reduces its self-cost that will favour its compatibility and attractiveness for consumers.

  19. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  20. 78 FR 18481 - Project-Level Predecisional Administrative Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 218 RIN 0596-AD07 Project-Level Predecisional Administrative Review Process... postdecisional administrative appeal process for projects and activities implementing land management plans. The... administrative review process for hazardous fuel reduction projects authorized by the HFRA. The interim...

  1. Structure and properties of selected cemented carbides and cermets covered with TiN/(Ti,Al,SiN/TiN coatings obtained by the cathodic arc evaporation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek A. Dobrzañski

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of microstructural examinations, mechanical tests and service performance tests carried out on thin TiN/(Ti,Al,SiN/TiN wear resistance coatings obtained by the CAE process on cermet and cemented carbide substrates. Microstructural examinations of the applied coatings and the substrate were made with an OPTON DSM 940 SEM and a LEICA MEF4A light microscope. Adhesion of the coatings on cemented carbides and cermets was measured using the scratch test. The cutting properties of the materials were determined from service tests in which continuous machining of C45E steel was carried out. The hardness of the substrate and the microhardness of the coatings were determined with a DUH 202 SHIMADZU ultra microhardness tester with a load of 70 mN. Roughness tests were also carried out before applying the coatings and after the PVD process. Cutting tests confirmed the advantages of the TiN/(Ti,Al,SiN/TiN type coatings obtained using the PVD method in the CAE mode on cemented carbides and cermets, as a material that undergoes very low abrasive, thermal and adhesion wear. These coatings extend tool life compared to commercially available uncoated tools with single and multi-layer coatings deposited using PVD/CVD methods.

  2. Krsko periodic safety review project prioritization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Definition of a Krsko Periodic Safety Review (PSR) project is a comprehensive safety review of a plant after last ten years of operation. The objective is a verification by means of a comprehensive review using current methods that Krsko NPP remains safety when judged against current safety objectives and practices and that adequate arrangements are in place to maintain plant safety. This objective encompasses the three main criteria or goals: confirmation that the plant is as safe as originally intended, determination if there are any structures, systems or components that could limit the life of the plant in the foreseeable future, and comparison the plant against modern safety standards and to identify where improvements would be beneficial at justifiable cost. Krsko PSR project is structured in the three phases: Phase 1: Preparation of Detailed 10-years PSR Program, Phase 2: Performing of 10-years PSR Program and preparing of associated documents (2001-2003), and Phase 3: Implementation of the prioritized compensatory measures and modifications (development of associated EEAR, DMP, etc.) after agreement with the SNSA on the design, procedures and time-scales (2004-2008). This paper presents the NEK PSR results of work performed under Phase 2 focused on the ranking of safety issues and prioritization of corrective measures needed for establishing an efficient action plan. Safety issues were identified in Phase 2 during the following review processes: Periodic Safety Review (PSR) task; Krsko NPP Regulatory Compliance Program (RCP) review; Westinghouse Owner Group (WOG) catalog items screening/review; SNSA recommendations (including IAEA RAMP mission suggestions/recommendations).(author)

  3. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted for...... the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability in...

  4. US cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisbet, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the cement and concrete industry, and provides data on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. The potential impact of an energy tax on the industry is briefly assessed. Opportunities identified for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include improved energy efficiency, alternative fuels, and alternative materials. The key factor in determining CO{sub 2} emissions is the level of domestic production. The projected improvement in energy efficiency and the relatively slow growth in domestic shipments indicate that CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 should be about 5% above the 1990 target. However, due to the cyclical nature of cement demand, emissions will probably be above target levels during peak demand and below target levels during demand troughs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Adapting benchmarking to project management : an analysis of project management processes, metrics, and benchmarking process models

    OpenAIRE

    Emhjellen, Kjetil

    1997-01-01

    Since the first publication on benchmarking in 1989 by Robert C. Camp of “Benchmarking: The search for Industry Best Practices that Lead to Superior Performance”, the improvement technique benchmarking has been established as an important tool in the process focused manufacturing or production environment. The use of benchmarking has expanded to other types of industry. Benchmarking has past the doorstep and is now in early trials in the project and construction environment....

  6. Decision-making process in investment projects

    OpenAIRE

    Moutinho, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    We present projects evaluation approaches in what decision should be based. We try to understand what we have to take into account in a project analysis, knowing that we have to consider much unmeasured aspects, like non non-financial areas. We verify how all aspects are used and analysed in the project appraisal. We also desire to understand if companies have adequate tools and methods to correctly analyse and to take decisions in a project evaluation. In this study we identify several as...

  7. The Added Value of the Project Selection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Oueslati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The project selection process comes in the first stage of the overall project management life cycle. It does have a very important impact on organization success. The present paper provides defi nitions of the basic concepts and tools related to the project selection process. It aims to stress the added value of this process for the entire organization success. The mastery of the project selection process is the right way for any organization to ensure that it will do the right project with the right resources at the right time and within the right priorities

  8. Hovercraft Project Teaches Design and Testing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesling, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    Building hovercraft has proven very popular with the author's engineering students at Knightstown Community High School. The activity uses inexpensive, readily available materials: foam board, a pop-up water bottle cap, a balloon, and hot glue. In this article, the author describes the hovercraft project and how the project provides excellent…

  9. Case Decision Project. Final Report (Process Evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Garry

    The goal of the Case Decision Project (CDP) was to develop a method to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of program management in child protective services in Texas. At the onset of the project, workers across the state had no uniform method of obtaining case information. Therefore, an automated case investigation system was developed.…

  10. Sets of Reports and Articles Regarding Cement Wastes Forms Containing Alpha Emitters that are Potentially Useful for Development of Russian Federation Waste Treatment Processes for Solidification of Weapons Plutonium MOX Fuel Fabrication Wastes for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J

    2003-06-12

    This is a set of nine reports and articles that were kindly provided by Dr. Christine A. Langton from the Savannah River Site (SRS) to L. J. Jardine LLNL in June 2003. The reports discuss cement waste forms and primarily focus on gas generation in cement waste forms from alpha particle decays. However other items such as various cement compositions, cement product performance test results and some cement process parameters are also included. This set of documents was put into this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) releasable report for the sole purpose to provide a set of documents to Russian technical experts now beginning to study cement waste treatment processes for wastes from an excess weapons plutonium MOX fuel fabrication facility. The intent is to provide these reports for use at a US RF Experts Technical Meeting on: the Management of Wastes from MOX Fuel Fabrication Facilities, in Moscow July 9-11, 2003. The Russian experts should find these reports to be very useful for their technical and economic feasibility studies and the supporting R&D activities required to develop acceptable waste treatment processes for use in Russia as part of the ongoing Joint US RF Plutonium Disposition Activities.

  11. Risk management and post project evaluation processes for research and development projects

    OpenAIRE

    Altuğ, Sema Nur; Altug, Sema Nur

    2002-01-01

    Project risk management has become a popular subject in the last decade, in parallel with the developments in the field of project management to adopt to the uncertain and changing environment. Risk management is the systematic process of identifying, analyzing, andresponding to project risk. Successful project risk management will greatly improve theprobability of project success. It is necessary to learn from risk management activities, for obtaining improvements in the project management p...

  12. Management of Multi-projects In a Process oriented Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Macheridis, Nikos; Nilsson, Carl-Henrik

    2006-01-01

    When projects are used as an organisational platform to conduct business, a project can be the only project in the organisation or one amongst several others. The latter case is called multi-project organisation. Usually an organization with a multi-project environment has a base organisation, which can be functional, matrix structure or another. The purpose of this article is to develop a model based on a process oriented organization as a complement to functional or matrix organizational st...

  13. MANAGING PROJECT UNCERTAINTY BY USING AN ENHANCED RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    An increasing number of companies are focusing their efforts on project management. Project management is frequently used as an enabler for meeting an uncertain and turbulent environment. Consequently, the overall effectiveness of the project management process is essential for long-term profitability. The aim and final effects of project management are to predict the outcome, i.e. cost, time and quality. However, uncertainty is inherent in the objectives of the project itself, as we use assu...

  14. Cementation in High Energy Mixer of ILW surrogate slurry. Demonstration of the process at semi-industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To optimize the control and reliability of the slurry cementation procedure and technologies to be implemented in the future Liquid Effluent Treatment Station (STEL) at Marcoule by 2015, the French Energy Commission (CEA) has undertaken an extensive development program on a semi-industrial scale cementation pilot platform. The experimental platform comprises three levels representing a surface area of approximately 200 m2. The layout is similar to that of the industrial workshop. The upper level is for batching and introducing the various components in the mixer installed on the intermediate level. The lower level is reserved for the docking and maintenance of the canisters. A characterization laboratory also forms part of the platform. The raw materials used are those that are taken into consideration for industrial operation; the slurry used on the platform is radiologically inactive and, in particular, is prepared following the same procedure as that used in the Liquid Effluent Treatment Station (STEL) at Marcoule. The flow and time charts of the various phases of the test are described in detail, as are the parameters of the procedure applied to control the mixer in particular but also the production of the liquid cement. Specifically, thermocouples were incorporated into the container, distributed at the core, peripherally and on the wall of the drum at various levels. These acquisitions made it possible to map the drum temperatures while the cement mix sets. The containers were core-sampled in order to perform mechanical tests and appraisals. At the same time, characterizations on test specimens in the laboratory by Langavant calorimetry, Vicat setting indicator and rheometer ensure coherence of all of the results

  15. Revision stapes surgery for lysis of the long process of the incus: comparing hydroxyapatite bone cement versus malleovestibulopexy and total ossicular replacement prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiot, Vincent; Hermann, Ruben; Tringali, Stéphane; Dubreuil, Christian; Truy, Eric

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to report audiological results in revision stapes surgery, comparing hydroxyapatite (HAP) bone cement, malleovestibular (MV) prosthesis, and total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP). The study is a retrospective case review conducted in a tertiary referral center. Patients treated for revision stapes surgery from 2010 to 2014, where a lysis of the long process of the incus (LPI) was observed with the use of HAP bone cement, MV prosthesis, or a TORP were included in the study. The main outcomes measured were pre- and postoperative bone conduction (BC) and air conduction (AC) pure-tone averages (PTA) (0.5, 1, 2, 3 kHz), including high frequencies BC (HFBC) (1, 2, 3, 4 kHz) and air-bone gap (ABG). 107 revision stapes surgery were performed in 96 ears. Main cause of failure was LPI lysis in 38 cases (39.6 %). 31 patients were analyzed: HAP bone cement was used in 11 patients (Group I), MV prosthesis in ten patients (Group II), and TORP in ten patients (Group III). The mean post-operative ABG was 10.7 dB (±7.4) (p = 0.003), 10.7 dB (±8.8) (p = 0.001), and 16.9 dB (±9.8) (p = 0.001), respectively. There were no significant differences between groups. In Group I, the mean change in HFBC revealed an improvement of 5.6 dB (±7.9) (p = 0.03), while in Group III there was a significant deterioration of the thresholds of 5.8 dB (±7.6) (p = 0.04). There were no cases of post-operative anacusis. In revision stapes surgery when LPI is eroded, we recommend to perform a cement ossiculoplasty for stabilizing a standard Teflon piston when LPI is still usable, the LPI lengthening with cement being not recommended. When LPI is too eroded, we prefer performing a malleovestibulopexy, and reserve TORP for cases with a bad anatomical presentation. PMID:26690574

  16. Learning Nursing Process: A Group Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Judith W.

    1994-01-01

    Herbert Thelen's models of group inquiry and cooperative learning were used to teach the nursing process in a group clinical setting. The strategy proved efficient and effective, and students benefited by learning group process and having reduced stress. (JOW)

  17. Tympanoplasty with ionomeric cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    Patients with isolated erosion of the long incus process suffer from severe hearing loss caused by lack of continuity of the ossicular chain. This study is a retrospective evaluation of the hearing results using two different surgical procedures. Since January 1993, 12 consecutive patients with isolated erosion of the long incus process have been treated with a new surgical technique in which the ossicular chain was rebuilt with ionomeric cement. The results in hearing performance (mean pure-tone average (PTA) 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz) were evaluated pre- and post-surgery, and compared to those in a group of 20 historical controls who underwent surgery in 1991 and 1992 using incus autograft interposition. Among the 12 index patients, 7 (58%) achieved improvement in PTA of > 10 dB, in 3 there was no difference and in 2 a slight decline. Among the 20 controls, 14 (70%) achieved improvement in PTA of > 10 dB, in 4 there was a slight improvement and in 2 a decline. The difference was not statistically significant. Hearing improvement using ionomeric cement in type II tympanoplasty was satisfactory. Reconstruction of the ossicular chain with ionomeric cement is recommended, as the procedure is easy to perform, presents less risk of damage to the stapes and cochlea, requires less extensive surgery and does not exclude other surgical methods in cases of reoperation. PMID:10909000

  18. Process development status report for advanced manufacturing projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, J.R.; Homan, D.A.

    1990-03-30

    This is the final status report for the approved Advanced Manufacturing Projects for FY 1989. Five of the projects were begun in FY 1987, one in FY 1988, and one in FY 1989. The approved projects cover technology areas in welding, explosive material processing and evaluation, ion implantation, and automated manufacturing. It is expected that the successful completion of these projects well result in improved quality and/or reduced cost for components produced by Mound. Those projects not brought to completion will be continued under Process development in FY 1990.

  19. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; R N Yadav

    2000-02-01

    The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

  20. Teaching an advanced processing course with hands-on projects

    OpenAIRE

    Simar, Aude; International Conference on Materials Education

    2015-01-01

    The present work discusses an advanced processing course with 10 magisterial courses (2h each) where theoretical aspects are covered and three hands-on projects. This advanced manufacturing course follows a basic course reviewing all manufacturing technologies. The courses concern process selection, advanced machining and additive manufacturing. To each of these topics a project is associated where the use of computer technologies for manufacturing is emphasized. The process selection process...

  1. Preparation and characterization of a novel strontium-containing calcium phosphate cement with the two-step hydration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Ye, Jiandong; Wang, Yingjun

    2009-09-01

    A novel Sr-containing calcium phosphate cement (CPC) with excellent compressive strength, good radiopacity and suitable setting time was developed in this work. The two-step hydration reaction resulted in a high compressive strength, with a maximum of up to 74.9MPa. Sr was doped into the calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite as a hydrated product during the hydration reaction of the CPC. Because of the existence of Sr element and the compact microstructure after hydration, the Sr-containing CPC shows good radiopacity. It is expected to be used in orthopedic and maxillofacial surgery for bone defects repairing. PMID:19380262

  2. Cements in radioactive waste management. Characterization requirements of cement products for acceptance and quality assurance purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementitious materials are used as immobilizing matrices for low (LLW) and medium-level wastes (MLW) and are also components of the construction materials in the secondary barriers and the repositories. This report has concerned itself with a critical assessment of the quality assurance aspects of the immobilization and disposal of MLW and LLW cemented wastes. This report has collated the existing knowledge of the use and potential of cementitious materials in radioactive waste immobilization and highlighted the physico-chemical parameters. Subject areas include an assessment of immobilization objectives and cement as a durable material, waste stream and matrix characterization, quality assurance concepts, nature of cement-based systems, chemistry and modelling of cement hydration, role and effect of blending agents, radwaste-cement interaction, assessment of durability, degradative and radiolytic processes in cements and the behaviour of cement-based matrices and their near-field interactions with the environment and the repository conditions

  3. Friction Stir Processing of Cast Superalloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort examines the feasibility of an innovative fabrication technology incorporating sand casting and friction stir processing (FSP) for...

  4. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio...

  5. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated (CLX) proposes the development of a Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) that leverages the inherent advantages of an...

  6. Friction Stir Processing of Cast Superalloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR effort examines the feasibility of an innovative fabrication technology incorporating sand casting and friction stir processing (FSP) for producing...

  7. Calcium Aluminate Cement Hydration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusinović, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium aluminate cement (AC is a very versatile special cement used for specific applications. As the hydration of AC is highly temperature dependent, yielding structurally different hydration products that continuously alter material properties, a good knowledge of thermal properties at early stages of hydration is essential. The kinetics of AC hydration is a complex process and the use of single mechanisms models cannot describe the rate of hydration during the whole stage.This paper examines the influence of temperature (ϑ=5–20 °C and water-to-cement mass ratio (mH /mAC = 0.4; 0.5 and 1.0 on hydration of commercial iron-rich AC ISTRA 40 (producer: Istra Cement, Pula, Croatia, which is a part of CALUCEM group, Figs 1–3. The flow rate of heat generation of cement pastes as a result of the hydration reactions was measured with differential microcalorimeter. Chemically bonded water in the hydrated cement samples was determined by thermo-gravimetry.Far less heat is liberated when cement and water come in contact for the first time, Fig. 1, than in the case for portland cement (PC. Higher water-to-cement ratio increases the heat evolved at later ages (Fig. 3 due to higher quantity of water available for hydration. A significant effect of the water-to-cement ratio on the hydration rate and hydration degree showed the importance of water as being the limiting reactant that slows down the reaction early. A simplified stoichiometric model of early age AC hydration (eq. (8 based on reaction schemes of principal minerals, nominally CA, C12A7 and C4AF (Table 1, was employed. Hydration kinetics after the induction period (ϑ < 20 °C had been successfully described (Fig. 4 and Table 2 by a proposed model (eq. (23 which simultaneously comprised three main mechanisms: nucleation and growth, interaction at phase boundary, and mass transfer. In the proposed kinetic model the nucleation and growth is proportional to the amount of reacted minerals (eq

  8. INTRODUCTION OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR A SMALL PROCESSING MANUFACTURE

    OpenAIRE

    РЕЗЕР А.В.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the major problems of small processing plants, and presents a solution of these problems through the introduction of project management. This article will include the phased implementation of the scheme of project management in a small processing plant.

  9. Process Acceptance and Adoption by IT Software Project Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado, Deana R.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the question of what factors determine acceptance and adoption of processes in the context of Information Technology (IT) software development projects. This specific context was selected because processes required for managing software development projects are less prescriptive than in other, more straightforward, IT…

  10. A Course in Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Riestra, J. Frank

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course designed to expose neophytes to methodology used in chemical process industries to evaluate commercial feasibility of proposed projects. Previously acquired disciplines are integrated to facilitate process synthesis, gain appreciation of nature of industrial projects and industrial viewpoint in managing them, and to become adept…

  11. Leach studies on cement-solidified ion exchange resins from decontamination processes at operating nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of varying pH and leachant compositions on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents were determined for cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small scale waste-form specimens were collected during waste solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station. The collected specimens were leach tested, and their compressive strength was measured in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's ''Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1), from the Low-Level Waste Management Branch. Leachates from these studies were analyzed for radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to assess the leachability of these waste form constituents. Leachants used for the study were deionized water, simulated seawater, and groundwater compositions similar to those found at Barnwell, South Carolina and Hanford, Washington. Results of this study indicate that initial leachant pH does not affect leachate pH or releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms. However, differences in leachant composition and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. In addition, results from this study indicate that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents observed for forms that disintegrated were similar to those for forms that maintained their general physical integrity

  12. Cement Formation:A Success Story in a Black Box: High Temperature Phase Formation of Portland Cement Clinker

    OpenAIRE

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledgeabout the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in ...

  13. Multicore Rad Hard Processing in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to research and develop a high performance computing/processing platform for NASA space missions. Leveraging our previous work for both NASA...

  14. Closed Loop Waste Processing Dryer (DRYER) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to develop a gravity-independent pasteurization and hot air drying process suitable for stabilization of ALS wet cabin waste,...

  15. Mieruka project on the science communication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Tooru; Takahashi, Keiko; Application Laboratory Team

    2013-04-01

    Detailed and inner mechanisms of science and technology are the black boxes for people, because the number of topics is too large / wide to understand the mechanisms. Therefore, careful introduction and explanation to stakeholders are necessary when the topics are related with some kinds of assessments. However, it is frequently observed that the assessment statements/results submitted by different associations conflict each other, even though these statements are completely analyzed with the scientific methods. Stakeholders are definitely confused because of these conflicts. One of the reasons of these conflicts is the conditions of the analysis are not clear. Another reason is they use a different model. To overcome these conflicts and confusion, we introduce "Mieruka" project. "Mieruka" is referred as the identifying problems and bringing them to the foreground. Sometimes referred as "visualization" or "Transparency". The procedure will be strongly concerned with the role of the facilitator on the consensus conference. In this presentation, we introduce an outline of this project. In addition to the most important style of the science communication, that is, the face to face communication, we introduce a style using the information and communication technology, in which "bi-directionality" is the key word.

  16. Techniques for managing projects risk in capital budgeting process

    OpenAIRE

    Sinisa Bogdan; Suzana Baresa; Goran Karanovic

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines capital budgeting process and techniques of risk analysis in the process of selecting optimal project. Corporate manager in process of capital budgeting uses numerous techniques some of them are based on intuition and experience of manager, and some of them are analytic based on sensitive, scenario, decision tree and Monte Carlo method. All methods are used to determinate and to predict risk influence on the projects. Article deals with analytical techniques and real proble...

  17. Software Project Management A Process-Driven Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Ashfaque

    2011-01-01

    To build reliable, industry-applicable software products, large-scale software project groups must continuously improve software engineering processes to increase product quality, facilitate cost reductions, and adhere to tight schedules. Emphasizing the critical components of successful large-scale software projects, Software Project Management: A Process-Driven Approach discusses human resources, software engineering, and technology to a level that exceeds most university-level courses on the subject. The book is organized into five parts. Part I defines project management with information o

  18. Incineration process for chlorinated alpha-contaminated wastes: industrial application to the Valduc project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has pursued a broad research and development program for a number of years concerning the incineration of chlorinated α-contaminated wastes produced by work in confined atmosphere. This program has now reached the stage where an alternative solution is available to the conventional direct cement embedding method currently used for such wastes. The proposed solution is based on a two-step incineration process offering a significant volume reduction that constitutes a serious economic advantage for geological disposal. Moreover, the process produces ashes of a quality suitable for direct online vitrification, or for Pu recovery by dissolution with silver II. The process was developed under nonradioactive conditions in the IRIS incineration pilot facility operated by the CEA's Fuel Cycle Division (CEA/DCC), opening the way for the first industrial facility, planned for the VALDUC Research Center. USSI is the prime contractor in this 36-month project. The basic design work has now been completed, and the French safety authorities have authorized construction of the incinerator, based in large part on the experience and expertise acquired by the process licenser CEA/DCC. (author). 6 figs., 3 tabs

  19. The Use of Project Time Management Processes and the Schedule Performance of Construction Projects in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómel G. Solís-Carcaño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Delays have been frequently reported as the cause of several conflicts that affect the different parties involved in construction projects. Project Time Management (PTM includes a number of planning and controlling processes that are recommended for complying with requirements related to project time. The study reported in this paper aimed at assessing the use of PTM processes and its relation with project schedule performance (i.e., timely completion. Seven PTM processes and seventy-seven tasks associated with them were identified from the literature that is globally relevant to project management. The study included the assessment of fourteen school construction projects executed by a public agency in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. These projects were monitored during the construction phase in order to measure two different variables: the use of processes related to PTM (i.e., schedule planning and controlling processes and the project schedule performance. For each of these projects a Use Index was obtained for assessing the first variable, while the Schedule Performance Index and the Schedule Variance were computed to assess the second one. The results demonstrated there is statistical dependence between these two variables. Most of the projects that attained timely completion also made a greater use of the PTM processes.

  20. Low pH Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    speciation of silicon at pH 10 has a significant impact upon the solubility of montmorillonite and would thus constitute a logical choice of pH limit for cement-derived pore fluids, but it is unlikely that cement-based grouts could be developed to meet this limit. Control of mass transport by diffusion processes serves as a significant constraint over the amount of bentonite that can be degraded. Computer simulations indicate that porosity reduction is likely at the interface between cement and bentonite. However, it is not clear how the transport properties of bentonite may be modified due to mineral alteration processes. There are considerable uncertainties concerning the precise mechanism of the rate of montmorillonite dissolution at elevated pH. The rate of dissolution may be inhibited by the presence of dissolved Si (and perhaps Al), but this mechanism has yet to be confirmed at high pH. The type of secondary minerals assumed to form from cement-bentonite interaction will also have a significant impact upon the rate of montmorillonite dissolution. Low-pH cement systems have received little attention thus far regarding the development of models for the chemical evolution of pore fluids. Low Ca/Si CSH gels show preferential leaching of Si, which is in marked contrast with gels of greater Ca/Si ratio. Models apparently capable of predicting pore fluid composition coexisting with low Ca/Si CSH gels are a modified Berner model and a solid-solution model proposed by Sugiyama and Fujita. The solubility of silica in pore fluids coexisting with low Ca/Si gels may exceed that of amorphous silica, and may pose problems regarding the stability of montmorillonite in relation to framework silicates such as feldspars. However, the potential rate of conversion of montmorillonite to feldspar under repository conditions is uncertain. It is necessary to use additives such as super plasticiser to improve the workability of low-pH cements. These organic additives have the potential to

  1. Low pH Cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    speciation of silicon at pH 10 has a significant impact upon the solubility of montmorillonite and would thus constitute a logical choice of pH limit for cement-derived pore fluids, but it is unlikely that cement-based grouts could be developed to meet this limit. Control of mass transport by diffusion processes serves as a significant constraint over the amount of bentonite that can be degraded. Computer simulations indicate that porosity reduction is likely at the interface between cement and bentonite. However, it is not clear how the transport properties of bentonite may be modified due to mineral alteration processes. There are considerable uncertainties concerning the precise mechanism of the rate of montmorillonite dissolution at elevated pH. The rate of dissolution may be inhibited by the presence of dissolved Si (and perhaps Al), but this mechanism has yet to be confirmed at high pH. The type of secondary minerals assumed to form from cement-bentonite interaction will also have a significant impact upon the rate of montmorillonite dissolution. Low-pH cement systems have received little attention thus far regarding the development of models for the chemical evolution of pore fluids. Low Ca/Si CSH gels show preferential leaching of Si, which is in marked contrast with gels of greater Ca/Si ratio. Models apparently capable of predicting pore fluid composition coexisting with low Ca/Si CSH gels are a modified Berner model and a solid-solution model proposed by Sugiyama and Fujita. The solubility of silica in pore fluids coexisting with low Ca/Si gels may exceed that of amorphous silica, and may pose problems regarding the stability of montmorillonite in relation to framework silicates such as feldspars. However, the potential rate of conversion of montmorillonite to feldspar under repository conditions is uncertain. It is necessary to use additives such as super plasticiser to improve the workability of low-pH cements. These organic additives have the potential to

  2. The effects of the mechanical–chemical stabilization process for municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash on the chemical reactions in cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Milling extracted MSWI fly ash. ► Increasing specific surface area, destruction of the crystalline texture, and increasing the amount of amorphous materials. ► Increasing heavy metal stability. ► Inducing pozzolanic reactions and increasing the early and later strength of the cement paste. - Abstract: A water extraction process can remove the soluble salts present in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, which will help to increase the stability of the synthetic materials produced from the MSWI fly ash. A milling process can be used to stabilize the heavy metals found in the extracted MSWI fly ash (EA) leading to the formation of a non-hazardous material. This milled extracted MSWI fly ash (MEA) was added to an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste to induce pozzolanic reactions. The experimental parameters included the milling time (96 h), water to binder ratios (0.38, 0.45, and 0.55), and curing time (1, 3, 7 and 28 days). The analysis procedures included inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), BET, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The results of the analyses indicate that the milling process helped to stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA, with an increase in the specific surface area of about 50 times over that of OPC. The addition of the MEA to the OPC paste decreased the amount of Ca(OH)2 and led to the generation of calcium–silicate–hydrates (C–S–H) which in turned increased the amount of gel pores and middle sized pores in the cement. Furthermore, a comparison shows an increase in the early and later strength over that of OPC paste without the addition of the milled extracted ash. In other words, the milling process could stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA and had an activating effect on the MEA, allowing it to partly substitute OPC in OPC paste

  3. Mg-phosphate ceramics produced from the product of thermal transformation of cement-asbestos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pérez-Estébanez, Marta; Mácová, Petra; Šašek, Petr; Viani, Alberto; Gualtieri, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2014), s. 187-192. ISSN 1640-4920. [Conference on Environment and Mineral Processing /18./. Ostrava, 29.05.2014-31.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : cement-asbestos * magnesium phosphate ceramics * amorphous Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.potopk.com.pl/archiwum.html

  4. The effects of the mechanical-chemical stabilization process for municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash on the chemical reactions in cement paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Gang; Sun, Chang-Jung; Gau, Sue-Huai; Wu, Ching-Wei; Chen, Yu-Lun

    2013-04-01

    A water extraction process can remove the soluble salts present in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, which will help to increase the stability of the synthetic materials produced from the MSWI fly ash. A milling process can be used to stabilize the heavy metals found in the extracted MSWI fly ash (EA) leading to the formation of a non-hazardous material. This milled extracted MSWI fly ash (MEA) was added to an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste to induce pozzolanic reactions. The experimental parameters included the milling time (96h), water to binder ratios (0.38, 0.45, and 0.55), and curing time (1, 3, 7 and 28 days). The analysis procedures included inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), BET, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The results of the analyses indicate that the milling process helped to stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA, with an increase in the specific surface area of about 50times over that of OPC. The addition of the MEA to the OPC paste decreased the amount of Ca(OH)2 and led to the generation of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) which in turned increased the amount of gel pores and middle sized pores in the cement. Furthermore, a comparison shows an increase in the early and later strength over that of OPC paste without the addition of the milled extracted ash. In other words, the milling process could stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA and had an activating effect on the MEA, allowing it to partly substitute OPC in OPC paste. PMID:23375995

  5. The influence of surfactants on the processing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in reinforced cement matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jianlin; Duan, Zhongdong; Li, Hui [School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 202 Haihe Road, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2009-12-15

    Five surfactants [sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), Triton X-100 (TX10), Arabic gum (AG), and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)] were employed separately or jointly as superficial active agents (SAAs), to enhance solubilization/dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in aqueous solution and cement matrix. The stabilizations of MWNTs in 12 SAAs solutions were estimated through sedimentation time of each suspension with centrifugation or sitting in 60 days. The mechanical and electrical properties as well as microstructures of MWNTs/cement composites (MNT/CCs) using the SAAs of SDBS, NaDC, AG, or the mixture of SDBS and TX10 were investigated. It was found that the capability of SAAs in dispersing MWNTs roughly decreases in the order as SDBS and TX10, SDBS, NaDC and TX10, NaDC, AG, TX10, and CTAB. The SAA of SDBS and TX10 with a mixing ratio of 3:1 by weight exhibits the best solubilization/dispersion capability. The delaminating time of the suspension of the above SAA with or without centrifugation is 80 min and 60 days, respectively. The microscopy observation indicates that the nanotubes form a stable network in the MNT/CC using SDBS and TX10 SAA. In addition, compared to the Plain/C, the corresponding MNT/CC increases in flexural strength, compressive strength, and the electrical conductivity by 29.10%, 20.8%, and two orders of magnitude, respectively. The enhancements are attributed to the uniform and stable distribution of MWNTs with the suitable surfactants and the ultrasonic dispersion method. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. UTILIZATION OF AGARWOOD DISTILLATION WASTE IN OILWELL CEMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON FREE WATER AND POROSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Arina Sauki; Muhammad Hazman Md. Shahid; Ku Halim Ku Hamid; Azlinda Azizi; Siti Khatijah Jamaludin; Tengku Amran Tengku Mohd; Nur Hashimah Alias

    2013-01-01

    The intent of this research is to utilize the waste produced by distillation process of Agarwood oil and convert it into a profitable oilwell cement additive. Common problem during oilwell cementing is free wáter separation. This problem could weaken cement at the top, gas migration problem and non uniform density of cement slurry that are even worst in cementing deviated well. Another concern on cementing design is the porosity of the hardened cement. If the cement is too porous, it can lead...

  7. The Process to Estimate Economical Benefits of Six Sigma Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kosina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to define the process for the continuous evaluation of the financial benefits during Six Sigma project life time. The financial criteria are critical success factors of a Six Sigma project. The process has been developed as part of the six sigma project monitoring in order to estimate proper allocation of the resources taking in account the expected project benefits as well as evaluationof real achievements. The evaluation of the finacial benefits based on the quality costs is not sufficient in the real life and has to be accomplished with key financial performance indicators of the business to visualize the results. The evaluation based on the savings seems to be too difficult especially for green belts. The early involvement of the finance department in the project definition as well as ongoing evaluation is key. The defined process has been applied to real business enviroment.

  8. A new geopolymeric binder from hydrated-carbonated cement

    OpenAIRE

    Paya Bernabeu, Jorge Juan; Borrachero Rosado, María Victoria; Monzó Balbuena, José Mª; Soriano Martinez, Lourdes; Mitsuuchi Tashima, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of hydrated Portland cement as the raw material in the production of geopolymers. The silicon and aluminium oxides needed for the geopolymerization process were produced by the carbonation of hydrated Portland cement, which transforms CSH and CAH (Portland cement hydrates) into silica and alumina gels. Hydrated-carbonated Portland cement was alkali activated with a NaOH/waterglass solution. Pastes and mortars were prepared, and micro-structural and mechanical prop...

  9. 77 FR 47337 - Project-Level Predecisional Administrative Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 218 RIN 0596-AD07 Project-Level Predecisional Administrative Review Process... establishes the sole process by which the public may file objections seeking predecisional administrative... Appeal Reform Act (ARA), which provided for a postdecisional administrative appeal process. The...

  10. Statistical Process Control. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M.; Clark, I.

    A project was conducted to develop a curriculum and training materials to be used in training industrial operatives in statistical process control (SPC) techniques. During the first phase of the project, questionnaires were sent to 685 companies (215 of which responded) to determine where SPC was being used, what type of SPC firms needed, and how…

  11. Camera calibration based on the back projection process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feifei; Zhao, Hong; Ma, Yueyang; Bu, Penghui

    2015-12-01

    Camera calibration plays a crucial role in 3D measurement tasks of machine vision. In typical calibration processes, camera parameters are iteratively optimized in the forward imaging process (FIP). However, the results can only guarantee the minimum of 2D projection errors on the image plane, but not the minimum of 3D reconstruction errors. In this paper, we propose a universal method for camera calibration, which uses the back projection process (BPP). In our method, a forward projection model is used to obtain initial intrinsic and extrinsic parameters with a popular planar checkerboard pattern. Then, the extracted image points are projected back into 3D space and compared with the ideal point coordinates. Finally, the estimation of the camera parameters is refined by a non-linear function minimization process. The proposed method can obtain a more accurate calibration result, which is more physically useful. Simulation and practical data are given to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  12. Novel Manufacturing Process for Unique Mixed Carbide Refractory Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I project will establish the feasibility of an innovative manufacturing process to fabricate a range of unique hafnium/silicon based carbide...

  13. In-Process Monitoring of Additive Manufacturing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this project is the implementation of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) for in situ metal additive manufacturing process...

  14. Camera calibration based on the back projection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camera calibration plays a crucial role in 3D measurement tasks of machine vision. In typical calibration processes, camera parameters are iteratively optimized in the forward imaging process (FIP). However, the results can only guarantee the minimum of 2D projection errors on the image plane, but not the minimum of 3D reconstruction errors. In this paper, we propose a universal method for camera calibration, which uses the back projection process (BPP). In our method, a forward projection model is used to obtain initial intrinsic and extrinsic parameters with a popular planar checkerboard pattern. Then, the extracted image points are projected back into 3D space and compared with the ideal point coordinates. Finally, the estimation of the camera parameters is refined by a non-linear function minimization process. The proposed method can obtain a more accurate calibration result, which is more physically useful. Simulation and practical data are given to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. (paper)

  15. Understanding and Managing Process Interaction in IS Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a challenge for the IS project manager, since business change and information systems development usually are performed as separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage the......-technical innovation in a situation where the organisational change process and the IS development process are parallel but incongruent. We also argue that iterative software engineering frameworks are well structured to support process interaction. Finally, we advocate that the IS project manager needs to manage the...... relationship between these two kinds of processes. To understand the interaction between information systems development and planned organisational change we introduce the concept of process interaction. We draw on a longitudinal case study of an IS development project that used an iterative and incremental...

  16. The Role of Demonstration Projects in Construction innovation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lennie

    1999-01-01

    The article is describing the methodology of a case-study approach to the investigation of demonstration projects and their impact on the development of process and product innovations in the construction industry.......The article is describing the methodology of a case-study approach to the investigation of demonstration projects and their impact on the development of process and product innovations in the construction industry....

  17. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.

  18. Process simulation and parametric modeling for strategic project management

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Process Simulation and Parametric Modeling for Strategic Project Management will offer CIOs, CTOs and Software Development Managers, IT Graduate Students an introduction to a set of technologies that will help them understand how to better plan software development projects, manage risk and have better insight into the complexities of the software development process.A novel methodology will be introduced that allows a software development manager to better plan and access risks in the early planning of a project.  By providing a better model for early software development estimation and softw

  19. Project INOVEMAR: Innovation in Sea Produce Processment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alberta Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Following information conveyed by Docapesca, the less valued species captured in the region are different mackerel species, Atlantic horse mackerel, pout, octopus and mullet. Mackerel and Atlantic horse mackerel, due to their high subcutaneous fat were used for smoking and for the production of canned smoked fillets and patés, with different sauces.The smoking process included: washing fresh fish, 30 minutes immersion in a 80º brine, followed by dripping and drying for 48h. Smoking was carried out at 70ºC during 3h, with a final stage at 90ºC. Several paté formulations were developed with mackerel and atlantic horse mackerel, with different types and quantities of ingredients and flavourings to obtain different products. Special attention was paid to the amounts of thickeners and emulsifiers to attain a pleasant spread ability. All preparations were sterilized for 15 minutes at 121ºC. A sensory panel with 10 judges and a consumer panel with 59 consumers were used to test the developed products. The 59 consumers (17-25 years of age classified smoked products as moderately pleasant. 82% of the consumers tested expressed willingness to purchase the product. In what concerns patés, sensory judges as well as consumers rated the majority of products as very good in the several parameters under evaluation, indication that there is a great potential for these type of commodities. Several fish species are being studied for pre-cooking conservation. In all the cases studied, typical Portuguese cuisine is being used, followed by rapid chilling and packing with modified atmospheres. Preparations, preservation and subsequent consumption are being carried out at the school's canteen. The results obtained until now show that low commercial valued species can be used with success, providing some culinary expertise is added. This is a very important aspect since, transferring this technology to industry, may lead to the development of new products and help an easy flow of

  20. Sunray project - A long-term, nationwide educational process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sunray project is a nationwide educational process coordinated by the Economic Information Bureau (TaT Group) for ninth graders in Finnish comprehensive schools. The project aims at giving thorough and versatile information on radiation within the framework of various subjects (physics, biology, domestic science, history, European languages, mother tongue, health education etc.). The Sunray project covers all ninth graders of the existing 600 Finnish comprehensive schools; in all involving some 65 000 pupils. The project, which has been repeated five times, was initiated as part of the European Science and Technology week in 1995. During the first two years it was strongly linked with the science week as natural sciences were seen as a good framework for the chosen perspective. Since 1997, the project has been run as an event in its own right. The project has applied the method of processing integrated groups of themes, which is an objective of the comprehensive school system and the experimental method of science. As schools make their own decisions about the educational programmes to be adopted every semester, the project has been marketed to schools at the beginning of May. The TaT Group has arranged marketing events in some 10 localities in Finland. The Economic Information Bureau of Finland coordinates the project and in 1995-2000 the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the Finnish Energy Industries' Federation, the Finnish Electricity Association, Fortum Oyj and Teollisuuden Voima Oy have participated in the project

  1. Modelling Quartz Cementation of Quartzose Sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangen, Magnus

    1999-10-01

    Porosity estimation in sandstones is an important part of oil reservoir quality estimations, as porosity is lost during burial because of mechanical compaction and quartz cementation. In this report, cementation of quartzose sandstones is modelled assuming that the main source of silica is quartz dissolved at stylolites. The cementation process is shown to operate in one of two different regimes depending on the Damkohler number for diffusion. The regime, where diffusion of silica from the stylolites is a faster process than precipitation, is characterized by a nearly constant supersaturation between the stylolites. This regime, which spans the depth interval of quartz cementation for close stylolites, allows approximate analytical expressions for the porosity evolution as a function of time and temperature. An expression is derived for the temperature where half the initial porosity is lost during constant burial along constant thermal gradient. This expression is used to study the sensitivity of all parameters which enter the cementation process. The cementation process is shown to be particularly sensitive to the activation energy for quartz dissolution. The expression for the porosity decrease under constant burial is generalized to any piecewise linear burial and temperature history. The influence of the burial histories on the cementation process is studied. 32 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The HRA/Solarium Project: Processing of Widely Varying High- and Medium-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting in 2003, Belgoprocess will proceed with the treatment and conditioning of some 200 m3 of widely varying high- and medium-level waste from earlier research and development work, to meet standard acceptance criteria for later disposal. The gross volume of primary and secondary packages amounts to 2,600 m3. The waste has been kept in decay storage for up to 30 years. The project was started in 1997. Operation of the various processing facilities will take 7-8 years. The overall volume of conditioned waste will be of the order of 800 m3. All conditioned waste will be stored in appropriate storage facilities onsite. At present (November, 2002), a new processing facility has been constructed, the functional tests of the equipment have been performed and the startup phase has been started. Several cells of the Pamela vitrification facility onsite will be adapted for the treatment of high-level and highly a-contaminated waste; low-level a/a waste will be treated in the existing facility for super compaction and conditioning by embedding into cement (CILVA). The bulk of these waste, of which 95% are solids, the remainder consisting of mainly solidified liquids, have been produced between 1967 and 1988. They originate from various research programs and reactor operation at the Belgian nuclear energy research centre SCK CEN, isotope production, decontamination and dismantling operations

  3. INFLUENCE OF WINE ACID ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WELL BORE CEMENT SLURRIES AND HARDENED CEMENT PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of commercial types of domestic cements for use in cementing the deep wells is a process by which Yugoslav oil industry tends to solve problems of completion of those wells independently. In order to design a domestic, cheep and effective retarder, tests of applicability of wine acid on cement slurries have been carried out. Besides examining the necessary wine acid content to achieve desirable Theological properties, the influence of this additive on properties of hardened cement samples has been tested too (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. The effect of supplementary pulverized fuel ash on calcium aluminate phosphate cement for intermediate-level waste encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of supplementary pulverized fuel ash on phosphate-modified calcium aluminate cement. These systems are being established as part of a wider project to develop alternative cementing systems for the encapsulation of problematic low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste in the UK. The nuclear industry has established specific processing and property criteria, which must be fulfilled to ensure suitability for industrial application. In a series of studies, pulverized fuel ash was used as a partial replacement for calcium aluminate cement, to improve the fluidity of the system and increase the setting time. Properties such as slurry pH and fluidity, setting time, mechanical properties, and porosity were investigated using Vicat, Colflow, and compressive strength testing equipment and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The hardened cement pastes were also characterised using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. A formulation envelope was identified, which fulfilled the plant acceptance tests defined by industry to ensure suitability for industrial application. It was found that pH of calcium aluminate phosphate cements is lower than that of conventional cementing systems used to encapsulate radioactive waste in the UK. Hence, they have potential to be used as an alternative cementing system for the encapsulation of problematic radioactive metals. (authors)

  5. Conditioning of radioactive waste solutions by cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the cementation of the low and intermediate level evaporator concentrates resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuel numerous experiments were performed to optimize the waste form composition and to characterize the final waste form. Concerning the cementation process, properties of the waste/cement suspension were investigated. These investigations include the dependence of viscosity, bleeding, setting time and hydration heat from the waste cement slurry composition. For the characterization of the waste forms, the mechanical, thermal and chemical stability were determined. For special cases detailed investigations were performed to determine the activity release from waste packages under defined mechanical and thermal stresses. The investigations of the interaction of the waste forms with aqueous solutions include the determination of the Cs/Sr release, the corrosion resistance and the release of actinides. The Cs/Sr release was determined in dependence of the cement type, additives, setting time and sample size. (orig./DG)

  6. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll;

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used as the...... sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in...

  7. Energetically Modified Cement (EMC) - Performance Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, Vladimir; Elfgren, Lennart [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Centre for High Performance Cement

    2003-03-01

    Energetically Modified Cements, EMC, made of intensively milled cement (50%) and fillers (50%) of quartz or fly ash have been compared to blends of Ordinary Portland Cement, OPC, and fillers. The EMCs have better properties than other blends and are comparable to unblended OPC. This remarkable fact can probably be explained as follows. The grinding process reduces the size of both cement grains and fillers. This combined with the creation of micro defects gives the ground cement a very high degree of hydration. The increased early hydration and a better distribution of hydration products results in an extensive pore size refinement of the hardened binder. This pore size refinement leads to a favorably reduced permeability and diffusivity and very good mechanical properties.

  8. Isothermal Calorimetry Study of Blended Cements and its Application in Numerical Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, X.; Van Breugel, K.

    2001-01-01

    Apparent activation energy (E) is generally used to consider the effect of temperature on the kinetics of cement hydration in the numerical simulation of cement hydration processes. This paper deals with an experimental study on the kinetics of Portland cement and blast furnace slag cement using iso

  9. TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING PROJECTS RISK IN CAPITAL BUDGETING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines capital budgeting process and techniques of risk analysis in the process of selecting optimal project. Corporate manager in process of capital budgeting uses numerous techniques some of them are based on intuition and experience of manager, and some of them are analytic based on sensitive, scenario, decision tree and Monte Carlo method. All methods are used to determinate and to predict risk influence on the projects. Article deals with analytical techniques and real problems that can arise in capital budgeting process. Trough case study in article we analyzed risks that may emerge from different techniques. Conclusion that emerges from analyzing different methods of risk techniques is that only with right combination of these techniques corporate manager could decide correctly to choose optimal capital project.

  10. Feasibility study on energy conservation through modernization of cement plant (Sichuan Double Horse Cement Group Co. Ltd.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of possibilities of energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas emission reduction in the cement production process of Double Horse Cement Co., Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, China. Double Horse Cement adopts the wet type long kiln production system and has a production ability of approximately 1.5 million t/y. In the project, as to three production lines out of the six production lines, improvement was planned to be made of the technologies on the following: mixing of raw materials, grinding of raw materials, NSP, clinker cooler, clinker pre-grinder, high-efficiency separator, waste heat use power generation, etc. As a result of the study, it was found that the energy conservation amount obtained was 54,646 toe/y. And, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 169,086 t-CO2/y. The total fund required for this project was approximately 5.553 billion yen and the internal earning rate was 7.36% after tax. When the project is carried out, expenses vs. effects are 9.8 toe/million yen in energy conservation amount and 30.4 t-CO2/million yen in greenhouse effect gas reduction. (NEDO)

  11. Neutron Scattering Studies of Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Despite more than a century of research, basic questions remain regarding both the internal structure and the role of water in Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete, the world's most widely used manufactured material. Most such questions concern the primary hydration product and strength-building phase of OPC paste, the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. When cement and water are mixed, this phase precipitates as clusters of nanoscale (nearly amorphous) colloidal particles with an associated water-filled inter-particle pore system. Most attempts to characterize the C-S-H gel and the behavior of the associated water involve drying or other processes that, themselves, change the bound water content within and around the gel. Neutron scattering methods do not suffer from this disadvantage. Furthermore, the neutron isotope effect and the neutron's sensitivity to molecular motion have enabled considerable progress to be made in recent years by: (i) determining the C-S-H composition, density and gel structure in small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) H/D contrast variation studies; (ii) elucidating the changing state of water within cement as hydration progresses using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS); and (iii) measuring the production and consumption of nanoscale calcium hydroxide (CH), a by-product of cement hydration that co-exists with the C-S-H gel, using inelastic neutron scattering (INS). These experiments have provided new insights into the physics and chemistry of cement hydration, and have implications for the design of new concretes with pozzolanic cement additions that are intended to address environmental concerns and sustainability issues.

  12. Image Processing Pipeline in the Educational Project Venus Transit 2004

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimberová, Stanislava

    Calgary: ACTA Press, 2006 - (Uskov, V.), s. 275-279 ISBN 0-88986-543-4. [Web-based Education. Puerto Vallarta (MX), 23.01.2006-25.01.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS300120506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : educational project * WEB pipeline * image processing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. Development Process of an Experience Concept - Project Vintage Hunt System

    OpenAIRE

    Punkari, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is implemented as a project oriented process between September 2014 and March 2015. The main idea was to publish a booklet that would assist on advancing the visibility of the growing selection of vintage and second-hand clothing and accessory stores in Helsinki, Finland, while promoting the scene for locals and visitors. But while the project continued and more finalized ideas were generated and compared, the booklet was transformed into a concept serving the same mean, but opera...

  14. Study on applicability of low alkaline cement in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. In-situ experiment at 140m gallery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, any high-level radioactive waste repository is to be constructed at over 300m depth below surface. Tunnel support is used for safety during the construction and operation, and shotcrete and concrete lining are used as the tunnel support. Concrete is a composite material comprised of aggregate, cement and various additives. Low alkaline cement has been developed for the long term stability of the barrier systems whose performance could be negatively affected by highly alkaline conditions arising due to cement used in a repository. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed a low alkaline cement, named as HFSC (Highly fly-ash contained silicafume cement), containing over 60wt% of silica-fume (SF) and coal ash (FA). JAEA is presently constructing an underground research laboratory (URL) at Horonobe for research and development in the geosciences and repository engineering technology. HFSC was used experimentally as the shotcrete material in construction of part of the 140m deep gallery in Horonobe URL. The objective of this experiment was to assess the performance of HFSC shotcrete in terms of mechanics, workability, durability, and so on. HFSC used in this experiment is composed of 40wt% OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement), 20wt% SF, and 40wt% FA. This composition was determined based on mechanical testing of various mixes of the above components. Because of the low OPC content, the strength of HFSC tends to be lower than that of OPC in normal concrete. The total length of tunnel constructed using HFSC shotcrete is about 73m and about 500m3 of HFSC was used. The workability of HFSC shotcrete was confirmed by this experimental construction. Although several in-situ experiments using low alkaline cement as shotcrete have been performed at a small scale, this application of HFSC at the Horonobe URL is the first full scale application of low alkaline cement in the construction of a URL in the world. In this report, we present detailed results of the in

  15. The suitability of a supersulfated cement for nuclear waste immobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, N. C.; Milestone, N. B.; Gordon, L. E.; Ko, S.-C.

    2014-09-01

    Composite cements based on ordinary Portland cement are used in the UK as immobilisation matrices for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes. However, the high pore solution pH causes corrosion of some metallic wastes and undesirable expansive reactions, which has led to alternative cementing systems being examined. We have investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural properties of a supersulfated cement in order to determine its applicability for use in nuclear waste encapsulation. The hardened supersulfated cement paste appeared to have properties desirable for use in producing encapsulation matrices, but the high powder specific surface resulted in a matrix with high porosity. Ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate were the main phases formed in the hardened cement paste and anhydrite was present in excess. The maximum rate of heat output during hydration of the supersulfated cement paste was slightly higher than that of a 9:1 blastfurnace slag:ordinary Portland cement paste commonly used by the UK nuclear waste processing industry, although the total heat output of the supersulfated cement paste was lower. The pH was also significantly lower in the supersulfated cement paste. Aluminium hydroxide was formed on the surface of aluminium metal encapsulated in the cement paste and ettringite was detected between the aluminium hydroxide and the hardened cement paste.

  16. Sandstone cementation and its geomorphic and hydraulic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamovič, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2005), s. 21-24. ISSN 1682-5519. [Sandstone Landscapes in Europe. Past, Present and Future. International Conference on Sandstone Landscapes /2./. Vianden, 25.05.2005-28.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3013302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : sandstone * paleohydraulics * geomorphology * siliceous cement * carbonate cement * ferruginous cement * sandstone landsforms Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  17. Three big Cs: climate, cement and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordqvist, Joakim [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Boyd, Christopher [Lafarge (France); Klee, Howard [World Business Council for Sustainable Development (Switzerland)

    2003-09-30

    Cement is a low-cost construction material whose manufacture generates significant carbon dioxide emissions. As these emissions enter a carbon-constrained world, they may ultimately have a significant impact on the industry's financial performance. Consequently, the cement industry is developing a response to climate change management and the connected political process. Ten of the world's leading cement-producing corporations, representing more than one-third of global cement production, published a joint Agenda for Action in 2002 to address sustainability issues for the industry, including climate change. Other issues identified are emissions reduction, use of fuels and raw materials, employee health and safety, local impacts on land and communities, and internal business processes. Examining the rationale for, and the effects of, proactive climate initiatives in the cement sector, this paper elaborates on the conditions for the spread of cement-related climate action to China, where more than one-third of global cement production occurs, 80% of which involves inefficient kilns using outdated, highly polluting technology. (Author)

  18. Supporting the Future Air Traffic Control Projection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In air traffic control, projecting what the air traffic situation will be over the next 30 seconds to 30 minutes is a key process in identifying conflicts that may arise so that evasive action can be taken upon discovery of these conflicts. A series of field visits in the Boston and New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON) facilities and in the oceanic air traffic control facilities in New York and Reykjavik, Iceland were conducted to investigate the projection process in two different ATC domains. The results from the site visits suggest that two types of projection are currently used in ATC tasks, depending on the type of separation minima and/or traffic restriction and information display used by the controller. As technologies improve and procedures change, care should be taken by designers to support projection through displays, automation, and procedures. It is critical to prevent time/space mismatches between interfaces and restrictions. Existing structure in traffic dynamics could be utilized to provide controllers with useful behavioral models on which to build projections. Subtle structure that the controllers are unable to internalize could be incorporated into an ATC projection aid.

  19. Through Lean Manufacturing Techniques Improvement InProduction of Cement Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udai Singh Chouhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of cement is a process industry which is distinct from manufacturing and the main objective here is to apply lean manufacturing technique to the eradicate waste to the processes and parameters which are common between process and discrete manufacturing. Lean signifies a major advance over traditional mass production methods. Value stream mapping is used first to identify different waste present in the current state. This paper will describe work undertaken investigating the application of lean thinking to a continuous production environment, in this instance exemplified by the cement industry. Implementation of lean helps many organizations to improve their productivity and efficiency Cement plays a vital role in economic development of any country. Having more than a hundred and fifty years history, it has been used extensively in construction of anything, from a small building to a mammoth multi-purpose project. The need for improving the efficiency of the cement production line is widely acknowledged in order to reduce the downtime rates, and satisfy high levels of market demand where the demand for cement is mostly second substance behind water. This paper articulates a methodology for data collection, knowledge extraction, model creation and experimentation that combines the use of process mapping, computational simulation. A detailed description of each step of the process is given and is illustrated by results from a case study undertaken during the research. This paper describes work undertaken to implement lean practices in the continuous process sector as represented by cement production. One of the major barriers to lean implementation is providing evidence of its potential benefit to end-users. This work aims to overcome this obstacle by producing a tool which can be used to easily visualize the benefits of adopting lean practices without requiring disruption to the production environment

  20. 技术不确定下的硬质合金R & D预算分配研究%The Optimal Allocation of Budget Funds among Cemented Carbide R & D Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡启明

    2013-01-01

      硬质合金 R&D 项目既面临项目收益的不确定性,又面临着技术的不确定性。如何在不确定下优化企业资源配置,以达到企业收益的最大化也是许多 R&D 项目资金分配中的难题。在 Liu 研究的基础上,引入了 R&D 项目成功概率的逻辑增长函数,建立了 R&D 项目资金配置模糊随机期望值模型,并给出了模糊随机模拟技术和遗传算法的模型求解。%Different with ordinary projects, Cemented Carbide R&D project is uncertain both in the revenue and technology. Thus, it is a difficulty for enterprises to allocate resources to maximize the revenue. Integrating the logical growth function of success possibility with revenue uncertainty, this paper develops a fuzzy random expected value model to solve the difficulty of resource allocation among cemented carbide R&D project. A heredity algorithm for the fuzzy random expected value model is designed.

  1. Using bio-based polymers for curing cement-based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zlopasa, J.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Picken, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Curing is the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from the surface of cement based materials. It is the final stage in the production of cement-based materials and it is the essential part for achieving continuous hydration of cement, while avoiding cracking due to drying shrinkage. Continuous cement hydration also guarantees a strong bond between aggregate, fewer voids, and depercoliation of capillary pores. Thus, a properly cured cement-based material is prepared for...

  2. Influence of process parameters on thickness and wear resistance of rare earth modified chromium coatings on P110 steel synthesized by pack cementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Naiming; XIE Faqin; WU Xiangqing; TIAN Wei

    2011-01-01

    The pack cementation was employed to produce rare earth modified chromium coatings on P110 steel aiming at improving its performance and increasing the usage lifetime during operation. The orthogonal array design (OAD) was applied to set experiments. Contents of NH4Cl, types of RE, contents of RE, test temperature and soaking time were the main factors, and each factor was endowed with four levels.While the range analysis and analysis of variance were used to investigate the results of OAD tests on thickness and wear resistance. The results indicated that for a promising coating with higher thickness value and excellent anti-wear property, the test temperature was the most significant process factor. The potential promising conditions for chromizing treatment were: adding 1% NH4Cl and 1% LaCl3, maintaining the test temperature at 1000 ℃ for 8 h. The results of verification showed that the coating formed under the optimal process parameter had a valid thickness of 28 μm and a reduction of 0.32 mg in wear resistance test.

  3. Process for capturing CO{sub 2} arising from the calcination of the CaCO{sub 3} used in cement manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Rodriguez; M. Alonso; G. Grasa; J. Carlos Abanades [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, INCAR-CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper outlines a new CaCO{sub 3} calcination method for producing a stream of CO{sub 2} (suitable for permanent geological storage after purification and compression). The process is based on the use of very hot CaO particles (T {gt} 1000{sup o}C) to transfer heat from a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) to a calciner (fluidized with CO{sub 2} and/or steam). Since the fluidized bed combustor and calciner have separate atmospheres, the CO{sub 2} resulting from the decomposition of CaCO{sub 3} can be captured, while the CO{sub 2} generated in the combustion of the fuel in air is emitted to the atmosphere. We demonstrate that with this system it is possible to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions of a cement plant by around 60%. Furthermore, since the key pieces of equipment are similar to the commercial CFBCs used in power generation plants, it is possible to establish the additional investment required for the system and to estimate the cost per ton of CO{sub 2} avoided for this process to be about 19 $/tCO{sub 2} avoided. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Process competencies in a problem and project based learning environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Kolmos, Anette

    2006-01-01

    Future engineers are not only required to master technological competencies concerning solving problems, producing and innovating technology, they are also expected to have capabilities of cooperation, communication, and project management in diverse social context, which are referred to as process...... competencies. Consequently, engineering education is facing challenges regarding how to facilitate students with scientific-technological competencies as well as process competencies. Problem based learning (PBL) as an educational model is regarded as an effective example regarding preparing students...

  5. The suitability of a supersulfated cement for nuclear waste immobilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, N.C., E-mail: nick.collier@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Milestone, N.B. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Callaghan Innovation, 69 Gracefield Road, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Gordon, L.E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Geopolymer and Minerals Processing Group, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ko, S.-C. [Holcim Technology Ltd, Hagenholzstrasse 85, CH-8050 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We investigate a supersulfated cement for use as a nuclear waste encapsulant. • High powder fineness requires a high water content to satisfy flow requirements. • Heat generation during hydration is similar to a control cement paste. • Typical hydration products are formed resulting in a high potential for waste ion immobilisation. • Paste pH and aluminium corrosion is less than in a control cement paste. - Abstract: Composite cements based on ordinary Portland cement are used in the UK as immobilisation matrices for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes. However, the high pore solution pH causes corrosion of some metallic wastes and undesirable expansive reactions, which has led to alternative cementing systems being examined. We have investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural properties of a supersulfated cement in order to determine its applicability for use in nuclear waste encapsulation. The hardened supersulfated cement paste appeared to have properties desirable for use in producing encapsulation matrices, but the high powder specific surface resulted in a matrix with high porosity. Ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate were the main phases formed in the hardened cement paste and anhydrite was present in excess. The maximum rate of heat output during hydration of the supersulfated cement paste was slightly higher than that of a 9:1 blastfurnace slag:ordinary Portland cement paste commonly used by the UK nuclear waste processing industry, although the total heat output of the supersulfated cement paste was lower. The pH was also significantly lower in the supersulfated cement paste. Aluminium hydroxide was formed on the surface of aluminium metal encapsulated in the cement paste and ettringite was detected between the aluminium hydroxide and the hardened cement paste.

  6. Examining Perceptions of the Science Fair Project: Content or Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jinx Stapleton

    2003-01-01

    Discusses student research, information literacy and research skills, and the role of inquiry in the research process. Presents a case study of a middle school science fair project that examined what students should accomplish in their research and what the role of stakeholders is, including teachers, parents, and school library media specialists.…

  7. A Framework for Coordination Process into Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaloul Wesam S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry is recognized as high fragmentation, low efficiency, cost and time overruns in contrast with other industries. These peculiarities are the main roots of poor performance facing by the industry. Effective coordination is vital in construction projects success and mitigate the fragmentation dilemma, however it is often difficult to achieve and need iterative process. Coordination is core issue to improve performance in construction project. Relevant studies have addressed the coordination process importance and implementation, but not in a framework. This paper propose a framework for coordination process in construction projects, as well as its relationship with performance. The objective of the framework is to provide a roadmap for the construction parties to realize operational excellence so that collectively stakeholders can recognize the effect of coordination process application on the project performance. The data were obtained from literature review and structured interviews with five experts. The analysis produced the framework of coordination based on the extensively used procedures for information and data flow between stakeholders.

  8. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites

  9. The influence of cement mantle thickness and stem geometry on fatigue damage in two different cemented hip femoral prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A; Simões, J A

    2009-11-13

    Experimental models can be used for pre-clinical testing of cemented and other type of hip replacements. Total hip replacement (THR) failure scenarios include, among others, cement damage accumulation and the assessment of accurate stress and strain magnitudes at the cement mantle interfaces (stem-cement and cement-bone) can be used to predict mechanical failure. The aseptic loosening scenario in cemented hip replacements is currently not fully understood, and methods of evaluating medical devices must be developed to improve clinical performance. Different results and conclusions concerning the cement micro-cracking mechanism have been reported. The aim of this study was to verify the in vitro behavior of two cemented femoral stems with respect to fatigue crack formation. Fatigue crack damage was assessed at the medial, lateral, anterior and posterior sides of the Lubinus SPII and Charnley stems. All stems were loaded and tested in stair climbing fatigue loading during one million cycles at 2 Hz. After the experiments each implanted synthetic femur was sectioned and analyzed. We observed more damage (cracks per area) for the Lubinus SPII stem, mainly on the proximal part of the cement mantle. The micro-cracking formation initiated in the stem-cement interface and grew towards the direction of cortical bone of the femur. Overall, the cement-bone interface seems to be crucial for the success of the hip replacement. The Charnley stem provoked more damage on the cement-bone interface. A failure index (maximum length of crack/maximum thickness of cement) considered was higher for the cement-stem interface of the Lubinus SPII stem. For a cement mantle thickness higher than 5 mm, cracking initiated at the cement-bone interface and depended on the opening canal process (reaming procedure and instrumentation). The analysis also showed that fatigue-induced damage on the cement mantle, increasing proximally, and depended on the axial position of the stem. The cement

  10. A research paper of 'the basic sciences of the radioactive waste treatment' (Jul. 28,29, 1994) and 'Interface and surface science of solid waste processing and disposal -differences between cement and bentonite' (Dec. 14, 1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains copies of OHP at the meetings of which discussions were centered upon the points of sameness and difference between cement and bentonite. There are sixteen papers, eleven in the first meeting and five in the second one. The following studies were read as under, on the first meeting, the role of retardation effect on the safety of high level atomic waste stratum processing, determination of colloid particle diameters by use of fieldflow fractionation, adsorption behavior of uranium, into black mica in granite, masstransfer mechanism of Cs and Se in the compression-bentonite, delay mechanism under conditions of mineral alteration, effects of humus on the behavior of radionuclides in stratum, formation of actinoids - humic acid complex and its effect on adsorption behavior, characteristic properties of water in bentonite, measurement of solubility of uranium and niobium, behavior of colloidal Am in the bentonite, illite - water system, effects of aging deterioration of bentonite on diffusion of nuclides, and on the second meeting, a view of cement materials, chemical behavior and long period stability of cement - relating to Atkinson model -, the present conditions of studies about sorption in cement, chemical properties of pore water in bentonite and interaction of bentonite and nuclides in solid - liquid interface. (S.Y.)

  11. Processing and characterisation of Calcium SulfoAluminate (CSA) eco-cements coated with a hybrid organo-inorganic material for photocatalytic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Cantero, Alejandro; Cabeza, Aurelio; De la Torre, Ángeles G.; Aranda, M. A. G.; Santacruz, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    On the one hand, Calcium SulfoAluminate (CSA) eco-cements are receiving increasing attention since their manufacture produces up to 40% less CO2 than ordinary Portland cement (OPC). In addition, they show interesting properties such as high early-age strengths, short setting times, impermeability, sulfate and chloride corrosion resistance and low alkalinity. On the other hand, water treatment is a key issue and it will become much more important in the decades ahead. We have developed a p...

  12. Project and Innovation Management in New Product Development Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Leif; Gayretli, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Although the process of innovation is one of the most important drivers behind the growth and prosperity of today’s global economy, it is one of the least understood. This paper aims to address specific problems in carrying out new product development processes. There are crucial issues related to...... product design processes like inefficient project management, increasing product complexity, conflict management, shortfall of existing methods and tools, and high failures in new product introduction. A new approach has been proposed for a system based platform, which consist of a product platform, a...

  13. PLANNING PROCESS, BETWEEN EXPERT PROJECT AND COLLECTIVE ACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Thibault, Serge; Verdelli, Laura

    2009-01-01

    texte présenté au colloque annuel de l'AESOP Foundations, planning theory and method, planning and complexity - 24th AESOP Annual Conference, Finland The content of this paper concerns some recent evolutions of the planning process in France. Analyzing two study cases, we'll show that today, two types of process are coexisting and, in a way, confronting. The first one corresponds to the "classic" plan for which the project is the principal stage of a linear process. This linear plan is org...

  14. Retrospective (in-process) project evaluation system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-20

    The retrospective evaluation methodology, designed to measure the accomplishments of the Buildings and Community Systems projects that are either on-going or completed, is described. The Threshold Screening system and risk analysis methodologies are briefly described. The result of the addition of the retrospective (in-process) evaluation methodology to the threshold/risk analysis and resource allocation methodology is one system by which a project can be screened when it is proposed, monitored in its development, and evaluated at its completion. This report describes the methodology at this early point in its development.

  15. Green Project System Design of Machine Process Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As the specialty of the product and the dim conscio us ness of environmental protection, the status of dirty, chaos and difference is l ong-term existed in the machine process factory. It seriously affects workers' work and living environment, and restricts the total level of the environment p rotection in our country. The project is the fatal scientific research task of H enan province in 2001. As the members' endeavor of task group, we have finished the total plan of green project system and some other ...

  16. PROFILING AND THE STUDENT PROJECT PEER APPRAISAL PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodley C. Pineda; Bonita B. Barger; Linda D. Lerner

    2011-01-01

    Past research on team formation and composition reveals that team member attributes play a role in how students perceive each others’ contributions to a team project. Can attribute-based profiling be used during the peer appraisal process so that a holistic-based assessment tool can still provide meaningful feedback to the student being rated? Our study shows that students can develop a profile of the ideal team member at the start of the project that is consistent with their overall assess...

  17. Examination of solidified and stabilized matrices as a result of solidification and stabilization process of arseniccontaining sludge with portland cement and lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanapon Phenrat

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available By solidification and stabilization (S/S with Portland cement and lime, it is possible to reduce arsenic concentration in leachate of the arsenic-containing sludge from arsenic removal process by coagulation with ferric chloride. From the initial arsenic concentration in leachate of unsolidified /unstabilized sludge which was around 20.75 mg/L, the arsenic concentrations in leachate of solidified/stabilized waste were reduced to 0.3, 0.58, 1.09, and 1.85 mg/L for the waste-to-binder ratios of 0.15, 0.25, 0.5, and 1, respectively, due tothe formation of insoluble calcium-arsenic compounds. To be more cost effective for the future, alternative uses of these S/S products were also assessed by measurement of compressive strength of the mortar specimens. It was found that the compressive strengths of these matrices were from 28 ksc to 461 ksc. In conclusion, considering compressive strength and leachability of the solidified matrices, some of these solidified/ stabilized products have potential to serve as an interlocking concrete paving block.

  18. Acrylic Bone Cements Modified with Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Krilova, V; Vītiņš, V

    2010-01-01

    The successful result of restorative and replacement surgical operation depends significantly on properties of used bone cement. Acrylic bone cements are usually based on methylmethacrylate polymer, while monomer polymerization begins after mixing of components in mixing device and terminates in living tissue. Polymerization of methylmethacrylate is exothermic process, and temperature increase might cause tissue necrosis with concomitant implant aseptic loosening. Developed non-ionogenic and ...

  19. Cementation and solidification of miscellaneous mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site produces a variety of wastes which are amenable to micro-encapsulation in cement Portland cement is an inexpensive and readily available material for this application. The Waste Projects (WP) group at Rocky Flats evaluated cementation to determine its effectiveness in encapsulating several wastes. These included waste analytical laboratory solutions, incinerator ash, hydroxide precipitation sludge, and an acidic solution from the Delphi process (a chemical oxidation technology being evaluated as an alternative to incineration). WP prepared surrogate wastes and conducted designed experiments to optimize the cement formulation for the waste streams. These experiments used a Taguchi or factorial experimental design, interactions between the variables were also considered in the testing. Surrogate waste samples were spiked with various levels of each of six Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed metals (Cd, Cr, Ba, Pb, Ni, and Ag), cemented using the optimized formulation, and analyzed for leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The metal spike levels chosen were based on characterization data, and also based on an estimate of the highest levels of contaminants suspected in the waste. This paper includes laboratory test results for each waste studied. These include qualitative observations as well as quantitative data from TCLP analyses and environmental cycling studies. The results from these experiments show that cement stabilization of the different wastes can produce final waste forms which meet the current RCRA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements. Formulations that resulted in LDR compliant waste forms are provided. The volume increases associated with cementation are also lower than anticipated. Future work will include verification studies with actual mixed radioactive waste as well as additional formulation development studies on other waste streams

  20. Advanced cementation concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this programme of work was to investigate whether improvements could be made to existing formulations for cement suitable for the immobilization of intermediate level radioactive waste. Two additives were selected, microsilica and limestone flour. Improvements to the cement were only slight. (author)

  1. Curing time effect on the fraction of 137Cs from cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite clay composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plećaš Ilija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the safety of disposal of radioactive waste material in cement, curing conditions and time of leaching radionuclides 137Cs have been studied. Leaching tests in cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix, were carried out in accordance with a method recommended by IAEA. Curing conditions and curing time prior to commencing the leaching test are critically important in leach studies since the extent of hydration of the cement materials determines how much hydration product develops and whether it is available to block the pore network, thereby reducing leaching. Incremental leaching rates Rn[cm/d] of 137Cs from cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix after 240 days were measured. The results presented in this paper are examples of results obtained in a 30-year concrete testing project which will influence the design of the engineer trenches system for future central Serbian radioactive waste storing centre.

  2. A literature review of mixed waste components: Sensitivities and effects upon solidification/stabilization in cement-based matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US DOE Oak Ridge Field Office has signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) regarding Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) mixed wastes subject to the land disposal restriction (LDR) provisions of the Resource conservation and Recovery Act. The LDR FFCA establishes an aggressive schedule for conducting treatability studies and developing treatment methods for those ORR mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes listed in Appendix B to the Agreement. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program has been initiated to provide those efforts necessary to identify treatment methods for all of the wastes that meet Appendix B criteria. The program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs in a variety of areas, including that of final waste forms (i.e., stabilization/solidification processes). A literature research has been performed, with the objective of determining waste characterization needs to support cement-based waste-form development. The goal was to determine which waste species are problematic in terms of consistent production of an acceptable cement-based waste form and at what concentrations these species become intolerable. The report discusses the following: hydration mechanisms of Portland cement; mechanisms of retardation and acceleration of cement set-factors affecting the durability of waste forms; regulatory limits as they apply to mixed wastes; review of inorganic species that interfere with the development of cement-based waste forms; review of radioactive species that can be immobilized in cement-based waste forms; and review of organic species that may interfere with various waste-form properties

  3. A literature review of mixed waste components: Sensitivities and effects upon solidification/stabilization in cement-based matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattus, C.H.; Gilliam, T.M.

    1994-03-01

    The US DOE Oak Ridge Field Office has signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) regarding Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) mixed wastes subject to the land disposal restriction (LDR) provisions of the Resource conservation and Recovery Act. The LDR FFCA establishes an aggressive schedule for conducting treatability studies and developing treatment methods for those ORR mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes listed in Appendix B to the Agreement. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program has been initiated to provide those efforts necessary to identify treatment methods for all of the wastes that meet Appendix B criteria. The program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs in a variety of areas, including that of final waste forms (i.e., stabilization/solidification processes). A literature research has been performed, with the objective of determining waste characterization needs to support cement-based waste-form development. The goal was to determine which waste species are problematic in terms of consistent production of an acceptable cement-based waste form and at what concentrations these species become intolerable. The report discusses the following: hydration mechanisms of Portland cement; mechanisms of retardation and acceleration of cement set-factors affecting the durability of waste forms; regulatory limits as they apply to mixed wastes; review of inorganic species that interfere with the development of cement-based waste forms; review of radioactive species that can be immobilized in cement-based waste forms; and review of organic species that may interfere with various waste-form properties.

  4. Project management plan, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, Project W-026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Project (WRAP 1) has been established to support the retrieval and final disposal of approximately 400K grams of plutonium and quantities of hazardous components currently stored in drums at the Hanford Site

  5. Coordination of student teams focused on project management processes

    OpenAIRE

    Aquere, André Luiz; Mesquita, Diana; Lima, Rui M.; Monteiro, Simone Borges Simão; Zindel, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Engineering learning processes are expected to develop technical and transversal competencies on students that are demanded by the engineering professional bodies. The need for the development of competencies raised an incremental interest in applying innovative approaches in Engineering education. One of the methodologies used in this context is Project-Based Learning (PBL). At the University of Brasilia, a course degree in Production Engineering was created having as a main reference the Pr...

  6. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards

  7. Understanding and Managing Process Interaction in IS Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2012-01-01

    Software-based information systems must be developed and implemented as a part of business change. This is a major challenge, since business change and the development of software-based information systems usually are performed in separate processes. Thus, there is a need to understand and manage...... the relationship between these two kinds of processes. In this paper we draw on a longitudinal case study. We suggest a framework to analyze the case as interaction between software development processes and organizational change processes. In the analysis we find that the framework enables us to...... understand critical events in the case, what led to the events, and what the consequences are. We discuss the implications for information systems research and in particular we discuss the contribution to project management of iterative and incremental software development....

  8. Energy economy and industrial ecology in the Brazilian cement sector; Economia de energia e ecologia industrial no setor cimenteiro brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Schaeffer, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: marinatavares@openlink.com.br; roberto@ppe.ufrj.br

    1999-07-01

    The article discusses the following issues of the Brazilian cement sector: the Brazilian cement main types specification, cement quantities evolution produced in Brazil from 1987 to 1997, energy conservation in the cement production process with additives, energy economy cost estimates from the utilization of additives, and several technologies energy economy cost used in the industrial sector.

  9. INTERACTION OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED WATER WITH THE CEMENT BINDING AGENT

    OpenAIRE

    Gujumdzhjan Perch Pogosovich; Vetrenko Tat'jana Grigor'evna; Ladaev Nikolaj Mihajlovich; Zinov'eva Ekaterina Vital'evna

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the procedure of interaction between the water and the particles of the cement binding agent, if subjected to high-speed processing inside an intensive mixing device that represents a hydrodynamic stirrer composed of a rotor and variable section turbines. The proposed method of modification (mechanical activation) of the cement and water suspension makes it possible to reduce the cost of concrete due to reduction of the cement consumption rate. The research of strength-re...

  10. A positron annihilation study on the hydration of cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy experiments were carried out in various ordinary Portland cement pastes, in an attempt to monitor the porosity of the pastes. It is found that positronium intensity is well correlated to the time evolution of the total porosity and it is influenced by the water-to-cement ratio. This parameter is also sensitive to the delayed hydration process induced by adding methanol to the water-cement mixture

  11. Aligning BIM with FM: streamlining the process for future projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Kasprzak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study performed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA in 2004 found that owners account for approximately $10.6 billion of the $15.8 billion total inadequate interoperability costs of U.S. capital facility projects in 2002. Because of these inefficiency costs, it becomes vital that information produced during the design and construction phases of a project be transferred into operations with maximum leverage to the end users. However, very few owners have defined these informational needs or developed an integration strategy into existing maintenance management systems. To increase operational efficiency, an organization must first develop an understanding of their operating systems, as well as identify how Building Information Modeling (BIM will add value to their daily tasks. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU has a unique opportunity to diversely implement BIM processes because not only does the University act as an owner, but also as designer and construction manager on the majority of projects. The struggle that PSU faces is one that is unique only to owners with a large, existing, multifaceted building inventory. This paper outlines the current initiative by the Office of Physical Plant (OPP, the asset manager at PSU, to develop an information exchange framework between BIM and FM applications to be used internally. As a result of this research, PSU has been able to define owner operational requirements for future projects and develop a flexible integration framework to support additional BIM tasks and information exchanges.

  12. Aligning BIM with FM: streamlining the process for future projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Kasprzak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A study performed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA in 2004 found that owners account for approximately $10.6 billion of the $15.8 billion total inadequate interoperability costs of U.S. capital facility projects in 2002. Because of these inefficiency costs, it becomes vital that information produced during the design and construction phases of a project be transferred into operations with maximum leverage to the end users. However, very few owners have defined these informational needs or developed an integration strategy into existing maintenance management systems. To increase operational efficiency, an organization must first develop an understanding of their operating systems, as well as identify how Building Information Modeling (BIM will add value to their daily tasks. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU has a unique opportunity to diversely implement BIM processes because not only does the University act as an owner, but also as designer and construction manager on the majority of projects. The struggle that PSU faces is one that is unique only to owners with a large, existing, multifaceted building inventory. This paper outlines the current initiative by the Office of Physical Plant (OPP, the asset manager at PSU, to develop an information exchange framework between BIM and FM applications to be used internally. As a result of this research, PSU has been able to define owner operational requirements for future projects and develop a flexible integration framework to support additional BIM tasks and information exchanges.

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Verification and Validation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a description of design verification and validation activities implemented by the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. During the execution of early design verification, a management assessment (Bergman, 1999) and external assessments on configuration management (Augustenburg, 1999) and testing (Loscoe, 2000) were conducted and identified potential uncertainties in the verification process. This led the SNF Chief Engineer to implement corrective actions to improve process and design products. This included Design Verification Reports (DVRs) for each subproject, validation assessments for testing, and verification of the safety function of systems and components identified in the Safety Equipment List to ensure that the design outputs were compliant with the SNF Technical Requirements. Although some activities are still in progress, the results of the DVR and associated validation assessments indicate that Project requirements for design verification are being effectively implemented. These results have been documented in subproject-specific technical documents (Table 2). Identified punch-list items are being dispositioned by the Project. As these remaining items are closed, the technical reports (Table 2) will be revised and reissued to document the results of this work

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Verification and Validation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OLGUIN, L.J.

    2000-09-25

    This document provides a description of design verification and validation activities implemented by the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. During the execution of early design verification, a management assessment (Bergman, 1999) and external assessments on configuration management (Augustenburg, 1999) and testing (Loscoe, 2000) were conducted and identified potential uncertainties in the verification process. This led the SNF Chief Engineer to implement corrective actions to improve process and design products. This included Design Verification Reports (DVRs) for each subproject, validation assessments for testing, and verification of the safety function of systems and components identified in the Safety Equipment List to ensure that the design outputs were compliant with the SNF Technical Requirements. Although some activities are still in progress, the results of the DVR and associated validation assessments indicate that Project requirements for design verification are being effectively implemented. These results have been documented in subproject-specific technical documents (Table 2). Identified punch-list items are being dispositioned by the Project. As these remaining items are closed, the technical reports (Table 2) will be revised and reissued to document the results of this work.

  15. Immobilisation of MTR waste in cement (product evaluation). Final report. December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enriched uranium/aluminium fuel used in Material Testing Reactors is reprocessed at Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment (DNE). The main chemical component of the liquid waste produced by this process is acid deficient aluminium nitrate. This is stored in stainless steel tanks at DNE. As a result of work carried out under the UKAEA radioactive waste management programme a decision was taken to immobilise the waste in cement. The programme had two main components, plant design and development of the cementation process. The plant for the cementation of MTR waste is under construction and will be commissioned in 1988/9. The primary objective of this project is to find a suitable process for changing the highly mobile radioactive waste into an inert stable solid. Work carried out on the development of the immobilisation process showed that a conditioning stage (neutralisation) is required to make the acid waste compatible with cement. Small scale experiments showed that adding Ordinary Portland Cement blended with ground granulated Blast Furnace Slag to Simulant MTR Liquor produces an acceptable product. The process has been demonstrated at full scale (200 litres) and the products have been subjected to an extensive programme of destructive and non-destructive testing. Specimens have been tested up to 1200 days after manufacture and show no significant signs of deterioration even when stored underwater or when subjected to freeze thaw cycling. Development work has also shown that the process can successfully immobilise simulant MTR liquor over a wide range of liquor concentrations. The programme therefore successfully produced a formulation that met all the requirements of both the process and product specification. (author)

  16. Processing the THOREX waste at the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on several options for neutralizing the THOREX and combining it with the PUREX wastes. Neutralization testing with simulated wastes (nonradioactive chemicals) was performed to evaluate the neutralization reactions and the reaction product generation. Various methods for neutralizing the THOREX solution were examined to determine their advantages and disadvantages relative to the overall project objectives and compatibility with the existing process. The primary neutralization process selection criteria were safety and minimizing the potential delays prior to vitrification. The THOREX neutralization method selected was direct addition to the high pH PUREX wastes within Tank 8D-2. Laboratory testing with simulated waste has demonstrated rapid neutralization of the THOREX waste acid. Test results for various direct addition scenarios has established the optimum process operating conditions which provide the largest safety margins

  17. Lessons learned in process control at the Halden Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a list of those findings particularly relevant to regulatory authorities that can be derived from the research and development activities in computerized process control conducted at the Halden Reactor Project. The report was prepared by a staff member of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission working at Halden. It identifies those results that may be of use to regulatory organizations in three main areas: as support for new requirements, as part of regulatory evaluations of the acceptability of new methods and techniques, and in exploratory research and development of new approaches to improve operator performance. More than 200 findings arranged in nine major categories are presented. The findings were culled from Halden Reactor Project documents, which are listed in the report

  18. Study on the hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The hydration and hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder(CAB) was studied.The early hydration process,hydration products and paste microstructure of CAB made by Portland cement and anionic asphalt emulsion were investigated by calorimetry,X-ray diffraction,and environmental scanning electron microscopy.The early hydration process of CAB can be characterized as 5 stages similar to those of Portland cement.There is no chemical reaction detected between cement and asphalt,hence no new hydration products other than those of Portland cement are produced.The hardening of CAB begins with the hydration of cement.When the hydration of cement comes into the acceleration period and its exothermic rate comes to the maximum,the coalescence of asphalt particles in asphalt emulsion is triggered.In the hardened system of CAB,it was found that the hydration products of cement form the skeleton and are covered by the continuous asphalt film.They formed an interpenetrating network system.The emulsifiers in the asphalt emulsion may retard the hydration process of cement.

  19. In-situ Mechanical Manipulation of Wellbore Cements as a Solution to Leaky Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupresan, D.; Radonjic, M.; Heathman, J.

    2013-12-01

    mechanical manipulation (shear stress). The main advantage of this methodology is that mechanical manipulation of cement can induce healing of existing fractures, channels and microannulus seal in a wellbore without introducing new materials (e.g. cement squeeze jobs). Furthermore, this methodology is less sensitive to the influence of downhole conditions such as pressure, temperature and formation fluids, since it uses cement pore water as a medium to alter cement sheath. Based on lab experiments observation, it is possible to perceive that once tested at the industrial scale and if successful, the implementation of this method in the field can potentially mitigate leaky wells in CO2 sequestration projects, wellbores completed for hydraulic-fracturing and other conventional oil and gas producing wells. Key words: Wellbore cement integrity; Leaky wells; Cement microstructures; Casing expansion effect on cement mineralogy alterations.

  20. A Parametric Analysis of Project Management Performance to Enhance Software Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    R., Shashikumar N.; Nair, T. R. Gopalakrishnan; V, Suma.

    2014-01-01

    Project Management process plays a significant role in effective development of software projects. Key challenges in the project management process are the estimation of time, cost, defect count, and subsequently selection of apt developers. Therefore precise estimation of above stated factors decides the success level of a project. This paper provides an empirical study of several projects developed in a service oriented software company in order to comprehend the project management process....

  1. The Plasma Hearth Process demonstration project for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Testing to date has yielded encouraging results in displaying potential applications for the PHP technology. Early tests have shown that a wide range of waste materials can be readily processed in the PHP and converted to a vitreous product. Waste materials can be treated in their original container as received at the treatment facility, without pretreatment. The vitreous product, when cooled, exhibits excellent performance in leach resistance, consistently exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements. Performance of the Demonstration System during test operations has been shown to meet emission requirements. An accelerated development phase, being conducted at both bench- and pilot-scale on both nonradioactive and radioactive materials, will confirm the viability of the process. It is anticipated that, as a result of this accelerated technology development and demonstration phase, the PHP will be ready for a final field-level demonstration within three years

  2. Solidification of Spent Ion Exchange Resin Using ASC Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周耀中; 云桂春; 叶裕才

    2002-01-01

    Ion exchange resins (IERs) have been widely used in nuclear facilities. However, the spent radioactive IERs result in major quantities of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. This article describes a laboratory experimental study on solidification processing of IERs using a new type of cement named ASC cement. The strength of the cementation matrix is in the range of 18-20 MPa (28 d); the loading of the spent IER in the cement-resin matrix is over 45% and leaching rates of 137Cs, 90Sr and 60Co are 7.92×10-5, 5.7×10-6, and 1.19×10-8 cm/d. The results show that ASC cement can be a preferable cementation material for immobilization of radioactive spent IER.

  3. Flash calcination of kaolinite rich clay and impact of process conditions on the quality of the calcines: A way to reduce CO2 footprint from cement industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay; Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Use of properly calcined kaolinite rich clay (i.e., metakaolin) to offset part of CO2-intensive clinkers not only reduces CO2 footprint from cement industry but also improves the performance of concrete. However, calcination under inappropriately high temperatures or long retention times may...

  4. Major Project Appraisal: Evaluation of Impact Assessment Methodologies in the Regulatory Review Process for the Northern Gateway Project

    OpenAIRE

    Broadbent, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, there are six major oil pipeline projects either proposed or approved with an in-service date before 2020. The federal government has a regulatory process to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social impacts of proposed pipeline projects. This dissertation examines existing methods that project applicants use to evaluate pipeline impacts in the review process and recommends how current methodologies could be improved. The study uses the Northern Gateway Project as a case stu...

  5. Coupled effect of cement hydration and temperature on hydraulic behavior of cemented tailings backfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Di; CAI Si-jing

    2015-01-01

    Cemented tailings backfill (CTB) is made by mixing cement, tailings and water together, thus cement hydration and water seepage flow are the two crucial factors affecting the quality of CTB. Cement hydration process can release significant amount of heat to raise the temperature of CTB and in turn increase the rate of cement hydration. Meanwhile, the progress of cement hydration consumes water and produces hydration products to change the pore structures within CTB, which further influences the hydraulic behavior of CTB. In order to understand the hydraulic behavior of CTB, a numerical model was developed by coupling the hydraulic, thermal and hydration equations. This model was then implemented into COMSOL Multiphysics to simulate the evolutions of temperature and water seepage flow within CTB versus curing time. The predicted outcomes were compared with correspondent experimental results, proving the validity and availability of this model. By taking advantage of the validated model, effects of various initial CTB and curing temperatures, cement content, and CTB's geometric shapes on the hydraulic behavior of CTB were demonstrated numerically. The presented conclusions can contribute to preparing more environmentally friendly CTB structures.

  6. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt; Pavement ... The substances in asphalt that can be harmful are: Hydrocarbons Industrial glues Industrial solvents Tar ... Asphalt is found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for ...

  7. Design of Fit-for-Purpose Cement to Restore Cement-Caprock Seal Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, R.

    2015-12-01

    This project aims to study critical research needs in the area of rock-cement interfaces, with a special focus on crosscutting applications in the Wellbore Integrity Pillar of the SubTER initiative. This study will focus on design and test fit-for-purpose cement formulations. The goals of this project are as follows: 1) perform preliminary study of dispersing nanomaterial admixtures in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) mixes, 2) characterize the cement-rock interface, and 3) identify potential high-performance cement additives that can improve sorption behavior, chemical durability, bond strength, and interfacial fracture toughness, as appropriate to specific subsurface operational needs. The work presented here focuses on a study of cement-shale interfaces to better understand failure mechanisms, with particular attention to measuring bond strength at the cement-shale interface. Both experimental testing and computational modeling were conducted to determine the mechanical behavior at the interface representing the interaction of cement and shale of a typical wellbore environment. Cohesive zone elements are used in the finite element method to computationally simulate the interface of the cement and rock materials with varying properties. Understanding the bond strength and mechanical performance of the cement-formation interface is critical to wellbore applications such as sequestration, oil and gas production and exploration and nuclear waste disposal. Improved shear bond strength is an indication of the capability of the interface to ensure zonal isolation and prevent zonal communication, two crucial goals in preserving wellbore integrity. Understanding shear bond strength development and interface mechanics will provide an idea as to how the cement-formation interface can be altered under environmental changes (temperature, pressure, chemical degradation, etc.) so that the previously described objectives can be achieved. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi

  8. WHITE CEMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C.P RAMANA BABU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available India is one among the fast developing countries in the world in the areas of Infrastructure. Now a day, Carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 are the temporary atmospheric pollutants in the environment chiefly emitted from the fuel burning vehicles and street lights which lead to global warming and pose a major threat tothe survival and sustainable development. This paper deals with the principal purpose of use of white cement in pavement design which will take care of the Green house gases (i.e., CO and CO2 and also saves lot of money in the long run process. A small amount of these gases in environment can cause major problems over time. Use of white cement in composite pavement design where there is heavy traffic loads are acting as well as number of vehicles are more such as junctions, bus stops, check posts etc., can perform better and acts asenvironment friendly. Its light colour reflects more than bituminous pavement so that it can be easily identified and avoid accidents to some extent. White cement helps to lower the average bus stop, junction temperature providing comfort to the people because it has high solar reflectance there by reducing “urban heat island” effect. In addition to this it has some more advantages which increase the sustainability, durability and workability of the pavements.

  9. Integrated methods for both processes synthesis and design by using process simulator and project data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental research program was concerned with developing new ideas, concepts and methods in the development of computer - based technique for modelling, simulation and design for the process industries. Preliminary flowsheets for gas separation from liquid phase and wastewater purification led to using of the process simulators for simulation of existing processes and for simulation of new processes also. Effective techniques and methods for process synthesis were developed. Mathematical models and FORTRAN programs were developed for process units which were not available in the process simulator. The accomplished activities in the frame of this project enabled us to establish a new computer laboratory at the Department of Chemical Control Engineering at the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy. (Original)

  10. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement

  11. Development of nanosilica bonded monetite cement from egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Luchini, Timothy J.F.; Boroujeni, Nariman Mansouri [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Agarwal, Anand K.; Goel, Vijay K. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This work represents further effort from our group in developing monetite based calcium phosphate cements (CPC). These cements start with a calcium phosphate powder (MW-CPC) that is manufactured using microwave irradiation. Due to the robustness of the cement production process, we report that the starting materials can be derived from egg shells, a waste product from the poultry industry. The CPC were prepared with MW-CPC and aqueous setting solution. Results showed that the CPC hardened after mixing powdered cement with water for about 12.5 ± 1 min. The compressive strength after 24 h of incubation was approximately 8.45 ± 1.29 MPa. In addition, adding colloidal nanosilica to CPC can accelerate the cement hardening (10 ± 1 min) process by about 2.5 min and improve compressive strength (20.16 ± 4.39 MPa), which is more than double the original strength. The interaction between nanosilica and CPC was monitored using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). While hardening, nanosilica can bond to the CPC crystal network for stabilization. The physical and biological studies performed on both cements suggest that they can potentially be used in orthopedics. - Highlights: • Cement raw powder is derived from egg shells. • A microwave assisted system is used for preparing monetite bone cement. • Colloidal silica is used to reinforce cement.

  12. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of modified sulfur cement and hydraulic cement for encapsulation of radioactive and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of solidification/stabilization systems for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste, both in the commercial sector and at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, utilize hydraulic cement (such as portland cement) to encapsulate waste materials and yield a monolithic solid waste form for disposal. A new and innovative process utilizing modified sulfur cement developed by the US Bureau of Mines has been applied at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the encapsulation of many of these ''problem'' wastes. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material, and as such, it can be heated above it's melting point (120 degree C), combined with dry waste products to form a homogeneous mixture, and cooled to form a monolithic solid product. Under sponsorship of the DOE, research and development efforts at BNL have successfully applied the modified sulfur cement process for treatment of a range of LLWs including sodium sulfate salts, boric acid salts, and incinerator bottom ash and for mixed waste contaminated incinerator fly ash. Process development studies were conducted to determine optimal waste loadings for each waste type. Property evaluation studies were conducted to test waste form behavior under disposal conditions by applying relevant performance testing criteria established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (for LLW) and the Environmental Protection Agency (for hazardous wastes). Based on both processing and performance considerations, significantly greater waste loadings were achieved using modified sulfur cement when compared with hydraulic cement. Technology demonstration of the modified sulfur cement encapsulation system using production-scale equipment is scheduled for FY 1991. 12 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Management of uranium mining and processing wastes at Turamdih project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on environmental impact assessment, comprehensive plan for management of wastes has been drawn up. No solid waste from the mine is being disposed off outside the project area. The quantity of waste generated after processing of ore is large because of low content of uranium in the ore. A big tailings pond has been planned in specially selected suitable valley near the plant. No liquid effluents are to be discharged into general surrounding environment. Mine water is to be fed to the process plant. Effluents from tailings pond will be collected in a storage cum evaporation pond. All water from different zones of the project shall be collected in zonal ponds and then pumped to tailings effluent storage pond. All the ponds will be provided with requisite impervious liners. The effluents of the storage pond will be treated for removal of radium and manganese and discharged into monitoring pond. Large surface areas for various ponds are envisaged to take advantage of evaporation with aim for zero discharge. To reduce impact from gaseous emissions, high efficiency dust suppression and extraction systems shall be provided. High stacks have been incorporated for DG set, boiler plants, sulphuric acid plant and dust extraction systems for crushing and grinding section and the quality of discharges will be very much within the prescribed limits. The paper describes the management plan in detail. (author)

  15. A practical data processing workflow for multi-OMICS projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Michael; Megger, Dominik A; Trippler, Martin; Meckel, Hagen; Ahrens, Maike; Bracht, Thilo; Weber, Frank; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Baba, Hideo A; Sitek, Barbara; Schlaak, Jörg F; Meyer, Helmut E; Stephan, Christian; Eisenacher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Multi-OMICS approaches aim on the integration of quantitative data obtained for different biological molecules in order to understand their interrelation and the functioning of larger systems. This paper deals with several data integration and data processing issues that frequently occur within this context. To this end, the data processing workflow within the PROFILE project is presented, a multi-OMICS project that aims on identification of novel biomarkers and the development of new therapeutic targets for seven important liver diseases. Furthermore, a software called CrossPlatformCommander is sketched, which facilitates several steps of the proposed workflow in a semi-automatic manner. Application of the software is presented for the detection of novel biomarkers, their ranking and annotation with existing knowledge using the example of corresponding Transcriptomics and Proteomics data sets obtained from patients suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma. Additionally, a linear regression analysis of Transcriptomics vs. Proteomics data is presented and its performance assessed. It was shown, that for capturing profound relations between Transcriptomics and Proteomics data, a simple linear regression analysis is not sufficient and implementation and evaluation of alternative statistical approaches are needed. Additionally, the integration of multivariate variable selection and classification approaches is intended for further development of the software. Although this paper focuses only on the combination of data obtained from quantitative Proteomics and Transcriptomics experiments, several approaches and data integration steps are also applicable for other OMICS technologies. Keeping specific restrictions in mind the suggested workflow (or at least parts of it) may be used as a template for similar projects that make use of different high throughput techniques. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post

  16. Investigating conceptual models for physical property couplings in solid solution models of cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbow, Steven; Watson, Claire; Savage, David [Quintesssa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-15

    The long-term behaviour of cementitious engineered barriers is an important process to consider when modelling the migration of radionuclides from a geological repository for nuclear waste. The modelling of cement is complicated by the fact that the cement is dominated by the behaviour of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel which is a complex solid exhibiting incongruent dissolution behaviour. In this report, we have demonstrated the implementation of a solid-solution CSH gel model within a geochemical transport modelling framework using the Raiden computer code to investigate cement/concrete-groundwater interactions. The modelling conducted here shows that it is possible to couple various conceptual models for the evolution of physical properties of concrete with a solid solution model for cement degradation in a fully coupled geochemical transport model to describe the interaction of cement/concrete engineered barriers with groundwater. The results show that changes to the conceptual models and flow rates can give rise to very different evolutions. Most simulations were carried out at a reduced 'experimental' scale rather than full repository scale. The work has shown the possibility to investigate also the changing physical properties of degrading cement. To further develop the model more emphasis is needed on kinetics and the detailed development of a nearly clogged pore space. Modelling of the full repository scale could be another way forward to understand the behaviour of degrading concrete. A general conclusion is that the combined effects of chemical evolution and physical degradation should be analysed in performance assessments of cementitious repositories. Moreover, the project results will be used as one basis in coming reviews of SKB's safety assessments of repositories for spent fuel and low-and intermediate level waste.

  17. Investigating conceptual models for physical property couplings in solid solution models of cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term behaviour of cementitious engineered barriers is an important process to consider when modelling the migration of radionuclides from a geological repository for nuclear waste. The modelling of cement is complicated by the fact that the cement is dominated by the behaviour of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel which is a complex solid exhibiting incongruent dissolution behaviour. In this report, we have demonstrated the implementation of a solid-solution CSH gel model within a geochemical transport modelling framework using the Raiden computer code to investigate cement/concrete-groundwater interactions. The modelling conducted here shows that it is possible to couple various conceptual models for the evolution of physical properties of concrete with a solid solution model for cement degradation in a fully coupled geochemical transport model to describe the interaction of cement/concrete engineered barriers with groundwater. The results show that changes to the conceptual models and flow rates can give rise to very different evolutions. Most simulations were carried out at a reduced 'experimental' scale rather than full repository scale. The work has shown the possibility to investigate also the changing physical properties of degrading cement. To further develop the model more emphasis is needed on kinetics and the detailed development of a nearly clogged pore space. Modelling of the full repository scale could be another way forward to understand the behaviour of degrading concrete. A general conclusion is that the combined effects of chemical evolution and physical degradation should be analysed in performance assessments of cementitious repositories. Moreover, the project results will be used as one basis in coming reviews of SKB's safety assessments of repositories for spent fuel and low-and intermediate level waste

  18. Tritium Facilities Modernization and Consolidation Project Process Waste Assessment (Project S-7726)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, R.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Oji, L.N.

    1997-11-14

    Under the Tritium Facility Modernization {ampersand} Consolidation (TFM{ampersand}C) Project (S-7726) at the Savannah River Site (SS), all tritium processing operations in Building 232-H, with the exception of extraction and obsolete/abandoned systems, will be reestablished in Building 233-H. These operations include hydrogen isotopic separation, loading and unloading of tritium shipping and storage containers, tritium recovery from zeolite beds, and stripping of nitrogen flush gas to remove tritium prior to stack discharge. The scope of the TFM{ampersand}C Project also provides for a new replacement R&D tritium test manifold in 233-H, upgrading of the 233- H Purge Stripper and 233-H/234-H building HVAC, a new 234-H motor control center equipment building and relocating 232-H Materials Test Facility metallurgical laboratories (met labs), flow tester and life storage program environment chambers to 234-H.

  19. Tritium Facilities Modernization and Consolidation Project Process Waste Assessment (Project S-7726)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Tritium Facility Modernization ampersand Consolidation (TFM ampersand C) Project (S-7726) at the Savannah River Site (SS), all tritium processing operations in Building 232-H, with the exception of extraction and obsolete/abandoned systems, will be reestablished in Building 233-H. These operations include hydrogen isotopic separation, loading and unloading of tritium shipping and storage containers, tritium recovery from zeolite beds, and stripping of nitrogen flush gas to remove tritium prior to stack discharge. The scope of the TFM ampersand C Project also provides for a new replacement R ampersand D tritium test manifold in 233-H, upgrading of the 233- H Purge Stripper and 233-H/234-H building HVAC, a new 234-H motor control center equipment building and relocating 232-H Materials Test Facility metallurgical laboratories (met labs), flow tester and life storage program environment chambers to 234-H

  20. Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment at the Arizona Portland Cement Plant in Rillito, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen J. Coppinger, P.E.; Bruce Colburn, Ph.D., P.E., CEM

    2007-05-17

    A Department of Energy Plant-wide Assessment was undertaken by Arizona Portland Cement (APC) beginning in May 2005. The assessment was performed at APC’s cement production facility in Rillito, Arizona. The assessment included a compressed air evaluation along with a detailed process audit of plant operations and equipment. The purpose of this Energy Survey was to identify a series of energy cost savings opportunities at the Plant, and provide preliminary cost and savings estimates for the work. The assessment was successful in identifying projects that could provide annual savings of over $2.7 million at an estimated capital cost of $4.3 million. If implemented, these projects could amount to a savings of over 4.9 million kWh/yr and 384,420 MMBtu/year.

  1. Monitoring the ettringite formation in cement paste using low field T2-NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Alexandra; Badea, Codruta; Ardelean, Ioan

    2013-11-01

    In the present work, we study the transverse relaxation time evolution of water molecules confined inside cement paste during the hydration process. The cement paste under study was manufactured with different water-to-cement ratios and using two types of cement: gray cement (CEM I 52.5 R) having a high content of magnetic impurities and white cement (CEM I 52.5 N) with lower amount of magnetic impurities. The two cement types were chosen in order to better distinguish the surface contribution to the relaxation process. On this basis a relationship between porosity evolution, ettringite formation and the transverse relaxation time evolution was established. It was also observed that the increase in the water-to-cement ratio better reveals the ettringite formation.

  2. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  3. Conceptual project of waste treatment plant of CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the conceptual project of the waste treatment plant of CDTN. Several areas, such as: process area, material entrance and exit area are studied. The treatment processes are: evaporation, filtration, cementation, cutting and processing of solid wastes. (C.M.)

  4. An Overview of the JPSS Ground Project Algorithm Integration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, G. A.; Williams, R.; Dorman, T. J.; Williamson, R. C.; Shaw, F. J.; Thomas, W. M.; Hung, L.; Griffin, A.; Meade, P.; Steadley, R. S.; Cember, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    The smooth transition, implementation and operationalization of scientific software's from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) development teams to the Join Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Ground Segment requires a variety of experiences and expertise. This task has been accomplished by a dedicated group of scientist and engineers working in close collaboration with the NOAA Satellite and Information Services (NESDIS) Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) science teams for the JPSS/Suomi-NPOES Preparatory Project (S-NPP) Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instruments. The presentation purpose is to describe the JPSS project process for algorithm implementation from the very early delivering stages by the science teams to the full operationalization into the Interface Processing Segment (IDPS), the processing system that provides Environmental Data Records (EDR's) to NOAA. Special focus is given to the NASA Data Products Engineering and Services (DPES) Algorithm Integration Team (AIT) functional and regression test activities. In the functional testing phase, the AIT uses one or a few specific chunks of data (granules) selected by the NOAA STAR Calibration and Validation (cal/val) Teams to demonstrate that a small change in the code performs properly and does not disrupt the rest of the algorithm chain. In the regression testing phase, the modified code is placed into to the Government Resources for Algorithm Verification, Integration, Test and Evaluation (GRAVITE) Algorithm Development Area (ADA), a simulated and smaller version of the operational IDPS. Baseline files are swapped out, not edited and the whole code package runs in one full orbit of Science Data Records (SDR's) using Calibration Look Up Tables (Cal LUT's) for the time of the orbit. The purpose of the regression test is to

  5. Process of Planning of Project for Pharmaceutical Production

    OpenAIRE

    Derenskaya Yana N.

    2012-01-01

    In the article the model of process of planning of project is developed in the conditions of pharmaceutical production, including implementation to twenty two subprocesses of planning of project (with pointing of incoming and outgoing documents and performers of subprocesses).В статье разработана модель процесса планирования проекта в условиях фармацевтического производства, включающая выполнение двадцати двух подпроцессов планирования проекта (с указанием входящих и исходящих документов и ис...

  6. Using bio-based polymers for curing cement-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Picken, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Curing is the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from the surface of cement based materials. It is the final stage in the production of cement-based materials and it is the essential part for achieving continuous hydration of cement, while avoiding cracking due to drying shr

  7. Case study of an MBT plant producing SRF for cement kiln co-combustion, coupled with a bioreactor landfill for process residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Mario; Dellavedova, Stefano; Rigamonti, Lucia; Scotti, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the performances of the energy recovery pathway from the residual waste based on the production of a Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) to be exploited via co-combustion in a cement kiln. The SRF is produced in a single stream Mechanical-Biological Treatment plant, where bio-drying of the waste is followed by mechanical refining in order to fulfil the quality requirements by the cement kilns. Peculiar of this MBT is the fact that sorting residues are disposed in a nearby landfill, managed according to a bioreactor approach, where landfill gas is collected for electric energy recovery. A detailed mass and energy balance of the system is presented based on one year operational data, followed by its Life Cycle Assessment. Results show that the system is energetically and environmentally effective, with most of the impacts being more than compensated by the savings of materials and energy. Major role in determining such outcome is the displacement of petcoke in the cement kiln, both in terms of its fossil CO2 emissions and of its life cycle impacts, including the trans-oceanic transport. To check the robustness of the results, two sensitivity analyses are performed on the landfill gas collection efficiency and on the avoided electric energy mix. PMID:26601731

  8. Quality control of cemented waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slate, L.J.

    1994-12-31

    To insure that cemented radwaste remains immobilized after disposal, certain standards have been set in Europe by the Commission of the European Communities. One such standard is compressive strength. If the compressive strength can be predicted during the early curing stages, time and money can be saved and the quality of the final waste form guaranteed. It was determined that the 7- and 28-day compressive strength from radwaste cementation can be predicted during the mixing and early curing stages by at least three methods. The three that were studied were maturity, rheology, and impedance. Maturity is a temperature-to-time measurement, rheology is a shear stress-to-shear rate measurement, and impedance is the opposition offered to the flow of alternating current. These three methods were employed on five different cemented radwaste concentrations with three different water-to-cement ratios; thus, a total of 15 different mix designs were considered. The results showed that the impedance was the easiest to employ for an on-line process. The results of the impedance method showed a very good relationship between impedance and water-to-cement ratio; therefore, an accurate prediction of compressive strength of cemented radwaste can be drawn from this method. The results of the theology method were very good. The method showed that concrete conforms to the Bingham plastic rheologic model, and the theology method can be used to predict the compressive strength of cemented radwaste, but may be too cumbersome. The results of the maturity method were shown to be limited in accuracy for determining compressive strength.

  9. The incorporation of low and medium level radioactive wastes (solids and liquids) in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimentation has shown that high temperatures generated during the setting of ordinary Portland cement/simulant waste mixes can be significantly reduced by the use of a blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag and ordinary Portland cement. Trials on simulated waste showed that blended cement gave improved stability and a reduction in leach rates, and confirmed that the cement-based process can be used for the immobilisation of most types of low and medium level waste. (U.K.)

  10. Implications of critical chain methodology for business process flexible automation projects in economic organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Paul BRUDARU

    2009-01-01

    Business processes flexible automation projects involve the use of methods and technologies from Business Processes Management area (BPM) that aim at increasing the agility of organizations in changing the business processes as response to environmental changes. BPM-type projects are a mix between process improvement projects and software development which implies a high complexity in managing them. The successful implementation of these projects involves overcoming problems inherent as delay...

  11. New Management Whole Process Evaluation of DSM Projects Based on Fuzzy-AHP Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Zhu; Mingjuan Ma; Song Xue; Dinglin Li; Ming Zeng

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote the development of DSM projects, it is necessary to establish a management evaluation indicator system considering whole process. This study analyzes key factors of every stage of DSM projects combining with the whole process theory and proposes a new evaluation indicator system of DSM projects management. Also we use fuzzy analytic hierarchy process which combines analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to evaluate DSM projects management cons...

  12. 公路粉煤灰水泥水化过程的研究%Studies on Hydrated Process of High Road Fly Ash Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付兴华; 孙景旭; 董友军; 文福民

    2001-01-01

    The hydrated products and pore size distribution of high road fly ash cements were studied by means of XRD,DTA,Mercury porosimeter,etc.,The experiment results showed that C-S-H gel,AFt were the main hydrated products in high road fly ash cement,but the contents of Ca(OH)2 were lower.The exothermic peaks of the formation of AFt and AFm appeared in hydrated exotermic curves of this cements,while the peaks of C-H-S gel and Ca(OH)2 were not.Although the total porosity of this cement stone were higher,the volume porosity of large pores which sizes were more than 1000A。 were lower after 7 days,the micropores and gel pores which size were little than 500A。 were higher.Thus,the cement stone was fine and close in texture,properties were also higher in late ages.%采用X-射线衍射、差热分析、微量热计及压汞测孔仪对公路粉煤灰水泥的水化产物、水化放热曲线、孔尺寸分布进行了研究。实验结果表明,公路粉煤灰水泥的主要水化产物是C-S-H凝胶、AFt及少量的Ca(OH)2。在该水泥的1天水化放热曲线上仅出现了AFt及AFm的形成放热峰,未出现C-S-H凝胶及Ca(OH)2的快速形成放热峰。尽管该水泥的空隙率较高,但水化7天以后大于1000A。的连通大孔体积率较低,而小于500A。的微孔及凝胶孔体积率较高,因此水泥石的结构致密,后期性能较好。

  13. Calibration of stereo rigs based on the backward projection process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feifei; Zhao, Hong; Ma, Yueyang; Bu, Penghui; Zhao, Zixin

    2016-08-01

    High-accuracy 3D measurement based on binocular vision system is heavily dependent on the accurate calibration of two rigidly-fixed cameras. In most traditional calibration methods, stereo parameters are iteratively optimized through the forward imaging process (FIP). However, the results can only guarantee the minimal 2D pixel errors, but not the minimal 3D reconstruction errors. To address this problem, a simple method to calibrate a stereo rig based on the backward projection process (BPP) is proposed. The position of a spatial point can be determined separately from each camera by planar constraints provided by the planar pattern target. Then combined with pre-defined spatial points, intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the stereo-rig can be optimized by minimizing the total 3D errors of both left and right cameras. An extensive performance study for the method in the presence of image noise and lens distortions is implemented. Experiments conducted on synthetic and real data demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.

  14. Pack cementation diffusion coatings for iron-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-02-01

    With the aid of computer-assisted calculations of the equilibrium vapor pressures in halide-activated cementation packs, processing conditions have been identified and experimentally verified for the codeposition of two or more alloying elements in a diffusion coating on a variety of steels. The Cr-Si ferrite layers have proven to be very resistant to high temperature cyclic oxidation and to pitting in aqueous solutions. The process has been patented, and is being transferred for industrial application, e.g. for water walls of utility boilers, etc. In the proposed extension of this project, the use of mixed pure metal powders in the pack will be extended to achieve similar ferrite Fe-Cr-Al coatings with excellent oxidation resistance, with the eventual transfer of the technology to industry. In other recent studies, Ni-base alloy rods were aluminized by the halide-activated pack cementation process to bring their average composition to that for the ORNL-developed Ni{sub 3}Al, for use as a welding rod. A similar effort to develop a welding rod for the ORNL Fe{sub 3}Al alloy did not yield reproducible coating compositions or growth kinetics. The continued effort to produce Duriron-type (Fe-18Si-5Cr) coatings on steels was not successful. Literature for the intrinsic diffusion coefficients suggests that this task cannot be achieved.

  15. Investigation of fresh and hardened properties of Calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA cement blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Herrmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA is a comparatively new cementitious material that is mainly established in China where it is produced in a large scale. CSA cement is not covered by European standards. However, it provides different beneficial properties such as rapid hardening and high early strength development. Furthermore, the usage of CSA cement can save energy during production process in comparison to established cementitious materials. Therefore it is also more environmental friendly. Insufficient knowledge of this material behaviour restricts the possibilities and makes further research necessary. The research project applied a laboratory test program to elaborate the characterization of the materials. The obtained knowledge from these tests was then applied to further tests to determine application relevant key properties of CSA based pastes and mortars.The properties of pure CSA cement had been compared with the properties of CSA blends. The additions were PC, HAC, FA and GGBS with quantities of 10, 20 and 30%. The water to cement ratio was varying between 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. General tests like fineness, XRD and XRF were used to define the present non-standardized material. Investigation of fresh pastes included measurement of setting time and calorimetry. Hardened mortar specimens of different ages were examined for compressive strength. The results showed that CSA itself hardens very rapidly and gives an early strength development. Possible ways of utilization of CSA based mortars and concretes were also emphasized in the paper.

  16. ThermoChimie database developments in the framework of cement/clay interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present a selection of thermodynamic properties for cement minerals, zeolites and clay minerals. • The work takes place within the framework of the geological disposal of nuclear wastes. • Consistency is checked by establishing predominance area diagrams. • A specific focus is proposed for zeolites, with examples of analcime and mordenite. - Abstract: We present here the global results of an eight-year project, where we attempted to complete the ThermoChimie database for cement minerals, zeolites and clay minerals. This work reports the methodology adopted to ensure the consistency between the three groups of minerals. Our first step concerns the relations between the three groups of minerals from field observations and experimental results gathered from the literature. A summary of the selection process is then given for clay and cement minerals and a specific focus is proposed for zeolites, with examples of analcime and mordenite. The global consistency of the selection is investigated with respect to the main chemical tendencies found for cement/clay interactions, especially considering the “alkalinity” of the minerals. Consistency is checked by establishing predominance diagrams in the chemical sub-systems of interest for the three groups of minerals, then comparing the phase relations with respect to experimental results or field observations. The methodology is illustrated using the case of gismondine and zeolite P(Ca)

  17. Experimental study with domestic bone cement in the percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the feasibility of injecting domestic bone cement in the process of the percutaneous vertebroplasty. Methods: (1) Various types cement were disposed with domestic PMMA. The concretionary phases of cement were observed according to the stages and holding time. Then the most ideal ratio of the mixed cement was selected and ten cement columns were made with this ratio, which was taken as the trial group. The other ten referring to was taken as the contrast one. The biological mechanics was measured with a load and the data of the results were compared. (2) Twenty thoracic and lumbar adjacent bodies were removed intact from five human corpses. These bodies were divided into two groups, in one group PMMA were injected, the other was severed as the contrast one. Then in these twenty vertebral bodies the biological mechanics was measured and the treatment effect was evaluated. (3) In 12 healthy dogs PVP in lumber was tried so as to observe the operational difficulty during the process of injected this bone cement and CT was used to evaluate the result of PMMA, diffusion and the complications caused by it. Results: The most ideal ratio was 4:2.6:1 (g, ml, ml) between powder, monome and contrast. After injecting this kind of cement, the loading strength of these vertebral bodies was increased remarkably (P<0.01). Conclusion: Injecting domestic bone cement provides the theoretical foundations for the clinical application of PVP. (author)

  18. The incorporation of low and medium level radioactive wastes (solids and liquids) in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of cement has been investigated for the immobilization of liquid and solid low and medium level radioactive waste. 220 litre mixing trials have demonstrated that the high temperatures generated during the setting of ordinary Portland cement/simulant waste mixes can be significantly reduced by the use of a blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag and ordinary Portland cement. Laboratory and 220 litre trials using simulant wastes showed that the blended cement gave an improvement in properties of the cemented waste product, e.g. stability and reduction in leach rates compared with ordinary Portland cement formulations. A range of 220 litre scale mixing systems for the incorporation of liquid and solid wastes in cement was investigated. The work has confirmed that cement-based processes can be used for the immobilization of most types of low and medium level waste

  19. Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide emissions from a cement plant into dimethyl ether, a case study of an integrated process in France using a Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2) into liquid fuel technology has recently gained wide public interest since it is a potential pathway to increase the liquid fuel supply and to mitigate CO2 emissions simultaneously. In France, the majority of the electricity production is derived from nuclear and renewable energy which have a low CO2 footprint. This electricity power enables a potential for massive hydrogen production with low carbon emissions. We studied the possibility to develop this technology at an industrial scale in the French context on a typical industrial example of a cement manufacture in the south of France. An integrated process is proposed, which enables the use of the heat released by the CO2 to fuel process to help to capture the CO2 released by the cement manufacture. Some technological issues are discussed, and a potential solution is proposed for the catalyst used in the critical step of the Reverse Water Gas-Shift reaction (RWGS) of the process. (authors)

  20. NASA Ocean Altimeter Pathfinder Project. Report 1; Data Processing Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, C. J.; Beckley, Brian D.; Ray, Richard D.; Wang, Yan-Ming; Tsaoussi, Lucia; Brenner, Anita; Williamson, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The NOAA/NASA Pathfinder program was created by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program Office to determine how satellite-based data sets can be processed and used to study global change. The data sets are designed to be long time-sedes data processed with stable calibration and community consensus algorithms to better assist the research community. The Ocean Altimeter Pathfinder Project involves the reprocessing of all altimeter observations with a consistent set of improved algorithms, based on the results from TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P), into easy-to-use data sets for the oceanographic community for climate research. This report describes the processing schemes used to produce a consistent data set and two of the products derived f rom these data. Other reports have been produced that: a) describe the validation of these data sets against tide gauge measurements and b) evaluate the statistical properties of the data that are relevant to climate change. The use of satellite altimetry for earth observations was proposed in the early 1960s. The first successful space based radar altimeter experiment was flown on SkyLab in 1974. The first successful satellite radar altimeter was flown aboard the Geos-3 spacecraft between 1975 and 1978. While a useful data set was collected from this mission for geophysical studies, the noise in the radar measured and incomplete global coverage precluded ft from inclusion in the Ocean Altimeter Pathfinder program. This program initiated its analysis with the Seasat mission, which was the first satellite radar altimeter flown for oceanography.

  1. Cement and concrete options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of concrete are projected to increase from 10.5 million tonnes in 1990 to almost 14 million tonnes in 2010. Over half of this amount will be non-energy related emissions of carbon dioxide resulting from the conversion of limestone to lime. According to this report by industry experts, the industry has an excellent record of improving energy efficiency and there are few easy gains remaining. Nevertheless, improvements in energy efficiency and fuel use, increased use of concrete where it can be shown to result in net reduction of GHG emissions, and partial replacement of cement by supplementary cementitious materials that involve no additional generation of GHGs, could yield an approximate reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of nearly seven million tons in 2010. The industry proposes three measures to realise these benefits: (1) encouraging replacement of fossil fuels by otherwise waste material, (2) encouraging increased use of concrete in constructing houses and roads, and (3) encouraging increased use of supplementary cementing materials. The industry is opposed to carbon or energy taxes that increase the cost of doing business, on the grounds that such taxes would adversely affect the industry's competitive position internationally. tabs

  2. Technology Roadmaps: Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    To support its roadmap work focusing on key technologies for emissions reductions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) also investigated one particular industry: cement. Cement production includes technologies that are both specific to this industry and those that are shared with other industries (e.g., grinding, fuel preparation, combustion, crushing, transport). An industry specific roadmap provides an effective mechanism to bring together several technology options. It outlines the potential for technological advancement for emissions reductions in one industry, as well as potential cross-industry collaboration.

  3. Concrete = aggregate, cement, water?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concrete for the Temelin nuclear power plant is produced to about 70 different formulae. For quality production, homogeneous properties of aggregates, accurate proportioning devices, technological discipline and systematic inspections and tests should be assured. The results are reported of measuring compression strength after 28 days for different concrete samples. The results of such tests allow reducing the proportion of cement, which brings about considerable savings. Reduction in cement quantities can also be achieved by adding ash to the concrete mixes. Ligoplast, a plasticizer addition is used for improving workability. (M.D). 8 figs

  4. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2016-08-16

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  5. The mechanical effect of the existing cement mantle on the in-cement femoral revision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Parnell

    2012-08-01

    Cement-in-cement revision hip arthroplasty is an increasingly popular technique to replace a loose femoral stem which retains much of the original cement mantle. However, some concern exists regarding the retention of the existing fatigued and aged cement in such cement-in-cement revisions. This study investigates whether leaving an existing fatigued and aged cement mantle degrades the mechanical performance of a cement-in-cement revision construct.

  6. Upgrading of oil palm wastes by radiation processing - project review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early works on oil palm waste treatment at MINT started in 1984 with the objective of degrading EFB (Empty Fruit Bunches) by radiation. This idea was shared by JAERI that adopted the research project with MINT in 1986 under the Japanese Science and Technology Agency (STA) programme. The results of these preliminary works show that EFB can be degraded using gamma radiation at a dose of ranging from 500 to 1000 kGy - 50 to 100 times higher than what is considered to be the economic dose. It is generally accepted that the economics of radiation treatment process could only be realised if the treatment dose can be kept below 10 kGy, which was incidentally, during the course of this early works, found to be the pasteurisation dose for oil palm by - products. With these information, MINT and JAERI agreed to pursue further research in this area and formulated a bilateral research co-operation in radiation pasteurisation of EFB and subsequent degradation by cellulolytic fungi or mushrooms. The research has the objective of upgrading EFB, which was not considered as suitable for feed due to its known physical properties as coarse and highly fibrous, to animal feed as well as substrate for mushroom cultivation and enzyme production. In addition to the desire to provide an environment friendly method for waste disposal to a growing industry, the possibility of catalysing the development of livestock industry by commercial farming in the process is another motivation for this project. Malaysia is estimated to be only about 40% self-sufficient in beef production. Thus there is great opportunity for the growth and expansion of this industry in Malaysia. However, growth in ruminant population should not result in the alienation of land for pastures. Among the reasons for the lack of interest in livestock production through commercial farming is the unavailability of local feed material which could be cheaper than imported feed grains, particularly maize. Feed is one the main cost

  7. Advanced cement solidification technique for spent resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past 40 years, the nuclear facilities of China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) produced an amount of radioactive organic resins, a kind of problematic stream in nuclear industry. As these facilities were stepping into decommissioning, the treatment of the spent organic resins was put on the agenda. The various routes for spent resin treatment such as incineration, advanced oxidation, cement immobilization, etc, were considered. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages when applied in the treatment of spent resins. Since the quantities of the spent organic resins were relatively small and an experience with variety of cementation processes existed in CIAE, predominately for immobilization of the evaporated concentrates, the option of direct encapsulation of the spent organic resins into cementitious materials was adopted in 2003, as a preferred method from the point of view of saving the on the cost of the disposal. In order to realize the end goal, the main work consisted of: the survey of the source terms; cementitious material formula investigation; and the process development. This work, which was undertaken in the following years, is addressed as follows. Source terms of the spent resins in CIAE were to be made clear firstly. The results showed that a total of 24-29 m3 of spent resins was generated and accumulated in the past 40 years. Spent resin arose from two research reactors (heavy water reactor and light water reactor), and from the waste management plant. The amount of the spent resins from the heavy water reactor was 1m3 or so, but its radioactive concentration was high to ∼108-∼109Bq/m3. Two kinds of cements, ASC and OPC cement were selected next, as the solidifying matrix to be investigated. A mixture surface response approach was employed to design experiment and interpret data. In comparison, ASC was superior to OPC cement and it displayed preferable performances to encapsulate spent resins. The optimum formulation is:1) resin

  8. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Energy conservation by modernization of a cement plant (Double Horse Cement Co.) in China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku cement kojo (Double Horse Cement) kindaika ni yoru sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted of possibilities of energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas emission reduction in the cement production process of Double Horse Cement Co., Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, China. Double Horse Cement adopts the wet type long kiln production system and has a production ability of approximately 1.5 million t/y. In the project, as to three production lines out of the six production lines, improvement was planned to be made of the technologies on the following: mixing of raw materials, grinding of raw materials, NSP, clinker cooler, clinker pre-grinder, high-efficiency separator, waste heat use power generation, etc. As a result of the study, it was found that the energy conservation amount obtained was 54,646 toe/y. And, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 169,086 t-CO2/y. The total fund required for this project was approximately 5.553 billion yen and the internal earning rate was 7.36% after tax. When the project is carried out, expenses vs. effects are 9.8 toe/million yen in energy conservation amount and 30.4 t-CO2/million yen in greenhouse effect gas reduction. (NEDO)

  9. Fabrication of Phosphate Cement with High Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the development of industrial society has accelerated, hazardous wastes are generated as well. According to the 1986 statistics of U.S.A, each person made 40 tons of waste in America that year. Treatment of radioactive waste is one of the most important and serious problems related to waste treatments, because its radioactivity and decaying heat have harmful effects to human and environment for a long time. Nuclear developed countries have used conventional method of treatment such as vitrification or cementation in order to stabilize and solidify radioactive waste. Although the former guarantees the formation of high leaching resistant and durable waste form, it requires several hundred (or even more than one thousand) temperature to melt glass frit. This process generates secondary waste volatilized, as well as being non-economical. Cement technology played a role of immobilizing low and middle class wastes. It has advantages of low temperature setting, low cost, easy process, etc. The alkalinity of ordinary cement, however, constrains the utility of cement to the solidification of alkaline waste. In addition, leachability and mechanical strength of cements are not quite appropriate for the stabilization of high level waste. In this regard, chemically bonded phosphate cement(CBPC), which sets by an acid-base reaction, is a potentially expectable material for immobilization of radioactive waste. CBPC not only sets at room temperature, but also encapsulates various isotopes chemically. The performance of CBPC can be enhanced by the addition of fly ash, sand, wollastonite, etc. This study aims at fabricating the CBPC containing fly ash with high integrity. Morphology, microstructure, and compressive strength are evaluated using SEM, and digital compressing machine

  10. Fabrication of Phosphate Cement with High Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Lee, Chang Hwa; Heo, Cheol Min; Jeon, Min Ku; Kang, Kweon Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    As the development of industrial society has accelerated, hazardous wastes are generated as well. According to the 1986 statistics of U.S.A, each person made 40 tons of waste in America that year. Treatment of radioactive waste is one of the most important and serious problems related to waste treatments, because its radioactivity and decaying heat have harmful effects to human and environment for a long time. Nuclear developed countries have used conventional method of treatment such as vitrification or cementation in order to stabilize and solidify radioactive waste. Although the former guarantees the formation of high leaching resistant and durable waste form, it requires several hundred (or even more than one thousand) temperature to melt glass frit. This process generates secondary waste volatilized, as well as being non-economical. Cement technology played a role of immobilizing low and middle class wastes. It has advantages of low temperature setting, low cost, easy process, etc. The alkalinity of ordinary cement, however, constrains the utility of cement to the solidification of alkaline waste. In addition, leachability and mechanical strength of cements are not quite appropriate for the stabilization of high level waste. In this regard, chemically bonded phosphate cement(CBPC), which sets by an acid-base reaction, is a potentially expectable material for immobilization of radioactive waste. CBPC not only sets at room temperature, but also encapsulates various isotopes chemically. The performance of CBPC can be enhanced by the addition of fly ash, sand, wollastonite, etc. This study aims at fabricating the CBPC containing fly ash with high integrity. Morphology, microstructure, and compressive strength are evaluated using SEM, and digital compressing machine

  11. Hydration and dimensional stability of calcium aluminate cement based systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzozero, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Calcium aluminate cements (CAC) are often used in combination with calcium sulfate and Portland cement for special applications where rapid setting, rapid drying and shrinkage compensation are required. A growing fraction of the clinker, which has the highest CO2 intensity, is being replaced by supplementary cementitious materials (SCM). These SCM are usually from industrial by-products such as slag, fly ashes or can simply be raw materials such as limestone. This project aims at replacing th...

  12. Project B610 process control configuration acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this test is to verify the Westinghouse configuration of the MICON A/S Distributed Control System for project B610. The following will be verified: proper assignment and operation of all field inputs to and outputs from the MICON Termination panels; proper operation of all display data on the operator's console; proper operation of all required alarms; and proper operation of all required interlocks. The MICON A/S control system is configured to replace all the control, indication, and alarm panels now located in the Power Control Room. Nine systems are covered by this control configuration, 2736-ZB HVAC, 234-5Z HVAC, Process Vacuum, Dry Air, 291-Z Closed Loop Cooling, Building Accelerometer, Evacuation Siren, Stack CAMs, and Fire. The 2736-ZB HVAC system consists of the ventilation controls for 2736-ZB and 2736-Z as well as alarms for the emergency generators and 232-Z. The 234-5Z HVAC system is the ventilation controls for 235-5Z and 236-Z buildings. Process Vacuum covers the controls for the 26 inch vacuum system. Dry Air covers the controls for the steam and electric air dryers. The 291-Z Closed Loop Cooling system consists of the status indications and alarms for the 291-Z compressor and vacuum pump closed loop cooling system. The rest of closed loop cooling was tested earlier. The Building Accelerometer system consists of the status indications for the two seismic system accelerometers. The Evacuation Siren system includes the controls for the evacuation and take cover sirens. Stack CAMs cover the alarms for the various building ventilation stack continuous air monitors. Finally, the Fire system covers the various fire alarms now located in Room 321-A

  13. Quality tools in a process of technical project management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gwiazda

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to show how it could utilize the tools of quality management for the processof project management. Also it could be presented a modification of the Ishikawa diagram.Design/methodology/approach: In presented work has been applied the research methodology that bases onthe theoretical analysis and on the empirical researches. It is also presented a practical solution that proved thevalidity of proposed method.Findings: The base finding of the presented work is the new concept of the Ishikawa diagram. The secondfinding is the stratification method. This new management tools let change the process of technical solutionpreparation.Research limitations/implications: In presented work it has been used only one improved quality tool. It isconsider with the fact that the aim of the paper is to present the possibility of the improved management tool.Practical implications: The article, and particularly the presented method allow to develop the researchesconsider with quality tools. Secondly, this paper shows the importance of integration the management andtechnical procedure. And thirdly in this article is presented a technical solution that is also a result of improvedwork technique.Originality/value: The presented improve Ishikawa diagram and stratification analysis is the original authorproposition. Also presented technical solutions are original.

  14. In vitro bioactivity of a tricalcium silicate cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricalcium silicate is the major constituent of Portland cement and the responsible for their mechanical strength at early stages. In order to be used as and additive of conventional calcium phosphate cement (CPC), in vitro bioactivity of a calcium silicate cement (CSC) after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 days was study. The cement was obtained by mixing Ca3SiO5, obtained by sol-gel process, and a Na2HPO4 solution. The morphological and structural changes of the material before and after soaking were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the formation of a layer of a Hydroxyapatite (HA) onto the CSC cement after soaking for 1h in SBF that became denser with the increase of soaking time. The study suggests that Ca3SiO5 would be an effective additive to improve the bioactivity and long term strength of conventional CPC. (author)

  15. Project Management, Critical Praxis, and Process-Oriented Approach to Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huiling; Ding, Xin

    2008-01-01

    To help alleviate issues of free-riding and conflicts in team projects, this study proposes the systematic incorporation of project management methods to introduce a process-oriented approach to and a critical praxis in team projects. We examined how the systematic use of project management methods influenced students' performance in team…

  16. Biocompatibility of alendronate-loaded acrylic cement for vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Calvo-Fernández

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a biological evaluation of a non-resorbable acrylic cement loaded with alendronate for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The cement formulation was based on polymethyl methacrylate and acrylic monomers; one of these had covalently linked vitamin E residues. The same cement in the absence of alendronate was used as a control. The setting of the charged cement presented a maximum polymerization temperature of 44ºC, a setting time of 24 min, a residual monomer content lower than 3 wt.%, a compressive strength of 99±10 MPa and an elastic modulus of 1.2±0.2 GPa. Cytotoxicity studies using human osteoblast cultures revealed that the leachable substances of the alendronate loaded cement collected between 1 and 7 days decreased cell viability to values lower than 80%. However, morphological changes and cellular damage in cells produced by the extracts decreased with the leak time. Cell adhesion and growth on charged cement was significantly lower than on the control. Implantation of the cement paste in the intra-femoral cavity of rabbits showed that initially the osteogenic activity was evident for the cement charged with alendronate, and the osteosynthesis process took place mainly in the trabeculae and was manifested by the presence of a non-mineralised osseous spicule. The interface between material and adjacent bone tissue was initially characterized by a variable fibrous response that in many cases it appeared reduced to thin connective tissue after a 24-week-period.

  17. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-01-01

    This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for proje...

  18. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This document is the prescribed means for providing direct input to the US Department of Energy Headquarters regarding the status, accomplishments, strategy, and issues of the Richland Environmental Restoration Project. The project mission, organizational interfaces, and operational history of the Hanford Site are provided. Remediation strategies are analyzed in detail. The document includes a status of Richland Environmental Restoration project activities and accomplishments, and it presents current cost summaries, schedules, and technical baselines.

  19. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the prescribed means for providing direct input to the US Department of Energy Headquarters regarding the status, accomplishments, strategy, and issues of the Richland Environmental Restoration Project. The project mission, organizational interfaces, and operational history of the Hanford Site are provided. Remediation strategies are analyzed in detail. The document includes a status of Richland Environmental Restoration project activities and accomplishments, and it presents current cost summaries, schedules, and technical baselines

  20. Post Process Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Components Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes in this STTR Phase II project to continue development and validation of Luna's amplitude-dependent, nonlinear ultrasonic...

  1. Expansion control for cementation of incinerated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose of radioactive incinerated ash waste. A small amount of metallic Al, which was not oxidized in the incineration, existed in the ash. When such ash was mixed with a cement material and water, alkaline components in the ash and the cement were dissolved in the mixing water and then metallic Al reaction with the alkaline compounds resulted in generation of H2. Because the H2 generation began immediately just after the mixing, H2 bubbles pushed up the mixed grout material and an expanded solidified form was obtained. The expansion leads to lowering the strength of the solidified form and making harmful void. In this study, we tried to control H2 generation from the reaction of metallic Al in the cementation by means of following two methods, one was a method to let metallic Al react prior to the cementation and the other was a method to add an expansion inhibitor that made an oxide film on the surface of metallic Al. In the pre-treatment, the ash was soaked in water in order to let metallic Al react with it, and then the ash with the immersion solution was dried at 105 Celsius degrees. The pre-treated ash was mixed with an ordinary portland cement and water. The inhibitor of lithium nitrite, sodium nitrite, phosphoric acid, or potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added at the mixing process. The solidified forms prepared using the pre-treated ash and lithium nitrite were not expanded. Phosphoric acid and sodium nitrite were effective for expansion control, but potassium dihydrogen phosphate did not work. (authors)

  2. Influence of grain size variation of rice husk ash and cement water phase on radioactive waste cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was conducted to determine grain size of rice husk ash (RHA) and cement water phase (CWP) be agreeable, so it would be to get result strength and leach rate maximum. The cementation process has be done by mixing liquid waste simulation ware made of strontium nitrate with concentration 65 ppm, type I Portland cement, filler material, rice husk ash and water. Mixture of cement mortar was casted on cylinder with diameter of 28 mm and height of 56 mm. the addition of cement water phase was varied 20v/o, 30v/o and 40v/o of cement volume. Variation of rice husk ash grain size was -40, -100, and -200 mesh as many as 25v/o from mixing volume total. After being casted, cement mortars were dried naturally for 28 days. Than the cement mortars were tested with compressive strength test by Universal Testing Machine and analysis of strontium concentration using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer to determine the leach rate after 21 days. (author)

  3. Properties of cemented carbides alloyed by metal melt treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of investigations into the influence of alloying elements introduced by metal melt treatment (MMT-process) on properties of WC-Co and WC-Ni cemented carbides. Transition metals of the IV - VIll groups (Ti, Zr, Ta, Cr, Re, Ni) and silicon were used as alloying elements. It is shown that the MMT-process allows cemented carbides to be produced whose physico-mechanical properties (bending strength, fracture toughness, total deformation, total work of deformation and fatigue fracture toughness) are superior to those of cemented carbides produced following a traditional powder metallurgy (PM) process. The main mechanism and peculiarities of the influence of alloying elements added by the MMT-process on properties of cemented carbides have been first established. The effect of alloying elements on structure and substructure of phases has been analyzed. (author)

  4. PURIFIED WASTE FCC CATALYST AS A CEMENT REPLACEMENT MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danute Vaiciukyniene

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are commonly used in the fluid catalytic cracking process. Zeolite polluted with oil products and became waste after some time used. The quantity of this waste inevitably rises by expanding rapidly oil industry. The composition of these catalysts depends on the manufacturer and on the process that is going to be used. The main factors retarding hydration process of cement systems and modifying them strength are organic compounds impurities in the waste FCC catalyst. The present paper shows the results of using purified waste FCC catalyst (pFCC from Lithuania oil refinery, as Portland cement replacement material. For this purpose, the purification of waste FCC catalyst (FCC samples was treated with hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most powerful oxidizers known. By acting of waste with H2O2 it can eliminate the aforementioned waste deficiency, and the obtained product becomes one of the most promising ingredients, in new advanced building materials. Hardened cement paste samples with FCC or pFCC were formed. It was observed that the pFCC blended cements developed higher strength, after 28 days, compared to the samples with FCC or reference samples. Typical content of Portland cement substituting does not exceed 30 % of mass of Portland cement in samples. Reducing the consumption of Portland cement with utilizing waste materials is preferred for reasons of environmental protection.

  5. Estimated longevity of performance of Portland cement grout seal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sealing of boreholes, fractures and underground workings of repositories is a common concern for all programs investigating the deep burial of nuclear waste as a disposal mechanism. Two grouting materials, bentonite and portland cement, have been identified by many programs as likely candidate seal materials. The longevity of performance of both of these materials is currently being investigated under the auspices of the Stripa Project. These investigations comprise coordinated laboratory, field and modeling studies to produce fundamental data, practical experience and estimates of long-range performance, respectively. Long-term performance is an especially sensitive issue for cement because the phases that comprise cement are metastable. Accordingly, it may be assumed that cement grout performance will degrade with time. For a simplified cement system, two mechanisms for chemical degradation have been considered: phase change and dissolution. When considering dissolution, both equilibrium (slow flow) and open (fast flow) systems have been analyzed to establish bounds. Granitic terrain groundwaters ranging from fresh to saline have been taken as solvents. To assess the consequences in terms of flow, an empirical relation between cement permeability and porosity has been developed. Predictions of performance changes with time have been produced by making conservative estimates of local hydraulic head conditions for various periods of repository history. For the crystalline rock environments considered, preliminary results indicate that cement grout performance may be acceptable for tens of thousands to millions of years providing its initial hydraulic conductivity is on the order of 10-12 m/s

  6. Implications of critical chain methodology for business process flexible automation projects in economic organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul BRUDARU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Business processes flexible automation projects involve the use of methods and technologies from Business Processes Management area (BPM that aim at increasing the agility of organizations in changing the business processes as response to environmental changes. BPM-type projects are a mix between process improvement projects and software development which implies a high complexity in managing them. The successful implementation of these projects involves overcoming problems inherent as delays in the activities of projects, multi-tasking, lack of focus which can not be solved by traditional project management tools. An approach which takes account of the difficulties of BPM projects is critical chain methodology. Using critical chain method provides the methodology fundament necessary for the successful completion of BPM-type projects.

  7. Destruction of meat and bone meals in cement plants; Destruction des farines animales dans les cimenteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-10-01

    Following the crisis of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy disease ('mad cow' disease), the French cement industrialists have been requested by the government since 1996 to eliminate the forbidden meat and bone meals in cement kilns where they are used as fuel substitutes. This article presents the advantages of the cement industry file in the destruction of such wastes, the validation and the safety aspects of this process. Meat and bone meal represents a high-grade fuel that lowers the environmental impact of cement production and does not affect the quality of cement. (J.S.)

  8. The Process of Selecting Project Team Members in a Matrix Organization with Multiproject Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Johan; Finnserud, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    In a matrix organization, the process of selecting project team members is a collaboration between the functions and the projects. A project’s success or failure does often depend on that collaboration. This thesis work examines the present situation at Saab Gripen Customer Support. The process is examined from four different perspectives: the roles of the functional and the project manager, competence development, behavioural science team roles and the complexity of the projects. The result ...

  9. Establishing the Framework of Assessing the Development Process of Chinese Forest Carbon Offset Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jue

    2015-01-01

    Forest carbon offset projects have been growing vigorously in China in the last ten years. It is necessary to form an overall picture of the projects, to analyze the quality of their development processes, and to shed light on the development of upcoming projects. In order to evaluate their development process, a framework of assessment was built up and applied in practical project assessment. In this thesis, firstly, the situation of the global carbon markets and Chinese forest carbon of...

  10. Tools to Improve the Process of Engineering Design: An Analysis of Team Configuration and Project Support

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Paige Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how team design and project management (planning and tracking) affected planning and design performance and the people involved in the process. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate three factors: team design (individuals versus groups of three), project support (no project support versus manual project support versus automated project support), and the engineering design life-cycle, which includes conceptual design, preliminary design, an...

  11. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF MONOLITHIC CONCRETE CEMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Rudenko, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The paper is aimed to the development of scientific bases of the technology of modified concrete of new generation for special facilities by managing the processes of structure formation of modified cement system in conditions of hardening. Methodology. For the achievement the goal: 1) the research of rheological characteristics of modified concrete mixes for special facilities purpose and processes of structure formation of modified cement system of natural curing concrete was condu...

  12. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  13. ACACIA Project - Development of a Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Process. Case of the DMXTM Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the ACACIA project was to develop processes for post-combustion CO2 capture at a lower cost and with a higher energetic efficiency than first generation processes using amines such as Monoethanolamine (MEA) which are now considered for the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) demonstrators. The partners involved in this project were: Rhodia (Solvay since then), Arkema, Lafarge, GDF SUEZ, Veolia Environnement, IFP Energies nouvelles, IRCE Lyon, LMOPS, LTIM, LSA Armines. To validate the relevance of the breakthrough processes studied in this project, techno-economic evaluations were carried out with comparison to the reference process using a 30 wt% MEA solvent. These evaluation studies involved all the industrial partners of the project, each partner bringing specific cases of CO2 capture on their industrial facilities. From these studies, only the process using de-mixing solvent, DMXTM, developed by IFPEN appears as an alternative solution to the MEA process. (authors)

  14. ACACIA Project – Development of a Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Process. Case of the DMXTM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the ACACIA project was to develop processes for post-combustion CO2 capture at a lower cost and with a higher energetic efficiency than first generation processes using amines such as MonoEthanolAmine (MEA which are now considered for the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS demonstrators. The partners involved in this project were: Rhodia (Solvay since then, Arkema, Lafarge, GDF SUEZ, Veolia Environnement, IFP Energies nouvelles, IRCE Lyon, LMOPS, LTIM, LSA Armines. To validate the relevance of the breakthrough processes studied in this project, techno-economic evaluations were carried out with comparison to the reference process using a 30 wt% MEA solvent. These evaluation studies involved all the industrial partners of the project, each partner bringing specific cases of CO2 capture on their industrial facilities. From these studies, only the process using demixing solvent, DMXTM, developed by IFPEN appears as an alternative solution to the MEA process.

  15. Keynote presentation: Project Management, Technology and Evolving Work Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    , Aarhus University. First, this Project Management course involves continual, ongoing development through working with real clients. To learn about project management from a communications perspective, learners were asked to work in teams for project conception and planning. To communicate with the client...... project management documents looked like, but also how these documents are interconnected and work together to solve a problem. In addition, as they were in communication with a real client, they needed to work iteratively, ch anging their understanding of the problem, which in turn changed their options...... for solving the problem as well as planning and communicating the solution. This dynamic participation in problem solving helped students gain experience beyond recognition and reproduction  Campus Encounters – Bridging Learners Conference “Developing Competences for Next Generation Service Sectors...

  16. Substitution of the clayey mineral component by lignite fly ash in portland cement clinker synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Nataša; Komljenović Miroslav; Petrašinović-Stojkanović Ljiljana; Baščarević Zvezdana; Bradić Violeta; Rosić Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Fly ash from four power plants in Serbia (PP "Morava" - Svilajnac, PP "Kolubara" - Veliki Grijani, PP "Kostolac" - units B1 and B2 - Kostolac and PP "Nikola Tesla" - units A and B - Obrenovac) was utilized as the starting raw component for Portland cement clinker synthesis. Limestone and quartz sand from the "Holcim - Serbia, a.d." cement factory were the other two starting raw components. Based on the chemical composition of the raw components and from the projected cement moduli, the amount...

  17. Utilisation and Improvement of the Initialisation of Project Communication Processes During the Management of Projects in Industrial Enterprises in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samáková, Jana; Šujanová, Jana; Špirková, Marta

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, project communication is slowed due to the need for compliance with strict rules. Therefore the aim of this paper is to analyse the use of the communication environment as a basic part of the initialisation of project communication in industrial enterprises in Slovakia, and to propose measures to improve the process of initialisation of project communication in these enterprises. In this paper, theoretical and empirical research (quantitative and qualitative) approaches were chosen. On the basis of the research we can conclude, that communication as a basic part of the "Initialisation of project communication" is not adequately elaborated in international methodologies and standards of project management and in industrial enterprises. Industrial enterprises do not deal with processes of the communication environment and this results in negative consequences.

  18. Retrospective (in-process) project evaluation system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-20

    The retrospective evaluation methodology is being developed to monitor progress in energy conservation projects and to evaluate their success at completion. The criteria for evaluation will vary according to the project, the anticipated role that the federal government expects to play in development and commercialization, and the level of technology development. Evaluation guidelines are presented and their application is illustrated using a residential water heater refit kit; energy conservation in restaurants; and a national infrared thermography program. (MCW)

  19. The Process of Alignment Between Strategy and Six Sigma Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Bianca Soares De Oliveira; Musetti, Marcel Andreotti

    2010-01-01

    Regarding the systematization proposal presented, one should emphasize the importance of having in the literature a systematic alignment of the strategy with Six Sigma projects, given that this alignment is essential to the success of the program. In addition, the proposal assists companies that are implementing the Six Sigma program to be successful in selecting improvement projects. It was not within the overall objective to present a comprehensive proposal for all the improvement actions, ...

  20. Glass powder blended cement hydration modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Huda

    .17, H/S ratio of 2.5 and N/S ratio of 0.18. In the second phase of this research, theoretical models are built using a modified version of an existing cement hydration modelling code, "CEMHYD3D", to simulate the chemical reaction of the activated glass powder hydration and glass powder in cement. The modified model, which is referred to as the "MOD-model" is further used to predict the types, compositions and quantities of reaction products. Furthermore, the glass powder hydration data, which is obtained experimentally, is incorporated into the MOD-model to determine the effect of adding glass powder to the paste on the process of cement hydration and resulting paste properties. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental results are made to evaluate the developed models. The MOD-model predictions have been validated using the experimental results, and were further used to investigate various properties of the hydrated glass powder cement paste. These properties include, for example, CH content of the paste, porosity, hydration degree of the glass powder and conventional C-S-H and GP CS-H contents. The results show that the MOD-model is capable of accurately simulating the hydration process of glass powder-blended cement paste and can be used to predict various properties of the hydrating paste.

  1. Process-oriented knowledge-sharing platform for chemical engineering design projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A process-oriented knowledge-sharing platform is studied to improve knowledge sharing and project management of chemical engineering design enterprises. First, problems and characteristics of knowledge sharing in multi-projects of chemical engineering design are analyzed. Then based on theories of project management, process management, and knowledge management, a process-oriented knowledge-sharing platform is proposed. The platform has three characteristics: knowledge is divided into professional knowledge...

  2. Performance of Cement Containing Laterite as Supplementary Cementing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bukhari, Z. S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of different industrial waste, by-products or other materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, fly ash, limestone, and kiln dust, etc. as supplemen- tary cementing materials has received considerable attention in recent years. A study has been conducted to look into the performance of laterite as Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM. The study focuses on compressive strength performance of blended cement containing different percentage of laterite. The cement is replaced accordingly with percentage of 2 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % by weight. In addition, the effect of use of three chemically different laterites have been studied on physical performance of cement as in setting time, Le-Chatlier expansion, loss on ignition, insoluble residue, free lime and specifically compressive strength of cement cubes tested at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days. The results show that the strength of cement blended with laterite as SCM is enhanced. Key words: Portland cement, supplementary cementing materials (SCM, laterite, compressive strength KUI – 6/2013 Received January 4, 2012 Accepted February 11, 2013

  3. 水泥检测中的影响因素及质量检测探究%Explore Influence Factors and Quality Inspection of Cement Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜云

    2013-01-01

    在建筑规模不断扩大的背景下,建筑项目的安全质量问题备受关注。而水泥作为最主要的建筑材料之一,就成为了保障工程质量的决定性因素,也是确保水泥质量的最有效措施。本文从水泥检测的重要性和必要性入手,分析水泥检测过程中的影响因素。对于完善水泥质量检测的过程,提出了切实有效的改进措施。%Under the background of the construction scale ex-pands unceasingly, safety and quality of building projects got to be concerned. While the cement as one of the main building materials, has became the decisive factor to guarantee engine-ering quality, and also to be the most effective measures to en-sure the quality of cement. This paper from the necessity and the importance of cement detection, analyzes influencing fact-ors of cement in the process of detection. To improve the proc-ess of the cement quality detection, it puts forward the meas-ures to improve the effective.

  4. An application of stochastic processes for analyzing risks in highway projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meysam Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The successes on highway projects are uncertain because of organizational features, improper scope definitions and long lasting complicated processes. Highway projects under uncertain environment can effectively be managed with the application of risk management throughout their life cycles. Risk management within highway projects, therefore, has been recognized vital to improve their performances and increase the success of these projects. Processes of the projects are dynamic by nature. Therefore, commonly used static techniques do not analyze the potential risks properly. The stochastic process is a highly effective tool to quantitatively deal with the risk analysis. In this paper, a new approach based on Markov chain is proposed to assess the potential risks of highway projects in a dynamic framework. The approach takes advantage of the capability of probabilistic tools. Furthermore, using an application example in highway projects, the proposed approach is demonstrated in detail. Finally, the risk management effectiveness of using the stochastic processes is illustrated.

  5. Treating of cement curing with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main curing reactions of a portland cement are the formation of portlandite, Ca(OH)2, and calcium silicate hydrates, CSH. In nature, the cement extracts CO2 from air and convert the calcium hydroxide and CSH to calcium carbonate(CaCO3), calcite. By this process, chemically stable and mechanically enhanced cement is formed. By exposing an OPC to supercritical CO2 (SCCO2), the carbonate reaction was greatly accelerated. XRD analysis of experimental sample showed the acceleration of carbonate reaction and the test of compressive strength showed the mechanical enhancement

  6. Low porosity portland cement pastes based on furan polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of three different types of Furan polymers on the porosity, mechanical properties, mechanism of hydration and microstructure of Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes was investigated. The results showed that mixing the OPC with Furan polymers, the standard water of consistency of the different cement pastes decreases and therefore the setting times (initial and final) are shortened. The total porosity of the hardened cement pastes decreased, while the mechanical properties improved and enhanced at all curing ages of hydration compared with those of the pure OPC pastes. The hydration process with Furan polymers proceeded according to the following decreasing order: F.ac. > F.ph. > F.alc. > OPC

  7. Utilization from Cement Kiln Dust in Removal of Acid Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed E.S.I. Saraya; Mahmoud E.S. Aboul-Fetouh

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The growth of industries and day to day changes in human activities has resulted in an increase in the volume and complexity of wastewater to the environment. Textile industry is one of the most water consumers industries of Egypt, thus discharges large amounts of wastewater effluents during processing, especially, in the coloring and washing steps. Cement kiln dust is a solid waste in cement manufacturing. Approximately 2.5-3.0 (6-9%) million tons of cement kiln dust is pr...

  8. Barium aluminate cement: its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology of manufacturing barium aluminate cement from barium sulfate and alumina, using a rotary kiln for firing the clinker is described. The method of granulation of the homogenized charge was used. Conditions of using the ''to mud'' method in industry were indicated. The physical and chemical properties of barium aluminate cement are determined and the quality of several batches of cement prepared on a semi-industrial scale and their suitability for making highly refractory concretes are tested. The optimal composition of the concretes is determined as a function of the mixing water and barium aluminate cement contents. Several experimental batches of concretes were used in the linings of furnaces in the steel industry. The suitability of these cements for use in fields other than steelmaking is examined. It is established that calcium aluminate cement has certain limited applications

  9. [Haemotoxicity of dental luting cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, A; Welker, D

    1989-06-01

    A glass ionomer luting cement (AquaCem) shows a relatively low haemolytic activity in comparison with two zinc phosphate cements. Especially the initial irritation by this cement is smaller. Although it is possible that AquaCem particularly, in unfavourable cases, may damage the pulpa dentin system; this is due to the slowly decrease of the haemolytic activity with increasing of the probes. We found that Adhesor showed in dependence of the batches a varying quality. PMID:2626769

  10. Cement penetration after patella venting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher W; Lam, Li-On; Butler, Adam; Wood, David J; Walsh, William R

    2009-01-01

    There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement-bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration. Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or non-vented. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA scanning. In vented specimens, a 1.6 mm Kirschner wire was used to breach the anterior cortex at the center. Specimens were resurfaced with standard Profix instrumentation and Versabond bone cement (Smith and Nephew PLC, UK). Cement penetration was assessed from Faxitron and sectioned images by a digital image software package (ImageJ V1.38, NIH, USA). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess the difference in cement penetration between groups. The relationship between BMD and cement penetration was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a strong negative correlation between peak BMD and cement penetration when analyzed independent of experimental grouping (r(2)=-0.812, p=0.004). Wilcoxon rank sum testing demonstrated no significant difference (rank sum statistic W=27, p=0.579) in cement penetration between vented (10.53%+/-4.66; mean+/-std dev) and non-vented patellae (11.51%+/-6.23; mean+/-std dev). Venting the patella using a Kirschner wire does not have a significant effect on the amount of cement penetration achieved in vitro using Profix instrumentation and Versabond cement. PMID:19010682

  11. Utilization from Cement Kiln Dust in Removal of Acid Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E.S.I. Saraya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growth of industries and day to day changes in human activities has resulted in an increase in the volume and complexity of wastewater to the environment. Textile industry is one of the most water consumers industries of Egypt, thus discharges large amounts of wastewater effluents during processing, especially, in the coloring and washing steps. Cement kiln dust is a solid waste in cement manufacturing. Approximately 2.5-3.0 (6-9% million tons of cement kiln dust is produced annually in Egypt and that cause significant environmental problems. Approach: This study aims to investigate removal of some acid dyes from aqueous solution using cement kiln dust and monitoring the dye in colored cement kiln dust. Solution with 0.4 g L-1 concentration was treated with cement kiln dust until the color of dye disappears. The colored cement kiln residue was separate by filtration and dried. The concentration of dye was measured before and after treatment by UV-Vis spectroscopy as well as after washing of colored residue. Also, the colored residue was investigated with, XRD, IR and DSC techniques as well as the loss on ignition at 450°C. Results: The results found that the cement kiln dust has the power to remove all existing acid dyes and the residue has the same color of dye. When colored residue was washed with water, there was no back diffusion of dye in to water. This may be mainly due to chemical reaction that took place between cement kiln dust and dye. Thus analysis such as IR, XRD and DSC are in agreement with these results. Conclusion: CKD is efficient in the processes of dye removal from aqueous solutions. The interaction between acid dye and CKD is fast (just minutes. So, we suggest using spent CKD for dye removal of waste water.

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in

  13. Autonomous, On-board Processing for Sensor Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fuse high performance reconfigurable processors with emerging fault-tolerance & autonomous processing techniques for a 10-100x decrease in processing time....

  14. Fracture model for cemented aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Zubelewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanisms-based fracture model applicable to a broad class of cemented aggregates and, among them, plastic-bonded explosive (PBX composites, is presented. The model is calibrated for PBX 9502 using the available experimental data under uniaxial compression and tension gathered at various strain rates and temperatures. We show that the model correctly captures inelastic stress-strain responses prior to the load peak and it predicts the post-critical macro-fracture processes, which result from the growth and coalescence of micro-cracks. In our approach, the fracture zone is embedded into elastic matrix and effectively weakens the material's strength along the plane of the dominant fracture.

  15. Penetration of natural gas in industrial processes for direct burning: the case of ceramics, cement and glass industries; Penetracao do gas natural em processos industriais de queima direta: caso das industrias ceramica, cimento e vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti; Leite, Alvaro A. Furtado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Industrial sector can use the natural gas (NG) as raw material, as fuel and in co-generation. The NG as fuel is used, predominantly, to produce heat in the Brazilian industries. That rate, both main forms of industrial use of the NG are its direct burning in kilns - when the direct contact is had with the product - and the supply of process heat through boilers, for instance. Direct burning is used in the ceramic, cement and glass industries. This work discuss the penetration opportunity of the NG in the direct burning regarding the fuel oil and other energy that it can substitute, the environmental effects and the co-generation possibilities in each one of the analyzed industrial blanches in this work. (author)

  16. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF MONOLITHIC CONCRETE CEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rudenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to the development of scientific bases of the technology of modified concrete of new generation for special facilities by managing the processes of structure formation of modified cement system in conditions of hardening. Methodology. For the achievement the goal: 1 the research of rheological characteristics of modified concrete mixes for special facilities purpose and processes of structure formation of modified cement system of natural curing concrete was conducted; 2 there were defined methods of reliable evaluation of concrete strength at the removal time of formwork and transmission of loads to the constructions where the concrete has not reached the designed strength. Findings. The author found that the structure formation process develops in the hydrating modified cement system as a result of interaction of various macroions. In this process its active parts prevail, which considerably exceed its dissipative part compared to normal conditions of hardening. Originality. There were established the regularities of structure formation of modified cement system, reinforced with synthesized, well crystallized helical filamentary crystals, mechanical grip of which is considered as a principal source of strength in combination with an additional coupling achieved due to cross-germination of crystals. Practical value. In the study the increased binding capacity of cement in high strength concretes and the use of modified cement systems in the special conditions of concreting were considered. The organo-mineral modifying complex that provides the dispersed reinforcement of concrete cement matrix which allows modifying the process of cement matrix structure formation by changing the nature of the surface of binder and modifier was developed. The temperature factor has no negative influence on the hardening concrete and complex modifier provides the improved physico-mechanical characteristics of cement matrix and concrete

  17. A Novel Method for Assessing and Optimizing Software Project Process Based Risk Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new approach for assessing and optimizing software project process based on software risk control pre-sented, which evaluates and optimizes software project process from the view of controlling the software project risks. A model for optimizing software risk control is given, a discrete optimization algorithm based on dynamic programming is proposed and an example of using above method to solve a problem is also included in this paper. By improving the old passive post-project control into an active effective pre-action, this new method can greatly promote the possibility of success of software projects.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Projection Welding Processes for Door Hinge of Automobile Based on Coupled Fields Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Chang-ming; LUO Ai-hui; CHEN Guan-long

    2007-01-01

    Projection welding is a variation of electric resistance welding with the dynamic changes of the flow paths for heat and electrical properties with changing temperature caused by the large plastic deformation collapse of projection. As the joint type between the auto door hinge and the inner plate, projection welding may bring welding distortions and would affect the assembly quality of auto body. A comprehensive electric-thermal-mechanical numerical simulation was performed to quantitatively simulate the processes of projection welding by using a coupled finite element method. The mechanism of projection collapse and the formation process of nugget were discussed and good conclusions have been achieved comparing with the test results.

  19. Encapsulation of ILW raffinate in the Dounreay cementation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dounreay Cementation Plant has been designed and constructed to encapsulate the first cycle liquid raffinate arising from the reprocessing of irradiated Research Reactor fuel into a cementitious matrix. The acidic liquid waste is conditioned with sodium hydroxide prior to mixing with the cement powders (a 9:1 ratio of Blast Furnace Slag / Ordinary Portland Cement with 5% Lime). The complete cement mixing process is performed within the 500-liter drum, which provides the waste package primary containment. The plant has recently been commissioned and has commenced routine operation, processing stocks of existing raffinate that has been stored at Dounreay for up to 30 years. The waste loading per drum has been optimised within the constraints of the chemical composition of the raffinate, with an expected plant throughput of 2.5 m3/week. (author)

  20. INTERACTION OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED WATER WITH THE CEMENT BINDING AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gujumdzhjan Perch Pogosovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the procedure of interaction between the water and the particles of the cement binding agent, if subjected to high-speed processing inside an intensive mixing device that represents a hydrodynamic stirrer composed of a rotor and variable section turbines. The proposed method of modification (mechanical activation of the cement and water suspension makes it possible to reduce the cost of concrete due to reduction of the cement consumption rate. The research of strength-related properties of the cement stone has proven that high-speed mechanical processing of the binding agent, if mixed with the water, may improve mechanical properties of concrete by 25 to 30 %.

  1. Evaluation of brazilian bentonites as additive in the radwaste cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of some Brazilian bentonites has been evaluated, concerning to their use as additive in the radwaste cementation. The purpose of the bentonite is to retain the radioelements in the final product in leaching process. Experiments to determine properties such as compressive strenght, viscosity, set time leaching and cesium sorption have been carried out to this evaluation. After one-year test, the results show that the bentonites greatly reduce the cesium release. A literature survey about cementation process and plants and about the cement product characteristics has been made in order to obtain a reliable final product, able to be transported and storaged. Some leaching test methods and mathematical models, that could be applied in the evaluation of cement products with bentonite have been evaluated. (author)

  2. The FGM Concept in the Development of Fiber Cement Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FGM concept appears promising in improving the mechanical performance and reducing production costs of fiber cement building components. However, it has not yet been broadly applied to fiber cement technology. In this study we analyze the functionally graded fiber cement concept and its potential for industrial application in Hatschek machines. The conventional Hatschek process is summarized as well as the proposed modifications to allow FGM fiber cement production. The feasibility of producing functionally graded fiber cement by grading PVA fiber content was experimentally evaluated. Thermogravimetric (TG) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis were used to evaluate fiber distribution profiles. Four-point bending tests were applied to evaluate the mechanical performance of both conventional and functionally graded composites. The results shows that grading PVA fiber content is an effective way to produce functionally graded fiber cement, allowing the reduction of the total fiber volume without significant reduction on composite MOR. TG tests were found adequate to assess fiber content at different positions in functionally graded fiber cements

  3. Cementation of Upper Miocene reefs in western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, M.; Calvet, F.

    1983-03-01

    Coral reefs in the western Mediterranean (southeast Spain, Balearic Island, northern Morocco, Sicily, and Italy) show a wide variety of cement types, ranging from completely tight, well-cemented, to poorly cemented reefs with most of the primary porosity still preserved. Cementation processes in those coral reefs appear to be controlled to a great extent by repeated changes of relative sea levels and regional variations of seawater chemistry. Reef progradation occurred during four to six (or more) important sea level changes, resulting in complicated geometric relationships of reef complexes and their freshwater lenses. Progradation occurred during sea level rises and falls and is reflected in abrupt escarpments in some field localities, generally separated by important terraced erosional surfaces. Various types of aragonitic isopachous cement fringes of marine origin, 0.1 to 1.5 cm (.04 to .6 in.) thick, are well preserved in some localities. This is probably due to subsequent plugging by gypsum cement during the Messinian salinity crises. Another possible effect of salinity fluctuations is the abundance of thick crusts of peletoidal, micrite cement of marine origin, locally forming about three-fourths of the volume of the reef core.

  4. UTILIZATION OF AGARWOOD DISTILLATION WASTE IN OILWELL CEMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON FREE WATER AND POROSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Sauki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this research is to utilize the waste produced by distillation process of Agarwood oil and convert it into a profitable oilwell cement additive. Common problem during oilwell cementing is free wáter separation. This problem could weaken cement at the top, gas migration problem and non uniform density of cement slurry that are even worst in cementing deviated well. Another concern on cementing design is the porosity of the hardened cement. If the cement is too porous, it can lead to gas migration and casing corrosion. All tests were conducted according to API Specification-10B. Free water test was determined at different concentrations of Agarwood Waste Additive (AWA, different inclination angles and different temperatures. Based on the findings, it was observed that zero free water was produced when 2% BWOC of AWA was used at all angles. The findings also revealed that AWA can maintain good thermal stability as it could maintain zero free water at increased temperature up to 60˚C.  The porosity of AWA cement was comparable with standard API neat cement as the porosity did not differ much at 2% BWOC of AWA. Therefore, it can be concluded that the AWA is suitable to  be used as an additive in oil well cement (OWC  with 2% BWOC is taken as the optimum concentration.

  5. Development of a Multipurpose Extruder/Press Food Processing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is to develop versatile, low mass, energy efficient, and easily maintained multipurpose seed processing (MSP) equipment for food processing in space...

  6. SpiderFab: Process for On-Orbit Construction of Kilometer-Scale Apertures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project develops a process for automated on-orbit construction of very large structures and multifunctional components. The foundation of this process is a...

  7. Evaluation of ternary blended cements for use in transportation concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Amanda Louise

    This thesis investigates the use of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures for transportation structures. The study documents technical properties of three concrete mixtures used in federally funded transportation projects in Utah, Kansas, and Michigan that used ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. Data were also collected from laboratory trial batches of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures with mixture designs similar to those of the field projects. The study presents the technical, economic, and environmental advantages of ternary blended cement mixtures. Different barriers of implementation for using ternary blended cement concrete mixtures in transportation projects are addressed. It was concluded that there are no technical, economic, or environmental barriers that exist when using most ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. The technical performance of the ternary blended concrete mixtures that were studied was always better than ordinary portland cement concrete mixtures. The ternary blended cements showed increased durability against chloride ion penetration, alkali silica reaction, and reaction to sulfates. These blends also had less linear shrinkage than ordinary portland cement concrete and met all strength requirements. The increased durability would likely reduce life cycle costs associated with concrete pavement and concrete bridge decks. The initial cost of ternary mixtures can be higher or lower than ordinary portland cement, depending on the supplementary cementitious materials used. Ternary blended cement concrete mixtures produce less carbon dioxide emissions than ordinary portland cement mixtures. This reduces the carbon footprint of construction projects. The barriers associated with implementing ternary blended cement concrete for transportation projects are not significant. Supplying fly ash returns any investment costs for the ready mix plant, including silos and other associated equipment. State specifications can make

  8. Cement encapsulation of low-level radioactive slurries of complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations have been carried out to solidify in cement a low-level radioactive waste of complex chemistry which should be produced in a new plant designed to process radioactive effluents from CEA Cadarache Research Center. Direct cementation comes up against a major problem: a very long setting time of cement due to strong inhibition by borates from the waste. A two-stage process, including a chemical treatment prior to immobilization, has been elaborated and the resulted material characterized. (authors)

  9. Cement encapsulation of low-level radioactive slurries of complex chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cau Dit Coumes, C. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DESD), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-07-01

    Investigations have been carried out to solidify in cement a low-level radioactive waste of complex chemistry which should be produced in a new plant designed to process radioactive effluents from CEA Cadarache Research Center. Direct cementation comes up against a major problem: a very long setting time of cement due to strong inhibition by borates from the waste. A two-stage process, including a chemical treatment prior to immobilization, has been elaborated and the resulted material characterized. (authors)

  10. Environmental assessment process for the Port Hope project and the Port Granby project: a responsible authority perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed environmental assessments were initiated very early in project planning for two Government of Canada projects proposing to clean up and locally manage historic low-level radioactive waste over the long-term in the Port Hope area of Ontario. Both the Port Hope Project and the Port Granby Project are based on conceptual approaches proposed by the local communities as local solutions to a long standing environmental issue. In a legal agreement signed in 2001 with the affected municipalities, the Government of Canada accepted the community approaches as potentially suitable solutions for management of the waste. Federal environmental assessments of the proposals were launched shortly thereafter and have been used as planning tools to further define the community approaches with the participation of the local municipalities and the public. The environmental assessment process has been designed to allow for preferred alternatives for implementing each project to emerge that are environmentally, technically and socially acceptable. (author)

  11. Diagraphies de cimentation : vers une analyse de la qualité du contact ciment-formation Cement Logging: Toward an Analysis of the Quality of Cement-Formation Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isambourg P.

    2006-11-01

    specialists (VDL tool. The greatest progress that could be made with cementing logs was to detect defects in the cement-formation interface. This is what we have done within the framework of a project financed by ARTEP (Association de Recherche sur les Techniques d'Exploitation du Pétrole, made up of Total, Gaz de France (GDF, Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP and Elf Aquitaine Production (EAP. Laboratory experiments performed in the Fluid Analysis Service at Boussens involved the injecting of cement between a casing and a simulated formation, with or without the presence of mud having varying thicknesses. Fast or slow formations as well as fast or slow cements were used. The ultrasonic echoes obtained by a ceramic CET sonde were recorded and analyzed. Both theory and the experiments showed that ultrasonic echoes are modified in the presence of mud and/or gas. The relations between the shape of the ultrasonic wave and presence of mud and gas between the cement and the formation were determined. A processing procedure is proposed with its limitations. Cementing Quality : If we had to set forth a quality criterion for cementing, we would say: For cementing to be considered as being of good quality, the cement sheath must be at least as leakproof as the formation it replaces. When a borehole is drilled, different zones are effectively brought into communication. The initial isolation will be established by the casing + cement sheath. This function will thus be correctly ensured if this combination lets pass only the start of a fluid leak (water, oil, gas that is less than or equal to what is allowed by an equivalent section of formation drilled through. Naturally, this concept is mainly applied to sensitive zones, e. g. such as the overburden of a reservoir. However, it should be noted that this concept is also applied to the reservoir itself and not only to the overburden. Indeed, a leaky cement sheath at the level of a reservoir with relatively low permeability could, for

  12. Use of Oscillatory Shear to Study the Effect of Limestone Filler on the Rheology of Early-Age Portland Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Barney, Christopher W; Erk, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Cement is a material that has been in use since the ancient times and is the most widely manufactured material in industry today. During the production of cement, limestone undergoes a process called calcination which releases CO2. In order to reduce the environmental impact and cost of cement production it has become standard practice to replace a portion of the cement mixture with ground limestone, but this causes a change in the rheological profile of the mixture. This change in rheology a...

  13. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III : The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact

    OpenAIRE

    Ammenberg, Jonas; Baas, Leo; Eklund, Mats; Feiz, Roozbeh; Helgstrand, Anton; Marshall, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involvi...

  14. Respiratory Health among Cement Workers in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zeleke, Zeyede K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known on dust exposure and respiratory health among cement cleaners. There are only a few follow-up studies on respiratory health among cement factory workers and also studies on acute effects of cement dust exposure are limited in numbers. Objective: This study aimed at assessing cement dust exposure and adverse respiratory health effects among Ethiopian cement production workers, with particular focus on cement cleaners. Method: The first paper was...

  15. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2010-12-22

    This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

  16. Effective ERP adoption processes: the role of project activators and resource investments

    OpenAIRE

    Bernroider, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate whether stakeholders activating a project shape team building, the structure and magnitude of resource investment levels, and to what extent these levels impact ERP project effectiveness. The process view of an ERP project includes project initiation, system justification and funding, implementation, and early system use. Results from a nationwide empirical survey conducted in Austria (N = 88) show that activating actors influence team fo...

  17. The asbestos cement container and its characterization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of packing container is designed in France, by SGN, for the reprocessing wastes conditioning: the asbestos cement container (CAC) made by the industrial process for pipes fabrication. Two types of CAC are studied, differing from each other by their wall thickness. The technology of which SGN is in charge is presented. A characterization program is operated by CEA in view of satisfying to regulatory requirements. Emphasis is placed upon the radionuclides migration study, through different asbestos cement samples

  18. Rheological and hydration characterization of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes

    OpenAIRE

    García-Maté, Marta; Santacruz, Isabel; de la Torre, Ángeles G.; León-Reina, Laura; Aranda, Miguel A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements are currently receiving a lot of attention because their manufacture produces less CO2 than ordinary Portland cement (OPC). However, it is essential to understand all parameters which may affect the hydration processes. This work deals with the study of the effect of several parameters, such as superplasticizer (SP), gypsum contents (10, 20 and 30 wt%) and w/c ratio (0.4 and 0.5), on the properties of CSA pastes during early hydration. This characteriza...

  19. Analysis and Development of a Project Evaluation Process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, Charles C.; Cada Glenn F.

    1985-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration has responsibility, assigned by the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-501; 16 USC 839), for implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. One aspect of this responsibility is evaluation of project proposals and ongoing and completed projects. This report recommends formalized procedures for conducting this work in an accurate, professional, and widely respected manner. Recommendations and justifications are based largely on interviews with federal and state agencies and Indian tribes in the Northwest and nationally. Organizations were selected that have evaluation systems of their own, interact with the Fish and Wildlife Program, or have similar objectives or obligations. Perspective on aspects to be considered were obtained from the social science of evaluation planning. Examples of procedures and quantitative criteria are proposed. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  20. Accelerated Numerical Processing API Based on GPU Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recent performance increases in graphics processing units (GPUs) have made graphics cards an attractive platform for implementing computationally intense...

  1. Integrated Project Scheduling and Staff Assignment with Controllable Processing Times

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Fernandez-Viagas; Framinan, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, tog...

  2. Goals, processes, and indicators of development: a project description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galtung, J.

    1978-01-01

    The five features listed below were studied to contribute to new theories and practices of development: focus is on development of people in security, welfare, identity, and freedom; a developed country guarantees an acceptable minimum of these basic needs in conformity with constraints set by nature and ecological balance; a methodological emphasis on dialog between people and planners interacting to create a world network for integrated research projects. A suggested format for the first year is presented. (PSB)

  3. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved

  4. SSP: a simple software process for small- size software development projects

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa, Sergio; Pino, José A.; Luis A. Guerrero; Cesar A Collazos

    2006-01-01

    A large number of software development projects in Latin- American countries are small-size, poorly defined and time pressured. These projects usually involve under qualified people. Provided that well-known software development models have shown limited applicability in such scenario, developers usually carry out ad-hoc software processes. Therefore, the obtained results are unpredictable. This article presents a Simple Software Process (SSP) for small-size software projects involving under ...

  5. Assessment of cement durability in repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present research aimed at investigating the durability of cement paste under nuclear waste repository conditions using accelerated tests. Cement paste samples are examined after being exposed to the environmental conditions that are expected to prevail in the repository environment and the results are compared with those obtained with unexposed specimens or specimens exposed to reference conditions. The following exposure conditions were selected: a) Immersion in salt solution, distilled water, or kept in dry storage; b) Room temperature (20 C. degrees) or high temperature (60 C. degrees); c) Immersion time of 30 days or 60 days (not for dry storage); d) Irradiation to a dose of (400 kGy) or background radiation (0 kGy). After exposure to the stressing conditions, the effects of each factor on the cement paste samples were observed by changes in their characteristics. Compressive strength tests were performed on all samples and some of them were investigated in terms of changes in mineralogy by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). With the results obtained so far it was possible to point out the following conclusions. First, after a period of immersion in water, cement paste samples further hydrated and presented higher mechanical resistance, as expected. Secondly, dry storage did not allow a complete hydration as a consequence of pore water evaporation. High temperatures intensified this process and led to the ettringite decomposition to meta-ettringite. Thirdly, higher temperature accelerated hydration kinetics and promoted higher mechanical resistance in samples kept under immersion. Fourthly, the irradiation dose applied was unable to change the mineralogy of cement paste samples and fifthly, no statistically significant differences were observed between 30 or 60 days exposure time, for the test conditions

  6. Silver-Doped Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements with Antibacterial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, J. V.; Fosca, M.; Graziani, V.; Egorov, A. A.; Zobkov, Yu. V.; Fedotov, A. Yu.; Ortenzi, M.; Caminiti, R.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Komlev, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs) with antibacterial properties are demanded for clinical applications. In this study, we demonstrated the use of a relatively simple processing route based on preparation of silver-doped CPCs (CPCs-Ag) through the preparation of solid dispersed active powder phase. Real-time monitoring of structural transformations and kinetics of several CPCs-Ag formulations (Ag = 0 wt %, 0.6 wt % and 1.0 wt %) was performed by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction technique. The partial conversion of β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) phase into the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) took place in all the investigated cement systems. In the pristine cement powders, Ag in its metallic form was found, whereas for CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, CaAg(PO3)3 was detected and Ag (met.) was no longer present. The CPC-Ag 0 wt % cement exhibited a compressive strength of 6.5 ± 1.0 MPa, whereas for the doped cements (CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt %) the reduced values of the compressive strength 4.0 ± 1.0 and 1.5 ± 1.0 MPa, respectively, were detected. Silver-ion release from CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, measured by the Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, corresponds to the average values of 25 µg/L and 43 µg/L, respectively, rising a plateau after 15 days. The results of the antibacterial test proved the inhibitory effect towards pathogenic Escherichia coli for both CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, better performances being observed for the cement with a higher Ag-content. PMID:27096874

  7. Reactive-Transport Model of Buffer Cementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Randy; Wei Zhou [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Thermal gradients during the early, non-isothermal period of near-field evolution in a KBS-3 repository for spent nuclear fuel could alter the mineralogy of the bentonite buffer and cause the constituent clay particles to become cemented together by mineral precipitates. Cementation is a potential concern because it could alter the ductility, mechanical strength and swelling pressure of the buffer, thereby possibly adversely affecting the primary performance function of this key barrier to provide a stable diffusional transport pathway between the canister and rock. The present study uses the TOUGHREACT computer program to simulate reactive-transport processes that are thought to control buffer cementation. TOUGHREACT is generally applicable to problems involving non-isothermal, multiphase reactive transport in variably saturated media. For cementation problems, the modeling approach must account specifically for the temperature dependence of equilibrium and kinetic constraints on dissolution/precipitation reactions involving the primary smectite clays and accessory phases in bentonite, and for diffusive transport of aqueous reactants and products along concentration gradients that are aligned with, or in opposition to, the direction of decreasing temperatures across the near field. The modeling approach was evaluated in two stages. A conceptual model of buffer cementation was first calibrated using observations from field tests carried out at the Stripa mine and Aespoe HRL (LOT pilot experiments). The calibrated model was then used to simulate the geochemical evolution of the KBS-3 buffer during the non-isothermal period of repository evolution. This model accounts for the imbibition of groundwater from a granitic host rock into initially unsaturated buffer materials under capillary and hydraulic pressure gradients, and uses realistic time-temperature constraints on the thermal evolution of the near-field. Preliminary results suggest that the total extent of

  8. Reactive-Transport Model of Buffer Cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal gradients during the early, non-isothermal period of near-field evolution in a KBS-3 repository for spent nuclear fuel could alter the mineralogy of the bentonite buffer and cause the constituent clay particles to become cemented together by mineral precipitates. Cementation is a potential concern because it could alter the ductility, mechanical strength and swelling pressure of the buffer, thereby possibly adversely affecting the primary performance function of this key barrier to provide a stable diffusional transport pathway between the canister and rock. The present study uses the TOUGHREACT computer program to simulate reactive-transport processes that are thought to control buffer cementation. TOUGHREACT is generally applicable to problems involving non-isothermal, multiphase reactive transport in variably saturated media. For cementation problems, the modeling approach must account specifically for the temperature dependence of equilibrium and kinetic constraints on dissolution/precipitation reactions involving the primary smectite clays and accessory phases in bentonite, and for diffusive transport of aqueous reactants and products along concentration gradients that are aligned with, or in opposition to, the direction of decreasing temperatures across the near field. The modeling approach was evaluated in two stages. A conceptual model of buffer cementation was first calibrated using observations from field tests carried out at the Stripa mine and Aespoe HRL (LOT pilot experiments). The calibrated model was then used to simulate the geochemical evolution of the KBS-3 buffer during the non-isothermal period of repository evolution. This model accounts for the imbibition of groundwater from a granitic host rock into initially unsaturated buffer materials under capillary and hydraulic pressure gradients, and uses realistic time-temperature constraints on the thermal evolution of the near-field. Preliminary results suggest that the total extent of

  9. Health hazards of cement dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ven in the 21st century, millions of people are working daily in a dusty environment. They are exposed to different types of health hazards such as fume, gases and dust, which are risk factors in developing occupational disease. Cement industry is involved in the development of structure of this advanced and modern world but generates dust during its production. Cement dust causes lung function impairment, chronic obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lungs, stomach and colon. Other studies have shown that cement dust may enter into the systemic circulation and thereby reach the essentially all the organs of body and affects the different tissues including heart, liver, spleen, bone, muscles and hairs and ultimately affecting their micro-structure and physiological performance. Most of the studies have been previously attempted to evaluate the effects of cement dust exposure on the basis of spirometry or radiology, or both. However, collective effort describing the general effects of cement dust on different organ and systems in humans or animals, or both has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of cement dust and to minimize the health risks in cement mill workers by providing them with information regarding the hazards of cement dust. (author)

  10. Immobilisation of strontium, nickel and iodide by a sulphate-resisting Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of Sr(II), Ni(II) and I(-I) with sulphate-resisting Portland cement was investigated under highly alkaline conditions. Batch-sorption studies were performed by contacting HTS cement (haute teneur en silice, sulphate-resisting Portland cement, Lafarge, France) with artificial cement pore water (ACW). The composition of ACW was 0.18 M KOH, 0.114 M NaOH and 1.2 mM Ca(OH)2. 85Sr, 63Ni and 125I were used as tracers. In the experiments with Sr(II) and Ni(II), isosaccharinic acid (ISA) was added to ACW at 10-5 M to 10-2 M in order to study the effect of complexing ligands on radionuclide retention. The stability of the tracer solutions and the cement suspensions were first assessed. Moreover, the inventory of the stable elements were determined in cement and cement pore water. We then studied the kinetics of the radionuclide-cement interaction process and measured the dependence of the distribution ratio (Rd) on the concentration of ISA and on the concentration of cement particles (S:L ratio). In the case of 63Ni and 125I a strong decrease in the distribution ratio (Rd) with increasing S:L ratio was observed. There is strong indication that the inventory of the stable fraction of an element present in cement pore water accounts for the retention of the radioisotope fraction. The results further indicate that phase transformations may occur in non-pre-equilibrated cement systems (non-equilibrium conditions) which affect 63Ni uptake by HTS cement. The distribution ratios measured on HTS cement were compared with values obtained from measurements on important cement components (portlandite, CSH/C(A)SH-phases)

  11. Carbonation of ternary building cementing materials

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Carrasco, Lucía; Torrens Martín, David; Martínez Ramírez, Sagrario

    2012-01-01

    The carbonation processes of ettringite and calcium aluminate hydrates phases developed by hydration of calcium aluminate cement, fly ash and calcium sulphate ternary mixtures have been studied. The hydrated samples were submitted to 4% of CO2 in a carbonation chamber, and were analysed, previous carbonation and after 14 and 90 days of carbonation time, by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction; the developed morphology was performed with the 14 days carbonated samples. The results evide...

  12. Quality improvement process pilot project at Gallagher station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Quality Improvement Process was piloted at Gallagher station in 1990 to address issues of two Electric System Strategy Group (ESSG) goals. Darrell McElravy headed a group to address quality, productivity and prove and Judy Rushing headed a group to address innovation and recognition. These groups combined when a process was identified that could address both issues. The process was designed for PSI Energy by Business Incentives and is an incentive-based quality improvement process that seeks employee involvement to identify inhibitors t performance and to establish a method to eliminate the problem. Performance goals were also established that help focus efforts to improve performance and reward employees for their efforts

  13. Reactive Atom Plasma Processing of Slumped Glass Wedges Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Reactive Atom Plasma (RAPTM) process will be evaluated as a rapid and practical method for fabricating precision wedges in glass sheets. The glass sheets are to...

  14. Fault Management: Degradation Signature Detection, Modeling, and Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fault to Failure Progression (FFP) signature modeling and processing is a new method for applying condition-based signal data to detect degradation, to identify...

  15. Reactive-Separator Process Unit for Lunar Regolith Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's plans for a lunar habitation outpost call out for process technologies to separate hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide gases from regolith product gas...

  16. Nanorack Compatible Standardized Data Processing, Communication, and Control Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I study will design and develop a NanoRacks Control Module (NCM) that provides communications, control functions and data processing in a NanoRacks...

  17. Enhancing the Processing Characteristics of Edible Beans Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced life-support systems, which use chemical, physical, and biological processes, are being developed to support future long-term human planetary exploration....

  18. Onboard Optical Navigation Measurement Processing in GEONS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this IRAD is to establish in-house onboard OpNav measurement data processing capabilities through software development and testing.  Software...

  19. Crack Closure Based Self Healing Process for Metallic Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. (AS&M) is proposing to develop and validate a process that can extend the fatigue life of and potentially self-heal...

  20. Broadband Reflective Coating Process for Large FUVOIR Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZeCoat Corporation will develop and demonstrate a set of revolutionary coating processes for making broadband reflective coatings suitable for very large mirrors...

  1. Real-Time Smart Tools for Processing Spectroscopy Data Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose novel and real-time smart software tools to process spectroscopy data. Material abundance or compositional maps will be generated for rover guidance,...

  2. Copper-promoted cementation of antimony in hydrochloric acid system: A green protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lian-Kui; Li, Ying-Ying; Cao, Hua-Zhen; Zheng, Guo-Qu

    2015-12-15

    A new method of recovering antimony in hydrochloric acid system by cementation with copper powder was proposed and carried out at laboratory scale. Thermodynamic analysis and cyclic voltammetry test were conducted to study the cementation process. This is a novel antimony removal technology and quite meets the requirements of green chemistry. The main cement product Cu2Sb is a promising anodic material for lithium and sodium ion battery. And nearly all consumed copper powder are transformed into CuCl which is an important industrial material. The effect of reaction temperature, stoichiometric ratio of Cu to Sb(III), stirring rate and concentration of HCl on the cementation efficiency of antimony were investigated in detail. Optimized cementation condition is obtained at 60 °C for 120 min and stirring rate of 600 rpm with Cu/Sb(III) stoichiometric ratio of 6 in 3 mol L(-1) HCl. At this time, nearly all antimony can be removed by copper powder and the cementation efficiency is over 99%. The structure and morphologies of the cement products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Results show that the reaction temperature has little influence on the morphology of the cement products which consist of particles with various sizes. The activation energy of the cementation antimony on copper is 37.75 kJ mol(-1), indicating a chemically controlled step. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry results show that no stibine generates during the cementation process. PMID:26252996

  3. Process for planning and control of software projects using XedroGESPRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Marín-Sánchez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The software project management in Cuba has become a key area for improving production processes and decisionmaking in organizations. Several models and standards for process improvement, related with project management, proposed best practices on issues of planning and control of projects. However, they are generic guidelines that describe only those activities to execute, leaving the responsibility for implementing to organizations, using sometimes , expensive proprietary informatics tools to achieve these goals. This research proposes a process for planning and control of software projects using Xedro-GESPRO: an open-source software tool for project management domestically implemented. The proposal is successfully being applied by the network of production centers of the Informatic Sciences University of Cuba, observing greater efficiency and effectiveness in the planning and control of their projects.

  4. Project B610 process control configuration acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this test is to verify the Westinghouse configuration of the MICON A/S Distributed Control System for project B610. The following will be verified: (1) proper assignment and operation of all field inputs to and outputs from the MICON Termination panels; (2) proper operation of all display data on the operators' console; (3) proper operation of all required alarms; and (4) proper operation of all required interlocks. This test only verifies the proper operation of the Westinghouse control configuration (or program). It will not be responsible for verifying proper operation of the MICON hardware or operating software. Neither does it test any of the B610 instrument. The MICON hardware and software has been tested as part of the equipment procurement. Instrumentation and wiring installed under project B620 will be tested under a separate functional test. In some cases, precise transmitter ranges, alarm setpoints, and controller tuning parameters are not available at this time. Therefore, approximate values are used during the test. This should not affect the proper operation of the configuration or the validity of this test. Final values will be assigned during operability testing

  5. Thermal analysis of cement pastes with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Lukosiute, Irena;

    2013-01-01

    Thermal analysis of cement systems is very helpful in the understanding of many different properties of cementitious compounds, both for the original reacting compounds, and also for the resulting hydration products. Superabsorbent polymers can be added to cement systems with many different reasons......, so it is relevant that fundamental knowledge of this new compound on the development of hydration is well understood [1-3]. This paper reports research on thermal analysis of cement pastes with superabsorbent polymers. We have studied several parameters: the concentration of SAP in the system, the...... effect of particle size distribution, and their influence on the hydration process with focus on cement-silica systems. This is done at different thermodynamic conditions, so the energy of activation in the different systems can be accessed. This paper provides information relevant to hydration modelling...

  6. Applications of thermal energy storage in the cement industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, F. A.; Beshore, D. G.; Miller, F. M.; Gartner, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    In the manufacture of cement, literally trillions of Btu's are rejected to the environment each year. The purpose of this feasibility study program was to determine whether thermal energy storage could be used to conserve or allow alternative uses of this rejected energy. This study identifies and quantifies the sources of rejected energy in the cement manufacturing process, established use of this energy, investigates various storage system concepts, and selects energy conservation systems for further study. Thermal performance and economic analyses are performed on candidate storage systems for four typical cement plants representing various methods of manufacturing cement. Through the use of thermal energy storage in conjunction with waste heat electric power generation units, an estimated 2.4 x 10 to the 13th power Btu/year, or an equivalent on investment of the proposed systems are an incentive for further development.

  7. Influence of ferrite phase in alite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvallet, Tristana Yvonne Francoise

    Since the energy crisis in 1970's, research on low energy cements with low CO2- emissions has been increasing. Numerous solutions have been investigated, and the goal of this original research is to create a viable hybrid cement with the components of both Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSAC), by forming a material that contains both alite and calcium sulfoaluminate clinker phases. Furthermore, this research focuses on keeping the cost of this material reasonable by reducing aluminum requirements through its substitution with iron. The aim of this work would produce a cement that can use large amounts of red mud, which is a plentiful waste material, in place of bauxite known as an expensive raw material. Modified Bogue equations were established and tested to formulate this novel cement with different amounts of ferrite, from 5% to 45% by weight. This was followed by the production of cement from reagent chemicals, and from industrial by-products as feedstocks (fly ash, red mud and slag). Hydration processes, as well as the mechanical properties, of these clinker compositions were studied, along with the addition of gypsum and the impact of a ferric iron complexing additive triisopropanolamine (TIPA). To summarize this research, the influence of the addition of 5-45% by weight of ferrite phase, was examined with the goal of introducing as much red mud as possible in the process without negatively attenuate the cement properties. Based on this PhD dissertation, the production of high-iron alite-calcium sulfoaluminateferrite cements was proven possible from the two sources of raw materials. The hydration processes and the mechanical properties seemed negatively affected by the addition of ferrite, as this phase was not hydrated entirely, even after 6 months of curing. The usage of TIPA counteracted this decline in strength by improving the ferrite hydration and increasing the optimum amount of gypsum required in each composition

  8. Magnesium oxychloride cement concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Misra; Renu Mathur

    2007-06-01

    The scope of magnesium oxychloride (MOC) cement in concrete works has been evaluated. MOC cement concrete compositions of varying strengths having good placing and finishing characteristics were prepared and investigated for their compressive and flexural strengths, -values, abrasion resistance etc. The durability of MOC concrete compositions against extreme environmental conditions viz. heating–cooling, freezing–thawing, wetting–drying and penetration and deposition of salts etc were investigated. The results reveal that MOC concrete has high compressive strength associated with high flexural strength and the ratio of compressive to flexural strength varies between 6 and 8. The elastic moduli of the compositions studied are found to be 23–85 GPa and the abrasion losses between 0.11 and 0.20%. While alternate heating–cooling cycles have no adverse effect on MOC concrete, it can be made durable against freezing–thawing and the excessive exposure to water and salt attack by replacing 10% magnesium chloride solution by magnesium sulphate solution of the same concentration.

  9. Enhancement of cemented waste forms by supercritical CO{sub 2} carbonation of standard portland cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Carey, J.; Taylor, C.M.V.

    1997-08-01

    We are conducting experiments on an innovative transformation concept, using a traditional immobilization technique, that may significantly reduce the volume of hazardous or radioactive waste requiring transport and long-term storage. The standard practice for the stabilization of radioactive salts and residues is to mix them with cements, which may include additives to enhance immobilization. Many of these wastes do not qualify for underground disposition, however, because they do not meet disposal requirements for free liquids, decay heat, head-space gas analysis, and/or leachability. The treatment method alters the bulk properties of a cemented waste form by greatly accelerating the natural cement-aging reactions, producing a chemically stable form having reduced free liquids, as well as reduced porosity, permeability and pH. These structural and chemical changes should allow for greater actinide loading, as well as the reduced mobility of the anions, cations, and radionuclides in aboveground and underground repositories. Simultaneously, the treatment process removes a majority of the hydrogenous material from the cement. The treatment method allows for on-line process monitoring of leachates and can be transported into the field. We will describe the general features of supercritical fluids, as well as the application of these fluids to the treatment of solid and semi-solid waste forms. some of the issues concerning the economic feasibility of industrial scale-up will be addressed, with particular attention to the engineering requirements for the establishment of on-site processing facilities. Finally, the initial results of physical property measurements made on portland cements before and after supercritical fluid processing will be presented.

  10. Enhancement of cemented waste forms by supercritical CO2 carbonation of standard portland cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are conducting experiments on an innovative transformation concept, using a traditional immobilization technique, that may significantly reduce the volume of hazardous or radioactive waste requiring transport and long-term storage. The standard practice for the stabilization of radioactive salts and residues is to mix them with cements, which may include additives to enhance immobilization. Many of these wastes do not qualify for underground disposition, however, because they do not meet disposal requirements for free liquids, decay heat, head-space gas analysis, and/or leachability. The treatment method alters the bulk properties of a cemented waste form by greatly accelerating the natural cement-aging reactions, producing a chemically stable form having reduced free liquids, as well as reduced porosity, permeability and pH. These structural and chemical changes should allow for greater actinide loading, as well as the reduced mobility of the anions, cations, and radionuclides in aboveground and underground repositories. Simultaneously, the treatment process removes a majority of the hydrogenous material from the cement. The treatment method allows for on-line process monitoring of leachates and can be transported into the field. We will describe the general features of supercritical fluids, as well as the application of these fluids to the treatment of solid and semi-solid waste forms. some of the issues concerning the economic feasibility of industrial scale-up will be addressed, with particular attention to the engineering requirements for the establishment of on-site processing facilities. Finally, the initial results of physical property measurements made on portland cements before and after supercritical fluid processing will be presented

  11. Process Design for Collaboration: An Innovative Approach to Redesigning the Environmental Review Process for Transportation Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Project Overview: Recent federal legislation and accompanying rules (SAFETEA-LU) require state Departments of Transportation to increase their levels of collaboration with local jurisdictions and with other state and federal environ¬mental and resource agencies related to the environmental impact of transportation projects. At the same time, they face increased demands for reducing the time and cost associated with project environmental reviews and permitting. Some barriers to achieving these...

  12. A Largely Unsatisfied Need: Continuing Professional Development for Process and Process Plant Industries. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldhart, D.; Brown, A. S.

    This summary report outlines the aims of a project that focused on provision of short courses for technical professionals in the chemical and allied process industry and the process plant industry. Continuing education needs of both companies and individuals, as well as corporate policies and attitudes toward continuing education and constraints…

  13. Reduction of soil pollution by usingwaste of the limestone in the cement industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M. Cecilia Soto; Robles Castillo, Marcelo; Blanco Fernandez, David; Diaz Gonzalez, Marcos; Naranjo Lamilla, Pedro; Moore Undurraga, Fernando; Pardo Fabregat, Francisco; Vidal, Manuel Miguel Jordan; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    In the cement manufacturing process (wet) a residue is generated in the flotation process. This builds up causing contamination of soil, groundwater and agricultural land unusable type. In this study to reduce soil and water pollution 10% of the dose of cement was replaced by waste of origin limestone. Concretes were produced with 3 doses of cement and mechanical strengths of each type of concrete to 7, 28 and 90 days were determined. the results indicate that the characteristics of calcareous residue can replace up to 10% of the dose of cement without significant decreases in strength occurs. It is noted that use of the residue reduces the initial resistance, so that the dose of cement should not be less than 200 kg of cement per m3. The results allow recommends the use of limestone waste since it has been observed decrease in soil and water contamination without prejudice construction material Keywords: Soil contamination; Limestone residue; Adding concrete

  14. Cement industry control system based on multi agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海东; 邱冠周; 黄圣生

    2004-01-01

    Cement production is characterized by its great capacity, long-time delay, multi variables, difficult measurement and muhi disturbances. According to the distributed intelligent control strategy based on the multi agent, the multi agent control system of cement production is built, which includes integrated optimal control and diagnosis control. The distributed and multiple level structure of multi agent system for the cement control is studied. The optimal agent is in the distributed state, which aims at the partial process of the cement production, and forms the optimal layer. The diagnosis agent located on the diagnosis layer is the diagnosis unit which aims at the whole process of the cement production, and the central management unit of the system. The system cooperation is realized by the communication among optimal agents and diagnosis agent. The architecture of the optimal agent and the diagnosis agent are designed. The detailed functions of the optimal agent and the diagnosis agent are analyzed.At last the realization methods of the agents are given, and the application of the multi agent control system is presented. The multi agent system has been successfully applied to the off-line control of one cement plant with capacity of 5 000 t/d. The results show that the average yield of the clinker increases 9.3% and the coal consumption decreases 7.5 kg/t.

  15. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  16. Modelling for integrated energy optimisation in cement production plants / J.A. Swanepoel.

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Jan Adriaan

    2013-01-01

    Cement production is an energy intensive process. In South Africa the cost of energy increased since 2006, while cement sales have dropped dramatically. It has become important to focus on methods to optimise energy consumption to achieve cost savings in the cement industry. Various methods of reducing production cost by improving energy efficiency are available, but require extended installation periods and high initial capital expenditure. Other methods such as operational optimisation can ...

  17. Biomass use in the Dutch cement industry ENCI, Maastricht, The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Junginger, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Based in the Netherlands, ENCI is a division of HeidelbergCement active in the Benelux countries. It possesses three main production facilities in the Netherlands, of which the biggest is the integrated production plant in Maastricht. ENCI has been generating cement from Maastricht since 1926, and directly employs 212 people. There, the full cement production process is realised, as limestone is extracted from the 135-hectare quarry and burnt in a kiln to make clinker, which is then ground in...

  18. Heterogeneous nucleation of ice from supercooled NaCl solution confined in porous cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Qiang; Li, Kefei; FEN CHONG, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Clarifying the nucleation process of chloride-based deicing salt solution (e.g., NaCl solution) confined in cement-based porous materials remains an important issue to understand its detrimental effects on material substrates. In this study, the pore structures of hardened cement pastes were characterized by mercury-intrusion and nitrogen-sorption porosimetry. The ice nucleation temperature of NaCl solution of different concentrations confined in the hardened cement pastes was measured and an...

  19. Integrating chemical engineering fundamentals in the capstone process design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Woodley, John; Johnsson, Jan Erik;

    2010-01-01

    All B.Eng. courses offered at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) must now follow CDIO standards. The final “capstone” course in the B.Eng. education is Process Design, which for many years has been typical of chemical engineering curricula worldwide. The course at DTU typically has about 30...... receive. The education is designed to provide students with the necessary tools to become productive in a company in a short time – so there is a strong industrial focus. Some students choose to continue with their studies and can then complete an M.Sc. after a further two years of study. The demands of...... chemical plants will incorporate one or more chemical reactors. In the initial stages of a process design, it is sufficient to express simply the reactor inputs and outputs. However in later stages, details about the reactor need to be specified. This is only possible using tools learned in the course...

  20. Factors influencing ERP projects success in the vendor selection process

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita HURBEAN

    2009-01-01

    Successful implementation of an ERP system is the result of knowledgeable and dedicated people working together. It entails company-wide commitment, openness to change, good planning and experienced guidance. These primary criteria determine the probability of gaining significant return on investment (ROI) from an ERP system. Using these criteria as guidelines during the system selection process and subsequent implementation can ensure that the chosen system will support and enable the busine...

  1. Improvement of the Biogas Production Process : Explorative project (EP1)

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anna; Björn, Annika; Sepehr, Shakeri Yekta; Svensson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    There are several ways to improve biogas production in anaerobic digestion processes and a number of strategies may be chosen. Increased organic loading in existing plants will in most cases demand the introduction of new substrate types. However, to substantially increase the Swedish biogas production new, large-scale biogas plants digesting new substrate types need to be established. Better utilization of existing digester volumes can be linked to:  Increase of organic loading rates and/or ...

  2. Grouting Rock Fractures with Cement Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tani, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    The radial flow rate of a cement grout in a rock fracture is obtained from Bingham's relation and the fact that the power expended by the injection mechanism is the energy dissipated by viscous effects. The energy balance reveals that the advance ratio is of fundamental importance in the grouting process and is inherently related to the rest and advance phases of a cement grout. This allows giving a precise definition of the zero flow path that divides the energy diagram into two distinct domains for advancing and non-advancing grout. The advance ratio and the zero flow path are used to explore the grouting of one or more fractures, analyze the GIN model in the context of the SL dispute, draw a terminal sequence considering the energy interval alternative, and reformulate the refusal criterion of the North American grouting method. Secondary grouting effects are also investigated.

  3. DESIGN OF CEMENT COMPOSITES WITH INCREASED IMPERMEABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedyuk Roman Sergeevich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of composite binders for producing concrete with improved characteristics of gas, water and vapor permeability. The authors investigate the processes of composite materials formation in order of decreasing scale levels from macro to nanostructures. The criteria for optimization of the volume of dispersed additives in concrete are offered. The authors theoretically studied the technological features of the formation of hydrated cement stone structure. A positive effect of nanodispersed additives on the structure and physico-mechanical properties of cement composite materials are predicted. Thanks to its improved features, such as good ratio of strength and body density, high density and lifetime, the modified concrete may be used when solving various practical tasks of the construction branch.

  4. Leaching tests of cemented organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioisotopes in research, medical and industrial activities generates organic liquid radioactive wastes. At Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) are produced organic liquid wastes from different sources, one of these are the solvent extraction activities, whose the waste volume is the largest one. Therefore a research was carried out to treat them. Several techniques to treat organic liquid radioactive wastes have been evaluated, among them incineration, oxidation processes, alkaline hydrolysis, distillation, absorption and cementation. Laboratory experiments were accomplished to establish the most adequate process in order to obtain qualified products for storage and disposal. Absorption followed by cementation was the procedure used in this study, i.e. absorbent substances were added to the organic liquid wastes before mixing with the cement. Initially were defined the absorbers, and evaluated the formulation in relation to the compressive strength of its products. Bentonite from different suppliers (B and G) and vermiculite in two granulometries (M - medium and F - small) were tested. In order to assess the product quality the specimens were submitted to the leaching test according the Standard ISO 6961 and its results were evaluated. Then they were compared with the values established by Standard CNEN NN 6.09 Acceptance criteria for waste products to be disposed, to verify if they meet the requirements for safely storage and disposal. Through this study the best formulations to treat the organic wastes were established. (author)

  5. Signal Processing System for the CASA Integrated Project I Radars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharadwaj, Nitin; Chandrasekar, V.; Junyent, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the waveform design space and signal processing system for dual-polarization Doppler weather radar operating at X band. The performance of the waveforms is presented with ground clutter suppression capability and mitigation of range velocity ambiguity. The operational waveform is designed based on operational requirements and system/hardware requirements. A dual Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) waveform was developed and implemented for the first generation X-band radars deployed by the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA). This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of the waveforms based on simulations and data collected by the first-generation CASA radars during operations.

  6. Integrating chemical engineering fundamentals in the capstone process design project

    OpenAIRE

    von Solms, Nicolas; Woodley, John; Johnsson, Jan Erik; Abildskov, Jens

    2010-01-01

    All B.Eng. courses offered at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) must now follow CDIO standards. The final “capstone” course in the B.Eng. education is Process Design, which for many years has been typical of chemical engineering curricula worldwide. The course at DTU typically has about 30 students. The B.Eng. education lasts for 3½ years (seven semesters), of which the 5th semester consists of practical training with a company and the final (7th) semester consists of a research proje...

  7. Review of the SR-Can project regarding microbial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the main report of the SR-Can project (SKB TR-06-09) the corrosion of the copper canister is modeled with data input according to different scenarios. That is, first the scenarios are set up and thereafter the model is predicting the possible corrosion effect. All scenarios presume an uneven general corrosion and chemical input data to the models are average data from field observations and/or chemical equilibrium calculations. The models used are assuming a homogenous environment around the canister. This approach is not consistent with natural environments where variations in data are the most common and where a mean value seldom is observed. Conservative estimates on the corrosion of copper should be retrieved from models where not only average numbers but also end members of each data set are used. I would also like to see another approach to the corrosion problem. First answer the question 'What are the prerequisites to corrode the canister to such an extent that a penetration of the 5 cm copper is achieved in 1,000,000 years?'. Thereafter look for necessary scenarios and find out whether they can be expected from a realistic point of view. In the main report it is stated that corrosion from sulphate-reducing bacteria cannot be ruled out, but it is not clear that this has been taken into account in any of the models. The microbes' impact is ruled out and they are assumed to have a negligible effect on the copper coverage of the canisters. The evidences presented for such an assumption are far from convincing

  8. Decision Process Analysis on Project Priority Strategy: A Case Study of an ICT Design Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent F. Yu; Kuo, Catherine W.; Ruey Huei Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Project priority strategy is the benchmarking of a corporate operation management strategy and in particular is used by a projects-based research and development firm in the complex competence environment of the information and communication technology (ICT) industry. This research takes the variables of external environments and internal resources into account for a firm’s market, technology, and finance assets in order to present a decision process on a project priority strategy. This empir...

  9. Alternative fuels in cement industry; Alternativa braenslen i cementindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, K.E.; Ek, R. [Finnsementti Oy, Parainen (Finland); Maekelae, K. [Finreci Oy (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the cement industry`s possibilities to replace half of the fossil fuels with waste derived fuels are investigated. Bench-scale experiments, pilot plant tests and full scale tests have been done with used tires and plastics wastes

  10. Soft Soil Improvement by Mixing with Sand or Cement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feda, Jaroslav; Boháč, J.

    Amsterdam : Balkema, 1999 - (Barends, F.; Lindberg, H.), s. 1483-1488 [European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering /12./. Amsterdam (NL), 07.06.1999-10.06.1999] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/97/1053 Keywords : sand -clay mixture * cement stabilization * percolation threshold * bonding Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  11. Cements in Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of cement and concrete to immobilise radioactive waste is complicated by the wide- ranging nature of inorganic cementing agents available as well as the range of service environments in which cement is used and the different functions expected of cement. For example, Portland cement based concretes are widely used as structural materials for construction of vaults and tunnels. These constructions may experience a long pre-closure performance lifetime during which they are required to protect against collapse and ingress of water: strength and impermeability are key desirable characteristics. On the other hand, cement and concrete may be used to form backfills, ranging in permeability. Permeable formulations allow gas readily to escape, while impermeable barriers retard radionuclide transport and reduce access of ground water to the waste. A key feature of cements is that, while fresh, they pass through a fluid phase and can be formed into any shape desired or used to infiltrate other materials thereby enclosing them into a sealed matrix. Thereafter, setting and hardening is automatic and irreversible. Where concrete is used to form structural elements, it is also natural to use cement in other applications as it minimises potential for materials incompatibility. Thus cement- mainly Portland cement- has been widely used as an encapsulant for storage, transport and as a radiation shield for active wastes. Also, to form and stabilise structures such as vaults and silos. Relative to other potential matrices, cement also has a chemical immobilisation potential, reacting with and binding with many radionuclides. The chemical potential of cements is essentially sacrificial, thus limiting their performance lifetime. However performance may also be required in the civil engineering sense, where strength is important, so many factors, including a geochemical description of service conditions, may require to be assessed in order to predict performance lifetime. The

  12. Cement/slag chemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of cement-based matrices intended for radwaste immobilization is assessed. The long-term performance of the matrix is characterized by thermodynamic evaluation of experimental data. The results are presented in a general form, amenable to a range of specific formulations. The interaction of specific radwaste components with cements has been studied, using Iodine as an example. It occurs as both I- and IO3- species, but these differ sharply in sorption characteristics. The effect of ionizing radiation of the pH and Eh of cement matrices is reported. (author)

  13. Latin American Universities and the Bologna Process: From Commercialisation to the "Tuning" Competencies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboites, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Through the "Tuning-Latin America" competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin America. This…

  14. High Performance Parallel Processing Project: Industrial computing initiative. Progress reports for fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koniges, A.

    1996-02-09

    This project is a package of 11 individual CRADA`s plus hardware. This innovative project established a three-year multi-party collaboration that is significantly accelerating the availability of commercial massively parallel processing computing software technology to U.S. government, academic, and industrial end-users. This report contains individual presentations from nine principal investigators along with overall program information.

  15. 75 FR 16820 - Delegated Processing for Certain 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Delegated Processing for Certain 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly Projects... 202 Supportive Housing for the Elderly projects. OMB Approval Number: 2502-New. Form Numbers:...

  16. Carbonate Looping for De-Carbonization of Cement Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Andersen, Maria Friberg; Lin, Weigang;

    2011-01-01

    feasible technology is to be developed. The carbonate looping process is a promising technology, which is particularly suitable for the cement industry as limestone could be used for capture and release of CO2. Integration of carbonate looping process into cement pyroprocess has two advantages: 1) to...... capture emitted CO2 and 2) to generate power for internal use, because high quality energy can be recovered from carbonate looping which is operated at high temperature unlike amine process. A simple carbonate looping process model was developed based on average conversion of calcined limestone defined by...... calciner capacity is also investigated. The results from this simple model show the importance of cement industry to the carbon capture technology for its application to power plants....

  17. Porous and adsorption properties of hydrated cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Biljana S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption isotherms of benzene on hydrated cement pastes prepared by cement ground with and without the addition of grinding aids, triethanol amine (TEA and ethylene glycol (EG were investigated. The adsorption isotherms were interpreted by means of the Dubinin-Astakhov (DA and Dubinin-Radushkevich-Stoeckli (DRS equations. The microporous structure of cement gel (C-S-H in the cement pastes, and changes in the Gibbs free energy of adsorption were determined. The mechanical properties of the cement pastes were also measured. It was evident that pastes with additives had different parameters of the DRS and DA equations: the volume and dimensions of the gel pores, the distribution of the dimensions, the characteristic energy of adsorption, and the change in the Gibbs free energy of adsorption. The mechanical properties were also different. The dispersity of the additive-containing ground cements had a favorable effect on the hydration processes. When applying TEA, it was also necessary to analyze its influence on the chemical behavior of hydration in the starting period.

  18. A Study of Metal-Cement Composites with Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Victor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of small-sized metal fillers (SMF provides a combination of high bulk density, increased durability and ferromagnetic properties of composite materials on the cement basis. However, the total strength of the composite can be compromised by poor adhesion of metal particles with the cement matrix. The use of versatile additives like microsilica and metakaolin is able to improve the structural integrity and mechanical properties of heavy concretes. The paper considers the results of a study using specimens of heavy concretes with SMF aiming to estimate its strength, structural features and ultrasonic parameters. It was found that the contact of SMF particles with the cement was not perfect, since the voids appeared between them and the cement matrix during the cement hydration process (exothermal reaction. Due to the border porosity, the specimens with the metal fillers have lower compressive strength, lower ultrasound velocity and increased frequency slope of attenuation. Microsilica and metakaolin additives facilitate better contact zone between the cement matrix and metal fillers.

  19. The development of stochastic process modeling through risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are so many different factors to consider when constructing a nuclear power plant successfully from planning to decommissioning. According to PMBOK, all projects have nine domains from a holistic project management perspective. They are equally important to all projects, however, this study focuses mostly on the processes required to manage timely completion of the project and conduct risk management. The overall objective of this study is to let you know what the risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project is, and understand how to implement the stochastic process modeling through risk management. Building the Nuclear Power Plant is required a great deal of time and fundamental knowledge related to all engineering. That means that integrated project scheduling management with so many activities is necessary and very important. Simulation techniques for scheduling of NPP project using Open Plan program, Crystal Ball program, and Minitab program can be useful tools for designing optimal schedule planning. Thus far, Open Plan and Monte Carlo programs have been used to calculate the critical path for scheduling network analysis. And also, Minitab program has been applied to monitor the scheduling risk. This approach to stochastic modeling through risk analysis of project activities is very useful for optimizing the schedules of activities using Critical Path Method and managing the scheduling control of NPP project. This study has shown new approach to optimal scheduling of NPP project, however, this does not consider the characteristic of activities according to the NPP site conditions. Hence, this study needs more research considering those factors

  20. A new radionuclide sorption database for benchmark cement accounting for geochemical evolution of cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the data selection strategy and the selected sorption values on cement for twenty-five elements (Ag, Am, Be, C, Ca, Cl, Cs, H, I, Mo, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Pu, Ra, Sr, Se, Sn, Tc, Th, U, Zr) that need to be considered in safety assessment calculations for the future near-surface disposal facility at Dessel, Belgium. Mainly on the basis of literature data, best estimate sorption values in addition to upper and lower bound values were determined for a so-called benchmark cement - the unperturbed cement without effects of organics, high chloride content or other chemical components that might adversely impact radionuclide sorption. Effects of perturbing components are discussed separately. The geochemical evolution of the cementitious engineered barriers was also addressed to clarify the conditions under which sorption values are applicable. A substantial part of the scientific basis supporting the data selection was established at several meetings of an International Panel of Experts who reviewed and endorsed the data selection. To this end, the sorption data were checked for: reliability, appropriateness for the conditions expected for the Dessel disposal facility, data quality, time frames (i.e. states of cement degradation), heterogeneity (presence of components in conditioned wastes that could affect sorption) and completeness (in terms of mechanisms explaining the sorption processes). (authors)

  1. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect...

  2. Thermal/Heat Transfer Analysis Using a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) Enabled Computing Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project was to use GPU enabled computing to accelerate the analyses of heat transfer and thermal effects. Graphical processing unit (GPU)...

  3. Process-Hardened, Multi-Analyte Sensor for Characterizing Rocket Plum Constituents Under Test Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project aims to develop a process-hardened, simple and low cost multi-analyte sensor for detecting components of rocket engine plumes. The sensor will be...

  4. Clean Development Mechanism: Laterite as Supplementary Cementing Material (SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zaighum Abbass

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 a major Green House Gas (GHG in the atmosphere, is believed to be largely responsible for global climate change through industrial emissions. The level of CO2 concentration has exponentially increased from about 280 ppm at the start of the industrial revolution to about 380 ppm to date. Although Kyoto protocol has bound industrialized nations to reduce green house gas emissions by 5.2% below 1990 levels around year 2008-2012, but violation continues. The cement industry is one of the major emitter of green house gases, particularly CO2 due to its energy intensive production process. It is estimated that approximately 1 tone of CO2 is released during the manufacturing of each tone of Portland cement. Most of CO2 emissions originate from burning fossil fuels and de-carbonization of limestone in a cement plant. During past several decades, the use of by-product materials in concrete, either as components of blended cements or as admixtures, has increased significantly. In this study, another alternate Supplementary Cementing Material (SCM, Laterite has been used with the objectives: to evaluate the performance of cement containing different percentages of laterite (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 %; to identify the optimum replacement percentage; and to investigate the effects of different concentrations of laterite on various properties of cement. For that purpose, laterite was tested: before blending (for elemental and mineralogical composition by using XRF, SEM and XRD: after blending (Elemental analysis using XRF, fineness test by using Blaine’s air permeability test and for particle size % on 45, 90 and 200 µ sieve, respectively; and after hydration (for mineralogical analysis using SEM. Furthermore, physical tests of manufactured cement, i.e., water consistency, setting time, Le-Chatlier-expansion and compressive strength were also evaluated and compared with limestone and fly-ash cement blends. The results show that with the

  5. West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied.

  6. The Hydration of Blended Cement at Low W/B Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shu-guang; LU Lin-nu; HE Yong-jia; LI Yue; DING Qing-jun

    2003-01-01

    The hydration process, hydration product and hydration heat of blended cement paste mixed with mineral admixture and expansive agent at low W/B ratio are studied by XRD , thermo analysis , and calorimetry instrument, and they were compared with those of pure cement paste. The results show that pure cement and blended cement at low W/B ratio have the same types of hydration products, but their respective amounts of hydration products of various blended cements at same ages and the vatiation law of the amount of same hydration products with ages are different; Tim joint effect of tumefaction of gel-ettringite due to water absorption and the expansive pressure on the pore and riff caused by the crystalloid ettringite is the impetus of the volume expansion of cement paste , and the former effect is much greater than the latter one .

  7. An ERC Starting Grant project on p-process nucleosynthesis concluded

    CERN Document Server

    Gyürky, Gy; Szücs, T; Kiss, G G; Fülöp, Zs

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 a Starting Grant project supported by the European Research Council titled "Nuclear reaction studies relevant to the astrophysical p-process nucleosynthesis" was launched. After five years of successful research related to the experimental investigation of proton- and alpha-induced nuclear reaction for the astrophysical p-process, the project came to an end. In this paper a summary of the research and the most important achievements is given.

  8. Accelerator Production of Tritium project process waste assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1995-09-01

    DOE has made a commitment to compliance with all applicable environmental regulatory requirements. In this respect, it is important to consider and design all tritium supply alternatives so that they can comply with these requirements. The management of waste is an integral part of this activity and it is therefore necessary to estimate the quantities and specific wastes that will be generated by all tritium supply alternatives. A thorough assessment of waste streams includes waste characterization, quantification, and the identification of treatment and disposal options. The waste assessment for APT has been covered in two reports. The first report was a process waste assessment (PWA) that identified and quantified waste streams associated with both target designs and fulfilled the requirements of APT Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Item 5.5.2.1. This second report is an expanded version of the first that includes all of the data of the first report, plus an assessment of treatment and disposal options for each waste stream identified in the initial report. The latter information was initially planned to be issued as a separate Waste Treatment and Disposal Options Assessment Report (WBS Item 5.5.2.2).

  9. Accelerator Production of Tritium project process waste assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE has made a commitment to compliance with all applicable environmental regulatory requirements. In this respect, it is important to consider and design all tritium supply alternatives so that they can comply with these requirements. The management of waste is an integral part of this activity and it is therefore necessary to estimate the quantities and specific wastes that will be generated by all tritium supply alternatives. A thorough assessment of waste streams includes waste characterization, quantification, and the identification of treatment and disposal options. The waste assessment for APT has been covered in two reports. The first report was a process waste assessment (PWA) that identified and quantified waste streams associated with both target designs and fulfilled the requirements of APT Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Item 5.5.2.1. This second report is an expanded version of the first that includes all of the data of the first report, plus an assessment of treatment and disposal options for each waste stream identified in the initial report. The latter information was initially planned to be issued as a separate Waste Treatment and Disposal Options Assessment Report (WBS Item 5.5.2.2)

  10. Cementing porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadachkoria, D

    2009-12-01

    The clinical success of fixed prosthodontic restorations can be complex and involve multifaceted procedures. Preparation design, oral hygiene/micro flora, mechanical forces, and restorative materials are only a few of the factors which contribute to overall success. One key factor to success is choosing the proper cement. Popular use of cements for PFM crowns has shifted from zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements to resin-reinforced glass ionomer, or RRGI, cements. This change has been rapid and profound. Dental cements have always been less than ideal materials, but this is shift to the relatively new RRGI category justified. Resin-reinforced glass ionomer (RRGI) cements appear to be better than zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements when placing porcelain-to-metal crowns. RRGI cements, such as RelyX Luting, Fuji Plus and Vitremer Luting Cement, satisfy more of the ideal characteristics of PFM cementation than any other previous cement. Expansion of all three cements has not caused any apparent problems with the cements when used with PFM or metal crowns, but these cements, however, should be avoided when cementing all-ceramic crowns. PMID:20090144

  11. Influence of electrified surface of cementitious materials on structure formation of hardened cement paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, A.; Gusakov, A.

    2015-01-01

    To provide high strength and durability of concrete it is necessary to study the influence of physical and chemical and mechanical principles of dispersed cementitious systems. The experimental bench was developed to study the influence of electrified surface of cementitious materials on structure formation of hardened cement paste. The test bench allows accelerating the processes of dissolution of cementing materials in water due to influence of electric discharge on their surface. Cement activation with high-voltage corona discharge when AC current is applied allows increasing the ultimate compressive strength of hardened cement paste by 46% at the age of one day and by 20% at the age of 28 days.

  12. INFLUENCE OF THE CEMENT TYPE ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MINERAL FOAM APPLICABLE IN FOAMED CERAMIC TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolev Evgeniy Valer'evich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the influence of the type of Portland cement, as well as the nature and concentration of additives that represent electrolytes and polymers, onto the foam stability. The project is implemented within the framework of the research of foamed ceramic. Detailed explanation of the influence pattern is provided. The research performed by the authors has generated the following findings. Besides the rheological properties of the solution, chemical interaction between the mix components must be taken into account in the course of development of the best foamed ceramic mix composition, as chemical processes produce a substantial influence onto the foam stability. Polymer additives based on liquid carbamyde-formaldehyde and polyacrylamide substantially improve the quality of the foam mineralized by the particles of the cement binder. They also assure the foam stability rate sufficient for the formation of a high-quality foamed material.

  13. IMPACTS OF CEMENT DUST ON ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH: A SOCIOLOLOGICAL INQUIRY

    OpenAIRE

    Kshemaling S. Bhaskar; Sujata Mahadevappa

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to impacts of cement dust on environment and human health : a sociological inquiry. Effect of cement dust on chlorophyll was studied, mining projects often underestimate the potential health risks of mining projects. Hazardous substances and wastes in water, air, and soil can have serious, negative impacts on public health. The term ‘hazardous substances’is broad and includes all substances that can be harmful to people and/or the environm...

  14. Process, cost modeling and simulations for integrated project development of biomass for fuel and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the models for biomass project development are described. These models, first constructed using QPRO electronic spread sheet for Windows, are now being developed with the aid of visual and object oriented program as tools using DELPHI V.1 for windows and process simulator SUPERPRO, V.2.7 Intelligent Inc. These models render the process development problems with economic objectives to be solved very rapidly. The preliminary analysis of cost and investments of biomass utilisation projects which are included for this study are: steam, ammonia, carbon dioxide and alkali pretreatment process, methane gas production using anaerobic digestion process, aerobic composting, ethanol fermentation and distillation, effluent treatments using high rate algae production as well as cogeneration of energy for drying. The main project under developments are the biomass valuation projects with the elephant (Napier) grass, sugar cane bagasse and microalgae, using models for mass balance, equipment and production cost. The sensibility analyses are carried out to account for stochastic variation of the process yield, production volume, price variations, using Monte Carlo method. These models allow the identification of economical and scale up problems of the technology. The results obtained with few preliminary project development with few case studies are reported for integrated project development for fuel and protein using process and cost simulation models. (author)

  15. Sliding wear of cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemented carbides are known to be very hard and wear resistant and are therefor often used in applications involving surface damage and wear. The wear rate of cemented carbides is often measured in abrasion. In such tests it has been shown that the wear rate is inversely dependent on the material hardness. The sliding wear is even more of a surface phenomenon than a abrasion, making it difficult to predict friction and wear from bulk properties. This paper concentrates on the sliding wear of cemented carbides and elucidates some wear mechanisms. It is especially shown that a fragmenting wear mechanism of WC is very important for the description of wear of cemented carbides. (author)

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF CO2 ON WELL CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage is one way to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Underground gas storage operations and CO2 sequestration in aquifers relay on both the proper wellbore construction and sealing properties of the cap rock. CO2 injection candidates may be new wells or old wells. In both cases, the long-term wellbore integrity (up to 1 000 years is one of the key performance criteria in the geological storage of CO2. The potential leakage paths are the migration CO2 along the wellbore due to poor cementation and flow through the cap rock. The permeability and integrity of the set cement will determine how effective it is in preventing the leakage. The integrity of the cap rock is assured by an adequate fracture gradient and by sufficient set cement around the casing across the cap rock and without a micro-annulus. CO2 storage in underground formations has revived the researc of long term influence of the injected CO2 on Portland cements and methods for improving the long term efficiency of the wellbore sealant. Some researchers predicted that set cement will fail when exposed to CO2 leading to potential leakage to the atmosphere or into underground formations that may contain potable water. Other researchers show set cement samples from 30 to 50 year-old wells (CO2 EOR projects that have maintained sealing integrity and prevented CO2 leakage, in spite of some degree of carbonation. One of reasons for the discrepancy between certain research lab tests and actual field performance measurements is the absence of standard protocol for CO2 resistance-testing devices, conditions, or procedures. This paper presents potential flow paths along the wellbore, CO2 behaviour under reservoir conditions, and geochemical alteration of hydrated Portland cement due to supercritical CO2 injection.

  17. Cement encapsulation of uranyl nitrate waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During decontamination of the former nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at West Valley, New York, low-level radioactive waste streams are being identified which require disposal in an environmentally acceptable manner. One such waste stream, consisting essentially of uranyl nitrate, has been located in one of the processing cells. A study was conducted on this waste stream to determine if it could be stably encapsulated in cement. First, a recipe was developed for cement-encapsulating this highly acidic waste. Samples were then made to perform waste qualification testing as described in the NRC Branch Technical Position-Waste Form to determine the stability of this waste form. The testing showed that the waste form had a compressive strength much greater than the 345 kPA (50 psi) minimum guideline after room-temperature cure, irradiation, thermal cycling, immersion, and biodegradation. In addition, the encapsulated waste had uranium and cerium leachability index values greater than six, which is the minimum recommended by the NRC position paper. The cement-encapsulated uranyl nitrate waste thus met the NRC stability guidelines for the disposal of Class B and Class C radioactive wastes

  18. A novel cement-based hybrid material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are known to possess exceptional tensile strength, elastic modulus and electrical and thermal conductivity. They are promising candidates for the next-generation high-performance structural and multi-functional composite materials. However, one of the largest obstacles to creating strong, electrically or thermally conductive CNT/CNF composites is the difficulty of getting a good dispersion of the carbon nanomaterials in a matrix. Typically, time-consuming steps of purification and functionalization of the carbon nanomaterial are required. We propose a new approach to grow CNTs/CNFs directly on the surface of matrix particles. As the matrix we selected cement, the most important construction material. We synthesized in a simple one-step process a novel cement hybrid material (CHM), wherein CNTs and CNFs are attached to the cement particles. The CHM has been proven to increase 2 times the compressive strength and 40 times the electrical conductivity of the hardened paste, i.e. concrete without sand.

  19. A Genetic Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process Based Projection Pursuit Method for Selecting Schemes of Water Transportation Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Juliang; LI Lei; WANG Wensheng; ZHANG Ming

    2006-01-01

    The optimal selection of schemes of water transportation projects is a process of choosing a relatively optimal scheme from a number of schemes of water transportation programming and management projects, which is of importance in both theory and practice in water resource systems engineering. In order to achieve consistency and eliminate the dimensions of fuzzy qualitative and fuzzy quantitative evaluation indexes, to determine the weights of the indexes objectively, and to increase the differences among the comprehensive evaluation index values of water transportation project schemes, a projection pursuit method, named FPRM-PP for short, was developed in this work for selecting the optimal water transportation project scheme based on the fuzzy preference relation matrix. The research results show that FPRM-PP is intuitive and practical, the correction range of the fuzzy preference relation matrix A it produces is relatively small, and the result obtained is both stable and accurate; therefore FPRM-PP can be widely used in the optimal selection of different multi-factor decision-making schemes.

  20. Guide to the small power project review process in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A guide is provided to assist proponents of small power projects through the review process for small hydro and thermal electricity generation projects. The process applies to all projects which generate less than 20 MW of power for sale, and all projects which generate between 500 kW and 20 MW of power for the producer's own use. The guide consists of three sections which cover the purpose, the procedures, and the requirements of the review process. Four appendices provide guidance on screening a project for potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts, provincial and federal government agencies that may be consulted, public consultation and other provincial approvals which may be applicable to energy projects. Main areas of concern that have been documented for previous reviews include, for hydro projects, fish and fish habitats, water quality, quantity and flow regime, transmission line and access road routing, wildlife and wildife habitat, native resource use, archaeological sites, resource and land use conflict, environmental hazards (seismic), and downstream and transboundary effects. For thermal projects concerns include air pollutants, ambient air quality, waste disposal, water use, transmission line and access road routing, archaeological sites, and land use conflicts

  1. Resistance Factors in the Implementation of Software Process Improvement Project in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd H.N.M. Nasir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past two decades, improving the quality of software has become an important agenda in the software industries as they have been assessed according to standards such as the CMM, CMM-I, ISO 9000 SIX-SIGMA and etc. As the result, software process improvement project implementations have been the main targets by most software companies. However, many initiatives are facing variety of problems and difficulties due to lack of guidance and experience. Hence, this research attempted to identify and analyze main resistance factors which influenced the implementation of the software process improvement project specifically companies operated in Malaysia including local and multi-national companies. The findings helped other software companies to manage future projects through the use of preventive actions or proper planning which intended to lessen anticipated problems during software process improvement projects implementation. This research used a survey instrument to gather data from 29 companies operated across Malaysia with the total of 174 business and software professionals responded. Average of 4 to 8 questionnaires were distributed to each company with the objective of getting wider views on each SPI project. The questionnaires were mainly distributed to professionals who are directly involved in SPI projects. The results showed that the most critical resistance factor is lack of adhesion and participation of the entire individual involved in SPI projects. This result is similar with the result gained by Brietzke and Rabello which they have conducted it in Brazil and corroborated the research findings experience in SPI project.

  2. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fuqiu , Zhou; Huawen, Xiong; Xuemin, Zeng; Lan, Wang

    2008-07-30

    The Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool (BEST) Cement is a process-based tool based on commercially available efficiency technologies used anywhere in the world applicable to the cement industry. This version has been designed for use in China. No actual cement facility with every single efficiency measure included in the benchmark will likely exist; however, the benchmark sets a reasonable standard by which to compare for plants striving to be the best. The energy consumption of the benchmark facility differs due to differences in processing at a given cement facility. The tool accounts for most of these variables and allows the user to adapt the model to operational variables specific for his/her cement facility. Figure 1 shows the boundaries included in a plant modeled by BEST Cement. In order to model the benchmark, i.e., the most energy efficient cement facility, so that it represents a facility similar to the user's cement facility, the user is first required to input production variables in the input sheet (see Section 6 for more information on how to input variables). These variables allow the tool to estimate a benchmark facility that is similar to the user's cement plant, giving a better picture of the potential for that particular facility, rather than benchmarking against a generic one. The input variables required include the following: (1) the amount of raw materials used in tonnes per year (limestone, gypsum, clay minerals, iron ore, blast furnace slag, fly ash, slag from other industries, natural pozzolans, limestone powder (used post-clinker stage), municipal wastes and others); the amount of raw materials that are preblended (prehomogenized and proportioned) and crushed (in tonnes per year); (2) the amount of additives that are dried and ground (in tonnes per year); (3) the production of clinker (in tonnes per year) from each kiln by kiln type; (4) the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker that is ground by mill type (in tonnes per

  3. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Eštoková; Lenka Palaščáková

    2013-01-01

    The radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radiological parameters (radium equivalent activity, gamma and alpha indices, the absorbed gamma dose rate and external and internal hazard indices) of cements and cement composites commonly used in the Slovak Republic have been studied in this paper. The cement samples of 8 types of cements from Slovak cement plants and five types of composites made from cement type CEM I were analyzed in the experiment. The radionuclide activities in t...

  4. Assessment of the compatibility of wood and plastic with cement for their recycling in cement composites

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, André De; Caldeira, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The compatibility between maritime pine wood and cement, and between plastic (LDPE) and cement, was assessed for the recycling of wood and plastic in cement composites. Temperature vs. time profiles of cement setting were registered and compatibility indices were calculated. Results indicate that recycling of plastics in plastic-cement composites does not pose any questions regarding chemical compatibility. However, maritime pine hinders cement setting in some extent. So, in or...

  5. Providing a framework to improve the performance of business process management projects based on BPMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of business processes, based on Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN, helps analysts and managers to understand business processes, and, identify their shortages. These models provide a context to make rational decision of organizing business processes activities in an understandable manner. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for better understanding of business processes and their problems by reducing the cognitive load of displayed information for their audience at different managerial levels while keeping the essential information which are needed by them. For this reason, we integrate business process diagrams across the different managerial levels to develop a framework to improve the performance of business process management (BPM projects. This framework, which is referred to as “Business Process Improvement Framework Based on Managerial Levels (BPIML” in this paper, considers three levels of management (Organizational level managers, Process /Departmental level managers and Activity level managers for manager of an organization. Then, defines certain types of models based on BPMN, for each management level, by taking into the account the objectives and tasks of various managerial levels in organizations and their role in Business Process Management (BPM projects. This framework will make us able to provide the necessary support for making decisions about business processes. The framework is evaluated with a case study in a real business process improvement project, to demonstrate its superiority over the conventional method. A questionnaire consisted of 10 questions using Likert scale was designed and given to the participants (three managerial levels. The results of this questionnaire suggested that, managers and senior experts of the organization considered utilization of the proposed framework improving for implementation of BPM projects and provide support for correct and timely decisions by

  6. Radionuclide and metal sorption on cement and concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Ochs, Michael; Wang, Lian

    2016-01-01

    Cementitious materials are being widely used as solidification/stabilisation and barrier materials for a variety of chemical and radioactive wastes, primarily due to their favourable retention properties for metals, radionuclides and other contaminants. The retention properties result from various mineral phases in hydrated cement that possess a high density and diversity of reactive sites for the fixation of contaminants through a variety of sorption and incorporation reactions. This book presents a state of the art review and critical evaluation of the type and magnitude of the various sorption and incorporation processes in hydrated cement systems for twenty-five elements relevant for a broad range of radioactive and industrial wastes. Effects of cement evolution or ageing on sorption/incorporation processes are explicitly evaluated and quantified. While the immobilisation of contaminants by mixing-in during hydration is not explicitly addressed, the underlying chemical processes are similar. A quantitativ...

  7. Solidification of radioactive wastes with cement (A literature study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is structured according to thematic point of views. Emphasis was laid on a precise description of the behaviour of cement used for the solidification of radioactive waste. By utilizing different additives, processing as well as properties like leaching mechanical strength etc. can be improved. In the same way these properties can be positively influenced by various solidification processes and hardening conditions. Chapter 4 discusses the most common kinds of wastes (ion exchange resins, concentrates, solutions etc.). Cement additives and mixtures as well as processing have to be adapted according to the kind of waste to be solidified. In the last chapter activities in different countries in the field of cementation of radioactive wastes are reviewed. (author)

  8. Software Process Models and Analysis on Failure of Software Development Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Rupinder; Sengupta, Jyotsna

    2013-01-01

    The software process model consists of a set of activities undertaken to design, develop and maintain software systems. A variety of software process models have been designed to structure, describe and prescribe the software development process. The software process models play a very important role in software development, so it forms the core of the software product. Software project failure is often devastating to an organization. Schedule slips, buggy releases and missing features can me...

  9. Energy efficiency enhancement in cement factories using expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : In this paper, expert system for energy efficiency in cement industry is presented. Due to the fact that cement manufacturing project in these factories are similar, so in main parts knowing the consumption origins and save potential and existing approaches can be similar. In this method, via expert system software of prolog AH types of energy consumption and investment costs are listed in which method of best first search and innovative search have been used and by forming knowledge base, targeting to get best approaches is presented. The obtained results, regarding the executed limits, will be displayed in the output of program and this program can be given the best decision about energy management in cement factories

  10. Utilization of gold tailings as an additive in Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ozlem; Elbeyli, Iffet Yakar; Piskin, Sabriye

    2006-06-01

    Mine tailings are formed as an industrial waste during coal and ore mining and processing. In the investigated process, following the extraction of gold from the ore, the remaining tailings are subjected to a two-stage chemical treatment in order to destroy the free cyanide and to stabilize and coagulate heavy metals prior to discharge into the tailings pond. The aim of this study was the investigation of the feasibility of utilization of the tailings as an additive material in Portland cement production. For this purpose, the effects of the tailings on the compressive strength properties of the ordinary Portland cement were investigated. Chemical and physical properties, mineralogical composition, particle size distribution and microstructure of the tailings were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), particle size analyzer (Mastersizer) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Following the characterization of the tailings, cement mortars were prepared by intergrinding Portland cement with dried tailings. Composition of the cement clinkers were adjusted to contain 5, 15, 25% (wt/wt) dried tailings and also silica fume and fly ash samples (C and F type) were added to clinker in different ratios. The mortars produced with different amounts of tailings, silica fume, fly ashes and also mixtures of them were tested for compressive strength values after 2, 7, 28 and 56 days according to the European Standard (EN 196-1). The results indicated that gold tailings up to 25% in clinker could be beneficially used as an additive in Portland cement production. It is suggested that the gold tailings used in the cement are blended with silica fume and C-type fly ash to obtain higher compressive strength values. PMID:16784164

  11. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  12. Study of the relation between hydrated portland cement composition and leaching resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van R.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The present paper addresses cement compositions that have an optimal resistance against acid attack and hence, low leaching rates and optimal waste containment. To this end a shrinking core leaching model is used that describes the leaching of metals from a cement sample. This process is directly re

  13. Decision Process Analysis on Project Priority Strategy: A Case Study of an ICT Design Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent F. Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Project priority strategy is the benchmarking of a corporate operation management strategy and in particular is used by a projects-based research and development firm in the complex competence environment of the information and communication technology (ICT industry. This research takes the variables of external environments and internal resources into account for a firm’s market, technology, and finance assets in order to present a decision process on a project priority strategy. This empirical study also addresses the key factors of the interaction between business on a project development’s supply chain: clients, the examined firm, and suppliers. The findings indicate that a profit-driven project can dominate the firm’s strategic operations and management from the resource-based view and analytic hierarchy process technique perspectives. At the same time, the analysis results contribute significant values to project decision management, which is highly recommended for small-medium enterprises conducting product/project development, project portfolio management, and strategic business management.

  14. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Introduction to Statistical Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Paul H.

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 6-hour introductory module on statistical process control (SPC), designed to develop competencies in the following skill areas: (1) identification of the three classes of SPC use; (2) understanding a process and how it works; (3)…

  15. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  16. The PHARUS Project; Real Time Digital Processing of Airborne Polarimetric Radar Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, H.; Hoogeboom, P.; Koomen, P.J.; Snoeij, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Dutch PHARUS project aims for the developrlenÈ of a polarimetric C-band aircraft SAR, to be finalized in 1994. The PHARUS systen consists of three subsystens: the radar, the subsystem for the onboard data processing and recording and the ground-based subsystem for SAR processing. PHARUS is a ver

  17. The Impact of Project Work and the Writing Process Method on Writing Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Díaz Ramírez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the outcomes of an investigation whose main goal was to implement the methodology of project work and a process approach in order to improve writing production in an English class of Colombian university students since their diagnostic tests showed that their written production had the lowest score. Based on data collected, four factors were developed in the process of learning to write when project work and the writing process method are implemented: accuracy, fluency, integrative language skills, and a positive perception towards writing.

  18. Accelerated carbonation of Friedel's salt in calcium aluminate cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of Friedel's salt with respect to carbonation has been studied in calcium aluminate cement (CAC) pastes containing NaCl (3% of Cl- by weight of cement). Carbonation was carried out on a powdered sample in flowing 5% CO2 gas at 65% relative humidity to accelerate the process. At an intermediate carbonation step, a part of the sample was washed and dried up to 10 cycles to simulate a dynamic leaching attack. The two processes were followed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), pH and Cl- analyses in the simulated pore solution

  19. The Basalt Waste Isolation Project technical program evaluation process: A criteria-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to objectively evaluate the progress being made by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) toward establishing the feasibility of siting a nuclear waste repository in basalt (NWRB) mandates a process for evaluating the technical work of the project. To assist BWIP management in the evaluation process, the Systems Department staff has developed a BWIP Technical Program Evaluation Process (TPEP). The basic process relates progress on project technical work to the BWIP Functional and System Performance Criteria as defined in National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Criteria Documents. The benefits of the TPEP to BWIP and future plans for TPEP are discussed. During fiscal year (FY) 1982, TPEP will be further formalized and further applied to the review of BWIP technical activities

  20. The effect of cement creep and cement fatigue damage on the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A; Verdonschot, Nico

    2010-11-16

    The cement-bone interface provides fixation for the cement mantle within the bone. The cement-bone interface is affected by fatigue loading in terms of fatigue damage or microcracks and creep, both mostly in the cement. This study investigates how fatigue damage and cement creep separately affect the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface at various load levels in terms of plastic displacement and crack formation. Two FEA models were created, which were based on micro-computed tomography data of two physical cement-bone interface specimens. These models were subjected to tensile fatigue loads with four different magnitudes. Three deformation modes of the cement were considered: 'only creep', 'only damage' or 'creep and damage'. The interfacial plastic deformation, the crack reduction as a result of creep and the interfacial stresses in the bone were monitored. The results demonstrate that, although some models failed early, the majority of plastic displacement was caused by fatigue damage, rather than cement creep. However, cement creep does decrease the crack formation in the cement up to 20%. Finally, while cement creep hardly influences the stress levels in the bone, fatigue damage of the cement considerably increases the stress levels in the bone. We conclude that at low load levels the plastic displacement is mainly caused by creep. At moderate to high load levels, however, the plastic displacement is dominated by fatigue damage and is hardly affected by creep, although creep reduced the number of cracks in moderate to high load region. PMID:20692663