WorldWideScience

Sample records for cellulosics final research

  1. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N. [and others

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  2. Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose properties and structure are reviewed, with a primary focus on crystal structure and polymorphy. This focus highlights the conversion from cellulose I to cellulose II, which converts the molecules to being all parallel to each other in the crystal to being antiparallel. This has been co...

  3. Overcoming the Recalcitrance of Cellulosic Biomass by Value Prior to Pulping: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-221

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) project goal was to demonstrate the technical and commercial feasibility of introducing a new value stream into existing pulp and paper mills. Essentially the intent was to transfer the energy content of extracted hemicellulose from electricity and steam generated in the recovery boiler to a liquid transportation fuel. The hemicellulose fraction was extracted prior to pulping, fractionated, or conditioned if necessary, and fermented to ethanol. Commercial adaptation of the process to wood hemicelluloses was a prerequisite for using this less currently valued component available from biomass and wood. These hemicelluloses are predominately glucurono-xylan in hardwoods and galactoglucomannan in softwoods (with a significant softwood component of an arabino-xylan) and will yield fermentation substrates different from cellulose. NREL provided its expertise in the area of fermentation host evaluation using its Zymomonas strains on the CleanTech Partner's (CTP) VPP project. The project was focused on the production of fuel ethanol and acetic acid from hemicellulose streams generated from wood chips of industrially important hardwood and softwood species. NREL was one of four partners whose ethanologen was tested on the hydrolyzed extracts. The use of commercially available enzymes to treat oligomeric sugar extracts was also investigated and coupled with fermentation. Fermentations by NREL were conducted with the Zymomonas mobilis organism with most of the work being performed with the 8b strain. The wood extracts hydrolyzed and/or fermented by NREL were those derived from maple, mixed southern hardwoods, and loblolly pine. An unhydrolyzed variant of the mixed southern hardwood extract possessed a large concentration of oligomeric sugars and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed with a number of enzymes, followed by fermentation. The fermentation of the wood extracts was carried out at bench scale in flasks or small bioreactors, with a

  4. Development of efficient, integrated cellulosic biorefineries : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Hecht, Ethan S.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Buffleben, George M.; Dibble, Dean C.; Lutz, Andrew E.

    2010-09-01

    Cellulosic ethanol, generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources such as grasses and trees, is a promising alternative to conventional starch- and sugar-based ethanol production in terms of potential production quantities, CO{sub 2} impact, and economic competitiveness. In addition, cellulosic ethanol can be generated (at least in principle) without competing with food production. However, approximately 1/3 of the lignocellulosic biomass material (including all of the lignin) cannot be converted to ethanol through biochemical means and must be extracted at some point in the biochemical process. In this project we gathered basic information on the prospects for utilizing this lignin residue material in thermochemical conversion processes to improve the overall energy efficiency or liquid fuel production capacity of cellulosic biorefineries. Two existing pretreatment approaches, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) and the Arkenol (strong sulfuric acid) process, were implemented at Sandia and used to generated suitable quantities of residue material from corn stover and eucalyptus feedstocks for subsequent thermochemical research. A third, novel technique, using ionic liquids (IL) was investigated by Sandia researchers at the Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI), but was not successful in isolating sufficient lignin residue. Additional residue material for thermochemical research was supplied from the dilute-acid simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) pilot-scale process at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The high-temperature volatiles yields of the different residues were measured, as were the char combustion reactivities. The residue chars showed slightly lower reactivity than raw biomass char, except for the SSF residue, which had substantially lower reactivity. Exergy analysis was applied to the NREL standard process design model for thermochemical ethanol production and from a prototypical dedicated biochemical process, with process data

  5. Review: current international research into cellulose nanofibres and nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorn, S. J.; Dufresne, A; Aranguren, M.; Marcovich, N. E.; Capadona, J R; Rowan, S. J.; Weder, Christoph; Thielemans, W.; Roman, M.; Renneckar, S.; Gindl, W.; Veigel, S.; Keckes, J.; Yano, H.; Abe, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent progress made in the area of cellulose nanofibre-based nanocomposites. An introduction into the methods used to isolate cellulose nanofibres (nanowhiskers, nanofibrils) is given, with details of their structure. Following this, the article is split into sections dealing with processing and characterisation of cellulose nanocomposites and new developments in the area, with particular emphasis on applications. The types of cellulose nanofibres covered a...

  6. 2016 Research Final Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskelo, EliseAnne Corinne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-16

    These are slides which show an example of research at Los Alamos National Laboratory done by E.C. Koskelo to show college professors in the hopes of earning a research position or fellowship position. In summary, this researcher developed a new in-situ technique for the inspection of additively manufactured parts, created an algorithm which can correct "skewed" scans of angular parts/taken at oblique angles, and used AWS to detect hidden defects and thickness changes in aerospace composites.

  7. Preliminary Research on Structure and Properties of Nano-cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The structure of bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Acetobacter xylinum NUST4 (A.xylinum NUST4) under static (SBC) and shake culture condition (ABC) was studied by means of transmission electron microscopic (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform-infrared spectrum (FT-IR). It was revealed that BC is Ⅰ crystal cellulose and the proportion of cellulose Ⅰα exceeds 80% and BC diameter is 10-80 nm.Mechanical properties and water absorption capacity were also determined. These properties could result from crystalline and nanometer structure of BC.

  8. Wet oxidative degradation of cellulosic wastes 5- chemical and thermal properties of the final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the residual solution arising from the wet oxidative degradation of solid organic cellulosic materials, as one of the component of radioactive solid wastes, using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Were incorporated into ordinary Portland cement matrix. Leaching as well as thermal characterizations of the final solidified waste forms were evaluated to meet the final disposal requirements. Factors, such as the amount of the residual solution incorporated, types of leachant. Release of different radionuclides and freezing-thaw treatment, that may affect the leaching characterization. Were studied systematically from the data obtained, it was found that the final solid waste from containing 35% residual solution in tap water is higher than that in ground water or sea water. Based on the data obtained from thermal analysis, it could be concluded that incorporating the residual solution form the wet oxidative degradation of cellulosic materials has no negative effect on the hydration of cement materials and consequently on the thermal stability of the final solid waste from during the disposal process

  9. Research and Application of Bacterial Cellulose%细菌纤维素的研究及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾士儒; 刘淼; 薄涛

    2013-01-01

    As a novel nanomaterial ,bacterial cellulose ( BC ) has attracted more attention due to its high quality in mechanical strength ,biocompatibility and biodegradability .This paper introduces the domestic and international researches on the metabolism and biosynthesis mechanism of bacterial cellulose . Meanwhile ,the applications of bacterial cellulose in food ,paper making and biomedical materials etc .were presented.Finally, the furture research trends and application prospects of bacterial cellulose were discussed .%细菌纤维素作为新型纳米材料,具有极好的物理特性、生物相容性和生物可降解性等。本文介绍了国内外目前对细菌纤维素代谢及生物合成机制的研究现状,及细菌纤维素在食品、造纸和医学等领域的应用。并展望了细菌纤维素未来的研究趋势与应用前景。

  10. Basic Energy Research. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a research programme that covered the need for long-term basic research in Norway within the main fields of new renewable energy sources and hydroelectric power. For the hydropower part, emphasis was placed on the environmental consequences and several projects have been done, with different approaches. Other aspects of hydropower have also been supported, such as dam safety and flow in water paths connected to turbines. Within the field of renewable energies, priority was given to solar energy and bio energy. Research on hydrogen as an energy carrier has also been supported; the programme mainly targeted universities and the research institutes, and the education of PhD's has been a priority. The programme was funded through the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and the budget was 33 million NOK for the period 1997 - 2000

  11. Preliminary Research on Cr(Ⅵ) Removal by Bacterial Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Min; XU Ying; GUAN Xiaohui; WEI Dezhou

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial cellulose prepared by ourselves was used in the adsorption of Cr(Ⅵ).The effects of performance parameters such as adsorption time,pH,the adsorbent dosage on Cr(Ⅵ) were investigated.Results showed that pH was a very important parameter to the adsorbed efficiency.Removal rate of Cr(Ⅵ)approached to 15% under the condition of pH 1.5,adsorbent dosage 1.0 g-L-1 and co(initial concentration of Cr)50 mg·L-1.The saturated monolayer adsorption quantity was 5.13 mg/g dry BC.The adsorption rate could be well fitted by pseudo-second rate model,adsorption isotherm could be described by Langmuir model,and they have good linear.Typical single-molecule layer adsorption of bacterial cellulose for Cr(Ⅵ) could be descripted and electrostatic force was one of the main sorption mechanisms.HCl can desorb the Cr(Ⅵ) from the adsorbent effectively.

  12. Develop and Demonstrate the Cellulose to Ethanol Process: Executive Summary of the Final Technical Report, 17 September 1980 - 17 March 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emert, George H.; Becker, Dana K.; Bevernitz, Kurt J.; Gracheck, Stephen J.; Kienholz, Eldon W.; Rivers, Dougals B.; Zoldak, Bernadette R.; Woodford, Lindley C.

    1982-01-01

    The Biomass Research Center at the University of Arkansas was contracted by the Solar Energy Research Institute to 'Develop and Demonstrate the Cellulose to Ethanol Process.' The purpose of the contract was to accelerate site selection, site specific engineering, and research and development leading to the determination of the feasibility of economically operating a cellulose to ethanol commercial scale plant.

  13. Basic petroleum research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of projects in the field of basic petroleum research (PetroForsk) is presented. A brief presentation of some of the projects is included, as well as political comments on the value of these projects. The research program Basic Petroleum Research (PetroForsk) was established in 1998 and ended in 2004. The program has been part of the Research Council of Norway's long-term effort in petroleum research (ml)

  14. Research symposium proceedings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    THE research symposium was organized to present the cutting edge research for PET by individuals from leading institutions throughout the world. The Institute for Clinical PET (ICP) has focused its annual meeting on the clinical applications of PET.

  15. Photovoltaic research opportunities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macaleer, B.; Bowers, J.; Hurlburt, B.

    1985-11-19

    The purpose of this study is to identify opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) research projects to capitalize on related but non-PV research. The study is performed under the assumption that a considerable body of ongoing semiconductor research in non-PV areas could be of value to its PV Program and the PV community in general. Research related to III-V compounds, thin films, and crystalline silicon materials is included. Research that is known to be PV-related or sponsored by DOE was excluded from consideration. The study resulted in 11 recommendations (research areas) and a subset of 58 specific research projects. In addition, over 75 non-PV research managers in the semiconductor field are identified as potential sources of ideas which could benefit photovoltaics.

  16. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Weatherwax, Sharlene [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2006-06-07

    The Biomass to Biofuels Workshop, held December 7–9, 2005, was convened by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science; and the Office of the Biomass Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The purpose was to define barriers and challenges to a rapid expansion of cellulosic-ethanol production and determine ways to speed solutions through concerted application of modern biology tools as part of a joint research agenda. Although the focus was ethanol, the science applies to additional fuels that include biodiesel and other bioproducts or coproducts having critical roles in any deployment scheme.

  17. Nuclear chemistry research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the mechanism by which a radioactive nucleus is produced from the interaction of a projectile with a complex nucleus in terms of the primary interaction of the projectile with a nucleon or cluster of nucleons is summarized. A list of major accomplishments and one of publications are included

  18. Assessing nano cellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanez, Douglas Henrique; Amaral, Roniberto Morato do; Faria, Leandro Innocentini Lopes de; Gregolin, Jose Angelo Rodrigues, E-mail: douglasmilanez@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Informacao Tecnologica em Materiais. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nano cellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nano cellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nano materials. Scientific and technological future developments in nano cellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nano cellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nano cellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nano cellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nano cellulose S and T advances in the coming years. (author)

  19. Assessing nano cellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nano cellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nano cellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nano materials. Scientific and technological future developments in nano cellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nano cellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nano cellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nano cellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nano cellulose S and T advances in the coming years. (author)

  20. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornetti, Micheal [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States); Freeman, Douglas [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States)

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  1. Research progress of production of bacterium cellulose%细菌纤维素的生产研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范兆乾

    2013-01-01

    The special structure, function, physical and chemical properties, and application prospect of bacterial cellulose ( BC ) is presented briefly. The research progress of bacterial cellulose production, production method and raw material strains are summarized.%介绍了细菌纤维素(BC)的特殊结构、功能、物理和化学性质以及应用前景.综述了目前细菌纤维素的生产菌种、生产方式及原料的研究进展.

  2. Final Report: Performance Engineering Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice University

    2014-10-27

    This document is a final report about the work performed for cooperative agreement DE-FC02-06ER25764, the Rice University effort of Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI). PERI was an Enabling Technologies Institute of the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-2) program supported by the Department of Energy's Office of Science Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program. The PERI effort at Rice University focused on (1) research and development of tools for measurement and analysis of application program performance, and (2) engagement with SciDAC-2 application teams.

  3. Progress of cellulose ethanol research & development%纤维素乙醇研究开发进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡徐腾

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose ethanol has become a priority of research with a bright future. It may become one of the most important renewable energy sources in the future. Cellulose ethanol research &development is reviewed, and the development history and the latest worldwide progress of cellulose ethanol research & development are summarized. The difficulties and problems in current cellulose ethanol commercialization are analyzed. The directions of research & development are presented.%纤维素乙醇是当今的研究热点,具有广阔的发展前景,将成为未来最重要的可再生能源之一.本文介绍了纤维素乙醇的研发概况,综述了国内外研究开发历程与最新进展,分析了目前纤维素乙醇燃料产业化存在的困难和问题,指出了当前和今后的研发方向.

  4. 83-inch cyclotron research program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June of 1960 the US Atomic Energy Commission authorized the construction of a modern variable energy cyclotron facility at The University of Michigan to be used for research in nuclear spectroscopy. The Legislature of the State of Michigan made available funds for construction of a building to house the 83-inch cyclotron and auxiliary equipment as well as the University's remodeled 42-inch cyclotron. The research program centered around the 83-inch cyclotron was funded by the AEC and its successors, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), from September 1964 through March 1977. The program represented a continuation of the research effort using the 42-inch cyclotron facility which had been supported continuously by the AEC since February 1950. This final report to DOE briefly describes the research facility, the research program, and highlights the principal accomplishments of the effort. It begins with a historical note to place this effort within the context of nuclear physics research in the Department of Physics of the University of Michigan

  5. Fulton Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumait, Necy [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Cuzens, John [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Klann, Richard [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    Final report on work performed by BlueFire on the deployment of acid hydrolysis technology to convert cellulosic waste materials into renewable fuels, power and chemicals in a production facility to be located in Fulton, Mississippi.

  6. 功能性再生纤维素复合膜的制备及性能研究进展%Research progress on preparation and properties of functional regenerated cellulose composite membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶晶; 王钱钱; 张超群; 孙建中

    2016-01-01

    纤维素是自然界中储量最大的天然高分子化合物,被认为是未来能源和化工的主要原料。然而,天然纤维素聚合度高、结晶度高的特性,使其难以溶于常规溶剂,极大限制了纤维素的应用。近年来,人们发现了多种新型纤维素溶剂体系,本文简要介绍了基于新型纤维素溶剂体系制备而来的再生纤维素膜以及一系列功能性再生纤维素基有机/无机复合膜材料。通过新型纤维素溶剂体系溶解再生得到的再生纤维素基复合膜在多孔性、热稳定性、强度等性能方面得到一定程度的改善,有望应用于包装、污水处理、传感器、生物医学等领域。本文基于再生纤维素膜及其复合膜材料的最新研究进展,对今后发展的热点方向进行了展望,旨在为纤维素溶解和功能性再生纤维素新材料的开发提供参考。%Cellulose, the most abundant natural renewable resources on the earth, has been considered as the main raw material for future energy and chemical industry. However, due to its high degree of polymerization and crystalline index, cellulose is extremely difficult to dissolve in conventional solvents, which greatly limits its application. More recently, many new cellulose solvents have been developed to overcome this problem. This paper briefly introduces a series of regenerated cellulose membranes and functional organic/inorganic regenerated cellulose composite membranes with these new cellulose solvents. It has been found that the properties of those cellulose composites, such as the porosity, thermal stability and mechanical properties are significantly improved, giving them promising applications in packaging, wastewater treatment, sensors, biological medicine, etc. The latest research progress of regenerated cellulose membranes and functional regenerated cellulose composites is summarized in this paper. Finally, the trends on developing cellulose solvents and

  7. 抗菌纤维素/纤维素纤维的研究进展%Research progress of antibacterial cellulose/cellulose fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永建; 左磊刚

    2014-01-01

    介绍了常用的无机抗菌剂和有机抗菌剂的种类及其抗菌机理,阐述了载银抗菌纤维素、纳米TiO2抗菌纤维素、季铵盐类抗菌纤维素、壳聚糖改性抗菌纤维素等抗菌纤维素及其在纺织工业、膜材料等方面的应用。指出了根据所选抗菌剂的不同,通过化学或物理方法可对纤维素和纤维素纤维进行抗菌改性。绒毛浆是一次性卫生用品吸水性垫层用绒毛化的纤维素纤维,对绒毛浆进行抗菌性改性能够提高绒毛浆的品质和功能。提出了可用于绒毛浆纤维抗菌性改性的抗菌剂和可能的方法,抗菌纤维素纤维改性在绒毛浆生产和应用中存在潜在应用前景。同时,提出了抗菌纤维素/纤维素纤维在生产和应用中存在的问题和解决办法。%The commonly used inorganic antibacterial agent and organic antibacterial agent , and their types and antibacterial mechanism were introduced .Silver antibacterial cellulose , nano TiO2 antibacterial cellulose , quaternary ammonium antibacterial cellulose , chitosan modified bacterial cellulose and other antimicrobial cellulose and its application in the textile industry ,film material and other applications were elaborated .According to the selected type of antibacterial agent ,cellulose and cellulose fibers can be modified by chemical or physical method ,fluff pulp is fluffed cellulose fibers used in disposable sanitary absorbent mat ,and fluff pulp can improve its quality and function by antibacterial modified .Paper introduced the possible antimicrobial agent and methods can be used in the antibacterial modified of fluff pulp fibers ,and the potential prospect of antibacterial modified of cellulose fibers in the pro-duction and application fluff pulp .Meanwhile the problems and solutions were presented in the production and application of antibacterial cellulose and cellulose fiber .

  8. Research Progress in Cellulose-based Absorbent Material%纤维素系吸水材料的研究现状及发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高桂林; 沈葵忠; 房桂干; 邓拥军; 李萍; 金莉; 别士霞

    2012-01-01

    This review addressed recent progress in cellulose-based absorbent materials preparation and application Firstly, absorbent material produced directly from native cellulose (including bacterial cellulose) via cellulose dissolution are introduced. Secondly, cellulose highly absorbing polymer based on its derivatives which were obtained by physical as well as chemical cross-linking strategies was discussed. Thirdly, composite prepared by using cellulose in conjunction with other polymers through blending, formation of polyelectrolyte complexes, and interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) technology was addressed . Finally, cellulose-inorganic hybrid hydrogel prepared by embedding inorganic nano-partieles in cellulose matrices was described. In addition,the prospect of cellulosic absorbent materials and some problems still needed to be solved were summarized.%本文回顾了近年来纤维素系吸水材料的制备方法及其应用,具体介绍了纤维素系吸水材料的几种主要制备方法:一是直接对天然纤维素进行处理来制备;第二是利用纤维素衍生物通过物理或化学交联的方法制备;第三是将纤维素与其他聚合物进行反应形成复合树脂或聚电解质配合物,还可以采用互穿聚合网络技术进行处理;另外将无机纳米粒子嵌入纤维素矩阵中也可以制备纤维素-无机混合凝胶树脂。最后还对纤维素系高吸水材料的发展前景以及仍需解决的问题进行了总结。

  9. Technology and economics of conversion of cellulose (wood) and corn starch to sugars, alcohol and yeast. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolnak, B.

    1978-08-01

    The present status of the technology and economics for the production of glucose, alcohol, and yeast from cellulose (wood), corn starch, and molasses is analyzed. The basic processes for producing glucose and the factors affecting the economics of its production are reviewed. The costs of producing ethanol and yeast from the glucose are derived. Market availability of glucose, ethanol, and yeast is surveyed. (JSR)

  10. Processing and characterization of natural cellulose fibers/thermoset polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Thakur, Manju Kumari

    2014-08-30

    Recently natural cellulose fibers from different biorenewable resources have attracted the considerable attraction of research community all around the globe owing to their unique intrinsic properties such as biodegradability, easy availability, environmental friendliness, flexibility, easy processing and impressive physico-mechanical properties. Natural cellulose fibers based materials are finding their applications in a number of fields ranging from automotive to biomedical. Natural cellulose fibers have been frequently used as the reinforcement component in polymers to add the specific properties in the final product. A variety of cellulose fibers based polymer composite materials have been developed using various synthetic strategies. Seeing the immense advantages of cellulose fibers, in this article we discuss the processing of biorenewable natural cellulose fibers; chemical functionalization of cellulose fibers; synthesis of polymer resins; different strategies to prepare cellulose based green polymer composites, and diverse applications of natural cellulose fibers/polymer composite materials. The article provides an in depth analysis and comprehensive knowledge to the beginners in the field of natural cellulose fibers/polymer composites. The prime aim of this review article is to demonstrate the recent development and emerging applications of natural cellulose fibers and their polymer materials. PMID:24815407

  11. Cellulose nanocrystals: synthesis, functional properties, and applications

    OpenAIRE

    George J.; Sabapathi SN

    2015-01-01

    Johnsy George, SN Sabapathi Food Engineering and Packaging Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka, India Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers...

  12. Magnetic fusion energy research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes final work by the Plasma Theory Branch for the Department of Energy Magnetic Fusion Office under contract EX-76-A-34-1006. This report is divided into four parts. First, there is a final disposition of numerical codes developed under this contract. Second, there is a summary of work completed since the last annual report. Third, there is a series of final recommendations to the Department of Energy Magnetic Fusion Office. These recommendations generally concern: (a) transport, (b) MHD stability, and (c) heating

  13. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, John S.

    2013-08-09

    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  14. Knowledge management in final repository research. Tools, potentials and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on knowledge management in final repository research covers the following issues: potentials and technologies of knowledge management; analysis of handling and application of research knowledge; knowledge management and final repository research of the German ministry for economic affairs and energy.

  15. Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentation of cellulose. Annual report for 1990, 1992, 1993 and final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Wiegel, J.; Peck, H.D. Jr.; Mortenson, L.E.

    1993-08-31

    This report focuses on the bioconversion of cellulose to methane by various anaerobes. The structure and enzymatic activity of cellulosome and polycellulosome was studied in Clostridium thermocellum. The extracellular enzymes involved in the degradation of plant material and the physiology of fermentation was investigated in anaerobic fungi. Enzymes dealing with CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}OH, as well as electron transport and energy generation coupled to the acetyl-CoA autotrophic pathway was studied in acetogenic clostridia.

  16. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipe research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical applications to electrohydrodynamic heat pipe (EHDHP) research are presented. Two problems in the research which are discussed are the prediction of the effective thermal conductance of an EHDHP with threaded grooves for fluid distribution to the evaporator of an EHDHP. Hydrodynamic equations are included along with a discussion of boundary conditions and burn-out conditions. A discussion of the theoretical and experimental results is presented. (U.S.)

  17. Research into Flexibility Services. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch Office for Energy Regulation (DTe) is currently investigating the Dutch gas flexibility market. DTe is concerned that Gasunie is dominant in the market. In order to take a view of Gasunie's market position, DTe needs to first define the market for gas flexibility services and then explore whether Gasunie is dominant in the market (or markets). DTe has commissioned Frontier to undertake the respective formal analysis. This report summarises the findings by Frontier. On the basis of this report and a formal consultation process, We follow a three-step approach to the study: (1) We first define the relevant markets for gas flexibility (Section 3); (2) We then analyse the structure of the markets for flexibility that we have defined (Section 4); (3) Finally, we assess whether Gasunie is dominant in the relevant markets, taking account of market shares and other competitive effects (Section 5). This document is the Final Report, which contains our views as to the market definition for gas flexibility and the position of Gasunie in the market. The remainder of this document is set out as follows: Section 2 provides an overview of aspects of the Dutch gas industry relevant to this study; Section 3 sets out our approach to defining the market and de-Mops our conclusions on the markets for gas flexibility; Section 4 provides our view as to the structure of the relevant flexibility markets as defined in Section 3; Section 5 reports our assessment as to whether Gasunie is dominant in the relevant markets, taking account of market shares and other competitive effects; Section 6 sets out our conclusions about the competitive assessment. We include three annexes that set out details related to the market definition and analysis of dominance

  18. Final report (September, 1999--February, 2002) [Public outreach and information dissemination - cellulosic and corn-based ethanol outreach project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Jeremy; Werner, Carol

    2002-08-01

    EESI's ''Ethanol, Climate Protection, Oil Reduction'' (ECO) electr[on]ic newsletter reaches out to the environmental and agricultural communities, state/local government officials and other interested parties, and provides a forum for dialogue about ''the potential benefits of ethanol--and particularly the expanded opportunities provided by cellulosic ethanol--with a special focus on climate protection.'' Each issue features expert commentary, excerpts from recent studies about ethanol, a summary of current government activity on ethanol, and ''notable quotables.'' The newsletter is distributed primarily via email and is also posted on EESI's web site. EESI also conducts outreach on the benefits of ethanol and other biofuels by attending and speaking at conferences, meetings and workshops around the country. The 16 issues of the newsletter published through December 2001 are included as attachments.

  19. Council of Energy Engineering Research. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Richard J.

    2003-08-22

    The Engineering Research Program, a component program of the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), was established in 1979 to aid in resolving the numerous engineering issues arising from efforts to meet U.S. energy needs. The major product of the program became part of the body of knowledge and data upon which the applied energy technologies are founded; the product is knowledge relevant to energy exploration, production, conversion and use.

  20. Electronics Engineering Research. Final report, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenberger, S. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Accomplishments in Electronics Engineering Research (EER) during FY79 spanned a broad range of technologies, from high-speed microelectronics to digital image enhancement; from underground probing with electromagnetic waves to detecting neutrons with a small solid-state device; and from computer systems to aid engineers, to software tools to aid programmers. This report describes the overall EER program and its objectives, summarizes progress made in FY79, and outlines plans for FY80.

  1. Electronics Engineering Research. Final report, FY 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accomplishments in Electronics Engineering Research (EER) during FY79 spanned a broad range of technologies, from high-speed microelectronics to digital image enhancement; from underground probing with electromagnetic waves to detecting neutrons with a small solid-state device; and from computer systems to aid engineers, to software tools to aid programmers. This report describes the overall EER program and its objectives, summarizes progress made in FY79, and outlines plans for FY80

  2. Small Wind Research Turbine: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Meadors, M.

    2005-10-01

    The Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT) project was initiated to provide reliable test data for model validation of furling wind turbines and to help understand small wind turbine loads. This report will familiarize the user with the scope of the SWRT test and support the use of these data. In addition to describing all the testing details and results, the report presents an analysis of the test data and compares the SWRT test data to simulation results from the FAST aeroelastic simulation model.

  3. Final Recommendations for Policy, Methodology and Research

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Brian; Livingstone, Sonia; McLaughlin, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The EU Kids Online project aims to enhance knowledge of European children’s and parents’ experiences and practices regarding risky and safer use of the internet and new online technologies, and thereby to inform the promotion of a safer online environment for children. The project is coordinated by the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), with research teams and stakeholder advisers in each of the 25 countries and an International Advisory Panel. The network has been funded...

  4. Rock drain research program: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock drains are zones of coarse rockfill capable of transmitting normal streamflows which are commonly constructed in mountain valleys for conveying streams along the bottom of waste rock dumps at mines. This report describes research conducted to evaluate issues related to the long-term performance of rock drains in the mining industry. Field research and monitoring was conducted at the Manalta Coal Line Creek Mine in British Columbia, where the mine's main rock drain began construction in 1989. Baseline data were also collected prior to construction. Other research activities included examination of waste rock properties, streamflow monitoring, flow-through tracer tests, sampling of suspended solids and bed load, rock drain flow-through modeling, water temperature and chemistry monitoring, and sampling of aquatic invertebrates. The report findings are presented for three main areas of study: Physical characteristics of rock drains, including drain design and construction, waste rock properties, and geophysical investigation of rock dumps; flow-through characteristics, drain hydrology, water levels, and model results; and environmental effects of rock drains on water temperature, water chemistry, and aquatic invertebrates

  5. Geothermal research, Oregon Cascades: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, G.R.; Black, G.L.

    1988-10-27

    Previous USDOE-funded geothermal studies have produced an extensive temperature gradient and heat flow data base for the State of Oregon. One of the important features identified as a result of these studies is a rapid transition from heat flow values on the order of 40 mW/m/sup 2/ in the Willamette Valley and Western Cascades to values of greater than or equal to100 mW/m/sup 2/ in the High Cascades and the eastern portion of the Western Cascades. These data indicate that the Cascade Range in Oregon has potential as a major geothermal province and stimulated much of the later work completed by government agencies and private industry. Additional data generated as a result of this grant and published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-86-2 further define the location and magnitude of this transition zone. In addition, abundant data collected from the vicinity of Breitenbush and Austin Hot Springs have permitted the formulation of relatively detailed models of these hydrothermal systems. These models are published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-88-5. Task 1.2 of the Deliverables section of Amendment M001 is fulfilled by DOGAMI publication GMS-48, Geologic map of the McKenzie Bridge quadrangle, Lane County, Oregon. This map was printed in October, 1988, and is part of the final submission to USDOE. 8 refs.

  6. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    of the vapor phase components of the conveyed sample gas. In addition, to minimize adsorption or chemical changes in the syngas components prior to analysis, the temperature of the transported stream is maintained as hot as is practical, while still being cooled only as much necessary prior to entering the analyzer(s). The successful transport of the sample gas stream to the analyzer(s) is accomplished through the managed combination of four basic gas conditioning methods that are applied as specifically called for by the process conditions, the gas constituent concentrations, the analyzer requirements, and the objectives of the syngas analyses: 1) removing entrained particulate matter from the sample stream; 2) maintaining the temperature of the sample gas stream; 3) lowering the pressure of the sample gas stream to decrease the vapor pressures of all the component vapor species in the sample stream; and 4) diluting the gas stream with a metered, inert gas, such as nitrogen. Proof-of-concept field demonstrations of the sampling approach were conducted for gasification process streams from a black liquor gasifier, and from the gasification of biomass and coal feedstocks at GTI’s Flex-Fuel Test Facility. In addition to the descriptions and data included in this Final Report, GTI produced a Special Topical Report, Design and Protocol for Monitoring Gaseous Species in Thermochemical Processes, that explains and describes in detail the objectives, principles, design, hardware, installation, operation and representative data produced during this successful developmental effort. Although the specific analyzers used under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were referenced in the Topical Report and this Final Report, the sampling interface design they present is generic enough to adapt to other analyzers that may be more appropriate to alternate process streams or facilities.

  7. DECONTAMINATION SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION RESEARCH PROGRAM; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the five plus years this Cooperative Agreement existed, more than 45 different projects were funded. Most projects were funded for a one year period but there were some, deemed of such quality and importance, funded for multiple years. Approximately 22 external agencies, businesses, and other entities have cooperated with or been funded through the WVU Cooperative Agreement over the five plus years. These external entities received 33% of the funding by this Agreement. The scope of this Agreement encompassed all forms of hazardous waste remediation including radioactive, organic, and inorganic contaminants. All matrices were of interest; generally soil, water, and contaminated structures. Economic, health, and regulatory aspects of technologies were also within the scope of the agreement. The highest priority was given to small businesses funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and Department of Energy (DOE) involved in research and development of innovative remediation processes. These projects were to assist in the removal of barriers to development and commercialization of these new technologies. Studies of existing, underdeveloped technologies, were preferred to fundamental research into remediation technologies. Sound development of completely new technologies was preferred to minor improvements in existing methods. Solid technological improvements in existing technologies or significant cost reduction through innovative redesign were the preferred projects. Development, evaluation, and bench scale testing projects were preferred for the WVU research component. In the effort to fill gaps in current remediation technologies, the worth of the WVU Cooperative Agreement was proven. Two great technologies came out of the program. The Prefabricated Vertical Drain Technology for enhancing soil flushing was developed over the 6-year period and is presently being demonstrated on a 0.10 acre Trichloroethylene contaminated site in Ohio. The Spin

  8. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravo, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yinger, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chassin, Dave [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hiskens, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Venkataramanan, Giri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  9. Research Progress of Biomimetic Material Prepared by Bacterial Cellulose%细菌纤维素制备生物医用材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡锐波; 陈海宏; 陈向标

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose(BC) is a potential versatile biomaterial. Research progress of medical dressing, vascular prosthesis and artificial skeleton prepared by bacterial cellulose were introduced at home and abroad. In addition, the hot spots and the main development direction of bacterial cellulose composite biomimetic materials were discussed.%细菌纤维素是一种很有潜力的新型生物纤维材料.重点介绍了国内外关于细菌纤维素在制备医用敷料、人造血管及人造骨骼等医用材料方面的研究进展,并指出今后的研究热点及主要发展方向.

  10. Opportunity for profitable investments in cellulosic biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research efforts to allow large-scale conversion of cellulose into biofuels are being undertaken in the US and EU. These efforts are designed to increase logistic and conversion efficiencies, enhancing the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuels. However, not enough attention has been paid to the future market conditions for cellulosic biofuels, which will determine whether the necessary private investment will be available to allow a cellulosic biofuels industry to emerge. We examine the future market for cellulosic biofuels, differentiating between cellulosic ethanol and 'drop-in' cellulosic biofuels that can be transported with petroleum fuels and have equivalent energy values. We show that emergence of a cellulosic ethanol industry is unlikely without costly government subsidies, in part because of strong competition from conventional ethanol and limits on ethanol blending. If production costs of drop-in cellulosic biofuels fall enough to become competitive, then their expansion will not necessarily cause feedstock prices to rise. As long as local supplies of feedstocks that have no or low-valued alternative uses exist, then expansion will not cause prices to rise significantly. If cellulosic feedstocks come from dedicated biomass crops, then the supply curves will have a steeper slope because of competition for land. - Research highlights: → The likelihood of a significant cellulosic ethanol industry in the US looks dim. → Drop-in biofuels made from cellulosic feedstocks have a more promising future. → The spatial dimension of markets for cellulosic feedstocks will be limited. → Corn ethanol will be a tough competitor for cellulosic ethanol.

  11. Bat habitat research. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, B.L.; Bosworth, W.R.; Doering, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    This progress report describes activities over the current reporting period to characterize the habitats of bats on the INEL. Research tasks are entitled Monitoring bat habitation of caves on the INEL to determine species present, numbers, and seasons of use; Monitor bat use of man-made ponds at the INEL to determine species present and rates of use of these waters; If the Big Lost River is flowing on the INEL and/or if the Big Lost River sinks contain water, determine species present, numbers and seasons of use; Determine the habitat requirement of Townsend`s big-eared bats, including the microclimate of caves containing Townsend`s big-eared bats as compared to other caves that do not contain bats; Determine and describe an economical and efficient bat census technique to be used periodically by INEL scientists to determine the status of bats on the INEL; and Provide a suggestive management and protective plan for bat species on the INEL that might, in the future, be added to the endangered and sensitive list;

  12. Environmental training research project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Santa Fe Community College serves an area including the city and county of Santa Fe. The population has a high percentage of Hispanics and a Native American population of about 3%. The student body at the college generally reflects that of the service district. The college strives to recruit students from all segments of the population so there is representation among all ethnic and economic groups. The college strives to serve students and the community by offering educational opportunities that meet the needs of both elements and which will lead to gainful employment. Instruction is also offered to meets needs for retraining, upgrades, and personal enlightenment. The college started a hazardous materials management program in the fall of 1991 which has since been renamed environmental management. The purpose of this program is to prepare students for environmental careers, to provide required training such as OSHA HAZWOPER and refresher courses, and to provide educational opportunities that would make the public more environmentally aware. The program content needs to be studied to ensure we`re meeting the needs of the students and the business community. There had not been a significant opportunity to conduct this research.

  13. 2012 Joint Research Target (JRT) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Team, JRT

    2012-09-30

    The report summarizes: [1] Diagnostic upgrades and analysis improvements that support the JRT; [2] Descriptions of new experiments and a brief summary of our findings; [3] New analysis of previous experiments; [4] Plans for further data analysis and recommendations for further work; [5] Scientific publications that are derived from or contributed directly to the JRT. The report is organized as follows: Section 1: Describes inter-machine comparisons that were facilitated by the JRT focus. Similarities and differences found on the different facilities are outlined and plans for additional analysis of data and supporting simulations are described.Section 2: Reviews diagnostic development, experiments and results from C-Mod. C-Mod dedicated 13.1 run days to the JRT divided among 10 experimental proposals. These were organized into three general thrust areas that represent distinct experimental approaches to realizing the regimes called for in the JRT description. Initial comparisons with linear and nonlinear simulation have been carried out for these experiments and plans for an extensive campaign of analysis has been outlined. Section 3: Reviews results from DIII-D including new experiments, detailed comparisons of simulations to previously collected data and connections between the new work and past research. Four experimental days were dedicated to the JRT in 2012. These included studies of L-modes, H-modes and QH-modes. Section 4: Summarizes new analysis of data collected before the NSTX shutdown. The work focuses on the roles of low and high-k turbulence; collisionality scans and impurity particle transport.

  14. The trafficking and behavior of cellulose synthase and a glimpse of potential cellulose synthesis regulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Logan BASHLINE; Juan DU; Ying GU

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose biosynthesis is a topic of intensive research not only due to the significance of cellulose in the integrity of plant cell walls,but also due to the potential of using cellulose,a natural carbon source,in the production ot biofuels.Characterization of the composition,regulation,and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) is critical to an understanding of cellulose biosynthesis as well as the characterization of additional proteins that contribute to the production of cellulose either through direct interactions with CSCs or through indirect mechanisms.In this review,a highlight of a few proteins that appear to affect cellulose biosynthesis,which includes:KORRIGAN (KOR),Cellulose Synthase-Interactive Protein 1 (CSI1),and the poplar microtubule-associated protein,PttMAP20,will accompany a description of cellulose synthase (CESA) behavior and a discussion of CESA trafficking compartments that might act in the regulation of cellulose biosynthesis.

  15. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    also addressed safety concerns associated with thermochemical process operation that constrain the location and configuration of potential gas analysis equipment. Initial analyzer costs, reliability, accuracy, and operating and maintenance costs were also considered prior to the assembly of suitable analyzers for this work. Initial tests at GTI’s Flex-Fuel Test Facility (FFTF) in late 2004 and early 2005 successfully demonstrated the transport and subsequent analysis of a single depressurized, heat-traced syngas stream to a single analyzer (an Industrial Machine and Control Corporation (IMACC) Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR)) provided by GTI. In March 2005, our sampling approach was significantly expanded when this project participated in the U.S. DOE’s Novel Gas Cleaning (NGC) project. Syngas sample streams from three process locations were transported to a distribution manifold for selectable analysis by the IMACC FT-IR, a Stanford Research Systems QMS300 Mass Spectrometer (SRS MS) obtained under this Cooperative Agreement, and a Varian micro gas chromatograph with thermal conductivity detector (μGC) provided by GTI. A syngas stream from a fourth process location was transported to an Agilent Model 5890 Series II gas chromatograph for highly sensitive gas analyses. The on-line analyses made possible by this sampling system verified the syngas cleaning achieved by the NGC process. In June 2005, GTI collaborated with Weyerhaeuser to characterize the ChemrecTM black liquor gasifier at Weyerhaeuser’s New Bern, North Carolina pulp mill. Over a ten-day period, a broad range of process operating conditions were characterized with the IMACC FT-IR, the SRS MS, the Varian μGC, and an integrated Gas Chromatograph, Mass Selective Detector, Flame Ionization Detector and Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detector (GC/MSD/FID/SCD) system acquired under this Cooperative Agreement from Wasson-ECE. In this field application, a single sample stream was extracted from

  16. Cellulose is not just cellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidayat, Budi Juliman; Felby, Claus; Johansen, Katja S.;

    2012-01-01

    Most secondary plant cell walls contain irregular regions known as dislocations or slip planes. Under industrial biorefining conditions dislocations have recently been shown to play a key role during the initial phase of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in plant cell walls. In this review we...... not regions where free cellulose ends are more abundant than in the bulk cell wall. In more severe cases cracks between fibrils form at dislocations and it is possible that the increased accessibility that these cracks give is the reason why hydrolysis of cellulose starts at these locations. If acid...

  17. Photoresponsive Cellulose Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris S Argyropoulos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this communication a method for the creation of fluorescent cellulose nanoparticles using click chemistry and subsequent photodimerization of the installed side‐ chains is demonstrated. In the first step, the primary hydroxyl groups on the surface of the CNCs were converted to carboxylic acids by using TEMPO‐mediated hypohalite oxidation. The alkyne groups, essential for the click reaction, were introduced into the surface of TEMPO‐ oxidized CNCs via carbodiimide‐mediated formation of an amide linkage between monomers carrying an amine functionality and carboxylic acid groups on the surface of the TEMPO‐oxidized CNCs. Finally, the reaction of surface‐modified TEMPO‐oxidized cellulose nanocrystals and azido‐bearing coumarin and anthracene monomers were carried out by means of a click chemistry, i.e., Copper(I‐catalyzed Azide‐Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC to produce highly photo‐responsive and fluorescent cellulose nanoparticles. Most significantly, the installed coumarin and/or anthracene side‐chains were shown to undergo UV‐induced [2+2] and [4+4] cycloaddition reactions, bringing and locking the cellulose nanocrystals together. This effort paves the way towards creating, cellulosic photo responsive nano‐arrays with the potential of photo reversibility since these reactions are known to be reversible at varying wavelengths.

  18. The Finnish research programme on climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This is the final report of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). This report includes the final results and conclusions made by the individual research groups. The aim of this report is to lay out the research work, and to present the main results and conclusions obtained during the six-year work. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) was a multidisciplinary national research programme on climate and global change. The principal goals of SILMU were: (1) to increase our knowledge on climate change, its causes, mechanisms and consequences, (2) to strengthen the research on climate change in Finland, (3) to increase the participation of Finnish researchers in international research programmes, and (4) to prepare and disseminate information for policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The key areas of the research were: (1) quantification of the greenhouse effect and the magnitude of anticipated climatic changes,(2) assessment of the effects of changing climate on ecosystems, and (3) development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The research programme started in June 1990, and it comprised more than 80 individual research projects, ranging from atmospheric chemistry to economics. There were approximately two hundred scientists working within the programme in seven universities and eleven research institutions. The research activities that comprise SILMU were grouped into four interdisciplinary subprogrammes: atmosphere, waters, terrestrial ecosystems and integration and human interactions

  19. Derivatives of Oxidized Cellulose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taubner, T.; Sobek, Jiří; Havelka, P.; Kvasnička, F.; Synytsya, A.; Čopíková, J.

    Praha : Česká společnost chemická, 2009, s. 777. ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polysaccharides-Glycoscience 2009 /5./. Praha (CZ), 11.11.2009-13.11.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : cellulose * reaction progress * chromatography Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  20. 咪唑类离子液体溶解纤维素的研究进展%Research progress in cellulose dissolution in imidazolium ionic liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐德增; 李丹; 徐磊

    2011-01-01

    综述了1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑氯盐、1-烯丙基-3-甲基咪唑氯盐、1-(2-羟乙基)-3-甲基咪唑氯盐等咪唑类离子液体对纤维素的溶解性能,咪唑类离子液体/纤维素溶液的流变性能以及咪唑类离子液体在纤维素纤维及薄膜加工中的应用;咪唑类离子液体均能较好地溶解纤维素,咪唑类离子液体/纤维素溶液均为切力变稀流体;指出选择合适的阴、阳离子组合,开发条件温和、高溶解性能的新型离子液体是今后研究的重点.%The cellulose dissolution capacity of imidazolium ionic liquids, namely, 1-butyl-3mehylimidazolium chloride, 1-pro-pylene-3-methylimidazolium chloride,1-(2-hydroxylethyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride, were summarized, as were the rheologi-cal behavior of imidazolium ionic liquids/cellulose solution and the application of imidazolium ionic liquid in cellulose fiber and membrane processing. Cellulose can be well dissolved in imidazolium ionic liquids. Imidazolium ionic liquids/cellulose solution belongs to shear thinning fluid. It was pointed out that the research should be focused on novel ionic liquid with rational anion cation combination high dissolution capacity and moderate processing conditions.

  1. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  2. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  3. Composites based on acylated cellulose fibers and low-density polyethylene: Effect of the fiber content, degree of substitution and fatty acid chain length on final properties

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Carmen S. R.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Gandini, Alessandro; Martin, Loli; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2008-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene was filled with unmodified and fatty acid (hexanoic, dodecanoic, octadecanoic and docosanoic acids) esterified cellulose fibers. The thermal and mechanical properties, morphology and the water absorption behavior of the ensuing composites were investigated. The chemical modification of the cellulose fibers with fatty acids clearly improved the interfacial adhesion with the matrix and hence the mechanical properties of the composites and decreased their water uptake ca...

  4. Reaction mechanisms in cellulose pyrolysis: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molton, P.M.; Demmitt, T.F.

    1977-08-01

    A bibliographic review of 195 references is presented outlining the history of the research into the mechanisms of cellulose pyrolysis. Topics discussed are: initial product identification, mechanism of initial formation of levoglucosan, from cellulose and from related compounds, decomposition of cellulose to other compounds, formation of aromatics, pyrolysis of levoglucosan, crosslinking of cellulose, pyrolytic reactions of cellulose derivatives, and the effects of inorganic salts on the pyrolysis mechanism. (JSR)

  5. High energy physics research. Final technical report, 1957--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final technical report to the Department of Energy on High Energy Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. It discusses research conducted in the following areas: neutrino astrophysics and cosmology; string theory; electroweak and collider physics; supergravity; cp violation and baryogenesis; particle cosmology; collider detector at Fermilab; the sudbury neutrino observatory; B-physics; particle physics in nuclei; and advanced electronics and detector development

  6. High energy physics research. Final technical report, 1957--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.H.

    1995-10-01

    This is the final technical report to the Department of Energy on High Energy Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. It discusses research conducted in the following areas: neutrino astrophysics and cosmology; string theory; electroweak and collider physics; supergravity; cp violation and baryogenesis; particle cosmology; collider detector at Fermilab; the sudbury neutrino observatory; B-physics; particle physics in nuclei; and advanced electronics and detector development.

  7. Fundamental study of the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis by acids and enzymes. Final report, June 1, 1978-January 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, C.S.; Chang, M.

    1981-02-01

    There are three basic enzymes (e.g., endoglucanase (C/sub x/), exoglucanase (C/sub 1/) and cellobiase) comprising the majority of extracellular cellulase enzymes produced by the cellulolytic mycelial fungi, Trichoderma reesei, and other cellulolytic microorganisms. The enzymes exhibited different mode of actions in respect to the hydrolysis of cellulose and cellulose derived oligosaccharides. In combination, these enzymes complimented each other to hydrolyze cellulose to its basic constituent, glucose. The kinetics of cellobiase were developed on the basis of applying the pseudo-steady state assumption to hydrolyze cellobiose to glucose. The results indicated that cellobiase was subjected to end-product inhibition by glucose. The kinetic modeling of exoglucanase (C/sub 1/) with respect to cellodextrins was studied. Both glucose and cellobiose were found to be inhibitors of this enzyme with cellobiose being a stronger inhibitor than glucose. Similarly, endoglucanase (C/sub x/) is subject to end-product inhibition by glucose. Crystallinity of the cellulose affects the rate of hydrolysis by cellulases. Hence, the changes in crystallinity of cellulose in relation to chemical pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis was compared. The study of cellulase biosynthesis resulted in the conclusion that exo- and endo-glucanases are co-induced while cellobiase is synthesized independent of the other two enzymes. The multiplicity of cellulase enzymes are the end results of post-translational modification during and/or after the secretion of enzymes into growth environment.

  8. Effect of rheological properties of dissolved cellulose/microfibrillated cellulose blend suspensions on film forming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikoski, Eve; Rissanen, Marja; Seppälä, Jukka

    2015-03-30

    Enzymatically treated cellulose was dissolved in a NaOH/ZnO solvent system and mixed together with microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in order to find the threshold in which MFC fibers form a percolation network within the dissolved cellulose solution and in order to improve the properties of regenerated cellulose films. In the aqueous state, correlations between the rheological properties of dissolved cellulose/MFC blend suspensions and MFC fiber concentrations were investigated and rationalized. In addition, rheological properties of diluted MFC suspensions were characterized and a correlation with NaOH concentration was found, thus partly explaining the flow properties of dissolved cellulose/MFC blend suspensions. Finally, based on results from Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), MFC addition had strengthening/plasticizing effect on regenerated cellulose films if low concentrations of MFC, below the percolation threshold (5.5-6 wt%, corresponding to 0.16-0.18 wt% of MFC in the blend suspensions), were used. PMID:25563945

  9. MIT LMFBR blanket research project. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    This is a final summary report on an experimental and analytical program for the investigation of LMFBR blanket characteristics carried out at MIT in the period 1969 to 1983. During this span of time, work was carried out on a wide range of subtasks, ranging from neutronic and photonic measurements in mockups of blankets using the Blanket Test Facility at the MIT Research Reactor, to analytic/numerical investigations of blanket design and economics. The main function of this report is to serve as a resource document which will permit ready reference to the more detailed topical reports and theses issued over the years on the various aspects of project activities. In addition, one aspect of work completed during the final year of the project, on doubly-heterogeneous blanket configurations, is documented for the record.

  10. MIT LMFBR blanket research project. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a final summary report on an experimental and analytical program for the investigation of LMFBR blanket characteristics carried out at MIT in the period 1969 to 1983. During this span of time, work was carried out on a wide range of subtasks, ranging from neutronic and photonic measurements in mockups of blankets using the Blanket Test Facility at the MIT Research Reactor, to analytic/numerical investigations of blanket design and economics. The main function of this report is to serve as a resource document which will permit ready reference to the more detailed topical reports and theses issued over the years on the various aspects of project activities. In addition, one aspect of work completed during the final year of the project, on doubly-heterogeneous blanket configurations, is documented for the record

  11. Research in theoretical nuclear and neutrino physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarcevic, Ina [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2014-06-14

    The main focus of the research supported by the nuclear theory grant DE-FG02-04ER41319 was on studying parton dynamics in high-energy heavy ion collisions, perturbative approach to charm production and its contribution to atmospheric neutrinos, application of AdS/CFT approach to QCD, neutrino signals of dark mattter annihilation in the Sun and on novel processes that take place in dense stellar medium and their role in stellar collapse, in particular the effect of new neutrino interactions on neutrino flavor conversion in Supernovae. We present final technical report on projects completed under the grant.

  12. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project's multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition

  13. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project`s multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition.

  14. Research in theoretical nuclear and neutrino physics. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main focus of the research supported by the nuclear theory grant DE-FG02-04ER41319 was on studying parton dynamics in high-energy heavy ion collisions, perturbative approach to charm production and its contribution to atmospheric neutrinos, application of AdS/CFT approach to QCD, neutrino signals of dark mattter annihilation in the Sun and on novel processes that take place in dense stellar medium and their role in stellar collapse, in particular the effect of new neutrino interactions on neutrino flavor conversion in Supernovae. We present final technical report on projects completed under the grant.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation study of polyelectrolyte adsorption on cellulose surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Biermann, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The adsorption of two polyelectrolyte ((carboxy methyl) cellulose and poly(acrylate) in water on crystalline cellulose is studied in this work. The multi-component problem has been splitted up into simulations of solutions of the polyelectrolyte (polyanions including sodium counterions) in water, into simulations of the interface of crystalline cellulose towards water. Finally polyelectrolyte-cellulose systems were studied. Molecular dynamics simulations of diluted (_ 2:5 weight percent) aque...

  16. Nuclear research with the electromagnetic probe. Final progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report on the research carried at Stanford University under contract DE-FG03-88ER40439. All the work accomplished under this grant is reported in the publications listed as part of the Principal Investigator bibliography at the end of this report. In the last few years our research was directed at some of the forefront questions in nuclear physics. We investigated the nuclear medium effects on the intrinsic properties of bound nucleons, specifically the ectromagnetic form factors. For these studies we performed a number of specialized electron scattering experiments with specific sensitivity to nuclear medium effects. At the next level of structure, elementary constituents of matter are quarks and gluons. Defining the energy regime where the quark-gluon description of nuclear systems becomes more relevant than the nucleon-meson description is of great importance in thoroughly understanding the nuclear structure. To explore this transition region, we studied the scaling region in the disintegration of the deuteron, the simplest nuclear system with high energy photons. Finally we focused on the investigation of the nucleon internal spin structure along with the test of the Bjoerken sum rule a fundamental sum rule of QCD

  17. Cellulose based conductive polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Haishu

    2015-01-01

    Conductive fibers show potential applications in different areas. In this thesis, cellulose and its derivatives, including carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate as well as methyl cellulose were used to produce fibers via wet spinning. Different conductive materials were also introduced in an attempt to obtain cellulose-derived conductive fibers. Different conductive fillers (Zelec, carbon black, conductive polymers) were evaluated. Among them, PEDOT and PPy conductive polymers showed...

  18. Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report Tritium Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-08-01

    This document contains the specific radiological characterization information on Building 968, the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Complex and Facility. We performed the characterization as outlined in its Radiological Characterization Plan. The Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report (RC&FFSR) provides historic background information on each laboratory within the TRL complex as related to its original and present radiological condition. Along with the work outlined in the Radiological Characterization Plan (RCP), we performed a Radiological Soils Characterization, Radiological and Chemical Characterization of the Waste Water Hold-up System including all drains, and a Radiological Characterization of the Building 968 roof ventilation system. These characterizations will provide the basis for the Sandia National Laboratory, California (SNL/CA) Site Termination Survey .Plan, when appropriate.

  19. Chemical modification of viscose fibres by adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose and click chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Anufrijeva, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Functionalization of cellulosic materials to achieve new and advanced properties is a widely explored research area. This thesis is focused on the novel approach for modification of cellulosic materials by the combination of adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) onto cellulose surface and the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) “click” reaction. The literature part gives an overview on the basics of cellulose chemistry, chemical functionalization of cellulose, as wel...

  20. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Final report, February 1, 1978-January 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This is a coordinated program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomasses and will focus on the use of anaerobic microorganisms which possess cellulolytic enzyme. The studies will attempt to increase the enzyme levels through genetics, mutation and strain selection. In addition, the direct conversion from cellulosic biomasses to liquid fuel (ethanol) and/or soluble sugars by the cellulolytic, anaerobic organism is also within the scope of this program. Process and engineering scale-up, along with economic analyses, will be performed throughout the course of the program. The second area of our major effort is devoted to the production of chemical feedstocks. In particular, three fermentations have been identified for exploration. These are: acrylic acid, acetone/butanol and acetic acid. The main efforts in these fermentations will address means for the reduction of the cost of manufacturing for these large volume chemicals.

  1. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. When a final HHS action results in a settlement or research misconduct... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding...

  2. Cellulose microfibril formation within a coarse grained molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nili, Abdolmadjid; Shklyaev, Oleg; Crespi, Vincent; Zhao, Zhen; Zhong, Linghao; CLSF Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Cellulose in biomass is mostly in the form of crystalline microfibrils composed of 18 to 36 parallel chains of polymerized glucose monomers. A single chain is produced by cellular machinery (CesA) located on the preliminary cell wall membrane. Information about the nucleation stage can address important questions about intermediate region between cell wall and the fully formed crystalline microfibrils. Very little is known about the transition from isolated chains to protofibrils up to a full microfibril, in contrast to a large body of studies on both CesA and the final crystalline microfibril. In addition to major experimental challenges in studying this transient regime, the length and time scales of microfibril nucleation are inaccessible to atomistic molecular dynamics. We have developed a novel coarse grained model for cellulose microfibrils which accounts for anisotropic interchain interactions. The model allows us to study nucleation, kinetics, and growth of cellulose chains/protofibrils/microfibrils. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as part of The Center for LignoCellulose Structure and Formation, an Energy Frontier Research Center.

  3. NTRCI Legacy Engine Research and Development Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Holbert, Connie [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Petrolino, Joseph [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Watkins, Bart [Power Source Technologies Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Irick, David [Power Source Technologies Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2011-12-31

    The Legacy engine is a completely new design, transitional diesel engine, replacing the reciprocating engine with a rotary engine. The Legacy engine offers significant advances over conventional internal combustion engines in 1) power to weight ratio; 2) multiple fuel acceptance; 3) fuel economy; and 4) environmental compliance. These advances are achieved through a combination of innovative design geometry, rotary motion, aspiration simplicity, and manufacturing/part simplicity. The key technical challenge to the Legacy engine's commercialization, and the focus of this project, was the development of a viable roton tip seal. The PST concept for the roton tip seal was developed into a manufacturable design. The design was evaluated using a custom designed and fabricated seal test fixture and further refined. This design was incorporated into the GEN2.5A prototype and tested for achievable compression pressure. The Decision Point at the end of Phase 1 of the project (described below) was to further optimize the existing tip seal design. Enhancements to the tip seal design were incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Compression pressures adequate for compression ignition of diesel fuel were achieved, although not consistently in all combustion volumes. The variation in compression pressures was characterized versus design features. As the roton tip seal performance was improved, results pointed toward inadequate performance of the housing side seals. Enhancement of the housing side seal system was accomplished using a custom designed side seal test fixture. The design enhancements developed with the test fixture were also incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Finally, to simplify the requirements for the roton tip seals and to enhance the introduction and combustion of fuel, a flush-mount fuel injector

  4. International piping integrity research group (IPIRG) program final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Programme. The IPIRG Programme was an international group programme managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United states. The objective of the programme was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping that contains circumferential defects. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behaviour of circumferentially flawed piping and piping systems to high-rate loading typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a unique pipe loop test facility was designed and constructed. The pipe system was an expansion loop with over 30 m of 406-mm diameter pipe and five long radius elbows. Five experiments on flawed piping were conducted to failure in this facility with dynamic excitation. The report: provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures in piping; summarizes the technical results of the programme; gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the various pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses; and, summarizes the advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG Program

  5. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program

  6. Labor and net energy effects of a national ceiling insulation program. Final report. [Energy and labor requirements of cellulose-insulation industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, C.

    1978-09-01

    Improving the thermal efficiency of homes has been widely publicized as an important energy saver. This study examines the energy and labor implications of retrofitting single-family detached homes with ceiling insulation. Calculations are made of the energy savings which would be realized if all ceilings which are now underinsulated were retrofitted to meet each of two sets of current recommendations. A maximum feasible implementation level of 70% is proposed, and the resulting effects on labor demands and energy use in the insulation industries and throughout the economy are then analyzed. A hybrid analysis is performed to determine the energy and labor requirements of the relatively new cellulose-insulation industry.

  7. Cellulose nanocrystals: synthesis, functional properties, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Johnsy George, SN Sabapathi Food Engineering and Packaging Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka, India Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers are biodegradable and renewable in nature and hence they serve as a sustainable and environmentally friendly material for most applications. These nanocrystals are basically hydrophilic in nature; however, they can be surface functionalized to meet various challenging requirements, such as the development of high-performance nanocomposites, using hydrophobic polymer matrices. Considering the ever-increasing interdisciplinary research being carried out on cellulose nanocrystals, this review aims to collate the knowledge available about the sources, chemical structure, and physical and chemical isolation procedures, as well as describes the mechanical, optical, and rheological properties, of cellulose nanocrystals. Innovative applications in diverse fields such as biomedical engineering, material sciences, electronics, catalysis, etc, wherein these cellulose nanocrystals can be used, are highlighted. Keywords: sources of cellulose, mechanical properties, liquid crystalline nature, surface modification, nanocomposites 

  8. Microbial Cellulose Assembly in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. Malcolm, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Based on evidence indicating a possible correlation between hypo-gravity conditions and alteration of cellulose production by the gram negative bacterium, Acetobacter xylinum, a ground-based study for a possible long term Space Shuttle flight has been conducted. The proposed experiment for A. xylinum aboard the Shuttle is the BRIC (Biological Research in a Canister), a metal container containing spaces for nine Petri plates. Using a common experimental design, the cellulose production capability as well as the survivability of the A. xylinum strains NQ5 and AY201 have been described. It should now be possible to use the BRIC for the first long term microgravity experiments involving the biosynthesis of cellulose.

  9. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a settlement or finding of... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding...

  10. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  11. Cellulose synthase interacting protein: A new factor in cellulose synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ying; Somerville, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth. The great abundance of cellulose places it at the forefront as a primary source of biomass for renewable biofuels. However, the knowledge of how plant cells make cellulose remains very rudimentary. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by hexameric protein complexes, also known as cellulose synthase complexes. The only known components of cellulose synthase complexes are cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins until the re...

  12. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda. A Research Roadmap Resulting from the Biomass to Biofuels Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-06-30

    A robust fusion of the agricultural, industrial biotechnology, and energy industries can create a new strategic national capability for energy independence and climate protection. In his State of the Union Address (*Bush 2006), President George W. Bush outlined the Advanced Energy Initiative, which seeks to reduce our national dependence on imported oil by accelerating the development of domestic,renewable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels. The president has set a national goal of developing cleaner, cheaper, and more reliable alternative energy sources to substantially replace oil imports in the coming years.Fuels derived from cellulosic biomass—the fibrous, woody, and generally inedible portions of plant matter—offer one such alternative to conventional energy sources that can dramatically impact national economic growth, national energy security, and environmental goals. Cellulosic biomass is an attractive energy feedstock because it is an abundant, domestic, renewable source that can be converted to liquid transportation fuels.These fuels can be used readily by current-generation vehicles and distributed through the existing transportation-fuel infrastructure.

  13. Final Report. Research in Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greensite, Jeffrey P. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Golterman, Maarten F.L. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Grant-supported research in theoretical high-energy physics, conducted in the period 1992-2015 is briefly described, and a full listing of published articles result from those research activities is supplied.

  14. Present status and applications of bacterial cellulose-based materials for skin tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lina; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Guang

    2013-02-15

    Bacterial cellulose (BC, also known as microbial cellulose, MC) is a promising natural polymer which is biosynthesized by certain bacteria. This review focused on BC-based materials which can be utilized for skin tissue repair. Firstly, it is illustrated that BC has unique structural and mechanical properties as compared with higher plant cellulose, and is thus expected to become a commodity material. Secondly, we summarized the basic properties and different types of BC, including self-assembled, oriented BC, and multiform BC. Thirdly, composites prepared by using BC in conjunction with other polymers are explored, and the research on BC for application in skin tissue engineering is addressed. Finally, experimental results and clinical treatments assessing the performance of wound healing materials based on BC were examined. With its superior mechanical properties, as well as its excellent biocompatibility, BC was shown to have great potential for biomedical application and very high clinical value for skin tissue repair. PMID:23399174

  15. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Solar Energy Research and Education Foundation. Final reports by task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Reis, K.; Waegel, A.S.; Totten, M.

    1997-12-10

    This document contains final reports for the following tasks: kiosk for the children`s museum renewable energy exhibit and display, internet promotional and educational material, Aurora renewable energy science and engineering, CD-ROM training materials, presentations and traveling display, radio show `Energy Matters`, and newspaper articles and weekly news column.

  17. A research agenda for academic petroleum engineering programs. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calhoun, J.C. Jr.

    1990-03-31

    The development of a research agenda should be a direct way of portraying the scope of petroleum engineering, of identifying the critical technological issues faced by the profession,of elucidating the gaps between the existing research resources and the needs. and of outlining a program of research through which the petroleum engineering departments can be collectively of maximum service. Such an agenda would be of value to the profession of petroleum engineering, to industry and to government agencies, as well as to the faculty and students of the petroleum engineering departments. The purposes of the activity that led to this report, therefore, were to develop a statement to serve as a beginning research agenda for the petroleum engineering academic community; to bring together representatives of the petroleum engineering academic community to recognize the importance of developing a consensus posture with respect to research; and to provide a document that will assist in portraying to industry, government agencies and others the problems and needs of the petroleum engineering departments for conducting research. Contents of this report include; introduction; the background; the scope of petroleum engineering research; priority research topics and technological issues; non-technological research issues; and conclusions and recommendations.

  18. CELLULOSIC NANOCOMPOSITES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of their wide abundance, their renewable and environmentally benign nature, and their outstanding mechanical properties, a great deal of attention has been paid recently to cellulosic nanofibrillar structures as components in nanocomposites. A first major challenge has been to find efficient ways to liberate cellulosic fibrils from different source materials, including wood, agricultural residues, or bacterial cellulose. A second major challenge has involved the lack of compatibility of cellulosic surfaces with a variety of plastic materials. The water-swellable nature of cellulose, especially in its non-crystalline regions, also can be a concern in various composite materials. This review of recent work shows that considerable progress has been achieved in addressing these issues and that there is potential to use cellulosic nano-components in a wide range of high-tech applications.

  19. Cellulose-silica aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilecamps, Arnaud; Beauger, Christian; Hildenbrand, Claudia; Rigacci, Arnaud; Budtova, Tatiana

    2015-05-20

    Aerogels based on interpenetrated cellulose-silica networks were prepared and characterised. Wet coagulated cellulose was impregnated with silica phase, polyethoxydisiloxane, using two methods: (i) molecular diffusion and (ii) forced flow induced by pressure difference. The latter allowed an enormous decrease in the impregnation times, by almost three orders of magnitude, for a sample with the same geometry. In both cases, nanostructured silica gel was in situ formed inside cellulose matrix. Nitrogen adsorption analysis revealed an almost threefold increase in pores specific surface area, from cellulose aerogel alone to organic-inorganic composite. Morphology, thermal conductivity and mechanical properties under uniaxial compression were investigated. Thermal conductivity of composite aerogels was lower than that of cellulose aerogel due to the formation of superinsulating mesoporous silica inside cellulose pores. Furthermore, composite aerogels were stiffer than each of reference aerogels. PMID:25817671

  20. Characterization of cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisak, Muhammad Asri Abdul; Daik, Rusli; Ramli, Suria

    2015-09-01

    Recently, cellulose has been studied by many researchers due to its promising properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and robustness. Due to that it is applied in many fields such as paper, film, drug delivery, membranes, etc. Cellulose can be extracted from various plants while oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is the one of its sources. In this study, cellulose was extracted by chemical treatments which involved the use of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove hemicellulose and lignin components. Maximum yield was 43.22%. Based on the FT-IR spectra, the peak of wax (1735 cm-1), hemicellulose (1375 cm-1) and lignin (1248 cm-1 and 1037 cm-1) were not observed in extracted cellulose. TGA analysis showed that the extracted cellulose starts to thermally degrade at 340 °C. The SEM analysis suggested that the cellulose extracted from OPEFB was not much different from commercial cellulose.

  1. Cooperative Instructional Application of Writing Research. Final Report. Volume Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronnell, Bruce; And Others

    The second of three volumes on the relationship between writing research and instruction, this report first describes a 1982 conference on writing policies and problems sponsored by the Educational Research and Development division of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) and the California State University, Long Beach. The second section…

  2. Research progress in Cellulose-based Chiral Selectors%纤维素手性拆分剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋洪浪

    2013-01-01

    文章介绍了几种纤维素类手性拆分剂以及其制备方法相关分离机理,综述了纤维素手性拆分剂的分离机理及其应用,重点地介绍纤维素手性固定相和纤维素膜的应用。%In this paper, several kinds of cellulose-based chiral selectors and its preparation methods were introduced , the application and separation mechanism of cellulose-based chiral selectors were summarized, and intensively emphasized on the applications of cellulose chiral stationary phase and cellulose membrane.

  3. Solar heating and cooling commercialization research program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.L.; Tragert, W.; Weir, S.

    1979-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Cooling Commercialization Research Program has addressed a recognized need to accelerate the commercialization of solar products. The development of communication techniques and materials for a target group of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) wholesalers and distributors has been the primary effort. A summary of the program, the approach to the development of the techniques and materials, the conclusions derived from seminar feedback, the development of additional research activities and reports and the recommendations for follow-on activities are presented. The appendices offer detailed information on specific elements of the research effort.

  4. Recycling of cellulosic fibers by enzymatic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, K M; Dadashian, F; Montazer, M

    2012-02-01

    In this research, enzymatic treatment as an environmental friendly process has been used for recycling process of old cellulosic wastes such as cotton, viscose, and lyocell. Cellulase hydrolyses cellulosic chains and shortens cellulosic fibers. This study investigates to detect the optimum enzyme concentration and time of treatments for suitable changes of length and weight loss. The main purposes of this article are shortening of cellulosic fibers and evaluating of enzymatic treatment in different kind of cellulosic fibers. According to the data of experiments, with the increase of enzyme concentration and the treatment time, the length and weight loss percentage of the cellulosic fibers has been decreased. The length and weight loss percentage of treated viscose is more than that of lyocell and cotton fibers. Optimized condition, reaction time, and enzyme concentration have been determined by mean length of treated cellulosic samples. Suitable longitudinal distribution of fiber for papermaking industries is in the range of 0 to 4 mm. Optimum enzyme concentration and treatment time for recycling cotton, lyocell, and viscose fibers are 2% and 48 h for cotton and lyocell and 0.5% and 48 h for viscose, respectively. According to the data of experiment, the length of treated fibers is appropriate for its usage as a raw material in papermaking industries. PMID:22161212

  5. Nanosized Cellulose Fibrils as Stabilizer of Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Xhanari, Klodian

    2011-01-01

    Pickering emulsions have been a subject of research for many years due to their practical applications not only in everyday life products but also in industry. The stability of these emulsions is due to the irreversible adsorption of colloid particles at the oil/water interface which prevents droplet coalescence. Cellulose materials are among the different types of particles used as stabilizers. Most of the studies report the use of native cellulose as stabilizer of oil-in-water emulsions due...

  6. Final report: A Broad Research Project in the Sciences of Complexity; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous DOE support for ''A Broad Research Program in the Sciences of Complexity'' permitted the Santa Fe Institute to initiate new collaborative research within its Integrative Core activities as well as to host visitors to participate in research on specific topics that serve as motivation and testing-ground for the study of general principles of complex systems. The critical aspect of this support is its effectiveness in seeding new areas of research. Indeed, this Integrative Core has been the birthplace of dozens of projects that later became more specifically focused and then won direct grant support independent of the core grants. But at early stages most of this multidisciplinary research was unable to win grant support as individual projects-both because it did not match well with existing grant program guidelines, and because the amount of handing needed was often too modest to justify a formal proposal to an agency. In fact, one of the attributes of core support has been that it permitted SFI to encourage high-risk activities because the cost was quite low. What is significant is how many of those initial efforts have been productive in the SFI environment. Many of SFI'S current research foci began with a short visit from a researcher new to the SFI community, or as small working groups that brought together carefully selected experts from a variety of fields. As mentioned above, many of the ensuing research projects are now being supported by other funding agencies or private foundations. Some of these successes are described

  7. Montana Organization for Research in Energy (MORE) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry

    1999-12-31

    MORE is a consortium of educational, governmental, and industrial partners in cooperation with the state's Tribal colleges. Formed in 1994, the objectives are to develop and promote energy-related research and education in the state of Montana and the Northwestern region. Specifically, they set out to: (1) promote collaboration and cooperation among Montana's Colleges and Universities; (2) maximize use of existing personnel and resources; (3) foster partnerships with industries, state agencies, and tribal nations; and (4) enhance energy research and training. The 1st Implementation Grant consisted of Management and Coordination, Human Outreach, and two Research Clusters Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and Wind Energy. Overall, they consider this program to have been highly successful. That conclusion was mirrored by the DOE site reviewers, and by invitations from Dr. Matesh Varma, the DOE/EPSCoR National Program Director, to present their programs and outcomes as models for other states the National DOE/EPSCoR meetings.

  8. Cell adhesion on cellulose nanofibrils

    OpenAIRE

    Liljeström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) is an emerging biomaterial suitable for medical research. CNF hydrogel has been used as a three dimensional platforms for cell culture. This thesis aims to understand how human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells interact with CNF. Measurements were performed with Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation in order to quantify cell adsorption on CNF. Furthermore, the effect of the cell medium on the viscoelastic properties of CNF and on cell-CNF interactions were ...

  9. Lowering costs of microbial cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Pajuelo, María González; Bungay, Henry; Hogg, Tim; Vasconcelos, Isabel

    1997-01-01

    We have been conducting research with Acetobacter xylinium for microbial conversion of sugars to cellulose. A rotating disk biological contactor should lower costs considerably because its production rates are greater than for the usual method of surface culture. Another major cost saving comes from replacing expensive sugars in the medium with sugars derived from wastes. Extracts of spent grapes from wastes of Portuguese wine factories supply suitable sugars for good production of micr...

  10. Final summary report. [Summaries of research activities at Cornell University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, J A

    1978-01-01

    A summary is presented of the topics covered during the period, from 1960 to 1978, of the contract. The general area of the research has been theoretical solid state physics. A list of publications produced during the contract is given. (GHT)

  11. Electrorheological (ER) fluids: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, I.M.; Collins, E.A. [Consultec Scientific, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report consists of seven sections: (1) Executive Summary, (2) Introduction, (3) Overview, (4) Recommendations, (5) Panelist Reports, (6) Overseas Research and Development, and (7) Extended Bibliography. The Appendix contains the reports of site visits and contacts and other supplementary documents.

  12. Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program: Final Subcontract Report, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This report is a compilation of studies done to develop an integrated set of strategies for the production of energy from renewable resources in Hawaii. Because of the close coordination between this program and other ongoing DOE research, the work will have broad-based applicability to the entire United States.

  13. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  14. Plasma research. Final report, October 1, 1968--December 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research in plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear research at M.I.T. has evolved from a relatively long tradition of basic theoretical and experimental contributions, during the period covered by this contract. A major commitment to research in magnetically confined plasmas was undertaken with the Alcator program that began in 1969 and with the theoretical effort necessary to back this up. The Alcator A device was brought to successful operation and, after the identification of a sequence of plasma regimes that have been realized in it, let to attainment record values of plasma density, of the confinement parameter n tau, and of the degree of plasma purity. A second more advanced device, Alcator C, has been designed and is presently under construction. A line of toroidal experiments characterized by relatively low cost and extreme simplicity has been developed in order to study basic plasma physics problems related to magnetic confinement and relevant processes of plasma decontamination. The devices that have been operated are Versator I, now discontinued, Rector, with non-circular cross section, Erasmus, with small aspect ratio and Versator II. A number of theoretical contributions concerning the interpretation of the regimes found in Alcator, runaway phenomena, new trapped particle instabilities, internal resistive modes, etc. have been given and presented in publications or appropriate meetings. A special consideration, within the theoretical effort, has been devoted to the study of plasma regimes that are important in devising future experiments of thermonuclear interest

  15. Final Technical Report for Center for Plasma Edge Simulation Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, Alexei Y.; Bateman, Glenn; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2012-02-29

    The CPES research carried out by the Lehigh fusion group has sought to satisfy the evolving requirements of the CPES project. Overall, the Lehigh group has focused on verification and validation of the codes developed and/or integrated in the CPES project. Consequently, contacts and interaction with experimentalists have been maintained during the course of the project. Prof. Arnold Kritz, the leader of the Lehigh Fusion Group, has participated in the executive management of the CPES project. The code development and simulation studies carried out by the Lehigh fusion group are described in more detail in the sections below.

  16. Market research on biogas valorizations and methanization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This market research aims at giving an overview of the existing methanization installations and of their dynamics in France, at assessing biogas production and use, at analyzing the methanization market, and at defining development perspectives for this sector by 2020. Based on a survey of methanization installations, on interviews with many actors of this sector, and on a seminar organized on this topic, this report presents and comments market data for biogas valorization and methanization in different sectors: household, agricultural, and industrial and waste water processing plants. It comments evolution trends by 2020 for these sectors, and the role that the emerging sector of centralized methanization could have in the years to come

  17. Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this and previous efforts ECON has provided economic assessment of a fusion research program. This phase of study focused on two tasks, the first concerned with the economics of fusion in an economy that relies heavily upon synthetic fuels, and the second concerned with the overall economic effects of pursuing soft energy technologies instead of hard technologies. This report is organized in two parts, the first entitled An Economic Analysis of Coproduction of Fusion-Electric Energy and Other Products, and the second entitled Arguments Associated with the Choice of Potential Energy Futures

  18. Network-based collaborative research environment LDRD final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, B.R.; McDonald, M.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Virtual Collaborative Environment (VCE) and Distributed Collaborative Workbench (DCW) are new technologies that make it possible for diverse users to synthesize and share mechatronic, sensor, and information resources. Using these technologies, university researchers, manufacturers, design firms, and others can directly access and reconfigure systems located throughout the world. The architecture for implementing VCE and DCW has been developed based on the proposed National Information Infrastructure or Information Highway and a tool kit of Sandia-developed software. Further enhancements to the VCE and DCW technologies will facilitate access to other mechatronic resources. This report describes characteristics of VCE and DCW and also includes background information about the evolution of these technologies.

  19. TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs

  20. Bacterial Cellulose (BC) as a Functional Nanocomposite Biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandgaonkar, Avinav Ghanashyam

    compressive tests. In our second study, we developed a one-pot in-situ biosynthetic method to fabricate structurally controllable bacterial cellulose (BC)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites. The graphene oxide (GO) was highly reduced during a standard autoclave process using a traditional mannitol culture medium as the reducing agent. The electrical conductivity of the RGO was found to be 23.75 S m-1. The final BC/RGO composites were developed in three distinct forms: 1) sealed structures in the water, 2) aerogels characterized by a porous cross section and aligned longitudinal structure, and 3) films embedded within the RGO sheets. Because of the simplicity and non-toxic nature of this work, it can be used in biomedical and bioelectronics applications. The last study was on dye degradation using BC as the substrate. The surface of the BC was chemically oxidized to produce aldehyde groups to successfully covalently crosslink laccase. TiO2 and laccase (Lac) were co-immobilized on the surface of OBC and the dye degradation process was carried out under specific conditions. Compared with free laccase, the optimum pH of the immobilized laccase system shifted to lower pH, while the optimum temperature decreased from 55 °C to 50 °C. The dye degradation experiments showed that the optimum pH for dye degradation was pH 5.0-6.0, while the optimum temperature was ca. 40 ºC. Under UV illumination, the dye degradation efficiency significantly improved characteristic of a synergy in the system. This dissertation contributes to the basic research of bacterial cellulose which will result in novel ideas that can possibly result in future industrial applications. The research provides a fundamental underpinning of specialized structure-property relationships between BC and the materials used to fabricate the BC nanocomposites that have value-added applications that are environmentally safe and eco-friendly.

  1. Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I final report - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a multiyear, multiphase program whose overall objective is to develop improved methods for seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants, using a probabilistic computational procedure. The program is being carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Phase I of the SSMRP was successfully completed in January 1981: A probabilistic computational procedure for the seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants has been developed and demonstrated. The methodology is implemented by three computer programs: HAZARD, which assesses the seismic hazard at a given site, SMACS, which computes in-structure and subsystem seismic responses, and SEISIM, which calculates system failure probabilities and radioactive release probabilities, given (1) the response results of SMACS, (2) a set of event trees, (3) a family of fault trees, (4) a set of structural and component fragility descriptions, and (5) a curve describing the local seismic hazard. The practicality of this methodology was demonstrated by computing preliminary release probabilities for Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant north of Chicago, Illinois. Studies have begun aimed at quantifying the sources of uncertainty in these computations. Numerous side studies were undertaken to examine modeling alternatives, sources of error, and available analysis techniques. Extensive sets of data were amassed and evaluated as part of projects to establish seismic input parameters and to produce the fragility curves. (author)

  2. Cellulose degradation by oxidative enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dimarogona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass has attracted intensive research interest for the production of economically viable biofuels. Here we present an overview of the recent findings on biocatalysts implicated in the oxidative cleavage of cellulose, including polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs or LPMOs which stands for lytic PMOs, cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs and members of carbohydrate-binding module family 33 (CBM33. PMOs, a novel class of enzymes previously termed GH61s, boost the efficiency of common cellulases resulting in increased hydrolysis yields while lowering the protein loading needed. They act on the crystalline part of cellulose by generating oxidized and non-oxidized chain ends. An external electron donor is required for boosting the activity of PMOs. We discuss recent findings concerning their mechanism of action and identify issues and questions to be addressed in the future.

  3. Final report. [Research in theoretical and experimental elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives summaries of particle physics research conducted by different group members for Task A. A summary of work on the CLEO experiment and detector is included for Task B along with a list of CLEO publications. During the present grant period for Task C, the authors had responsibility for the design, assembly, and programming of the high-resolution spectrometer which looks for narrow peaks in the output of the cavity in the LLNL experiment. They successfully carried out this task. Velocity peaks are expected in the spectrum of dark matter axions on Earth. The computing proposal (Task S) is submitted in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and the Theory tasks

  4. Fundamental research of decision support systems: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through an iterative application of Decision Support Systems (DSS) apparatus and evolution of DSS concepts, we redefined DSS from a systems perspective. By focusing on successful DSS and the definition of success for the newly-defined DSS, we generated a paradigm for understanding, applying, and improving DSS. The significance of the research is that we now: (1) understand the various roles management tools play within the new DSS concept; (2) recognize the need for characterizing the domain of responsibility of a manager to obtain a successful DSS; and (3) have learned special characteristics of government agencies like Nuclear Materials (NM) to identify what features of the new DSS concept can be expected to improve performance

  5. Nuclear asphalt content gauge study. Research report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research ascertains if the Troxler Model 3241 Gauge could accurately determine the asphalt content of bituminous-concrete mixtures by nuclear means. The study was divided into three phases. Phase I was conducted in the Central Laboratory where a series of controlled tests were performed for variables that may effect the gauge's asphalt-content determinations. Phase II evolved into a cooperative study between the Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) and several bituminous concrete producers. Phase III was to report the findings of the study and make a recommendation on the overall practical application of the gauge. The results indicate that the gauge can accurately determine asphalt contents on normal surface and base bituminous mixtures

  6. [Research in theoretical and experimental elementary particle physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This report gives summaries of particle physics research conducted by different group members for Task A. A summary of work on the CLEO experiment and detector is included for Task B along with a list of CLEO publications. During the present grant period for Task C, the authors had responsibility for the design, assembly, and programming of the high-resolution spectrometer which looks for narrow peaks in the output of the cavity in the LLNL experiment. They successfully carried out this task. Velocity peaks are expected in the spectrum of dark matter axions on Earth. The computing proposal (Task S) is submitted in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and the Theory tasks.

  7. High energy physics research. Final report, October 1, 1969--December 31, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this research was to understand the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. First, a brief history of the high energy research at Princeton University is presented. Next, the extensive research covered in this 21 year period is summarized. Finally, a list of all publications issued during this period is presented

  8. High energy physics research. Final report, October 1, 1969--December 31, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The goal of this research was to understand the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. First, a brief history of the high energy research at Princeton University is presented. Next, the extensive research covered in this 21 year period is summarized. Finally, a list of all publications issued during this period is presented.

  9. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test

  10. Lower Columbia River Terminal Fisheries Research Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-04-01

    This notice announces BPA`S`s decision to fund the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the Clatsop Economic Development Committee for the Lower Columbia River Terminal Fisheries Research Project (Project). The Project will continue the testing of various species/stocks, rearing regimes, and harvest options for terminal fisheries, as a means to increase lower river sport and commercial harvest of hatchery fish, while providing both greater protection of weaker wild stocks and increasing the return of upriver salmon runs to potential Zone 6 Treaty fisheries. The Project involves relocating hatchery smolts to new, additional pen locations in three bays/sloughs in the lower Columbia River along both the Oregon and Washington sides. The sites are Blind Slough and Tongue Point in Clatsop County, Oregon, and Grays Bay/Deep River, Wahkiakum County, Washington. The smolts will be acclimated for various lengths of time in the net pens and released from these sites. The Project will expand upon an existing terminal fisheries project in Youngs Bay, Oregon. The Project may be expanded to other sites in the future, depending on the results of this initial expansion. BPA`S has determined the project is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and BPA`S is issuing this FONSI.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of a Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 23769 Isolate, AY201, Producer of Bacterial Cellulose and Important Model Organism for the Study of Cellulose Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kalpa

    2016-01-01

    The cellulose producer and model organism used for the study of cellulose biosynthesis, Gluconacetobacter hansenii AY201, is a variant of G. hansenii ATCC 23769. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of G. hansenii AY201, information which may be utilized to further the research into understanding the genes necessary for cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:27516506

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of a Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 23769 Isolate, AY201, Producer of Bacterial Cellulose and Important Model Organism for the Study of Cellulose Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Sarah; Mehta, Kalpa; Brown, R Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    The cellulose producer and model organism used for the study of cellulose biosynthesis, Gluconacetobacter hansenii AY201, is a variant of G. hansenii ATCC 23769. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of G. hansenii AY201, information which may be utilized to further the research into understanding the genes necessary for cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:27516506

  13. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Biohydrogen, bioelectricity and bioalcohols from cellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissila, M.

    2013-03-01

    The demand for renewable energy is increasing due to increasing energy demand and global warming associated with increasing use of fossil fuels. Renewable energy can be derived from biological production of energy carriers from cellulosic biomass. These biochemical processes include biomass fermentation to hydrogen, methane and alcohols, and bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The objective of this study was to investigate the production of different energy carriers (hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol, bioelectricity) through biochemical processes. Hydrogen production potential of a hot spring enrichment culture from different sugars was determined, and hydrogen was produced continuously from xylose. Cellulolytic and hydrogenic cultures were enriched on cellulose, cellulosic pulp materials, and on silage at different process conditions. The enrichment cultures were further characterized. The effect of acid pretreatment on hydrogen production from pulp materials was studied and compared to direct pulp fermentation to hydrogen. Electricity and alcohol(s) were simultaneously produced from xylose in MFCs and the exoelectrogenic and alcohologenic enrichment cultures were characterized. In the end, the energy yields obtained from different biochemical processes were determined and compared. In this study, cultures carrying out simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and hydrogen fermentation were enriched from different sources at different operational conditions. These cultures were successfully utilized for cellulose to hydrogen fermentation in batch systems. Based on these results further research should be conducted on continuous hydrogen production from cellulosic materials.

  15. Nanofibrillar cellulose films for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Peltonen, Leena; Laukkanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jouni; Laaksonen, Timo

    2012-10-01

    Nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) (also referred to as cellulose nanofibers, nanocellulose, microfibrillated, or nanofibrillated cellulose) has gotten recent and wide attention in various research areas. Here, we report the application of nanofibrillar cellulose as a matrix-former material for long-lasting (up to three months) sustained drug delivery. Film-like matrix systems with drug loadings between 20% and 40% were produced by a filtration method. This simple production method had an entrapment efficacy>90% and offers a possibility for the film thickness adjustment as well as applicability in the incorporation of heat sensitive compounds. The films had excellent mechanical properties suitable for easy handling and shape tailoring of the drug release systems. They were characterized in terms of the internal morphology, and the physical state of the encapsulated drug. The drug release was assessed by dissolution tests, and suitable mathematical models were used to explain the releasing kinetics. The drug release was sustained for a three month period with very close to zero-order kinetics. It is assumed that the nanofibrillar cellulose film sustains the drug release by forming a tight fiber network around the incorporated drug entities. The results indicate that the nanofibrillar cellulose is a highly promising new material for sustained release drug delivery applications. PMID:22750440

  16. Isolation of cellulose microfibrils - An enzymatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sain, M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation methods and applications of cellulose microfibrils are expanding rapidly due to environmental benefits and specific strength properties, especially in bio-composite science. In this research, we have success-fully developed and explored a novel bio-pretreatment for wood fibre that can substantially improve the microfibril yield, in comparison to current techniques used to isolate cellulose microfibrils. Microfibrils currently are isolated in the laboratory through a combination of high shear refining and cryocrushing. A high energy requirement of these procedures is hampering momentum in the direction of microfibril isolation on a sufficiently large scale to suit potential applications. Any attempt to loosen up the microfibrils by either complete or partial destruction of the hydrogen bonds before the mechanical process would be a step forward in the quest for economical isolation of cellulose microfibrils. Bleached kraft pulp was treated with OS1, a fungus isolated from Dutch Elm trees infected with Dutch elm disease, under different treatment conditions. The percentage yield of cellulose microfibrils, based on their diameter, showed a significant shift towards a lower diameter range after the high shear refining, compared to the yield of cellulose microfibrils from untreated fibres. The overall yield of cellulose microfibrils from the treated fibres did not show any sizeable decrease.

  17. Cellulose-Based Bio- and Nanocomposites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheel Kalia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose macro- and nanofibers have gained increasing attention due to the high strength and stiffness, biodegradability and renewability, and their production and application in development of composites. Application of cellulose nanofibers for the development of composites is a relatively new research area. Cellulose macro- and nanofibers can be used as reinforcement in composite materials because of enhanced mechanical, thermal, and biodegradation properties of composites. Cellulose fibers are hydrophilic in nature, so it becomes necessary to increase their surface roughness for the development of composites with enhanced properties. In the present paper, we have reviewed the surface modification of cellulose fibers by various methods. Processing methods, properties, and various applications of nanocellulose and cellulosic composites are also discussed in this paper.

  18. Cellulose Synthesis and Its Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Lei, Lei; Gu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer synthesized on land, is made of linear chains of ß (1–4) linked D-glucose. As a major structural component of the cell wall, cellulose is important not only for industrial use but also for plant growth and development. Cellulose microfibrils are tethered by other cell wall polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. In higher plants, cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized rosette cellulose synthase complexes. Despite the re...

  19. Research on the Application of Bacterial Cellulose in Papermaking%细菌纤维素在造纸工业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤卫华; 贾士儒; 王芃; 殷海松

    2013-01-01

    细菌纤维素是由细菌产生的纯度很高的纳米级纤维素,具有结晶度和纯度高、机械强度大和生物相容性好等特点.在植物纤维中添加细菌纤维素,可改善纸张性能.细菌纤维素可用于制备特种纸和“电子纸”.%Bacterial cellulose (BC) is secreted by Acetobacter xylinum. Compared with plant fiber, it possesses an array of unique properties , including high crystallinity, high water content, biocompatibility, high mechanical strength and an ultra-fine fiber network. Bacterial cellulose can be used for making unusually strong paper, because it consists of extremely small clusters of cellulose microbrils, this property greatly upgrades the strength and durability of the paper when it is added to the paper. There are some issues in large-scale application of bacterial cellulose to be solved, such as the high cost, low yield, mechanical stability and so on.

  20. Biocompatibility of Bacterial Cellulose Based Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar P. Troncoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some bacteria can synthesize cellulose when they are cultivated under adequate conditions. These bacteria produce a mat of cellulose on the top of the culture medium, which is formed by a three-dimensional coherent network of pure cellulose nanofibers. Bacterial cellulose (BC has been widely used in different fields, such as the paper industry, electronics and tissue engineering due to its remarkable mechanical properties, conformability and porosity. Nanocomposites based on BC have received much attention, because of the possibility of combining the good properties of BC with other materials for specific applications. BC nanocomposites can be processed either in a static or an agitated medium. The fabrication of BC nanocomposites in static media can be carried out while keeping the original mat structure obtained after the synthesis to form the final nanocomposite or by altering the culture media with other components. The present article reviews the issue of biocompatibility of BC and BC nanocomposites. Biomedical aspects, such as surface modification for improving cell adhesion, in vitro and in vivo studies are given along with details concerning the physics of network formation and the changes that occur in the cellulose networks due to the presence of a second phase. The relevance of biocompatibility studies for the development of BC-based materials in bone, skin and cardiovascular tissue engineering is also discussed.

  1. Research in Support of Forest Management. Final report, 1986--1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, D.H. [comp.

    1991-12-01

    This final research report on Research in Support of Forest Management for the Savannah River Forest Station covers the period 1986 thru 1991. This report provides a list of publications resulting from research accomplished by SEFES scientists and their cooperators, and a list of continuing research study titles. Output is 22 research publications, 23 publications involving technology transfer of results to various user groups, and 11 manuscripts in pre-publication format. DOE funding contributed approximately 15 percent of the total cost of the research.

  2. Cellulose-reinforced composites: from micro-to nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Dufresne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the most relevant advances in the fields of: i cellulose fibres surface modification; ii cellulose fibres-based composite materials; and iii nanocomposites based on cellulose whiskers or starch platelet-like nanoparticles. The real breakthroughs achieved in the first topic concern the use of solvent-free grafting process (plasma and the grafting of the matrix at the surface of cellulose fibres through isocyanate-mediated grafting or thanks to "click chemistry". Concerning the second topic, it is worth to mention that for some cellulose/matrix combination and in the presence of adequate aids or specific surface treatment, high performance composite materials could be obtained. Finally, nanocomposites allow using the semi-crystalline nature and hierarchical structure of lignocellulosic fibres and starch granules to more deeply achieve this goal profitably exploited by Mother Nature

  3. 08-ERD-071 Final Report: New Molecular Probes and Catalysts for Bioenergy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, M P; Rowe, A A; Siebers, A K; Jiao, Y

    2011-03-07

    A major thrust in bioenergy research is to develop innovative methods for deconstructing plant cell wall polymers, such as cellulose and lignin, into simple monomers that can be biologically converted to ethanol and other fuels. Current techniques for monitoring a broad array of cell wall materials and specific degradation products are expensive and time consuming. To monitor various polymers and assay their breakdown products, molecular probes for detecting specific carbohydrates and lignins are urgently needed. These new probes would extend the limited biochemical techniques available, and enable realtime imaging of ultrastructural changes in plant cells. Furthermore, degradation of plant biomass could be greatly accelerated by the development of catalysts that can hydrolyze key cell wall polysaccharides and lignin. The objective of this project was to develop cheap and efficient DNA reagents (aptamers) used to detect and quantify polysaccharides, lignin, and relevant products of their breakdown. A practical goal of the research was to develop electrochemical aptamer biosensors, which could be integrated into microfluidic devices and used for high-throughput screening of enzymes or biological systems that degrade biomass. Several important model plant cell wall polymers and compounds were targeted for specific binding and purification of aptamers, which were then tested by microscopic imaging, circular dichroism, surface plasmon resonance, fluorescence anisotropy, and electrochemical biosensors. Using this approach, it was anticiated that we could provide a basis for more efficient and economically viable biofuels, and the technologies established could be used to design molecular tools that recognize targets sought in medicine or chemical and biological defense projects.

  4. KYT2010 Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management 2006-2010. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management, KYT2010, was launched in 2006. The research period closed at the end of 2010. Key themes of the research programme include (1) strategic analyses of nuclear waste management, (2) assessment of the safety of final nuclear waste disposal and (3) sociological analyses. The assessment of the safety of final nuclear waste disposal comprises three sectors: technical barriers, bedrock and groundwater, and the release and transport of radionuclides. The roughly 40 or so research projects underway during the research period have primarily been concerned with assessing the safety of nuclear waste management. The State Nuclear Waste Management Fund allocated funding totalling approximately EUR 7 million to the research projects. The following research organisations have participated in the KYT2010 research programme: VTT - the Technical Research Centre of Finland, the Aalto University School of Science and Technology, University of Helsinki Laboratory of Radiochemistry, the Geological Survey of Finland, University of Jyvaeskylae, University of Eastern Finland Kuopio Campus, and Numerola Oy. Work in the research programme has been based on mutual cooperation and division of duties between the research programme steering group, two support groups, a coordinator and the research programmes. The research programme steering group has included representatives of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Tekes - the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Posiva Oy and the Ministry of Employment and the Economy. (orig.)

  5. Research Progress on Fermentation Technology and Application of the Bacterial Cellulose%细菌纤维素发酵工艺与应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆胜民; 贾静静; 杨颖

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose, produced by some species of bacteria, has excellent properties including high mechanical strength, good water retention ability, and high crystallinity, which is applied widely to industries such as food industry.This paper summarized the structure, techno1ogy of fermentation and the application of bacterial cellulose in food industry.%由部分细菌所产生的纤维素称细菌纤维素,具有机械强度高、吸水性能好、纯度高、结晶度高等优良特性,广泛应用于食品工业等领域.本文对细菌纤维素的结构特性、发酵工艺研究及应用作了综述.

  6. Study of Nano-fiber Cellulose Production by Glucanacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245

    OpenAIRE

    A. Akbarzadeh; Farahnak, M.; Ghassemi, S.; Chiani, M.; Mehrabi, M. R.; Saffari, Z.; Tolooei, S.; Farhangi, A.; Norouzian, D.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial Celluloses (BC) are gaining importance in research and commerce due to numerous factors affecting the bacterial cellulose characteristics and application in different industries. The aim of the present study was to produce bacterial cellulose in different media using different cultivation vessels. Bacterial cellulose was produced by static cultivation of Glucanacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245 in different culture media such as Brain Heart Agar, Luria Bertani Agar /Broth, Brain Heart I...

  7. Study of nano-fiber cellulose production by Glucanacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245.

    OpenAIRE

    Norouzian, D.; Farhangi, Ali; Tolooei, S.; Saffari, Z.; Mehrabi, M. R.; Chiani, M.; Ghassemi, S.; Farahnak, M.; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2011-01-01

    International audience Bacterial Celluloses (BC) are gaining importance in research and commerce due to numerous factors affecting the bacterial cellulose characteristics and application in different industries. The aim of the present study was to produce bacterial cellulose in different media using different cultivation vessels. Bacterial cellulose was produced by static cultivation of Glucanacetobacter xylinum ATCC 10245 in different culture media such as Brain Heart Agar, Luria Bertani ...

  8. Microstructuring of thermo-mechanically highly stressed surfaces final report of the DFG research group 576

    CERN Document Server

    Rienäcker, Adrian; Knoll, Gunter; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Maier, Hans; Reithmeier, Eduard; Dinkelacker, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume presents the final research results of the DFG Research Group 576, which is a joint initiative of five different institutes of the Leibniz Universität Hannover and the Universität Kassel, Germany. The research of the DFG Research Group 576 focuses on improving the tribological behavior of thermomechanically highly stressed surfaces, particularly on cylinder liner for combustion engines. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to specialize in the field.

  9. Research Status of Nano- functional Material Bacterial Cellulose%纳米功能材料细菌纤维素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小维; 朱艳彬; 范艺苑; 李方

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial cellulose was widely applied to food, medicine, paper- making, textile, and acoustics equipment industry as a novel nano -functional material. Using static fermentation systems and dynamic fermentation systems can obtain bacterial cellulose with different structural characteristics and material properties. The selection of fermentation reactor types and optimization of fermentation condition became the focus of bacterial cellulose development for the industrialized production.%细菌纤维素是生物质纳米功能材料,在食品、医疗、造纸、纺织、声学器材等方面有广泛的应用前景。采用静态和动态发酵方式得到的细菌纤维素具有不同的结构特征和材料性能。改进发酵工艺,开发和优化更为合理的发酵条件和发酵反应器,已成为细菌纤维素从实验室走向工业化生产的研究重点。

  10. Final report of the group research. Advanced Technology for Medical Imaging Research. 1996-2000 FY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report involves the organization of the research groups (4 units of radiopharmaceutical chemistry, radiotracer and radiopharmacology, clinical imaging, and molecular informative research), 5 research reports and 38 published research papers. The research reports concern Fundamental researches on the availability and production of PET radiopharmaceuticals using the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) cyclotron, Design and evaluation of in vivo radiopharmaceuticals for PET measurement (kinetics and metabolism in small animals and primates), Fundamental studies on development of technique radiation measurement, Clinical application of medical imaging technology in the fields of neuroscience, cardiovascular, cancer diagnosis and others, and A study to establish and evaluate a lung cancer screening system using spiral CT units which is in pilot-progress in Kanto and Kansai regions. (N.I.)

  11. Electrochemical synthesis of cellulose mesylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidirov, Sh Sh; Akhmedov, M. A.; Khibiev, H. S.

    2016-04-01

    The article deal with the possibility anode modification of cellulose to form its ester - mesylate by voltametric measurement method and preparative electrosynthesis on a platinum electrode in the system cellulose - dimethyl sulfoxide - methanesulfonic

  12. Application Research Progress of Ionic Liquids in Cellulose Chemistry%离子液体在纤维素化学中的应用研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金明; 吕玉霞; 罗楠; 武进; 余坚; 何嘉松; 张军

    2011-01-01

    As the most abundant natural polymer on the earth, cellulose has many attractive properties such as renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and broad chemical-modifying capacity. Cellulose has been considered as the sustainable raw material of energy and chemical engineering in the future. However, because of the well-developed intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding network,cellulose is unmeltable and insoluble in water or conventional organic solvents,which limits its wide utilization. More recently, it is found that certain ionic liquids (ILs) have excellent dissolving capability for cellulose,which provids a new and versatile platform for cellulose processing and derivatization. A series of biopolymer-based materials, biomass energy, platform chemicals, and so on,have been produced with the aid of ILs. Based on about 210 relevant papers published during the past 10 years, this review article highlights recent progress in the field of dissolution, regeneration, derivatization, extraction and conversion of cellulose with ILs. In additon, a perspective on ILs application in cellulose chemistry in the future is briefly discussed. It is hoped that this review work will stimulate research and collaborations that will lead to significant progress in this area.%纤维素是自然界中储量最大的天然高分子,具有可再生、可完全生物降解、生物相容性好等诸多优点,被认为是未来能源、化工的主要原料。由于聚集态结构的特点,天然纤维素不熔融、难溶解,使其应用受到极大限制。近年来,人们发现一定结构的离子液体可以高效地溶解纤维素,这为纤维素的加工与功能化提供了一个崭新和多用途的平台。以离子液体为介质,通过溶解再生和均相衍生化反应可以制得一系列纤维素基高分子材料;通过催化分解等方法,可以得到不同类型的生物质能源以及平台化合物等,从而极大地拓展了纤

  13. Methacrylate hydrogels reinforced with bacterial cellulose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobzová, Radka; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Michálek, Jiří; Karpushkin, Evgeny; Gatenholm, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 7 (2012), s. 1193-1201. ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400500902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : bacterial cellulose * methacrylate hydrogel * composite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.125, year: 2012

  14. Structure of cellulose acetobacter xylinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data are presented on optimization of cellulose synthesis by Acetobacter xylinum (strain VKM V-880) and the structural characteristics of A. xylinum cellulose gel film synthesized during static cultivation. The structural changes caused by the removal of water from gel films are established and the structural organization of macromolecular chains in cellulose A. xylinum is studied

  15. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  16. Brandon Research, Inc. Orthopedic Implant Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, W.R.

    1999-04-22

    The project was a joint research effort between the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Kansas City Plant (KCP) and Brandon Research, Inc. to develop ways to improve implants used for orthopedic surgery for joint replacement. The primary product produced by this study is design information, which may be used to develop implants that will improve long-term fixation and durability in the host bone environment.

  17. Research Project 'RB research nuclear reactor' (operation and maintenance), Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report covers operation and maintenance activities at the RB reactor during period from 1981-1985. First part covers the RB reactor operation, detailed description of reactor components, fuel, heavy water, reactor vessel, cooling system, equipment and instrumentation, auxiliary systems. It contains data concerned with dosimetry and radiation protection, reactor staff, and financial data. Second part deals maintenance, regular control and testing of reactor equipment and instrumentation. Third part is devoted to basic experimental options and utilization of the RB reactor including training

  18. Final report on the Project Research 'Assessment of Human Exposure to Environmental Radiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of the Project Research, 'Assessment of Human Exposure to Environmental Radiation', which has been conducted during the period 1983-1988. With the objective of assessing risk of environmental radioactivity to the population, the Project was divided into the following five research groups: (1) research for establishing calculation models and parameters in transfer of radionuclides from crop species through the human body; (2) research for analyzing transfer of radionuclides in the ocean and their contributions to exposure doses in the human body; (3) research for surveying accuracy of exposure models for the external body and respiratory organ and the influential factors; (4) research for determining uptake and biokinetics of radionuclides in the body; and (5) research for estimating and evaluating physical and physiological characteristics of reference Japanese man and the populaltion doses. Effluents from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants were regarded as radionuclide sources in the water and atmosphere. (N.K.)

  19. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  20. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  1. Cellulose Microfibril Formation by Surface-Tethered Cellulose Synthase Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Snehasish; Omadjela, Okako; Gaddes, David; Tadigadapa, Srinivas; Zimmer, Jochen; Catchmark, Jeffrey M

    2016-02-23

    Cellulose microfibrils are pseudocrystalline arrays of cellulose chains that are synthesized by cellulose synthases. The enzymes are organized into large membrane-embedded complexes in which each enzyme likely synthesizes and secretes a β-(1→4) glucan. The relationship between the organization of the enzymes in these complexes and cellulose crystallization has not been explored. To better understand this relationship, we used atomic force microscopy to visualize cellulose microfibril formation from nickel-film-immobilized bacterial cellulose synthase enzymes (BcsA-Bs), which in standard solution only form amorphous cellulose from monomeric BcsA-B complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques show that surface-tethered BcsA-Bs synthesize highly crystalline cellulose II in the presence of UDP-Glc, the allosteric activator cyclic-di-GMP, as well as magnesium. The cellulose II cross section/diameter and the crystal size and crystallinity depend on the surface density of tethered enzymes as well as the overall concentration of substrates. Our results provide the correlation between cellulose microfibril formation and the spatial organization of cellulose synthases. PMID:26799780

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF REGENERATED CELLULOSE MEMBRANES HYDROLYZED FROM CELLULOSE ACETATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Chen; Xiao-peng Xiong; Guang Yang; Li-na Zhang; Sen-lin Lei; Hui Lianga

    2002-01-01

    A series of cellulose acetate membranes were prepared by using formamide as additive, and then were hydrolyzedin 4 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 8 h to obtain regenerated cellulose membranes. The dependence of degree ofsubstitution, structure, porous properties, solubility and thermal stability on hydrolysis time was studied by chemical titration,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and differentialscanning calorimetry, respectively. The results indicated that the pore size of the regenerated cellulose membranes wasslightly smaller than that of cellulose acetate membrane, while solvent-resistance, crystallinity and thermostability weresignificantly improved. This work provides a simple way to prepare the porous cellulose membranes, which not only kept thegood pore characteristics of cellulose acetate membranes, but also possessed solvent-resistance, high crystallinity andthermostability. Therefore, the application range of cellulose acetate membranes can be expanded.

  3. Degradation of cellulose in irradiated wood and purified celluloses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of cellulose chains in Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus regnans given small gamma-radiation doses has been studied. Scission yields showed marked dose-dependency effects, of which some appear to be due to an inherent dose-dependency exhibited by cellulose itself, and others indicate a protective action of some natural wood constituents. A uniform treatment of viscometry data reported by various workers who have studied radiation-induced degradation of purified cellulose materials, has been used to enable their scission results to be compared with each other and with those for natural wood cellulose of various dose levels. Generally, cellulose in wood is less degraded by radiation than is purified cellulose. However, with Eucalyptus regnans remarkably high scission yields, significantly higher than expected for purified cellulose, were observed at dose levels of 0.5-1.0 x 104Gy. The relevance of these results to changes in pulp yield following irradiation of wood chips, is briefly discussed. (author)

  4. 76 FR 33744 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)-Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... on February 15, 2006 (71 FR 8165), can be accessed on the Internet at the following site: http://www... March 29, 2011 (76 FR 17403). That notice contained background information and our reasons for proposing... Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research...

  5. 77 FR 40601 - Final Priority: Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program; Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... on February 15, 2006 (71 FR 8165), can be accessed on the Internet at the following site: www.ed.gov... notice of proposed priority for this program in the Federal Register on April 26, 2012 (77 FR 24934... Final Priority: Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program;...

  6. 76 FR 38134 - Final Priorities; Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program-Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... (Plan). The Plan, which was published in the Federal Register on February 15, 2006 (71 FR 8165), can be... Projects and Centers Program in the Federal Register on March 22, 2011 (76 FR 15964). That notice contained... Final Priorities; Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers...

  7. 77 FR 54584 - Final Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Final Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research... in the Federal Register (74 FR 9411) to revise the NIH Guidelines in two regards. The first was to..., NIH/OBA revised the proposal and published a notice for comment on April 22, 2010 (75 FR...

  8. Final summary report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Program 1994 - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a summary report of the NKS research program carried out 1994 - 1997. It is basically a compilation of the executive summaries of the final reports on the nine scientific projects carried out during that period. It highlights the conclusions, recommendations and other results of the projects. (au)

  9. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  10. Cysticercosis cellulose cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar Arun

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A woman aged 30 years with solitary lesion of cysticercosis cellulose cutis is reported. Cutaneous cysticerci are often a pointer to the involvement of internal organs. Our patient was a pure vegetarian so, probable mode of infection may be ingestion of contaminated vegetables, where the practice of using pig feces as manure is prevalent.

  11. Assessment report of research and development activities FY2014. Activity: 'Advanced science research' (Final report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'JAEA') consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Advanced Science Research' (hereinafter referred to as 'Committee') for final evaluation and prior assessment of 'Advanced Science Research,' in accordance with 'General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research programs and activities of the Advanced Science Research Center (hereinafter referred to as 'ASRC') for the period of five years from April 2010 and the research programs from April 2015. The Committee evaluated the management and the research programs of the ASRC based on the explanatory documents prepared by the ASRC and the oral presentations with questions-and-answers by the Director and the research group leaders. This report summarizes the results of the assessment by the Committee with the Committee report attached. (author)

  12. Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

    1987-04-01

    Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. Final priorities; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers. Final priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces priorities under the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). Specifically, we announce priorities for a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center (RERC) on Rehabilitation Strategies, Techniques, and Interventions (Priority 1), Information and Communication Technologies Access (Priority 2), Individual Mobility and Manipulation (Priority 3), and Physical Access and Transportation (Priority 4). The Assistant Secretary may use one or more of these priorities for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2013 and later years. We take this action to focus research attention on areas of national need. We intend these priorities to improve community living and participation, health and function, and employment outcomes of individuals with disabilities. PMID:23767077

  14. Atomic and molecular data for plasma modelling. Summary report of the final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final Research Coordination Meeting on 'Atom and Molecular Data for Plasma Modelling' of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) was held on 17-19 November 2008, at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Participants summarized the results obtained in the course of the CRP, and the impact of the data on modelling, especially for the plasma edge and divertor regions. Data needs still exist, and the specialists hoped that further research on these processes will be supported in the future. The discussions, conclusions and recommendations of the RCM are described in this report. (author)

  15. Harnessing Light: Capitalizing on Optical Science Trends and Challenges for Future Research. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedberg, Erik

    2014-02-06

    The committee has during the earlier period finalized their work on the report, Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation (2013) . The report did undergo review and initial editorial processing. The NRC released a pre-publication report on August 13, 2012. A final report is now available. The study director has been able to practice his skills in running a national academies committee. From a research perspective the grant has generated a report with recommendations to the government. The work itself is the meetings where the committee convened to hear presenters and to discuss the status of optics and photonics as well as writing the report.

  16. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.; Giese, S.R.; Lane, A.M. [and others

    1996-01-31

    This is the final report covering work performed on research into methods of attaining clean ferrous castings. In this program methods were developed to minimize the formation of inclusions in steel castings by using a variety of techniques which decreased the tendency for inclusions to form during melting, casting and solidification. In a second project, a reaction chamber was built to remove inclusions from molten steel using electromagnetic force. Finally, a thorough investigation of the causes of sand penetration defects in iron castings was completed, and a program developed which predicts the probability of penetration formation and indicates methods for avoiding it.

  17. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications. PMID:27472335

  18. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  19. The Ademe research programme on atmospheric emissions from composting. Research findings and literature review - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions of gas and particulates (dusts, mineral and organic) linked to composting wastes essentially come from the biodegradation of organic matter by micro-organisms and from the related site management activities, especially material handling (of the raw waste, mixes and compost): movements, turning, sieving and loading. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is, in terms of mass, the main gas produced (along with water vapor) during composting. However, many other gases emitted in small amounts can also have a major impact on the environment and/or health risks. Such is the case for nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) with respect to global warming, and also for ammonia (NH3) with respect to acidification and eutrophication of the local environment, and of a wide range of sulfur-based and volatile organic compounds which can potentially lead to very unpleasant (or offensive) odors and health risks. In the case of emitted dust particles, these can often carry micro-organisms and/or biological compounds with the known health effects of inflammation, allergic reactions and infection. Thus dealing with these emissions and the evaluation of their health and environmental impacts represents key aspects in the long term sustainability of the composting option. Even if the understanding of these emissions remains incomplete, taking into account the wide range of solid wastes treated and of the methods of composting available, efforts have been made these last years to better characterize the substrate and to improve the related measurement methods. ADEME launched in 2006 a research programme specifically addressing this theme in particular, involving many research organizations, technical centres, research consultancies and industrial partners. The work carried out in this framework has enabled an improvement in the knowledge of characterizing emissions, of their sources and controlling factors, of their metrology (whether at the source or within the environment around treatment

  20. Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project (SPAR-II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As storage of spent fuel has become a key technology in spent fuel management, wet and dry storage have become mature technologies and continue to demonstrate good performance. Increased spent fuel storage capacity in combination with longer storage durations will be needed over the foreseeable future as many countries have delayed their decision on spent fuel disposal or reprocessing. Extended spent fuel storage is, and will remain, an important activity for all countries with nuclear power programmes. A number of countries are planning or have already initiated research programmes on spent fuel storage performance, and there is a continuing benefit in exchanging spent fuel storage experience of the Member States in order to build a comprehensive technology knowledge base. Potential degradation mechanisms that may affect cladding integrity during wet storage are uniform corrosion, pitting, galvanic, and microbiologically-influenced corrosion. Potential degradation mechanisms that may affect cladding integrity during dry storage and subsequent handling and transportation operations are air oxidation, thermal creep, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), delayed hydride cracking (DHC), hydride re-orientation, hydrogen migration and re-distribution. Investigations carried out so far indicate that from the degradation mechanisms that may affect the integrity of spent fuel assembly/bundle structure during interim storage, hydride re-orientation has the potential to impair the ability of the cladding to effectively withstand potentially adverse mechanical challenges resulting from handling or transportation accidents. Fuel integrity issues are related to the definition and criteria of fuel integrity, failure classification, packaging and retrieval of damaged fuel and transport of damaged fuel assemblies. Various monitoring technologies have been developed and used to confirm the continued spent fuel integrity during storage or to provide an early indication of developing

  1. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose derivatives obtained from bacterial cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical modification of cellulose leads to production of derivatives with different properties from those observed for the original cellulose, for example, increased solubility in more traditional solvents. In this work we synthesized four derivatives of cellulose: microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose acetate, methylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose using bacterial cellulose as a source. These were characterized in terms of chemical and structural changes by examining the degree of substitution (DS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - NMR 13C. The molecular weight and degree of polymerization were evaluated by viscometry. The characterization of the morphology of materials and thermal properties were performed with the techniques of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy images, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis. (author)

  2. The final status of the decommissioning of research reactors in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decommissioning project for the Korean Research Reactors (KRR-1 and 2) was started in 1997 and had been carried out with the goal of completion being by the end of 2008. All the facilities were dismantled and the building surfaces decontaminated. The radioactive waste was packed into 200 liter drums and 4 m3 containers and temporarily stored on site until their final disposal at the national repository facility. Some of the releasable waste was freely released and utilized for the non-nuclear industries. The assessment of the residual radioactivity was carried out according to Multi Agency Radiation Site Survey and Investigation Manual guidance, and accordingly, the safety of the site release was verified. The site and the buildings will be cleared for a reuse for non nuclear purposes after a review of the assessment. In this paper, the final status of the decommissioning of research reactors in Korea including dismantlement processes, waste management and a final assessment for unrestricted use of the site and buildings for the final goal of the decommissioning project that will be described. (Author)

  3. Interactions of microfibrillated cellulose and cellulosic fines with cationic polyelectrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Taipale, Tero

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this work was to produce and characterize different types of cellulosic fines and microfibrillated cellulose; to study their interactions with high molar mass cationic polyelectrolytes; and to demonstrate novel examples of their utilization. The work was performed, and its results discussed mainly from papermaking point of view, but the results are also well applicable in other fields of industry. Cellulosic fines are an essential component of papermaking fiber suspens...

  4. Final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination, 1984-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). The committee was established to address national and international issues involving ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Three sections are included in the report: a summary of CIRRPC`s history structure, and operations; CIRRPC`s most significant activities, findings and recommendations on national radiation issues of sufficient importance and scope to require interagency attention; topics for future consideration by Federal agencies.

  5. Final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination, 1984-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). The committee was established to address national and international issues involving ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Three sections are included in the report: a summary of CIRRPC's history structure, and operations; CIRRPC's most significant activities, findings and recommendations on national radiation issues of sufficient importance and scope to require interagency attention; topics for future consideration by Federal agencies

  6. Alcohol interlock implementation in the European Union : feasibility study. Final report of the European research project

    OpenAIRE

    Bax, C. (ed.) Kärki, O. Evers, C. Bernhoft, I.M. & Mathijssen, R.

    2002-01-01

    A Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device (BAIID) is a breath testing device connected to the ignition system of a motor vehicle. It prevents an operator from starting the vehicle if the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) exceeds a predetermined threshold or fail level. From November 2000 until September 2001, a consortium of European road safety research institutes conducted a feasibility study regarding the implementation of BAIIDs in EU drink-driving policies. This is the final report of...

  7. Nuclear techniques in the coal industry. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of promoting advanced research and facilitating a more extensive application of nuclear techniques for environmental protection in the exploration and exploitation of coal, the IAEA established the present co-ordinated research programme (CRP) in 1989. This report includes an assessment of the current status and trends in nuclear techniques in the coal industry and the results obtained by the participants at the CRP. Proceedings of the final CRP on ''Nuclear Techniques in Exploration and Exploitation of Coal: On-line and Bulk Analysis and Evaluation of Potential Environmental Pollutants in Coal and Coke'', was held in Krakow, Poland, from 9 to 12 May 1994. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. TTA school-based research consortium initiative, the evaluation, final report

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, S.; Simons, H.; James, D; Jones, K; Yee, W C

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report of the evaluation of th School-Based Research Consortium Initiative which ran in England from 1998 to 2001. The initiative was sponsored via a public/private partnership between the Teacher Training Agency (TTA), a UK Government agency, and the Centre for British Teachers (CfBT), a private not-for-profit company. The aim of the initiative was to create local infrastructures of support and action for teachers to engage ‘in and with’ research. Those infrastructures wer...

  9. Sustainable green composites of thermoplastic starch and cellulose fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnuay Wattanakornsiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Green composites have gained renewed interest as environmental friendly materials and as biodegradable renewable resources for a sustainable development. This review provides an overview of recent advances in green composites based on thermoplastic starch (TPS and cellulose fibers. It includes information about compositions, preparations, and properties of starch, cellulose fibers, TPS, and green composites based on TPS and cellulose fibers. Introduction and production of these recyclable composites into the material market would be important for environmental sustainability as their use can decrease the volume of petroleum derived plastic waste dumps. Green composites are comparable cheap and abundant, but further research and development is needed for a broader utilization.

  10. NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

  11. Evaluation of drug interactions with nanofibrillar cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Peltonen, Leena; Laukkanen, Antti; Hellman, Maarit; Laaksonen, Päivi; Linder, Markus B; Hirvonen, Jouni; Laaksonen, Timo

    2013-11-01

    Nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) (also referred to as cellulose nanofibers, nanocellulose, microfibrillated, or nanofibrillated cellulose) has recently gotten wide attention in various research areas and it has also been studied as excipient in formulation of the pharmaceutical dosage forms. Here, we have evaluated the interactions between NFC and the model drugs of different structural characteristics (size, charge, etc.). The series of permeation studies were utilized to evaluate the ability of the drugs in solution to diffuse through the thin, porous, dry NFC films. An incubation method was used to determine capacity of binding of chosen model drugs to NFC as well as isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to study thermodynamics of the binding process. A genetically engineered fusion protein carrying double cellulose binding domain was used as a positive control since its affinity and capacity of binding for NFC have already been reported. The permeation studies revealed the size dependent diffusion rate of the model drugs through the NFC films. The results of both binding and ITC studies showed that the studied drugs bind to the NFC material and indicated the pH dependence of the binding and electrostatic forces as the main mechanism. PMID:23774185

  12. Blends of dissolved cellulose with acrylic acid copolymers or microfibrillated cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Saarikoski, Eve

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop dissolved cellulose (dissolved in NaOH/ZnO) based blends with acrylic acid copolymers (poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (PE-co-AA) or poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PAA-co-AA)) or microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in the way they could be used in injection molding or for film/coating applications. This thesis summarizes the research reported in five publications supported by some unpublished results. Rheological studies done in the contexts of this work...

  13. Novel oil resistant cellulosic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Aulin, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to prepare and characterise oil resistant cellulosic materials, ranging from model surfaces to papers and aerogels. The cellulosic materials were made oil resistant by chemical and topographic modifications, based on surface energy, surface roughness and barrier approaches. Detailed wetting studies of the prepared cellulosic materials were made using contact angle measurements and standardised penetration tests with different alkanes and oil mixtures. A signific...

  14. Nanocellulose prepared by acid hydrolysis of isolated cellulose from sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, W. T.; Rochliadi, A.; Arcana, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    Cellulose in nanometer range or called by nano-cellulose has attracted much attention from researchers because of its unique properties. Nanocellulose can be obtained by acid hydrolysis of cellulose. The cellulose used in this study was isolated from sugarcane bagasse, and then it was hydrolyzed by 50% sulfuric acid at 40 °C for 10 minutes. Nanocellulose has been characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Analysis of FTIR showed that there were not a new bond which formed during the hydrolysis process. Based on the TEM analysis, nano-cellulose has a spherical morphology with an average diameter of 111 nm and a maximum distribution of 95.9 nm determined by PSA. The XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity degree of nano-cellulose was higher than cellulose in the amount of 76.01%.

  15. Cellulose biogenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Organisms that synthesize cellulose can be found amongst the bacteria, protistans, fungi, and animals, but it is in plants that the importance of cellulose in function (as the major structural constituent of plant cell walls) and economic use (as wood and fiber) can be best appreciated. The structure of cellulose and its biosynthesis have been the subjects of intense investigation. One of the most important insights gained from these studies is that the synthesis of cellulose by living organisms involves much more than simply the polymerization of glucose into a (1{r_arrow}4)-{beta}-linked polymer. The number of glucoses in a polymer (the degree of polymerization), the crystalline form assumed by the glucan chains when they crystallize to form a microfibril, and the dimensions and orientation of the microfibrils are all subject to cellular control. Instead of cellulose biosynthesis, a more appropriate term might be cellulose biogenesis, to emphasize the involvement of cellular structures and mechanisms in controlling polymerization and directing crystallization and deposition. Dictyostelium discoideum is uniquely suitable for the study of cellulose biogenesis because of its amenability to experimental study and manipulation and the extent of our knowledge of its basic cellular mechanisms (as will be evident from the rest of this volume). In this chapter, I will summarize what is known about cellulose biogenesis in D. discoideum, emphasizing its potential to illuminate our understanding both of D. discoideum development and plant cellulose biogenesis.

  16. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the Finnish bedrock. Technical research and development in the period 1993-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning activity relating to the disposal of spent fuel from the Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) nuclear power plants in Finland is targeted at selection of the site for final disposal in the year 2000, with final disposal actually beginning in 2020. The report describes the research and development work carried out in the years 1993-1996, the current revised concept for final disposal technology and the research and development programme for the period 1997-2000. (refs.)

  17. Intercampus institute for research at particle accelerators. Final report, March 15, 1992--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-22

    This is the final report to the DOE for the Intercampus Institute for Research at Particle Accelerators, or IIRPA, at least for the San Diego branch. Over the years that DOE supported IIRPA, we were told that yearly reports (and the final report) were not necessary because the previous year`s summary in our annual request for funds constituted those reports. Therefore, it has taken some effort, and a corresponding long time, to put something together, after the fact. The IIRPA was born as an idea that arose during discussions at the 1974 PEP summer study, and began to be funded by DoE during the early stages of PEP detector design and construction. The intent was for the members of the Institute to be responsible for the PEP-9 Facility; all of the PEP experiments were supposed to be facilities, rather than just experimental setups for a particular group or research goal. IIRPA was approved as a Multicampus Research Unit (MRU) in 1977 by the University of California, and it was active on the UCD, UCSB and UCSD campuses for 10 years. This report concentrates on the period of time when the Directorship of IIRPA was once again at the San Diego campus, 1989 to 1995. The collection of yearly reports consisting of research in different areas of particle physics, make up this report in the appendices.

  18. Intercampus institute for research at particle accelerators. Final report, March 15, 1992 - September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report to the DOE for the Intercampus Institute for Research at Particle Accelerators, or IIRPA, at least for the San Diego branch. Over the years that DOE supported IIRPA, we were told that yearly reports (and the final report) were not necessary because the previous year's summary in our annual request for funds constituted those reports. Therefore, it has taken some effort, and a corresponding long time, to put something together, after the fact. The IIRPA was born as an idea that arose during discussions at the 1974 PEP summer study, and began to be funded by DoE during the early stages of PEP detector design and construction. The intent was for the members of the Institute to be responsible for the PEP-9 Facility; all of the PEP experiments were supposed to be facilities, rather than just experimental setups for a particular group or research goal. IIRPA was approved as a Multicampus Research Unit (MRU) in 1977 by the University of California, and it was active on the UCD, UCSB and UCSD campuses for 10 years. This report concentrates on the period of time when the Directorship of IIRPA was once again at the San Diego campus, 1989 to 1995. The collection of yearly reports consisting of research in different areas of particle physics, make up this report in the appendices

  19. Nanocellulose patents trends: a comprehensive review on patents on cellulose nanocrystals, microfibrillated and bacterial cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreau, Hernan; Foresti, Maria L; Vazquez, Analia

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose nanoparticles (i.e. cellulose elements having at least one dimension in the 1-100 nm range) have received increasing attention during the last decade. This is not only evident in academic articles, but it is also manifested by the increasing number of nanocellulose patents that are published every year. In the current review, nanocellulose patents are reviewed using specific software which provides valuable information on the annual number of patents that have been published throughout the years, main patent owners, most prolific inventors, and patents on the field that have received more citations. Patent statistics on rod-like cellulose nanoparticles extracted from plants by acid hydrolysis (nanocrystals), mechanical treatment leading to microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), and microbially produced nanofibrils (bacterial cellulose, BC) are analyzed in detail. The aim of the current review is to provide researchers with patent information which may help them in visualizing the evolution of nanocellulose technology, both as a whole and also divided among the different nanosized particles that are currently the subject of outstanding scientific attention. Then, patents are not only analyzed by their content, but also by global statistics which will reveal the moment at which different cellulose nanoparticles technologies achieved a breakthrough, the relative interest received by different nanocellulose particles throughout the years, the companies that have been most interested in this technology, the most prolific inventors, and the patents that have had more influence in further developments. It is expected that the results showing the explosion that nanocellulose technology is experiencing in current days will still bring more research on the topic and contribute to the expansion of nanocellulosics applications. PMID:22747719

  20. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha Sankar, P C; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M J

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. PMID:26838891

  1. Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid) Sheet Reinforced with Microfibrillated Cellulose from Corn Cobs

    OpenAIRE

    Deejam Prapatsorn; Charuchinda Sireerat

    2015-01-01

    In this study, cellulose was extracted from corn cobs by successive hot NaOH solution and followed by H2O2 bleaching. XRD pattern show characteristic peak of Cellulose I. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was successfully prepared by dissolving the extracted cellulose in NaOH/urea solution, shearing in a homogenizer and finally by freezing and thawing. To improve strength of MFC, MFC was physically crosslinked using PVA by freezing and thawing. The crosslinked MFC/PVA was added to poly(lactic ...

  2. Publicly administrated nuclear waste management research programme 1994-1996. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the JYT-programme has been to provide the authorities with independent information and research results relevant for the safety of nuclear waste management. The main emphasis in this research programme has been devoted to the final disposal of spent fuel. The whole area of the research programme has been subdivided into following main topic areas: (1) bedrock structure and stability, rock investigation methods and characteristics and flow of ground water, (2) release of radionuclides from a repository and subsequent transport in the bedrock, (3) performance and safety assessment of repositories and other phases of nuclear waste management, (4) natural analogue studies, (5) waste management technology and costs and (6) socio political and other societal issues and environmental impact assessment

  3. Publicly administrated nuclear waste management research programme 1994-1996. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuori, S. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-09-01

    The main objective of the JYT-programme has been to provide the authorities with independent information and research results relevant for the safety of nuclear waste management. The main emphasis in this research programme has been devoted to the final disposal of spent fuel. The whole area of the research programme has been subdivided into following main topic areas: (1) bedrock structure and stability, rock investigation methods and characteristics and flow of ground water, (2) release of radionuclides from a repository and subsequent transport in the bedrock, (3) performance and safety assessment of repositories and other phases of nuclear waste management, (4) natural analogue studies, (5) waste management technology and costs and (6) socio political and other societal issues and environmental impact assessment.

  4. Final Report, University Research Program in Robotics (URPR), Nuclear Facilities Clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report describes the research activity at the University of Texas at Austin with application to EM needs at DOE. This research activity is divided in to two major thrusts and contributes to the overall University Research Program in Robotics (URPR) thrust by providing mechanically oriented robotic solutions based on modularity and generalized software. These thrusts are also the core strengths of the UTA program that has a 40-year history in machine development, 30 years specifically devoted to robotics. Since 1975, much of this effort has been to establish the general analytical and design infrastructure for an open (modular) architecture of systems with many degrees of freedom that are able to satisfy a broad range of applications for future production machines. This work has coalesced from two principal areas: standardized actuators and generalized software

  5. EDISON - research programme on electric distribution automation 1993-1997. Final report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-08-01

    This report comprises a summary of the results of the five year research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish utilities. The research programme (1993 - 1997) was conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of the funding has been from the Technology Development Centre TEKES and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme was to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer associated automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management were developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim was to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of nineteen projects are given in this report

  6. Radiological and environmental consequences. Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-2, Radiological and Environmental Consequences. The project was carried out 1998-2001 with participants from all the Nordic countries. Representatives from the Baltic States were also invited to some of the meetings and seminars. The project consisted of work on terrestrial and marine radioecology and had a broad scope in order to enable participation of research groups with various fields of interest. This report focuses on the project itself and gives a general summary of the studies undertaken. A separate technical report summarises the work done by each research group and gives references to papers published in scientific journals. The topics in BOK-2 included improving assessment of old and recent fallout, use of radionuclides as tracers in Nordic marine areas, improving assessment of internal doses and use of mass spectrometry in radioecology. (au)

  7. Radiological and environmental consequences. Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute (Iceland)

    2002-11-01

    Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-2, Radiological and Environmental Consequences. The project was carried out 1998-2001 with participants from all the Nordic countries. Representatives from the Baltic States were also invited to some of the meetings and seminars. The project consisted of work on terrestrial and marine radioecology and had a broad scope in order to enable participation of research groups with various fields of interest. This report focuses on the project itself and gives a general summary of the studies undertaken. A separate technical report summarises the work done by each research group and gives references to papers published in scientific journals. The topics in BOK-2 included improving assessment of old and recent fallout, use of radionuclides as tracers in Nordic marine areas, improving assessment of internal doses and use of mass spectrometry in radioecology. (au)

  8. Decommissioning techniques for research reactors. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its international role, the IAEA is faced with a wide variety of national situations and different availability of technical, human and financial resources. While it is recognised that nuclear decommissioning is a mature industry in some developed countries, and may soon become a routine activity, the situation is by no means so clear in other countries. In addition, transfer of technologies and know-how from developed to developing countries is not a spontaneous, straightforward process, and will take time and considerable effort. As mandated by its own statute and Member States' requests, the IAEA continues to respond to its Member States by monitoring technological progress, ensuring development of safer and more efficient strategies and fostering international information exchange. Previous co-ordinated research projects (CRP) conducted respectively from 1984 to 1987, and from 1989 to 1993, investigated the overall domain of decommissioning. In those CRPs no distinction was made between decommissioning activities carried out at nuclear power plants, research reactors or nuclear fuel cycle facilities. With technological progress and experience gained, it became clear that decommissioning of research reactors had certain specific characteristics which needed a dedicated approach. In addition, a large number of research reactors reached a state of permanent shutdown in the 1990s and were candidates for prompt decommissioning. With the progressive ageing of research reactors, many more of these units will soon become redundant worldwide and require decommissioning. Within this context, a CRP on Decommissioning Techniques for Research Reactors was launched and conducted by the IAEA from 1997 to 2001 in order to prepare for eventual decommissioning. Concluding reports that summarized the work undertaken under the aegis of the CRP were presented at the third and final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Kendal, United Kingdom, 14-18 May 2001, and are collected

  9. Stable isotopes in human nutrition research. Final report on an IAEA co-ordinated research programme, Vienna, Austria, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Applications of Stable Isotope Tracers in Human Nutrition Research was established by the Agency in October 1988 and was completed in 1992. At various times during this period the CRP encompassed 16 participants in 16 countries. Its general objective was to help establish competence in the use of stable isotope techniques, particularly in developing countries, and particularly with reference to applications of 2H, 13C, 15N, and 18O in human nutrition research. Thereby it was hoped that it would be possible (i) to identify centres and scientists throughout the developing world who could use stable isotopes in human nutrition research, (ii) to assess the need for methodological adaptations for isotope-based methods in developing countries, and (iii) to advance the competence of the participants in using stable isotopes as tracers of human metabolism. In addition it was expected that the CRP would make a study of some major questions which have been identified by international groups of nutrition experts, particularly in areas relating to energy and protein metabolism. This document comprises copies of the working papers submitted by all CRP participants who contributed a final report on their project. These reports include details of the rationale, methods, results and interpretations from each of the respective studies. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Dissecting the molecular mechanism underlying the intimate relationship between cellulose microfibrils and cortical microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eLei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A central question in plant cell development is how the cell wall determines directional cell expansion and therefore the final shape of the cell. As the major load-bearing component of the cell wall, cellulose microfibrils are laid down transversely to the axis of elongation, thus forming a spring-like structure that reinforces the cell laterally and while favoring longitudinal expansion in most growing cells. Mounting evidence suggests that cortical microtubules organize the deposition of cellulose microfibrils, but the precise molecular mechanisms linking microtubules to cellulose organization have remained unclear until the recent discovery of CSI1, a linker protein between the cortical microtubules and the cellulose biosynthesizing machinery. In this review, we will focus on the intimate relationship between cellulose microfibrils and cortical microtubules, in particular, we will discuss microtubule arrangement and cell wall architecture, the linkage between cellulose synthase complexes and microtubules, and the feedback mechanisms between cell wall and microtubules.

  11. ACCESSIBILITY AND CRYSTALLINITY OF CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioelovich

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The accessibility of cellulose samples having various degrees of crystallinity was studied with respect to molecules of water, lower primary alcohols, and lower organic acids. It was found that small water molecules have full access to non-crystalline domains of cellulose (accessibility coefficient α = 1. Molecules of the lowest polar organic liquids (methanol, ethanol, and formic acid have partial access into the non-crystalline domains (α<1, and with increasing diameter of the organic molecules their accessibility to cellulose structure decreases. Accessibility of cellulose samples to molecules of various substances is a linear function of the coefficient α and the content of non-crystalline domains. The relationship between crystallinity (X and accessibility (A of cellulose to molecules of some liquids has been established as A = α (1-X. The water molecules were found to have greater access to cellulose samples than the molecules of the investigated organic liquids. The obtained results permit use of accessibility data to estimate the crystallinity of cellulose, to examine the structural state of non-crystalline domains, and to predict the reactivity of cellulose samples toward some reagents.

  12. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Akira; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Fukuzumi, Hayaka

    2011-01-01

    Native wood celluloses can be converted to individual nanofibers 3-4 nm wide that are at least several microns in length, i.e. with aspect ratios >100, by TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and successive mild disintegration in water. Preparation methods and fundamental characteristics of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCN) are reviewed in this paper. Significant amounts of C6 carboxylate groups are selectively formed on each cellulose microfibril surface by TEMPO-mediated oxidation without any changes to the original crystallinity (~74%) or crystal width of wood celluloses. Electrostatic repulsion and/or osmotic effects working between anionically-charged cellulose microfibrils, the ζ-potentials of which are approximately -75 mV in water, cause the formation of completely individualized TOCN dispersed in water by gentle mechanical disintegration treatment of TEMPO-oxidized wood cellulose fibers. Self-standing TOCN films are transparent and flexible, with high tensile strengths of 200-300 MPa and elastic moduli of 6-7 GPa. Moreover, TOCN-coated poly(lactic acid) films have extremely low oxygen permeability. The new cellulose-based nanofibers formed by size reduction process of native cellulose fibers by TEMPO-mediated oxidation have potential application as environmentally friendly and new bio-based nanomaterials in high-tech fields.

  13. Nuclear emergency preparedness. Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Project BOK-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.

    2002-01-01

    Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-1. The BOK-1 project, “Nuclear Emergency Preparedness”, was carried out in 1998-2001 with participants from the Nordic and Baltic Sea regions. The project consists of six sub-projects:Laboratory measurements and quality assurance (BOK-1.......1); Mobile measurements and measurement strategies (BOK-1.2); Field measurements and data assimilation (BOK-1.3); Countermeasures in agriculture and forestry (BOK-1.4); Emergency monitoring in theNordic and Baltic Sea countries (BOK-1.5); and Nuclear exercises (BOK-1.6). For each sub-project, the project...

  14. Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan R. White; Ann G. Matthysse

    2004-07-31

    We have cloned the celC gene and its homologue from E. coli, yhjM, in an expression vector and expressed the both genes in E. coli; we have determined that the YhjM protein is able to complement in vitro cellulose synthesis by extracts of A. tumefaciens celC mutants, we have purified the YhjM protein product and are currently examining its enzymatic activity; we have examined whole cell extracts of CelC and various other cellulose mutants and wild type bacteria for the presence of cellulose oligomers and cellulose; we have examined the ability of extracts of wild type and cellulose mutants including CelC to incorporate UDP-14C-glucose into cellulose and into water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble oligosaccharides; we have made mutants which synthesize greater amounts of cellulose than the wild type; and we have examined the role of cellulose in the formation of biofilms by A. tumefaciens. In addition we have examined the ability of a putative cellulose synthase gene from the tunicate Ciona savignyi to complement an A. tumefaciens celA mutant. The greatest difference between our knowledge of bacterial cellulose synthesis when we started this project and current knowledge is that in 1999 when we wrote the original grant very few bacteria were known to synthesize cellulose and genes involved in this synthesis were sequenced only from Acetobacter species, A. tumefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Currently many bacteria are known to synthesize cellulose and genes that may be involved have been sequenced from more than 10 species of bacteria. This additional information has raised the possibility of attempting to use genes from one bacterium to complement mutants in another bacterium. This will enable us to examine the question of which genes are responsible for the three dimensional structure of cellulose (since this differs among bacterial species) and also to examine the interactions between the various proteins required for cellulose synthesis. We have carried out one

  15. Drying of Pigment-Cellulose Nanofibril Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Timofeev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new substrate containing cellulose nanofibrils and inorganic pigment particles has been developed for printed electronics applications. The studied composite structure contains 80% fillers and is mechanically stable and flexible. Before drying, the solids content can be as low as 20% due to the high water binding capacity of the cellulose nanofibrils. We have studied several drying methods and their effects on the substrate properties. The aim is to achieve a tight, smooth surface keeping the drying efficiency simultaneously at a high level. The methods studied include: (1 drying on a hot metal surface; (2 air impingement drying; and (3 hot pressing. Somewhat surprisingly, drying rates measured for the pigment-cellulose nanofibril substrates were quite similar to those for the reference board sheets. Very high dewatering rates were observed for the hot pressing at high moisture contents. The drying method had significant effects on the final substrate properties, especially on short-range surface smoothness. The best smoothness was obtained with a combination of impingement and contact drying. The mechanical properties of the sheets were also affected by the drying method and associated temperature.

  16. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. PMID:26964959

  17. Microfibrillated cellulose and new nanocomposite materials: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siró, Istvan; Plackett, David

    2010-01-01

    continuing research and are commercially interesting in terms of new products from the pulp and paper industry and the agricultural sector. Cellulose nanofibers can be extracted from various plant sources and, although the mechanical separation of plant fibers into smaller elementary constituents has......Due to their abundance, high strength and stiffness, low weight and biodegradability, nano-scale cellulose fiber materials (e.g., microfibrillated cellulose and bacterial cellulose) serve as promising candidates for bio-nanocomposite production. Such new high-value materials are the subject of...... typically required high energy input, chemical and/or enzymatic fiber pre-treatments have been developed to overcome this problem. A challenge associated with using nanocellulose in composites is the lack of compatibility with hydrophobic polymers and various chemical modification methods have been explored...

  18. PENYALUTAN KACANG RENDAH LEMAK MENGGUNAKAN SELULOSA ETER DENGAN PENCELUPAN UNTUK MENGURANGI PENYERAPAN MINYAK SELAMA PENGGORENGAN DAN MENINGKATKAN STABILITAS OKSIDATIF SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Ether Cellulose Coatings by Dipping on Partially Defatted Peanuts to Reduce Oil Uptake During Frying and to Increase Oxidative Stability During Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Made Darawati1); Yudi Pranoto2)

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to reduce oil uptake during frying and to improve the oxidative stability of a partially defatted peanuts (PDP) product by coating with ether cellulose-based substances, namely carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), hydroxyprophyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), methyl cellulose (MC) and hydroxyprophyl cellulose by dipping method. The research was conducted through following steps: preparation of ether cellulose-based edible film and evaluation of the properties, coating application on P...

  19. Final report on: Grain size determination in zirconium alloys (IAEA Research Contract No. 6025/Rb.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, E

    1991-12-15

    In spite of the amount of research developed the knowledge still is far from complete and in this basis the International Atomic Energy Agency, (IAEA), by means of the Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology, initiated, in 1990 the Coordinated Research Programme named Grain Size Determination In Zirconium Alloys. Several countries were invited to participate and to contribute to the main objective of the programme, which can be state as: To develop a unified metallographic technique capable to show the microstructure of zircaloy in a reproducible and uniform manner. To fulfill the objective the following goals were established: A. To measure the grain size and perform an statistical treatment, in samples prepared specifically to show different amounts of cold work, recrystallization and grain growth. B. To compare the results obtained by the different laboratories involved in the programme. C. Finally, after the Ugine meeting, also the determination of the recrystallization and grain growth kinetics. (Author)

  20. Final report on: Grain size determination in zirconium alloys (IAEA Research Contract No. 6025/Rb.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the amount of research developed the knowledge still is far from complete and in this basis the International Atomic Energy Agency, (IAEA), by means of the Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology, initiated, in 1990 the Coordinated Research Programme named Grain Size Determination In Zirconium Alloys. Several countries were invited to participate and to contribute to the main objective of the programme, which can be state as: To develop a unified metallographic technique capable to show the microstructure of zircaloy in a reproducible and uniform manner. To fulfill the objective the following goals were established: A. To measure the grain size and perform an statistical treatment, in samples prepared specifically to show different amounts of cold work, recrystallization and grain growth. B. To compare the results obtained by the different laboratories involved in the programme. C. Finally, after the Ugine meeting, also the determination of the recrystallization and grain growth kinetics. (Author)

  1. Evaluation of the Northern Squawfish Management Program : Final Report of Research, 1990-1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.

    1998-10-28

    This document is the final report of research conducted from 1990-96 by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) to evaluate Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) project 90-077, the Northern Squawfish Management Program (NSMP). The Summary of Project summarizes and integrates the results, conclusions, and recommendations of the evaluation. The report contains research papers that describe how we addressed project objectives, how we reached our conclusions, and why we made our recommendations. The papers are listed and numbered consecutively in the Table of Contents and the numbers are used to reference each paper in the Summary of Project. It is the integration of these individual papers that provides the best picture of the current status of the NSMP.

  2. IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31

    This project addressed four major areas of investigation: i) characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; ii) characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; iii) characterization of Thermobifida fusca biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; and iii) description of the architecture of mature C. uda, C. phytofermentans, and T. fusca biofilms. This research is aimed at advancing understanding of biofilm formation and other complex processes involved in the degradation of the abundant cellulosic biomass, and the biology of the microbes involved. Information obtained from these studies is invaluable in the development of practical applications, such as the single-step bioconversion of cellulose-containing residues to fuels and other bioproducts. Our results have clearly shown that cellulose-decomposing microbes rapidly colonize cellulose and form complex structures typical of biofilms. Furthermore, our observations suggest that, as cells multiply on nutritive surfaces during biofilms formation, dramatic cell morphological changes occur. We speculated that morphological changes, which involve a transition from rod-shaped cells to more rounded forms, might be more apparent in a filamentous microbe. In order to test this hypothesis, we included in our research a study of biofilm formation by T. fusca, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete commonly found in compost. The cellulase system of T. fusca has been extensively detailed through the work of David Wilson and colleagues at Cornell, and also, genome sequence of a T. fusca strain has been determine by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. Thus, T. fusca is an excellent subject for studies of biofilm development and its potential impacts on cellulose degradation. We also completed a study of the chitinase system of C. uda. This work provided essential background information for understanding how C. uda

  3. The fast and effective isolation of nanocellulose from selected cellulosic feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunaver, Matjaž; Anžlovar, Alojz; Žagar, Ema

    2016-09-01

    A new process for the production of nanocellulose from selected cellulose-containing natural materials has been developed. The liquefaction reaction, using glycols and mild acid catalysis (methane sulphonic acid), was applied to four model materials, namely cotton linters, spruce wood, eucalyptus wood and Chinese silver grass. The process contains only four steps, the milling, the glycolysis reaction, centrifugation and final rinsing with an organic solvent. The nanocrystalline cellulose recovery was between 56% and 75%. The crystallinity index was greater than that of the starting materials due to the liquefaction of lignin, hemicelluloses and amorphous cellulose. The final product was a stable, highly concentrated nanocrystalline cellulose suspension in the organic medium. The liquid residue, after the liquefaction of the cotton linters contained significant quantities of levulinic acid. Different sugars were identified in the liquid residues that were derived from cellulose and hemicelluloses during the liquefaction reaction. PMID:27185138

  4. Reinforced plastics and aerogels by nanocrystalline cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), a rigid rod-like nanoscale material, can be produced from cellulosic biomass in powder, liquid, or gel forms by acid and chemical hydrolysis. Owing to its unique and exceptional physicochemical properties, the incorporation of a small amount of NCC into plastic enhances the mechanical strength of the latter by several orders of magnitudes. Carbohydrate-based NCC poses no serious environmental concerns, providing further impetus for the development and applications of this green and renewable biomaterial to fabricate lightweight and biodegradable composites and aerogels. Surface functionalization of NCC remains the main focus of NCC research to tailor its properties for dispersion in hydrophilic or hydrophobic media. It is of uttermost importance to develop tools and protocols for imaging of NCC in a complex matrix and quantify its reinforcement effect.

  5. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijde, Tim; Alvim Kamei, Claire L; Torres, Andres F; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops-maize, sugarcane and sorghum-and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses-miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel. PMID:23653628

  6. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  7. Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Microfiber Reinforced Polyolefin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    Cellulose microfiber (CeF) has been expected as a reinforcement of polymer because of its high modulus and strength and lower cost. In the present study, mechanical properties of CeF/polyolefin were investigated. Tensile modulus increased with increasing CeF content. On the other hand, tensile strength decreased. Fatigue properties were also investigated with acoustic emission measurement. Stiffness of the composites gradually decreased with loading. Drastic decrease in stiffness was observed just before the final fracture. Based on the Mori-Tanaka's theory, the method to calculate modulus of CeF were proposed to evaluate dispersion of CeF.

  8. Participation in the IAEA Coordinated Research Project Fumex III: Final Report of AREVA NP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) FUMEXII, participants asked for a new exercise within an IAEA CRP. This CRP started in December 2008 in Vienna with the first Research Coordination Meeting (RCM). The CRP is titled ''Improvement of Computer Codes Used for Fuel Behaviour Simulation FUMEX III''. The object of FUMEX III were the improvement of fuel rod performance codes for modeling high burnup phenomena in modern fuel. This includes transient behavior, as well as mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding and, in progression to the FUMEX II exercise, fission gas release during various conditions (steady state, load follow, transient). AREVA NP agreed on participating in this exercise under the IAEA research agreement no. 15369 and expressed interest in the modeling of pelletclad mechanical interactions as well as fission gas release under steady state and transient conditions. In this exercise AREVA NP used its new global fuel rod code GALILEO, which is still under development (formerly known under the project name COPERNIC 3). During a Consultants Meeting potential topics and a proposed selection of cases have been prepared, which were discussed during the 1st Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) in Vienna in December 2008. During the discussions a number of additional cases motivated by the participants have been identified. Finally, a case table has been agreed upon, which included several cases for the different topics. Most of the cases have been based on the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database, but additional cases have been provided during the exercise (e.g., the AREVA idealized case

  9. 2013 Nutrition Risk Research Plan Review Final Report. Research Plan Review for: The Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed by the degree of progress the nutrition discipline has made with the research plan presented since the 2012 Nutrition Risk SRP WebEx/teleconference. The scientists and staff associated with the nutrition discipline have, in addition, continued their impressive publication track record. Specifically the SRP found that the novel and important progress in the ocular health research area (Gap N7.3) represents an important advance in understanding the etiology and potential countermeasures for this condition and thinks that the work will not only be valuable for vision, but may have implications for cardiovascular health, as well. The SRP also considered the bone countermeasure data presented a potentially valuable tool for investigating bone metabolism under the unique conditions of space travel, specifically the innovation of variable use of stable Ca isotopes for bone synthesis and equal contribution for bone to investigate bone metabolism, as well as, the impact of the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) on body composition during spaceflight. Finally, the SRP considers the planned Integrated Nutrition task to be an important and necessary strategic part of the research plan. The SRP is concerned that the risks observed in previous research on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) may not capture all the risks of longer duration flight beyond LEO. In particular, the SRP believes that there may be a much greater likelihood of an intensified chronic inflammatory response compared to the very minimal evidence seen to date and that modest effects seen in LEO, such as the reduction in appetite, may not predict an absence in longer duration flight out of LEO. The added complications of longer duration flight, greater bio-behavioral stress, radiation exposure, poorer communication, and inability to respond to unforeseen exigencies may create different risks. Thus, preparation for

  10. Cellulose Derivatives for Water Repellent Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this poster presentation, we will discuss the synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro-benzyl cellulose (1), amino-benzyl cellulose (2) and pentafluoro –benzyl cellulose (3). All cellulose derivatives are synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide h...

  11. Cellulose synthase complexes: structure and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eLei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This review is to update the most recent progress on characterization of the composition, regulation, and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes. We will highlight proteins that interact with cellulose synthases, e.g. cellulose synthase-interactive protein 1 (CSI1. The potential regulation mechanisms by which cellulose synthase interact with cortical microtubules in primary cell walls will be discussed.

  12. Pharmaceutical significance of cellulose: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The amalgamation of polymer and pharmaceutical sciences led to the introduction of polymer in the design and development of drug delivery systems. Polymeric delivery systems are mainly intended to achieve controlled or sustained drug delivery. Polysaccharides fabricated into hydrophilic matrices remain popular biomaterials for controlled-release dosage forms and the most abundant naturally occurring biopolymer is cellulose; so hdroxypropylmethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose and hydroxyethyl cellulose can be used for production of time controlled delivery systems. Additionally microcrystalline cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose as well as hydroxypropyl cellulose are used to coat tablets. Cellulose acetate phthalate and hydroxymethyl cellulose phthalate are also used for enteric coating of tablets. Targeting of drugs to the colon following oral administration has also been accomplished by using polysaccharides such as hdroxypropylmethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose in hydrated form; also they act as binders that swell when hydrated by gastric media and delay absorption. This paper assembles the current knowledge on the structure and chemistry of cellulose, and in the development of innovative cellulose esters and ethers for pharmaceuticals.

  13. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment (e.g. radiation influence and influence of lyes) are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given

  14. Thermophilic degradation of cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1982-12-01

    The conversion of cellulosic biomass to chemical feedstocks and fuel by microbial fermentation is an important objective of developing biotechnology. Direct fermentation of cellulosic derivatives to ethanol by thermophilic bacteria offers a promising approach to this goal. Fermentations at elevated temperatures lowers the energy demand for cooling and also facilitates the recovery of volatile products. In addition, thermophilic microorganisms possess enzymes with greater stability than those from mesophilic microorganisms. Three anaerobic thermophilic cocultures that ferment cellulosic substrate mainly to ethanol have been described: Clostridium thermocellum/Clostriidium thermohydrosulfuricum, C. thermocellum/Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, and C. thermocellum/Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus sp. nov. The growth characteristics and metabolic features of these cocultures are reviewed.

  15. Electric Power Infrastructure Reliability And Security Research And Development Initiative. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final scientific/technical report for the Electric Power Infrastructure Reliability and Security R and D Initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, under award number DE-FG02-05CH11292. This report covers results from the FSU-led, multi-institution effort conducted over the period 8/15/05 to 10/14/2007. Building upon existing infrastructure for power systems research, modeling, and simulation, the Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS) at Florida State University (FSU) is developing world-class programs in electric power systems research and education to support future electric power system needs and challenges. With U.S. Department of Energy Support, FSU CAPS has engaged in a multi-faceted effort to conduct basic and applied research towards understanding, developing, and deploying technologies and approaches that can lead to improved reliability and security of the North American electric power generation and delivery infrastructure. This wide-reaching project, through a number of carefully selected thrusts cutting across several research disciplines, set out to address key terrestrial electric utility power system issues and challenges. The challenges and the thrusts to address them were arrived at through analysis of a number of national reports and recommendations combined with input from an experienced multi-disciplined team of power systems research staff and faculty at FSU CAPS. The resulting project effort can be grouped into four major areas: - Power Systems and New Technology Insertion - Controls, Protection, and Security - Simulation Development - High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS)

  16. Nutritional Interdependence Among Rumen Bacteria During Cellulose Digestion In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Miura, Hideki; HORIGUCHI, Masaaki; Ogimoto, Keiji; MATSUMOTO, Tatsuro

    1983-01-01

    A study has been made of the promoting effect of starch on cellulose digestion by mixed rumen bacteria in a cellulose-urea medium. Starch supplementation of the medium promoted the growth of bacteria that required neither amino acids (AA) nor branched-chain fatty acids (BrFA). The growth of these bacteria was followed by the growth of AA-dependent bacteria, AA- or BrFA-dependent bacteria, BrFA-producing bacteria, and finally, BrFA-dependent cellulolytic bacteria. Population changes of these b...

  17. Nuclear emergency preparedness. Final report of the Nordic nuclear safety research project BOK-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, Bent [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-02-01

    Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-1. The BOK-1 project, 'Nuclear Emergency Preparedness', was carried out in 1998-2001 with participants from the Nordic and Baltic Sea regions. The project consists of six sub-projects: Laboratory measurements and quality assurance (BOK-1.1); Mobile measurements and measurement strategies (BOK-1.2); Field measurement and data assimilation (BOK-1.3); Countermeasures in agriculture and forestry (BOK-1.4); Emergency monitoring in the Nordic and Baltic Sea countries (BOK-1.5); and Nuclear exercises (BOK-1.6). For each sub-project, the project outline, objectives and organization are described and main results presented. (au)

  18. Nuclear emergency preparedness. Final report of the Nordic nuclear safety research project BOK-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-1. The BOK-1 project, 'Nuclear Emergency Preparedness', was carried out in 1998-2001 with participants from the Nordic and Baltic Sea regions. The project consists of six sub-projects: Laboratory measurements and quality assurance (BOK-1.1); Mobile measurements and measurement strategies (BOK-1.2); Field measurement and data assimilation (BOK-1.3); Countermeasures in agriculture and forestry (BOK-1.4); Emergency monitoring in the Nordic and Baltic Sea countries (BOK-1.5); and Nuclear exercises (BOK-1.6). For each sub-project, the project outline, objectives and organization are described and main results presented. (au)

  19. Cueing Metacognition to Improve Researching and Essay Writing in a Final Year High School Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, L. N.

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports on degrees of awareness and use of specific metacognitive strategies by 16 students in a final-year high school biology class in New Zealand. The aims of the intervention were to broaden students' thinking about bioethical issues associated with cancer and to enhance students' use of metacognition. Cues and prompts were used in this unit of work to help students use metacognitive strategies since students did not generally use metacognitive strategies spontaneously. Scaffolding was mediated through the teacher modelling, questioning, cueing or prompting students to evaluate their learning. The research reported here illustrates how teachers can cue students to be more self-directed in their learning. Three case studies illustrate how learning strategies were used differentially. Most students were aware of strategies that could help them to learn more effectively. It was found that those students who were not only aware of but also used strategies to plan, monitor and evaluate their work, produced essays of higher quality.

  20. Research activities in modeling the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappe, A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-01

    Selective oxidation of organic substrates by oxygen, where all 4 oxidizing equivalents are used productively, remains an unsolved problem in catalysis. In an idealized catalytic cycle that could solve this problem, three separate steps are involved: first oxygen must be rapidly bound, then the O-O bond must be cleaved, and finally each oxo ligand needs to react independently with the substrate regenerating the catalyst. The first and last steps were investigated in this research program. Molecular mechanics was used to study the O{sub 2} binding step and ab initio electronic structure tools were used to study M-O bonding and the reactivity of M{double_bond}O bonds with methane. Mn and Fe complexes are involved.

  1. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose as the entry point into biorefinery schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Roberto; Schüth, Ferdi

    2009-01-01

    Cellulose is a major source of glucose because it is readily available, renewable, and does not compete with the food supply. Hydrolysis of cellulose is experiencing a new research and development cycle in which this reaction is carried out over solid catalysts and coupled to other reactions for increased efficiency. Cellulose is typically not soluble in conventional solvents and very resistant to chemical and biological transformations. This Review focuses on aspects related to the hydrolysis of cellulose as this process is a significant entry point into the biorefinery scheme based on carbohydrates for the production of biofuels and biochemicals. Structural features of cellulose, conventional acid-catalyzed reactions, and the use of solid acid catalysts for hydrolysis are discussed. The longterm success of the biorefinery concept depends on the development of energetically efficient processes to convert cellulose directly or indirectly into biofuels and chemicals. PMID:19950346

  2. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Samaneh Sadat Maleki; Kourosh Mohammadi; Kong-shu Ji

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4) D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the...

  3. Grafted cellulose for PAHs removal present in industrial discharge waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euvrard, Elise; Druart, Coline; Poupeney, Amandine; Crini, Nadia; Vismara, Elena; Lanza, Tommaso; Torri, Giangiacomo; Gavoille, Sophie; Crini, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: cellulose; biosorbent; PAHs; polycontaminated wastewaters; trace levels. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chemicals essentially formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials from anthropogenic activities, were present in all compartments of the ecosystem, air, water and soil. Notably, a part of PAHs found in aquatic system was introduced through industrial discharge waters. Since the Water Framework Directive has classified certain PAHs as priority hazardous substances, industrials are called to take account this kind of organic pollutants in their global environmental concern. Conventional materials such as activated carbons definitively proved their worth as finishing treatment systems but remained costly. In this study, we proposed to use cellulose grafted with glycidyl methacrylate [1] for the removal of PAHs present in discharge waters of surface treatment industries. Firstly, to develop the device, we worked with synthetic solutions containing 16 PAHs at 500 ng/L. Two types of grafted cellulose were tested over a closed-loop column with a concentration of 4g cellulose/L: cellulose C2 with a hydroxide group and cellulose C4 with an amine group. No PAH was retained by the raw cellulose whereas abatement percentages of PAHs were similar between C2 and C4 (94% and 98%, respectively, for the sum of the 16 PAHs) with an experiment duration of 400 min (corresponding to about 20 cycles through grafted cellulose). Secondly, to determine the shorter time to abate the amount maximum of PAHs through the system, a kinetic was realized from 20 min (one cycle) to 400 min with C4. The steady state (corresponding to about 95% of abatement of the total PAHs) was reached at 160 min. Finally, the system was then tested with real industrial discharge waters containing both mineral and organic compounds. The results indicated that the abatement percentage of PAHs was similar between C2 and C4, corroborating the tests with synthetic solution. In return

  4. Extraction of Cellulose from Kepok Banana Peel (Musa parasidiaca L.) for Adsorption Procion Dye

    OpenAIRE

    Poedji Loekitowati Hariani; Fahma Riyanti; Riski Dita Asmara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research was to extract a cellulose from kepok banana peel (Musa parasidiaca L.) and application to removal Procion dye. The extracted cellulose was prepared by dewaxing process to releasing of lignin, bleaching and hemicellulose removal. The cellulose identified by FTIR and SEM-EDS. The efficiency of the cellulose to adsorp Procion dye was evaluated by variation in the initial concentration of dye (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L), solution pH (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 a...

  5. Chromophores in lignin-free cellulosic materials belong to three compound classes. Chromophores in cellulosics, XII

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CRI (chromophore release and identification) method isolates well-defined chromophoric substances from different cellulosic matrices, such as highly bleached pulps, cotton linters, bacterial cellulose, viscose or lyocell fibers, and cellulose acetates. The chromophores are present only in extrem...

  6. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvi, Denise T.B. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. UNESP. Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Caiut, Jose Mauricio A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo. Departamento de Quimica - FFCLRP/USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  7. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  8. Influence of Cellulose Ethers on Hydration Products of Portland Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Baoguo; OU Zhihua; JIAN Shouwei; XU Rulin

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose ethers are widely used to mortar formulations, and it is significant to understand the interaction between cellulose ethers and cement pastes. FT-IR spectra, thermal analysis and SEM are used to investigate hydration products in the cement pastes modified by HEMC and HPMC in this article. The results show that the hydration products in modified cement pastes were finally identical with those in the unmodified cement paste, but the major hydration products, such as CH (calcium hydroxide), ettringite and C-S-H, appeared later in the modified cement pastes than in the unmodified cement paste. The cellulose ethers decrease the outer products and increase inner products of C-S-H gels. Compared to unmodified cement pastes, no new products are found in the modified cement pastes in the present experiment. The HEMC and HPMC investigation shows almost the same influence on the hydration products of Portland cement.

  9. Cellulose biosynthesis in Acetobacter xylinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-lapse video microscopy has shown periodic reversals during the synthesis of cellulose. In the presence of Congo Red, Acetobacter produces a band of fine fibrils. The direction of cell movement is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of cell, and the rate of movement was decreased. A linear row of particles, presumably the cellulose synthesizing complexes, was found on the outer membrane by freeze-fracture technique. During the cell cycle, the increase of particles in linear row, the differentiation to four linear rows and the separation of the linear rows have been observed. A digitonin-solubilized cellulose synthase was prepared from A. xylinum, and incubated under conditions known to lead to active in vitro synthesis of 1,4-β-D-glucan polymer. Electron microscopy revealed that clusters of fibrils were assembled within minutes. Individual fibrils are 17 ± 2 angstroms in diameter. Evidence for the cellulosic composition of newly synthesized fibrils was based on incorporation of tritium from UDP-[3H] glucose binding of gold-labeled cellobiohydrolase, and an electron diffraction pattern identified as cellulose II polymorph instead of cellulose I

  10. University Of Alberta Flare Research Project: final report November 1996 - September 2004. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research program examined the emissions, combustion processes, and fluid mechanics related to flaring. This report focuses on the emissions and efficiencies of flares under operating conditions typical of solution gas flares. The topic of solution gas flaring and the environmental concerns associated with these flares is introduced. The research goals of the project, the approach adopted to conduct the research, and the specific objectives of the report are also presented. Generic pipe flares under well-controlled conditions were studied experimentally in order to understand the performance of flares in general. The research was conducted in wind tunnels where the wind speed, from a known direction, could be set to provide for control over the wind. The laboratory setting also allowed the researchers to blend together different gases to create a varied, but known, flare stream for testing. The majority of these tests were conducted at the University of Alberta within the confines of a closed-loop wind tunnel to test reduced-scale flares. This provided the foundation for subsequent testing and modeling regarding the characterization of flare performance. Experiments were also conducted at the National Research Council in Ottawa to test full-scale flares in a single-pass wind tunnel which served to verify and extend the experimental work accomplished at the University of Alberta. The study showed that smoking flares, a visible indication of soot being emitted, need to be avoided and that fuel droplets in the flare stream enhance the robustness of combustion and result in reduced inefficiencies. The final conclusion is that the combustion efficiency of unassisted solution gas flares could be very high and the emissions of potentially toxic compounds could be very low as long as the flare stream being burned has a relatively high energy density (approximately 20 MJ/m3 or higher), the flare stack size is designed appropriately for the flow rate of flare gas to

  11. Development of self-assembled bacterial cellulose-starch nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, Cristian J. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru (PUCP), Lima 32 (Peru); Torres, Fernando G., E-mail: fgtorres@pucp.edu.pe [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru (PUCP), Lima 32 (Peru); Gomez, Clara M., E-mail: Clara.Gomez@uv.es [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Ciencia dels Materials, Dr Moliner 50, Universitat de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Troncoso, Omar P. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru (PUCP), Lima 32 (Peru); Canet-Ferrer, Josep; Martinez-Pastor, Juan [Unit of Optoelectronic Materials and Devices of the University of Valencia, P.O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-05-05

    A bioinspired bottom-up process was developed to produce self-assembled nanocomposites of cellulose synthesized by Acetobacter bacteria and native starch. This process takes advantage of the way some bacteria extrude cellulose nanofibres and of the transport process that occurs during the gelatinization of starch. Potato and corn starch were added into the culture medium and partially gelatinized in order to allow the cellulose nanofibrils to grow in the presence of a starch phase. The bacterial cellulose (BC)-starch gels were hot pressed into sheets that had a BC volume fraction higher than 90%. During this step starch was forced to further penetrate the BC network. The self-assembled BC-starch nanocomposites showed a coherent morphology that was assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). The nanocomposites structure was studied using X-ray diffraction and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The degree of crystallinity of the final nanocomposites was used to estimate the volume fraction of BC. The aim of this paper is to explore a new methodology that could be used to produce nanomaterials by introducing a different phase into a cellulose nanofibre network during its assembly.

  12. Development of self-assembled bacterial cellulose-starch nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bioinspired bottom-up process was developed to produce self-assembled nanocomposites of cellulose synthesized by Acetobacter bacteria and native starch. This process takes advantage of the way some bacteria extrude cellulose nanofibres and of the transport process that occurs during the gelatinization of starch. Potato and corn starch were added into the culture medium and partially gelatinized in order to allow the cellulose nanofibrils to grow in the presence of a starch phase. The bacterial cellulose (BC)-starch gels were hot pressed into sheets that had a BC volume fraction higher than 90%. During this step starch was forced to further penetrate the BC network. The self-assembled BC-starch nanocomposites showed a coherent morphology that was assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). The nanocomposites structure was studied using X-ray diffraction and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The degree of crystallinity of the final nanocomposites was used to estimate the volume fraction of BC. The aim of this paper is to explore a new methodology that could be used to produce nanomaterials by introducing a different phase into a cellulose nanofibre network during its assembly.

  13. Combining computational chemistry and crystallography for a better understanding of the structure of cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    The approaches in this article seek to enhance understanding of cellulose at the molecular level, independent of the source and the particular crystalline form of cellulose. Four main areas of structure research are reviewed. Initially the molecular shape is inferred from the crystal structures of m...

  14. A thermodynamic investigation of the cellulose allomorphs: Cellulose(am), cellulose Iβ(cr), cellulose II(cr), and cellulose III(cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cellulose allomorphs were prepared and carefully characterized. • Measurements by oxygen bomb calorimetry, solution calorimetry, and by PPMS. • Thermodynamic properties for interconversion reactions of the cellulose allomorphs. • Review of the earlier literature with recalculation of property values. • Standard thermodynamic formation properties. - Abstract: The thermochemistry of samples of amorphous cellulose, cellulose I, cellulose II, and cellulose III was studied by using oxygen bomb calorimetry, solution calorimetry in which the solvent was cadoxen (a cadmium ethylenediamine solvent), and with a Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS) in zero magnetic field to measure standard massic heat capacities Cp,w∘ over the temperature range T = (2 to 302) K. The samples used in this study were prepared so as to have different values of crystallinity indexes CI and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, by Karl Fischer moisture determination, and by using gel permeation chromatography to determine the weight average degree of polymerization DPw. NMR measurements on solutions containing the samples dissolved in cadoxen were also performed in an attempt to resolve the issue of the equivalency or non-equivalency of the nuclei in the different forms of cellulose that were dissolved in cadoxen. While large differences in the NMR spectra for the various cellulose samples in cadoxen were not observed, one cannot be absolutely certain that these cellulose samples are chemically equivalent in cadoxen. Equations were derived which allow one to adjust measured property values of cellulose samples having a mass fraction of water wH2O to a reference value of the mass fraction of water wref. The measured thermodynamic properties (standard massic enthalpy of combustion ΔcHw∘, standard massic enthalpy of solution ΔsolHw∘, and Cp,w∘) were used in conjunction with the measured CI values to calculate values of the changes in the standard massic

  15. Bioenergy Crop Breeding and Production Research in the Southeast, Final Report for 1996 to 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.H.

    2003-05-30

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native grass species to much of the US. It has shown great potential for use in production of fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass (Lynd et al., 1991). Work in Alabama demonstrated very high dry matter yields can be achieved with switchgrass (Maposse et al. 1995) in the southeastern US. Therefore, this region is thought to be an excellent choice for development of a switchgrass cropping system where farmers can produce the grass for either biomass or forage. Another report has shown success with selection and breeding to develop high yielding germplasm from adapted cultivars and ecotypes of switchgrass (Moser and Vogel 1995). In the mid 1990s, however, there was little plant breeding effort for switchgrass with a potential for developing a cultivar for the southeast region. The main goal of the project was to develop adaptive, high-yielding switchgrass cultivars for use in cropping systems for bioenergy production in the southeastern US. A secondary objective was to assess the potential of alternate herbaceous species such as bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge.), and napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) that may compete with switchgrass for herbaceous bioenergy production in the southeast. During the conduct of the project, another goal of developing molecular markers useful for genetic mapping was added. The ''lowland'' cultivars, Alamo and Kanlow, were found to be the highest yielding switchgrass cultivars. Although most summers during the project period were hot and dry, their annual dry matter yield continue to outperform the best ''upland'' cultivars such as Cave-in-Rock, Shawnee, NE Late, and Trailblazer. The use of a breeding procedure based on the ''honeycomb design'' and multi-location progeny testing, coupled with the solid heritability and genetic gain estimates for dry matter yield in lowland type switchgrass

  16. Nuclear research centres in the 21st century. Final report of a meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    millennium attention was focused, in many areas, on changing times. In the field of nuclear technology, there were a number of major conferences addressing this issue. While the technology issue was discussed in these conferences, the general issues relating to NRCs were not the subject of discussion at any forum. To focus on these issues senior managers of nuclear research centres from 25 Member States were invited for an exchange of ideas regarding: orientation of the programmes of NRCs in the current environment; challenges faced by NRCs; interaction of NRCs with their governments, industry, academia and public; ways in which mutual collaboration could be used to enhance the technology; the possible role of the IAEA in this respect. Accordingly, the scope of the meeting was defined as follows: past and present situation of NRCs (R and D programmes and the related finances, manpower and infrastructure, strengths and limitations); challenges faced by NRCs (New directions, examples of successful orientation preservation of expertise); interaction of NRCs with their environment (social and economic sector, academia, public); collaboration and co-operation (North-South and South-South, IAEA role); and other issues considered relevant. All participants gave their country's views on these and related topics. There was extensive discussion on the subjects. The sections of the report giving highlights of presentations, summaries of discussions and recommendations were finalized at the meeting. The 44th General Conference of the IAEA passed a resolution (GC(44)/RES/23) which calls for strengthening co-operation between nuclear research centres in the area of the peaceful applications of nuclear technology. This resolution reaffirms the recommendations of the meeting. The Member States and the IAEA will now explore ways in which this co-operation can be strengthened. In the 2002-2003 Programme and Budget cycle the IAEA has also initiated a sub-programme on Management and

  17. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2014-11-17

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA “Roadmap” objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled “The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases” was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by “pure” enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH “pretreatment” provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  18. Effect of cooking temperature on the crystallinity of acid hydrolysed-oil palm cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthi, Fatin Afifah Binti Ahmad; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2014-09-01

    In this research, we studied the effect of acid hydrolysis temperature on the crystallinity of cellulose produced from empty fruit bunch (EFB). The hydrolysis temperature was studied from 120 to 140 °C at a fixed time and sulfuric acid, H2SO4 concentration which were 1 h and 1% (v/v) respectively. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was carried out to measure the crystallinity of cellulose produced at varying hydrolysis temperatures. During hydrolysis, the amorphous region of α-cellulose was removed and the crystalline region was obtained. Percentage of crystallinity (CrI) for acid hydrolysed cellulose at 120, 130 and 140 °C were 54.21, 50.59 and 50.55 % respectively. Morphological studies using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that acid hydrolysis defibrilised to microfibrils in α-cellulose. The extraction process to produce α-cellulose has also been successfully carried out as the impurities at the outer surface, lignin and hemicellulose were removed. These findings were supported by the disappearance of peaks at 1732, 1512 and 1243 cm-1 on Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of α-cellulose. Similar peaks were identified in both the commercial microcrystalline cellulose (C-MCC) and acid hydrolysed cellulose (H-EFB), indicating the effectiveness of heat-catalysed acid hydrolysis.

  19. Research program on fractured petroleum reservoirs. Final report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firoozabadi, A.

    1997-05-01

    Multiphase flow in fractured porous media is a complex problem. While the study of single phase flow in a fractured or a layered medium can be pursued by some kind of averaging process, there is no meaning to averaging two-phase flow when capillarity is an active force. For a two-layer system comprised of high and low permeable layers, the performance of gas-oil gravity can be less efficient than the homogeneous low permeable medium. On the other hand, heterogeneity may enhance water imbibition due to capillarity. Due to the above and various other complexities, current tools for predicting the performance of fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs are not reliable. Based on the research work carried out at the Reservoir Engineering Research Institute, and some other Institutions, a good deal of progress has been made in recent years. But still we are a long way from good predictive reservoir models. In this final report, we summarize some of our achievements in the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured media. Since some of the features of two-phase flow in fractured and layered many are similar due to the capillary forces, the work includes progress in both types of media. There are some basic issues of flow in both fractured and unfractured media that are currently unresolved. These issues include: (1) new phase formation such as the formation of liquid phase in gas condensate reservoirs, and gas phase formation in solution gas drive process and (2) composition variation due to thermal convection and diffusion processes. In the following, a brief summary of our findings in the last three years during the course of the project is presented.

  20. Microwave and accelerator research. Final report on Grant DE-FG02-92ER40731

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the main technical objectives and accomplishments during the life of the grant, and concludes with data on publications describing the research. The main activity was the development of very high power microwave sources, initially in X-band, and recent initial work on a Ka band TWT amplifier. There was additional activity on ferroelectric emitters. Highlights include the following: (1) The development of a relatively broad band microwave source yielding approx. 75 MW power at a power efficiency of 54% and an energy conversion efficiency of 43%. (2) The development of a ferroelectric cathode electron gun which yielded a beam current of up to 350 A at 500 kV. The device was shown to operate satisfactorily at a low repetition rate, limited by the available power supplies. The final beam power obtained exceeds that achieved elsewhere by several orders of magnitude. The gun development achieved was shown to give an electron beam suitable for high power X-band microwave sources with the demonstration of a 5-MW tunable X-band TWT single-stage amplifier. (3) Work was initiated on a Ka-Band TWT amplifier. Gains of over 30 dB were achieved at peak output powers of about 4 MW. Appendices include two submitted papers: Symmetric and asymmetric mode interaction in high-power traveling wave amplifiers: experiments and theory and High power microwave generation using a ferroelectric cathode electron gun

  1. Final Report of Research Conducted For DE-AI02-08ER64546

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Minnis

    2012-03-28

    Research was conducted for 3-4 years to use ARM data to validate satellite cloud retrievals and help the development of improved techniques for remotely sensing clouds and radiative fluxes from space to complement the ARM surface measurement program. This final report summarizes the results and publications during the last 2 years of the studies. Since our last report covering the 2009 period, we published four papers that were accepted during the previous reporting period and revised and published a fifth one. Our efforts to intercalibrate selected channels on several polar orbiting and geostationary satellite imagers, which are funded in part by ASR, resulted in methods that were accepted as part of the international Global Space-based Intercalibration System (GSICS) calibration algorithms. We developed a new empirical method for correcting the spectral differences between comparable channels on various imagers that will be used to correct the calibrations of the satellite data used for ARM. We documented our cloud retrievals for the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex; ARM participated with an AAF contribution) in context of the entire experiment. We used our VOCALS satellite data along with the aircraft measurements to better understand the relationships between aerosols and liquid water path in marine stratus clouds. We continued or efforts to validate and improve the satellite cloud retrievals for ARM and using ARM data to validate retrievals for other purposes.

  2. Microwave and accelerator research. Final report on Grant DE-FG02-92ER40731

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nation, John A.

    2002-09-01

    This report summarizes the main technical objectives and accomplishments during the life of the grant, and concludes with data on publications describing the research. The main activity was the development of very high power microwave sources, initially in X-band, and recent initial work on a Ka band TWT amplifier. There was additional activity on ferroelectric emitters. Highlights include the following: (1) The development of a relatively broad band microwave source yielding approx. 75 MW power at a power efficiency of 54% and an energy conversion efficiency of 43%. (2) The development of a ferroelectric cathode electron gun which yielded a beam current of up to 350 A at 500 kV. The device was shown to operate satisfactorily at a low repetition rate, limited by the available power supplies. The final beam power obtained exceeds that achieved elsewhere by several orders of magnitude. The gun development achieved was shown to give an electron beam suitable for high power X-band microwave sources with the demonstration of a 5-MW tunable X-band TWT single-stage amplifier. (3) Work was initiated on a Ka-Band TWT amplifier. Gains of over 30 dB were achieved at peak output powers of about 4 MW. Appendices include two submitted papers: Symmetric and asymmetric mode interaction in high-power traveling wave amplifiers: experiments and theory and High power microwave generation using a ferroelectric cathode electron gun.

  3. Microfibrillated cellulose: morphology and accessibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, F.W.; Casebier, R.L.; Hamilton, J.K.; Sandberg, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared by subjecting dilute slurries of cellulose fibers to repeated high-pressure homogenizing action. A highly microfibrillated product will have a gel-like appearance at 2% concentration in water. Such gels have pseudoplastic viscosity properties and are very fluid when stirred at high shear rate. The relative viscosity of 2% MFC dispersions may be used as a measure of the degree of homogenization or microfibrillation of a given wood cellulose pulp. The water retention value of an MFC product can also be used as an indicator for degree of homogenization. Structurally, MFC appears to be a web of interconnected fibrils and microfibrils, the latter having diameters in the range 10-100 nm as observed in scanning and transmission electron micrographs. Chemical studies have revealed that MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC toward chemical reagents is greatly increased. Higher reactivity was demonstrated in dilute cupriethylenediamine solubility, triphenylmethylation, acetylation, periodate oxidation, and mineral acid and cellulase enzyme hydrolysis rates. 16 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

  4. Interfacial Properties of Ethyl Cellulose/Cellulose Acetate Blends by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Su-lian; ZHOU Ning-guo; ZHANG Xiu-zhen; ZHANG Wei

    2007-01-01

    The high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) with ethyl cellulose/cellulose acetate (EC/CA)blends and EC as column packing material, and small molecular weight compound as probe molecules was employed to measure the retention volume (VR) and equilibrium distribution coefficient (K) of both inorganic and organic solutes. The interfacial separation properties of EC/CA blends were characterized by the HPLC data. The effects of the blends on the inteffacial adsorption properties, hydrophilicity, affinity, polar and non-polar parameters of EC membrane materials were studied subsequently. The research results indicate that the interfacial adsorption properties and hydrophilicity of EC have been improved by solution blending with CA. The alloys are superior to EC in the separation efficiency for non-dissociable polar organic solute. The EC/CA alloy (80:20, ω) is suitable for desalting and desaccharifying.

  5. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. The 2nd year Research scope includes: 1) Optimization of pre-treatment conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and 2) Demonstration of enzymatic hydrolysis by recombinant enzymes. To optimize the pretreatment, we applied two processes: a wet process (wet milling + popping), and dry process (popping + dry milling). Out of these, the wet process presented the best glucose yield with a 93.1% conversion, while the dry process yielded 69.6%, and the unpretreated process yielded <20%. The recombinant cellulolytic enzymes showed very high specific activity, about 80-1000 times on CMC and 13-70 times on filter paper at pH 3.5 and 55 .deg. C

  6. MICROBIAL FERMENTATION OF ABUNDANT BIOPOLYMERS: CELLULOSE AND CHITIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31

    Our research has dealt with seven major areas of investigation: i) characterization of cellulolytic members of microbial consortia, with special attention recently given to Clostridium phytofermentans, a bacterium that decomposes cellulose and produces uncommonly large amounts of ethanol, ii) investigations of the chitinase system of Cellulomonas uda; including the purification and characterization of ChiA, the major component of this enzyme system, iii) molecular cloning, sequence and structural analysis of the gene that encodes ChiA in C. uda, iv) biofilm formation by C. uda on nutritive surfaces, v) investigations of the effects of humic substances on cellulose degradation by anaerobic cellulolytic microbes, vi) studies of nitrogen metabolism in cellulolytic anaerobes, and vii) understanding the molecular architecture of the multicomplex cellulase-xylanase system of Clostridium papyrosolvens. Also, progress toward completing the research of more recent projects is briefly summarized. Major accomplishments include: 1. Characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans, a cellulose-fermenting, ethanol-producing bacterium from forest soil. The characterization of a new cellulolytic species isolated from a cellulose-decomposing microbial consortium from forest soil was completed. This bacterium is remarkable for the high concentrations of ethanol produced during cellulose fermentation, typically more than twice the concentration produced by other species of cellulolytic clostridia. 2. Examination of the use of chitin as a source of carbon and nitrogen by cellulolytic microbes. We discovered that many cellulolytic anaerobes and facultative aerobes are able to use chitin as a source of both carbon and nitrogen. This major discovery expands our understanding of the biology of cellulose-fermenting bacteria and may lead to new applications for these microbes. 3. Comparative studies of the cellulase and chitinase systems of Cellulomonas uda. Results of these studies indicate

  7. Mutational analysis of root characters in food plants. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    genomics and proteomics to address important agricultural issues, supporting successful agricultural production with minimal impact on the environment. Improvements in screening techniques and development of molecular markers are ways to alleviate the need for direct root assessment and speed up selection in plant breeding programmes. Root architecture models provide a tool to address the space-time dynamics of the soil/plant system. Genetic analysis of quantitative traits and methods in forward and reverse genetics will also contribute to breeding crops with root systems suitable for a range of agricultural environments. Recent evidence indicates that plant stresses are mediated by changes at the root system level. In this context, mutants and mutational analysis of root characters are becoming significant elements in research that seeks to clarify the ways by which root structure and function respond to environmental cues and alleviate the impact of stress. This publication summarizes the results presented at the third and final Research Coordination meeting (RCM) of the CRP, which was held in Antalya, Turkey, 11-15 October 2004

  8. Designing organizational excellence model for cellulose industry of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abbas Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays organizational excellence is regarded as the world’s most effective and progressive issue and many countries and organizations are attempting in the way of applying excellence. In this way, they attempt to improve such models and according to culture and sociopolitical conditions of each country, they attempt to design several models. The present research has been conducted with principal goal of designing organizational excellence model at cellulose industry of Iran. The study determines its components and aspects, priorities the aspects and components and analyzes relationship among different aspects of organizational excellence model at cellulose industry of Iran. The present research is an applied research with respect to goal and it is a descriptive-analytical method in terms of method. Statistical population of the present research covers all experts in the field of cellulose industry of Iran in which on this basis, the number of statistical sample was 207 people from managers to specialists. Results of research indicate that organizational excellence pattern of cellulose industry is a mixture of different aspects of technical, economic, inner environment, outer environment, motivation and behavioral processes.

  9. The cellulose synthase companion proteins act non-redundantly with CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1/POM2 and CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 6

    OpenAIRE

    Endler, Anne; Schneider, Rene; Kesten, Christopher; Edwin R Lampugnani; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cellulose is a cell wall constituent that is essential for plant growth and development, and an important raw material for a range of industrial applications. Cellulose is synthesized at the plasma membrane by massive cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes that track along cortical microtubules in elongating cells of Arabidopsis through the activity of the protein CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1 (CSI1). In a recent study we identified another family of proteins that also are associated ...

  10. FINNUS The Finnish research programme on nuclear power plant safety 1999-2002. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FINNUS (1999-2002) is the Finnish public research programme on nuclear power plant safety, launched and administrated by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). The programme has concentrated on the themes of ageing, accidents and risks. The general objectives of the programme have been to develop tools and practices for safety authorities and utilities, to provide a basis for safety-related decisions, to educate new nuclear energy experts, and to promote technology and information transfer. The technical objectives of the programme have been prepared under the guidance of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), but the views of the Finnish power companies have been taken into consideration. Funding of the programme has been mainly from public sources. The annual volume of the programme has been about Euro 3.6 million and 30 person-years. The research has been co-ordinated and mainly conducted by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) with a significant contribution from Lappeenranta University of Technology (LTKK). The effects of ageing on nuclear power plants have been studied intensively in order to evaluate the safe remaining lifetime of the components and the efficiency of the corrective measures. The programme has mainly concentrated on studies in ageing effects on material properties and degradation mechanisms of metallic structures, structural integrity and in-service inspection as well as monitoring methods including reinforced concrete structures as a new area. The accident theme has concentrated on operational aspects of nuclear power plant safety. The issues of nuclear fuel behaviour, reactor physics and dynamics modelling, thermal hydraulics and severe accidents were addressed under the theme by conducting both computational and experimental studies. In the risk field, attention has been paid to advanced risk analysis methods and their applicability, and to the evaluation of fire risks, safety critical applications of software

  11. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Sadat Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4 D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family.

  12. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Samaneh Sadat; Mohammadi, Kourosh; Ji, Kong-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4) D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family. PMID:27314060

  13. Decontamination of nuclear plant fluids with grafted celluloses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion exchange processes are specially well adapted techniques to solve some of nuclear plants problems, such as decontamination of the primary cooling circuit fluid and the cooling pool, because of the low concentration of the miscellaneous products to eliminate. Now the purification of these fluids is performed by using ion exchange resins. But recent researches show it is necessary to use more efficient techniques (1). The use of grafted celluloses should improve this process. The manufacturing of grafted celluloses was first performed with the collaboration of French Textile Institute and Morgane-Framatome (2). Cellulosic structure offers well known qualities for filtration: good micrometric retention, good mechanical behaviour, strong hydrophilic properties and high specific surface. Grafting was performed through a radiochemical process so as to bind polyelectrolytes on the backbone polymer. Compared to usual ion exchangers, these new materials offer different properties: - fast exchange kinetic - as uncrosslinked polymers, these grafted celluloses withstand better fouling with macroions or ionic complexes; - as they can be incinerated, radioactive wastes can be greatly reduced; - different commercial products of these grafted celluloses offer a wide range of possibilities for industrial uses

  14. UV-curable polyurethane coatings derived from cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time coating industry is devoting much research in the direction of low volatile organic compounds to make eco-friendly coating material. In this study, such materials are developed from cellulose derived from bagasse, a sugar industry waste. Cellulose is converted to cellulose glyco glycoside by acid hydrolysis of cellulose under heterogeneous condition. Cellulose glyco glycoside is treated with polyethylene glycol having different molecular weights to give glyco glycosides which in turn are reacted with various diisocyanates to obtain polyurethane having free NCO groups. These materials are then reacted with hydroxyethylmethacrylate to give polyurethane acrylates. The acrylates are characterized for specific gravity, viscosity, colour and molecular weight as well as by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The UV-curable coating composition was prepared by blending PU-acrylate, reactive diluents and photoinitiator. Coating compositions were cured under UV-light and characterized for adhesion, flexibility, impact resistance, solvent resistance and for dynamic mechanical analysis as well as by thermal gravimetric analysis for thermal stability. The cured films give thickness of 23-24 microns and cure time required is less than 1.5-2.0 min. There is no liberation of any volatiles during curing and films have good adhesion to mild steel substrate. The cured coatings give excellent dynamic, mechanical and chemical properties. The scratch resistance was found to be satisfactory. The application was made in unpigmented form but it is found that various pigments can be used to give coloured UV-curable coatings.

  15. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) filled boron nitride (BN) nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, Hanisah Syed; Hua, Chia Chin; Zakaria, Sarani [School of Applied Physic, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    In this study, nanocomposite using cellulose nanofibrils filled with different percentage of boron nitride (CNF-BN) were prepared. The objective of this research is to study the effect of different percentage of BN to the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite produced. The CNF-BN nanocomposite were characterization by FT-IR, SEM and thermal conductivity. The FT-IR analysis of the CNF-BN nanocomposite shows all the characteristic peaks of cellulose and BN present in all samples. The dispersion of BN in CNF were seen through SEM analysis. The effect of different loading percentage of BN to the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite were also investigated.

  16. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) filled boron nitride (BN) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Hanisah Syed; Hua, Chia Chin; Zakaria, Sarani

    2015-09-01

    In this study, nanocomposite using cellulose nanofibrils filled with different percentage of boron nitride (CNF-BN) were prepared. The objective of this research is to study the effect of different percentage of BN to the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite produced. The CNF-BN nanocomposite were characterization by FT-IR, SEM and thermal conductivity. The FT-IR analysis of the CNF-BN nanocomposite shows all the characteristic peaks of cellulose and BN present in all samples. The dispersion of BN in CNF were seen through SEM analysis. The effect of different loading percentage of BN to the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite were also investigated.

  17. Elucidating the Potential Biological Impact of Cellulose Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Camarero-Espinosa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanocrystals exhibit an interesting combination of mechanical properties and physical characteristics, which make them potentially useful for a wide range of consumer applications. However, as the usage of these bio-based nanofibers increases, a greater understanding of human exposure addressing their potential health issues should be gained. The aim of this perspective is to highlight how knowledge obtained from studying the biological impact of other nanomaterials can provide a basis for future research strategies to deduce the possible human health risks posed by cellulose nanocrystals.

  18. Final report on the IAEA research contracts No. 1194/RB, 1194/R1/RB and 1194/R2/RB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final report summarizes the research activities made in the framework of the IAEA Research Contracts No. 1194/RB, 1194/R1/RB and 1194/R2/RB. A multilevel hierarchical control system is treated which uses weakly-coupled low dimensional subsystems under the supervision of a dynamic coordinator program. This self-organizing adaptive control system was checked by a 5 MW research reactor. As an example the paper describes the experimental computer control system of the 5 MW WWR-SM research reactor, where the reactor power and outlet temperature have been controlled on the basis of the treated control concept since 1978. (author)

  19. Data for molecular processes in edge plasmas. Summary report of final IAEA research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven international experts discussed in detail the outcomes of their research at the final Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) on 'Data for molecular processes in edge plasmas' at IAEA Headquarters on 1-2 November 2004. Participants summarized their results obtained in the course of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP), and the impact of the data generated on the modelling and design of fusion devices. Data needs still exist, and the specialists hoped that further research on these processes will be supported in the future. The discussions, conclusions and recommendations of the RCM are briefly described in this report. (author)

  20. Chemical modification of cellulose for electrospinning applications

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Ferrer, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to develop technology for producing cellulose fatty acid esters that later will be used to produce fibrous materials by means of electrospinning. Main material of the study is cellulose-stearate which is a polymer synthesised by reaction between stearoyl chloride and cellulose. The experimental part consists of synthesis of it by chemical modification of cellulose using ionic liquid as a reaction media. In addition, ionic liquid is also synthesised from the beginning....

  1. Filtration properties of bacterial cellulose membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, Janika

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose has the same molecular formula as cellulose from plant origin, but it is characterized by several unique properties including high purity, crystallinity and mechanical strength. These properties are dependent on parameters such as the bacterial strain used, the cultivation conditions and post-growth processing. The possibility to achieve bacterial cellulose membranes with different properties by varying these parameters could make bacterial cellulose an interesting materi...

  2. Biocompatibility of Bacterial Cellulose Based Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Omar P. Troncoso; Solene Commeaux; Torres, Fernando G.

    2012-01-01

    Some bacteria can synthesize cellulose when they are cultivated under adequate conditions. These bacteria produce a mat of cellulose on the top of the culture medium, which is formed by a three-dimensional coherent network of pure cellulose nanofibers. Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been widely used in different fields, such as the paper industry, electronics and tissue engineering due to its remarkable mechanical properties, conformability and porosity. Nanocomposites based on BC have received...

  3. A Molecular Description of Cellulose Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Joshua T.; Morgan, Jacob L.W.; Zimmer, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, and certain organisms from bacteria to plants and animals synthesize cellulose as an extracellular polymer for various biological functions. Humans have used cellulose for millennia as a material and an energy source, and the advent of a lignocellulosic fuel industry will elevate it to the primary carbon source for the burgeoning renewable energy sector. Despite the biological and societal importance of cellulose, the molecular mechanism by ...

  4. Regenerated bacterial cellulose microfluidic column for glycoproteins separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuntao; Zhu, Chunlin; Huang, Yang; Nie, Ying; Yang, Jiazhi; Shen, Ruiqi; Sun, Dongping

    2016-02-10

    To analysis and separate glycoproteins, a simple strategy to prepare regenerated bacterial cellulose (RBC) column with concanavalin A (Con A) lectin immobilized in microfluidic system was applied. RBC was filled into microchannel to fabricate RBC microcolumn after bacterial cellulose dissolved in NaOH-sulfourea water solution. Lectin Con A was covalently connected onto RBC matrix surface via Schiff-base formation. Lysozyme (non-glycoprotein) and transferrin (glycoprotein) were successfully separated based on their different affinities toward the immobilized Con A. Overall, the RBC microfluidic system presents great potential application in affinity chromatography of glycoproteins analysis, and this research represents a significant step to prepare bacterial cellulose (BC) as column packing material in microfluidic system. What is more, troublesome operations for lectin affinity chromatography were simplified by integrating the microfluidic chip onto a HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) system. PMID:26686130

  5. Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and cellulose in growth substrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Vosátka, Miroslav; Hršelová, Hana; Chvátalová, Irena; Jansa, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 19, - (2002), s. 279-288. ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/99/0895 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * sporulation * cellulose Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2002

  6. In vitro and vivo immunomodulatory effects of microdispersed oxidized cellulose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Markéta; Briestenský, J.; Santar, I.; Říhová, Blanka

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2, - (2002), s. 1429-1441. ISSN 1567-5769 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5020101; GA ČR GA305/99/D051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : oxidized cellulose * immunomodulator * immunostimulation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.655, year: 2002

  7. Microwave-assisted preparation of cellulose membranes and their properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenfeld, Jiří; Beneš, Milan J.; Hradil, Jiří; Šlouf, Miroslav; Plichta, Zdeněk

    Loughborough : Loughborough University, 2003 - (Binner, J.), s. 445-448 [International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating /9./. Loughborough (GB), 01.09.2003-05.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1244 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : cellulose membranes * viscose Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  8. High-temperature fuel cell research and development. Final technical status report, June 1977-September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-15

    An initial survey of the literature produced a list of ceramic materials with properties which made them potential candidates for use in molten-carbonate fuel cell tiles or electrodes. Seven of the materials in the original list were dropped from consideration because of unfavorable thermodynamic properties; four materials were set aside because of high cost, lack of availability, or fabrication difficulties. Thirteen compositions were tested statically at 1000 K in a Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ bath under a dry CO/sub 2/ atmosphere. Only four of the materials tested showed severe degradation reactions in the molten carbonate. A low-temperature process for forming small diameter, high-aspect ratio ceramic fibers for fuel cell use has been developed. A short-term program to initiate a computer study on the thermodynamic analysis of fuel cell materials was initiated at Montana State University. The report on this program is included as Appendix B. The MHD and high-temperature fuel cell literature was surveyed, and material properties were evaluated to identify MHD materials with potential use for fuel cell applications. A technology transfer report of these findings was prepared. This report is included as Appendix A. Laboratory facilities were established to conduct research on interfacial diffusion processes which could be detrimental to successful long-term operation of the solid-electrolyte fuel cell. A variety of physical and chemical techniques were examined for the preparation of high-density substituted LaCrO/sub 3/ which was to be one component of a diffusion couple with Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stabilized ZrO/sub 2/. Hydrolysis of a mixed metal-nitrate solution with urea produced the most reactive powder. A final theoretical density of almost 98% was attained in cold-pressed sintered discs of this material. (Extensive list of references)

  9. Final Report for Research in High Energy Physics (University of Hawaii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browder, Thomas E.

    2013-08-31

    Here we present a final report for the DOE award for the University of Hawaii High Energy Physics Group (UHHEPG) for the period from December 1, 2009 to May 31, 2013 (including a period of no-cost extension). The high energy physics (HEP) group at the University of Hawaii (UH) has been engaged in experiments at the intensity frontier studying flavor physics (Task A: Belle, Belle-II and Task B: BES) and neutrinos (Task C: SuperK, LBNE, Double Chooz, DarkSide, and neutrino R\\&D). On the energy frontier, new types of pixel detectors were developed for upgrades of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC (Task D). On the cosmic frontier, there were investigations of ultra high-energy neutrino astrophysics and the highest energy cosmic rays using special radio detection techniques (Task E: AMBER, ANITA R\\&D) and results of the analysis of ANITA data. In addition, we have developed new types of sophisticated and cutting edge instrumentation based on novel ``oscilloscope on a chip'' electronics (Task F). Theoretical physics research (Task G) is phenomenologically oriented and has studied experimental consequences of existing and proposed new theories relevant to the energy, cosmic and intensity frontiers. The senior investigators for proposal were T. E. Browder (Task A), F. A. Harris (Task B), P. Gorham (Task E), J. Kumar (Task G), J. Maricic (Task C), J. G. Learned (Task C), S. Pakvasa (Task G), S. Parker (Task D), S. Matsuno (Task C), X. Tata (Task G) and G. S. Varner (Tasks F, A, E).

  10. Final Technical Report. DeepCwind Consortium Research Program. January 15, 2010 - March 31, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, Habib [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Viselli, Anthony [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Goupee, Andrew [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Thaler, Jeffrey [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Brady, Damian [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Browne, Peter [HDR, Inc., Omaha, NE (United States); Browning, James [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Chung, Jade [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Coulling, Alexander [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Deese, Heather [Island Institute, Rockland, ME (United States); Fowler, Matthew [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Holberton, Rebecca [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Anant, Jain [Intertek, Duluth, GA (United States); Jalbert, Dustin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Johnson, Theresa [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Karlson, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kimball, Richard [Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, ME (United States); Koo, Bonjun [Technip, Paris (France); Lackner, Matthew [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lambrakos, Kostas [Technip, Paris (France); Lankowski, Matthew [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Leopold, Adrienne [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Lim, Ho-Joon [Technip, Paris (France); Mangum, Linda [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Martin, Heather [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Masciola, Marco [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Maynard, Melissa [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); McCleave, James [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Mizrahi, Robert [New Jersey Audubon Society, Bernardsville, NJ (United States); Molta, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Pershing, Andrew [Gulf of Maine Research Institute, Portland, ME (United States); Pettigrew, Neal [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Prowell, Ian [MMI Engineering, Oakland, CA (United States); Qua, Andrew [Kleinschmidt Associates, Pittsfield, ME (United States); Sherwood, Graham [Gulf of Maine Research Institute, Portland, ME (United States); Snape, Thomas [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Steneck, Robert [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Stewart, Gordon [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Stockwell, Jason [Gulf of Maine Research Institute, Portland, ME (United States); Swift, Andrew H. P. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Thomas, Dale [Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, ME (United States); Viselli, Elizabeth [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zydlewski, Gayle [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

    2013-06-11

    This is the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy-funded program, DE-0002981: DeepCwind Consortium Research Program. The project objective was the partial validation of coupled models and optimization of materials for offshore wind structures. The United States has a great opportunity to harness an indigenous abundant renewable energy resource: offshore wind. In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) estimated there to be over 4,000 GW of potential offshore wind energy found within 50 nautical miles of the US coastlines (Musial and Ram, 2010). The US Energy Information Administration reported the total annual US electric energy generation in 2010 was 4,120 billion kilowatt-hours (equivalent to 470 GW) (US EIA, 2011), slightly more than 10% of the potential offshore wind resource. In addition, deep water offshore wind is the dominant US ocean energy resource available comprising 75% of the total assessed ocean energy resource as compared to wave and tidal resources (Musial, 2008). Through these assessments it is clear offshore wind can be a major contributor to US energy supplies. The caveat to capturing offshore wind along many parts of the US coast is deep water. Nearly 60%, or 2,450 GW, of the estimated US offshore wind resource is located in water depths of 60 m or more (Musial and Ram, 2010). At water depths over 60 m building fixed offshore wind turbine foundations, such as those found in Europe, is likely economically infeasible (Musial et al., 2006). Therefore floating wind turbine technology is seen as the best option for extracting a majority of the US offshore wind energy resource. Volume 1 - Test Site; Volume 2 - Coupled Models; and Volume 3 - Composite Materials

  11. Isotopic assessment of long term groundwater exploitation. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress imposed on the available water resources due to man's impact (exploitation, release of pollutants and agricultural practices) has resulted in depletion of the available reserves as well as deterioration of water quality in many parts of the world. Over wide areas, abstractions are exceeding current natural recharge and it is apparent from scientific studies that these water resources are being mined, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Sustainable development and management of those water resources needs long term monitoring records to understand the changes and dynamic responses due to the exploitation. These proceedings provide a synthesis of a series of hydrochemical, isotope and geohydrological data sets which will be used for quantitative assessment of the long term dynamic response of the groundwater system. The results show that both stable and radioactive isotopes are excellent tools for characterizing and understanding aquifer systems that are undergoing long term exploitation. Specific outcomes include establishment of methodologies for monitoring and predicting changes in water quality and quantity that will lead to improved water resources management. This publication is a summary of the results achieved during the coordinated research project (CRP) and the various studies performed by the participating institutions are presented as individual presentations. The overall achievements are presented as an executive summary, and the detailed findings are presented in each contribution. These results were presented in the final coordination meeting held in Vienna, 12-16 May 2003. The results obtained from this CRP will be used to improve the predictions of future behaviour of groundwater resources in response to exploitation. The scientific component of this CRP will be a valuable source of information for isotope hydrologists involved in isotope field applications and a useful guide for groundwater managers involved in groundwater resources

  12. Adsorption and desorption of cellulose derivatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Cellulose derivatives, in particular carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are used in many (industrial) applications. The aim of this work is to obtain insight into the adsorption mechanism of cellulose derivatives on solid-liquid interfaces.In chapter 1 of this thesis we discuss some appl

  13. Iodine catalyzed acetylation of starch and cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch and cellulose, earth's most abundant biopolymers, are of tremendous economic importance. Over 90% of cotton and 50% of wood are made of cellulose. Wood and cotton are the major resources for all cellulose products such as paper, textiles, construction materials, cardboard, as well as such c...

  14. Bioengineering cellulose-hemicellulose networks in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obembe, O.

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between cellulose and hemicellulose in the cell walls are important in the industrial application of the cellulose (natural) fibres. We strive to modify these interactions (i) by interfering with cellulose biosynthesis and (ii) by direct interference of the

  15. Biocomposites based on poly(lactic acid) and kenaf fibers: effect of microfibrillated cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoeva-Gaceva, Gordana; Dimeski, Dimko; Srebrenkoska, Vineta

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the influence of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) on the basic mechanical properties of PLA/kenaf fiber biocomposites has been studied. The addition of 5–15 % microfibrillated cellulose to a biocomposite premix has resulted in an increased glass transition temperature of the final product, produced by compression molding of previously melt-mixed composite components. The presence of MFC has influenced the interface-sensitive properties of the PLA/kenaf composite: at ...

  16. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Isik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels.

  17. Impact of Biofield Treatment on Chemical and Thermal Properties of Cellulose and Cellulose Acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose being an excellent biopolymer has cemented its place firmly in many industries as a coating material, textile, composites, and biomaterial applications. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of biofield treatment on physicochemical properties of cellulose and cellulose acetate. The cellulose and cellulose acetate were exposed to biofield and further the chemical and thermal properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction study asserted that the biofield treatment did...

  18. Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, N.G.; Harwell, L.D.; Hazelton, A.

    1997-02-01

    On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

  19. MICROBIAL FERMENTATION OF ABUNDANT BIOPOLYMERS: CELLULOSE AND CHITIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31

    Our research has dealt with seven major areas of investigation: i) characterization of cellulolytic members of microbial consortia, with special attention recently given to Clostridium phytofermentans, a bacterium that decomposes cellulose and produces uncommonly large amounts of ethanol, ii) investigations of the chitinase system of Cellulomonas uda; including the purification and characterization of ChiA, the major component of this enzyme system, iii) molecular cloning, sequence and structural analysis of the gene that encodes ChiA in C. uda, iv) biofilm formation by C. uda on nutritive surfaces, v) investigations of the effects of humic substances on cellulose degradation by anaerobic cellulolytic microbes, vi) studies of nitrogen metabolism in cellulolytic anaerobes, and vii) understanding the molecular architecture of the multicomplex cellulase-xylanase system of Clostridium papyrosolvens. Also, progress toward completing the research of more recent projects is briefly summarized. Major accomplishments include: 1. Characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans, a cellulose-fermenting, ethanol-producing bacterium from forest soil. The characterization of a new cellulolytic species isolated from a cellulose-decomposing microbial consortium from forest soil was completed. This bacterium is remarkable for the high concentrations of ethanol produced during cellulose fermentation, typically more than twice the concentration produced by other species of cellulolytic clostridia. 2. Examination of the use of chitin as a source of carbon and nitrogen by cellulolytic microbes. We discovered that many cellulolytic anaerobes and facultative aerobes are able to use chitin as a source of both carbon and nitrogen. This major discovery expands our understanding of the biology of cellulose-fermenting bacteria and may lead to new applications for these microbes. 3. Comparative studies of the cellulase and chitinase systems of Cellulomonas uda. Results of these studies indicate

  20. Mineralization of cellulose in frozen boreal soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquist, Mats G.; Segura, Javier; Sparrman, Tobias; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon. In boreal forests, the microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, soluble monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances ultimately depends on whether soil microorganisms can utilize and grow the more complex, polymeric constituents of SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). Freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.52 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.01 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming that cellulose can sustain also anabolic activity of the microbial populations under frozen conditions. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero, which involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of

  1. High performance cellulose nanocomposites: comparing the reinforcing ability of bacterial cellulose and nanofibrillated cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K. Y.; Tammelin, T.; Schulfter, K.; Kiiskinen, H.; Samela, J.; Bismarck, A.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the surface and bulk properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and bacterial cellulose (BC), as well as their reinforcing ability in polymer nanocomposites. BC possesses higher critical surface tension of 57 mN m(-1) compared to NFC (41 mN m(-1)). The thermal degradation temperature in both nitrogen and air atmosphere of BC was also found to be higher than that of NFC. These results are in good agreement with the higher crystallinity of BC as determined by XRD, meas...

  2. Eurogulf: an Eu-GCC dialogue for energy stability and sustainability. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji, Abi-Aad [ECONERGY, Washington (United States); Skinner, R.; Arnott, R.; Mabro, R. [Oxford Institute for Energy Studies - OIES (United States); Luciani, G.; Luciani, G. [EUI, RSCAS, Mediterranean Programme (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    The EUROGULF project was launched in 2002 by a consortium led by the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies at the European University Institute, and comprising the Oxford Institute of Energy Studies, the Energy Policy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens and ECONERGY SAL of Beirut. Funding is provided by the European Commission through a grant from the SYNERGY program. The objective of the project is to analyse European Union (EU) - Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) relations with respect to oil and gas issues and propose new policy initiatives and approaches to enhance cooperation between the two regional groupings. The project has originated a collection of papers whose provisional drafts have been discussed in two workshops: in Riyadh in April 2004, and in Florence in November 2004. This document is the final research report presented at the concluding conference in Kuwait, on April 2005. It gathers the final versions of the project papers: Executive Summary and Policy Paper; Task 1 - Economic and Political Conditions for Energy Security: Prospects for Oil and Gas Exports from the GCC Member Countries; Prospects for Oil and Gas Exports from the GCC Member Countries; Supply Responses to Price Changes in the Medium Term and the Definition of an 'Optimal' Price Band for Guaranteeing Energy Security in the Long Term; Discussion of the Desirable Rate of Exploitation of GCC Hydrocarbon Resources in the light of the Objectives of Maximizing Revenue and Achieving Economic Development in the Long Run; Promoting Economic Diversification as a Tool to Encourage Countries holding Major Hydrocarbon Reserves to Increase Production in line with Growing Global Demand at Stable Prices; Task 2 - Enhancing the Efficiency and Transparency of the International Oil Markets: The Reference Pricing System: Origins, Rationale, Assessment; Reforming Reference Pricing and Seeking for Alternative Pricing Systems; Strategic Stockpiles vs. Market Intervention for

  3. Eurogulf: an Eu-GCC dialogue for energy stability and sustainability. Final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EUROGULF project was launched in 2002 by a consortium led by the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies at the European University Institute, and comprising the Oxford Institute of Energy Studies, the Energy Policy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens and ECONERGY SAL of Beirut. Funding is provided by the European Commission through a grant from the SYNERGY program. The objective of the project is to analyse European Union (EU) - Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) relations with respect to oil and gas issues and propose new policy initiatives and approaches to enhance cooperation between the two regional groupings. The project has originated a collection of papers whose provisional drafts have been discussed in two workshops: in Riyadh in April 2004, and in Florence in November 2004. This document is the final research report presented at the concluding conference in Kuwait, on April 2005. It gathers the final versions of the project papers: Executive Summary and Policy Paper; Task 1 - Economic and Political Conditions for Energy Security: Prospects for Oil and Gas Exports from the GCC Member Countries; Prospects for Oil and Gas Exports from the GCC Member Countries; Supply Responses to Price Changes in the Medium Term and the Definition of an 'Optimal' Price Band for Guaranteeing Energy Security in the Long Term; Discussion of the Desirable Rate of Exploitation of GCC Hydrocarbon Resources in the light of the Objectives of Maximizing Revenue and Achieving Economic Development in the Long Run; Promoting Economic Diversification as a Tool to Encourage Countries holding Major Hydrocarbon Reserves to Increase Production in line with Growing Global Demand at Stable Prices; Task 2 - Enhancing the Efficiency and Transparency of the International Oil Markets: The Reference Pricing System: Origins, Rationale, Assessment; Reforming Reference Pricing and Seeking for Alternative Pricing Systems; Strategic Stockpiles vs. Market Intervention for Price

  4. Cellulose membrane as a biomaterial: from hydrolysis to depolymerization with electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Mi Young; Fan, Huan; Cho, Yun Ju; Kim, Soung Min; Lee, Suk Keun

    2016-01-01

    The cellulose membrane (CM) is a major component of plant cell walls and is both a chemically and mechanically stable synthetic polymer with many applications for use in tissue engineering. However, due to its dissolution difficulty, there are no known physiologically relevant or pharmaceutically clinical applications for this polymer. Thus, research is underway on controlled and adjusted forms of cellulose depolymerization. To advance the study of applying CM for tissue engineering, we have suggested new possibilities for electron beam (E-beam) treatment of CM. Treatment of CM with an E-beam can modify physical, chemical, molecular and biological properties, so it can be studied continuously to improve its usefulness and to enhance value. We review clinical applications of CM, cellulose binding domains, cellulose crosslinking proteins, conventional hydrolysis of cellulose, and depolymerization with radiation and focus our experiences with depolymerization of E-beam irradiated CM in this article. PMID:27418974

  5. Accelerated hydrolysis of substituted cellulose for potential biofuel production: kinetic study and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Bingnan; Xu, Helan; Yang, Yiqi

    2015-11-01

    In this work, kinetics of substitution accelerated cellulose hydrolysis with multiple reaction stages was investigated to lay foundation for mechanism study and molecular design of substituting compounds. High-efficiency hydrolysis of cellulose is critical for cellulose-based bioethanol production. It is known that, substitution could substantially decrease activation energy and increase reaction rate of acidic hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in cellulose. However, reaction kinetics and mechanism of the accelerated hydrolysis were not fully revealed. In this research, it was proved that substitution therefore accelerated hydrolysis only occurred in amorphous regions of cellulose fibers, and was a process with multiple reaction stages. With molar ratio of substitution less than 1%, the overall hydrolysis rate could be increased for around 10 times. We also quantified the relationship between the hydrolysis rate of individual reaction stage and its major influences, including molar ratio of substitution, activation energy of acidic hydrolysis, pH and temperature. PMID:26253917

  6. Production of bacterial cellulose from alternate feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. N. Thompson; M. A. Hamilton

    2000-05-07

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS and HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  7. Production of Bacterial Cellulose from Alternate Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neil; Hamilton, Melinda Ann

    2000-05-01

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS & HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  8. Coordinated research programme on the application of isotope techniques to investigate groundwater pollution final research coordination meeting and consultants' meeting. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Application of Isotope Techniques to Investigate Groundwater Pollution. Summaries of 16 completed investigations are given. The completed investigations resulted to the application of 18O, 2H, 3H, 13C, 14C, 34S, 15N and boron isotopes integrated to some extend with the classical hydrological tools. These studies have broadly confirmed the use of isotope techniques on two main ways: a) to assist in the interpretation of groundwater flow systems; b) to act as tracers of the origin and pathways of ta range of groundwater pollutants. Several important aspects have become clear in the CRP: it is advisable not to rely on single isotopes, but to combine where possible the use of more than one, particularly oxygen with nitrogen and sulfur; it is essential to integrate isotope techniques with conventional hydrochemistry; trace elements have an important role to play in an integrated approach to the interpretation of contamination sources and pathways. This CRP should be regarded as a stepping stone, considering that the magnitude of the problem of groundwater pollution is enormous in global terms. In order to have an impact on the understanding of groundwater pollution, the need is seen for follow-up by several CRPs targeted at specific areas or problems. Of priorities are: a) urban waste, both human and industrial; b) the origin of saline groundwater; and c) nitrate in groundwater in both agricultural and urban areas

  9. 78 FR 76169 - Patuxent Research Refuge, Prince George's and Anne Arundel Counties, MD; Final Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    .... Geological Survey (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a leading international research institute for... Fish and Wildlife Service Patuxent Research Refuge, Prince George's and Anne Arundel Counties, MD... significant impact (FONSI) for Patuxent Research Refuge (Patuxent RR, refuge), located in Prince George's...

  10. 78 FR 22780 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ..., rigorous research and development projects. (2) Increased innovation in technologies, products... research area. The RERC must contribute to this outcome through the development and testing of these innovations. (3) Improved research capacity in its designated priority research area. The RERC must...

  11. In Vivo Curdlan/Cellulose Bionanocomposite Synthesis by Genetically Modified Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ju; Kawano, Shin; Tajima, Kenji; Kondo, Tetsuo

    2015-10-12

    Bacterial cellulose pellicle produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus (G. xylinus) is one of the best biobased materials having a unique supernetwork structure with remarkable physiochemical properties for a wide range of medical and tissue-engineering applications. It is still necessary to modify them to obtain materials suitable for biomedical use with satisfactory mechanical strength, biodegradability, and bioactivity. The aim of this research was to develop a gene-transformation route for the production of bacterial cellulose/Curdlan (β-1,3-glucan) nanocomposites by separate but simultaneous in vivo synthesis of cellulose and Curdlan. Modification of the cellulose-nanofiber-producing system of G. xylinus enabled Curdlan to be synthesized simultaneously with cellulose nanofibers in vivo, resulting in biopreparation of nanocomposites. The obtained Curdlan/cellulose composites were characterized, and their properties were compared with those of normal bacterial cellulose pellicles, indicating that Curdlan mixed with the cellulose nanofibers at the nanoscale without disruption of the nanofiber network structure in the pellicle. PMID:26360299

  12. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  13. Potential applications of cellulose and chitosan nanoparticles/composites in wastewater treatment: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, Sharon; Muralidhara, Handanahally Basavarajaiah; Venkatesh, Krishna; Guna, Vijay Kumar; Gopalakrishna, Keshavanarayana; Kumar K, Yogesh

    2016-11-20

    This work concerns the investigation of potential candidature of cellulose and chitosan-based nano-sized materials for heavy metals and dyes removal. Cellulose and chitosan being the first two abundant biopolymers in nature offer wide opportunities to be utilized for high-end applications such as water purification. The nano-sized cellulose and nano-sized chitosan present superior adsorption behavior compared to their micro-sized counterparts. This area of research which explores the possible usage of nano-biopolymers is relatively new. The present review article outlines the development history of research in the field of cellulose and chitosan, various methods employed for the functionalization of the biopolymers, current stage of research, and mechanisms involved in adsorption of heavy metals and dyes using nanocellulose and nanochitosan. The significance of research using nano-biopolymers and future prospects are also identified. PMID:27561533

  14. How Work–Family Research Can Finally Have an Impact in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    KOSSEK, ELLEN ERNST; Baltes, Boris B.; Matthews, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    Although work–family research has mushroomed over the past several decades, an implementation gap persists in putting work–family research into practice. Because of this, work–family researchers have not made a significant impact in improving the lives of employees relative to the amount of research that has been conducted. The goal of this article is to clarify areas where implementation gaps between work–family research and practice are prevalent, discuss the importance of reducing these ga...

  15. Simultaneous microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization, thermal stability, and antimicrobial activity of cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of a simultaneous microwave-assisted method and a simple chemical reaction, cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized using cellulose solution and AgNO3 in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) solvent. The cellulose solution was firstly prepared by the dissolution of the microcrystalline cellulose and lithium chloride (LiCl) in DMAc. DMAc acts as both a solvent and a microwave absorber. LiCl was used as the reactant to fabricate AgCl crystals. The effects of the heating time and heating temperature on the products were studied. This method is based on the simultaneous formation of AgCl nanoparticles and precipitation of the cellulose, leading to a homogeneous distribution of AgCl nanoparticles in the cellulose matrix. The experimental results confirmed the formation of cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites with high-purity, good thermal stability and antimicrobial activity. This rapid, green and environmentally friendly microwave-assisted method opens a new window to the high value-added applications of biomass. -- Highlights: ► Cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites have been synthesized by microwave method. ► Effect of heating temperature on the nanocomposites was researched. ► Thermal stability of the nanocomposites was investigated. ► Cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites had good antimicrobial activity. ► This method is based on the simultaneous formation of AgCl and cellulose.

  16. Electron beam processing technology for modification of different types of cellulose pulps for production of derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Pulp and Paper Research Institute and Institute of Chemical Fibers carry out a joint research project in order to develop the radiation methods modification of cellulose pulps for production of cellulose derivatives such as carbamate (CC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and methylcellulose (MC). Three different types of textile pulps: Alicell (A); Borregaard (B), Ketchikan (K) and Kraft softwood (PSS) and hardwood (PSB) pulps have been irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam from LAE 13/9 linear accelerator with doses of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50 kGy. After electron beam treatment the samples of cellulose pulps have been examined by using of structural and physico-chemical methods. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were applied for determination of structural changes in irradiated cellulose pulps. By means of analytical methods, such parameters as: viscosity, average degree of polymerization (DP) and α-cellulose contents were evaluated. Based on EPR and GPC investigations the relationship between concentrations of free radicals and decreasing polymerization degrees in electron beam treatment pulps has been confirmed. The carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose and cellulose carbamate were prepared using the raw material of radiation modified pulps. Positive results of investigations will allow for determination of optimum conditions for electron beam modification of selected cellulose paper and textile pulps. Such procedure leads to limit the amounts of chemical activators used in methods for preparation cellulose derivatives. The proposed electron beam technology is new approaches in technical solution and economic of process of cellulose derivatives preparation. (author)

  17. Patient Dose Optimization in Fluoroscopically Guided Interventional Procedures. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection with Newer Imaging Techniques recently produced. In addition it has embarked on a series of CRPs, of which this is one, and which add to those already available in radiology, mammography and computed tomography (CT). This series of TECDOCs is a further contribution to the resources provided by the IAEA in support of implementation of the BSS. The International Action Plan for the Radiological Protection of Patients, approved by the General Conference of the IAEA in September 2002, requires that: 'The practice-specific documents under preparation should be finalized as guidance rather than regulations, and they should include input from professional bodies, from international organizations and from authorities with responsibility for radiation protection and medical care.' This TECDOC is prepared and issued in this spirit. It provides useful advice for those involved in one of the more dose intensive areas developing in radiology today. The present publication is based on the results of the groups who participated in the coordinated research project

  18. Polymorphy in native cellulose: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a number of earlier studies, the authors developed a model of cellulose structure based on the existence of two stable, linearly ordered conformations of the cellulose chain that are dominant in celluloses I and II, respectively. The model rests on extensive Raman spectral observations together with conformational considerations and solid-state 13C-NMR studies. More recently, they have proposed, on the basis of high resolution solid-state 13C-NMR observations, that native celluloses are composites of two distinct crystalline forms that coexist in different proportions in all native celluloses. In the present work, they examine the Raman spectra of the native celluloses, and reconcile their view of conformational differences with the new level of crystalline polymorphy of native celluloses revealed in the solid-state 13C-NMR investigations

  19. The Potential of Cellulose Extracted from Acacia mangium as Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellulosic materials derived from Acacia mangium was extracted at atmospheric pressure using peroxyacetate acid delignification method at 95 to 100 degree Celsius for three hours,to remove lignin. In second stage, the cellulose was divided into two parts. Each part was bleached in acidified 4 % hydrogen peroxide solution and in 0.8 % NaOH solution containing 4 % of hydrogen peroxide. Both bleaching procedures were treated at 60 to 70 degree Celsius for 45 minutes, with solution to solid ratio maintained at 20 mg/l. In final stage, bleached cellulose was treated with 17.5 % solution of NaOH at 25 degree Celsius for 15 minutes. From X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) data's, it is proven that cellulose bleached in either acidic and alkaline media has shown cellulose I structure. However, this structure was transformed to cellulose II when treated with strong alkali solution. The preparation of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane was obtained by dissolving the cellulosic material in molten 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCL) in the presence of lithium perchlorate (LiClO4). All SPE membranes obtained exhibit conductivity in the range of 4.49 x 10-5 to 5.7 x 10-5 Scm-1 at 25 degree Celsius. Importantly, it was also observed that the conductivity of the SPE is affected by type of extraction. (author)

  20. Final remarks - do we need a Global Universal Aging Research and Development (GUARD) facility?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus E-mail: hohlmann@fit.edu

    2003-12-01

    A small new research facility dedicated to aging studies for gaseous detectors is proposed with the goal of overcoming current shortcomings in this research area. The general framework and a possible path towards such a facility are outlined.

  1. The collection of final reports abstract for development of nuclear energy research in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reports the project for development of nuclear energy research about medium-and long term plan, establishment the foundation for research, research for commercialization and build of the foundation for international cooperation in the excerpt part. It provide with indexes with Korean index English index and index of person in charge.

  2. Final report for the 'Melt-Vessel Interactions' Project. European Union R and TD Program 4th Framework. MVI project final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Melt Vessel Interaction (MVI) project is concerned with the consequences of the interactions that a core melt, generated during a postulated severe accident in a light water reactor, may have with the pressure vessel. In particular, the issues concerned with the failure of the vessel bottom head are the focus of the research. The specific objectives of the project are to obtain data and develop validated models, which could be applied to prototypic plants, and accident conditions, for resolution of issues related to the melt vessel interactions. The project work has been performed by nine partners having varied responsibility. The work included a large number of experiments, with simulant materials, whose observations and results are employed, respectively, to understand the physical mechanisms and to develop validated models. Applications to the prototypic geometry and conditions have also been performed. This report is volume 1 of the Final Report for the Project, in which a summary of the progress achieved in the experimental program is provided. We have, however, included some aspects of the modeling activities. Volume 2 of the Final report describes the progress achieved in the modeling program. The progress achieved in the experimental and modeling parts of the Project has led to the resolution of some of the issues of melt vessel interaction. Considerable progress was also achieved towards resolution of the remaining issues

  3. Final report for the 'Melt-Vessel Interactions' Project. European Union R and TD Program 4th Framework. MVI project final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Green, J.; Kolb, G.; Karbojian, A.; Theerthan, S.A.; Gubaidulline, A. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety; Helle, M.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Tuomisto, H. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Bonnet, J.M.; Rouge, S.; Narcoux, M.; Liegeois, A. [CEA - Grenoble (France); Turland, B.D.; Dobson, G.P. [AEA Technology plc, Dorchester (United Kingdom); Siccama, A. [ECN Nuclear Research, Petten (Netherlands); Ikonen, K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Parozzi, F. [ENEL - SRI/PAM/GRA, Segrate, MI (Italy); Kolev, N. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Caira, M. [Univ. of Roma (Italy)

    1999-04-01

    The Melt Vessel Interaction (MVI) project is concerned with the consequences of the interactions that a core melt, generated during a postulated severe accident in a light water reactor, may have with the pressure vessel. In particular, the issues concerned with the failure of the vessel bottom head are the focus of the research. The specific objectives of the project are to obtain data and develop validated models, which could be applied to prototypic plants, and accident conditions, for resolution of issues related to the melt vessel interactions. The project work has been performed by nine partners having varied responsibility. The work included a large number of experiments, with simulant materials, whose observations and results are employed, respectively, to understand the physical mechanisms and to develop validated models. Applications to the prototypic geometry and conditions have also been performed. This report is volume 1 of the Final Report for the Project, in which a summary of the progress achieved in the experimental program is provided. We have, however, included some aspects of the modeling activities. Volume 2 of the Final report describes the progress achieved in the modeling program. The progress achieved in the experimental and modeling parts of the Project has led to the resolution of some of the issues of melt vessel interaction. Considerable progress was also achieved towards resolution of the remaining issues.

  4. Bibliometric analysis of undergraduate final research projects in Nutrition courses in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiana Brito MENÊZES

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the profile of academic production of undergraduates in Nutrition courses in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Methods: The bibliometric study was conducted with undergraduate final research projects from five courses in Nutrition in the state of Rio Grande do Norte during 2013 and 2014. The following variables were collected: institution, title of project, number of authors, academic degree of the advisor, study design, area of study interest, type of study, study setting, submission to the ethics committee, and keywords. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to assess the variable area of study interest with a significance level at p≤0.05 and 95% confidence interval. Results: Of the 195 projects analyzed, 79.0% were developed at universities. We found a higher frequency of academic articles (68.2% developed by a single student (65.6%, advised by a professor with a Masters degree (57.9%, with a cross-sectional study design (48.2%, and without submission to the research ethics committee (49.2%. The mean adequacy of keywords was 50.0%. Conclusion: The quantitative approach was the most predominant characteristic of the final research projects and the most frequently researched area of knowledge was public health. The methodological approaches of the research projects were considered weak, which suggests the need to improve the quality of scientific methodology during undergraduate studies, considering the important benefits derive from researches as an active methodology.

  5. IAEA FUMEX-III. Co-ordinated Research Programme: NNL Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the UK National Nuclear Laboratory's (NNL's) final report for its contribution to the IAEA FUMEX-III Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the improvement of computer codes used for fuel behaviour simulation. It describes the analysis of the FUMEX-III cases, or rod irradiations, that have so far been modelled using NNL's ENIGMA fuel performance code, and provides a description of ENIGMA. The work was performed for Sellafield Ltd under the remit of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). Twenty FUMEX-III cases (or rod irradiations) have been modelled using ENIGMA. These include irradiations of both UO2 and MOX fuel rods in both commercial light water reactor (LWR) and experimental reactor conditions. More specifically, the cases modelled are eight of the high priority cases (the PRIMO MOX rod BD8, Riso-3 rods GE7 and II5, OSIRIS rod J12-5, IFA-535.5 rod 809, the US PWR 16x16 LTAs rods TSQ002 and TSQ022, and the AREVA idealised case) in the areas of interest to NNL and Sellafield Ltd - that is MOX, pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI), transients, and normal operation, all for LWRs only - and twelve additional MOX rods, i.e. M501 rod D10 and the eleven rods from the IFA-591 MOX irradiation. No significant problems were encountered in modelling any of the cases (due to lack of data or computational difficulties, for example), other than a lack of fuel grain size data for IFA-535.5 rod 809. The predictions have been compared with the measured data and the results of this have been described on a case by case basis. The phenomenological results have then been considered. Fuel temperatures, fission gas release, clad diametral deformation (at the pellet waist and pellet end), fuel densification and swelling, rod free volume changes, rod internal pressure, fuel stack elongation, and clad corrosion (uniform, outer surface oxidation) were all in general judged to be satisfactorily predicted, although: (a) there is a known underprediction of fuel

  6. 76 FR 18624 - Research, Technical Assistance and Training Programs: Notice of Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... availability of the proposed circular (75 FR 60494). The final Circular 6100.1D supersedes FTA Circular 6100.1C... again. Another request was to revise the ``Key Person'' definition to state that the grantee should... requirement for a sign on all hardware data, equipment, etc. The language for Project Identification...

  7. 78 FR 34897 - Final Priorities; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Register on March 8, 2013 (78 FR 14947). That notice contained background information and our... 2013-2017 (78 FR 20299) (Plan), NIDRR seeks to generate more field-initiated grant opportunities. With... CFR Chapter III Final Priorities; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation...

  8. 78 FR 22783 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Plan (Plan). The Plan, which was published in the Federal Register on February 15, 2006 (71 FR 8165... notice of final priorities in the Federal Register on April 28, 2006 (71 FR 25472). Additional..., 2013 (78 FR 2923). That notice contained background information and our reasons for proposing...

  9. 78 FR 42868 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... the Federal Register on May 15, 2013 (78 FR 28543). That notice contained background information and...-2017 (Plan). The Plan, which was published in the Federal Register on April 4, 2013 (78 FR 20299), can... CFR Chapter III Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation...

  10. 78 FR 38840 - Final Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... FR 26560). That notice contained background information and our reasons for proposing the particular... Long-Range Plan for Fiscal Years 2013-2017 (78 FR 20299): Employment, Community Living and... CFR Chapter III Final Priority--National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation...

  11. Researches for selection of the host rock formation for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the countries with nuclear power industry have not decided upon the option about closing the nuclear cycle. There are still in progress projects concerning the final disposal, while worldwide it isn't foreseen the reprocessing of the whole amount of reusable fissionable materials. The annual worldwide production of used nuclear fuel continues to be about 10,500-11,000 tones of heavy metal. The difficulties about the design of some used fuel final disposal repositories led to the design of some interim storage facilities, which provide a satisfactory safety level for biosphere. Although, at present in Romania, the nuclear fuel extracted from the reactor after its 'useful life' is declared radioactive waste, it may contain a certain amount of fissionable material that could be used in other types of reactors. This possibility implies taking into account the concept regarding the recovery of fuel after a certain time, although, by definition, final disposal means prevention of this possibility. More and more countries have begun taking into account a certain flexibility concerning the final disposal, and to consider the possibility that at least during the preclosure period of a repository the disposed fuel to be recovered. The possibilities for final disposal of the used nuclear fuel declared as radioactive waste or of the α-emitters wastes resulted from the used nuclear fuel reprocessing may influence the dimensions of the National Nuclear Program regarding the radioactive waste management in nuclear safety conditions. Therefore, the problem about the final disposal of the used nuclear fuel must be solved in close relation with the harmonization of the Romanian legislation to that of the European Community and the adhering to the European Conventions. Starting from these major requirements, in this paper the results of the complex analysis regarding the implications on the design of the Used Nuclear Fuel Final Disposal Repository in Romania, are presented

  12. Radioprotective drugs: a synopsis of current research and a proposed research plan for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, R.; Anspaugh, L.

    1985-04-01

    FEMA has broad roles in the management of disasters potentially involving substantial amounts of radioactive contamination. These could be either peacetime or wartime disasters. A meeting was held in March 1985 to see if there are any research contributions that FEMA might reasonably make in the area of radioprotective drugs that would substantially enhance its ability to perform its mission. The other federal agencies presently sponsoring research in the field were represented at the meeting. A few selected researchers also participated to provide complementary viewpoints. Activities of a modest scale that FEMA might undertake were identified, as were larger scale activities that might be undertaken in the event of long-term, major funding-level increases for FEMA. 2 refs.

  13. Radioprotective drugs: a synopsis of current research and a proposed research plan for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FEMA has broad roles in the management of disasters potentially involving substantial amounts of radioactive contamination. These could be either peacetime or wartime disasters. A meeting was held in March 1985 to see if there are any research contributions that FEMA might reasonably make in the area of radioprotective drugs that would substantially enhance its ability to perform its mission. The other federal agencies presently sponsoring research in the field were represented at the meeting. A few selected researchers also participated to provide complementary viewpoints. Activities of a modest scale that FEMA might undertake were identified, as were larger scale activities that might be undertaken in the event of long-term, major funding-level increases for FEMA. 2 refs

  14. How Work-Family Research Can Finally Have an Impact in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Baltes, Boris B; Matthews, Russell A

    2011-09-01

    Although work-family research has mushroomed over the past several decades, an implementation gap persists in putting work-family research into practice. Because of this, work-family researchers have not made a significant impact in improving the lives of employees relative to the amount of research that has been conducted. The goal of this article is to clarify areas where implementation gaps between work-family research and practice are prevalent, discuss the importance of reducing these gaps, and make the case that both better and different research should be conducted. We recommend several alternative but complementary actions for the work-family researcher: (a) work with organizations to study their policy and practice implementation efforts, (b) focus on the impact of rapid technological advances that are blurring work-family boundaries, (c) conduct research to empower the individual to self-manage the work-family interface, and (d) engage in advocacy and collaborative policy research to change institutional contexts and break down silos. Increased partnerships between industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology practitioners and researchers from many industries and disciplines could break down silos that we see as limiting development of the field. PMID:22247737

  15. Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

    2004-03-02

    The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand

  16. Bibliometric analysis of undergraduate final research projects in Nutrition courses in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Taiana Brito MENÊZES; Lívia Samila Bezerra BORGES; Letícia Mendes SANTOS; Luiz Roberto Augusto NORO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the profile of academic production of undergraduates in Nutrition courses in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Methods: The bibliometric study was conducted with undergraduate final research projects from five courses in Nutrition in the state of Rio Grande do Norte during 2013 and 2014. The following variables were collected: institution, title of project, number of authors, academic degree of the advisor, study design, area of study interest, type o...

  17. Determinants and finalities in the choice of journal reviewing procedures: the case of RDST, a french science education research journal

    OpenAIRE

    Morge, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    International audience The merging of two French journals both publishing articles on research in science and technology education has made it necessary for them to compare the different reviewing procedures used by each. This comparison highlights two points: first, there are extrinsic and intrinsic determinants which affect the choice of reviewing modalities; and secondly, there are two finalities which could lead to the two journals converging, namely, the equity (fairness) or the equal...

  18. Cooperative Research between NREL and Solar Junction Corp: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-306

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, D.

    2015-03-01

    NREL and Solar Junction Corp. will perform cooperative research on materials and devices that are alternatives to standard approaches with the goal of improving solar cell efficiency while lowering cost. The general purpose of this work is to model the performance of a multi-junction concentrator cell of Solar Junction, Inc. design under normal concentrator operating conditions.

  19. Rehabilitation Research Capacity Building: Followup Studies. Final Report. Coppin State College Rehabilitation Research Studies, Monograph No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sudhansu B.

    This series of followup studies concerned mentally retarded rehabilitation clients of the Social and Rehabilitation Service research and development projects in the District of Columbia, and the Model Cities Project in Maryland. The clientele were primarily black, urban ghetto residents. The studies dealt with (1) vocational success of…

  20. Surface modification of cellulose fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Naceur Belgacem

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches to the modification of cellulose fibres are described, namely: (i physical treatments such as corona or plasma treatments under different atmospheres; (ii grafting with hydrophobic molecules using well-known sizing compounds; (iii grafting with bi-functional molecules, leaving one of the functions available for further exploitation; and (iv grafting with organometallic compounds. The modified surfaces were characterized by elemental analysis, contact angle measurements, inverse gas chromatography, X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy, wettability, etc. These different tools provided clear-cut evidence of the occurrence of chemical reactions between the grafting agent used and the hydroxy functions of the cellulose surface, as well as of the existence of covalent bonding in the ensuing composite materials between the matrix and the fibres through the use of doubly reactive coupling agents.

  1. Atomic data for heavy element impurities in fusion reactors. Summary report of the final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven experts on the properties of heavy elements of relevance to fusion energy research attended the final Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) on Data for Heavy Element Impurities in Fusion Reactors, held at IAEA Headquarters on 4-6 March 2009. Participants summarized their accomplishments with respect to the revised work plan formulated at the second RCM. The overall work plan for the CRP was assessed and reviewed in detail, and achievements were noted. Discussions, conclusions and recommendations of the RCM are briefly described in this report. (author)

  2. Effect of the chemical treatments on the characteristics of natural cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to characterize the morphology and size distribution of the cellulose fibers, natural cellulose from kenaf bast fibers was extracted using two chemical treatments; (1) alkali-bleaching-ultrasonic treatment and (2) alkali-bleaching-hydrolysis. Solutions of NaOH, H2O2 and H2SO4 were used for alkalization, bleaching and hydrolysis, respectively. The hydrolyzed fibers were centrifuged at a rotation speed of 10000 rpm for 10 min to separate the nanofibers from the microfibers. The separation was repeated in 7 steps by controlling pH of the solution in each step until neutrality was reached. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed on the fibers at the final step of each treatment: i.e. either ultrasonic treated- or hydrolyzed microfibers. Their FTIR spectra were compared with FTIR spectrum of a reference commercial α-cellulose. Changes in morphology and size distribution of the treated fibers were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR spectra of ultrasonic treated- and hydrolyzed microfibers nearly coincided with the FTIR spectrum of commercial α-cellulose, suggesting successful extraction of cellulose. Ultrasonic treatment for 6 h resulted in a specific morphology in which cellulose nanofibers (≥100 nm) were distributed across the entire surface of cellulose microfibers (∼5 μm). Constant magnetic stirring combined with acid hydrolysis resulted in an inhomogeneous size distribution of both cellulose rods (500 nm-3 μm length, 100–200 nm diameter) and particles 100–200 nm in size. Changes in morphology of the cellulose fibers depended upon the stirring time; longer stirring time resulted in shorter fiber lengths

  3. Intervention in engineering students’ final year capstone research projects to enhance their written, oral and presentation skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Blicblau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an intervention and enhancement approach to improvement in capstone student’s written, oral and presentation skills as part of their final year research project requirements especially for international students, whose first language is not English. Training in these skills have been incorporated into the early stages of the final year research (capstone project, as an intervention and enhancement program, incorporating a series of intensive seminars and practical applications to provide the students with these capabilities.  In this paper, we report on the research question “how does an intensive intervention and enhancement program in an engineering capstone research project effect students’ perceptions and their capabilities in communicating their research findings.” Results of student responses showed statistically significant differences between perceptions of local and international students in categories of intervention and enhancement in a tutorial environment for writing, oral communication and presentations. International students perceived the intervention and enhancement process of greater benefit to their engineering future than local students did. Overall, the results from this work are relevant to both international and local students who may be lacking in specialised reporting and English skills.

  4. Evaluative studies in nuclear medicine research: positron computed tomography assessment. Final report, January 1, 1982-December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported of the final phase of the study effort generally titled Evaluative Studies in Nuclear Medicine Research. The previous work is reviewed and extended to an assessment providing perspectives on medical applications of positron emission tomographic (PET) systems, their technological context, and the related economic and marketing environment. Methodologies developed and used in earlier phases of the study were continued, but specifically extended to include solicitation of opinion from commercial organizations deemed to be potential developers, manufacturers and marketers of PET systems. Several factors which influence the demand for clinical uses of PET are evaluated and discussed. The recent Federal funding of applied research with PET systems is found to be a necessary and encouraging event toward a determination that PET either is a powerful research tool limited to research, or whether it also presents major clinical utility. A comprehensive, updated bibliography of current literature related to the development, applications and economic considerations of PET technology is appended

  5. National Wildlife Health Center: Final research report (September 1999): Determination of lead exposure in black ducks wintering in Tennessee ten years after implementation of non-toxic shot

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Attached is the final project report for the cooperative research study on lead exposure for black ducks in Tennessee. Research objectives included determining the...

  6. The Cellulase KORRIGAN Is Part of the Cellulose Synthase Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vain, T.; Crowell, E.F.; Timpano, H.; Biot, E.; Desprez, T.; Mansoori Zangir, N.; Trindade, L.M.; Pagant, S.; Robert, S.; Hofte, H.; Gonneau, M.; Vernhettes, S.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth and organ formation depend on the oriented deposition of load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. Cellulose is synthesized by a large relative molecular weight cellulose synthase complex (CSC), which comprises at least three distinct cellulose synthases. Cellulose synthesis

  7. Final Closeout Report University Research Program in Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James S. Tulenko; Carl Crane

    2004-08-24

    The report covers the 2003-04 contract period, with a retrospective of the 11 years for the contract, from 1993 to 2004. This includes personnel, technical publications and reports, plus research laboratories employed. Specific information is given in eight research areas, reporting on all technology developed and/or deployed by the University of Florida.

  8. Final Technical Close out Report University Research Program in Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the 2003-04 contract period, with a retrospective of the 11 years for the contract, from 1993 to 2004. This includes personnel, technical publications and reports, plus research laboratories employed. Specific information is given in eight research areas, reporting on all technology developed and/or deployed by the University of Florida

  9. Engineering Design Thinking and Information Gathering. Final Report. Research in Engineering and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore the relationship between information access and design solution quality of high school students presented with an engineering design problem. This objective is encompassed in the research question driving this inquiry: How does information access impact the design process? This question has emerged in…

  10. A ProCoS II Project Final Report: ESPRIT Basic Research project 707

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, J. P.; Hoare, C. A. R.; Langmaack, Hans;

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the research and associated activities of the Europeancollaborative ESPRIT Basic Research ProCoS II project (no. 7071) on``Provably Correct Systems'' which ran from 1992 to 1995 is presented.This was a follow-on project to ProCoS (no. 3104) and ran inparallel with the ProCoS Workin...

  11. SAFIR. The Finnish research programme on nuclear power plant safety 2003-2006. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major part of Finnish public research on nuclear power plant safety during the years 2003-2006 has been carried out in the SAFIR programme. The programme has been administrated by the steering group that was nominated by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). The steering group of SAFIR has consisted of representatives from Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy (Fortum), Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Helsinki University of Technology and Lappeenranta University of Technology. The key research areas of SAFIR have been (1) reactor fuel and core, (2) reactor circuit and structural safety, (3) containment and process safety functions, that was divided in 2005 into 3a) thermal hydraulics and 3b) severe accidents, (4) automation, control room and IT, (5) organisations and safety management and (6) riskinformed safety management. The research programme has included annually from 20 up to 24 research projects, whose volume has varied from a few person months to several person years. The total volume of the programme during the four year period 2003-2006 is 19.7 million euros and 148 person years. The research in the programme has been carried out primarily by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Other research units responsible for the projects include Lappeenranta University of Technology, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy, Helsinki University of Technology and RAMSE Consulting Oy. In addition, there have been a few minor subcontractors in some projects. The programme management structure has consisted of the steering group, a reference group in each of the seven research areas and a number of ad hoc groups in the various research areas. This report gives a summary of the results of the SAFIR programme for the period January 2003 - November 2006. (orig.)

  12. Decommissioning and dismantling. Research project: Optimisation of recycling of metals (FORM II). Further investigations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactively contaminated steel scrap is already being recycled into cast iron casks for transport and storage of low and medium active waste. An important criteria in the cask design is the safety against crack initiation under the high stresses resulting from accident loading. In order to provide sufficient fracture toughness the use of cast iron with predominantly ferritic microstructure is required. Increasing the content of steel scrap containing Mn, Cu and Mo (structural steels) and Cr and Ni (stainless steels) in the melt increases the pearlite content in the cast iron microstructure. Successful ferritizing of as-cast pearlite microstructures by heat treatment requires tight limits on recycling quantities. This renders the recycling of sizable fractions of steel scraps impossible which therefore have to go into final storage if no other recycling application can be found. The goal of the R and D program FORM II (as of the preceeding FORM) is the substantial increase in the amount of recycling of steel scraps into cast iron casks for low and medium active wastes thus saving costs for their final storage. The pursuit of this goal requires systematic material testing. Test blocks were cast with synthetic compositions (i.e. inactive materials). The influence of the elements leading to pearlitic microstructure and to carbides on the material properties was investigated in test block specimens. This ultimately resulted in design values for the fracture toughness under dynamic loading at low temperatures. The chemical composition of the melt need not be fixed. Rather, regression equations will be used in planning the economically optimized compositions that meet the material specifications. Parallel to the material testing the structural designs of box shaped containers and MOSAIK trademark II casks was optimized, thereby reducing the maximum stresses resulting from accident loading by about half. One prototype cask each was manufactured and several artificial

  13. Spectroscopic and Collisional Data for Tungsten from 1 eV to 20 keV. Summary Report of the Final Research Coordination Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final Research Coordination Meeting of a coordinated research project (CRP) on spectroscopic and collisional data for tungsten ions in fusion plasma was held at IAEA Headquarters with 17 external experts representing 14 research groups and staff from the International Atomic Energy Agency. Participants summarized their research during the CRP and made plans for a final report. The proceedings and conclusions of the meeting are summarized here. (author)

  14. Effects of microcrystalline cellulose on functional properties of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose microcomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, N; McHugh, T H

    2007-01-01

    Edible films and coatings in foods can be used to increase shelf-life and improve organoleptic characteristics of foods by avoiding deterioration of food components and therefore promoting preservation of the final product. This study is the first to investigate the use of different size fillers for the purpose of preparing edible composite films with fillers HPMC (hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose) based films with the inclusion of different size MCC (microcrystalline cellulose) fillers were studied. The water vapor permeability of the control HPMC film was 1.2 +/- 0.2 g-mm/kPa-h-m2 and did not show a significant change with the addition of fillers. A comparison of mechanical properties of the films with a tensile test showed that tensile strength of the control film, which was prepared using a 3 wt% HPMC solution, increased from 29.7 +/- 1.6 MPa to 70.1 +/- 7.9 MPa with the addition of 500-nm size particles, while it increased only to 37.4 +/- 5.5 MPa with the addition of 3-microm size particles. Also important is that the elongation percentage of the control film did not decrease significantly with the addition of submicron size fillers to the HPMC films. This study showed that the increased surface area per weight of smaller size MCC fillers compared to their larger size counterparts was highly beneficial in terms of film mechanical property improvement. PMID:17995880

  15. Cellulose-binding domains: tools for innovation in cellulosic fibre production and modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quentin, M.G.E.; Valk, van der H.C.P.M.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Jong, de E.

    2003-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of cellulose, nature's most abundant macromolecule, and therefore represent a renewable resource of special technical importance. Cellulose degrading enzymes involved in plant cell wall loosening (expansins), or produced by plant pathogenic microorganisms (cellulases),

  16. Engineering of a novel cellulose-adherent cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae for cellulosic biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Sasaki, Kengo; den Haan, Riaan; Inokuma, Kentaro; Ogino, Chiaki; van Zyl, Willem H; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Cellulosic biofuel is the subject of increasing attention. The main obstacle toward its economic feasibility is the recalcitrance of lignocellulose requiring large amount of enzyme to break. Several engineered yeast strains have been developed with cellulolytic activities to reduce the need for enzyme addition, but exhibiting limited effect. Here, we report the successful engineering of a cellulose-adherent Saccharomyces cerevisiae displaying four different synergistic cellulases on the cell surface. The cellulase-displaying yeast strain exhibited clear cell-to-cellulose adhesion and a "tearing" cellulose degradation pattern; the adhesion ability correlated with enhanced surface area and roughness of the target cellulose fibers, resulting in higher hydrolysis efficiency. The engineered yeast directly produced ethanol from rice straw despite a more than 40% decrease in the required enzyme dosage for high-density fermentation. Thus, improved cell-to-cellulose interactions provided a novel strategy for increasing cellulose hydrolysis, suggesting a mechanism for promoting the feasibility of cellulosic biofuel production. PMID:27079382

  17. Effects of reaction conditions on cellulose structures synthesized in vitro by bacterial cellulose synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Paavo A; Sugiyama, Junji; Imai, Tomoya

    2016-01-20

    Cellulose was synthesized by cellulose synthases extracted from the Komagataeibacter xylinus (formerly known as Gluconacetobacter xylinus). The effects of temperature and centrifugation of the reaction solution on the synthesis products were investigated. Cellulose with number-average degree of polymerization (DPn) roughly in the range 60-80 and cellulose II crystal structure was produced under all conditions. The amount of cellulose varied with temperature and centrifugation, and the centrifugation at 2000 × g also slightly reduced the DPn. Cellulose production was maximal around the temperature 35 °C and without centrifugation. At higher temperatures and during centrifugation at 2000 × g the proteins started to denature, causing differences also in the morphology of the cellulosic aggregates, as seen with electron microscopy. These observations serve as a basis for discussions about the factors affecting the structure formation and chain length of in vitro synthesized cellulose. PMID:26572398

  18. Micromechanics and poroelasticity of hydrated cellulose networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sanchez, P; Rincon, Mauricio; Wang, D; Brulhart, S; Stokes, J R; Gidley, M J

    2014-06-01

    The micromechanics of cellulose hydrogels have been investigated using a new rheological experimental approach, combined with simulation using a poroelastic constitutive model. A series of mechanical compression steps at different strain rates were performed as a function of cellulose hydrogel thickness, combined with small amplitude oscillatory shear after each step to monitor the viscoelasticity of the sample. During compression, bacterial cellulose hydrogels behaved as anisotropic materials with near zero Poisson's ratio. The micromechanics of the hydrogels altered with each compression as water was squeezed out of the structure, and microstructural changes were strain rate-dependent, with increased densification of the cellulose network and increased cellulose fiber aggregation observed for slower compressive strain rates. A transversely isotropic poroelastic model was used to explain the observed micromechanical behavior, showing that the mechanical properties of cellulose networks in aqueous environments are mainly controlled by the rate of water movement within the structure. PMID:24784575

  19. Cellulose Synthases and Synthesis in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne Endler; Staffan Persson

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are complex structures composed of high-molecular-weight polysaccharides,proteins,and lignins. Among the wall polysaccharides,cellulose,a hydrogen-bonded β-1,4-linked glucan microfibril,is the main load-bearing wall component and a key precursor for industrial applications. Cellulose is synthesized by large multi-meric cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes,tracking along cortical microtubules at the plasma membrane. The only known components of these complexes are the cellulose synthase proteins. Recent studies have identified tentative interaction partners for the CesAs and shown that the migratory patterns of the CesA complexes depend on phosphorylation status. These advances may become good platforms for expanding our knowledge about cellulose synthesis in the near future. In addition,our current understanding of cellulose chain polymerization in the context of the CesA complex is discussed.

  20. CELLULOSE POWDER FROM OLIVE INDUSTRY SOLID WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman A. Hamed,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a method for extracting cellulose from olive industry solid waste has been developed. The method involves subjecting solid olive waste to kraft pulping, followed by multistep bleaching processes. The totally free chlorine chemical bleaching sequence APEP was the most effective and gave an average cellulose yield of about 35%. The extracted cellulose was extensively characterized using FTIR, EMS, HPLC, and viscometry. Our key finding in this study is that the extracted cellulose was found to have physio-chemical properties that are similar to those of conventional microcrystalline cellulose (MCC. This is important, as our results show how lignocellulosic agricultural wastes can be utilized to produce high value cellulose powder.

  1. 离子液体法制备再生纤维素/角蛋白共混膜的研究%Research of Regenerated Cellulose/Keratin Blend Membranes Prepared from Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张猛; 马博谋; 何春菊

    2013-01-01

    合成了离子液体1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑氯盐([BMIM]Cl),以其为溶剂溶解羊毛角蛋白和纤维素,并制得再生纤维素/角蛋白共混膜.通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、傅里叶红外光谱仪(FT-IR)、热失重分析仪(TGA)及强度测试仪等对共混膜的性能进行表征.测试结果表明:与单一原料组分相比,共混膜具有较高的热稳定性,但力学性能有所降低,此外,羊毛角蛋白再生前后的结构并未发生显著变化.%l-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM] CD was synthesized to dissolve wool keratin and cellulose, and the keratin/cellulose blend membranes were prepared. The properties of the membrane were evaluated through scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and tension strength tester. All the results showed that the blend membranes presented better thermal stability than that of raw cellulose and keratin, but inferior mechanical property. The structure of wool keratin didn't have remarkable change after regeneration.

  2. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, David B.

    2008-04-02

    This grant provided the basic funding that enabled me to carry out a detailed characterization of the proteins used by the aerobic soil bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, to degrade cellulose and to study the mechanisms used by T. fusca to regulate cellulase synthesis. This work resulted in 53 publications and led to the decision by The DOE Joint Genome Institute to sequence the T. fusca genome. T. fusca is now recognized as one of the best studied cellulolytic microorganisms and our work led to the discovery of a novel class of cellulases, processive endoglucanases, which are found in many cellulolytic bacteria including both aerobes and anaerobes. In addition, we were able to determine the mechanism by which Cel9A caused processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This research also helped to explain why many cellulolytic microorganisms produce two different exocellulases, as we showed that these enzymes have different specificities, with one attacking the reducing end of a cellulose chain and the other attacking the nonreducing end. Our work also provided additional evidence for the importance of a cellulose binding domain (carbohydrate binding module) [CBM] in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose.

  3. The Cellulose Nanofibers for Optoelectronic Conversion and Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose widely exists in plant tissues. Due to the large pores between the cellulose units, the regular paper is nontransparent that cannot be used in the optoelectronic devices. But some chemical and physical methods such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO oxidation can be used to improve the pores scale between the cellulose units to reach nanometer level. The cellulose nanofibers (CNFs have good mechanical strength, flexibility, thermostability, and low thermal expansion. The paper made of these nanofibers represent a kind of novel nanostructured material with ultrahigh transparency, ultrahigh haze, conductivity, biodegradable, reproducible, low pollution, environment friendly and so on. These advantages make the novel nanostructured paper apply in the optoelectronic device possible, such as electronics energy storage devices. This kind of paper is considered most likely to replace traditional materials like plastics and glass, which is attracting widespread attention, and the related research has also been reported. The purpose of this paper is to review CNFs which are applied in optoelectronic conversion and energy storage.

  4. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of styrene to ethyl cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, graft copolymer was formed by pre-irradiation method to study the kinetics of radiation grafting method. The copolymer was characterized. The influences of dose, dose rate and solvent on the grafting reaction were studied. Commercial ethyl cellulose was purified by precipitation method. A few fractions were obtained. The fractions were irradiated in air with gamma-ray from a 60Co source. The styrene solution of ethyl cellulose fraction of 4 percent concentration was heated at 65 degree C for 6 hours to form copolymer. The subsequent reaction kinetics were complicated. The reaction medium is very particular. This is constituted by the solution of two newly formed polymers, and the incompatibility of these different polymers leads to phase separation in micro scale. Separation and grafting site characterization of the copolymer were carried out. The polystyrene content in the copolymer was determined from the weight change before and after the reaction. Chain length and the number of branches of the graft copolymer were obtained. Decrease of the molecular weight of ethyl cellulose (number average molecular weight) in the presence of air was measured. The G (break) value calculated was 1.23. Polymerization of styrene in the presence of irradiated ethyl cellulose was carried out, and the rate of polymerization as functions of polymerization time was shown in a figure. Dependence of the polymerization rate on the dose of pre-irradiation was observed. (Kato, T.)

  5. Spray-dried nanofibrillar cellulose microparticles for sustained drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Laaksonen, Timo; Peltonen, Leena; Laukkanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jouni

    2012-07-01

    Nanofibrillar cellulose (also referred to as cellulose nanofibers, nanocellulose, microfibrillated or nanofibrillated cellulose) has gained a lot of attention in recent years in different research areas including biomedical applications. In this study we have evaluated the applicability of nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) as a material for the formation of matrix systems for sustained drug delivery. For that purpose, drug loaded NFC microparticles were produced by a spray drying method. The microparticles were characterized in terms of size and morphology, total drug loading, and physical state of the encapsulated drug. Drug release from the microparticles was assessed by dissolution tests, and suitable mathematical models were used to explain the drug releasing kinetics. The particles had spherical shapes with diameters of around 5 μm; the encapsulated drug was mainly in amorphous form. The controlled drug release was achieved. The drug releasing curves were fitted to a mathematical model describing the drug releasing kinetics from a spherical matrix. Different drugs had different release kinetics, which was a consequence of several factors, including different solubilities of the drugs in the chosen medium and different affinities of the drugs to the NFC. It can be concluded that NFC microparticles can sustain drug release by forming a tight fiber network and thus limit drug diffusion from the system. PMID:22465549

  6. Supplement to the technical assessment of geoscience-related research for geothermal energy technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    Detailed information (e.g., project title, sponsoring organization, research area, objective status, etc.) is presented for 338 geoscience/geothermal related projects. A summary of the projects conducted by sponsoring organization is presented and an easy reference to obtain detailed information on the number and type of efforts being sponsored is presented. The projects are summarized by research area (e.g., volcanology, fluid inclusions, etc.) and an additional project cross-reference mechanism is also provided. Subsequent to the collection of the project information, a geosciences classification system was developed to categorize each project by research area (e.g., isotope geochemistry, heat flow studies) and by type of research conducted (e.g., theoretical research, modeling/simulation). A series of matrices is included that summarize, on a project-by-project basis, the research area addressed and the type of R and D conducted. In addition, a summary of the total number of projects by research area and R and D type is given.

  7. Graduate trainee fellowships for energy research in Mississippi. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Mississippi DOE EPSCoR Project has been a program of education and research which has (1) increased the number of trained professionals in the energy sciences and technology, particularly those from groups traditionally under-represented in the field and (2) interfaced with existing networks of universities, industry, federal, and state institutions involved in energy-related activities. Key project activities that have been accomplished are shown below: (1) Statewide conference on energy related research held; (2) HBCU pipeline issue addressed; (3) Research preceptors/problems selected; (4) Trainees screened and accepted; (5) Research initiated; and (6) Practicums organized. Mississippi`s three comprehensive universities -- The University of Mississippi, Mississippi State University, and the University of Southern Mississippi -- and the urban institution, Jackson State University have provided a foundation for the expansion of energy-related education and research in the state. The activities of the Mississippi DOE EPSCoR program have been executed under a management strategy developed to establish statewide coordination of research and education programs, i.e., the Mississippi Research Consortium. The Consortium has served as the steering committee for the DOE EPSCoR Program Consortium.

  8. Characterization and evaluation of residue 'grits' of the cellulose industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cellulose industry generates huge amounts of solid waste residue called 'grits'. These wastes have been willing over time in landfills near the mills. However, this type of disposal is not environmentally friendly and can cause degradation and environmental pollution. In addition, environmental legislation increasingly severe and the high costs of landfill have led the search for new alternatives for final disposition of this abundant waste. In this context, this study is to characterize waste grits, generated by the cellulose industry in the region of Aracruz-ES. The residue samples were characterized in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal analysis (DTA and TGA). The characterization of the residual 'grits' demonstrated its potential as a feedstock for production of soil-cement bricks. (author)

  9. Water Availability as a Measure of Cellulose Hydrolysis Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen

    Enzymatic hydrolysis involves the use of cellulases to break down cellulose in the presence of water. Therefore, not only are enzyme and substrate properties important for efficient hydrolysis, but also the hydrolysis medium, i.e. the liquid phase. The LF-NMR technique is used in this work to...... measure properties of the liquid phase, where water protons are characterized based on their mobility in the system as measured by their relaxation time. Studies of cellulose hydrolysis at low dry matter show that the contents of the liquid phase influence the final hydrolysis yield, as the presence of...... sugars, salts, and surfactants impact the water relaxation time. Systems with high concentrations of sugars and salts tend to have low water availability, as these form strong interactions with water to keep their solubility, leaving less water available for hydrolysis. Thus, cellulase performance...

  10. Evaluating possible cap and trade legislation on cellulosic feedstock availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellwinckel, Chad [Agricultural Policy Analysis Center, University of Tennessee; de la Torre Ugarte, Daniel [University of Tennessee; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; West, T. O. [University of Maryland

    2010-11-01

    An integrated, socioeconomic biogeophysical model is used to analyze the interactions of cap-and-trade legislation and the Renewable Fuels Standard. Five alternative policy scenarios were considered with the purpose of identifying policies that act in a synergistic manner to reduce carbon emissions, increase economic returns to agriculture, and adequately meet ethanol mandates. We conclude that climate and energy policies can best be implemented together by offering carbon offset payments to conservation tillage, herbaceous grasses for biomass, and by constraining crop residue removal for ethanol feedstocks to carbon neutral level. When comparing this scenario to the Baseline scenario, the agricultural sector realizes an economic benefit of US$156 billion by 2030 and emissions are reduced by 135 Tg C-equivalent (Eq) yr 1. Results also indicate that geographic location of cellulosic feedstocks could shift significantly depending on the final policies implemented in cap and trade legislation. Placement of cellulosic ethanol facilities should consider these possible shifts when determining site location.

  11. 2001 Gordon Research Conference on Organometallic Chemistry. Final progress report [agenda and attendee list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Carol

    2001-07-27

    The Gordon Research Conference on Organometallic Chemistry was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, July 22-27, 2001. The conference had 133 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field, coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, and included US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. Emphasis was place on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions; poster sessions were held.

  12. Survey of Postdoctorates at FFRDCs: Final Report [Federally Funded Research and Development Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulrow, Jeri

    2010-06-30

    The 2009 FFRDC survey collected the total number of postdocs employed by FFRDCs in the United States—categorized by source of support, citizenship, sex, and field of research—as of October 1, 2009. The universe for the 2009 GSS-FFRDC survey was the Master Government List of Federally Funded Research and Development Centers. The 2009 survey also contacted the NIH’s Intramural Research Program because it employs the largest number of postdocs in the federal government. The FFRDC survey collected data via a web instrument. Topics included the type of support the postdocs received (federal and nonfederal), their sex, citizenship, race/ethnicity, and field of research.

  13. Final results of the FY'78 chemistry and materials science research program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18 projects which were selected to be sponsored by ''Chemistry Research Program'' are summarized. These include: lasers for chemical analysis; multi-element analysis systems; spectroscopic analysis of surface passivation; non-aqueous titrimetry; materials damage prediction for fiber composites; safe high energy explosives; single photon absorption reaction chemistry; reaction in shock waves; cryogenic heavy hydrogen technology; acoustic emission; metallic alloy glasses; basic study of toughness in steel; static equation-of-state at 100 GPa; transuranium element research; nuclear structure research; neutron capture gamma measurements; x-ray fluorescence analysis; and pyrochemical investigation

  14. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John B; Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Kao, Teh-hui; Tien, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter hansenii, produces cellulose of exceptionally high crystallinity in comparison to the cellulose of higher plants. This bacterial cellulose is synthesized and extruded into the extracellular medium by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The catalytic component of this complex is encoded by the gene AcsAB. However, several other genes are known to encode proteins critical to cellulose synthesis and are likely components of the bacterial CSC. We have purified an active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB from G. hansenii ATCC23769 to homogeneity by two different methods. With the purified protein, we have determined how it is post-translationally processed, forming the active heterodimer AcsA-AcsB. Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx. PMID:26672449

  15. Bioconversion of cellulose into electrical energy in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid

    .5, 53 and 47 mWm-2, respectively. The anode potential varied under the different circuit loads employed. Higher coulombic efficiencies were achieved in MFCs with lower external resistance. The effect of different external resistances on the bacterial diversity and metabolism in cellulose-fed MFCs was investigated as the fourth objective. DGGE analysis of partial 16S rRNA genes showed clear differences between the planktonic and the anode-attached populations at various external resistances. Cellulose degradation was complete (acids (SCFA) revealed that anaerobic degradation of cellulose was accompanied by production of acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric, and lactic acids, with acetic acid being predominant. The profile of metabolites was different among the MFCs. The concentrations of SCFA were higher in MFCs with larger external resistance. High levels of SCFA indicated that fermentative metabolism dominated over anaerobic respiration, resulting in relatively low coulombic efficiencies. The accumulation of SCFA at higher circuit resistances corresponded to lower power outputs. Methanogenesis shifts the flow of electrons available from the substrate away from electricity generation in MFCs. The fifth objective of this research was to assess the influence of methane formation on the performance of cellulose-fed MFCs under long-term operation. A maximum volumetric power density of 3.5 W m-3 was achieved in R20O MFCs, which was three times greater than that obtained with R100O MFCs (1.03 W m-3). The diversity of methanogens in cellulose-fed MFCs was also characterized. It was shown that the suppression of methanogenesis was accompanied by a decrease in the diversity of methanogens and changes in the concentration of SCFA, as revealed by DGGE analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and HPLC analysis, respectively. Analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene Sequences indicated that the most predominant methanogens were related to the fam

  16. Size Effects of Nano-crystalline Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Kang LI; Xiao Fang LI; Yong JIANG; Mei Zhen ZENG; En Yong DING

    2003-01-01

    Natural cellulose with the crystal form of cellulose Ⅰ, when treated with condensed lye(e.g. 18%NaOH), can change into new crystal form of cellulose Ⅱ. But the nano-crystallinecellulose(NCC) can do it when only treated with dilute lye (e.g. 1%NaOH) at room temperatureand even can dissolve into slightly concentrated lye (e.g. 4%NaOH).

  17. Bulk and interfacial properties of cellulose ethers

    OpenAIRE

    Bodvik, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    This work summarizes several studies that all concern cellulose ethers of the types methylcellulose (MC) hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose (EHEC). They share the feature of negative temperature response, as they are soluble in water at room temperature but phase separate and sometimes form gels at high temperatures. The different types of viscosity transitions occurring in these three cellulose ethers are well-known. However, earlier studies have not solved ...

  18. Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, Satoshi; Numakawa, Tetsuya; Kubo, Takuya

    2010-01-01

    Drag reduction due to bacterial cellulose suspensions with small environmental loading was investigated. Experiments were carried out by measuring the pressure drop in pipe flow. It was found that bacterial cellulose suspensions give rise to drag reduction in the turbulent flow range. We observed a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11% and found that it increased with the concentration of the bacterial cellulose suspension. However, the drag reduction effect decreased in the presence of mechani...

  19. Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Ogata; Tetsuya Numakawa; Takuya Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Drag reduction due to bacterial cellulose suspensions with small environmental loading was investigated. Experiments were carried out by measuring the pressure drop in pipe flow. It was found that bacterial cellulose suspensions give rise to drag reduction in the turbulent flow range. We observed a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11% and found that it increased with the concentration of the bacterial cellulose suspension. However, the drag reduction effect decreased in the presence of mechani...

  20. Cellulose biosynthesis and function in bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, P; Mayer, R; Benziman, M

    1991-01-01

    The current model of cellulose biogenesis in plants, as well as bacteria, holds that the membranous cellulose synthase complex polymerizes glucose moieties from UDP-Glc into beta-1,4-glucan chains which give rise to rigid crystalline fibrils upon extrusion at the outer surface of the cell. The distinct arrangement and degree of association of the polymerizing enzyme units presumably govern extracellular chain assembly in addition to the pattern and width of cellulose fibril deposition. Most e...

  1. Liquid crystalline cellulose derivatives for mirrorless lasing

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzlik, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis cholesteric films made of liquid crystalline cellulose derivatives with improved optical properties were prepared. The choice of the solvent, hydrogen bond influencing additives, the synthetic realization of a very high degree of substitution on the cellulosic polymer and the use of mechanical stirring at the upper concentration limit of the liquid crystalline range were the basis for an improved alignment of the applied cellulose tricarbamates. In combination with a tuned subs...

  2. Lyocell, The New Generation of Regenerated Cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Éva Borbély

    2008-01-01

    For the majority of the last century, commercial routes to regenerated cellulosefibres have coped with the difficulties of making a good cellulose solution by using an easyto dissolve derivative (e.g. xanthane in the case of viscose rayon) or complex (e.g.cuprammonium rayon). For the purposes of this paper, advanced cellulosic fibres aredefined as those made from a process involving direct dissolution of cellulose. The firstexamples of such fibres have now been generically designaed as lyocel...

  3. Alexa Fluor-labeled Fluorescent Cellulose Nanocrystals for Bioimaging Solid Cellulose in Spatially Structured Microenvironments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Mo, Kai-For; Shin, Yongsoon; Vasdekis, Andreas; Warner, Marvin G.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Orr, Galya; Hu, Dehong; Dehoff, Karl J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2015-03-18

    Cellulose nanocrystal materials have been labeled with modern Alexa Fluor dyes in a process that first links the dye to a cyanuric chloride molecule. Subsequent reaction with cellulose nanocrystals provides dyed solid microcrystalline cellulose material that can be used for bioimaging and suitable for deposition in films and spatially structured microenvironments. It is demonstrated with single molecular fluorescence microscopy that these films are subject to hydrolysis by cellulose enzymes.

  4. Alteration of in vivo cellulose ribbon assembly by carboxymethylcellulose and other cellulose derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In vivo cellulose ribbon assembly by the Gram-negative bacterium Acetobacter xylinum can be altered by incubation in carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), a negatively charged water-soluble cellulose derivative, and also by incubation in a variety of neutral, water-soluble cellulose derivatives. In the presence of all of these substituted celluloses, normal fasciation of microfibril bundles to form the typical twisting ribbon is prevented. Alteration of ribbon assembly is most extensive in the presen...

  5. RATU Nuclear power plant structural safety research programme 1990-1994. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major part of nuclear energy research in Finland has been organized as five-year nationally coordinated research programmes. The research programme on the Nuclear Power Plant Structural Safety was carried out during the period from 1990 to 1994. The total volume was about 76 person-years and the expenditure about 49 million FIM. Studies on the structural materials in nuclear power plants created the experimental data and background information necessary for the structural integrity assessments of mechanical components. The research was carried out by developing experimental fracture mechanics methods including statistical analysis methods of material property data, and by studying material ageing and, in particular, mechanisms of material deterioration due to neutron irradiation, corrosion and water chemistry. Besides material studies, new testing methods and sensors for the measurement of loading and water chemistry parameters have been developed

  6. SAFIR2010. The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major part of Finnish public research on nuclear power plant safety during the years 2007-2010 has been carried out in the SAFIR2010 programme. The steering group of SAFIR2010 consisted of representatives from Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oyj, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy (Fortum), Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Aalto University School of Science and Technology (Aalto, former Helsinki University of Technology) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT). In addition to representatives of these organisations, the Steering Group had permanent experts from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) and Fennovoima Oy (Fennovoima). SAFIR2010 research programme was divided in eight research areas that were Organisation and human, Automation and control room, Fuel and reactor physics, Thermal hydraulics, Severe accidents, Structural safety of reactor circuit, Construction safety, and Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). Research projects of the programme were chosen on the basis of annual call for proposals. The annual volume of the SAFIR2010-programme in 2007-2010 has been 6,5-7,1 M euro and approximately 50 person years. Main funding organisations in 2007-2010 have been the State Waste Management Fund VYR with 2,7-3,0 M euro and VTT with 2,4-2,7 M euro annually. In 2010 research was carried out in 33 projects. The research in the programme has been carried out primarily by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Other research units responsible for the projects solely or in co-operation with other institutions include Lappeenranta University of Technology, Aalto University (previously Helsinki University of Technology), Tampere University of Technology, Fortum Power and Heat Oy (previously Fortum Nuclear Services Oy), Finnish Institute of Occupational Health and Finnish

  7. SAFIR2010. The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puska, E.K.; Suolanen, V. (eds.)

    2011-02-15

    Major part of Finnish public research on nuclear power plant safety during the years 2007-2010 has been carried out in the SAFIR2010 programme. The steering group of SAFIR2010 consisted of representatives from Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oyj, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy (Fortum), Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Aalto University School of Science and Technology (Aalto, former Helsinki University of Technology) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT). In addition to representatives of these organisations, the Steering Group had permanent experts from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) and Fennovoima Oy (Fennovoima). SAFIR2010 research programme was divided in eight research areas that were Organisation and human, Automation and control room, Fuel and reactor physics, Thermal hydraulics, Severe accidents, Structural safety of reactor circuit, Construction safety, and Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). Research projects of the programme were chosen on the basis of annual call for proposals. The annual volume of the SAFIR2010-programme in 2007-2010 has been 6,5-7,1 M euro and approximately 50 person years. Main funding organisations in 2007-2010 have been the State Waste Management Fund VYR with 2,7-3,0 M euro and VTT with 2,4-2,7 M euro annually. In 2010 research was carried out in 33 projects. The research in the programme has been carried out primarily by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Other research units responsible for the projects solely or in co-operation with other institutions include Lappeenranta University of Technology, Aalto University (previously Helsinki University of Technology), Tampere University of Technology, Fortum Power and Heat Oy (previously Fortum Nuclear Services Oy), Finnish Institute of Occupational Health and Finnish

  8. Final report: A Broad Research Project in the Sciences of Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-02-01

    Previous DOE support for ''A Broad Research Program in the Sciences of Complexity'' permitted the Santa Fe Institute to initiate new collaborative research within its Integrative Core activities as well as to host visitors to participate in research on specific topics that serve as motivation and testing-ground for the study of general principles of complex systems. The critical aspect of this support is its effectiveness in seeding new areas of research. Indeed, this Integrative Core has been the birthplace of dozens of projects that later became more specifically focused and then won direct grant support independent of the core grants. But at early stages most of this multidisciplinary research was unable to win grant support as individual projects--both because it did not match well with existing grant program guidelines, and because the amount of handing needed was often too modest to justify a formal proposal to an agency. In fact, one of the attributes of core support has been that it permitted SFI to encourage high-risk activities because the cost was quite low. What is significant is how many of those initial efforts have been productive in the SFI environment. Many of SFI'S current research foci began with a short visit from a researcher new to the SFI community, or as small working groups that brought together carefully selected experts from a variety of fields. As mentioned above, many of the ensuing research projects are now being supported by other funding agencies or private foundations. Some of these successes are described.

  9. Final report on research and development work 1979 by the Institute for Radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a brief survey of the state of the research, development, and service activities in the Institute for Radiochemistry in Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre. The work is to be classified in the main points analytics, nuclear chemistry, isotope service, and water chemistry, with the analytic and nuclear-chemical tasks being mainly project-related. A bibliography of the publications made by the staff of the institute during 1979 is annected. (RB)

  10. Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G.

    1982-03-01

    As a result of prior EPRI-sponsored studies, it was concluded that a research program should be designed and implemented to provide an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions. This two-volume report contains a research plan which is based on a review of the present state of the art and which defines the necessary R and D program and estimates the benefits and costs of the program. The recommended research program consists of 30 interrelated tasks. It is designed to perform the needed research; to verify the results; to develop improved components; and to publish computer-aided design methods, pump specification guidelines, and a troubleshooting manual. Most of the technology proposed in the research plan is applicable to nuclear power plants as well as to fossil-fired plants. This volume discusses the design, performance and failures of feed pumps, and recommendations for research on pump dynamics, design, and specifications.

  11. Toxic hazards research unit annual report 1993. Final report, 1 October 1992-30 September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, D.E.; Smith, P.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents a review of the activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period 0 1 October 1992 through 30 September 1993. The THRU conducts descriptive, mechanistic, and predictive toxicology research and toxicological risk assessments to provide data to predict health hazards and to assess health risks associated with human exposure to chemicals and materials associated with military systems and operational environments. The report includes summaries of ongoing or completed research activities for the individual toxicology research requirements of the U.S. Air Force, Army, and Navy; highlights of the research support elements and conference activities of the THRU; and appendices that describe the THRU organization and its publications and presentations. The majority of the report describes the progress attained in toxicological studies on a wide variety of chemicals and materials to include tetrachloroethylene, iodotrifluoromethane, ammonium dinitramide, HCFC- 123, trichloroethylene, toluene, liquid propellant formulation 1846, vinyl chloride and trichloroethylene mixture, methylene chloride, MIL-H-19457C hydraulic fluid, acrolein and acrolein/Syloid 244 mixture, 1 ,3,3-trinitroazetidine, and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene. The THRU also conducted research on lactational transfer and dermal absorption of chemicals, on toxicological risk assessment methods, and evaluated statistical methods for assessing military populations as a subgroup of the public at-large.

  12. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43N/mm(2) and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. PMID:27127053

  13. Carboxymethylation of Cellulose by Microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Cellulose may be readily converted into ethers involving primary and secondary alcohol groups in each monomer unit and the glycosidic bonds. However, these reactions are rather more complicated than with simple substances, because the stereochemistry of the cellulose molecule is such that the vast majority of its hydroxyl groups form intra-chain hydrogen bonds or inter-chain hydrogen bonds with contiguous molecules. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has played an important part in the commercial uses of cellulose derivatives. CMC becomes alkali and water soluble. The polarity can, in fact, be increased by introduction of ionizing groups, ie carboxymethyl group. CMC is generally produced by the reaction of alkali cellulose with chloroacetic acid.

  14. Chemo-catalytic valorization of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palkovits, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie

    2012-07-01

    Cellulose can be utilized as carbon source for the production of novel platform molecules as well as fuel motifs. Promising transformation strategies cover the hydrolytic hydrogenation or hydrogenolysis of cellulose to sugar alcohols, the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose followed by dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural or levulinic acid and the further hydrogenation of levulinic acid to {gamma}-valerolactone. Main challenges result from the high degree of functionalization of cellulosic feedstocks. In line, processes are carried out in liquid phase utilizing rather polar solvents and aiming for a tailored defunctionalisation of these oxygen rich compounds. Consequently, such transformations require novel strategies concerning the development of suitable catalysts and appropriate process concepts. (orig.)

  15. Simultaneous cellulose conversion and hydrogen production assisted by cellulose decomposition under UV-light photocatalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guan; Ni, Chengsheng; Huang, Xiubing; Welgamage, Aakash; Lawton, Linda A.; Robertson, Peter K. J.; Irvine, John T. S.

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic conversion of cellulose to sugars and carbon dioxide with simultaneous production of hydrogen assisted by cellulose decomposition under UV or solar light irradiation was achieved upon immobilization of cellulose onto a TiO2 photocatalyst. This approach enables production of hydrogen from water without using valuable sacrificial agents, and provides the possibility for recovering sugars as liquid fuels.

  16. Simultaneous cellulose conversion and hydrogen production assisted by cellulose decomposition under UV-light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan; Ni, Chengsheng; Huang, Xiubing; Welgamage, Aakash; Lawton, Linda A; Robertson, Peter K J; Irvine, John T S

    2016-01-28

    Photocatalytic conversion of cellulose to sugars and carbon dioxide with simultaneous production of hydrogen assisted by cellulose decomposition under UV or solar light irradiation was achieved upon immobilization of cellulose onto a TiO2 photocatalyst. This approach enables production of hydrogen from water without using valuable sacrificial agents, and provides the possibility for recovering sugars as liquid fuels. PMID:26661296

  17. High Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Ola

    2013-05-01

    Regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes are extensively used in medical and pharmaceutical separation processes due to their biocompatibility, low fouling tendency and solvent resistant properties. They typically possess ultrafiltration and microfiltration separation characteristics, but recently, there have been attempts to widen their pool of applications in nanofiltration processes. In this work, a novel method for preparing high performance composite RC membranes was developed. These membranes reveal molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO) of less than 250 daltons, which possibly put them ahead of all commercial RC membranes and in competition with high performance nanofiltration membranes. The membranes were prepared by acidic hydrolysis of dip-coated trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC) films. TMSC, with a degree of silylation (DS) of 2.8, was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose by reaction with hexamethyldisilazane under the homogeneous conditions of LiCl/DMAC solvent system. Effects of parameters, such as coating solution concentration and drying rates, were investigated. It was concluded that higher TMSC concentrations as well as higher solvent evaporation rates favor better MWCOs, mainly due to increase in the selective layer thickness. Successful cross-linking of prepared membranes with glyoxal solutions, in the presence of boric acid as a catalyst, resulted in MWCOs less than 250 daltons. The suitability of this crosslinking reaction for large scale productions was already proven in the manufacturing of durable-press fabrics. For us, the inexpensive raw materials as well as the low reaction times and temperatures were of interest. Moreover, the non-toxic nature of glyoxal is a key advantage in medical and pharmaceutical applications. The membranes prepared in this work are strong candidates for separation of small organic solutes from organic solvents streams in pharmaceutical industries. Their hydrophilicity, compared to typical nanofiltration membranes, offer

  18. Increasing cellulose production and transgenic plant growth in forest tree species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei; Aaron Nelson; Emmanuel Johnson

    2005-01-01

    Cellulose is one of many important polymers in plants. Cellulose is made of repeat units of the monomer glucose. Cellulose is a major industrial biopolymer in the forest products, textile, and chemical industries. It also forms a large portion of the biomass useful in the generation of energy. Moreover, cellulose-based biomass is a renewable energy source that can be used for the generation of ethanol as a fuel. Cellulose is synthesized by a variety of living organisms such as plants and algae. It is the major component of plant cell walls with secondary cell walls having a much higher content of cellulose. The relationship between cellulose and lignin biosynthesis is complicated, but it is confirmed that inhibition of lignin biosynthesis in transgenic trees will increase cellulose biosynthesis and plant growth. Cellulose accumulation may be increased by down-regulating 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL, EC 6.2.1.12) as shown in transgenic aspen. There is no similar reports on down-regulating 4CL in transgenic conifers. Based on our established Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system in loblolly pine, we are able to produce antisense 4-CL transgenic loblolly pine which is predicted to have increasing cellulose accumulation. The overall objective of this project is to genetically engineer forest tree species such as loblolly pine with reduced amount of lignin and increased cellulose content. The research strategy includes: (1) isolate the 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene from loblolly pine seedlings by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RACE-PCR) techniques from the cDNA library; (2) construct binary expression vectors with antisense 4CL coding sequences and introduce antisense constructs of the 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene cloned from loblolly pine into the loblolly pine to down regulate the 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene expression; (3) study the

  19. Research and development on procedures to stabilize acaricides in livestock dips. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticks and mites are serious ectoparasites of livestock in many countries. As vectors of animal diseases they pose a threat to livestock production. Traditionally, different types of acaricides are used to control them. One of the most commonly used tick control techniques is to force animals to walk through an acaricide suspension in a trough or Cattle Dip. Dipping is quite effective as the entire body of the animal gets treated with the acaricide. However, with increased usage the concentration of the acaricide in the 'dip' declines due to removal by the animal and degradation by biological and chemicals processes. The dissipation of the acaricide results in loss of efficacy of the 'dip', and may also enhance the development of resistance by the ectoparasites to the acaricides. Maintenance of an effective concentration, by periodic recharge or stabilization of the acaricide, is essential to assure efficient and cost-effective control and to minimize chances of resistance to develop. In 1990, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division, recognizing the need for co-ordinated research on studying the dissipation of acaricides in cattle dips and developing procedures to stabilize them, established a 5-year Co-ordinated Research Programme on Development of Procedures to Stabilize Acaricides in Livestock Dips and of Simplified Methods to Measure Their Concentration, Using Nuclear Techniques. In initiating this programme, the Joint Division recognized that major gaps exist in the knowledge in this area which, if filled, would greatly aid developing countries in their effort to more effectively use acaricides to protect animal health. This TECDOC reports the accomplishments of this programme

  20. Understanding the Dispersion and Assembly of Bacterial Cellulose in Organic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Auren; Khan, Umar; Walsh, Melissa; Lee, Koon-Yang; Bismarck, Alexander; Shaffer, Milo S P; Coleman, Jonathan N; Bergin, Shane D

    2016-05-01

    The constituent nanofibrils of bacterial cellulose are of interest to many researchers because of their purity and excellent mechanical properties. Mechanisms to disrupt the network structure of bacterial cellulose (BC) to isolate bacterial cellulose nanofibrils (BCN) are limited. This work focuses on liquid-phase dispersions of BCN in a range of organic solvents. It builds on work to disperse similarly intractable nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes, where optimum dispersion is seen for solvents whose surface energies are close to the surface energy of the nanomaterial; bacterial cellulose is shown to disperse in a similar fashion. Inverse gas chromatography was used to determine the surface energy of bacterial cellulose, under relevant conditions, by quantifying the surface heterogeneity of the material as a function of coverage. Films of pure BCN were prepared from dispersions in a range of solvents; the extent of BCN exfoliation is shown to have a strong effect on the mechanical properties of BC films and to fit models based on the volumetric density of nanofibril junctions. Such control offers new routes to producing robust cellulose films of bacterial cellulose nanofibrils. PMID:27007744

  1. Final Technical Report for project entitled "Equipment Request for the Belleville Agricultural Research and Education Center"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Bryan; Nehring, Jarrett; Susan Graham, Brian Klubek

    2013-01-16

    Executive Summary The funding provided by the DOE for this project was used exclusively to purchase research equipment involved with the field development and evaluation of crop production technologies and practices for energy crop production. The new equipment has been placed into service on the SIU farms and has significantly enhanced our research capacity and scope for agronomy and precision ag research to support novel seed traits or crop management strategies for improving the efficiency and productivity of corn and soybeans. More specifically, the precision ag capability of the equipment that was purchased has heightened interest by faculty and associated industry partners to develop collaborative projects. In addition, this equipment has provided SIU with a foundation to be more successful at securing competitive grants in energy crop production and precision ag data management. Furthermore, the enhanced capacity for agronomy research in the southern Illinois region has been realized and will benefit crop producers in this region by learning to improve their operations from our research outcomes.

  2. Studies of the Alkaline Degradation of Cellulose and the Isolation of Isosaccharinic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Cellulosic materials are expected to form a significant proportion of the waste proposed for disposal in underground repositories being designed for the storage of radioactive waste. Under the alkaline conditions of these facilities, cellulose degrades by a so called „peeling‟ reaction resulting in the production of a complex mixture of products (CDPs), the major components being α- and β isosaccharinic acid (α and β-ISA). A significant amount of research has been performed on ISA as part of ...

  3. 1997 Gordon Research Conference on Plant Cell Walls. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehelin, A.

    1999-08-25

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Plant Cell Walls was held at Tilton School, Tilton, New Hampshire, July 18-22, 1997. The conference was well attended with 106 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. In addition to these formal interactions, free time was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  4. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  5. 2001 Gordon Research Conference on Archaea: Ecology [sic], Metabolism. Final progress report [agenda and attendee list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Charles

    2001-08-10

    The Gordon Research Conference on Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism [and Molecular Biology] was held at Proctor Academy, Andover, New Hampshire, August 5-10, 2001. The conference was attended by 135 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field, coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, and included US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate discussion about the key issues in the field today. Session topics included the following: Ecology and genetic elements; Genomics and evolution; Ecology, genomes and gene regulation; Replication and recombination; Chromatin and transcription; Gene regulation; Post-transcription processing; Biochemistry and metabolism; Proteomics and protein structure; Metabolism and physiology. The featured speaker addressed the topic: ''Archaeal viruses, witnesses of prebiotic evolution?''

  6. Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) University of California at Davis, California. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Site Environmental Report for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) Site (the Site) includes 1996 environmental monitoring data for Site air, soil, ground water, surface water, storm water and ambient radiation. DOE operation of LEHR as a functioning research location ceased in 1989, after the completion of three decades of research on the health effects of low-level radiation exposure (primarily strontium-90 and radium-226), using beagles to simulate effects on human health. During 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted activities at the Site in support of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Environmental remediation and the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of Site buildings. Extensive environmental data were collected in 1996 to evaluate appropriate remedial actions for the Site

  7. Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications development phase. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The deployment and operation of clean power generation is becoming critical as the energy and transportation sectors seek ways to comply with clean air standards and the national deregulation of the utility industry. However, for strategic business decisions, considerable analysis is required over the next few years to evaluate the appropriate application and value added from this emerging technology. To this end the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) is proposing a three-year industry-driven project that centers on the creation of ``The Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications.`` A collaborative laboratory housed at and managed by HARC, the Center will enable a core group of six diverse participating companies--industry participants--to investigate the economic and operational feasibility of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells in a variety of applications (the core project). This document describes the unique benefits of a collaborative approach to PEM applied research, among them a shared laboratory concept leading to cost savings and shared risks as well as access to outstanding research talent and lab facilities. It also describes the benefits provided by implementing the project at HARC, with particular emphasis on HARC`s history of managing successful long-term research projects as well as its experience in dealing with industry consortia projects. The Center is also unique in that it will not duplicate the traditional university role of basic research or that of the fuel cell industry in developing commercial products. Instead, the Center will focus on applications, testing, and demonstration of fuel cell technology.

  8. Staff exchange with Spokane Intercollegiate Research and Technology Institute (SIRTI), final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, G.M.

    1994-12-01

    Staff exchanges, such as the one described in this report, are intended to facilitate communication and collaboration among scientists and engineers at Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, in U.S. industry, and academia. Funding support for these exchanges is provided by the DOE, Office of Energy Research, Laboratory Technology Transfer Program. Funding levels for each exchange typically range from $20,000 to $40,000. The exchanges offer the opportunity for the laboratories to transfer technology and expertise to industry, gain a perspective on industry`s problems, and develop the basis for further cooperative efforts through Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAS) or other mechanisms.

  9. LIEKKI 2 - Combustion and gasification research programme 1993- 1998. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The six-year Combustion and Gasification Research Programme LIEKKI 2 (1993-1998) was oriented towards research serving the development of energy production technologies based on combustion and gasification. The programme was divided into six research areas: 1. Modelling of the furnace processes (39 projects); 2. Chemistry of gaseous emission components (28); 3. Particle behaviour, ash, aerosols (42); 4. New combustion and gasification technologies (27); 5. Black liquor (33) and 6. Conventional combustion technologies, waste incineration (19). The main aim of the research has been to develop new, more efficient and environmentally friendly techniques. The development of conventional combustion technology has also been an important part of the programme. Another important goal has been to maintain and develop maintain the competence of the research organisations in the combustion area and to intensify their collaboration. Concerning its research contents and its objectives LIEKKI 2, like its forerunner, has not been fuel-specific. The programme has investigated the thermal conversion of oil, gas, black liquor, and coal as well as that of peat, biofuels, and various waste materials, and it has further advanced the know-how concerning the utilisation of these fuels. This approach differs from the usual fuel-specific differentiation, which, for instance, IEA (International Energy Agency) and EU have applied in their research activities. This approach seems in retrospect to have been the right choice. It has been appropriate to stimulate co-operation between parties who would not seek co-operation spontaneously. One example of this is the development of a steelmaking process by a Finnish steel manufacturer under the LIEKKI programme. The programme has also provided synergetic advantages to the development of the recovery boiler processes of the pulp industry. Assessing the impact of the programme is a matter of many facets. The six-year research work and a total

  10. Accelerator research studies. Final report, June 1, 1994--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy has completed the third year of its three-year funding cycle and an additional one-year, no-cost extension. The program consisted of the following three tasks: Task A -- Study of the transport and longitudinal compression of intense, high-brightness beams; Task B -- Study of high-brightness beam generation in pseudospark devices; Task C -- Study of a gyroklystron high-power microwave source for linear colliders. The research carried out for each task and progress made is reported.

  11. Accelerator research studies. Final report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy is currently in the third year of its three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: Task A -- Study of the transport and longitudinal compression of intense, high-brightness beams; Task B -- Study of high-brightness beam generation in pseudospark devices; Task C -- Study of a gyroklystron high-power microwave source for linear colliders. The research for each task is detailed in this report.

  12. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1990-- April 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1992-02-15

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science (CFFLS) is currently engaged in a three year contract with the US Department of Energy investigating a range of research topics dealing with direct coal liquefaction. This report summarizes the results of this program in its second year, from May 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction, exploratory research on coal conversion, novel coal liquefaction concepts, and novel catalysts for coal liquefaction.

  13. Experimental and analytical research on the aerodynamics of wind driven turbines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbach, C.; Wainauski, H.; Worobel, R.

    1977-12-01

    This aerodynamic research program was aimed at providing a reliable, comprehensive data base on a series of wind turbine models covering a broad range of the prime aerodynamic and geometric variables. Such data obtained under controlled laboratory conditions on turbines designed by the same method, of the same size, and tested in the same wind tunnel had not been available in the literature. Moreover, this research program was further aimed at providing a basis for evaluating the adequacy of existing wind turbine aerodynamic design and performance methodology, for assessing the potential of recent advanced theories and for providing a basis for further method development and refinement.

  14. Accelerator research studies. Final report, June 1, 1991 - May 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy is currently in the third year of its three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: Task A -- Study of the transport and longitudinal compression of intense, high-brightness beams; Task B -- Study of high-brightness beam generation in pseudospark devices; Task C -- Study of a gyroklystron high-power microwave source for linear colliders. The research for each task is detailed in this report

  15. NBS research on LNG thermophysical properties data and custody transfer measurement methods. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diller, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Developments in LNG thermophysical properties data research at NBS are reviewed and discussed. These include projects on the PVT, thermodynamic, electromagnetic and transport properties of pure LNG components; and on the liquid-vapor equilibrium properties and orthobaric liquid densities of mixtures of LNG components. Developments in LNG custody transfer measurement research are reviewed, with emphasis on accurate methods for determining LNG composition, density, specific heating value, flow rate and ship tank capacity tables for LNG custody transfer. The uncertainties in the determination of the total heating value of large quantities of LNG in tanks and pipelines are discussed.

  16. Coolside Waste Management Research. Final report, April 23, 1991--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This study was initiated during a successful test of the Coolside flue gas desulfurization technology at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater generating station in 1991. Coolside is a lime duct technology which is installed on the downstream side of the last heat exchanger. As tested by Ohio Edison, it also employs an alkali reagent, in this case NaOH, to enhance sulfur capture. The overall goal of this study was to develop sufficient chemical and physical data to insure the environmentally safe disposal of the material. This final report summarizes the important aspects of the project, but it does not present all of the data that was produced. Further details may be found in the monthly and quarterly reports that were filed with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. This report is organized into six chapters which present the important conclusions of the principal areas of investigation.

  17. Nuclear safeguards for an underground final repository - Research for acoustic-seismic monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final repositories for spent nuclear fuel need to be put under safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to detect potential access, during and after the emplacement phase. Tasked by the German Support Programme for the IAEA we have measured acoustic and seismic signals from various mining activities in the Gorleben exploratory mine. Geophone spectra show excitation up to several kHz, often with considerable broad-band content. With periodic machinery harmonic series appear. Seismic signal strengths from different sources vary by three (including blast shots by six) orders of magnitude, in power-law fits the decrease with distance is with exponents -2 to -0.8. Many sources could be detected by amplitude at several 100 m distance, blasts at several km. By a ring of underground geophones around a repository in salt monitoring for undeclared activities seems principally possible.

  18. Experimental geothermal research facilities study (Phase O). Final report No. 26405-6001-RU-00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-31

    This study focuses on identification of a representative liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of moderate temperature and salinity, preliminary design of an appropriate energy conversion system, identification of critical technology and planning for the implementation of experimental facilities. Results of Phase O of the project are reported in two volumes. Volume II presents detailed results of studies and analyses arranged in nine appendices including the final report by a subcontractor on the study. The specific appendices are: Appendix A: Geothermal Resources of the Western United States; Appendix B: Site Selection Process and the East Mesa Geothermal Field; Appendix C: East Mesa Geothermal Field Reservoir Characteristics; Appendix D: Advisor's Views and Comments; Appendix E: Thermodynamic Analyses; Appendix F: Material and Corrosion Factors; Appendix G: Preliminary Reliability/Maintainability Analyses; Appendix H: Environmental Impact Analysis Guidelines; and Appendix I: Report to the National Science Foundation/TRW Systems Group by Rogers Engineering Company, Inc., San Francisco, California.

  19. Final report of the group research. Genome analysis on the biological effects of radiation. Second research group of NIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    This report concerns investigations on the title conducted by 5 subgroups of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) during the period of 1993-2001. The report involves the organization of research teams and summary reports from the subgroups for Genome sequencing and informatics, Genome analysis on model organisms, The genome analysis on the specific chromosomal region related to radiation-sensitivity, Molecular analysis on the structure and function of particular regions of human genome, and Generation and characterization of DNA repair-deficient model mice. Significant results are as follows: Sequencing of the radiation sensitivity gene ATM, finding of a novel cell cycle regulator gene NPAT and regulation of gene expression of ATM/NPAT; Findings that the cause of the variability related to instability of human genome is derived from particular repeat structures of 5 and 35 bases and of the instability mutation, from the mutation of EPILS (mRNA synthase gene); Program development for novel human genome finding in the DNA sequences and making novel human gene as a resource by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique; and generation of the highly UV-sensitive mouse model for human xeroderma pigmentosum G. Conclusion is that findings will contribute for better understanding of the genes functioning radiation sensitivity and also biodefense mechanism against radiation and other environmental stress. (N.I.)

  20. Final report of the group research. Genome analysis on the biological effects of radiation. Second research group of NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns investigations on the title conducted by 5 subgroups of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) during the period of 1993-2001. The report involves the organization of research teams and summary reports from the subgroups for Genome sequencing and informatics, Genome analysis on model organisms, The genome analysis on the specific chromosomal region related to radiation-sensitivity, Molecular analysis on the structure and function of particular regions of human genome, and Generation and characterization of DNA repair-deficient model mice. Significant results are as follows: Sequencing of the radiation sensitivity gene ATM, finding of a novel cell cycle regulator gene NPAT and regulation of gene expression of ATM/NPAT; Findings that the cause of the variability related to instability of human genome is derived from particular repeat structures of 5 and 35 bases and of the instability mutation, from the mutation of EPILS (mRNA synthase gene); Program development for novel human genome finding in the DNA sequences and making novel human gene as a resource by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique; and generation of the highly UV-sensitive mouse model for human xeroderma pigmentosum G. Conclusion is that findings will contribute for better understanding of the genes functioning radiation sensitivity and also biodefense mechanism against radiation and other environmental stress. (N.I.)

  1. Research on reconfigurable and reliable manipulators: Final report, August 15, 1994-August 14, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To address the need for a more flexible and reliable manipulator, the authors propose the concept of a rapidly deployable fault tolerant manipulator system. Such a system combines a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulator System (RMMS) with support software for rapid programming, trajectory planning, and control. This allows the user to rapidly configure a fault tolerant manipulator custom-tailored for a given task. This thesis investigates all aspects involved in such a system. It describes an RMMS prototype which consists of seven manipulator modules with a total of four degrees-of-freedom. The reconfigurability of the hardware is made transparent to the user by the supporting control software that automatically adapts itself to the current manipulator configuration. To achieve high reliability, a global fault tolerant trajectory planning algorithm is introduced. This algorithm guarantees that a manipulator can continue its task even when one of the manipulator joints fails and is immobilized. Finally, all these aspects are considered simultaneously in the task based design software, that determines the manipulator configuration, its base position, and the fault tolerant joint space trajectory that are optimally suited to perform a given task. The most important contribution of this thesis is a novel agent-based approach to solve the task based design problem. The approach is based on a genetic algorithm for which the modification and evaluation operations are implemented as autonomous asynchronous agents. Finally, the thesis presents a performance analysis of the agent-based design framework by comparing its results with those of exhaustive search, random search, and multiple restart statistical hill-climbing

  2. Research on reconfigurable and reliable manipulators: Final report, August 14, 1994--August 14, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosla, P.K.; Kanade, Takeo

    1996-12-31

    To address the need for a more flexible and reliable manipulator, the authors propose the concept of a rapidly deployable fault tolerant manipulator system. Such a system combines a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulator System (RMMS) with support software for rapid programming, trajectory planning, and control. This allows the user to rapidly configure a fault tolerant manipulator custom-tailored for a given task. This thesis investigates all aspects involved in such a system. It describes an RMMS prototype which consists of seven manipulator modules with a total of four degrees-of-freedom. The reconfigurability of the hardware is made transparent to the user by the supporting control software that automatically adapts itself to the current manipulator configuration. To achieve high reliability, a global fault tolerant trajectory planning algorithm is introduced. This algorithm guarantees that a manipulator can continue its task even when one of the manipulator joints fails and is immobilized. Finally, all these aspects are considered simultaneously in the task based design software, that determines the manipulator configuration, its base position, and the fault tolerant joint space trajectory that are optimally suited to perform a given task. The most important contribution of this thesis is a novel agent-based approach to solve the task based design problem. The approach is based on a genetic algorithm for which the modification and evaluation operations are implemented as autonomous asynchronous agents. Finally, the thesis presents a performance analysis of the agent-based design framework by comparing its results with those of exhaustive search, random search, and multiple restart statistical hill-climbing.

  3. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  4. Cle Elum Lake anadromous salmon restoration feasibility study: Summary of research, Final Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this research was to study the feasibility for anadromous salmonids to recolonize the habitat above reservoirs in the Yakima River without disruption to irrigation withdrawals. A primary concern was whether anadromous fish could successfully exit reservoirs and survive downstream passage through the Yakima and Columbia Rivers to the ocean

  5. Behavioral Criteria in Research and the Study of Racism: Performing the Jackal Function (Final Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Asa G.; And Others

    This report describes the methodology and results of a study of racist attitudes and behaviors. The introduction provides the background and states difficulties due to funding and time constraints. Research and data collection procedures are delineated in the second section. In section 3, results are presented in tabular form, and intercoder…

  6. 78 FR 34901 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Advanced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... disabilities, to conduct high- quality, advanced multidisciplinary rehabilitation research; and (2) improve... for this program in the Federal Register on March 28, 2013 (78 FR 18933). That notice contained our... domains as discussed in NIDRR's Long-Range Plan for Fiscal Years 2013-2017 (78 FR 20299). Public...

  7. Advanced waste forms research and development. Final report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on supercalcine-ceramics was conducted with the objectives of characterizing the phases and of applying them to fluorine-containing Thorex wastes. This report is concerned with quantitative phase analysis of complex ceramics using x-ray powder diffraction methods and with scanning transmission electron microscopy of these ceramics and its correlation with fluorite structure solid solution phase diagrams

  8. 78 FR 29237 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Register on April 4, 2013 (78 FR 20299), can be accessed on the Internet at the following site: www.ed.gov... characteristics that affect the relationship between the intervention and outcomes. Efficacy research can inform... social self-sufficiency of individuals with disabilities, especially individuals with the most...

  9. 77 FR 41391 - Final Priority; Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Vocational Rehabilitation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ...The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by NIDRR. Specifically, this priority is for an RRTC on VR and developing strategies to meet employer needs in changing economic environments. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in......

  10. Measurement, calculation and evaluation of photon production data. Final report of a coordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes results of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) devoted to photon preduction in neutron-induced reactions. The report presents 25 original contributions that reflect accomplishments achieved in measurement, calculation and evaluation of photon production under the project in 1994-1997. Major results are highlighted and a list of the CRP publications is given. (author)

  11. Coupling and corona effects research plan for transmission lines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, J E; Formanek, V C

    1976-06-01

    Concern has arisen over the possible effects of electric and magnetic fields produced by EHV-UHV transmission lines. Past and ongoing research concerning the electric and magnetic field effects from EHV-UHV transmission lines was reviewed as it pertains to the following areas: (1) electromagnetic interference, (2) acoustic noise, (3) generation of gaseous effluents, and (4) safety considerations of induced voltages and currents. The intent of this review was to identify the short and long range research projects required to address these areas. The research plan identifies and gives priority to twenty programs in corona and coupling effects. In the case of the corona effects, a number of programs were recommended for acoustic noise and electromagnetic interference to delineate improved power line design criteria in terms of social, meteorological, geographical and cost constraints. Only one project is recommended in the case of ozone generation, because the results of comprehensive analyses, laboratory studies and field measurements have demonstrated that power lines do not contribute significant quantities of ozone. In the case of the coupling effects, a number of programs are recommended for HVAC transmission lines to improve the theoretically developed design guidelines by considering practical constraints. For HVDC transmission lines, programs are suggested to engender a better theoretical understanding and practical measurements capability for the coupling mechanisms of the dc electric and magnetic field with nearby objects. The interrelationship of the programs and their role in a long-term research plan is also discussed.

  12. 78 FR 27038 - Final Priorities; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Individuals with Physical Disabilities (Priority 2), Health and Function of Individuals with Intellectual and... Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (Priority 4). If an applicant proposes to conduct research under... with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) and requested that individuals with ID/DD...

  13. 78 FR 34261 - Final Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... the Federal Register on March 6, 2013 (78 FR 14483). That notice contained background information and... FR 20299), can be accessed on the Internet at the following site: www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers... published on May 7, 2013 (78 FR 26513), are: (i) Exploration and Discovery means the stage of research...

  14. 76 FR 37341 - Final Priority; Rehabilitation Research and Training Center-Interventions To Promote Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...-Range Plan (Plan). The Plan, which was published in the Federal Register on February 15, 2006 (71 FR... Research Projects and Centers Program in the Federal Register on March 29, 2011 (76 FR 17400). That notice... individuals transitioning into the community from nursing homes and other health and community...

  15. Systems analysis for the development of small resource recovery systems: research and development needs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnkovich, P G; Helmstetter, A J

    1980-10-01

    The technologies that should be developed to make small-scale solid waste processing facilities attractive and viable for small municipalities with solid waste between 50 and 250 tons per day are identified. Research and development needs for refuse derived fuel systems, thermal systems, and biological processes are listed. Selected research and development needs discussed for mechanical processing systems are: develop data bank for low-cost, low-energy shredder options; develop performance data for shredders applied after separation; develop data bank for Trommel performance; and identification and evaluation of low-cost materials separation equipment. Selected research and development needs discussed for thermal systems are: emission levels from solid/waste/to/energy systems; determination of the theoretical efficiencies for thermal processing systems; boiler erosion/corrosion evaluation for systems firing refuse derived fuel; optimization of feed and ash handling systems; refractory life and maintenance requirements; development of 5- to 20-TPD systems; and optimization studies of control systems for small modular incinerators. Selected research and development needs discussed for biological processing systems are: optimum design and operation to maximize gas recovery rates and investigate process configuration alternatives for anaerobic digesters.

  16. Research Study on Planning for Connecticut Regional Vocational-Technical Schools. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University Research Inst. of Connecticut, Inc., Wallingford.

    To help determine the feasibility of establishing in any Connecticut town new regional vocational-technical schools that would not produce any adverse effects on existing schools, this research study presents a methodology and computerized program by which these assessments may be made. Part One discusses the need for this type of methodology and…

  17. Achievements & bottlenecks in humanitarian demining EU-funded research: Final results from the EC DELVE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahli, H.; Bruschini, C.; Kempen, L. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Breejen, E. den

    2008-01-01

    The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology

  18. Polyvinyl alcohol–cellulose composite: a taste sensing material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarmishtha Majumdar; Basudam Adhikari

    2005-12-01

    There are reports of fabrication of taste sensor by adsorbing lipids into Millipore filter paper. With this lipid based sensor, it has been found that the taste sensing efficiency of membrane can be remarkably improved. We have made an attempt to prepare taste sensor material by using functionalized polymer without any lipid. PVA–cellulose composite has been modified to use as the sensor material. The research work covers polymer membrane preparation, morphology study and structural characterization of the membrane and study of the taste sensing characteristics of this membrane for five different taste substances. PVA–cellulose composite membrane was modified by phosphorylation with POCl3. FTIR spectroscopic analysis, XRD analysis and SEM were done to get an idea about the structure and morphology of the prepared phosphorylated PVA–cellulose composite membrane. The sensor characteristics like temporal stability, response stability, response to different taste substances, and reproducibility of sensing performance were studied using phosphorylated PVA–cellulose composite membrane. Sensor device prepared with this membrane has shown distinct response patterns for different taste substances in terms of membrane potential. Threshold concentrations of phosphorylated PVA–cellulose composite membrane for HCl, NaCl, Q-HCl, sucrose and MSG are 0.001 mM, 0.001 mM, 0.001 mM, 0.001 mM and 0.009 mM, respectively. The threshold concentrations are below human threshold concentrations. Membranes also showed characteristic response patterns for organic acids like acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid etc, mineral acids like HCl, H2SO4 and HNO3 salts, bitter substances, sweet substances and umami substances. Sensor device prepared with this membrane has excellent shelf life.

  19. Open Access to research data - final perspectives from the RECODE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Many networks, initiatives, and communities are addressing the key barriers to Open Access to data in scientific research. These organizations are typically heterogeneous and fragmented by discipline, location, sector (publishers, academics, data centers, etc.), as well as by other features. Besides, they often work in isolation, or with limited contacts with one another. The Policy RECommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe (RECODE) project, which will conclude in the first half of 2015, has scoped and addressed the challenges related to Open Access, dissemination and preservation of scientific data, leveraging the existing networks, initiatives, and communities. The overall objective of RECODE was to identify a series of targeted and over-arching policy recommendations for Open Access to European research data based on existing good practice. RECODE has undertaken a review of the existing state of the art and examined five case studies in different scientific disciplines: particle physics and astrophysics, clinical research, medicine and technical physiology (bioengineering), humanities (archaeology), and environmental sciences (Earth Observation). In particular for the latter discipline, GEOSS has been an optimal test bed for investigating the importance of technical and multidisciplinary interoperability, and what the challenges are in sharing and providing Open Access to research data from a variety of sources, and in a variety of formats. RECODE has identified five main technological and infrastructural challenges: • Heterogeneity - relates to interoperability, usability, accessibility, discoverability; • Sustainability - relates to obsolescence, curation, updates/upgrades, persistence, preservation; • Volume - also related to Big Data, which is somehow implied by Open Data; in our context, it relates to discoverability, accessibility (indexing), bandwidth, storage, scalability, energy footprint; • Quality - relates to completeness

  20. Spent fuel performance assessment and research. Final report of a co-ordinated research project on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR) 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides an overview of technical issues related to spent fuel wet and dry storage and summarizes the objectives and major findings of research, carried out within the framework of the Coordinated Research Program. Included are the fuel integrity aspects, fuel degradation mechanisms in dry and wet storage, behaviour of storage facility components (metallic components, reinforced concrete). Also included are issues related to long-term storage and monitoring technologies and techniques. Country reports on research projects within the SPAR Coordinated Research Program is presented. A brief history is given on the history of the BEFAST and SPAR Coordinated Research Projects

  1. Synthesis of cellulose nanofiber composites for mechanical reinforcement and other advanced applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuezhu

    Cellulose nanofibers from bioresources have attracted intensive research interest in recent years due to their unique combination of properties including high strength and modulus, low density, biocompatibility/biodegradability and rich surface chemistry for functionalization. The nanofibers have been widely studied as nanoreinforcements in polymer nanocomposites; while the nanocomposite research is still very active, new research directions of using the nanofibers for hydrogels/aerogels, template for nanoparticle synthesis, scaffold, carbon materials, nanopaper, etc. have emerged. In this Ph.D. thesis, fundamental studies and application developments are performed on three types of cellulose nanofibers, i.e. cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and bacterial cellulose (BC). First CNCs and CNFs are systematically compared in terms of their effects on the mechanical properties, crystallization and failure behavior of the nanocomposites, which provides a guideline for the design of cellulose nanofiber reinforced composites. Second, CNFs and BC are used to develop core-shell carbon fibers and flexible carbon aerogels for energy storage applications. This part is focused on developing nanocarbon materials with multi-scale features. Lastly, hybrid CNC/CNF nanopaper with superior optical, mechanical, and electrical properties is developed and its application is demonstrated on a LED device.

  2. Cellulose-based materials as scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Katarína; Havelka, P.; Sopuch, T.; Kolářová, K.; Vosmanská, V.; Lisá, Věra; Švorčík, V.; Bačáková, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2013), s. 2263-2278. ISSN 0969-0239 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1168; GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : polysacharide materials * oxidized cellulose * vascular smooth muscle cells * chitosan Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.033, year: 2013

  3. Polylactide Foams Reinforced with Wood Fibers or Microfibrillated Cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan, Münire

    2010-01-01

    The growing environmental awareness of pollution and climate change has set up newrules and regulations, which forces the industries to seek and satisfy the demand formore alternative and renewable products. Research has been launched for findingnovel lightweight materials for packaging, transportation and construction. Currently,there is an interest of finding new applications of new forms of cellulose since theyoffer low density and cost, renewability and biodegradability. The potential of ...

  4. [Audiometry in the cellulose industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, C R; Milano, L; Pedulla, P; Carlesi, G; Bacaloni, A; Monaco, E

    1993-01-01

    A noise level dosimetry and audiometric testing were conducted in a cellulose factory to determine the hazardous noise level and the prevalence of noise induced hearing loss among the exposed workers. The noise level was recorded up to 90 db (A) in several working areas. 18 workers, potentially exposed to noise injury, evidenced a significant hearing loss. While no evidence of noise injury was recorded in a control group of 100 subjects. This finding suggest a strict relationship between audiometric tests, the noise level recorded in the working place and the working seniority of exposed employers. PMID:7720969

  5. Ohio Coal Research Consortium fifth year final reports summary, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    As part of its efforts to improve the use of high-sulfur Ohio coal within environmental limits, the Ohio Coal Development Office, an entity within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO/ODOD), in late 1988 established a consortium of four Ohio universities. The purpose of the Ohio Coal Research Consortium is to conduct a multi-year fundamental research programs focused on: (1) the enhancement or development of dry sorption processes for the economical removal of high levels of SO{sub 2} and other pollutants, and (2) an increased understanding of methods for reduction in air toxics emissions from combustion gases produced by burning high-sulfur Ohio coal. This report contains summaries of eleven studies in these areas.

  6. Ohio Coal Research Consortium fourth year final summary report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    As a part of its efforts to improve the use of high-sulfur Ohio coal within environmental limits, the Ohio Coal Development Office, an entity within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO/ODOD), in late 1988 established a consortium of four Ohio universities. The purpose of the Ohio Coal Research Consortium is to conduct a multi-year fundamental research program focused on (1) the enhancement or development of dry sorption processes for the economical removal of high levels of SO{sub 2} and other pollutants and (2) an increased understanding of methods for reduction in air toxics emissions from combustion gases produced by burning high-sulfur Ohio coal. This report contains summaries of twelve studies in these areas.

  7. Experimental and analytical research on the aerodynamics of wind driven turbines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbach, C.; Wainauski, H.; Worobel, R.

    1977-12-01

    The successful development of reliable, cost competitive horizontal axis, propeller-type wind energy conversion systems (WECS) is strongly dependent on the availability of advanced technology for each of the system components. This aerodynamic research program was aimed at providing a reliable, comprehensive data base on a series of wind turbine models covering a broad range of the prime aerodynamic and geometric variables. Such data obtained under controlled laboratory conditions on turbines designed by the same method, of the same size, and tested in the same wind tunnel had not been available in the literature. Moreover, this research program was further aimed at providing a basis for evaluating the adequacy of existing wind turbine aerodynamic design and performance methodology, for assessing the potential of recent advanced theories and for providing a basis for further method development and refinement.

  8. Final Report on the Research Project Ringhals Diagnostics and Monitoring. Stage 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives an account of the work performed by the Department of Reactor Physics in the frame of a research contract with Ringhals, Vattenfall AB. The contract constitutes Stage 4 of a long-term co-operative research work concerning diagnostics and monitoring of the BWR and PWR units. The work in Stage 4 has been performed between 1 October 1998 and 1 September 1999. In Stage 4 we have worked with four items as follows: 1. Regional modes in R1 stability measurements; 2. Analysis of data from the measurement 980604; 3. Study of the possibility of measuring the moderator temperature coefficient using noise methods. Literature survey and measurement evaluation; 4. Transfer of the method for determining axial control rod elevation. Current situation and progress

  9. Final Report on the Research Project Ringhals Diagnostics and Monitoring. Stage 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaziere, C.; Arzhanov, V.; Karlsson, Joakim K.H.; Pazsit, I

    1999-07-01

    This report gives an account of the work performed by the Department of Reactor Physics in the frame of a research contract with Ringhals, Vattenfall AB. The contract constitutes Stage 4 of a long-term co-operative research work concerning diagnostics and monitoring of the BWR and PWR units. The work in Stage 4 has been performed between 1 October 1998 and 1 September 1999. In Stage 4 we have worked with four items as follows: 1. Regional modes in R1 stability measurements; 2. Analysis of data from the measurement 980604; 3. Study of the possibility of measuring the moderator temperature coefficient using noise methods. Literature survey and measurement evaluation; 4. Transfer of the method for determining axial control rod elevation. Current situation and progress.

  10. Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Denes [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes research activities at Purdue University done as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration. These mainly involve calculation of covariant radiative energy loss in the (Djordjevic-)Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev ((D)GLV) framework for relativistic A+A reactions at RHIC and LHC energies using realistic bulk medium evolution with both transverse and longitudinal expansion. The single PDF file provided also includes a report from the entire JET Collaboration.

  11. Energy-conserving coating - pigment research. Final report, Sep 88-Apr 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novinson, T.

    1991-05-01

    This report documents research into novel experimental paints made from color-reversible pigments. These pigments are of two types: Photochromic and thermochromic. The first group changes color on exposure to light, and the second changes color when subjected to a change in temperature. If successfully incorporated into a coating and applied to walls and roofs, these pigments could reduce heating and cooling costs by presenting a more absorbent color in the winter and a more reflective color in the summer.

  12. Research in theoretical radiobiology and radiological physics: Final technical report, May 1, 1986-December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work carried out under this Grant included continuation of experimental research in radiation biophysics that was previously initiated, as well as extensive theoretical efforts primarily devoted to the further development of the Theory of Dual Radiation Action. Documents for international and national organizations were prepared or evaluated. Attendance at a number of international and national meetings and scientific correspondence were also in part supported by this grant. 14 refs

  13. Calcium carbonate growth in the presence of water soluble cellulose ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium carbonate precipitation was performed in the presence of methyl cellulose (MC) and two kinds of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC FD-10000, HEC FD-30000). The results demonstrated that the final product morphology and structure of CaCO3 crystals are highly sensitive to the concentration of the cellulose ethers aqueous solution. By precisely controlling their concentrations, all these three cellulose ethers solutions have the ability of protecting metastable vaterite from thermodynamically transforming into stable calcite. The intermediate products investigation showed to some extent the phase transformation of calcium carbonate in its growing process from metastable vaterite to calcite and indicated that the calcium carbonate crystal growth in HEC solutions occurs through dissolution and reprecipitation process. Calcium carbonate growth in both presence of HEC and ethanol or Mg2+ was also examined. This work demonstrates the potential of water soluble cellulose ethers in controlling biominerals crystallization and growth. The results are revelatory for biomineralization and fabricating new organic-inorganic hybrids based on cellulose derivatives.

  14. 尾矿粉/秸秆纤维素/环氧树脂复合材料制备及性能研究%Research on Preparation and Properties of Tailings Powder/Straw Cellulose/Epoxy Resin Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯桂香; 于守武; 李婷婷; 王浩然; 桑晓明

    2012-01-01

    采用甲苯和乙醇萃取,碱液、过氧化氢溶液浸泡提取的秸秆纤维素和用硅烷偶联剂KH560表面改性处理的尾矿粉,作为添加剂加入到环氧树脂(E-44)固化体系中,制备尾矿粉/秸秆纤维素/环氧树脂复合材料;并对复合材料的力学性能、热性能、结构与形态进行测试与表征.结果表明:纤维素的(-OH)结构已经部分参与到环氧树脂的固化反应中.复合材料的冲击强度、热稳定性随秸秆纤维素和尾矿粉的加入而增加,冲击强度最高的配方为纤维素质量分数为5%,尾矿粉质量分数为10%,冲击强度为1.096 kJ/m2;拉伸强度则随尾矿粉的加入而下降.SEM分析表明:秸秆纤维素及尾矿粉的存在使得断面呈现出韧窝结构,复合材料体系产生相界面效应.%In this paper,straw cellulose was abstracted by extracting with toluene and ethanol as solvent,and then dipping in alkali and hydrogen peroxide solution.Tailings powder was deal with by silane coupling agent(KH560) and was added into epoxy resin E-44.Tailings powder/straw fiber/epoxy resin composites were prepared.The mechanical properties,thermal stability,structure and morphology of the composites were investigated and characterized.FTIR results showed that the reaction of (-OH) of the cellulose occurred in the process of curing reaction of the epoxy resin.The impact strength and thermal stability of the composite increased with the addition of straw cellulose and tailings powder.The results indicated that when the mass fraction of cellulose was 5% of the straw cellulose,and tailings was 10% ,impact strength was 1.096 kJ/m2,and the impact performance was the best.Tensile strength decreased with the addition of tailing powder.SEM showed that straw cellulose and tailings powder increased the phase interface effect of the composite and the cross section had the distribution of dimple type structure.

  15. Combined methods for liquid radioactive waste treatment. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains 13 papers presented at the final research co-ordination meeting of the CRP. The subjects covered include processes and technologies for treatment and conditioning of liquid radioactive wastes. It quite often includes the application of several steps, such as filtration, precipitation, sorption, ion exchange, evaporation and/or membrane separation to meet the requirements both for the release of decontaminated effluents into the environment and the conditioning of waste concentrates for disposal. Combination of the processes and their consecutive or simultaneous application is also described. It results in an improved decontamination, waste volume reduction, safety and overall cost effectiveness in the treatment, conditioning and disposal of these wastes

  16. 2001 Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Final progress report [agenda and attendee list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Harold

    2001-07-26

    The Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was held at Connecticut College, New London, Connecticut, July 22-27, 2001. The conference was attended by 121 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field, coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, and included US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate discussion about the key issues in the field today. Session topics included the following: Environmental and applied genomics, Cell-to-cell signaling and multicellular behavior, Emerging technologies and methods, Novel metabolisms and ecosystems, Directed evolution of enzymes and pathways, Symbiotic and trophic relationships, Synthesis and application of novel biopolymers, and Microbes at the oxic-anoxic interface. There was also a special lecture titled ''Under the umbrella of the big tree: microbial biology into the 21st century.''

  17. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. Boston University is active in seven principal areas: (1) Task A: Colliding Beams -- physics of e+e- and anti pp collisions; (2) Task C: MACRO Experiment -- search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; (3) Task D: Proton Decay -- search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; (4) Tasks E, J, and N: Particle Theory -- theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; (5) Task F: Muon G-2 -- measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; (6) Task K: SSCintcal -- calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; (7) Task L: Muon Detectors for the GEM Experiment. The body of the proposal is devoted to detailed discussions of each of the tasks. The total budget request for the program appears in a summary chapter that includes a general budget discussion and individual budget requests and explanations for each of the tasks

  18. Center for Fundamental and Applied Research in Nanostructured and Lightweight Materials. Final Technical Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, Michael; Rogers, Tony; King, Julia; Keith, Jason; Cornilsen, Bahne; Allen, Jeffrey; Gilbert, Ryan; Holles, Joseph

    2010-09-28

    The core projects for this DOE-sponsored Center at Michigan Tech have focused on several of the materials problems identified by the NAS. These include: new electrode materials, enhanced PEM materials, lighter and more effective bipolar plates, and improvement of the carbon used as a current carrier. This project involved fundamental and applied research in the development and testing of lightweight and nanostructured materials to be used in fuel cell applications and for chemical synthesis. The advent of new classes of materials engineered at the nanometer level can produce materials that are lightweight and have unique physical and chemical properties. The grant was used to obtain and improve the equipment infrastructure to support this research and also served to fund seven research projects. These included: 1. Development of lightweight, thermally conductive bipolar plates for improved thermal management in fuel cells; 2. Exploration of pseudomorphic nanoscale overlayer bimetallic catalysts for fuel cells; 3. Development of hybrid inorganic/organic polymer nanocomposites with improved ionic and electronic properties; 4. Development of oriented polymeric materials for membrane applications; 5. Preparation of a graphitic carbon foam current collectors; 6. The development of lightweight carbon electrodes using graphitic carbon foams for battery and fuel cell applications; and 7. Movement of water in fuel cell electrodes.

  19. Final results of the fifth three-dimensional dynamic Atomic Energy Research benchmark problem calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a brief survey of the fifth three-dimensional dynamic Atomic Energy Research benchmark calculation results received with the code DYN3D/ATHLET at NRI Rez. This benchmark was defined at the seventh Atomic Energy Research Symposium (Hoernitz near Zittau, 1997). Its initiating event is a symmetrical break of the main steam header at the end of the first fuel cycle and hot shutdown conditions with one stuck out control rod group. The calculations were performed with the externally coupled codes ATHLET Mod.1.1 Cycle C and DYN3DH1.1/M3. The standard WWER-440/213 input deck of ATHLET code was adopted for benchmark purposes and for coupling with the code DYN3D. The first part of paper contains a brief characteristics of NPP input deck and reactor core model. The second part shows the time dependencies of important global and local parameters. In comparison with the results published at the eighth Atomic Energy Research Symposium (Bystrice nad Pernstejnem, 1998), the results published in this paper are based on improved ATHLET descriptions of control and safety systems. (Author)

  20. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Mary [University of Utah

    2014-09-19

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems has high priority within DOE SC. As we look to the future, achieving expected levels of performance on high-end com-puting (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing archi-tectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, PERI has implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. The PERI performance modeling and prediction activity is developing and refining performance models, significantly reducing the cost of collecting the data upon which the models are based, and increasing model fidelity, speed and generality. Our primary research activity is automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity is spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and is based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which has automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other re-cent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our third major component is application en-gagement, to which we are devoting approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with Sci-DAC-2 applications. This last activity not only helps DOE scientists meet their near-term per-formance goals, but also helps keep PERI research focused on the real challenges facing DOE computational scientists as they enter the Petascale Era.

  1. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Robert

    2013-04-20

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems had high priority within DOE SC at the start of the second phase of the SciDAC program, SciDAC-2, as it continues to do so today. Achieving expected levels of performance on high-end computing (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing architectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, the University of Southern California?s Information Sciences Institute organized the Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI). PERI implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. Within PERI, USC?s primary research activity was automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity was spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and was based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other recent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our other major component was application engagement, to which we devoted approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with SciDAC-2 applications. This report is a summary of the overall results of the USC PERI effort.

  2. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. Boston University is active in seven principal areas: (1) Task A: Colliding Beams -- physics of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {anti p}p collisions; (2) Task C: MACRO Experiment -- search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; (3) Task D: Proton Decay -- search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; (4) Tasks E, J, and N: Particle Theory -- theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; (5) Task F: Muon G-2 -- measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; (6) Task K: SSCintcal -- calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; (7) Task L: Muon Detectors for the GEM Experiment. The body of the proposal is devoted to detailed discussions of each of the tasks. The total budget request for the program appears in a summary chapter that includes a general budget discussion and individual budget requests and explanations for each of the tasks.

  3. A research needs assessment: Energy efficient alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Final reprot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum -- based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are present. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  4. Research on preparation of cellulose diacetate from invasive plant: Solidago Canadensis L.%入侵植物加拿大一枝黄花制备二醋酸纤维素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莲莲; 杨再福; 朱丹丹

    2013-01-01

    Solidago Canadensis L.is used as the raw material to prepare highly purified α-cellulose and cellulose diacetate(CDA).Result shows that the best liquid-solid ratio during activation is 1∶7,the optimum dosage of catalyst and acetic anhydride respectively is 9% ~ 11% and 550% during acetified reaction,the esterification time was 2 h,and the temperature was 50 ℃,and the best AA concentration is 70% during saponification,the best temperature of saponification was 80 ℃ and the time was 2 h.The result of FTIR and XRD analysis shows that the cellulose from Solidago Canadensis L.is acetylated partly,and the crystallinity of the production is decreasing.%利用加拿大一枝黄花(Solidago Canadensis L.)茎干为原料,提取高纯度α-纤维素浆粕,制备二醋酸纤维素(CDA),并对其制备工艺进行优化.结果表明,制备醋酸纤维素的工艺最优条件为:活化最佳液固比:1∶7,醋化过程催化剂最佳用量为9%~11%,醋酸酐用量为550%,醋化时间2h,温度为50℃,皂化过程醋酸最佳浓度为70%,皂化最佳温度80℃,时间2h.红外和X射线分析表明,加拿大一枝黄花纤维素的羟基被部分醋酸酯化,经过醋化和皂化后结晶度下降为29.88%.

  5. Rheological characterization of microcrystalline cellulose and silicified microcrystalline cellulose wet masses using a mixer torque rheometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, P; Schaefer, T; Hellén, L; Juppo, A M; Yliruusi, J

    1999-10-25

    The rheological properties of silicified microcrystalline cellulose (Prosolv 50) were compared with those of standard grades of microcrystalline cellulose (Emcocel 50 and Avicel PH 101). Cellulose samples were analyzed using nitrogen adsorption together with particle size, flowability, density and swelling volume studies. The rheological behaviour of the wet powder masses was studied as a function of mixing time using a mixer torque rheometer (MTR). Silicified microcrystalline cellulose exhibited improved flow characteristics and increased specific surface area compared to standard microcrystalline cellulose grades. Although the silicification process affected the swelling properties and, furthermore, the mixing kinetics of microcrystalline cellulose, the source of the microcrystalline cellulose had a stronger influence than silicification on the liquid requirement at peak torque. PMID:10518674

  6. RETU The Finnish research programme on reactor safety 1995-1998. Final Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Safety (RETU, 1995-1998) research programme concentrated on search of safe limits for nuclear fuel and the reactor core, accident management methods and risk management of nuclear power plants. The total volume of the programme was 100 person years and funding FIM 58 million. This symposium report summarises the research fields, the objectives and the main results obtained. In the field of operational margins of a nuclear reactor, the behaviour of high burnup nuclear fuel was studied both in normal operation and during power transients. The static and dynamic reactor analysis codes were developed and validated to cope with new fuel designs and complicated three-dimensional reactivity transients. Advanced flow models and numerical solution methods for the dynamics codes were developed and tested. Research on accident management developed and validated calculation methods needed to plan preventive measures and to train the personnel to severe accident mitigation. Efforts were made to reduce uncertainties in phenomena important in severe accidents and to study actions planned for accident management. The programme included experimental work, but also participation in large international tests. The Finnish thermal-hydraulic test facility PACTEL was used extensively for the evaluation of the VVER-440 plant accident behaviour, for the validation of the accident analysis computer codes and for the testing of passive safety system concepts for future plant designs. In risk management probabilistic methods were developed for safety related decision making and for complex event sequences. Effects of maintenance on safety were studied and effective methods for assessment of human reliability and safety critical organisations were searched. To enhance human competencies in control of complex environments, practical tools for training and continuous learning were worked out, and methods to evaluate appropriateness of control room design were developed. (orig)

  7. Selective Gaseous Extraction: Research, Development and Training for Isotope Production, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertch, Timothy C, [General Atomics

    2014-03-31

    General Atomics and the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) completed research and development of selective gaseous extraction of fission products from irradiated fuel, which included training and education of MURR students. The process used porous fuel and after irradiation flowed product gases through the fuel to selectively removed desired fission products with the primary goal of demonstrating the removal of rhodium 105. High removal rates for the ruthenium/rhodium (Ru/Rh), tellurium/iodine (Te/I) and molybdenum/technetium (Mo/Tc) series were demonstrated. The success of this research provides for the reuse of the target for further production, significantly reducing the production of actinide wastes relative to processes that dissolve the target. This effort was conducted under DOE funding (DE-SC0007772). General Atomics objective of the project was to conduct R&D on alternative methods to produce a number of radioactive isotopes currently needed for medical and industry applications to include rhodium-105 and other useful isotopes. Selective gaseous extraction was shown to be effective at removing radioisotopes of the ruthenium/rhodium, tellurium/iodine and molybdenum/technetium decay chains while having trace to no quantities of other fission products or actinides. This adds a new, credible method to the area of certain commercial isotope production beyond current techniques, while providing significant potential reduction of process wastes. Waste reduction, along with reduced processing time/cost provides for superior economic feasibility which may allow domestic production under full cost recovery practices. This provides the potential for improved access to domestically produced isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment at reduced cost, providing for the public good.

  8. Amorphous silicon research. Final technical progress report, 1 August 1994--28 February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guha, S [United Solar Systems Corp., Troy, MI (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This report describes the status and accomplishments of work performed under this subcontract by United Solar Systems. United Solar researchers explored several new deposition regimes/conditions to investigate their effect on material/device performance. To facilitate optimum ion bombardment during growth, a large parameter space involving chamber pressure, rf power, and hydrogen dilution were investigated. United Solar carried out a series of experiments using discharge modulation at various pulsed-plasma intervals to study the effect of Si-particle incorporation on solar cell performance. Hydrogen dilution during deposition is found to improve both the initial and stable performance of a-Si and a-SiGe alloy cells. Researchers conducted a series of temperature-ramping experiments on samples prepared with high and low hydrogen dilutions to study the effect of hydrogen effusion on solar cell performance. Using an internal photoemission method, the electrical bandgap of a microcrystalline p layer used in high-efficiency solar cells was measured to be 1.6 eV. New measurement techniques were developed to evaluate the interface and bulk contributions of losses to solar cell performance. Researchers replaced hydrogen with deuterium and found deuterated amorphous silicon alloy solar cells exhibit reduced light-induced degradation. The incorporation of a microcrystalline n layer in a multijunction cell is seen to improve cell performance. United Solar achieved a world-record single-junction a-Si alloy stable cell efficiency of 9.2% with an active area of 0.25 cm{sup 2} grown with high hydrogen dilution. They also achieved a world-record triple-junction, stable, active-area cell efficiency of 13.0% with an active area of 0.25 cm{sup 2}.

  9. [Research in two-dimensional critical phenomena and conformal field theory]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    A very theoretical description is given of research in two- dimensional critical phenomena and conformal field theory. Major progress is reported in the field of fluctuating two-dimensional surfaces. A discretized representation of fluctuating geometry is used where surfaces are represented by triangulations; continuum surfaces are recovered by taking the size of the triangles to zero. One of the central goals of the theory of critical phenomena is to find all possible universality classes of n-dimensional critical phenomena; this goal has been translated into the problem of clasifying all possible scale-invariant euclidean quantum field theories. (RWR)

  10. Innovations and Enhancements for a Consortium of Big-10 University Research and Training Reactors. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Consortium of Big-10 University Research and Training Reactors was by design a strategic partnership of seven leading institutions. We received the support of both our industry and DOE laboratory partners. Investments in reactor, laboratory and program infrastructure, allowed us to lead the national effort to expand and improve the education of engineers in nuclear science and engineering, to provide outreach and education to pre-college educators and students and to become a key resource of ideas and trained personnel for our U.S. industrial and DOE laboratory collaborators.

  11. Handling and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for research development and other measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is divided into two parts. Part 1 presents the premises for waste management in Sweden and the waste types that are produced in Sweden. A brief description is then provided of the measures required for the handling and disposal of the various waste forms. An account of measures for decommissioning of nuclear power plants is also included. Part 2 describes the research program for 1990-1995, which includes plans for siting, repository design; studies of rock properties and chemistry, biosphere, technological barriers. Activities within two large projects, the Stripa laboratory and Natural analogues are also described. 240 refs. 40 figs

  12. Atmospheric lidar research applying to H2O, O2 and aerosols. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental research on a near infrared tunable dye laser is reported. Theoretical simulations are presented for various lidar configurations. The visible and near infrared wavelengths considered are suitable for observations of aerosols, water vapor, molecular oxygen pressure and temperature in the troposphere and above. The first phase of development work is described on a ruby pumped, tunable dye laser for the wavelength region 715 to 740 nanometers. Lidar simulations are summarized for measurements of H2O and for two color lidar observations of aerosols in the atmosphere

  13. Botanical reconnaissance of Big Run Bog Candidate Research Natural Area. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzika, R.M.; Hunsucker, R.; DeMeo, T.

    1996-07-25

    To document the botanical diversity of the Big Run Bog candidate Research Natural Area on the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia, a botanical survey was conducted in 1993-94. The survey identified 193 species of vascular plants in 118 genera and 52 families. Six species of rare vascular plants were found. Vascular plant families with the most species present were Cyperaceae (24), Asteraceae (23), Poaceae (16), and Ericaceae (14). For each taxon, family, species, habitat and estimated abundance are reported. Nonvascular plants totaled 87 species in 55 genera and 33 families.

  14. A novel method for preparing microfibrillated cellulose from bamboo fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat Nguyen, Huu; Thanh Thuy Mai, Thi; Bich Nguyen, Ngoc; Duy Dang, Thanh; Loan Phung Le, My; Dang, Tan Tai; Tran, Van Man

    2013-03-01

    The bamboo fiber is a potential candidate for biomass and power source application. In this study, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared from raw fibers of bamboo tree (Bambusa Blumeana J A & J H Schultes) by an alkali treatment at room temperature in association with a bleaching treatment followed by a sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images indicated that final products ranged from 20 to 40 nm in diameter. The chemical composition measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that both hemicellulose and lignin are mostly removed in the MFC. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results also show that MFC has crystallinity of more than 70%. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves revealed that cellulose microfibers have a two-step thermal decomposition behavior owing to the attachment of sulfated groups onto the cellulose surface in the hydrolysis process with sulfuric acid. The obtained MFCs may have potential applications in alternative power sources as biomass, in pharmaceutical and optical industries as additives, as well as in composite fields as a reinforcement phase.

  15. A novel method for preparing microfibrillated cellulose from bamboo fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bamboo fiber is a potential candidate for biomass and power source application. In this study, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared from raw fibers of bamboo tree (Bambusa Blumeana J A and J H Schultes) by an alkali treatment at room temperature in association with a bleaching treatment followed by a sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images indicated that final products ranged from 20 to 40 nm in diameter. The chemical composition measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that both hemicellulose and lignin are mostly removed in the MFC. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results also show that MFC has crystallinity of more than 70%. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves revealed that cellulose microfibers have a two-step thermal decomposition behavior owing to the attachment of sulfated groups onto the cellulose surface in the hydrolysis process with sulfuric acid. The obtained MFCs may have potential applications in alternative power sources as biomass, in pharmaceutical and optical industries as additives, as well as in composite fields as a reinforcement phase. (paper)

  16. Use of isotope techniques in lake dynamics investigations. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations was launched with the aim of assessing the potential of environmental isotope techniques in studying the dynamics of surface water bodies and related problems such as: dynamics of solutes; sediment focusing; establishment of water balance components; vulnerability to pollution. The CRP enabled a number of isotope and geochemical studies to be carried out on small and large water bodies, with the general aim of understanding of the dynamics of these systems under the growing anthropogenic influence. This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) held in Rehovot, Israel, from 10 to 13 March 1997. Individual contributions have been indexed separately

  17. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, A. M.; Dela Mines, A. S.; Banzon, R. B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z. F.

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulosic material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism.

  18. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulose material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism. (author)

  19. Single-cell protein from waste cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, C. E.; Callihan, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    The recycle, reuse, or reclamation of single cell protein from liquid and solid agricultural waste fibers by a fermentation process is reported. It is shown that cellulose comprises the bulk of the fibers at 50% to 55% of the dry weight of the refuse and that its biodegradability is of prime importance in the choice of a substrate. The application of sodium hydroxide followed by heat and pressure serves to de-polymerize and disrupt lignin structure while swelling the cellulose to increase water uptake and pore volume. Some of the lignin, hemi-celluloses, ash, and cellulose of the material is hydrolized and solubilized. Introduction of microorganisms to the substrate fibers mixed with nutrients produces continuous fermentation of cellulose for further protein extraction and purification.

  20. Synchrotron SAXS and WAXD Studies of Cellulose Nascent Crystals: Experiment and Structure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Burger, Christian; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Chu, Benjamin

    2012-02-01

    Cellulose nascent crystals extracted from biomass (wood pulp, jute and cotton)by combined chemical and mechanical treatments are low cost, environmentally friendly and high performance materials to form the barrier layer in ultrafiltration membranes. This research project is aimed at using the synchrotron X-ray scattering methods to characterize the nascent crystalline nanofibers in different formats. The SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) data of cellulose nanofiber suspensions was analyzed and the polydisperse ribbon model with rectangular cross section fit the data well. The 2D and 3D simulations of WAXD (Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction) pattern of jute cellulose fibers solved the contents ratio of cellulose I-alpha and I-beta and Hermans' orientation parameter P2.

  1. Final Report, Research Program to Investigate the Fundamental Chemistry of Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose is to increase the basic scientific understanding of technetium chemistry to better understand the behavior of technetium in chemical environments relevant to DOE. Two important areas in need of study are the behavior of technetium in highly alkaline solutions similar to high-level nuclear waste, and its behavior in different waste forms. This research program addressed these two needs. Two separate approaches were used in this program. The first focus was to understand the basic solution chemistry of technetium, which underlies its behavior in the highly alkaline environment of the nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. The specific problems at these sites are related to the anomalous oxidation state of technetium (Schroeder 1995). Although, at high pH, technetium should exist in its highest oxidation state as TcO4-, soluble, lower-valent technetium species have been observed in certain wastes. The specific unknowns that this program sought to answer are the nature of lower valent technetium species that can be formed in highly alkaline solution and whether pertechnetate undergoes radiolytic reduction in highly alkaline solution when nitrate is present in excess. The second focus area is the behavior of technetium immobilized in various waste forms. The behavior of technetium in cement wastes was examined to gain information about its long-term stability. Specifically, this research examined the oxidation of reduced technetium species by components present in high-level waste that are incorporated into cement waste along with technetium

  2. Evaluation of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2001, the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NOP2) has been evaluated. In the period 1995-2001 the budget for NOP was 47 million Dutch guilders, which supported over 30 organisations in 100 projects and studies spanning four main themes: (1) dynamics of the climate system and its component parts; (2) vulnerability of natural and societal systems to climate change; (3) societal causes and solutions; (4) integration and assessment. Later in the life of the programme, two themes were added to widen the scope of the programme and add value to existing activities. These covered projects concerned with 'cross-cutting' or 'over-arching' issues and those dealing with 'internationalisation', i.e. projects specifically designed to support various initiatives in the development of international programmes. A further proportion of the research budget was dedicated to direct policy support. The evaluation was primarily intended to: Assess the scientific quality of the work undertaken in the programme and the attainment of scientific and technical goals. Also attention was paid to the relevancy of projects and project outputs to national and international policy formulation (policy relevance); the structure and operation of the programme to see if it promoted coherence and synergy between the constituent parts (synergy); and recommendations concerning the form, content and direction of a new programme in the area (new directions)

  3. Final report on the research project Ringhals diagnostics and monitoring. Stage 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaziere, C.; Arzhanov, V.; Pazsit, I

    2000-09-01

    This report gives an account of the work performed by the Department of Reactor Physics in the frame of a research contract with Ringhals, Vattenfall AB. The contract constitutes Stage 5 of a long-term co-operative research work concerning diagnostics and monitoring of the BWR and PWR units. The work in Stage 5 has been performed between October 1999 and September 2000. In Stage 5 we have worked with four items as follows: 1. MTC measurement using the boron dilution method: Analysis of a measurement performed at Ringhals-4; 2. Analysis of the noise measurement performed at Ringhals-2 with the use of gamma thermometers; 3. Development of a method for diagnostics of shell-mode core-barrel vibrations via noise measurements with in-core neutron detectors; 4. A preliminary inventory of the needs and possibilities of measuring water flow in the primary circuit of the PWR and BWR units as well as in the BWR recirculation flow with the detection of N-16 activity induced in the core.

  4. [Experimental research in high energy physics: Final technical progress report, 1986--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the closeout report for DOE supported research in high energy physics for the period 1986--1992, under contract award AT03-86ER40249 at the Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) at U.C. Santa Cruz. The research during this period consisted primarily of the following: Data taking with the MARK II detector at the SLC at SLAC and construction of a silicon vertex detector for the MARK II. This effort included substantial work on commissioning of the SLC accelerator. Preparation of the SLD experiment for the SLC, and initial data taking with this experiment. Participation in the ALEPH physics program at LEP at CERN in Geneva, with an emphasis on its silicon vertex detector. Analysis of data collected with the MARK III experiment at the SPEAR accelerator at SLAC. Electronics development for the leading proton spectrometer for the ZEUS experiment at DESY in Hamburg. Design, testing and physics studies for a silicon tracker for the SSC. Theoretical physics program emphasizing phenomenology, Higgs physics, supersymmetry, and some issues in cosmology

  5. Algae Biofuels Collaborative Project: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-371

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this project is to advance biofuels research on algal feedstocks and NREL's role in the project is to explore novel liquid extraction methods, gasification and pyrolysis as means to produce fuels from algae. To that end several different extraction methods were evaluated and numerous gasification and pyrolysis conditions were explored. It was found that mild hydrothermal treatment is a promising means to improve the extraction and conversion of lipids from algae over those produced by standard extraction methods. The algae were essentially found to gasify completely at a fairly low temperature of 750 degrees C in the presence of oxygen. Pyrolysis from 300-550 degrees C showed sequential release of phytene hydrocarbons, glycerides, and aromatics as temperature was increased. It appears that this has potential to release the glycerides from the non-fatty acid groups present in the polar lipids to produce a cleaner lipid. Further research is needed to quantify the pyrolysis and gasification yields, analyze the liquids produced and to test strategies for removing organic-nitrogen byproducts produced because of the high protein content of the feed. Possible strategies include use of high-lipid/low-protein algae or the use of catalytic pyrolysis.

  6. Photophysics of alloxazines on cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Marek; Sikorska, Ewa; Khmelinskii, Igor V; Gonzalez-Moreno, Rafael; Bourdelande, José L; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander

    2002-09-01

    We report the UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and transient absorption spectra of selected methylalloxazines adsorbed on cellulose from a polar solvent. The ground-state properties of these probe molecules in the cellulose matrix are similar to those in polar protic solvents. Fluorescence decay data allowed identification of three emitting species for every molecule studied, excluding 1-methyllumichrome which lacks the capacity to rearrange into an isoalloxazinic form. The short-lived emission component was attributed to the neutral form of the molecule, and the two longer-lived components were assigned to the two distinct deprotonated monoanionic forms resulting from dissociation at the respective N(3) and N(1) nitrogen atoms. The two monoanions coexist due to their very similar pKa, values. Transient absorption experiments detected two species created by the laser pulse in these systems. The short-lived species was identified as the triplet excited state, and the long-lived species as the semireduced radical, formed by hydrogen atom or proton transfer from the glycosidic unit to the alloxazine carbonyl group. PMID:12665311

  7. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  8. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  9. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  10. Elements of power plant design for inertial fusion energy. Final report of a coordinated research project 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two major approaches in fusion energy research: magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). The basic physics of IFE (compression and ignition of small fuel pellets containing deuterium and tritium) is being increasingly understood. Based on recent advances by individual countries, IFE has reached a stage at which benefits could be obtained from a coordinated approach in the form of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Elements of Power Plant Design for Inertial Fusion Energy. This CRP helped Member States to promote the development of plasma/fusion technology transfer and to emphasize safety and environmental advantages of fusion energy. The CRP was focused on interface issues including those related to, - the driver/target interface (e.g. focusing and beam uniformity required by the target), - the driver/chamber interface (e.g. final optics and magnets protection and shielding), - and the target/chamber interface (e.g. target survival during injection, target positioning and tracking in the chamber). The final report includes an assessment of the state of the art of the technologies required for an IFE power plant (drivers, chambers, targets) and systems integration as presented and evaluated by members of the CRP. Additional contributions by cost free invited experts to the final RCM are included. The overall objective of this CRP was to foster the inertial fusion energy development by improving international cooperation. The variety of contributions compiled in this TECDOC reflects, that the goal of stimulating the exchange of knowledge was well achieved. Further the CRP led to the creation of a network, which not only exchanged their scientific results, but also developed healthy professional relations and strong mutual interest in the work of the group members

  11. Bulk hydrogen analysis, using neutrons. Final report of the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the Second Co-ordination Meting (RCM) of the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) were to report on and review progress against the work programme set at the beginning of the CRP and to discuss the work plans for the second half of the programme. In many cases hydrogen is required to be measured in a bulk medium rather than merely at a surface. For this reason neutrons are used due to their high penetrating power in dense material. In addition, the mass attenuation coefficient for neutrons in hydrogen is significantly larger than for all other elements, meaning that neutrons have a higher probability of interacting with hydrogen than with other elements in the sample matrix. Neutrons have been used in the following areas: Fast Neutron Transmission, Scattering and Activation Technique; Digital Neutron Imaging; Hydrogen Detection by Epithermal Neutrons; Microscopic Behaviour of Hydrogen in Bulk Materials

  12. Amorphous silicon research. Final technical report, 13 September 1994--28 February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, R.; Carlson, D.; Chen, L.; Ganguly, G.; He, M.; Lin, G.; Middya, R.; Skibo, S.; Wood, G. [Solarex, Newtown, PA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The Solarex research and development program has focused for the last few years on developing a high-performance amorphous silicon tandem process and on scaling it up to large areas. Significant progress has been made in several areas: (1) improved understanding of the light-induced degradation of amorphous silicon alloys, (2) the processing time for tandem device structures has been reduced by 21%, (3) the feedstock gas utilization has been increased by 30%, (4) stabilized conversion efficiencies of more than 8% have been demonstrated in 4-ft{sup 2} tandem modules made in a pilot production mode, and (4) the tandem module process has been transferred to a Solarex manufacturing plant in Virginia that is capable of producing 10 MW of 8.6-ft{sup 2} tandem modules per year.

  13. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  14. Biomedical research with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Final report, February 1977-March 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The period covered by this report coincides with the advent of positron emission tomography. A commercial version of Dr. Gordon Brownell's PC-II whole-body PET was on loan from King Faisal Hospital and Research Center of Saudi Arabia to our laboratory for clinical evaluation from August 1978, until May 1981. Our use of it is reflected in 11 papers and a book chapter. Since then we have to a large extent redirected our work to projects and methods for which 3-dimensional quantitative imaging is not essential. While acquisition of a state-of-the-art, whole-body PET remains a major long-range objective for the Laboratory, it is by no means sine qua non; our HPLC studies of tumor metabolism and multiple indicator, dynamic gamma camera studies of tissue transport would remain high priorities even if we had a PET system. 96 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Summary of research on microbiological processes. International Energy Agency Subtask D, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  16. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental control technology. Final technical monthly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block. A second phase of the lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG) was also conducted simultaneously on the Pilot System this month. This month the ECTC was off-line from 6/9 through 6/19 to complete a Facility retrofit project. During this brief outage, modifications were made to the ECTC Flue Gas Handling System to enhance the facility capabilities, and to prepare for future High Velocity Wet FGD Testing. On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the low temperature performance testing resumed this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the new SCR catalysts.

  17. Fluctuations of quasars and other astronomical sources: final report on New Research Initiatives Program W-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Research Initiatives Program W-210 produced a number of scientific results, publications, colloquia, and talks. Investigations under this program dealt with power spectra of fluctuating light sources, the apparent expansion rates of astronomical sources exploding at relativistic speed, the limits on fluctuation rates of such expanding (and nonexpanding) light sources, and related matters. Probably the most important result was a study of the time history of such an exploding light source, which showed that a widely held belief that unusually rapid fluctuations of light output would be produced in this case is not correct. This result has an important bearing on the interpretation of the redshifts of quasars and BL Lac objects, indicating that cosmological distance is very difficult to reconcile with the observations of rapid variations of luminosity. These results, and the power-spectrum results, are also of considerable interest in the study of astronomical x-ray sources. A list of publications is included

  18. Final report for the protocol extensions for ATM Security Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarman, T.D.; Pierson, L.G.; Brenkosh, J.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    This is the summary report for the Protocol Extensions for Asynchronous Transfer Mode project, funded under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. During this one-year effort, techniques were examined for integrating security enhancements within standard ATM protocols, and mechanisms were developed to validate these techniques and to provide a basic set of ATM security assurances. Based on our experience during this project, recommendations were presented to the ATM Forum (a world-wide consortium of ATM product developers, service providers, and users) to assist with the development of security-related enhancements to their ATM specifications. As a result of this project, Sandia has taken a leading role in the formation of the ATM Forum`s Security Working Group, and has gained valuable alliances and leading-edge experience with emerging ATM security technologies and protocols.

  19. Seismic safety review mission Almaty WWR 10 MW research reactor Almaty, Kazakhstan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the request of the government of Kazakhstan and within the scope of the TC project KAZ/0/004, a seismic safety review mission was conducted in Almaty, 8-19 May 1995 for the WWR 10 Mw research reactor. This review followed the fact finding mission which visited Almaty in November 1993 together with an INSARR mission. At that time some information regarding the seismotectonic setting of the site as well as the seismic capacity of the facility was obtained. This document presents the results of further work carried out on both the issues. It discusses technical session findings on geology, seismology, structures and equipments. In the end conclusions and recommendations of the mission are given. 4 refs, figs, tabs, 18 photos

  20. Laboratory directed research and development on disposal of plutonium recovered from weapons. FY1994 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was conceived as a multi-year plan to study the use of mixed plutonium oxide-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel in existing nuclear reactors. Four areas of investigation were originally proposed: (1) study reactor physics including evaluation of control rod worth and power distribution during normal operation and transients; (2) evaluate accidents focusing upon the reduced control rod worth and reduced physical properties of PuO2; (3) assess the safeguards required during fabrication and use of plutonium bearing fuel assemblies; and (4) study public acceptance issues associated with using material recovered from weapons to fuel a nuclear reactor. First year accomplishments are described. Appendices contain 2 reports entitled: development and validation of advanced computational capability for MOX fueled ALWR assembly designs; and long-term criticality safety concerns associated with weapons plutonium disposition