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Sample records for cellulosic hydrolysate toxicity

  1. Effect of cooking temperature on the crystallinity of acid hydrolysed-oil palm cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthi, Fatin Afifah Binti Ahmad; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2014-09-01

    In this research, we studied the effect of acid hydrolysis temperature on the crystallinity of cellulose produced from empty fruit bunch (EFB). The hydrolysis temperature was studied from 120 to 140 °C at a fixed time and sulfuric acid, H2SO4 concentration which were 1 h and 1% (v/v) respectively. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was carried out to measure the crystallinity of cellulose produced at varying hydrolysis temperatures. During hydrolysis, the amorphous region of α-cellulose was removed and the crystalline region was obtained. Percentage of crystallinity (CrI) for acid hydrolysed cellulose at 120, 130 and 140 °C were 54.21, 50.59 and 50.55 % respectively. Morphological studies using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that acid hydrolysis defibrilised to microfibrils in α-cellulose. The extraction process to produce α-cellulose has also been successfully carried out as the impurities at the outer surface, lignin and hemicellulose were removed. These findings were supported by the disappearance of peaks at 1732, 1512 and 1243 cm-1 on Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of α-cellulose. Similar peaks were identified in both the commercial microcrystalline cellulose (C-MCC) and acid hydrolysed cellulose (H-EFB), indicating the effectiveness of heat-catalysed acid hydrolysis.

  2. Effects of Ca(OH)(2) treatments ("overliming") on the composition and toxicity of bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A; Rodriguez, M E; York, S W; Preston, J F; Ingram, L O

    2000-09-01

    Hemicellulose syrups from dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysates of hemicellulose contain inhibitors that prevent efficient fermentation by yeast or bacteria. It is well known that the toxicity of these hydrolysate syrups can be ameliorated by optimized "overliming" with Ca(OH)(2). We have investigated the optimization of overliming treatments for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysates (primarily pentose sugars) using recombinant Escherichia coli LY01 as the biocatalyst. A comparison of composition before and after optimal overliming revealed a substantial reduction in furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and three unidentified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peaks. Organic acids (acetic, formic, levulinic) were not affected. Similar changes have been reported after overliming of spruce hemicellulose hydrolysates (Larsson et al., 1999). Our studies further demonstrated that the extent of furan reduction correlated with increasing fermentability. However, furan reduction was not the sole cause for reduced toxicity. After optimal overliming, bagasse hydrolysate was rapidly and efficiently fermented (>90% yield) by LY01. During these studies, titration, and conductivity were found to be in excellent agreement as methods to estimate sulfuric acid content. Titration was also found to provide an estimate of total organic acids in hydrolysate, which agreed well with the sum of acetic, levulinic, and formic acids obtained by HPLC. Titration of acids, measurement of pH before and after treatment, and furan analyses are proposed as relatively simple methods to monitor the reproducibility of hydrolysate preparations and the effectiveness of overliming treatments. PMID:10898862

  3. Hurdle Effect of Antimicrobial Activity Achieved by Time Differential Releasing of Nisin and Chitosan Hydrolysates from Bacterial Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hui-Ling; Lin, Shih-Bin; Chen, Li-Chen; Chen, Hui-Huang

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the combined antimicrobial effect of nisin and chitosan hydrolysates (CHs) by regulating the antimicrobial reaction order of substances due to differential releasing rate from hydroxypropylmethylcellulose-modified bacterial cellulose (HBC). The minimum inhibitory concentration of nisin against Staphylococcus aureus and that of CHs against Escherichia coli were 6 IU and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Hurdle and additive effects in antimicrobial tests were observed when nisin was used 6 h before CH treatment against S. aureus; similar effects were observed when CH was used before nisin treatment against E. coli. Simultaneously combined treatment of nisin and CHs exhibited the low antimicrobial effect. HBC was then selected as the carrier for the controlled release of nisin and CHs. A 90% inhibition in the growth of S. aureus and E. coli was achieved when 30 IU-nisin-containing HBC and 62.5 μg/mL-CH-containing HBC were used simultaneously. The controlled release of nisin and CHs by using HBC minimized the interaction between nisin and CHs as well as increased the number of microbial targets. PMID:27074534

  4. Bacillus sp. strain P38: an efficient producer of L-lactate from cellulosic hydrolysate, with high tolerance for 2-furfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lili; Wang, Limin; Che, Chengchuan; Yang, Ge; Yu, Bo; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-12-01

    In this study, efficient polymer-grade L-lactic acid production was achieved with the strain Bacillus sp. P38 by using cellulosic hydrolysate as the sole carbon source. In fed-batch fermentation, 180 g L(-1)L-lactic acid was obtained with a volumetric productivity of 2.4 g L(-1)h(-1) and a yield of 0.96 g g(-1) total reducing sugars. No D-isomer of lactic acid was detected in the broth. Strain P38 tolerated up to 10 g L(-1) 2-furfural, and lactate production was sharply inhibited only when the 2-furfural concentration was higher than 6 g L(-1). Moreover, strain P38 also tolerated high concentrations (>6 g L(-1)) of other fermentation inhibitors in cellulosic hydrolysate, such as vanillin and acetic acid, although it was slightly sensitive to formic acid. The efficient L-lactic acid production, combined with high inhibitor tolerance and efficient pentose utilization, indicate that Bacillus sp. P38 is a promising producer of polymer-grade L-lactic acid from cellulosic biomass. PMID:24096283

  5. Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose properties and structure are reviewed, with a primary focus on crystal structure and polymorphy. This focus highlights the conversion from cellulose I to cellulose II, which converts the molecules to being all parallel to each other in the crystal to being antiparallel. This has been co...

  6. Enrichment of Cellulosic Waste Hemp (Cannabis sativa Hurd into Non-Toxic Microfibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinu E. Abraham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a largely available lignocellulose feedstock hemp (Cannabis sativa, obtained as an industrial waste, was used for cellulose extraction. The extraction of cellulose microfibres from hemp biomass was conducted by alkaline treatment and an acidification process. The extracted cellulose microfibres were characterised using Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The viability of the study was determined by growing human fibroblasts on the preparation which resulted in being non-toxic; indicating its potential in preparing biological scaffolds. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose microfibre using cellulase from Trichoderma reesei, a maximum of 909 mg/g of reducing sugars were obtained, which endorses its suitability for biofuel production.

  7. Genotoxicity and toxicity evaluations of ECF cellulose bleaching effluents using the Allium cepa L. test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, O; Yeber, M C; Venegas, W

    2012-08-01

    Toxicity and genotoxicity tests were performed on root cells of Allium cepa in order to evaluate wastewater quality following an ECF cellulose bleaching process. The results revealed a toxic effect of the effluent, with inhibition of meristem growth and generally lower values of metaphase, anaphase and telophase indices at pH 10.5 than pH 7 for all effluent concentrations. The genotoxicity effect was different from the toxic effect given that the micronucleus and the chromosomal aberration tests in anaphase-telophase cells were low over all ranges of the studied effluent concentrations. PMID:22990817

  8. Detection of toxic lignin hydrolysate-related compounds using an inaA::luxCDABE fusion strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siseon; Mitchell, Robert J

    2012-02-20

    Real-time quantitative PCR analyses of Escherichia coli str. BL21(DE3) exposed to 0.5 g/L ferulic and coumaric acid showed that the inaA gene was significantly induced (7.7- and 3.6-fold higher, respectively). Consequently, a transcriptional fusion of the inaA promoter with the luxCDABE operon was constructed and characterized with several compounds identified within hydrolysates. Tests demonstrated that the phenolics were major inducers, while acetic acid and furfural had only a minor or no effect on the inaA expression respectively. Additional tests with mutant E. coli strains found that a marA partially abolished the response while a marB knock-out led to a 2-3-fold higher basal level expression as evidenced by the bioluminescent levels of the cultures. However, a significant induction was seen even in the marA mutant, suggesting some other control mechanism is involved in regulating inaA expression during an exposure to the hydrolysate compounds. Finally, E. coli str. BL21(DE3)/pSP4 was used to analyze a spruce hydrolysate sample. Real-time quantitative PCR showed a 2.8-fold induction of the inaA expression level while the bioluminescence from the exposed culture was 22-fold higher than the control, demonstrating the possible application of this reporter strain to analyze hydrolysates for the presence of fermentation-inhibiting phenolics. PMID:21723341

  9. Removal of toxic indigo blue with integrated biomaterials of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinyi; Bao, Liping; Wei, Yong; Ma, Jiangquan; Kong, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) and chitosan (CS) are successfully combined via amidation, and the obtained product, CMC-CS-A, is used for the adsorption of toxic indigo blue (IB) for the first time. The results of control experiments indicate that the adsorption performance of CMC-CS-A is superior to that of NaCMC, CS, and the composites of NaCMC and CS integrated via electrostatic attractions (CMC-CS-E), which can be attributed to the unique interconnected porous network structure of the as-prepared CMC-CS-A. The mass fraction of CS in the CMC-CS-A is also investigated to achieve the best adsorption of IB, and it reveals that satisfactory removal of IB can be achieved at the CMC-CS-A (50wt%). Important parameters such as contact time, temperature and initial concentration are discussed in detail in this work. Finally, adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics are investigated and compared by using classic models, and the results indicate that the adsorption fits well with the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. It opens a new avenue for the effective and convenient treatment of textile wastewater with integrated natural biopolymers. PMID:27246379

  10. Inhibitory action of the toxic compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion by Candida guilliermondii

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Rogério S.; Mussatto, Solange I.; Roberto, Inês Conceição

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials represent an abundant and inexpensive source of sugars which can be microbiologically converted to industrial products. However, hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for sugars recovery always goes together with the formation of by-products that inhibit the fermentation process. Such by-products include acetic acid, phenolic compounds such as syringaldehyde, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid, among others. These toxic compounds can...

  11. Development and testing of a pilot reactor for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose-containing waste. Entwicklung und Erprobung eines Pilotreaktors fuer die enzymatische Hydrolyse cellulosehaltiger Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchert, A.

    1985-08-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose- and pectin-containing waste materials requires simple reactors and a simple, adaptable technology. The conversion process was studied with a view to reactor design, using a discontinuous trickle-bed reactor and a continuous spiral-shaft reactor, each with a volume of 50 l. Both reactors are based on the tube reactor principle, which had already been tested on a small scale in an earlier project. The substrates were potato pulp, shredded beetroot, and pretreated wheat straw. Enzyme mixtures for these substrates were chosen with a view to achieving good yields within 48 h at the most. The main parameters were the time of residue, temperature, enzyme adsorption and stability, and an experimental procedure with or without partial recirculation of the reaction products.

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates for Growth by Ethanologenic Yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Slomp, R.S.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Punt, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential feedstock for bioethanol production. Biomass hydrolysates, prepared with a procedure including pretreatment and hydrolysis, are considered to be used as fermentation media for microorganisms, such as yeast. During the hydrolysate preparation procedure, toxic co

  13. Egg protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van A.; Beelen, M.J.C.; Wolbers, L.A.M.; Gilst, van W.H.; Buikema, J.H.; Nelissen, J.W.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides egg-protein hydrolysates with DPP-IV inhibitory activity which are particularly suited for the treatment of diabetes. Particularly advantageous is to use hydrolysate of lysozyme for the treatment of diabetes.

  14. Treatment of heterogeneous mixed wastes: Enzyme degradation of cellulosic materials contaminated with hazardous organics and toxic and radioactive metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redirection and downsizing of the US Department of Energy's nuclear weapons complex requires that many facilities be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D). At Los Alamos National Laboratory, much of the low-level radioactive, mixed, and hazardous/chemical waste volume handled by waste management operations was produced by D and D and environmental restoration activities. A combination of technologies--air stripping and biodegradation of volatile organics, enzymatic digestion of cellulosics, and metal ion extraction--was effective in treating a radiologically contaminated heterogeneous paint-stripping waste. Treatment of VOCs using a modified bioreactor avoided radioactive contamination of byproduct biomass and inhibition of biodegradation by toxic metal ions in the waste. Cellulase digestion of bulk cellulose minimized the final solid waste volume by 80%. Moreover, the residue passed TCLP for RCRA metals. Hazardous metals and radioactivity in byproduct sugar solutions were removed using polymer filtration, which employs a combination of water-soluble chelating polymers and ultrafiltration to separate and concentrate metal contaminants. Polymer filtration was used to concentrate RCRA metals and radioactivity into <5% of the original wastewater volume. Permeate solutions had no detectable radioactivity and were below RCRA-allowable discharge limits for Pb and Cr

  15. Acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of a cellulosic exopolysaccharide obtained from sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; De-Oliveira, Ana Cecília A X; De-Carvalho, Rosangela R; Gomes-Carneiro, Maria Regina; Coelho, Deise R; Lima, Salvador Vilar C; Paumgartten, Francisco José R; Aguiar, José Lamartine A

    2016-02-10

    The acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of BC were studied. Cytotoxicity of BC was evaluated in cultured C3A hepatoma cells (HepG2/C3A) using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay. Acute toxicity was tested in adults Wistar rats treated with a single dose of BC. The genotoxicity of BC was evaluated in vivo by the micronucleus assay. BC (0.33-170 μg/mL) added to C3A cell culture medium caused no elevation in LDH release over the background level recorded in untreated cell wells. The treatment with the BC in a single oral dose (2000 mg/kg body weight) caused no deaths or signs of toxicity. BC attenuated CP-induced and inhibition the incidence of MNPCE (female: 46.94%; male: 22.7%) and increased the ratio of PCE/NCE (female: 46.10%; male: 35.25%). There was no alteration in the LDH release in the wells where C3A cells were treated with increasing concentrations of BC compared to the wells where the cells received the cell culture medium only (background of approximately 20% cell death), indicated that in the dose range tested BC was not cytotoxic. BC was not cytotoxic, genotoxic or acutely toxic. BC attenuated CP-induced genotoxic and myelotoxic effects. PMID:26686163

  16. Hydrolytic and Oxidative Mechanisms Involved in Cellulose Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Nutt, Anu

    2006-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of cellulose is an important process in nature. This thesis has focused on the degradation of cellulose by enzymes from two cellulose-degrading fungi, Hypocrea jecorina and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, including both the action of the individual enzymes and their synergistic interplay. The end-preference of cellobiohydrolases on crystalline cellulose was studied. Cellobiohydrolases belonging to glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 7 were found to hydrolyse cellulose proce...

  17. The dual effects of carboxymethyl cellulose on the colloidal stability and toxicity of nanoscale zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haoran; Xie, Yankai; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Liang, Jie; He, Qi; Zhao, Feng; Zeng, Yalan; Wu, Yanan

    2016-02-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles are usually modified with surface coating to mitigate the particle stability in water during the environmental application. However, the surface coating may not only influence the particle stabilization but also the particle cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the dual effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the colloidal stability and cytotoxicity of NZVI towards gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and discussed the interrelation between particle stability and cytotoxicity. The effect of CMC concentration, ionic strength (Ca(2+)) and aging treatment on the particle cytotoxicity were also examined. Specifically, the aqueous stability of NZVI suspensions with CMC ratio dose-dependently strengthened within 1 h. The inactivation of E. coli by bare NZVI was significant and concentration- and time-dependent. On the contrary, an increasing reduction in cytotoxicity of NZVI with CMC ratio increasing was observed, even though the particles became more dispersed. TEM analysis demonstrates the membrane disruption and the cellular internalization of nanoparticles after exposure of E. coli to NZVI. However, in the case of CMC-modified NZVI (CNZVI), the bacterial cell wall displays an outer shell of a layer of nanoparticles attached around the outer membrane, but the cell membrane was kept intact. The presence of Ca(2+) can either increase or decrease the cytotoxicity of NZVI and CNZVI, depending on the concentration. The aged NZVI and CNZVI particles did not seem to present obvious bactericidal effect due to the transformation of Fe(0) to the less toxic or non-toxic iron oxides, as indicated by the XRD analysis. PMID:26519799

  18. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment (e.g. radiation influence and influence of lyes) are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given

  19. Electrochemical detoxification of phenolic compounds in lignocellulosic hydrolysate for Clostridium fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Min; Min, Kyoungseon; Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Yunje; Han, Sung Ok; Um, Youngsoon

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is being preferred as a feedstock in the biorefinery, but lignocellulosic hydrolysate usually contains inhibitors against microbial fermentation. Among these inhibitors, phenolics are highly toxic to butyric acid-producing and butanol-producing Clostridium even at a low concentration. Herein, we developed an electrochemical polymerization method to detoxify phenolic compounds in lignocellulosic hydrolysate for efficient Clostridium fermentation. After the electrochemical detoxification for 10h, 78%, 77%, 82%, and 94% of p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, and syringaldehyde were removed, respectively. Furthermore, 71% of total phenolics in rice straw hydrolysate were removed without any sugar-loss. Whereas the cell growth and metabolite production of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Clostridium beijerinckii were completely inhibited in un-detoxified hydrolysate, those in detoxifying rice straw hydrolysate were recovered to 70-100% of the control cultures. The electrochemical detoxification method described herein provides an efficient strategy for producing butanol and butyric acid through Clostridium fermentation with lignocellulosic hydrolysate. PMID:25863199

  20. Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been suggested that protein hydrolysates providing mainly di- and tripeptides are superior to intact (whole proteins and free amino acids in terms of skeletal muscle protein anabolism. This review provides a critical examination of protein hydrolysate studies conducted in healthy humans with special reference to sports nutrition. The effects of protein hydrolysate ingestion on blood amino acid levels, muscle protein anabolism, body composition, exercise performance and muscle glycogen resynthesis are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of sugarcane bagasse acid hydrolysate treatments for xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgel, P.V.; Mancilha, I.M. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos; Furlan, S.A.; Martinez, S.E.R. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    1998-09-01

    Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolysate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolysate recovery (in volume) is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH){sub 3} and NaOH showed the best hydrolysate recovery (87.5%), while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolysate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH){sub 3} and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolysate. (author)

  2. Xylitol bioproduction in hemicellulosic hydrolysate obtained from sorghum forage biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Danielle; Sene, Luciane; Variz, Daniela Inês Loreto Saraiva; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the biotechnological production of xylitol from sorghum forage biomass. The yeast Candida guilliermondii was cultivated in hemicellulosic hydrolysates obtained from biomass of three sorghum varieties (A, B, and C). First, the biomass was chemically characterized and subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis to obtain the hemicellulosic hydrolysates which were vacuum-concentrated and detoxified with activated charcoal. The hemicellulosic hydrolysates (initial pH 5.5) were supplemented with nutrients, and fermentations were conducted in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL medium, under 200 rpm, at 30 °C for 96 h. Fermentations were evaluated by determining the parameters xylitol yield (Y P/S ) and productivity (QP), as well as the activities of the enzymes xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). There was no significant difference among the three varieties with respect to the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, although differences were found in the hydrolysate fermentability. Maximum xylitol yield and productivity values for variety A were 0.35 g/g and 0.16 g/L.h(-1), respectively. It was coincident with XR (0.25 U/mg prot) and XDH (0.17 U/mg prot) maximum activities. Lower values were obtained for varieties B and C, which were 0.25 and 0.17 g/g for yield and 0.12 and 0.063 g/L.h(-1) for productivity. PMID:25672324

  3. A novel cellulose hydrogel prepared from its ionic liquid solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lu; LIN ZhangBi; YANG Xiao; WAN ZhenZhen; CUI ShuXun

    2009-01-01

    A novel cellulose hydrogel is prepared by regenerating cellulose from its ionic liquid solution. The transparency cellulose hydrogel presents a good chemical stability and an acceptable mechanical property. This non-toxic cellulose hydrogel should be biocompatibie and may be useful in the future as a biomaterial.

  4. Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

  5. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification.

  6. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li-Hong; Tang, Yong; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification. PMID:25133211

  7. Recycling of cellulosic fibers by enzymatic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, K M; Dadashian, F; Montazer, M

    2012-02-01

    In this research, enzymatic treatment as an environmental friendly process has been used for recycling process of old cellulosic wastes such as cotton, viscose, and lyocell. Cellulase hydrolyses cellulosic chains and shortens cellulosic fibers. This study investigates to detect the optimum enzyme concentration and time of treatments for suitable changes of length and weight loss. The main purposes of this article are shortening of cellulosic fibers and evaluating of enzymatic treatment in different kind of cellulosic fibers. According to the data of experiments, with the increase of enzyme concentration and the treatment time, the length and weight loss percentage of the cellulosic fibers has been decreased. The length and weight loss percentage of treated viscose is more than that of lyocell and cotton fibers. Optimized condition, reaction time, and enzyme concentration have been determined by mean length of treated cellulosic samples. Suitable longitudinal distribution of fiber for papermaking industries is in the range of 0 to 4 mm. Optimum enzyme concentration and treatment time for recycling cotton, lyocell, and viscose fibers are 2% and 48 h for cotton and lyocell and 0.5% and 48 h for viscose, respectively. According to the data of experiment, the length of treated fibers is appropriate for its usage as a raw material in papermaking industries. PMID:22161212

  8. BIOCONVERSION OF WATER HYACINTH HYDROLYSATE INTO ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Bandopadhyay Mukhopadhyay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The fast growing aquatic weed water hyacinth, which is available almost year-round in the tropics and subtropics, was utilized as the chief source of cellulose for production of fuel ethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Fungal cellulases produced on-site by utilizing acid-alkali pretreated water hyacinth as the substrate were used as the crude enzyme source for hydrolysis of identically pretreated biomass. Four different modes of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were trialed in the present study for optimization of the yield of ethanol. Two common yeasts viz., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pachysolen tannophilus, were used for fermentation of hexose and pentose sugars in the hydrolysate. Significant enhancement of concentration (8.3 g/L and yield (0.21 g/g of ethanol was obtained through a prefermentation hydrolysis-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PH-SSF process, over the other three processes viz., separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, and single batch bioconversion (SBB by utilizing fungal culture broth with and without filtration as crude enzyme source.

  9. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26863012

  10. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Jiang

    Full Text Available An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH, condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  11. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26863012

  12. Use of UV absorbance To monitor furans in dilute acid hydrolysates of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A; Rodriguez, M E; York, S W; Preston, J F; Ingram, L O

    2000-01-01

    A simple method based on UV spectra was developed for the estimation of total furans (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) in hemicellulose hydrolysates. UV spectra of hemicellulose hydrolysate contained a single dominant peak at around 278 nm. Approximately two-thirds of this peak can be attributed to furan absorbance (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural). At 284 nm, both furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural have equal absorbance on a weight basis. A comparison of HPLC determinations for different samples of hydrolysate was used to develop a simple equation that allows the accurate prediction of total furans based on the difference in absorbance at 284 and 320 nm. This method may prove useful for quality control applications during the production of biomass syrups using a dilute acid hydrolysis process and during treatments for the amelioration of toxins. Although furans represent only a portion of the toxins present in hemicellulose hydrolysates, the abundance of furans appears to serve as a useful marker to predict relative toxicity. PMID:10933839

  13. Cellulose is not just cellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidayat, Budi Juliman; Felby, Claus; Johansen, Katja S.;

    2012-01-01

    Most secondary plant cell walls contain irregular regions known as dislocations or slip planes. Under industrial biorefining conditions dislocations have recently been shown to play a key role during the initial phase of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in plant cell walls. In this review we...... not regions where free cellulose ends are more abundant than in the bulk cell wall. In more severe cases cracks between fibrils form at dislocations and it is possible that the increased accessibility that these cracks give is the reason why hydrolysis of cellulose starts at these locations. If acid...

  14. Effect of alkali pretreatment on degradation of some cellulosic wastes by Aspergillus sydowii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghareib, M. (Faculty of Education and Faculty of Science, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)); Youssef, K.A. (Faculty of Education and Faculty of Science, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)); Nour El Dein, M.M. (Faculty of Education and Faculty of Science, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt))

    1992-01-01

    Alkali pretreatment of pods of bean, rice plant straw, wheat bran, sugar-cane bagasse and sawdust enhanced their degradation by Aspergillus sydowii (Bainier and Sartory) Thom and Church. The fungus could produce 0.153 g dry mycelium when grown on 100 ml of 10% NaOH pretreated sawdust-containing medium. Alkali hydrolysates were assimilated better than the cellulosic pulps of different wastes. Maximal growth amounting to 0.239 g/100 ml dry biomass was produced on hydrolysate of 10% NaOH pretreasted sawdust for 30 minutes. Highest accumulation of different cellulases and pectinase was occurred on cellulosic pulps-containing media. Good xylanolytic activity has been achieved on both cellulosic pulps and hydrolysates media. Cellulases, xylanase and pectinase of A. sydowii were proved to be an inducible enzymes. (orig.)

  15. Identification of furfural as a key toxin in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and evolution of a tolerant yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Dominik; Sauer, Uwe

    2008-11-01

    The production of fuel ethanol from low-cost lignocellulosic biomass currently suffers from several limitations. One of them is the presence of inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates that are released during pre-treatment. These compounds inhibit growth and hamper the production of ethanol, thereby affecting process economics. To delineate the effects of such complex mixtures, we conducted a chemical analysis of four different real-world lignocellulosic hydrolysates and determined their toxicological effect on yeast. By correlating the potential inhibitor abundance to the growth-inhibiting properties of the corresponding hydrolysates, we identified furfural as an important contributor to hydrolysate toxicity for yeast. Subsequently, we conducted a targeted evolution experiment to improve growth behaviour of the half industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TMB3400 in the hydrolysates. After about 300 generations, representative clones from these evolved populations exhibited significantly reduced lag phases in medium containing the single inhibitor furfural, but also in hydrolysate-supplemented medium. Furthermore, these strains were able to grow at concentrations of hydrolysates that effectively killed the parental strain and exhibited significantly improved bioconversion characteristics under industrially relevant conditions. The improved resistance of our evolved strains was based on their capacity to remain viable in a toxic environment during the prolonged, furfural induced lag phase. PMID:21261870

  16. Properties of fish protein hydrolysates: comparison of commercial and laboratorymade hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Arne Magne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine how addition of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) influences the functional and antioxidative properties of fish calces.Hydrolysates from cod backbone were prepared in the laboratory and compared to hydrolysates from commercial producers in Denmark, USA and New Zealand. Two batches of hydrolysates were prepared enzymatically by mincing the backbones and digesting them with the endo-protease Protamex for either 20 or 50 minutes at 50°C. A moderate increase in ...

  17. Protein hydrolysates are avoided by herbivores but not by omnivores in two-choice preference tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Field

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N = 16-18/species using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat. Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N = 10 were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive

  18. Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol. PMID:21251816

  19. Effect of selected aldehydes found in the corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate on the growth and xylitol fermentation of Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Tang, Pingwah; Fan, Xiaoguang; Yuan, Qipeng

    2013-01-01

    The effects of four aldehydes (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillin and syringaldehyde), which were found in the corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate, on the growth and xylitol fermentation of Candida tropicalis were investigated. The results showed that vanillin was the most toxic aldehyde for the xylitol fermentation, followed by syringaldehyde, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Moreover, the binary combination tests revealed that furfural amplified the toxicity of other aldehydes and the toxicities of other binary combinations without furfural were simply additive. Based on the fermentation experiments, it was demonstrated that the inhibition of aldehydes could be alleviated by prolonging the fermentation incubation, increasing the initial cell concentration, enhancing the initial pH value and minimizing the furfural levels in the hydrolysate evaporation process. The strategies that we proposed to suppress the inhibitory effects of the aldehydes successfully avoided the complicated and costly detoxifications. Our findings could be potentially adopted for the industrial xylitol fermentation from hydrolysates. PMID:23843370

  20. Design of a single chambered microbial electrolytic cell reactor for production of biohydrogen from rice straw hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratima; Parkhey, Piyush

    2015-06-01

    Rice straw was pretreated using a microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment method. Cellulose recovery was approximately 82 %. This material was hydrolysed in an optimized enzymatic saccharification reaction using cellulase from Lysinibacillus sphaericus. This resulted in saccharification of 49 % of cellulosic biomass into glucose. A single chambered microbial electrolytic cell reactor of volume 2l was built using acrylic plastic sheets with graphite sheet as anode and a stainless-steel mesh as cathode. Shewanella putrefaciens was used as exoelectrogen to oxidize rice straw hydrolysate in the reactor for electrohydrogenesis. The maximum H2 yield obtained was 801 ml H2 g(-1) COD removal. Coulombic efficiency of 88 %, cathodic H2 recovery of 58 % and total H2 recovery of 51 % with an energy efficiency of 74 % were recorded. PMID:25650347

  1. Development of a high-throughput method to evaluate the impact of inhibitory compounds from lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the growth of Zymomonas mobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franden, Mary Ann; Pienkos, Philip T; Zhang, Min

    2009-12-01

    Overcoming the effects of hydrolysate toxicity towards ethanologens is a key technical barrier in the biochemical conversion process for biomass feedstocks to ethanol. Despite its importance, the complexity of the hydrolysate toxicity phenomena and the lack of systematic studies, analysis and tools surrounding this issue have blocked a full understanding of relationships involving toxic compounds in hydrolysates and their effects on ethanologen growth and fermentation. In this study, we developed a quantitative, high-throughput biological growth assay using an automated turbidometer to obtain detailed inhibitory kinetics for individual compounds present in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate. Information about prolonged lag time and final cell densities can also be obtained. The effects of furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), acetate and ethanol on growth rate and final cell densities of Zymomonas mobilis 8b on glucose are presented. This method was also shown to be of value in toxicity studies of hydrolysate itself, despite the highly colored nature of this material. Using this approach, we can generate comprehensive inhibitory profiles with many individual compounds and develop models that predict and examine toxic effects in the complex mixture of hydrolysates, leading to the development of improved pretreatment and conditioning processes as well as fermentation organisms. PMID:19683550

  2. Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp. were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%, followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%. Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions.

  3. Pre-treatment of ligno-cellulose with biological acid recycling (the Biosulfurol process)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, van J.W.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Bakker, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    A biomass pretreatment process is being developed based on contacting ligno-cellulosic biomass with 70% sulphuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis by adding water. In this process, the hydrolysate can be fermented yielding ethanol, while the sulphuric acid is partly recovered by anion-selective membra

  4. Separation of FFA from Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Hydrolysate by Means of Membrane Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-01-01

    Different types of commercial porous and non-porous polymeric membranes have been investigated for their capabilities to separate free fatty acids (FFA) from hydrolysate of partially hydrogenated soybean oil. A regenerated cellulose (RC, PLAC) membrane exhibited the most prominent difference...... in rejection between FFA and glycerides and the highest flux (27 kg h−1 m−2) in hydrolysate ethanol solution. The results also showed that, besides the pore size of membrane, the membrane flux depended largely on the property matching between membrane and solvent, as observed (40 kg h−1 m−2) flux was achieved...... with methanol but no flux detected with hexane for PLAC. The polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, NTR-729 HF) and Polyamide (PA, NTR-759HR) membranes gave the second and third highest flux (10.1 and 5.7 kg h−1 m−2, respectively), where solute rejections for NTR-759HR were 95.9% for triacylglycerols (TG), 83...

  5. Isolation of microorganisms for biological detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M J; Nichols, N N; Dien, B S; Moreno, J; Bothast, R J

    2004-03-01

    Acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass releases furan and phenolic compounds, which are toxic to microorganisms used for subsequent fermentation. In this study, we isolated new microorganisms for depletion of inhibitors in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates. A sequential enrichment strategy was used to isolate microorganisms from soil. Selection was carried out in a defined mineral medium containing a mixture of ferulic acid (5 mM), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 15 mM), and furfural (20 mM) as the carbon and energy sources, followed by an additional transfer into a corn stover hydrolysate (CSH) prepared using dilute acid. Subsequently, based on stable growth on these substrates, six isolates--including five bacteria related to Methylobacterium extorquens, Pseudomonas sp, Flavobacterium indologenes, Acinetobacter sp., Arthrobacter aurescens, and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria--were chosen. All six isolates depleted toxic compounds from defined medium, but only C. ligniaria C8 (NRRL 30616) was effective at eliminating furfural and 5-HMF from CSH. C. ligniaria NRRL 30616 may be useful in developing a bioprocess for inhibitor abatement in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. PMID:12908085

  6. Combining treatments to improve the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Ryan; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory side products from dilute acid pretreatment is a major challenge for conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. Six strategies to detoxify sugarcane hydrolysates were investigated alone, and in combinations (vacuum evaporation of volatiles, high pH treatment with ammonia, laccase, bisulfite, microaeration, and inoculum size). High pH was the most beneficial single treatment, increasing the minimum inhibitory concentration (measured by ethanol production) from 15% (control) to 70% hydrolysate. Combining treatments provided incremental improvements, consistent with different modes of action and multiple inhibitory compounds. Screening toxicity using tube cultures proved to be an excellent predictor of relative performance in pH-controlled fermenters. A combination of treatments (vacuum evaporation, laccase, high pH, bisulfite, microaeration) completely eliminated all inhibitory activity present in hydrolysate. With this combination, fermentation of hemicellulose sugars (90% hydrolysate) to ethanol was complete within 48 h, identical to the fermentation of laboratory xylose (50 g/L) in AM1 mineral salts medium (without hydrolysate). PMID:25864026

  7. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. PMID:27090191

  8. Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic materials for biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Wang, Yong-Zhong; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Xu, Teng-Fei

    2013-05-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are commonly used in bio-H2 production for the sustainable energy resource development as they are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. In the process of the bio-H2 production, the pretreated lignocellulosic materials are firstly converted to monosaccharides by enzymolysis and then to H2 by fermentation. Since the structures of lignocellulosic materials are rather complex, the hydrolysates vary with the used materials. Even using the same lignocellulosic materials, the hydrolysates also change with different pretreatment methods. It has been shown that the appropriate hydrolysate compositions can dramatically improve the biological activities and bio-H2 production performances. Over the past decades, hydrolysis with respect to different lignocellulosic materials and pretreatments has been widely investigated. Besides, effects of the hydrolysates on the biohydrogen yields have also been examined. In this review, recent studies on hydrolysis as well as their effects on the biohydrogen production performance are summarized. PMID:23710634

  9. Biofunctional Properties of Enzymatic Squid Meat Hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-01-01

    Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 μg/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 μg/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics. PMID:25866752

  10. WHEY PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES: TECHNO-FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Sumaira H. Khan

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the techno-functional perspective of whey protein hydrolysates. Molecular changes occurring during protein hydrolysis result in modified techno-functional behavior of the hydrolysates compared to the intact protein such as altered solubility, viscosity, sensory properties, and emulsion and foam properties. It plays important role as an antioxidant to help increase body immune system. Whey components have ability to improve the host antioxidant defense and lower oxidant bu...

  11. Cellulose based conductive polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Haishu

    2015-01-01

    Conductive fibers show potential applications in different areas. In this thesis, cellulose and its derivatives, including carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate as well as methyl cellulose were used to produce fibers via wet spinning. Different conductive materials were also introduced in an attempt to obtain cellulose-derived conductive fibers. Different conductive fillers (Zelec, carbon black, conductive polymers) were evaluated. Among them, PEDOT and PPy conductive polymers showed...

  12. Xylitol production from wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate: hydrolysate detoxification and carbon source used for inoculum preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças Almeida; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

    2008-01-01

    Wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used for xylitol bioproduction. The use of a xylose-containing medium to grow the inoculum did not favor the production of xylitol in the hydrolysate, which was submitted to a previous detoxification treatment with 2.5% activated charcoal for optimized removal of inhibitory compounds. PMID:24031226

  13. Xylitol production from wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate: hydrolysate detoxification and carbon source used for inoculum preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças Almeida; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

    2008-01-01

    Wheat straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was used for xylitol bioproduction. The use of a xylose-containing medium to grow the inoculum did not favor the production of xylitol in the hydrolysate, which was submitted to a previous detoxification treatment with 2.5% activated charcoal for optimized removal of inhibitory compounds.

  14. Antioxidant activity of Fish Protein Hydrolysates from Sardinella longiceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEEVITHA K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sardinella longiceps were hydrolysed with the different concentration of proteolytic enzymes trypsin to obtain peptides with antioxidant activity. The degree of hydrolysis and yield of hydrolysates were found increasing with increasing the concentration of enzyme. The antioxidant activities of hydrolysates were investigated through various assays. The hydrolysate exhibited the higher reducing power capability. The hydrolysates has shown a higher scavenging activity against DPPH, Superoxide, hydroxyl radical and metal chelating activity at the maximum concentration of 5mg/ml. The finding of this study reveals that, protein hydrolysates produced has potent antioxidant properties and it could be used as a food supplement in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Biochemical and functional characterisation of casein and whey protein hydrolysates.

    OpenAIRE

    Ven, van de, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Whey protein and sodium caseinate were hydrolysed with commercially available enzyme preparations. The resulting hydrolysates were characterised using several analytical characterisation methods and by determination of several functional properties. Subsequently, correlations between the biochemical characteristics themselves and between biochemical and functional properties were studied using multivariate regression analysis.Biochemical characteristics of hydrolysates were determined using u...

  16. Biofunctional Properties of Enzymatic Squid Meat Hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-01-01

    Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 μg/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I...

  17. WHEY PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES: TECHNO-FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira H. Khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the techno-functional perspective of whey protein hydrolysates. Molecular changes occurring during protein hydrolysis result in modified techno-functional behavior of the hydrolysates compared to the intact protein such as altered solubility, viscosity, sensory properties, and emulsion and foam properties. It plays important role as an antioxidant to help increase body immune system. Whey components have ability to improve the host antioxidant defense and lower oxidant burden which is emerging as a premier contribution to population health. The utilization potential of whey and its derivates in many food products, including dairy products, nutritional beverages and prepared foods is highlighted.

  18. Hydrothermal hydrolysis of starch with CO2 and detoxification of the hydrolysates with activated carbon for bio-hydrogen fermentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco, RL; Redwood, MD; Leeke, G; A Bahari; Santos, RCD; Macaskie, LE

    2012-01-01

    The imminent use of hydrogen as an energy vector establishes the need for sustainable production technologies based on renewable resources. Starch is an abundant renewable resource suitable for bio-hydrogen generation. It was hypothesised that starch hydrolysates from a large (250 mL) hydrothermal reactor could support bioH2 fermentation without inhibition by toxic byproducts. Starch was hydrolysed at high concentrations (40 200 g.L-1) in hot compressed water (HCW) with CO2 at 30 bar in a...

  19. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  20. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminda Tsouko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  1. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  2. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  3. Cellulose synthase interacting protein: A new factor in cellulose synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ying; Somerville, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth. The great abundance of cellulose places it at the forefront as a primary source of biomass for renewable biofuels. However, the knowledge of how plant cells make cellulose remains very rudimentary. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by hexameric protein complexes, also known as cellulose synthase complexes. The only known components of cellulose synthase complexes are cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins until the re...

  4. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Micklem, Chris N.; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S.; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae. Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology. PMID:27247386

  5. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Abbott, James; Micklem, Chris N; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology. PMID:27247386

  6. Production of nano bacterial cellulose from waste water of candied jujube-processing industry using Acetobacter xylinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Lifen; Hua, Jiachuan; Jia, Shiru; Zhang, Jianfei; Liu, Hao

    2015-04-20

    The work is aimed to investigate the suitability of waste water of candied jujube-processing industry for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinum CGMCC No.2955 and to study the structure properties of bacterial cellulose membranes. After acid pretreatment, the glucose of hydrolysate was higher than that of waste water of candied jujube. The volumetric yield of bacterial cellulose in hydrolysate was 2.25 g/L, which was 1.5-folds of that in waste water of candied jujube. The structures indicated that the fiber size distribution was 3-14 nm in those media with an average diameter being around 5.9 nm. The crystallinity index of BC from pretreatment medium was lower than that of without pretreatment medium and BCs from various media had similar chemical binding. Ammonium citrate was a key factor for improving production yield and the crystallinity index of BC. PMID:25662694

  7. Biotechnological strategies to overcome inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates for ethanol production: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parawira, W; Tekere, M

    2011-03-01

    One of the major challenges faced in commercial production of lignocellulosic bioethanol is the inhibitory compounds generated during the thermo-chemical pre-treatment step of biomass. These inhibitory compounds are toxic to fermenting micro-organisms. The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds formed or released during thermo-chemical pre-treatment step such as acid and steam explosion. This review describes the application and/or effect of biological detoxification (removal of inhibitors before fermentation) or use of bioreduction capability of fermenting yeasts on the fermentability of the hydrolysates. Inhibition of yeast fermentation by the inhibitor compounds in the lignocellulosic hydrolysates can be reduced by treatment with enzymes such as the lignolytic enzymes, for example, laccase and micro-organisms such as Trichoderma reesei, Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616, Trametes versicolor, Pseudomonas putida Fu1, Candida guilliermondii, and Ureibacillus thermosphaericus. Microbial and enzymatic detoxifications of lignocellulosic hydrolysate are mild and more specific in their action. The efficiency of enzymatic process is quite comparable to other physical and chemical methods. Adaptation of the fermentation yeasts to the lignocellulosic hydrolysate prior to fermentation is suggested as an alternative approach to detoxification. Increases in fermentation rate and ethanol yield by adapted micro-organisms to acid pre-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysates have been reported in some studies. Another approach to alleviate the inhibition problem is to use genetic engineering to introduce increased tolerance by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for example, by overexpressing genes encoding enzymes for resistance against specific inhibitors and altering co-factor balance. Cloning of the laccase gene followed by

  8. Antioxidant properties of wheat germ protein hydrolysates evaluated in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yun-hui; WANG Zhang; XU Shi-ying

    2006-01-01

    Wheat germ protein hydrolysates were prepared by protease hydrolysis, ultrafiltration and dynamical adsorption of resin. The total amount of amino acids in 100 g wheat germ protein hydrolysates is 93.95 g. Wheat germ protein hydrolysates are primarily composed of 4 fractions: 17.78 % in the relative molecular mass range of 11 563 -1 512, 17.50% in 1512 -842, 27.38% in 842- 372 and 30.65% in 372- 76, respectively. The antioxidant properties of wheat germ protein hydrolysates were evaluated by using different antioxidant tests in vitro. 1.20 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates exhibit 78.75% inhibition of peroxidation in linolei acid system; and 1.6 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates show 81.11% scavenging effect on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhrazyl radical. The reducing power of 2.50 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates is 0. 84. Furthermore, the scavenging activity of 0.60 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates against superoxide radical is 75. 40%; 0. 50 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates exhibit63.35 % chelating effect on ferrous ion. These antioxidant activities of wheat germ protein hydrolsates increase with the increase of its concentration. Experimental results suggest that wheat germ protein hydrolysate is a suitable natural antioxidant rich in nutrition and nontoxic.

  9. Occurrence of Cellulose-Producing Gluconacetobacter spp. in Fruit Samples and Kombucha Tea, and Production of the Biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neera; Ramana, Karna Venkata; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose producing bacteria were isolated from fruit samples and kombucha tea (a fermented beverage) using CuSO4 solution in modified Watanabe and Yamanaka medium to inhibit yeasts and molds. Six bacterial strains showing cellulose production were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain DFBT, Ga. xylinus strain dfr-1, Gluconobacter oxydans strain dfr-2, G. oxydans strain dfr-3, Acetobacter orientalis strain dfr-4, and Gluconacetobacter intermedius strain dfr-5. All the cellulose-producing bacteria were checked for the cellulose yield. A potent cellulose-producing bacterium, i.e., Ga. xylinus strain DFBT based on yield (cellulose yield 5.6 g/L) was selected for further studies. Cellulose was also produced in non- conventional media such as pineapple juice medium and hydrolysed corn starch medium. A very high yield of 9.1 g/L cellulose was obtained in pineapple juice medium. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis of the bacterial cellulose showed the characteristic peaks. Soft cellulose with a very high water holding capacity was produced using limited aeration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the surface characteristics of normal bacterial cellulose and soft cellulose. The structural analysis of the polymer was performed using (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More interfibrillar space was observed in the case of soft cellulose as compared to normal cellulose. This soft cellulose can find potential applications in the food industry as it can be swallowed easily without chewing. PMID:25926011

  10. CELLULOSIC NANOCOMPOSITES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of their wide abundance, their renewable and environmentally benign nature, and their outstanding mechanical properties, a great deal of attention has been paid recently to cellulosic nanofibrillar structures as components in nanocomposites. A first major challenge has been to find efficient ways to liberate cellulosic fibrils from different source materials, including wood, agricultural residues, or bacterial cellulose. A second major challenge has involved the lack of compatibility of cellulosic surfaces with a variety of plastic materials. The water-swellable nature of cellulose, especially in its non-crystalline regions, also can be a concern in various composite materials. This review of recent work shows that considerable progress has been achieved in addressing these issues and that there is potential to use cellulosic nano-components in a wide range of high-tech applications.

  11. Cellulose-silica aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilecamps, Arnaud; Beauger, Christian; Hildenbrand, Claudia; Rigacci, Arnaud; Budtova, Tatiana

    2015-05-20

    Aerogels based on interpenetrated cellulose-silica networks were prepared and characterised. Wet coagulated cellulose was impregnated with silica phase, polyethoxydisiloxane, using two methods: (i) molecular diffusion and (ii) forced flow induced by pressure difference. The latter allowed an enormous decrease in the impregnation times, by almost three orders of magnitude, for a sample with the same geometry. In both cases, nanostructured silica gel was in situ formed inside cellulose matrix. Nitrogen adsorption analysis revealed an almost threefold increase in pores specific surface area, from cellulose aerogel alone to organic-inorganic composite. Morphology, thermal conductivity and mechanical properties under uniaxial compression were investigated. Thermal conductivity of composite aerogels was lower than that of cellulose aerogel due to the formation of superinsulating mesoporous silica inside cellulose pores. Furthermore, composite aerogels were stiffer than each of reference aerogels. PMID:25817671

  12. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI DAN ANTIOKSIDAN HIDROLISAT HASIL HIDROLISIS PROTEIN SUSU KAMBING DENGAN EKSTRAK KASAR BROMELIN [Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Hydrolysate from Goat Milk Protein Hydrolized by Crude Bromelain Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusumaningtyas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk is highly nutritious foodstuffs that beneficial for improving health. The milk contains bioactive peptides which produced by hydrolysis process. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial and antioxidant activities of hydrolisate produced from hydrolysis of goat milk protein by crude bromelain extract. Hydrolysis of goat milk protein was conducted using crude bromelain (0.1 U/mL at pH 6, 50°C for 60 min. Hydrolysate was fractionated by using membrane molecular weight cut off 10 kDa. hydrolysate before and after fractionation were assayed for antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Toxicity of the Hydrolysate was determined by hemolysis assay. The result showed that the hydrolysate before and after fractionation inhibited growth of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. Hydrolysate after fractionation has higher antibacterial activity indicated that fractionation was able to improve antibacterial activities of the hydrolysate fraction. The hydrolysate showed scavenging activity to ABTS and DPPH radicals. Fraction 10 kDa not only showed absence of hemolysis but also they were able to reduce autolysis of red blood cells. The result showed that hydrolysate from goat milk hydrolyzed by bromelain were able to be antibacterial and antioxidant.

  13. Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic materials for biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic materials are commonly used in bio-H2 productionfor the sustainable energy resource development asthey are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable.In the process of the bio-H2 production, the pretreated lignocellulosicmaterials are firstly converted to monosaccharidesby enzymolysis and then to H2 by fermentation. Since thestructures of lignocellulosic materials are rather complex, thehydrolysates vary with the used materials. Even using the samelignocellulosic materials, the hydrolysates also change withdifferent pretreatment methods. It has been shown that the appropriatehydrolysate compositions can dramatically improvethe biological activities and bio-H2 production performances.Over the past decades, hydrolysis with respect to differentlignocellulosic materials and pretreatments has been widelyinvestigated. Besides, effects of the hydrolysates on the biohydrogenyields have also been examined. In this review, recentstudies on hydrolysis as well as their effects on the biohydrogenproduction performance are summarized. [BMBReports 2013; 46(5: 244-251

  14. Acid hydrolysis of sisal cellulose: studies aiming at nano fibers and bio ethanol preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrolysis of cellulose can result in nanofibers and also is an important stage in the bioethanol production process. In order to evaluate the influence of acid (sulfuric) concentration, temperature, and native cellulose (sisal) pretreatment on cellulose hydrolysis, the acid concentration was varied between 5% and 30% (v/v) in the temperature range from 60 to 100 deg C using native and alkali-treated (mercerized) sisal cellulose. The following techniques were used to evaluate the residual (non-hydrolysed) cellulose characteristics: viscometry, average degree of polymerization (DP), X-ray diffraction, crystallinity index, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The sugar cane liquor was analyzed in terms of sugar composition, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that increasing the concentration of sulfuric acid and temperature afforded residual cellulose with lower molecular weight and, up to specific acid concentrations, higher crystallinity indexes, when compared to the original cellulose values, and increased the glucose (the bioethanol precursor ) production of the liquor, which was favored for mercerized cellulose. (author)

  15. Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic materials for biohydrogen production

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Chen; Yong-Zhong Wang; Qiang Liao; Xun Zhu; Teng-Fei Xu

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are commonly used in bio-H2 production for the sustainable energy resource development as they are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. In the process of the bio-H2 production, the pretreated lignocellulosic materials are firstly converted to monosaccharides by enzymolysis and then to H2 by fermentation. Since the structures of lignocellulosic materials are rather complex, the hydrolysates vary with the used materials. Even using the same lignocellulo...

  16. Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Raheleh Ghanbari; Afshin Ebrahimpour; Azizah Abdul-Hamid; Amin Ismail; Nazamid Saari

    2012-01-01

    Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram posi...

  17. Physicochemical and bitterness properties of enzymatic pea protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humiski, L M; Aluko, R E

    2007-10-01

    The effects of different proteolytic treatments on the physiochemical and bitterness properties of pea protein hydrolysates were investigated. A commercial pea protein isolate was digested using each of 5 different proteases to produce protein hydrolysates with varying properties. After 4 h of enzyme digestion, samples were clarified by centrifugation followed by desalting of the supernatant with a 1000 Da membrane; the retentates were then freeze-dried. Alcalase and Flavourzymetrade mark produced protein hydrolysates with significantly higher (P pea protein hydrolysates because of the low bitterness scores combined with a high level of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and moderate free radical scavenging activity. PMID:17995627

  18. Global regulator engineering significantly improved Escherichia coli tolerances toward inhibitors of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqing; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Yilu; Lin, Min; Lin, Zhanglin

    2012-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is regarded as the most viable source of feedstock for industrial biorefinery, but the harmful inhibitors generated from the indispensable pretreatments prior to fermentation remain a daunting technical hurdle. Using an exogenous regulator, irrE, from the radiation-resistant Deinococcus radiodurans, we previously showed that a novel global regulator engineering (GRE) approach significantly enhanced tolerances of Escherichia coli to alcohol and acetate stresses. In this work, an irrE library was subjected to selection under various stresses of furfural, a typical hydrolysate inhibitor. Three furfural tolerant irrE mutants including F1-37 and F2-1 were successfully obtained. The cells containing these mutants reached OD(600) levels of 4- to 16-fold of that for the pMD18T cells in growth assay under 0.2% (v/v) furfural stress. The cells containing irrE F1-37 and F2-1 also showed considerably reduced intracellular oxygen species (ROS) levels under furfural stress. Moreover, these two irrE mutants were subsequently found to confer significant cross tolerances to two other most common inhibitors, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF), vanillin, as well as real lignocellulosic hydrolysates. When evaluated in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with corn stover cellulosic hydrolysate (prepared with a solid loading of 30%), the cells containing the mutants exhibited lag phases markedly shortened by 24-44 h in comparison with the control cells. This work thus presents a promising step forward to resolve the inhibitor problem for E. coli. From the view of synthetic biology, irrE can be considered as an evolvable "part" for various stresses. Furthermore, this GRE approach can be extended to exploit other exogenous global regulators from extremophiles, and the native counterparts in E. coli, for eliciting industrially useful phenotypes. PMID:22684885

  19. Evaluation of continuous ethanol fermentation of dilute-acid corn stover hydrolysate using thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover is potential feedstock of industrial interest for second generation fuel ethanol production. However, the toxicity of corn stover hydrolysate (PCS) has been a challenge for fermentation by recombinant xylose fermenting organisms. In this work, the therm...

  20. High Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Ola

    2013-05-01

    Regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes are extensively used in medical and pharmaceutical separation processes due to their biocompatibility, low fouling tendency and solvent resistant properties. They typically possess ultrafiltration and microfiltration separation characteristics, but recently, there have been attempts to widen their pool of applications in nanofiltration processes. In this work, a novel method for preparing high performance composite RC membranes was developed. These membranes reveal molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO) of less than 250 daltons, which possibly put them ahead of all commercial RC membranes and in competition with high performance nanofiltration membranes. The membranes were prepared by acidic hydrolysis of dip-coated trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC) films. TMSC, with a degree of silylation (DS) of 2.8, was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose by reaction with hexamethyldisilazane under the homogeneous conditions of LiCl/DMAC solvent system. Effects of parameters, such as coating solution concentration and drying rates, were investigated. It was concluded that higher TMSC concentrations as well as higher solvent evaporation rates favor better MWCOs, mainly due to increase in the selective layer thickness. Successful cross-linking of prepared membranes with glyoxal solutions, in the presence of boric acid as a catalyst, resulted in MWCOs less than 250 daltons. The suitability of this crosslinking reaction for large scale productions was already proven in the manufacturing of durable-press fabrics. For us, the inexpensive raw materials as well as the low reaction times and temperatures were of interest. Moreover, the non-toxic nature of glyoxal is a key advantage in medical and pharmaceutical applications. The membranes prepared in this work are strong candidates for separation of small organic solutes from organic solvents streams in pharmaceutical industries. Their hydrophilicity, compared to typical nanofiltration membranes, offer

  1. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatment of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Marton; M. G. A. Felipe; J. B. Almeida e Silva; A. Pessoa Júnior

    2006-01-01

    Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting...

  2. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  3. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates: Inhibition and detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effect of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g 1{sup -1}) and furfural (3 g 1{sup -1}) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g 1{sup -1}). By maintaining a high cell mass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of bioconvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cell mass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation 164 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...... only slightly increased the amount of free fatty acids and hydrolysis took place at all temperatures from 14°C to 27°C. The strain liberates the fatty acids in a nonspecific way, in about the same proportions as those in which they occur in the pork fat....

  5. Effect of Protein Hydrolysates on Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossum, Carlo G.; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch;

    Effect of Fish Protein Hydrolysates on Pancreatic Cancer Cells Carlo G. Ossum1, Lisa Lystbæk Andersen2, Henrik Hauch Nielsen2, Else K. Hoffmann1, and Flemming Jessen2 1University of Copenhagen, Department of Biology, Denmark, 2Technical University of Denmark (DTU), National Food Institute, Denmark...... activities affecting cell proliferation and ability to modulate caspase activity in pancreatic cancer cells COLO357 and BxPC-3 in vitro. A number of the hydrolysates showed caspase promoting activity; in particular products containing muscle tissue, i.e. belly flap, were able to stimulate caspase activity...... hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis on cancer cell proliferation. Skin and belly flap muscle from trout were hydrolysed with the unspecific proteases Alcalase, Neutrase, or UE1 (all from Novozymes, Bagsværd, Denmark) to a hydrolysis degree of 1-15%. The hydrolysates were tested for biological...

  6. Cellulose Synthesis and Its Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Lei, Lei; Gu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer synthesized on land, is made of linear chains of ß (1–4) linked D-glucose. As a major structural component of the cell wall, cellulose is important not only for industrial use but also for plant growth and development. Cellulose microfibrils are tethered by other cell wall polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. In higher plants, cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized rosette cellulose synthase complexes. Despite the re...

  7. The Flotation Response of Quartz Using Aminated Cellulose Nanocrystals And Commercial Collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kimpimäki, S. (Saku)

    2016-01-01

    Since cellulose is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and the most abundant natural polymeric source on earth, different micro- and nanocelluloses are considered as potential high-performance bio-based chemicals. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are cellulose derivates that have recently gained a lot of interest due to their versatile physico-chemical properties. In this study three CNCs with different alkyl chain length were tested as collectors in quartz flotation processes as green alternat...

  8. A review on chitosan-cellulose blends and nanocellulose reinforced chitosan biocomposites: Properties and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H P S, Abdul Khalil; Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K; A S, Adnan; Nurul Fazita, M R; Syakir, M I; Davoudpour, Y; Rafatullah, M; Abdullah, C K; M Haafiz, M K; Dungani, R

    2016-10-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant natural polymers in world and it is used for the production of chitosan by deacetylation. Chitosan is antibacterial in nature, non-toxic, and biodegradable thus it can be used for the production of biodegradable film which is a green alternative to commercially available synthetic counterparts. However, their poor mechanical and thermal properties restricted its wide spread applications. Chitosan is highly compatible with other biopolymers thus its blending with cellulose and/or incorporation of nanofiber isolated from cellulose namely cellulose nanofiber and cellulose nanowhiskers are generally useful. Cellulosic fibers in nano scale are attractive reinforcement in chitosan to produce environmental friendly composite films with improved physical properties. Thus chitosan based composites have wide applicability and potential in the field of biomedical, packaging and water treatment. This review summarises properties and preparation procedure of chitosan-cellulose blends and nano size cellulose reinforcement in chitosan bionanocomposites for different applications. PMID:27312632

  9. Mineral and vitamin content of beef, chicken, and turkey hydrolysates mineral and vitamin content of protein hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Machado Pinto e Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the concentration of vitamins and minerals in meat protein hydrolysates. Calcium, phosphorus and iron were analyzed by inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry; vitamin C was analyzed by the reduction of cupric ions and vitamins B1 and B2 by fluorescence. Regarding minerals, the beef hydrolysate (BH had more iron than the turkey hydrolysate (TH and the chicken hydrolysate (CH; TH had a little more phosphorus. BH had the largest amount of vitamin C, and similar amounts of vitamins B1 and B2. The amount of these nutrients found in the hydrolysates suggests that it is possible to use them to enrich special dietary formulations.

  10. Fulton Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumait, Necy [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Cuzens, John [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Klann, Richard [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    Final report on work performed by BlueFire on the deployment of acid hydrolysis technology to convert cellulosic waste materials into renewable fuels, power and chemicals in a production facility to be located in Fulton, Mississippi.

  11. Hydrogen production from paper sludge hydrolysate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kádár, Z.; Vrije, de G.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Szengyel, Z.; Reczey, K.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a system for the production of 'renewable' hydrogen. Paper sludge is a solid industrial waste yielding mainly cellulose, which can be used, after hydrolysis, as a feedstock in anaerobic fermentation by (hyper)thermophilic organisms, such as Thermotoga

  12. New aspects of graft copolymerization of styrene onto cellulose induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graft products of styrene onto cellulose prepared by simultaneous gamma-ray irradiation under various conditions were acid-hydrolysed to recover polystyrene produced within the cellulose matrix. The polystyrene was subjected to gel permeation chromatography to determine the molecular weight (M) and further separated with a thin-layer chromatographic (t.l.c.) technique into two components, i.e. the true grafted side-chain polymer and attendant homopolymer. This t.l.c. experiment allowed an estimation of the true percentage grafting (Y). Influences of changing the reaction conditions upon the values of M and Y were thus investigated and some newer aspects on vinyl polymerization occurring within the cellulose matrix are presented. (author)

  13. Storage Stability of Food Protein Hydrolysates-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Klaassen Kamdar, Andre; Labuza, Theodore P

    2016-05-18

    In recent years, mainly due to the specific health benefits associated with (1) the discovery of bioactive peptides in protein hydrolysates, (2) the reduction of protein allergenicity by protein hydrolysis, and (3) the improved protein digestibility and absorption of protein hydrolysates, the utilization of protein hydrolysates in functional foods and beverages has significantly increased. Although the specific health benefits from different hydrolysates are somewhat proven, the delivery and/or stability of these benefits is debatable during distribution, storage, and consumption. In this review, we discuss (1) the quality changes in different food protein hydrolysates during storage; (2) the resulting changes in the structure and texture of three food matrices, i.e., low moisture foods (LMF, aw foods (IMF, 0.6 ≤ aw foods (HMF, aw ≥ 0.85); and (3) the potential solutions to improve storage stability of food protein hydrolysates. In addition, we note there is a great need for evaluation of biofunction availability of bioactive peptides in food protein hydrolysates during storage. PMID:24915379

  14. Biohydrogen Production Using Hydrolysates Of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome)

    OpenAIRE

    N.A. Khaleb; J.Md. Jahim; S. Ahmad Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Dark hydrogen fermentation using lignocellulosic biomass has been widely reported. In this study, raw and hydrolysed Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) were used as substrates to produce hydrogen by POME sludge in 30-mL serum bottle. A higher cumulative volume of hydrogen of 1439 mL H2.L-1 POME was obtained from hydrolysed POME as compared to raw POME. Fermentation process was then carried out in 2-L stirred tank bioreactor using hydrolysed POME as medium and it was found that a two-fold of hydrog...

  15. Supplementation of Pork Patties with Bovine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates Augments Antioxidant Properties and Improves Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yang, Han-Sul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and ...

  16. Photoresponsive Cellulose Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris S Argyropoulos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this communication a method for the creation of fluorescent cellulose nanoparticles using click chemistry and subsequent photodimerization of the installed side‐ chains is demonstrated. In the first step, the primary hydroxyl groups on the surface of the CNCs were converted to carboxylic acids by using TEMPO‐mediated hypohalite oxidation. The alkyne groups, essential for the click reaction, were introduced into the surface of TEMPO‐ oxidized CNCs via carbodiimide‐mediated formation of an amide linkage between monomers carrying an amine functionality and carboxylic acid groups on the surface of the TEMPO‐oxidized CNCs. Finally, the reaction of surface‐modified TEMPO‐oxidized cellulose nanocrystals and azido‐bearing coumarin and anthracene monomers were carried out by means of a click chemistry, i.e., Copper(I‐catalyzed Azide‐Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC to produce highly photo‐responsive and fluorescent cellulose nanoparticles. Most significantly, the installed coumarin and/or anthracene side‐chains were shown to undergo UV‐induced [2+2] and [4+4] cycloaddition reactions, bringing and locking the cellulose nanocrystals together. This effort paves the way towards creating, cellulosic photo responsive nano‐arrays with the potential of photo reversibility since these reactions are known to be reversible at varying wavelengths.

  17. Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required to foster tolerance towards industrial wheat straw hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Francisco B; Teixeira, Miguel C; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-12-01

    The presence of toxic compounds derived from biomass pre-treatment in fermentation media represents an important drawback in second-generation bio-ethanol production technology and overcoming this inhibitory effect is one of the fundamental challenges to its industrial production. The aim of this study was to systematically identify, in industrial medium and at a genomic scale, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for simultaneous and maximal tolerance to key inhibitors of lignocellulosic fermentations. Based on the screening of EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection, 242 and 216 determinants of tolerance to inhibitory compounds present in industrial wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) and in inhibitor-supplemented synthetic hydrolysate were identified, respectively. Genes associated to vitamin metabolism, mitochondrial and peroxisomal functions, ribosome biogenesis and microtubule biogenesis and dynamics are among the newly found determinants of WSH resistance. Moreover, PRS3, VMA8, ERG2, RAV1 and RPB4 were confirmed as key genes on yeast tolerance and fermentation of industrial WSH. PMID:25287021

  18. Fish protein hydrolysates: production, biochemical, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, H G; Rasco, B A

    2000-01-01

    Considerable amounts of fish processing byproducts are discarded each year. By developing enzyme technologies for protein recovery and modification, production of a broad spectrum of food ingredients and industrial products may be possible. Hydrolyzed vegetable and milk proteins are widely used food ingredients. There are few hydrolyzed fish protein foods with the exception of East Asian condiments and sauces. This review describes various manufacturing techniques for fish protein hydrolysates using acid, base, endogenous enzymes, and added bacterial or digestive proteases. The chemical and biochemical characteristics of hydrolyzed fish proteins are discussed. In addition, functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates are described, including solubility, water-holding capacity, emulsification, and foam-forming ability. Possible applications of fish protein hydrolysates in food systems are provided, and comparison with other food protein hydrolysates where pertinent. PMID:10674201

  19. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  20. Analyse af burst-fase fænomenet ved hydrolyse af cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Dette projekt tager udgangspunkt i den ikke‐lineære kinetik der observeres i form af en burst‐fase i kalorimetriske forsøg, når cellulase‐systemer og β‐glucosidase samarbejder om at nedbryde forskellige cellulosiske substrater. Burstfasen ses i form af en høj varmeudvikling, der kort tid efter falder drastisk. I dette projekt blev følgende teorier, der kunne ligge til baggrund for den ikke‐lineære kinetik, undersøgt: 1. Uproduktiv og inhiberende binding af cellulase til cellulos...

  1. Electrochemical synthesis of cellulose mesylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidirov, Sh Sh; Akhmedov, M. A.; Khibiev, H. S.

    2016-04-01

    The article deal with the possibility anode modification of cellulose to form its ester - mesylate by voltametric measurement method and preparative electrosynthesis on a platinum electrode in the system cellulose - dimethyl sulfoxide - methanesulfonic

  2. Production of lupinus angustifolius protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lqari, Hassane; Pedroche, Justo; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; Millán, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates were obtained from lupin flour and from the purified globulin a-conglutin, and their functional properties were studied. Hydrolysis with alcalase for 60 minutes yielded degrees of hydrolysis ranging from 4% to 11% for lupin flour, and from 4% to 13% for a-conglutin. Protein solubility, oil absorption, foam capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability of hydrolysates with 6% degree of hydrolysis were determined and compared with the properties...

  3. Structural and Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hemp Seed Protein Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Malomo, Sunday; Onuh, John; Girgih, Abraham; Aluko, Rotimi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin) of hemp seed proteins (HSP). The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs) were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) to spontane...

  4. Structure of cellulose acetobacter xylinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data are presented on optimization of cellulose synthesis by Acetobacter xylinum (strain VKM V-880) and the structural characteristics of A. xylinum cellulose gel film synthesized during static cultivation. The structural changes caused by the removal of water from gel films are established and the structural organization of macromolecular chains in cellulose A. xylinum is studied

  5. Supplementation of Pork Patties with Bovine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates Augments Antioxidant Properties and Improves Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yang, Han-Sul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and hardness both decreased upon the addition of PP hydrolysates. All samples containing BHT and PP hydrolysates had reduced TBARS and peroxide values during storage. In particular, 2% PP hydrolysates were more effective in delaying lipid oxidation than were the other treatments. It was concluded that treatment with 2% PP hydrolysates can enhance the acceptance of pork patty. PMID:27194928

  6. Supplementation of Pork Patties with Bovine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates Augments Antioxidant Properties and Improves Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and hardness both decreased upon the addition of PP hydrolysates. All samples containing BHT and PP hydrolysates had reduced TBARS and peroxide values during storage. In particular, 2% PP hydrolysates were more effective in delaying lipid oxidation than were the other treatments. It was concluded that treatment with 2% PP hydrolysates can enhance the acceptance of pork patty. PMID:27194928

  7. Antioxidant Effect and Water-Holding Capacity of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatoumata Tounkara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of in-vitro pepsin and pancreatin digestion of proteins extracted from Roselle seed on the production of bioactive peptides. Defatted Roselle seed flour was used to extract different protein fractions namely globulin, albumin and glutelin. The proteins were digested using pepsin (1 h followed by pancreatin (1 h in order to produce hydrolysates with good antioxidant activity. The prepared hydrolysates were as effective as antioxidants in model systems, in scavenging of free radicals and acting as reducing agents. This effect was concentration-dependent and was also influenced by the type of protein fraction. The albumin fraction hydrolysates prepared showed the highest antioxidant activity followed by Glutelin and Globulin hydrolysates respectively (Albumin hydrolysates>Glutelin hydrolysates>Globulin hydrolysates. All of the prepared hydrolysates were also found to be effective in enhancing water-holding capacity and cooking yield in a meat model system. Albumin hydrolysates showed the highest improved meat cooking ability followed by Glutelin and Globulin respectively (Albumin hydrolysates>Glutelin hydrolysates>Globulin hydrolysates. The molecular weight distribution analysis of the hydrolysates was determined and most of the peptides were found between 1000 Da and below. The study findings suggest that Roselle seed protein hydrolysates can be applied as functional food ingredients and that their composition determines their functional properties thus their potential application in the food and feed industries.

  8. Cellulose Microfibril Formation by Surface-Tethered Cellulose Synthase Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Snehasish; Omadjela, Okako; Gaddes, David; Tadigadapa, Srinivas; Zimmer, Jochen; Catchmark, Jeffrey M

    2016-02-23

    Cellulose microfibrils are pseudocrystalline arrays of cellulose chains that are synthesized by cellulose synthases. The enzymes are organized into large membrane-embedded complexes in which each enzyme likely synthesizes and secretes a β-(1→4) glucan. The relationship between the organization of the enzymes in these complexes and cellulose crystallization has not been explored. To better understand this relationship, we used atomic force microscopy to visualize cellulose microfibril formation from nickel-film-immobilized bacterial cellulose synthase enzymes (BcsA-Bs), which in standard solution only form amorphous cellulose from monomeric BcsA-B complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques show that surface-tethered BcsA-Bs synthesize highly crystalline cellulose II in the presence of UDP-Glc, the allosteric activator cyclic-di-GMP, as well as magnesium. The cellulose II cross section/diameter and the crystal size and crystallinity depend on the surface density of tethered enzymes as well as the overall concentration of substrates. Our results provide the correlation between cellulose microfibril formation and the spatial organization of cellulose synthases. PMID:26799780

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF REGENERATED CELLULOSE MEMBRANES HYDROLYZED FROM CELLULOSE ACETATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Chen; Xiao-peng Xiong; Guang Yang; Li-na Zhang; Sen-lin Lei; Hui Lianga

    2002-01-01

    A series of cellulose acetate membranes were prepared by using formamide as additive, and then were hydrolyzedin 4 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 8 h to obtain regenerated cellulose membranes. The dependence of degree ofsubstitution, structure, porous properties, solubility and thermal stability on hydrolysis time was studied by chemical titration,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and differentialscanning calorimetry, respectively. The results indicated that the pore size of the regenerated cellulose membranes wasslightly smaller than that of cellulose acetate membrane, while solvent-resistance, crystallinity and thermostability weresignificantly improved. This work provides a simple way to prepare the porous cellulose membranes, which not only kept thegood pore characteristics of cellulose acetate membranes, but also possessed solvent-resistance, high crystallinity andthermostability. Therefore, the application range of cellulose acetate membranes can be expanded.

  10. Degradation of cellulose in irradiated wood and purified celluloses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of cellulose chains in Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus regnans given small gamma-radiation doses has been studied. Scission yields showed marked dose-dependency effects, of which some appear to be due to an inherent dose-dependency exhibited by cellulose itself, and others indicate a protective action of some natural wood constituents. A uniform treatment of viscometry data reported by various workers who have studied radiation-induced degradation of purified cellulose materials, has been used to enable their scission results to be compared with each other and with those for natural wood cellulose of various dose levels. Generally, cellulose in wood is less degraded by radiation than is purified cellulose. However, with Eucalyptus regnans remarkably high scission yields, significantly higher than expected for purified cellulose, were observed at dose levels of 0.5-1.0 x 104Gy. The relevance of these results to changes in pulp yield following irradiation of wood chips, is briefly discussed. (author)

  11. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  12. Cysticercosis cellulose cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar Arun

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A woman aged 30 years with solitary lesion of cysticercosis cellulose cutis is reported. Cutaneous cysticerci are often a pointer to the involvement of internal organs. Our patient was a pure vegetarian so, probable mode of infection may be ingestion of contaminated vegetables, where the practice of using pig feces as manure is prevalent.

  13. Derivatives of Oxidized Cellulose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taubner, T.; Sobek, Jiří; Havelka, P.; Kvasnička, F.; Synytsya, A.; Čopíková, J.

    Praha : Česká společnost chemická, 2009, s. 777. ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polysaccharides-Glycoscience 2009 /5./. Praha (CZ), 11.11.2009-13.11.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : cellulose * reaction progress * chromatography Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  14. Characterization of flavor of whey protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, Pattarin P; Miracle, R Evan; Drake, Maryanne

    2010-05-26

    Twenty-two whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) obtained from 8 major global manufacturers were characterized by instrumental analysis and descriptive sensory analysis. Proximate analysis, size exclusion chromatography, and two different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) analytical methods were also conducted. WPH were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel, and volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Eleven representative WPH were selected, and 15 aroma active compounds were quantified by GC-MS via the generation of external standard curves. Potato/brothy, malty, and animal flavors and bitter taste were key distinguishing sensory attributes of WPH. Correlations between bitter taste intensity, degree of hydrolysis (using both methods), and concentration of different molecular weight peptides were documented, with high DH samples having high bitter taste intensity and a high concentration of low molecular weight peptides and vice versa. The four aroma-active compounds out of 40 detected by GC-O present at the highest concentration and with consistently high odor activity values in WPH were Strecker derived products, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 3-methyl butanal, 2-methyl butanal, and methional. Orthonasal thresholds of WPH were lower (p < 0.05) than basic taste thresholds suggesting that aromatics and bitter taste are both crucial to control in WPH food applications. PMID:20415487

  15. Nanotubes from Partially Hydrolysed α-Lactalbumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Xiaolu

    . The whey protein a-lactalbumin (a-La), with a globular shape, is the only food protein that can self-assemble, into nanotubes after limited proteolysis. Understanding the formation and the structure of these novel nanotubes is crucial for their further application in food systems and in other areas....... Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop a method for obtaining a large quantity of bovine a-La with a high purity and to explore the formation and structural aspects of nanotubes and gels formed from partially hydrolysed a-La under various conditions, especially over a wide range of pH values...... of a-La provides the possibility of exploring the formation of a-La nanotubes and gels therefrom under varying conditions. The conditions, such as a-La concentration (30 and 10 gL-1), calcium level (molar ratio between calcium and a-La of 2.4 and 5.4), and pH values (from 7.5 to 4.0) responsible for...

  16. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatments of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marton, J.M.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Almeida e Silva, J.B. [School of Chemical Engineering at Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Biotechnology], Email: jmarcelo@cetesb.sp.gov.br; Pessoa Junior, A. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite), each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it to 5.5 with H

  17. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatment of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Marton

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite, each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it

  18. Physiological Importance and Mechanisms of Protein Hydrolysate Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanghi, Brian M.; Matthews, James C.

    Understanding opportunities to maximize the efficient digestion and assimilation by production animals of plant- and animal-derived protein products is critical for farmers, nutritionists, and feed manufacturers to sustain and expand the affordable production of high quality animal products for human consumption. The challenge to nutritionists is to match gastrointestinal tract load to existing or ­inducible digestive and absorptive capacities. The challenge to feed manufacturers is to develop products that are efficient substrates for digestion, absorption, and/or both events. Ultimately, the efficient absorption of digesta proteins depends on the mediated passage (transport) of protein hydrosylate products as dipeptides and unbound amino acids across the lumen- and blood-facing membranes of intestinal absorptive cells. Data testing the relative efficiency of supplying protein as hydrolysates or specific dipeptides versus as free amino acids, and the response of animals in several physiological states to feeding of protein hydrolysates, are presented and reviewed in this chapter. Next, data describing the transport mechanisms responsible for absorbing protein hydrolysate digestion products, and the known and putative regulation of these mechanisms by their substrates (small peptides) and hormones are presented and reviewed. Several conclusions are drawn regarding the efficient use of protein hydrolysate-based diets for particular physiological states, the economically-practical application of which likely will depend on technological advances in the manufacture of protein hydrolysate products.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose derivatives obtained from bacterial cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical modification of cellulose leads to production of derivatives with different properties from those observed for the original cellulose, for example, increased solubility in more traditional solvents. In this work we synthesized four derivatives of cellulose: microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose acetate, methylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose using bacterial cellulose as a source. These were characterized in terms of chemical and structural changes by examining the degree of substitution (DS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - NMR 13C. The molecular weight and degree of polymerization were evaluated by viscometry. The characterization of the morphology of materials and thermal properties were performed with the techniques of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy images, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis. (author)

  20. Generation of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from cattle plasma using plant and fungal proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; McConnell, Michelle A; Carne, Alan

    2016-12-15

    Four protease preparations from plant and fungal sources (papain, bromelain, FP400 and FPII) were used to hydrolyse plasma which was separated from slaughterhouse cattle blood. The o-phthaldialdehyde assay was used to follow the release of TCA-soluble peptides over a 24h period. Hydrolysis profiles were displayed using SDS-PAGE. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the hydrolysates were determined. The results showed that hydrolysates of cattle plasma generated with fungal protease FPII had higher antioxidant activities. Overall than hydrolysates generated with papain, bromelain and FP400. None of the hydrolysates demonstrated antimicrobial activity. The FPII peptide hydrolysate was fractionated using gel permeation chromatography, OFFGEL isoelectric focusing and RP-HPLC. The RP-HPLC fraction with highest antioxidant activity contained 15 novel peptide sequences. The use of protease FPII to hydrolyse cattle plasma resulted in a hydrolysate with high antioxidant properties and unique peptide sequences. PMID:27451160

  1. Interactions of microfibrillated cellulose and cellulosic fines with cationic polyelectrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Taipale, Tero

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this work was to produce and characterize different types of cellulosic fines and microfibrillated cellulose; to study their interactions with high molar mass cationic polyelectrolytes; and to demonstrate novel examples of their utilization. The work was performed, and its results discussed mainly from papermaking point of view, but the results are also well applicable in other fields of industry. Cellulosic fines are an essential component of papermaking fiber suspens...

  2. Combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol organosolv pretreatments: effect on lignin structures, delignification yields and cellulose-to-glucose conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obama, Patrick; Ricochon, Guillaume; Muniglia, Lionel; Brosse, Nicolas

    2012-05-01

    Enzymatic pre-hydrolysis using the industrial enzymatic cocktail Cellulyve® was assessed as a first step in a pretreatment process of Miscanthus biomass involving an aqueous-ethanol organosolv treatment. (13)C and (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and size exclusion chromatography were used to analyze the cellulose and lignin before and after treatment. It was demonstrated that despite a very low impact on the fibre structure (observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy) and composition (in terms of sugars and polyphenolics content), the enzymatic pre-treatment disrupted the lignocellulosic matrix to a considerable extend. This weakening permitted enhanced removal of lignin during organosolv pulping and increased hydrolysability of the residual cellulosic pulp for the production of monomeric glucose. Using this combined treatment, a delignification yield of 93% and an enzymatic cellulose-to-glucose conversion of 75% were obtained. PMID:22424922

  3. Evaluation of Mucor indicus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae capability to ferment hydrolysates of rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus as affected by the pretreatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Szymańska, Karolina; Kordala, Natalia; Dąbrowska, Aneta; Bednarski, Włodzimierz; Juszczuk, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus was pretreated chemically with oxalic acid or sodium hydroxide. The pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed with enzymatic preparations of cellulase, xylanase and cellobiase. The highest concentration of reducing sugars was achieved after hydrolysis of M. giganteus pretreated with NaOH (51.53gdm(-3)). In turn, the highest yield of enzymatic hydrolysis determined based on polysaccharides content in the pretreated substrates was obtained in the experiments with M. giganteus and oxalic acid (99.3%). Rape straw and M. giganteus hydrolysates were fermented using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7, NRRL 978 or filamentous fungus Mucor rouxii (Mucor indicus) DSM 1191. The highest ethanol concentration was determined after fermentation of M. giganteus hydrolysate pretreated with NaOH using S. cerevisiae (1.92% v/v). Considering cellulose content in the pretreated solid, the highest degree of its conversion to ethanol (86.2%) was achieved after fermentation of the hydrolysate of acid-treated M. giganteus using S. cerevisiae. PMID:27107482

  4. Factors affecting antioxidant activity of soybean meal and caseine protein hydrolysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates was dependent on the raw material, condition of hydrolysis and lipid substrate used in model systems. Soybean meal hydrolysate was more active in lard and in linoleic acid emulsion than caseine hydrolysate, whereas caseine was more active in vegetable oils. Antioxidant activity of evaluated protein hydrolysates in all lipid systems, with or without oxidation catalysts, suggests them as natural food additives for lipid stabilization, thus for improvement of its nutritional value and sensory properties

  5. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Jiang; Hui Qiao; Zhaojuan Zheng; Qiulu Chu; Xin Li; Qiang Yong; Jia Ouyang

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-...

  6. Enzyme Hydrolysates from Stichopus horrens as a New Source for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Forghani; Afshin Ebrahimpour; Jamilah Bakar; Azizah Abdul Hamid; Zaiton Hassan; Nazamid Saari

    2012-01-01

    Stichopus horrens flesh was explored as a potential source for generating peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacity using 6 proteases, namely alcalase, flavourzyme, trypsin, papain, bromelain, and protamex. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) and peptide profiling (SDS-PAGE) of Stichopus horrens hydrolysates (SHHs) was also assessed. Alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest DH value (39.8%) followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (32.7%). Overall, alcalase hydrolysate exhibited t...

  7. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Hong Deng; Yong Tang; Yun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretr...

  8. Succinic Acid Production from Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate by Basfia succiniciproducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvachua, Davinia; Smith, Holly; John, Peter C.; Mohagheghi, Ali; Peterson, Darren J.; Black, Brenna A.; Dowe, Nancy; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-08-01

    The production of chemicals alongside fuels will be essential to enhance the feasibility of lignocellulosic biorefineries. Succinic acid (SA), a naturally occurring C4-diacid, is a primary intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and a promising building block chemical that has received significant industrial attention. Basfia succiniciproducens is a relatively unexplored SA-producing bacterium with advantageous features such as broad substrate utilization, genetic tractability, and facultative anaerobic metabolism. Here B. succiniciproducens is evaluated in high xylose-content hydrolysates from corn stover and different synthetic media in batch fermentation. SA titers in hydrolysate at an initial sugar concentration of 60 g/L reached up to 30 g/L, with metabolic yields of 0.69 g/g, and an overall productivity of 0.43 g/L/h. These results demonstrate that B. succiniciproducens may be an attractive platform organism for bio-SA production from biomass hydrolysates.

  9. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  10. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. protein hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared, when the beans protein was subjected to hydrolysis with pepsin. The bean protein hydrolysate obtained by hydrolysis with alcalase enzyme, showed higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical ABTS●+. However, the hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis with pepsin had higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical DPPH. The use of pepsin and alcalase enzymes, under the same reaction time, produced black bean protein hydrolysates with different molecular weight profiles and superior antioxidant activity than the native bean protein.

  11. Succinic acid production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate by Basfia succiniciproducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Smith, Holly; St John, Peter C; Mohagheghi, Ali; Peterson, Darren J; Black, Brenna A; Dowe, Nancy; Beckham, Gregg T

    2016-08-01

    The production of chemicals alongside fuels will be essential to enhance the feasibility of lignocellulosic biorefineries. Succinic acid (SA), a naturally occurring C4-diacid, is a primary intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and a promising building block chemical that has received significant industrial attention. Basfia succiniciproducens is a relatively unexplored SA-producing bacterium with advantageous features such as broad substrate utilization, genetic tractability, and facultative anaerobic metabolism. Here B. succiniciproducens is evaluated in high xylose-content hydrolysates from corn stover and different synthetic media in batch fermentation. SA titers in hydrolysate at an initial sugar concentration of 60g/L reached up to 30g/L, with metabolic yields of 0.69g/g, and an overall productivity of 0.43g/L/h. These results demonstrate that B. succiniciproducens may be an attractive platform organism for bio-SA production from biomass hydrolysates. PMID:27179951

  12. Novel oil resistant cellulosic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Aulin, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to prepare and characterise oil resistant cellulosic materials, ranging from model surfaces to papers and aerogels. The cellulosic materials were made oil resistant by chemical and topographic modifications, based on surface energy, surface roughness and barrier approaches. Detailed wetting studies of the prepared cellulosic materials were made using contact angle measurements and standardised penetration tests with different alkanes and oil mixtures. A signific...

  13. Evaluation of sorghum straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate for biotechnological production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sene

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii in sorghum straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was performed. Hydrolysate had high xylose content and inhibitors concentrations did not exceed the commonly found values in other hemicellulosic hydrolysates. The highest xylitol yield (0.44 g/g and productivity (0.19 g/Lh were verified after 72 hours.

  14. Evaluation of sorghum straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate for biotechnological production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sene, L.; Arruda, P.V.; Oliveira, S.M.M.; Felipe, M.G.A.

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study on xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii in sorghum straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was performed. Hydrolysate had high xylose content and inhibitors concentrations did not exceed the commonly found values in other hemicellulosic hydrolysates. The highest xylitol yield (0.44 g/g) and productivity (0.19 g/Lh) were verified after 72 hours. PMID:24031733

  15. Evaluation of sorghum straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate for biotechnological production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii

    OpenAIRE

    Sene, L.; Arruda, P.V.; S.M.M Oliveira; Felipe, M.G.A.

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study on xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii in sorghum straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was performed. Hydrolysate had high xylose content and inhibitors concentrations did not exceed the commonly found values in other hemicellulosic hydrolysates. The highest xylitol yield (0.44 g/g) and productivity (0.19 g/Lh) were verified after 72 hours.

  16. Cellulose biogenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Organisms that synthesize cellulose can be found amongst the bacteria, protistans, fungi, and animals, but it is in plants that the importance of cellulose in function (as the major structural constituent of plant cell walls) and economic use (as wood and fiber) can be best appreciated. The structure of cellulose and its biosynthesis have been the subjects of intense investigation. One of the most important insights gained from these studies is that the synthesis of cellulose by living organisms involves much more than simply the polymerization of glucose into a (1{r_arrow}4)-{beta}-linked polymer. The number of glucoses in a polymer (the degree of polymerization), the crystalline form assumed by the glucan chains when they crystallize to form a microfibril, and the dimensions and orientation of the microfibrils are all subject to cellular control. Instead of cellulose biosynthesis, a more appropriate term might be cellulose biogenesis, to emphasize the involvement of cellular structures and mechanisms in controlling polymerization and directing crystallization and deposition. Dictyostelium discoideum is uniquely suitable for the study of cellulose biogenesis because of its amenability to experimental study and manipulation and the extent of our knowledge of its basic cellular mechanisms (as will be evident from the rest of this volume). In this chapter, I will summarize what is known about cellulose biogenesis in D. discoideum, emphasizing its potential to illuminate our understanding both of D. discoideum development and plant cellulose biogenesis.

  17. Functional genomic studies lead in situ detoxification of fermentation inhibitors for low-cost cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable biomass, including lignocellulosic materials and agricultural residues, are low-cost materials for bioethanol production. However, significant challenges exist for efficient cost-effective conversion of cellulosic ethanol. One technical barrier is the stress conditions caused by toxic co...

  18. Development of Silane Hydrolysate Binder for Thermal-Control Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Technical report describes theoretical and experimental development of methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) hydrolysate binder for white, titanium dioxidepigmented thermal-control coatings often needed on satellites. New coating is tougher and more abrasion-resistant than conventional coating, S-13G, which comprises zinc oxide in hydroxyl-therminated dimethylsiloxane binder.

  19. Selection of lactic acid bacteria able to ferment inulin hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian BASTON

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight homofermentative lactic acid bacteria isolates were tested for lactic acid production using chicory and Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate as substrate. The pH, lactic acid yield and productivity were used to select the best homolactic bacteria for lactic acid production. The selected strains produced lactic acid at maximum yield after 24 hours of fermentation and the productivity was greater at 24 hours of fermentation. From all studied strains, Lb1 and Lb2 showed the best results regarding lactic acid yields andproductivity. After 48 hours of chicory and Jerusalem artichhoke hydrolysates fermentation, from all the studied strains, Lb2 produced the highest lactic acid yield (0.97%. Lb2 produced after 48 hours of fermentation the lowest pH value of 3.45±0.01. Lb2 showed greater lactic acid productivity compared to the other studied lactic acid bacteria, the highest values, 0.13 g·L-1·h-1fromJerusalem artichoke hydrolysate and 0.11g·L-1·h-1 from chicory hydrolysate, being produced after 24 hours of fermentation.

  20. Characterisation and foaming properties of hydrolysates derived from rapeseed isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larré, C.; Mulder, W.J.; Sánchez-Vioque, R.; Lazko, J.; Bérot, S.; Guéguen, J.; Popineau, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Two hydrolysis methods used to obtain rapeseed isolate derivates were compared: chemical hydrolysis performed under alkaline conditions and pepsic proteolysis performed under acidic conditions. The mean molecular weights obtained for the hydrolysates varied from 26 to 2.5 kDa, depending on the level

  1. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries. - Highlights: ► Radiation was applied for the hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein. ► The degree of hydrolysis were increased by irradiation and the antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was higher than protein. ► This result suggest that radiation is useful method for the hydrolysis of protein.

  2. ACCESSIBILITY AND CRYSTALLINITY OF CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioelovich

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The accessibility of cellulose samples having various degrees of crystallinity was studied with respect to molecules of water, lower primary alcohols, and lower organic acids. It was found that small water molecules have full access to non-crystalline domains of cellulose (accessibility coefficient α = 1. Molecules of the lowest polar organic liquids (methanol, ethanol, and formic acid have partial access into the non-crystalline domains (α<1, and with increasing diameter of the organic molecules their accessibility to cellulose structure decreases. Accessibility of cellulose samples to molecules of various substances is a linear function of the coefficient α and the content of non-crystalline domains. The relationship between crystallinity (X and accessibility (A of cellulose to molecules of some liquids has been established as A = α (1-X. The water molecules were found to have greater access to cellulose samples than the molecules of the investigated organic liquids. The obtained results permit use of accessibility data to estimate the crystallinity of cellulose, to examine the structural state of non-crystalline domains, and to predict the reactivity of cellulose samples toward some reagents.

  3. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Akira; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Fukuzumi, Hayaka

    2011-01-01

    Native wood celluloses can be converted to individual nanofibers 3-4 nm wide that are at least several microns in length, i.e. with aspect ratios >100, by TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and successive mild disintegration in water. Preparation methods and fundamental characteristics of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCN) are reviewed in this paper. Significant amounts of C6 carboxylate groups are selectively formed on each cellulose microfibril surface by TEMPO-mediated oxidation without any changes to the original crystallinity (~74%) or crystal width of wood celluloses. Electrostatic repulsion and/or osmotic effects working between anionically-charged cellulose microfibrils, the ζ-potentials of which are approximately -75 mV in water, cause the formation of completely individualized TOCN dispersed in water by gentle mechanical disintegration treatment of TEMPO-oxidized wood cellulose fibers. Self-standing TOCN films are transparent and flexible, with high tensile strengths of 200-300 MPa and elastic moduli of 6-7 GPa. Moreover, TOCN-coated poly(lactic acid) films have extremely low oxygen permeability. The new cellulose-based nanofibers formed by size reduction process of native cellulose fibers by TEMPO-mediated oxidation have potential application as environmentally friendly and new bio-based nanomaterials in high-tech fields.

  4. Enzyme Hydrolysates from Stichopus horrens as a New Source for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Forghani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stichopus horrens flesh was explored as a potential source for generating peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory capacity using 6 proteases, namely alcalase, flavourzyme, trypsin, papain, bromelain, and protamex. Degree of hydrolysis (DH and peptide profiling (SDS-PAGE of Stichopus horrens hydrolysates (SHHs was also assessed. Alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest DH value (39.8% followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (32.7%. Overall, alcalase hydrolysate exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 value of 0.41 mg/mL followed by flavourzyme hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.24 mg/mL, trypsin hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.28 mg/mL, papain hydrolysate (IC50 value of 2.48 mg/mL, bromelain hydrolysate (IC50 value of 4.21 mg/mL, and protamex hydrolysate (IC50 value of 6.38 mg/mL. The SDS-PAGE results showed that alcalase hydrolysate represented a unique pattern compared to others, which yielded potent ACE inhibitory peptides with molecular weight distribution lower than 20 kDa. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and IC50 values of alcalase and flavourzyme hydrolysates revealed that the trend between those parameters was related to the type of the protease used. We concluded that the tested SHHs would be used as a potential source of functional ACE inhibitory peptides for physiological benefits.

  5. Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan R. White; Ann G. Matthysse

    2004-07-31

    We have cloned the celC gene and its homologue from E. coli, yhjM, in an expression vector and expressed the both genes in E. coli; we have determined that the YhjM protein is able to complement in vitro cellulose synthesis by extracts of A. tumefaciens celC mutants, we have purified the YhjM protein product and are currently examining its enzymatic activity; we have examined whole cell extracts of CelC and various other cellulose mutants and wild type bacteria for the presence of cellulose oligomers and cellulose; we have examined the ability of extracts of wild type and cellulose mutants including CelC to incorporate UDP-14C-glucose into cellulose and into water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble oligosaccharides; we have made mutants which synthesize greater amounts of cellulose than the wild type; and we have examined the role of cellulose in the formation of biofilms by A. tumefaciens. In addition we have examined the ability of a putative cellulose synthase gene from the tunicate Ciona savignyi to complement an A. tumefaciens celA mutant. The greatest difference between our knowledge of bacterial cellulose synthesis when we started this project and current knowledge is that in 1999 when we wrote the original grant very few bacteria were known to synthesize cellulose and genes involved in this synthesis were sequenced only from Acetobacter species, A. tumefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Currently many bacteria are known to synthesize cellulose and genes that may be involved have been sequenced from more than 10 species of bacteria. This additional information has raised the possibility of attempting to use genes from one bacterium to complement mutants in another bacterium. This will enable us to examine the question of which genes are responsible for the three dimensional structure of cellulose (since this differs among bacterial species) and also to examine the interactions between the various proteins required for cellulose synthesis. We have carried out one

  6. Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates: Physicochemical and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelho, Jarine Amaral do; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Berrios, Jose J De; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Black bean protein hydrolysates obtained from pepsin and alcalase digestions until 120min of hydrolysis were evaluated by gel electrophoresis, relative fluorescence intensity, emulsifying properties, light micrograph of emulsions and in vitro antioxidant activity. The emulsion stability of the bean protein hydrolysates were evaluated during 30days of storage. The pepsin-treated bean protein hydrolysates presented higher degree of hydrolysis than the alcalase-treated protein hydrolysates. The alcalase-treated bean protein hydrolysates showed higher surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, the protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase digestion presented higher emulsion stability during 30-days than those obtained from pepsin digestion. The protein concentrate and especially the hydrolysates obtained from alcalase digestion had good emulsion stability and antioxidant activity. Thus, they could be exploited as protein supplements in the diet as nutritional and bioactive foods. PMID:27507499

  7. Electricity generation by microbial fuel cells fuelled with wheat straw hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Angelidaki, Irini;

    2011-01-01

    Electricity production from microbial fuel cells fueled with hydrolysate produced by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw can achieve both energy production and domestic wastewater purification. The hydrolysate contained mainly xylan, carboxylic acids, and phenolic compounds. Power generation and...... substrate utilization from the hydrolysate was compared with the ones obtained by defined synthetic substrates. The power density increased from 47 mW m−2 to 148 mW m−2 with the hydrolysate:wastewater ratio (RHW in m3 m−3) increasing from 0 to 0.06 (corresponding to 0–0.7 g dm−3 of carbohydrates). The power...... density with the hydrolysate was higher than the one with only xylan (120 mW m−2) and carboxylic acids as fuel. The higher power density can be caused by the presence of phenolic compounds in the hydrolysates, which could mediate electron transport. Electricity generation with the hydrolysate resulted in...

  8. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. PMID:26964959

  9. Fluorescent cellulose nanocrystals via supramolecular assembly of terpyridine-modified cellulose nanocrystals and terpyridine-modified perylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Surfaces of cellulose nanocrystals were modified with terpyridine ligands. ► Fluorescent nanocrystals could be obtained via self-assembly of terpyridine-modified perylene dye onto the terpyridine-modified cellulose nanocrystals. ► Further self-assembly of azide-functionalized terpyridine onto the fluorescent cellulose nanocrystals was possible to obtain nanocellulosic material with expected use in bioimaging. - Abstract: Due to their natural origin, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity, cellulose nanocrystals are promising candidates for applications in nanomedicine. Highly fluorescent nanocellulosic material was prepared via surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals with 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine side chains followed by supramolecular assembly of terpyridine-modified perylene dye onto the terpyridine-modified cellulose nanocrystals (CTP) via RuIII/RuII reduction. The prepared terpyridine-modified cellulose-RuII-terpyridine-modified perylene (CTP-RuII-PeryTP) fluorescent nanocrystals were characterized using cross-polarized/magic angle spin 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13C NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV–visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, further self-assembly of terpyridine units with azide functional groups onto CTP-RuII-PeryTP was possible via repeating the RuIII/RuII reduction protocol to prepare supramolecular fluorescent nanocrystals with azide functionality (CTP-RuII-PeryTP-RuII-AZTP). The prepared derivative may have potential application in bio-imaging since the terminal azide groups can be easily reacted with antigens via “Click” chemistry reaction.

  10. Fluorescent cellulose nanocrystals via supramolecular assembly of terpyridine-modified cellulose nanocrystals and terpyridine-modified perylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Mohammad L., E-mail: mlhassan2004@yahoo.com [Cellulose and Paper Department and Center of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Group, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo 12622 (Egypt); Moorefield, Charles M.; Elbatal, Hany S. [Maurice Morton Institute for Polymer Science, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States); Newkome, George R. [Maurice Morton Institute for Polymer Science, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States); Departments of Polymer Science and Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States); Modarelli, David A.; Romano, Natalie C. [Department of Chemistry and The Center for Laser and Optical Spectroscopy, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surfaces of cellulose nanocrystals were modified with terpyridine ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescent nanocrystals could be obtained via self-assembly of terpyridine-modified perylene dye onto the terpyridine-modified cellulose nanocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further self-assembly of azide-functionalized terpyridine onto the fluorescent cellulose nanocrystals was possible to obtain nanocellulosic material with expected use in bioimaging. - Abstract: Due to their natural origin, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity, cellulose nanocrystals are promising candidates for applications in nanomedicine. Highly fluorescent nanocellulosic material was prepared via surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals with 2,2 Prime :6 Prime ,2 Double-Prime -terpyridine side chains followed by supramolecular assembly of terpyridine-modified perylene dye onto the terpyridine-modified cellulose nanocrystals (CTP) via Ru{sup III}/Ru{sup II} reduction. The prepared terpyridine-modified cellulose-Ru{sup II}-terpyridine-modified perylene (CTP-Ru{sup II}-PeryTP) fluorescent nanocrystals were characterized using cross-polarized/magic angle spin {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, further self-assembly of terpyridine units with azide functional groups onto CTP-Ru{sup II}-PeryTP was possible via repeating the Ru{sup III}/Ru{sup II} reduction protocol to prepare supramolecular fluorescent nanocrystals with azide functionality (CTP-Ru{sup II}-PeryTP-Ru{sup II}-AZTP). The prepared derivative may have potential application in bio-imaging since the terminal azide groups can be easily reacted with antigens via 'Click' chemistry reaction.

  11. Treatment of tympanic membrane perforation using bacterial cellulose: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Coelho Alves Silveira; Flávia Cristina Morone Pinto; Sílvio da Silva Caldas Neto; Mariana de Carvalho Leal; Jéssica Cesário; José Lamartine de Andrade Aguiar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Promising treatments for tympanic membrane perforation closure have been studied. Therapies derived from tissue engineering probably eliminate the need for conventional surgery. Bacterial cellulose is presented as an alternative that is safe, biocompatible, and has low toxicity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect on healing of direct application of a bacterial cellulose graft on the tympanic membrane compared to the conventional approach with autologous fascia. ME...

  12. Bioconversion of sugarcane biomass into ethanol: an overview about composition, pretreatment methods, detoxification of hydrolysates, enzymatic saccharification, and ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilha, Larissa; Kumar Chandel, Anuj; dos Santos Milessi, Thais Suzane; Fernandes Antunes, Felipe Antônio; da Costa Freitas, Wagner Luiz; das Graças Almeida Felipe, Maria; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2012-01-01

    Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses), and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB), and straw (SS) could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G) ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars) remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars) have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production. PMID:23251086

  13. Characterisation of bacterial cellulose partly acetylated by dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellulose is a water-insoluble polysaccharide used at an industrial scale for the manufacture of paper and films or in the dust form, natural, hydrolysed or derivatised. The cellulose produced by G. hansenii (former A. xylinum) has a structure identical to that of plants, but is free of lignin and hemicellulose, with several unique physical-chemical properties. The main barrier to the use of cellulose is its insolubility in water and most organic solvents, but soluble derivatives can be obtained with the use of ionic solvents. Bacterial cellulose, produced in a static, 4% glucose medium, was dissolved in hot DMAc/LiCl (120, 150 or 170 deg. C). The solution was analysed by 13C NMR, and the effect of the dissolution on the crystalline state was shown by X-ray crystallography. The crystalline structure was lost upon dissolution, becoming amorphous; this was also observed for Avicel plant cellulose. The soluble cellulose was partly acetylated in acetic anhydride with acetic anhydride-cellulose ratios of 1:50, 1:6 and 1:12 (w/v). The resulting cellulose acetates were examined by infrared spectroscopy, and the best result was 43% (w/v). The degree of acetylation was determined via 1H NMR spectroscopy by comparing the area of the glucose ring at 2.60-5.20 ppm and that of the methyl proton of the acetate group at 1.80-2.20 ppm. The 13C NMR spectra showed acetylation at C6 >> C2 > C3 at 60-80 ppm, with C1 signals at ∼ 100-104 ppm. The derivatisation of bacterial cellulose in DMAc/LiCl/acetic anhydride (1:4:50, v/v/v) gave rise to 87% substitution. The process of dissolution of the bacterial cellulose is essential for the analysis of the insoluble polymer in water, facilitating analysis and characterisation of these composites by 13C NMR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography and light scattering techniques.

  14. Characterisation of bacterial cellulose partly acetylated by dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, G. de Marco [PMCF-Mestrado em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, UNIVALI, ZIP 88302-202, Itajai-SC (Brazil); Sierakowski, M.-R.; Faria-Tischer, P.C.S. [BIOPOL-Biopolymers Lab. PO Box 19081, ZIP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Tischer, C.A., E-mail: cesar.tischer@pq.cnpq.br [BIOPOL-Biopolymers Lab. PO Box 19081, ZIP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil)

    2011-03-12

    Cellulose is a water-insoluble polysaccharide used at an industrial scale for the manufacture of paper and films or in the dust form, natural, hydrolysed or derivatised. The cellulose produced by G. hansenii (former A. xylinum) has a structure identical to that of plants, but is free of lignin and hemicellulose, with several unique physical-chemical properties. The main barrier to the use of cellulose is its insolubility in water and most organic solvents, but soluble derivatives can be obtained with the use of ionic solvents. Bacterial cellulose, produced in a static, 4% glucose medium, was dissolved in hot DMAc/LiCl (120, 150 or 170 deg. C). The solution was analysed by {sup 13}C NMR, and the effect of the dissolution on the crystalline state was shown by X-ray crystallography. The crystalline structure was lost upon dissolution, becoming amorphous; this was also observed for Avicel plant cellulose. The soluble cellulose was partly acetylated in acetic anhydride with acetic anhydride-cellulose ratios of 1:50, 1:6 and 1:12 (w/v). The resulting cellulose acetates were examined by infrared spectroscopy, and the best result was 43% (w/v). The degree of acetylation was determined via {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy by comparing the area of the glucose ring at 2.60-5.20 ppm and that of the methyl proton of the acetate group at 1.80-2.20 ppm. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed acetylation at C6 >> C2 > C3 at 60-80 ppm, with C1 signals at {approx} 100-104 ppm. The derivatisation of bacterial cellulose in DMAc/LiCl/acetic anhydride (1:4:50, v/v/v) gave rise to 87% substitution. The process of dissolution of the bacterial cellulose is essential for the analysis of the insoluble polymer in water, facilitating analysis and characterisation of these composites by {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography and light scattering techniques.

  15. Production of Lupinus angustifolius protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán, Francisco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydrolysates wer e obtained from lupin flour and from the purified globulin α -conglutin, and their functional properties were studied. Hydrolysis with alcalase for 60 minutes yielded degrees of hydrolysis ranging from 4 % to 11 % for lupin flour, and from 4 % to 13% for α -conglutin. Protein solubility, oil absorption, foam capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability of hydrolysates with 6% degree of hydrolysis were determined and compared with the properties of the original flour. The protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original proteins. Most importantly, the solubility of the α -conglutin and L. angustifolius flour hydrolysates was increased by 43 % and 52 %, respectively. Thus, lupin seed protein hydrolysates have improved functional properties and could be used in the elaboration of a variety of products such as breads, cakes, and salad dressings.Se obtuvieron hidrolizados proteicos de la harina del altramuz y de la globulina α - conglutina purificada y se estudiaron sus propiedades funcionales. La hidrólisis con alcalasa durante 60 minutos produjo hidrolizados con grados de hidrólisis entre el 4 % y el 11 % para la harina y entre el 4 % y el 13 % para la α - conglutina. Se estudió en un hidrolizado con un 6 % de grado de hidrólisis la solubilidad proteica, absorción de aceite, capacidad y estabilidad espumante y actividad y estabilidad emulsificante. Los hidrolizados proteicos mostraron mejores propiedades funcionales que las proteínas originales. Más aún, la solubilidad de los hidrolizados de α - conglutina y la harina se incrementó en un 43 % y 52 % respectivamente. Así pues, hidrolizados de proteínas de semilla de lupino presentan mejores propiedades funcionales y podrían usarse en la elaboración de productos como pan, dulces, salsas o cremas.

  16. Protein hydrolysates and recovery of muscle damage following eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A whey protein hydrolysate (NatraBoost XR; WPHNB has been shown to speed repair muscle damage. We sought to determine whether this benefit is specific to this hydrolysate to evaluate a marker for quality control. Methods: Three hydrolysates of the same whey protein isolate (WPI were prepared (WPHNB, WPH1 and WPH2. Isometric knee extensor strength was measured in 39 sedentary male participants before and after 100 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Participants were then randomised to consume 250 ml of flavoured water (FW, n=9, or 250 ml of FW containing 25 g of either NatraBoost XR (n=3, WPH1 (n=9, WPH2 (n=9 or WPI (n=9. Strength was reassessed over the next seven days while the supplements were consumed daily. Fibroblasts were cultured for 48 hr in the presence of the different hydrolysates, WPI, saline or fetal bovine serum to ascertain effects on cell proliferation. Results: Strength was reduced in all treatment groups after eccentric exercise (P<0.001. Strength recovered steadily over 7 days in the FW, WPI, WPH1 and WPH2 treatment groups (P<0.001, with no difference between treatments (P=0.87. WPHNB promoted faster strength recovery compared with the other treatments (P<0.001. Fibroblast proliferation was greater with WPHNB compared with saline, WPI or the other hydrolysates (P<0.001. Conclusions: Promoting recovery from muscle damage seems unique to WPHNB. In vitro fibroblast proliferation may be a useful marker for quality control. It is not clear whether effects on fibroblast proliferation contribute to the in vivo effect of WPHNB on muscle damage.

  17. Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagodawithana, Tilak W.; Nelles, Lynn; Trivedi, Nayan B.

    Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic systems that direct the humans to satisfy the body's protein need for their sustenance. Recent developments have resulted in a wide range of cost effective savory flavorings, the best known of which are autolyzed yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. New technologies have helped researchers to improve the savory characteristics of yeast extracts through the application of Maillard reaction and by generating specific flavor enhancers through the use of enzymes. An interesting parallel exists in the pet food industry, where a similar approach is taken in using animal protein hydrolysates to create palatability enhancers via Maillard reaction scheme. Protein hydrolysates are also utilized extensively as a source of nutrition to the elderly, young children and immuno-compromised patient population. These hydrolysates have an added advantage in having peptides small enough to avoid any chance of an allergenic reaction which sometimes occur with the consumption of larger sized peptides or proteins. Accordingly, protein hydrolysates are required to have an average molecular weight distribution in the range 800-1,500 Da to make them non-allergenic. The technical challenge for scientists involved in food and feed manufacture is to use an appropriate combination of enzymes within the existing economic constraints and other physical factors/limitations, such as heat, pH, and time, to create highly palatable, yet still nutritious and hypoallergenic food formulations.

  18. Cellulose Derivatives for Water Repellent Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this poster presentation, we will discuss the synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro-benzyl cellulose (1), amino-benzyl cellulose (2) and pentafluoro –benzyl cellulose (3). All cellulose derivatives are synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide h...

  19. Cellulose nanocrystals: synthesis, functional properties, and applications

    OpenAIRE

    George J.; Sabapathi SN

    2015-01-01

    Johnsy George, SN Sabapathi Food Engineering and Packaging Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka, India Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers...

  20. Cellulose synthase complexes: structure and regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eLei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This review is to update the most recent progress on characterization of the composition, regulation, and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes. We will highlight proteins that interact with cellulose synthases, e.g. cellulose synthase-interactive protein 1 (CSI1. The potential regulation mechanisms by which cellulose synthase interact with cortical microtubules in primary cell walls will be discussed.

  1. Pharmaceutical significance of cellulose: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The amalgamation of polymer and pharmaceutical sciences led to the introduction of polymer in the design and development of drug delivery systems. Polymeric delivery systems are mainly intended to achieve controlled or sustained drug delivery. Polysaccharides fabricated into hydrophilic matrices remain popular biomaterials for controlled-release dosage forms and the most abundant naturally occurring biopolymer is cellulose; so hdroxypropylmethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose and hydroxyethyl cellulose can be used for production of time controlled delivery systems. Additionally microcrystalline cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose as well as hydroxypropyl cellulose are used to coat tablets. Cellulose acetate phthalate and hydroxymethyl cellulose phthalate are also used for enteric coating of tablets. Targeting of drugs to the colon following oral administration has also been accomplished by using polysaccharides such as hdroxypropylmethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose in hydrated form; also they act as binders that swell when hydrated by gastric media and delay absorption. This paper assembles the current knowledge on the structure and chemistry of cellulose, and in the development of innovative cellulose esters and ethers for pharmaceuticals.

  2. Thermophilic degradation of cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1982-12-01

    The conversion of cellulosic biomass to chemical feedstocks and fuel by microbial fermentation is an important objective of developing biotechnology. Direct fermentation of cellulosic derivatives to ethanol by thermophilic bacteria offers a promising approach to this goal. Fermentations at elevated temperatures lowers the energy demand for cooling and also facilitates the recovery of volatile products. In addition, thermophilic microorganisms possess enzymes with greater stability than those from mesophilic microorganisms. Three anaerobic thermophilic cocultures that ferment cellulosic substrate mainly to ethanol have been described: Clostridium thermocellum/Clostriidium thermohydrosulfuricum, C. thermocellum/Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, and C. thermocellum/Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus sp. nov. The growth characteristics and metabolic features of these cocultures are reviewed.

  3. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Samaneh Sadat Maleki; Kourosh Mohammadi; Kong-shu Ji

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4) D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the...

  4. Cognitive-Enhancing Effects of Polygalasaponin Hydrolysate in Aβ25–35-Induced Amnesic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu ping Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalasaponins are the major active constituents of Polygala tenuifolia exhibiting antiamnesic activity, but their applications are limited due to their toxicities. Evidence showed that the toxicities can be attenuated by hydrolysis. Herein, effects of a hydrolysate of polygalasaponins (HPS on cognitive impairment induced by Aβ25−35 were assessed by Morris water maze and step-through passive avoidance tests. The impaired spatial reference memory was improved by HPS (50 and 100 mg/kg. In the acquisition trial of step-through test, HPS (50 and 100 mg/kg increased the latency into the dark chamber and decreased the error frequency significantly (<.05. However, no significant change was observed during the retention trial. Additionally, HPS increased the corresponding SOD activities (62.34%, 22.09% and decreased MDA levels (28.21%, 32.35% in both cortex and hippocampus as compared to model animals. These results show that HPS may be a useful treatment against amnesia probably via its antioxidant properties.

  5. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

  6. Calcium-binding ability of soy protein hydrolysates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lan Bao; Mei Song; Jing Zhang; Yang Chen; Shun Tang Guo

    2007-01-01

    This present study investigated the ability of various soy protein hydrolysates (SPHs) in binding calcium. It was demonstrated that the amount of Ca-bound depended greatly on the SPHs obtained using different proteases, which included: neutrase,flavourzyme, protease M and pepsin. The maximum level of Ca-bound (66.9 mg/g) occurred when protease M was used to hydrolyze soy protein. Peptide fragments exhibiting high Ca-binding capacity had molecular weights of either 14.4 or 8-9 kDa. The level of Ca-bound increased linearly with the increment of carboxyl content in SPHs, and further deamidation on SPHs from protease M improved Ca-binding of the hydrolysate.

  7. Chromophores in lignin-free cellulosic materials belong to three compound classes. Chromophores in cellulosics, XII

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CRI (chromophore release and identification) method isolates well-defined chromophoric substances from different cellulosic matrices, such as highly bleached pulps, cotton linters, bacterial cellulose, viscose or lyocell fibers, and cellulose acetates. The chromophores are present only in extrem...

  8. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvi, Denise T.B. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. UNESP. Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Caiut, Jose Mauricio A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo. Departamento de Quimica - FFCLRP/USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  9. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  10. Scope of Hydrolysable Tannins as Possible Antimicrobial Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Sanmuga Priya; Perumal, Senthamil Selvan; Balakrishnan, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    Hydrolysable tannins (HTs) are secondary metabolites from plants, which are roughly classified into gallotannins and ellagitannins having gallic acid and ellagic acid residues respectively attached to the hydroxyl group of glucose by ester linkage. The presence of hexahydroxydiphenoyl and nonahydroxyterphenoyl moieties is considered to render antimicrobial property to HTs. HTs also show considerable synergy with antibiotics. Nevertheless, they have low pharmacokinetic property. The present review presents the scope of HTs as future antimicrobial agent. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27062587

  11. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutr...

  12. Antioxidant activity of whey protein hydrolysates in milk beverage system

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Bimlesh; Kumari, Anuradha; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Rajan; Prajapati, Kishore; Mahboob, Shaik; Athira, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of flavoured milk enriched with antioxidative whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) by radical scavenging method. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was hydrolyzed by using three commercial proteases; flavouzyme, alcalase and corolase PP and these WPHs were analyzed for degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities of these WPHs were evaluated using ABTS method. Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity of a...

  13. In vitro antithrombotic activities of peanut protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao Bing

    2016-07-01

    The antithrombotic activities of peanut protein hydrolysates were investigated using a microplates assay. When peanut proteins were hydrolyzed to a limited extent by various enzymes, their thrombin inhibitory abilities were significantly enhanced. However, the resultant hydrolysates showed significantly different activities even at the same degrees of hydrolysis. The hydrolysates generated by Alcalase 2.4L displayed the best antithrombotic activities and the hydrolysis process was further optimized by response surface methodology. The antithrombotic activities were increased to 86% based on a protein concentration of 50mg/ml under the optimal conditions: pH 8.5, enzyme concentration of 5000IU/g of peanut proteins, and 2h hydrolysis time at 50°C. The Alcalase 2.4L crude hydrolysates were then fractionated successively by preparative and semi-preparative reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide fraction collected inhibited thrombin-catalyzed coagulation of fibrinogen completely at a concentration of 0.4mg/ml, with an antithrombotic activity close to that of heparin at quite a low concentration (0.2mg/ml). This peptide fraction was further analyzed by online reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and three new peptides were identified as Ser-Trp-Ala-Gln-Leu, Gly-Asn-His-Glu-Ala-Gly-Glu and Cys-Phe-Asn-Glu-Tyr-Glu, respectively. This research provided an effective way to produce antithrombotic peptides from peanut proteins, and also helped to elucidate the structure-function relationships of peanut peptides. PMID:26920259

  14. Lupine protein hydrolysates inhibit enzymes involved in the inflammatory pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Millán-Linares, María del Carmen; Yust, María del Mar; Alcaide-Hidalgo, J. M.; Millán, Francisco; Pedroche, Justo

    2014-01-01

    Lupine protein hydrolysates (LPHs) were obtained from a lupine protein isolate (LPI) by enzymatic hydrolysis using two proteases, Izyme AL and Alcalase 2.4 L, and their potential anti-inflammatory capacities were studied by determining their in vitro inhibition of the following enzymes that are involved in the inflammatory process: phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), thrombin, and transglutaminase (TG). The strongest inhibitory activities toward PLA2 and TG were found in the hy...

  15. Odor Modification in Salmon Hydrolysates Using the Maillard Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kouakou, Christelle; Berge, Jean-pascal; Baron, Regis; Lethuaut, Laurent; PROST, Carole; Cardinal, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of adding sugar during proteolysis to promote the Maillard reaction and mask the initial fish odor and off-flavors generated. An experimental design, based on the Doehlert plan, was used to study the influence of hydrolysis conditions (time, temperature, sugar, and antioxidant addition) on the odor characteristics of hydrolysates, soluble protein levels, and amino acid content. Results showed that the lowest level of sugar (10g of D-xylose added to...

  16. The fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates with xylose isomerases and yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, T.

    1992-01-01

    Untreated spent sulphite liquor (SSL) was fermented with Canida tropicalis, Pichia stipitis, Pachysolen tannophilus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a co-culture of P. Tannophilus and A. cerevisiae, in the presence of xylose isomerases and 4.6 mM azide. The highest yield of ethanol, 0.41 g/g total sugar was obtained with S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis, and P. tannophilus produced considerble amounts of polyoles, mainly xylitol. With P. stipitis sugar uptake was rapidly inhibited in untreated SSL. The presence of azide contributed to the yield by about 0.04. The fermentation of hydrogen fluoride-pretreated and acid-hydrolysed wheat straw with S. cerevisiae, xylose isomerase, and azide gave a yield of 0.40 g ethanol/g total sugar. In this substrate the xylose utilisation was 84% compared with 51% in SSL. In the concentration range appropriate for enzymatic xylose isomerization, xylulose was measured in a lignocellulose hydrolysate using HPLC with two hydrogen loaded ion exchange columns in series. SSL was used as a model for lignocellulose hydrolysates. The enzymatic isomerization of xylose to xylulose was followed directly in SSL, providing a method for the direct determination of xylose isomerase activity in lignocellulose hydrolysates. Three different xylose isomerase preparations of L. brevis whole cells were compared with a commercial enzyme preparation Maxazyme GI-immob., with respect to activity and stability. From a continuous SSL fermentation plant, two species of yeasts were isolated, S. cerevisiae and Pichia membranaefaciens. One of the isolates of S. cerevisiae, no. 3 was heavily flocculating. Without acetic acid present, both bakers' yeast and isolate no. 3 showed catabolite repression and fermented glucose and galactose sequentially. Galactose fermentation with bakers' yeast was strongly inhibited by acetic acid at pH values below 6. Isolate no. 3 fermented galactose, glucose and mannose, in the presence of acetic acid

  17. Selection of lactic acid bacteria able to ferment inulin hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian BASTON; Oana Emilia CONSTANTIN

    2012-01-01

    Eight homofermentative lactic acid bacteria isolates were tested for lactic acid production using chicory and Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate as substrate. The pH, lactic acid yield and productivity were used to select the best homolactic bacteria for lactic acid production. The selected strains produced lactic acid at maximum yield after 24 hours of fermentation and the productivity was greater at 24 hours of fermentation. From all studied strains, Lb1 and Lb2 showed the best results regardi...

  18. Cellulose biosynthesis in Acetobacter xylinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-lapse video microscopy has shown periodic reversals during the synthesis of cellulose. In the presence of Congo Red, Acetobacter produces a band of fine fibrils. The direction of cell movement is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of cell, and the rate of movement was decreased. A linear row of particles, presumably the cellulose synthesizing complexes, was found on the outer membrane by freeze-fracture technique. During the cell cycle, the increase of particles in linear row, the differentiation to four linear rows and the separation of the linear rows have been observed. A digitonin-solubilized cellulose synthase was prepared from A. xylinum, and incubated under conditions known to lead to active in vitro synthesis of 1,4-β-D-glucan polymer. Electron microscopy revealed that clusters of fibrils were assembled within minutes. Individual fibrils are 17 ± 2 angstroms in diameter. Evidence for the cellulosic composition of newly synthesized fibrils was based on incorporation of tritium from UDP-[3H] glucose binding of gold-labeled cellobiohydrolase, and an electron diffraction pattern identified as cellulose II polymorph instead of cellulose I

  19. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62 % over a wide pH range (2-12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. PMID:26344996

  20. Antioxidative, DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting peptides from fish protein hydrolysed with intestinal proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Stagsted, Jan; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    secondary marine products. The approach in this study is to hydrolyse skin and belly flap tissue from Salmon with the use of mammalian digestive proteases from pancreas and intestinal mucosa and test hydrolysates for antioxidative capacity, intestinal DPP-IV and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE...... amino groups, antioxidative capacity by ABTS (2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)), DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting activity. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) of hydrolysates was approximately 13% and 10% for belly flap and skin respectively. No clear difference was observed in DH between pancreatin...... and pancreatin + mucosa hydrolysates. No DH was obtained for tissues hydrolysed with only intestinal mucosa extract. Preliminary results showed antioxidant activity and intestinal DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting activity in 10 kDa fraction from both belly flap and skin hydrolysates but with a higher...

  1. The Inhibiting Effect of Bone Protein Hydrolysates on Lipid Oxidation in Pork Patties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Jingjing; DIAO Xinping; KONG Baohua; CHEN Hongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Bone protein hydrolysates were prepared by limited alcalase hydrolysis (5 h). The hydrolysates were formulated (0-3%,w/w) into pork patties to determine the antioxidant efficacy. 0.02% BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) was used as a positive control.Lipid oxidation in patties during storage was analyzed by measuring the TBARS and protein carbonyl content. The results showed that bone protein hydrolysates possessed significant antioxidant activity, and antioxidant activity increased with the increasing hydrolysates concentration. Sensory evaluation indicated that bone protein hydrolysates improved the color and decreased lipid oxidation flavor of pork patties. The 2% bone hydrolysates possessed the highest antioxidant activity and better sensory quality, and its effect was closed to 0.02% BHA.

  2. Antioxidant activity of whey protein hydrolysates in milk beverage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Bimlesh; Kumari, Anuradha; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Rajan; Prajapati, Kishore; Mahboob, Shaik; Athira, S

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of flavoured milk enriched with antioxidative whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) by radical scavenging method. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was hydrolyzed by using three commercial proteases; flavouzyme, alcalase and corolase PP and these WPHs were analyzed for degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities of these WPHs were evaluated using ABTS method. Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity of all the hydrolysates i.e. flavourzyme (0.81 ± 0.04), alcalase (1.16 ± 0.05) and corolase (1.42 ± 0.12) was higher than the WPC (0.19 ± 0.01). Among these, whey protein hydrolysates prepared using corolase showed maximum antioxidant activity. Total 15 β-lactoglobulin, 1 α-lactoalbumin, and 6 β-casein derived peptide fragments were identified in the WPHs by LC-MS/MS. Due to their size and characteristic amino acid composition, all the identified peptides may contribute for the antioxidant activity. The strawberry and chocolate flavoured milk was supplemented with WPC and WPHs and 2 % addition has shown increase in antioxidant activity upto 42 %. The result suggests that WPH could be used as natural biofunctional ingredients in enhancing antioxidant properties of food products. PMID:26028704

  3. Pelagic fish hydrolysates as peptones for bacterial culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Lucie; Desbiens, Michel; Thibodeau, Jacinthe; Thibault, Sharon

    2009-11-01

    For several years in the Quebec fisheries' industry, landings of pelagic fish have been calculated at over 4000 tons. These under-exploited species, rich in lipids and proteins, could be used in valuable new products. In the present study, hydrolysates of mackerel and herring were produced and utilized as sources of peptones in the formulation of new bacterial culture media. The molecular weight distribution analysis showed that molecules present in the hydrolysates were lower than 1300 Da for herring, and lower than 930 Da for mackerel. The formulated media were compared with reference media using 6 bacterial strains (3 lactic acid (LAB) and 3 non-lactic). The absorbance (OD) and carbohydrate measurements revealed that the formulated media possessed similar yields in comparison with the reference media. Finally, the inhibition of Listeria innocua by LAB bacteriocins was evaluated. Results obtained for Pediococcus acidilactici demonstrated high activities for each medium studied. Thus, the medium containing herring peptones generated the highest bacteriocin titre (32768 AU/mL), followed by both the medium containing mackerel peptones and the MRS7 medium (16384 AU/mL). Each medium containing the fish hydrolysates efficiently supported the growth of the bacterial strains. Pelagic fish peptones are promising as a novel bacterial culture media. PMID:19940932

  4. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  5. Egg white hydrolysate promotes neuroprotection for neuropathic disorders induced by chronic exposure to low concentrations of mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Fernandez, Francisca; Moreno, Silvia; Uranga Ocio, José Antonio; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vera, Gema; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Castro, Marta Miguel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the egg white hydrolysate (EWH) acts on the neuropathic disorders associated with long-term Mercury (Hg) exposure in rats. 8- week-old male Wistar rats were treated for 60 days with: a) Control - saline solution (i.m.); b) Mercury - HgCl2 (1st dose 4.6μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07μg/kg/day, i.m.); c) Hydrolysate - EWH (1g/kg/day, gavage); d) Mercury and Hydrolysate. Mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey Hairs test; heat hyperalgesia by the plantar test; catalepsy by a modification of the "ring test" and spontaneous locomotor activity by a photocell activity chambers. Analyses were performed at 0, 30 and 60 days of treatment. Brain and plasma MDA, plasma NPSH and TNF-α determination and skin immunohistochemistry were performed at 60 days. Hg induced a reduction in mechanical sensitivity threshold at 30 and 60 days and in thermal sensitivity threshold at 60 days. At the end of treatment catalepsy was developed, but there was not significant alteration in spontaneous locomotor activity. Hg also increased brain and plasma MDA, plasma NPSH and TNF-α levels and the number of Merkel cell-neurite complex in the skin. EWH prevented the development of mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and catalepsy induced by Hg and the increase in MDA concentration in brain and plasma and in the number of Merkel cell-neurite complex in the skin. In conclusion, EWH promotes neuroprotection against the toxic effects caused by Hg, demonstrating a beneficial therapeutic potential. PMID:27350078

  6. Antioxidant Activities of Protein Hydrolysates from Little Hairtail (Trichiurus haumela) of East China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Jin; Yu-Xue Wu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated antioxidant properties of the little hairtail (Trichiurus haumela) protein hydrolysates obtained by commercial protease of Alcalase through using various antioxidant assays, including reducing power and free radical scavenging activities. The molecular mass distribution of hydrolysates was also examined to evaluate their relationship with antioxidant activity. The results showed that little hairtail protein hydrolysates had good ability to donate electron or hydrogen a...

  7. Study on Hydrolysis Conditions of Flavourzyme in Soybean Polypeptide Alcalase Hydrolysate and Soybean Polypeptide Refining Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yongsheng Ma; Lintong Wang; Xianhui Sun; Jianqiang Zhang; Junfeng Wang; Yue Li

    2014-01-01

    Soybean protein Alcalase hydrolysate was further hydrolyzed by adopting Flavourzyme as hydrolytic enzyme. The optimal hydrolysis conditions of Flavourzyme was that pH was 7.0 at temperature 50°C and E/S(ratio of enzyme and substrate) was 20LAPU/g. Bitterness value was reduced to 2 after Flavourzyme hydrolysis reaction in optimal hydrolysis conditions. The change of molecular weight distribution range from Alcalase hydrolysate to Flavourzyme hydrolysate was not obvious. DH (Degree of hydrolysi...

  8. Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zha, Y; Westerhuis, J.A.; Muilwijk, B.; Overkamp, K.M.; Nijmeijer, B.M.; Coulier, L; Smilde, A.K.; Punt, P J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates.Results: We studied the composition and fermentability of 24 different biomass hydrolysates. To create diversity, the 24 hydrolysates were prepared from six different biomass types, namely sugar cane bagasse, corn stover, wh...

  9. Opportunity for profitable investments in cellulosic biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research efforts to allow large-scale conversion of cellulose into biofuels are being undertaken in the US and EU. These efforts are designed to increase logistic and conversion efficiencies, enhancing the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuels. However, not enough attention has been paid to the future market conditions for cellulosic biofuels, which will determine whether the necessary private investment will be available to allow a cellulosic biofuels industry to emerge. We examine the future market for cellulosic biofuels, differentiating between cellulosic ethanol and 'drop-in' cellulosic biofuels that can be transported with petroleum fuels and have equivalent energy values. We show that emergence of a cellulosic ethanol industry is unlikely without costly government subsidies, in part because of strong competition from conventional ethanol and limits on ethanol blending. If production costs of drop-in cellulosic biofuels fall enough to become competitive, then their expansion will not necessarily cause feedstock prices to rise. As long as local supplies of feedstocks that have no or low-valued alternative uses exist, then expansion will not cause prices to rise significantly. If cellulosic feedstocks come from dedicated biomass crops, then the supply curves will have a steeper slope because of competition for land. - Research highlights: → The likelihood of a significant cellulosic ethanol industry in the US looks dim. → Drop-in biofuels made from cellulosic feedstocks have a more promising future. → The spatial dimension of markets for cellulosic feedstocks will be limited. → Corn ethanol will be a tough competitor for cellulosic ethanol.

  10. [Hygienic characteristics of food hydrolysates made from small ocean fish and krill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomko, G I; Prudnikova, L V; Prokopenko, O V; Orlova, T A

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the biological value of acid and enzymatic hydrolysates from capelin, luminous anchovy and krill. Hydrolysates were obtained with the use of protosubtilin G-10-X or hydrochloric acid. The products were found to contain 39 to 64% of "crude" protein, with about 40% of total nitrogen belonging to non-protein one, 0.47-2.07% of lipids, 29.7-54.3% of mineral substances including 26.6-52.4% of sodium chloride. All the hydrolysates were limited in tryptophan, the deficiency being more demonstrable in acid hydrolysates. Enzymatic hydrolysate from luminous anchovy was rich in sulfur-containing amino acids (score 112%), whereas the remaining products were marked by their deficiency (score 53-90%). The products were rich in lysine, leucine, isoleucine, and aromatic amino acids. The anabolic efficacy was discovered to be the highest for enzymatic hydrolysate from luminous anchovy, exceeding the analogous characteristics for casein. The biological value of hydrolysate from capelin and krill was lower than that of casein. This was supported by the amino acid analysis data. The assimilability of all hydrolysates was established as fairly high. Hydrolysates are employed for manufacturing broth bricks and pastes. PMID:4082514

  11. A thermodynamic investigation of the cellulose allomorphs: Cellulose(am), cellulose Iβ(cr), cellulose II(cr), and cellulose III(cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cellulose allomorphs were prepared and carefully characterized. • Measurements by oxygen bomb calorimetry, solution calorimetry, and by PPMS. • Thermodynamic properties for interconversion reactions of the cellulose allomorphs. • Review of the earlier literature with recalculation of property values. • Standard thermodynamic formation properties. - Abstract: The thermochemistry of samples of amorphous cellulose, cellulose I, cellulose II, and cellulose III was studied by using oxygen bomb calorimetry, solution calorimetry in which the solvent was cadoxen (a cadmium ethylenediamine solvent), and with a Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS) in zero magnetic field to measure standard massic heat capacities Cp,w∘ over the temperature range T = (2 to 302) K. The samples used in this study were prepared so as to have different values of crystallinity indexes CI and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, by Karl Fischer moisture determination, and by using gel permeation chromatography to determine the weight average degree of polymerization DPw. NMR measurements on solutions containing the samples dissolved in cadoxen were also performed in an attempt to resolve the issue of the equivalency or non-equivalency of the nuclei in the different forms of cellulose that were dissolved in cadoxen. While large differences in the NMR spectra for the various cellulose samples in cadoxen were not observed, one cannot be absolutely certain that these cellulose samples are chemically equivalent in cadoxen. Equations were derived which allow one to adjust measured property values of cellulose samples having a mass fraction of water wH2O to a reference value of the mass fraction of water wref. The measured thermodynamic properties (standard massic enthalpy of combustion ΔcHw∘, standard massic enthalpy of solution ΔsolHw∘, and Cp,w∘) were used in conjunction with the measured CI values to calculate values of the changes in the standard massic

  12. Microfibrillated cellulose: morphology and accessibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, F.W.; Casebier, R.L.; Hamilton, J.K.; Sandberg, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared by subjecting dilute slurries of cellulose fibers to repeated high-pressure homogenizing action. A highly microfibrillated product will have a gel-like appearance at 2% concentration in water. Such gels have pseudoplastic viscosity properties and are very fluid when stirred at high shear rate. The relative viscosity of 2% MFC dispersions may be used as a measure of the degree of homogenization or microfibrillation of a given wood cellulose pulp. The water retention value of an MFC product can also be used as an indicator for degree of homogenization. Structurally, MFC appears to be a web of interconnected fibrils and microfibrils, the latter having diameters in the range 10-100 nm as observed in scanning and transmission electron micrographs. Chemical studies have revealed that MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC toward chemical reagents is greatly increased. Higher reactivity was demonstrated in dilute cupriethylenediamine solubility, triphenylmethylation, acetylation, periodate oxidation, and mineral acid and cellulase enzyme hydrolysis rates. 16 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

  13. In vitro angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition by a peptide isolated from Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel (box jellyfish) venom hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Pamela Berilyn T; Rubio, Peter; Lirio, Stephen; Macabeo, Allan Patrick; Huang, Hsi-Ya; Corpuz, Mary Jho-Anne T; Villaflores, Oliver B

    2016-09-01

    The anti-angiotensin I converting enzyme activity of box jellyfish, Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel venom hydrolysate was studied. The venom extract was obtained by centrifugation and ultrasonication. Protein concentration of 12.99 μg/mL was determined using Bradford assay. The pepsin and papain hydrolysate was tested for its toxicity by Limit test following the OECD Guideline 425 using 5 female Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed that the hydrolysate is nontoxic with an LD50 above 2000 mg/kg. In vitro angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was determined using ACE kit-WST. Isolation of ACE inhibitory peptides using column chromatography with SP-Sephadex G-25 yielded 8 pooled fractions with fraction 3 (86.5%) exhibiting the highest activity. This was followed by reverse phase - high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with an octadecyl silica column (Inertsil ODS-3) using methanol:water 15:85 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Among the 13 fractions separated with the RP-HPLC, fraction 3.5 exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (84.1%). The peptide sequence ACPGPNPGRP (IC50 2.03 μM) from fraction 3.5 was identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight tandem mass spectroscopy analysis (MALDI-TOF/MS). PMID:27163886

  14. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol by a genetically engineered Bacillus sp. BRC1 using a hydrolysate of empty palm fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In Yeong; Park, Jang Min; Hong, Won-Kyung; Kim, Yun Seok; Jung, You Ree; Kim, Seung-Bum; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Mok; Kang, Ji Young; Oh, Baek-Rock; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

    2015-02-01

    A Bacillus species that produces 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), termed BRC1, was newly isolated, and a 2,3-BD dehydrogenase (Bdh) from this species was identified and characterized at the molecular and biochemical level. Sequence analysis revealed that Bdh is homologous to D-2,3-BD dehydrogenases. An analysis of the enzymatic properties of Bdh overexpressed in Escherichia coli confirmed the molecular results, showing preferred activity toward D-2,3-BD. Optimum pH, temperature, and kinetics determined for reductive and oxidative reactions support the preferential production of 2,3-BD during cell growth. Overexpression of bdh under the control of a xylose-inducible promoter resulted in increased enzyme activity and enhanced 2,3-BD production in Bacillus sp. BRC1. Additionally, a hydrolysate of cellulosic material, (empty palm fruit bunches), was successfully used for the enhanced production of 2,3-BD in the recombinant Bacillus strain. PMID:25135315

  15. Simultaneous production of α-cellulose and furfural from bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittaya Punsuvon

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated by steam explosion for the simultaneous production of furfural and α-cellulose pulp. The components of bagasse were fractionated after steam explosion. The details of the process are as follows. Bagasse was soaked in water for one night and steamed at temperatures varying between 206 and 223 C for 4 minutes. The steam exploded pulp was strained and washed with hot water to yield a liquor rich in hemicellulose-derived mono- and oligosaccharides. The remaining pulp was delignified by alkali for 120 minutes at 170C using, separately, NaOH load of 15, 20 and 25% of weight of the pulp. The delignified pulp was further bleached twice with 4% H2O2 charge of weight of the pulp to produce high α-cellulose pulp. The water liquor was evaporated and further hydrolysed and dehydrated with diluted H2SO4 in a stainless steel reactor to produce furfural. The result shows that the optimal pretreatment of steam explosion for 4 min at 218C leads to the yield of α-cellulose pulp at 193-201 g∙kg-1 of the original bagasse, and that furfural can be produced from xylose present in the liquor with a maximum conversion factor of 0.16.

  16. Radical scavenging and reducing ability of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Sivakumar; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2008-11-12

    Enzymatically hydrolyzed fish protein hydrolysates could be used as a source of antioxidative nutraceuticals. In our current work, we have investigated alkali-solubilized tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates for their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and for their reducing power. Tilapia protein isolate was prepared by an alkaline solubilization technique and used as a substrate for enzyme hydrolysis. Cryotin, protease A 'Amano' 2, protease N 'Amano', Neutrase and Flavourzyme, were used separately to determine their effectiveness in hydrolyzing tilapia protein isolate. ROS scavenging ability was quantified using an isoluminol enhanced chemiluminescent assay in the presence of a) hydrogen peroxide or b) mononuclear cells isolated from human blood. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the hydrolysates using 2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) or 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), were also investigated. Results showed that, in general, the TEAC, FRAP values and ROS scavenging ability of the hydrolysates increased with an increase in the degree of hydrolysis. Among the different hydrolysates, those prepared using Cryotin were most effective and Amano A2 hydrolysates were least effective in scavenging ABTS*(+) and ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide. However, FRAP assay showed that hydrolysates prepared using Flavourzyme were most effective, and Amano N and Neutrase hydrolysates were least effective in reducing ferric ions. No significant difference was observed among the hydrolysates produced with different enzymes in their ability to scavenge ROS generated by phorbol myristate acetate stimulated mononuclear cells. These results shed light on the in vitro ROS scavenging ability of alkali solubilized tilapia protein hydrolysates, as well as potential nutraceutical use of these hydrolysates. PMID:18828605

  17. The cellulose synthase companion proteins act non-redundantly with CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1/POM2 and CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 6

    OpenAIRE

    Endler, Anne; Schneider, Rene; Kesten, Christopher; Edwin R Lampugnani; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cellulose is a cell wall constituent that is essential for plant growth and development, and an important raw material for a range of industrial applications. Cellulose is synthesized at the plasma membrane by massive cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes that track along cortical microtubules in elongating cells of Arabidopsis through the activity of the protein CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1 (CSI1). In a recent study we identified another family of proteins that also are associated ...

  18. All natural cellulose acetate-Lemongrass essential oil antimicrobial nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; D'autilia, Francesca; Garzoni, Alice; Bonferoni, Cristina; Scarpellini, Alice; Brunetti, Virgilio; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-08-30

    Nanocapsules and nanoparticles play an essential role in the delivery of pharmaceutical agents in modern era, since they can be delivered in specific tissues and cells. Natural polymers, such as cellulose acetate, are becoming very important due to their availability, biocompatibility, absence of toxicity and biodegradability. In parallel, essential oils are having continuous growth in biomedical applications due to the inherent active compounds that they contain. A characteristic example is lemongrass oil that has exceptional antimicrobial properties. In this work, nanocapsules of cellulose acetate with lemongrass oil were developed with the solvent/anti-solvent method with resulting diameter tailored between 95 and 185nm. Various physico-chemical and surface analysis techniques were employed to investigate the formation of the nanocapsules. These all-natural nanocapsules found to well bioadhere to mucous membranes and to have very good antimicrobial properties at little concentrations against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:26827919

  19. Degradation of cellulose in the presence of ash; Nedbrytningsmoenster foer cellulosa i naervaro av aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Malin; Ecke, Holger [Luleaa Univ. of Tech. (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    This project evaluates the risks and possibilities that come up in mixtures of ash and cellulose. The focus is on alkaline degradation of cellulose and the impact on metal leaching. The literature survey shows that a combination of ash and cellulose affects both the mobility of metals and the degradation of cellulose in many ways. A combination of ash and cellulose could have positive effects on the degradation of cellulose since ash makes the pH rise in the material. Normally the pH decreases in a waste deposit with time, which results in a reduced biological degradation of the cellulose since the methanogenic organisms are sensitive for low pH values. However, even if the pH increases when cellulose is mixed with ash the methanogenic organisms could be inhibit by toxic metals. The highest degradation rate for cellulose is at natural pH values because of an effective biological degradation. If alkaline conditions appear when cellulose is mixed with ash or in contact with the leaching water the cellulose is going to be degraded by a slower process: non-biological degradation (peeling-off reactions). The main degradation product from peeling-off reactions of cellulose is isosaccharinic acid (ISA). ISA forms complex with metals, which results in increased mobilization and leaching of metals. From biological degradation the degradation products are mainly CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O under aerobic conditions and CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} under anaerobic conditions. In combinations of ash and cellulose is it possible that the formed carbon dioxide cause carbonation and fixation of metals in the ash. As mentioned, ash could result in an increment of the pH value in cellulose materials, but if the starting point is pure ash a mixture with cellulose could make the pH value decrease, in extreme cases down to 4-5, because of biological degradation. Therefore it is possible that the metal mobilization in ash will increase if the ash is mixed with cellulose. Increased leaching of

  20. Microbial Cellulose Assembly in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. Malcolm, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Based on evidence indicating a possible correlation between hypo-gravity conditions and alteration of cellulose production by the gram negative bacterium, Acetobacter xylinum, a ground-based study for a possible long term Space Shuttle flight has been conducted. The proposed experiment for A. xylinum aboard the Shuttle is the BRIC (Biological Research in a Canister), a metal container containing spaces for nine Petri plates. Using a common experimental design, the cellulose production capability as well as the survivability of the A. xylinum strains NQ5 and AY201 have been described. It should now be possible to use the BRIC for the first long term microgravity experiments involving the biosynthesis of cellulose.

  1. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Sadat Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4 D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family.

  2. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Samaneh Sadat; Mohammadi, Kourosh; Ji, Kong-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4) D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family. PMID:27314060

  3. Chemical modification of cellulose for electrospinning applications

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Ferrer, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to develop technology for producing cellulose fatty acid esters that later will be used to produce fibrous materials by means of electrospinning. Main material of the study is cellulose-stearate which is a polymer synthesised by reaction between stearoyl chloride and cellulose. The experimental part consists of synthesis of it by chemical modification of cellulose using ionic liquid as a reaction media. In addition, ionic liquid is also synthesised from the beginning....

  4. Filtration properties of bacterial cellulose membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, Janika

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose has the same molecular formula as cellulose from plant origin, but it is characterized by several unique properties including high purity, crystallinity and mechanical strength. These properties are dependent on parameters such as the bacterial strain used, the cultivation conditions and post-growth processing. The possibility to achieve bacterial cellulose membranes with different properties by varying these parameters could make bacterial cellulose an interesting materi...

  5. Biocompatibility of Bacterial Cellulose Based Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Omar P. Troncoso; Solene Commeaux; Torres, Fernando G.

    2012-01-01

    Some bacteria can synthesize cellulose when they are cultivated under adequate conditions. These bacteria produce a mat of cellulose on the top of the culture medium, which is formed by a three-dimensional coherent network of pure cellulose nanofibers. Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been widely used in different fields, such as the paper industry, electronics and tissue engineering due to its remarkable mechanical properties, conformability and porosity. Nanocomposites based on BC have received...

  6. A Molecular Description of Cellulose Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Joshua T.; Morgan, Jacob L.W.; Zimmer, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, and certain organisms from bacteria to plants and animals synthesize cellulose as an extracellular polymer for various biological functions. Humans have used cellulose for millennia as a material and an energy source, and the advent of a lignocellulosic fuel industry will elevate it to the primary carbon source for the burgeoning renewable energy sector. Despite the biological and societal importance of cellulose, the molecular mechanism by ...

  7. Producing Fish Protein Hydrolysates from Mackerel By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Luísa De Sousa Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Portugal is one of the largest consumers of fishery products in Europe. This consumption involves a large amount of discarded raw material, such as rejected fish in selling auctions and the generation of by-products in industrial production processes. The by-products in the canning industry alone reach 40% of the raw material, while the frozen fish industries may reach 10-50% of the raw material (INE, 2013). Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) are one of the most promising technologies for th...

  8. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SINDAYIKENGERA Séverin; XIA Wen-shui

    2006-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard.The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements.

  9. Competitne elisa for the detection of gluten hydrolysate and applications thereof.

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Cormán, Enrique; García Ortiz, Enrique; Ferre López, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a competitive ELISA kit, which is used to identify gluten hydrolysate in food and raw materials, and to the use of said kit. The inventive kit is advantageous over other kits in that it can be used to identify gluten hydrolysate.

  10. Structure Elucidation of ACE-inhibitory and Antithrombotic Peptides Isolated from Mackerel Skin Gelatine Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Khiari, Zied; Rico, Daniel; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Martin-Diana, Ana Belen

    2013-01-01

    The fish-processing industry generates significant amounts of waste and by-products that are usually discarded. This study investigated the preparation of bioactive gelatine peptides from fish skin. Gelatine was extracted from mackerel (Scomber scombrus) skin and hydrolysed by pepsin for 1, 2, 6 and 24 h. All hydrolysates were screened for antioxidant, ACE-inhibitory and antithrombotic activities.

  11. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory and antioxidative properties of milk protein-derived dipeptides and hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Selected synthetic dipeptides and milk protein hydrolysates were evaluated for their dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory properties, and their superoxide (SO) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. DPP-IV inhibition was seen with eight out of the twelve dipeptides and 5 of the twelve hydrolysates studied. Trp-Val inhibited DPP-IV, however, inhibition was not observed with the reverse peptide Val-Trp. The most potent hydrolysate inhibitors were generated from casein (CasH2) and lactoferrin (LFH1). Two Trp containing dipeptides, Trp-Val and Val-Trp, and three lactoferrin hydrolysates scavenged DPPH. The dipeptides had higher SO EC(50) values compared to the milk protein hydrolysates (arising from three lactoferrin and one whey protein hydrolysates). Higher molecular mass fractions of the milk protein hydrolysates were associated with the SO scavenging activity. Trp-Val and one lactoferrin hydrolysate (LFH1) were multifunctional displaying both DPP-IV inhibitory and antioxidant (SO and DPPH scavenging) activities. These compounds may have potential as dietary ingredients in the management of type 2 diabetes by virtue of their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species and to extend the half-life of incretin molecules. PMID:23219487

  12. Production of Defatted Palm Kernel Cake Protein Hydrolysate as a Valuable Source of Natural Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zarei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce a valuable protein hydrolysate from palm kernel cake (PKC for the development of natural antioxidants. Extracted PKC protein was hydrolyzed using different proteases (alcalase, chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, and bromelain. Subsequently, antioxidant activity and degree of hydrolysis (DH of each hydrolysate were evaluated using DPPH• radical scavenging activity and O-phthaldialdehyde spectrophotometric assay, respectively. The results revealed a strong correlation between DH and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates, where among these, protein hydrolysates produced by papain after 38 h hydrolysis exhibited the highest DH (91 ± 0.1% and DPPH• radical scavenging activity (73.5 ± 0.25% compared to the other hydrolysates. In addition, fractionation of the most effective (potent hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated a direct association between hydrophobicity and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates. Isoelectric focusing tests also revealed that protein hydrolysates with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI have the highest radical scavenging activity, although few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good antioxidant potential.

  13. Study on Hydrolysis Conditions of Flavourzyme in Soybean Polypeptide Alcalase Hydrolysate and Soybean Polypeptide Refining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Ma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean protein Alcalase hydrolysate was further hydrolyzed by adopting Flavourzyme as hydrolytic enzyme. The optimal hydrolysis conditions of Flavourzyme was that pH was 7.0 at temperature 50°C and E/S(ratio of enzyme and substrate was 20LAPU/g. Bitterness value was reduced to 2 after Flavourzyme hydrolysis reaction in optimal hydrolysis conditions. The change of molecular weight distribution range from Alcalase hydrolysate to Flavourzyme hydrolysate was not obvious. DH (Degree of hydrolysis of soybean protein hydrolysate was increased to 24.2% which was improved 3.5% than Alcalase hydrolysate. Protein recovery proportion was increased to 73.2% which was improved 0.8% than Alcalase hydrolysate. Soybean polypeptide Flavourzyme hydrolysate was decolorized with activated carbon which optimal dosage was 1.2% solution amount (w/w. Anion/cation exchange process was used in the desalination processing of soybean polypeptide. Ratio of anion resin and cation resin was 2:3(V/V. The volume of hydrolysate processed was 5 times as the volume of anion resin. Ash content of soybean peptide solution reduced to 2.11% (dry basis, salinity decreased by 86% after desalination processing.

  14. Effects of algal hydrolysate as reaction medium on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algal biomass has been proposed as a source of lipids and sugars for biofuel productions. However, a substantial portion of potentially valuable algal material remains as a liquid hydrolysate after sugar and lipid extractions. This study examined the effects of an algal hydrolysate on the enzymatic...

  15. Evaluation of Catfish Skin Hydrolysates as a Glazing Material for Air-Blast Frozen Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish is one of the most widely consumed seafood in the United States. A by-product of this consumption is a large quantity of catfish skin (CS), approximately 8,200 metric tons in 2014. Enzymatic hydrolysis is used to produce protein hydrolysates from the skin. These hydrolysates have considerabl...

  16. The trafficking and behavior of cellulose synthase and a glimpse of potential cellulose synthesis regulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Logan BASHLINE; Juan DU; Ying GU

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose biosynthesis is a topic of intensive research not only due to the significance of cellulose in the integrity of plant cell walls,but also due to the potential of using cellulose,a natural carbon source,in the production ot biofuels.Characterization of the composition,regulation,and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) is critical to an understanding of cellulose biosynthesis as well as the characterization of additional proteins that contribute to the production of cellulose either through direct interactions with CSCs or through indirect mechanisms.In this review,a highlight of a few proteins that appear to affect cellulose biosynthesis,which includes:KORRIGAN (KOR),Cellulose Synthase-Interactive Protein 1 (CSI1),and the poplar microtubule-associated protein,PttMAP20,will accompany a description of cellulose synthase (CESA) behavior and a discussion of CESA trafficking compartments that might act in the regulation of cellulose biosynthesis.

  17. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from high pressure-pretreated isolated pea proteins have better antioxidant properties than similar hydrolysates produced from heat pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Chao, Dongfang; Lin, Lin; He, Rong; Jung, Stephanie; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-12-01

    Isolated pea protein (IPP) dispersions (1%, w/v) were pretreated with high pressure (HP) of 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 5 min at 24 °C or high temperature (HT) for 30 min at 100 °C prior to hydrolysis with 1% (w/w) Alcalase. HP pretreatment of IPP at 400 and 600 MPa levels led to significantly (P40%) oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) of hydrolysates. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of pea protein hydrolysates were also significantly (P<0.05) improved (25%, 20%, and 40%, respectively) by HP pretreatment of IPP. Protein hydrolysates from HT IPP showed no ORAC, superoxide or hydroxyl scavenging activity but had significantly (P<0.05) improved (80%) ferric reducing antioxidant power. The protein hydrolysates had weaker antioxidant properties than glutathione but overall, the HP pretreatment was superior to HT pretreatment in facilitating enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from IPP. PMID:26041225

  18. Adsorption and desorption of cellulose derivatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Cellulose derivatives, in particular carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are used in many (industrial) applications. The aim of this work is to obtain insight into the adsorption mechanism of cellulose derivatives on solid-liquid interfaces.In chapter 1 of this thesis we discuss some appl

  19. Iodine catalyzed acetylation of starch and cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch and cellulose, earth's most abundant biopolymers, are of tremendous economic importance. Over 90% of cotton and 50% of wood are made of cellulose. Wood and cotton are the major resources for all cellulose products such as paper, textiles, construction materials, cardboard, as well as such c...

  20. Bioengineering cellulose-hemicellulose networks in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obembe, O.

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between cellulose and hemicellulose in the cell walls are important in the industrial application of the cellulose (natural) fibres. We strive to modify these interactions (i) by interfering with cellulose biosynthesis and (ii) by direct interference of the

  1. Separation of galactose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid in acid hydrolysate of agarose by nanofiltration and electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Na, Jeong-Geol; Yang, Ji-Won; Chang, Yong Keun

    2013-07-01

    A two-stage membrane process for the separation of galactose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid (LA) has been proposed. The first step of nanofiltration (NF) is to remove 5-HMF and LA from galactose solution obtained by the hydrolysis of agarose, the main component of red algal galactan for the reduction of its microbial toxicity. 5-HMF and LA are inhibitory to fermentation but at the same time useful compounds themselves with many applications. The second step of electrodialysis (ED) is to separate 5-HMF and LA in the permeate from NF. More than 91% of 5-HMF and up to 62% of LA could be removed from agarose hydrolysate, while galactose was almost completely retained by NF. Further removal of LA was expected to be possible with no loss of galactose by operating the NF process in a diafiltration mode. 5-HMF and LA could be effectively separated from each other by ED. PMID:23672940

  2. Gelatin hydrolysates from farmed Giant catfish skin using alkaline proteases and its antioxidative function of simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketnawa, Sunantha; Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2016-02-01

    This work aims to evaluate the ability of different alkaline proteases to prepare active gelatin hydrolysates. Fish skin gelatin was hydrolysed by visceral alkaline-proteases from Giant catfish, commercial trypsin, and Izyme AL®. All antioxidant activity indices of the hydrolysates increased with increasing degree of hydrolysis (Pskin, could serve as a potential source of functional food ingredients for health promotion. PMID:26304317

  3. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Isik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels.

  4. Impact of Biofield Treatment on Chemical and Thermal Properties of Cellulose and Cellulose Acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose being an excellent biopolymer has cemented its place firmly in many industries as a coating material, textile, composites, and biomaterial applications. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of biofield treatment on physicochemical properties of cellulose and cellulose acetate. The cellulose and cellulose acetate were exposed to biofield and further the chemical and thermal properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction study asserted that the biofield treatment did...

  5. The hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity of Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Chalé, Francisco; Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Betancur Ancona, David; Acevedo Fernández, Juan José; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysates and peptide fractions (PF) obtained from M. pruriens protein concentrates with commercial and digestive enzymatic systems were studied for their hypolipidemic and antithrombotic activities. Hydrolysates obtained with Pepsin-Pancreatin (PP) and their peptide fractions inhibited cholesterol micellar solubility with a maximum value of 1.83% in PP. Wistar rats were used to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of hydrolysates and PF. The higher reductions of cholesterol and triglyceride levels were exhibited by PP and both peptide fractions Alcalase®-Flavourzyme® hydrolysate (AF) at a dose of 15 mg kg(-1) of animal weight. PF > 10 kDa from both hydrolysates showed the maximum antithrombotic activity with values of 33.33% for PF > 10 kDa from AF and 31.72% for PF > 10 kDa from PP. The results suggest that M. pruriens bioactive peptides with the hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity might be utilized as nutraceuticals. PMID:26505152

  6. Characterization of structural and functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates from surimi processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongle; Li, Xianghong; Chen, Zhijun; Yu, Jian; Wang, Faxiang; Wang, Jianhui

    2014-05-15

    Structural and functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) from surimi processing by-products, prepared by Protamex and Alcalase, were evaluated. As the DH increased, the zeta potentials of the hydrolysates increased (p>0.05). The surface hydrophobicity of the hydrolysates was significantly affected by DH (phydrolysate with DH 10%, prepared by Protamex, contained more large protein molecules than did the others. Hydrolysis by both enzymes increased solubility to more than 65% over a wide pH range (pH 2-10). The interfacial activities of hydrolysates decreased with increasing DH (phydrolysate with DH 10%, prepared by Protamex, exhibited the best interfacial properties among all of the samples. Thermal properties were also affected by the hydrolysis. The results reveal that structures and functionalities of the hydrolysates were determined both by DH and enzyme type employed. PMID:24423557

  7. Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Gadus morrhua Skin Collagen and Molecular Weight Distribution of Hydrolysates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Jian-xin; ZHAO Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Process parameters on enzymatic hydrolysis and molecular weight (MW) distribution of collagen hydrolysates from Gadus morrhua skin were investigated.The optimal process parameters were obtained by the single-factor and orthogonal experiments.The molecular weight distribution of hydrolysates was determined using both Sephadex G25 partition and high speed liquid chromatography electricity spray mass spectrum (HPLC-ESI-MS).Collagen hydrolysates were first gained by an alkaline protease "alcalase" for 3 h at temperature (50℃),pH (10.0),substrate concentration (75 g L-1),and E/S (3%).The molecular weight distribution of collagen hydrolysates ranged from 300 to 1 500 Da,and most of peptides were under 1 200 Da.Sephadex G25 partition and HPLC-ESI-MS should be successfully employed to determine the molecular weight distribution of collagen hydrolysates.

  8. High performance cellulose nanocomposites: comparing the reinforcing ability of bacterial cellulose and nanofibrillated cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K. Y.; Tammelin, T.; Schulfter, K.; Kiiskinen, H.; Samela, J.; Bismarck, A.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the surface and bulk properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and bacterial cellulose (BC), as well as their reinforcing ability in polymer nanocomposites. BC possesses higher critical surface tension of 57 mN m(-1) compared to NFC (41 mN m(-1)). The thermal degradation temperature in both nitrogen and air atmosphere of BC was also found to be higher than that of NFC. These results are in good agreement with the higher crystallinity of BC as determined by XRD, meas...

  9. Use of Different Proteases to Obtain Flaxseed Protein Hydrolysates with Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamać, Magdalena; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Kulczyk, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of flaxseed protein hydrolysates obtained using five different enzymes was evaluated. Proteins were isolated from flaxseed cake and were separately treated with papain, trypsin, pancreatin, Alcalase and Flavourzyme. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) was determined as the percentage of cleaved peptide bonds using a spectrophotometric method with o-phthaldialdehyde. The distribution of the molecular weights (MW) of the hydrolysis products was profiled using Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Tricine-SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) separations. The antioxidant activities of the protein isolate and hydrolysates were probed for their radical scavenging activity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) and photochemiluminescence (PCL-ACL) assays, and for their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ability to bind Fe(2+). The hydrolysates were more effective as antioxidants than the protein isolate in all systems. The PCL-ACL values of the hydrolysates ranged from 7.2 to 35.7 μmol Trolox/g. Both the FRAP and ABTS(•+) scavenging activity differed among the hydrolysates to a lower extent, with the ranges of 0.20-0.24 mmol Fe(2+)/g and 0.17-0.22 mmol Trolox/g, respectively. The highest chelating activity (71.5%) was noted for the pancreatin hydrolysate. In general, the hydrolysates obtained using Alcalase and pancreatin had the highest antioxidant activity, even though their DH (15.4% and 29.3%, respectively) and the MW profiles of the peptides varied substantially. The O₂(•-) scavenging activity and the ability to chelate Fe(2+) of the Flavourzyme hydrolysate were lower than those of the Alcalase and pancreatin hydrolysates. Papain was the least effective in releasing the peptides with antioxidant activity. The study showed that the type of enzyme used for flaxseed protein hydrolysis determines the antioxidant activity

  10. Structural and Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hemp Seed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A. Malomo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin of hemp seed proteins (HSP. The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight to spontaneously hypertensive rats and systolic blood pressure (SBP-lowering effects measured over a 24 h period. Size exclusion chromatography mainly showed a 300–9560 Da peptide size range for the HPHs, while amino acid composition data had the 2% pepsin HPH with the highest cysteine content. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher fluorescence intensities for the peptides when compared to the unhydrolyzed hemp seed protein. Overall, the 1% alcalase HPH was the most effective (p < 0.05 SBP-reducing agent (−32.5 ± 0.7 mmHg after 4 h, while the pepsin HPHs produced longer-lasting effects (−23.0 ± 1.4 mmHg after 24 h. We conclude that an optimized combination of the fast-acting HPH (1% alcalase with the longer-lasting HPHs (2% and 4% pepsin could provide daily effective SBP reductions.

  11. Antioxidative activity of whey protein hydrolysates in a liposomal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Ramos, E A; Xiong, Y L

    2001-12-01

    Whey protein isolate (WPI) with or without preheating (90 degrees C for 5 min) was hydrolyzed for 0.5 to 6 h using four pure enzymes (pepsin, papain, trypsin, and chymotrypsin) and three commercial crude proteases. After determining the degree of hydrolysis, the hydrolysates were incubated (37 degrees C, 1 h) with a liposome oxidizing system (50 mM FeCl3/0.1 mM ascorbate, pH 7.0). Lipid oxidation was measured by determining the concentrations of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS). The degree of hydrolysis of WPI ranged from 4 to 37% depending on the enzymes used and whether the substrate was heated or not. WPI hydrolysates prepared by pure enzyme treatments did not prevent TBARS formation in the oxidative model system, but WPI hydrolyzed by the commercial crude enzymes, especially protease F, exhibited antioxidant activity. The antioxidative potential of hydrolyzed WPI was not affected by the degree of hydrolysis, and it was improved by preheat treatment in only some samples. PMID:11814013

  12. Structural and Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hemp Seed Protein Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malomo, Sunday A; Onuh, John O; Girgih, Abraham T; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin) of hemp seed proteins (HSP). The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs) were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats and systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects measured over a 24 h period. Size exclusion chromatography mainly showed a 300-9560 Da peptide size range for the HPHs, while amino acid composition data had the 2% pepsin HPH with the highest cysteine content. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher fluorescence intensities for the peptides when compared to the unhydrolyzed hemp seed protein. Overall, the 1% alcalase HPH was the most effective (p alcalase) with the longer-lasting HPHs (2% and 4% pepsin) could provide daily effective SBP reductions. PMID:26378569

  13. Lignocellulosic hydrolysate inhibitors selectively inhibit/deactivate cellulase performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhlongo, Sizwe I; den Haan, Riaan; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we monitored the inhibition and deactivation effects of various compounds associated with lignocellulosic hydrolysates on individual and combinations of cellulases. Tannic acid representing polymeric lignin residues strongly inhibited cellobiohydrolase 1 (CBH1) and β-glucosidase 1 (BGL1), but had a moderate inhibitory effect on endoglucanase 2 (EG2). Individual monomeric lignin residues had little or no inhibitory effect on hydrolytic enzymes. However, coniferyl aldehyde and syringaldehyde substantially decreased the activity of CBH1 and deactivated BGL1. Acetic and formic acids also showed strong inhibition of BGL1 but not CBH1 and EG2, whereas tannic, acetic and formic acid strongly inhibited a combination of CBH1 and EG2 during Avicel hydrolysis. Diminishing enzymatic hydrolysis is largely a function of inhibitor concentration and the enzyme-inhibitor relationship, rather than contact time during the hydrolysis process (i.e. deactivation). This suggests that decreased rates of hydrolysis during the enzymatic depolymerisation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates may be imparted by other factors related to substrate crystallinity and accessibility. PMID:26453468

  14. Production of bacterial cellulose from alternate feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. N. Thompson; M. A. Hamilton

    2000-05-07

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS and HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  15. Production of Bacterial Cellulose from Alternate Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neil; Hamilton, Melinda Ann

    2000-05-01

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS & HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  16. Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose/Inorganic Gel of Bentonite Composite by In Situ Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Qi, Gao-Xiang; Huang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Hai-Rong; Luo, Jun; Chen, Xue-Fang; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xin-De

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the possibility of Bacterial cellulose/Inorganic Gel of Bentonite (BC/IGB) composite production using in situ method, the BC/IGB composite was successfully produced by in situ modification of BC in both HS medium and corncob hydrolysate. The results showed that the BC/IGB composite obtained in HS medium (one classical medium for BC production) had a higher water holding capacity, but the water retention capacity of the BC/IGB composite obtained in corncob hydrolysate was better. The performance of BC/IGB composite depended on the environment of in situ modification. Using different media showed significant influence on the sugar utilization and BC yield. In addition, BC/IGB composite produced by in situ method was compared with that produced by ex situ method, and the results shows that water holding capacity of BC/IGB composite obtained through in situ method was better. XRD results showed the crystallinity of BC/IGB composite related little to its performance as water absorbent. Overall, in situ modification is appropriate for further production of BC composite and other clay materials. PMID:26843699

  17. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  18. Polymorphy in native cellulose: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a number of earlier studies, the authors developed a model of cellulose structure based on the existence of two stable, linearly ordered conformations of the cellulose chain that are dominant in celluloses I and II, respectively. The model rests on extensive Raman spectral observations together with conformational considerations and solid-state 13C-NMR studies. More recently, they have proposed, on the basis of high resolution solid-state 13C-NMR observations, that native celluloses are composites of two distinct crystalline forms that coexist in different proportions in all native celluloses. In the present work, they examine the Raman spectra of the native celluloses, and reconcile their view of conformational differences with the new level of crystalline polymorphy of native celluloses revealed in the solid-state 13C-NMR investigations

  19. Removal of heavy metals from emerging cellulosic low-cost adsorbents: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, D. S.; Jain, C. K.; Yadav, Anuj K.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a major problems in the environment. The impact of toxic metal ions can be minimized by different technologies, viz., chemical precipitation, membrane filtration, oxidation, reverse osmosis, flotation and adsorption. But among them, adsorption was found to be very efficient and common due to the low concentration of metal uptake and economically feasible properties. Cellulosic materials are of low cost and widely used, and very promising for the future. These are available in abundant quantity, are cheap and have low or little economic value. Different forms of cellulosic materials are used as adsorbents such as fibers, leaves, roots, shells, barks, husks, stems and seed as well as other parts also. Natural and modified types of cellulosic materials are used in different metal detoxifications in water and wastewater. In this review paper, the most common and recent materials are reviewed as cellulosic low-cost adsorbents. The elemental properties of cellulosic materials are also discussed along with their cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin contents.

  20. Treatment of tympanic membrane perforation using bacterial cellulose: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Coelho Alves Silveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Promising treatments for tympanic membrane perforation closure have been studied. Therapies derived from tissue engineering probably eliminate the need for conventional surgery. Bacterial cellulose is presented as an alternative that is safe, biocompatible, and has low toxicity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect on healing of direct application of a bacterial cellulose graft on the tympanic membrane compared to the conventional approach with autologous fascia. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial. Forty patients with tympanic membrane perforations secondary to chronic otitis media were included, and were randomly assigned to an experimental group (20, treated with a bacterial cellulose graft (BC and control group (20, treated with autologous temporal fascia (fascia. We evaluated the surgical time, hospital stay, time of epithelialization and the rate of tympanic perforation closure. Hospital costs were compared. The statistical significance level accepted was established at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The closure of perforations was similar in both groups. The average operation time in the fascia group was 76.50 min versus 14.06 min bacterial cellulose in the group (p = 0.0001. The hospital cost by the Brazilian public health system was R$ 600.00 for the bacterial cellulose group, and R$ 7778.00 for the fascia group (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Bacterial cellulose grafts promoted the closure of the tympanic membrane perforations, and were demonstrated to be innovative, effective, safe, minimally invasive, efficacious and to have a very low cost.

  1. Generation, Fractionation, and Characterization of Iron-Chelating Protein Hydrolysate from Palm Kernel Cake Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mohammad; Ghanbari, Rahele; Tajabadi, Naser; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-02-01

    Palm kernel cake protein was hydrolyzed with different proteases namely papain, bromelain, subtilisin, flavourzyme, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin to generate different protein hydrolysates. Peptide content and iron-chelating activity of each hydrolysate were evaluated using O-phthaldialdehyde-based spectrophotometric method and ferrozine-based colorimetric assay, respectively. The results revealed a positive correlation between peptide contents and iron-chelating activities of the protein hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain exhibited the highest peptide content of 10.5 mM and highest iron-chelating activity of 64.8% compared with the other hydrolysates. Profiling of the papain-generated hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography fractionation indicated a direct association between peptide content and iron-chelating activity in most of the fractions. Further fractionation using isoelectric focusing also revealed that protein hydrolysate with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) had the highest iron-chelating activity, although a few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good metal chelating potential. After identification and synthesis of papain-generated peptides, GGIF and YLLLK showed among the highest iron-chelating activities of 56% and 53%, whereas their IC50 were 1.4 and 0.2 μM, respectively. PMID:26720491

  2. Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

  3. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  4. Particle properties of sugar maple hemicellulose hydrolysate and its influence on growth and metabolic behavior of Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhijie; Shupe, Alan; Liu, Tingjun; Hu, Ruofei; Amidon, Thomas E; Liu, Shijie

    2011-01-01

    In this study the influence of the insoluble solids in nano-filtrated sugar maple hemicellulosic hydrolysate on the metabolic behavior of Pichia stiptis was investigated. The particle properties of hemicellulosic hydrolysate were analyzed. Phosphoric acid and ammonium (PA) were applied to remove the particles. The metabolic behavior and growth property of P. stipitis in particle--removed hydrolysate was measured. Results demonstrated that the average particle size and zeta potential of the untreated hydrolysate were 2266.9±78.2 nm and -6.09±0.49 mV. Xylose consumption and ethanol production rate were significantly decreased when particle content is greater than 1.63 g/L. Because the majority of particles (34 g/L) were removed from hydrolysates by phosphoric acid and ammonium treatment, the fermentability of the hydrolysate was significantly improved. These results indicated particles play an important role in hydrolysate inhibition effect. PMID:20855196

  5. Characterization of the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Two Cow's Milk Hydrolysates – A Study in Brown Norway Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    immunogenicity. Only antibodies from rats sensitized to intact BLG with adjuvant were able to bind the hydrolysates, and the whey‐based hydrolysate only showed immunogenicity when dosed with adjuvant. This study showed that hydrolysates can be evaluated by an i.p. animal model, but that the choice of in vitro......Hypoallergenic infant formulas based on hydrolysed milk proteins are used in the diet for cow's milk allergic infants. For a preclinical evaluation of the immunogenicity and allergenicity of new protein ingredients for such hypoallergenic infant formulas as well as for the investigation of which...... characteristics of hydrolysates that contribute to allergenicity, in vivo models are valuable tools. In this study, we examine the immunogenicity and allergenicity of two hydrolysates in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model, using i.p. dosing, which allows for the use of small quantities. Intact BLG, hydrolysed BLG and...

  6. Toxic action/toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathway, D E

    2000-02-01

    Some six or so physiological systems, essential to normal mammalian life, are involved in poisoning; an intoxication that causes severe injury to any one of them could be life threatening. Reversible chemical reactions showing Scatchard-type binding are exemplified by CO, CN- and cyclodiene neurotoxin insecticide intoxications, and by antigen-antibody complex formation. Haemoglobin (Hb) molecular biology accounts for the allosteric co-operativity and other characteristics of CO poisoning, CN- acts as a powerful cytochrome oxidase inhibitor, and antigen binding in a deep antibody cleft between two domains equipped with epitopes for antigen-binding groups explains hapten-specific immune reactions. Covalent chemical reactions with second-order (SN2) kinetics characterize Hg and Cd poisonings, the reactions of organophosphates and phosphonates with acetylcholinesterase and neurotoxic esterase and the reaction sequence whereby Paraquat accepts electrons and generates superoxide under aerobic conditions. Indirect carcinogens require cytochrome P450 activation to form DNA adducts in target-organ DNA and cause cancer, but a battery of detoxifying enzymes clustered with the P450 system must be overcome. Thus, S-metabolism competes ineffectively with target DNA for reactive vinyl chloride (VC) metabolites, epoxide hydrolase is important to the metabolism and carcinogenicity of alfatoxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, etc.), and the non-toxic 2-naphthylhydroxylamine N-glucuronide acts as a transport form in 2-naphthylamine bladder cancer. VC liver-cancer pathogenesis is explicable in terms of the presence of the glutathione S-transferase detoxifying system in hepatocytes and its absence from the fibroblastic elements, and of the VC concentrations reaching the liver by different administrative routes. In VC carcinogenicity, chemical reactions give imidazo-cyclization products with nucleoside residues of target DNA, and in benzene leukaemia, Z

  7. In vitro antioxidant, antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities of collagen hydrolysates of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Miroslava Suárez-Jiménez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHydrolysates from two different jumbo squid byproducts (fins and arms, produced by trypsin and protease type XIV were compared on the basis of their antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays, antimutagenic (Ames test and antiproliferative (Transformation cell proliferation in M12.C3F6 murine cells activities. Jumbo squid arms had higher content of collagen than fins, and their hydrolysates had the highest antioxidant activity. Also, jumbo squid arm-derived collagen hydrolyzed with protease XIV showed the highest antimutagenic activity. The four hydrolysates obtained showed low antiproliferative activity, however they are susceptible for further studies to be applied as food additives.

  8. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates of deer bone gelatin in a liposome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yuhong; GAO Tian; ZHANG Ligang

    2007-01-01

    Gelatin extracted from deer bone was hydrolyzed for 3.5-120 min. The degree of hydrolysis was higher from Alcalase-hydrolyzed gelatin than that from neutral proteinase-hydrolyzed gelatin. Alcalase-hydrolyzed gelatin exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than that of neutral proteinase-hydrolyzed gelatin. Hydrolysates showed strong radical-scavenging ability and Fe2+-chelating activity, both of which were influenced by hydrolysis time. Although nonhydrolyzed gelatin displayed a certain antioxidative effect, it was far less than that of hydrolysates. The hydrolysates of deer bone gelatin can work as a radical stabilizer and metal ion chelator to inhibit lipid oxidation.

  9. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders. PMID:27156453

  10. Surface modification of cellulose fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Naceur Belgacem

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches to the modification of cellulose fibres are described, namely: (i physical treatments such as corona or plasma treatments under different atmospheres; (ii grafting with hydrophobic molecules using well-known sizing compounds; (iii grafting with bi-functional molecules, leaving one of the functions available for further exploitation; and (iv grafting with organometallic compounds. The modified surfaces were characterized by elemental analysis, contact angle measurements, inverse gas chromatography, X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy, wettability, etc. These different tools provided clear-cut evidence of the occurrence of chemical reactions between the grafting agent used and the hydroxy functions of the cellulose surface, as well as of the existence of covalent bonding in the ensuing composite materials between the matrix and the fibres through the use of doubly reactive coupling agents.

  11. Cellulose degradation by oxidative enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dimarogona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass has attracted intensive research interest for the production of economically viable biofuels. Here we present an overview of the recent findings on biocatalysts implicated in the oxidative cleavage of cellulose, including polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs or LPMOs which stands for lytic PMOs, cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs and members of carbohydrate-binding module family 33 (CBM33. PMOs, a novel class of enzymes previously termed GH61s, boost the efficiency of common cellulases resulting in increased hydrolysis yields while lowering the protein loading needed. They act on the crystalline part of cellulose by generating oxidized and non-oxidized chain ends. An external electron donor is required for boosting the activity of PMOs. We discuss recent findings concerning their mechanism of action and identify issues and questions to be addressed in the future.

  12. Identification of bitter peptides in whey protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2014-06-25

    Bitterness of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) can negatively affect product quality and limit utilization in food and pharmaceutical applications. Four main bitter peptides were identified in a commercial WPH by means of sensory-guided fractionation techniques that included ultrafiltration and offline two-dimensional reverse phase chromatography. LC-TOF-MS/MS analysis revealed the amino acid sequences of the bitter peptides were YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN that originated from α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, serum albumin, and β-casein, respectively. Quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis reported the concentrations of YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN to be 0.66, 0.58, 1.33, and 2.64 g/kg powder, respectively. Taste recombination analysis of an aqueous model consisting of all four peptides was reported to explain 88% of the bitterness intensity of the 10% WPH solution. PMID:23998904

  13. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Darrell M; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P; Ceckler, William H

    2013-12-17

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hyrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  14. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and application of novel aminated gelatin hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelatin is biocompatible with body and does not harm the health, so it can be used as environmental friendly formaldehyde scavenger. The aminated gelatin with many amiqogen, carboxyl and amide functional group was synthesized by using diethylene triamine and gelatin hydrolysate, and then it was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and gel penetrating chromatogram (GPC) testing. The results showed that the amidogen content increased to nearly double and the acylation reaction had occurred. Moreover, the prepared aminated gelatin was used to remove free formaldehyde in simulating air test. The application results indicated that when the dosage of aminated gelatin was 7.5g and reaction time was 20min, the percentage of formaldehyde removal reached 94 %. (author)

  16. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Darrell; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P.; Ceckler, William H.

    2015-06-30

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hydrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  17. Enhancement of glycerol production with ram horn hydrolysate by yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential use of ram horn hydrolysate (RHH) as a supplement for enhancement of glycerol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied. For this purpose, first, RHH was produced. Ram horns were hydrolyzed by treating with acid (6 N H2SO4), and the RHH was obtained. The contents of protein, nitrogen, ash, some minerals, total sugars, total lipids and amino acids of RHH were determined. With the addition of RHH to the fermentation medium with a final concentration of 4% (optimal concentration), the glycerol value reached a maximum value of 9.4 g l-1, which is 47% higher than that of the control experiment. The addition of 4% (v/v) RHH enhanced the glycerol accumulation, reduced the residual sugar concentration and stimulated yeast growth. Adding 4% RHH had no adverse effects on the cells of S. cerevisiae. As a result, RHH was found to be suitable as a valuable supplement for glycerol production in the batch fermentation

  18. Cell adhesion on cellulose nanofibrils

    OpenAIRE

    Liljeström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) is an emerging biomaterial suitable for medical research. CNF hydrogel has been used as a three dimensional platforms for cell culture. This thesis aims to understand how human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells interact with CNF. Measurements were performed with Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation in order to quantify cell adsorption on CNF. Furthermore, the effect of the cell medium on the viscoelastic properties of CNF and on cell-CNF interactions were ...

  19. Lowering costs of microbial cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Pajuelo, María González; Bungay, Henry; Hogg, Tim; Vasconcelos, Isabel

    1997-01-01

    We have been conducting research with Acetobacter xylinium for microbial conversion of sugars to cellulose. A rotating disk biological contactor should lower costs considerably because its production rates are greater than for the usual method of surface culture. Another major cost saving comes from replacing expensive sugars in the medium with sugars derived from wastes. Extracts of spent grapes from wastes of Portuguese wine factories supply suitable sugars for good production of micr...

  20. The Cellulase KORRIGAN Is Part of the Cellulose Synthase Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vain, T.; Crowell, E.F.; Timpano, H.; Biot, E.; Desprez, T.; Mansoori Zangir, N.; Trindade, L.M.; Pagant, S.; Robert, S.; Hofte, H.; Gonneau, M.; Vernhettes, S.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth and organ formation depend on the oriented deposition of load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. Cellulose is synthesized by a large relative molecular weight cellulose synthase complex (CSC), which comprises at least three distinct cellulose synthases. Cellulose synthesis

  1. Bacterial Cellulose (BC) as a Functional Nanocomposite Biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandgaonkar, Avinav Ghanashyam

    compressive tests. In our second study, we developed a one-pot in-situ biosynthetic method to fabricate structurally controllable bacterial cellulose (BC)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites. The graphene oxide (GO) was highly reduced during a standard autoclave process using a traditional mannitol culture medium as the reducing agent. The electrical conductivity of the RGO was found to be 23.75 S m-1. The final BC/RGO composites were developed in three distinct forms: 1) sealed structures in the water, 2) aerogels characterized by a porous cross section and aligned longitudinal structure, and 3) films embedded within the RGO sheets. Because of the simplicity and non-toxic nature of this work, it can be used in biomedical and bioelectronics applications. The last study was on dye degradation using BC as the substrate. The surface of the BC was chemically oxidized to produce aldehyde groups to successfully covalently crosslink laccase. TiO2 and laccase (Lac) were co-immobilized on the surface of OBC and the dye degradation process was carried out under specific conditions. Compared with free laccase, the optimum pH of the immobilized laccase system shifted to lower pH, while the optimum temperature decreased from 55 °C to 50 °C. The dye degradation experiments showed that the optimum pH for dye degradation was pH 5.0-6.0, while the optimum temperature was ca. 40 ºC. Under UV illumination, the dye degradation efficiency significantly improved characteristic of a synergy in the system. This dissertation contributes to the basic research of bacterial cellulose which will result in novel ideas that can possibly result in future industrial applications. The research provides a fundamental underpinning of specialized structure-property relationships between BC and the materials used to fabricate the BC nanocomposites that have value-added applications that are environmentally safe and eco-friendly.

  2. Cellulose-binding domains: tools for innovation in cellulosic fibre production and modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quentin, M.G.E.; Valk, van der H.C.P.M.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Jong, de E.

    2003-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of cellulose, nature's most abundant macromolecule, and therefore represent a renewable resource of special technical importance. Cellulose degrading enzymes involved in plant cell wall loosening (expansins), or produced by plant pathogenic microorganisms (cellulases),

  3. Engineering of a novel cellulose-adherent cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae for cellulosic biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Sasaki, Kengo; den Haan, Riaan; Inokuma, Kentaro; Ogino, Chiaki; van Zyl, Willem H; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Cellulosic biofuel is the subject of increasing attention. The main obstacle toward its economic feasibility is the recalcitrance of lignocellulose requiring large amount of enzyme to break. Several engineered yeast strains have been developed with cellulolytic activities to reduce the need for enzyme addition, but exhibiting limited effect. Here, we report the successful engineering of a cellulose-adherent Saccharomyces cerevisiae displaying four different synergistic cellulases on the cell surface. The cellulase-displaying yeast strain exhibited clear cell-to-cellulose adhesion and a "tearing" cellulose degradation pattern; the adhesion ability correlated with enhanced surface area and roughness of the target cellulose fibers, resulting in higher hydrolysis efficiency. The engineered yeast directly produced ethanol from rice straw despite a more than 40% decrease in the required enzyme dosage for high-density fermentation. Thus, improved cell-to-cellulose interactions provided a novel strategy for increasing cellulose hydrolysis, suggesting a mechanism for promoting the feasibility of cellulosic biofuel production. PMID:27079382

  4. Effects of reaction conditions on cellulose structures synthesized in vitro by bacterial cellulose synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Paavo A; Sugiyama, Junji; Imai, Tomoya

    2016-01-20

    Cellulose was synthesized by cellulose synthases extracted from the Komagataeibacter xylinus (formerly known as Gluconacetobacter xylinus). The effects of temperature and centrifugation of the reaction solution on the synthesis products were investigated. Cellulose with number-average degree of polymerization (DPn) roughly in the range 60-80 and cellulose II crystal structure was produced under all conditions. The amount of cellulose varied with temperature and centrifugation, and the centrifugation at 2000 × g also slightly reduced the DPn. Cellulose production was maximal around the temperature 35 °C and without centrifugation. At higher temperatures and during centrifugation at 2000 × g the proteins started to denature, causing differences also in the morphology of the cellulosic aggregates, as seen with electron microscopy. These observations serve as a basis for discussions about the factors affecting the structure formation and chain length of in vitro synthesized cellulose. PMID:26572398

  5. Micromechanics and poroelasticity of hydrated cellulose networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sanchez, P; Rincon, Mauricio; Wang, D; Brulhart, S; Stokes, J R; Gidley, M J

    2014-06-01

    The micromechanics of cellulose hydrogels have been investigated using a new rheological experimental approach, combined with simulation using a poroelastic constitutive model. A series of mechanical compression steps at different strain rates were performed as a function of cellulose hydrogel thickness, combined with small amplitude oscillatory shear after each step to monitor the viscoelasticity of the sample. During compression, bacterial cellulose hydrogels behaved as anisotropic materials with near zero Poisson's ratio. The micromechanics of the hydrogels altered with each compression as water was squeezed out of the structure, and microstructural changes were strain rate-dependent, with increased densification of the cellulose network and increased cellulose fiber aggregation observed for slower compressive strain rates. A transversely isotropic poroelastic model was used to explain the observed micromechanical behavior, showing that the mechanical properties of cellulose networks in aqueous environments are mainly controlled by the rate of water movement within the structure. PMID:24784575

  6. Cellulose Synthases and Synthesis in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne Endler; Staffan Persson

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are complex structures composed of high-molecular-weight polysaccharides,proteins,and lignins. Among the wall polysaccharides,cellulose,a hydrogen-bonded β-1,4-linked glucan microfibril,is the main load-bearing wall component and a key precursor for industrial applications. Cellulose is synthesized by large multi-meric cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes,tracking along cortical microtubules at the plasma membrane. The only known components of these complexes are the cellulose synthase proteins. Recent studies have identified tentative interaction partners for the CesAs and shown that the migratory patterns of the CesA complexes depend on phosphorylation status. These advances may become good platforms for expanding our knowledge about cellulose synthesis in the near future. In addition,our current understanding of cellulose chain polymerization in the context of the CesA complex is discussed.

  7. CELLULOSE POWDER FROM OLIVE INDUSTRY SOLID WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman A. Hamed,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a method for extracting cellulose from olive industry solid waste has been developed. The method involves subjecting solid olive waste to kraft pulping, followed by multistep bleaching processes. The totally free chlorine chemical bleaching sequence APEP was the most effective and gave an average cellulose yield of about 35%. The extracted cellulose was extensively characterized using FTIR, EMS, HPLC, and viscometry. Our key finding in this study is that the extracted cellulose was found to have physio-chemical properties that are similar to those of conventional microcrystalline cellulose (MCC. This is important, as our results show how lignocellulosic agricultural wastes can be utilized to produce high value cellulose powder.

  8. Size Effects of Nano-crystalline Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Kang LI; Xiao Fang LI; Yong JIANG; Mei Zhen ZENG; En Yong DING

    2003-01-01

    Natural cellulose with the crystal form of cellulose Ⅰ, when treated with condensed lye(e.g. 18%NaOH), can change into new crystal form of cellulose Ⅱ. But the nano-crystallinecellulose(NCC) can do it when only treated with dilute lye (e.g. 1%NaOH) at room temperatureand even can dissolve into slightly concentrated lye (e.g. 4%NaOH).

  9. Bulk and interfacial properties of cellulose ethers

    OpenAIRE

    Bodvik, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    This work summarizes several studies that all concern cellulose ethers of the types methylcellulose (MC) hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose (EHEC). They share the feature of negative temperature response, as they are soluble in water at room temperature but phase separate and sometimes form gels at high temperatures. The different types of viscosity transitions occurring in these three cellulose ethers are well-known. However, earlier studies have not solved ...

  10. Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, Satoshi; Numakawa, Tetsuya; Kubo, Takuya

    2010-01-01

    Drag reduction due to bacterial cellulose suspensions with small environmental loading was investigated. Experiments were carried out by measuring the pressure drop in pipe flow. It was found that bacterial cellulose suspensions give rise to drag reduction in the turbulent flow range. We observed a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11% and found that it increased with the concentration of the bacterial cellulose suspension. However, the drag reduction effect decreased in the presence of mechani...

  11. Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Ogata; Tetsuya Numakawa; Takuya Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Drag reduction due to bacterial cellulose suspensions with small environmental loading was investigated. Experiments were carried out by measuring the pressure drop in pipe flow. It was found that bacterial cellulose suspensions give rise to drag reduction in the turbulent flow range. We observed a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11% and found that it increased with the concentration of the bacterial cellulose suspension. However, the drag reduction effect decreased in the presence of mechani...

  12. Cellulose biosynthesis and function in bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, P; Mayer, R; Benziman, M

    1991-01-01

    The current model of cellulose biogenesis in plants, as well as bacteria, holds that the membranous cellulose synthase complex polymerizes glucose moieties from UDP-Glc into beta-1,4-glucan chains which give rise to rigid crystalline fibrils upon extrusion at the outer surface of the cell. The distinct arrangement and degree of association of the polymerizing enzyme units presumably govern extracellular chain assembly in addition to the pattern and width of cellulose fibril deposition. Most e...

  13. Liquid crystalline cellulose derivatives for mirrorless lasing

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzlik, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis cholesteric films made of liquid crystalline cellulose derivatives with improved optical properties were prepared. The choice of the solvent, hydrogen bond influencing additives, the synthetic realization of a very high degree of substitution on the cellulosic polymer and the use of mechanical stirring at the upper concentration limit of the liquid crystalline range were the basis for an improved alignment of the applied cellulose tricarbamates. In combination with a tuned subs...

  14. Lyocell, The New Generation of Regenerated Cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Éva Borbély

    2008-01-01

    For the majority of the last century, commercial routes to regenerated cellulosefibres have coped with the difficulties of making a good cellulose solution by using an easyto dissolve derivative (e.g. xanthane in the case of viscose rayon) or complex (e.g.cuprammonium rayon). For the purposes of this paper, advanced cellulosic fibres aredefined as those made from a process involving direct dissolution of cellulose. The firstexamples of such fibres have now been generically designaed as lyocel...

  15. Alexa Fluor-labeled Fluorescent Cellulose Nanocrystals for Bioimaging Solid Cellulose in Spatially Structured Microenvironments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Mo, Kai-For; Shin, Yongsoon; Vasdekis, Andreas; Warner, Marvin G.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Orr, Galya; Hu, Dehong; Dehoff, Karl J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2015-03-18

    Cellulose nanocrystal materials have been labeled with modern Alexa Fluor dyes in a process that first links the dye to a cyanuric chloride molecule. Subsequent reaction with cellulose nanocrystals provides dyed solid microcrystalline cellulose material that can be used for bioimaging and suitable for deposition in films and spatially structured microenvironments. It is demonstrated with single molecular fluorescence microscopy that these films are subject to hydrolysis by cellulose enzymes.

  16. Alteration of in vivo cellulose ribbon assembly by carboxymethylcellulose and other cellulose derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In vivo cellulose ribbon assembly by the Gram-negative bacterium Acetobacter xylinum can be altered by incubation in carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), a negatively charged water-soluble cellulose derivative, and also by incubation in a variety of neutral, water-soluble cellulose derivatives. In the presence of all of these substituted celluloses, normal fasciation of microfibril bundles to form the typical twisting ribbon is prevented. Alteration of ribbon assembly is most extensive in the presen...

  17. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the residual allergenicity of partially hydrolysed infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Betty C. A. M.; Knipping, Karen; Jeurink, Prescilla; van der Heide, Sicco; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; Willemsen, Linette E. M.; Garssen, Johan; Knippels, Leon M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoallergenic infant formulas are commonly used for genetically predisposed children and infants diagnosed with cow's milk allergy. This study describes both in vitro and in vivo approaches to assess residual allergenicity of partially hydrolysed infant formulas. Electrophoretic patterns indicated

  18. Antioxidant and antihypertensive activity of gelatin hydrolysate from Nile tilapia skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choonpicharn, Sadabpong; Jaturasitha, Sanchai; Rakariyatham, Nuansri; Suree, Nuttee; Niamsup, Hataichanoke

    2015-05-01

    Fish skin, a by-product from fish processing industries, still contains a significant amount of protein-rich material. Gelatin was extracted from Nile tilapia skin with the yield 20.77 ± 0.80 % wet weight. Gelatin was then separately hydrolyzed by proteases, including bromelain, papain, trypsin, flavourzyme, alcalase and neutrase. Low molecular weight gelatin hydrolysate (bromelain hydrolysate has the highest ferrous ion chelating activity (86.895 ± 0.061 %). Evaluation of the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme's inhibitory activity indicates that all hydrolysates have great potency as an antihypertensive agent. All studied tilapia skin gelatin hydrolysates contain potent antioxidant and anti-hypertensive effects. PMID:25892821

  19. Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Muilwijk, B.; Overkamp, K.M.; Nijmeijer, B.M.; Coulier, L.; Smilde, A.K.; Punt, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates.Results: We studied the com

  20. Angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides purified from bovine skin gelatin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S K; Byun, H G; Park, P J; Shahidi, F

    2001-06-01

    Bovine skin gelatin was hydrolyzed with sequential protease treatments in the order of Alcalase, Pronase E, and collagenase using a three-step ultrafiltration membrane reactor. The molecular weight distributions of the first, second, and third hydrolysates were 4.8-6.6, 3.4-6.6, and 0.9-1.9 kDa, respectively. The angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the third hydrolysate (IC(50) = 0.689 mg/mL) was higher than that of the first and second hydrolysates. Two different peptides showing strong ACE inhibitory activity were isolated from the hydrolysate using consecutive chromatographic methods including gel filtration chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The isolated peptides were composed of Gly-Pro-Leu and Gly-Pro-Val and showed IC(50) values of 2.55 and 4.67 microM, respectively. PMID:11409999

  1. Application in the Ethanol Fermentation of Immobilized Yeast Cells in Matrix of Alginate/Magnetic Nanoparticles, on Chitosan-Magnetite Microparticles and Cellulose-coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Viara; Hristov, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were entrapped in matrix of alginate and magnetic nanoparticles and covalently immobilized on magnetite-containing chitosan and cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles with covalently immobilized thermostable {\\alpha}-amylase and chitosan particles with immobilized glucoamylase were also prepared. The immobilized cells and enzymes were applied in column reactors - 1/for simultaneous corn starch saccharification with the immobilized glucoamylase and production of ethanol with the entrapped or covalently immobilized yeast cells, 2/ for separate ethanol fermentation of the starch hydrolysates with the fixed yeasts. Hydrolysis of corn starch with the immobilized {\\alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, and separate hydrolysis with the immobilized {\\alpha}-amylase were also examined. In the first reactor the ethanol yield reached approx. 91% of the theoretical; the yield was approx. 86% in the second. The ethanol fermentation was affected by the typ...

  2. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43N/mm(2) and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. PMID:27127053

  3. Carboxymethylation of Cellulose by Microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Cellulose may be readily converted into ethers involving primary and secondary alcohol groups in each monomer unit and the glycosidic bonds. However, these reactions are rather more complicated than with simple substances, because the stereochemistry of the cellulose molecule is such that the vast majority of its hydroxyl groups form intra-chain hydrogen bonds or inter-chain hydrogen bonds with contiguous molecules. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has played an important part in the commercial uses of cellulose derivatives. CMC becomes alkali and water soluble. The polarity can, in fact, be increased by introduction of ionizing groups, ie carboxymethyl group. CMC is generally produced by the reaction of alkali cellulose with chloroacetic acid.

  4. Chemo-catalytic valorization of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palkovits, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie

    2012-07-01

    Cellulose can be utilized as carbon source for the production of novel platform molecules as well as fuel motifs. Promising transformation strategies cover the hydrolytic hydrogenation or hydrogenolysis of cellulose to sugar alcohols, the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose followed by dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural or levulinic acid and the further hydrogenation of levulinic acid to {gamma}-valerolactone. Main challenges result from the high degree of functionalization of cellulosic feedstocks. In line, processes are carried out in liquid phase utilizing rather polar solvents and aiming for a tailored defunctionalisation of these oxygen rich compounds. Consequently, such transformations require novel strategies concerning the development of suitable catalysts and appropriate process concepts. (orig.)

  5. Immobilization of collagen peptide on dialdehyde bacterial cellulose nanofibers via covalent bonds for tissue engineering and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen XX

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoxiao Wen,1 Yudong Zheng,1 Jian Wu,2 Lu-Ning Wang,1 Zhenya Yuan,1 Jiang Peng,3 Haoye Meng3 1School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Soochow, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Bacterial cellulose (BC is an alternative nanostructured biomaterial to be utilized for a wide range of biomedical applications. Because of its low bioactivity, which restricted its practical application, collagen and collagen hydrolysate were usually composited into BC. It is necessary to develop a new method to generate covalent bonds between collagen and cellulose to improve the immobilization of collagen on BC. This study describes a facile dialdehyde BC/collagen peptide nanocomposite. BC was oxidized into dialdehyde bacterial cellulose (DBC by regioselective oxidation, and then composited with collagen peptide (Col-p via covalent bonds to form Schiff’s base type compounds, which was demonstrated by the results of microstructures, contact angle, Col-p content, and peptide-binding ratio. The peptide-binding ratio was further affected by the degree of oxidation, pH value, and zeta potential. In vitro desorption measurement of Col-p suggested a controlled release mechanism of the nanocomposite. Cell tests indicated that the prepared DBC/Col-p composite was bioactive and suitable for cell adhesion and attachment. This work demonstrates that the DBC/Col-p composite is a promising material for tissue engineering and regeneration. Keywords: bacterial cellulose, dialdehyde cellulose, collagen peptide, composite materials, cytoactivity 

  6. Hydrolysed formula and risk of allergic or autoimmune disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierodiakonou, Despo; Khan, Tasnia; Chivinge, Jennifer; Robinson, Zoe; Geoghegan, Natalie; Jarrold, Katharine; Afxentiou, Thalia; Reeves, Tim; Cunha, Sergio; Trivella, Marialena; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether feeding infants with hydrolysed formula reduces their risk of allergic or autoimmune disease. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis, as part of a series of systematic reviews commissioned by the UK Food Standards Agency to inform guidelines on infant feeding. Two authors selected studies by consensus, independently extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data sources Medline, Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and LILACS searched between January 1946 and April 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Prospective intervention trials of hydrolysed cows’ milk formula compared with another hydrolysed formula, human breast milk, or a standard cows’ milk formula, which reported on allergic or autoimmune disease or allergic sensitisation. Results 37 eligible intervention trials of hydrolysed formula were identified, including over 19 000 participants. There was evidence of conflict of interest and high or unclear risk of bias in most studies of allergic outcomes and evidence of publication bias for studies of eczema and wheeze. Overall there was no consistent evidence that partially or extensively hydrolysed formulas reduce risk of allergic or autoimmune outcomes in infants at high pre-existing risk of these outcomes. Odds ratios for eczema at age 0-4, compared with standard cows’ milk formula, were 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.07; I2=30%) for partially hydrolysed formula; 0.55 (0.28 to 1.09; I2=74%) for extensively hydrolysed casein based formula; and 1.12 (0.88 to 1.42; I2=0%) for extensively hydrolysed whey based formula. There was no evidence to support the health claim approved by the US Food and Drug Administration that a partially hydrolysed formula could reduce the risk of eczema nor the conclusion of the Cochrane review that hydrolysed formula could prevent allergy to cows’ milk. Conclusion These findings do not support current guidelines

  7. Simultaneous cellulose conversion and hydrogen production assisted by cellulose decomposition under UV-light photocatalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guan; Ni, Chengsheng; Huang, Xiubing; Welgamage, Aakash; Lawton, Linda A.; Robertson, Peter K. J.; Irvine, John T. S.

    2016-01-01

    Photocatalytic conversion of cellulose to sugars and carbon dioxide with simultaneous production of hydrogen assisted by cellulose decomposition under UV or solar light irradiation was achieved upon immobilization of cellulose onto a TiO2 photocatalyst. This approach enables production of hydrogen from water without using valuable sacrificial agents, and provides the possibility for recovering sugars as liquid fuels.

  8. Simultaneous cellulose conversion and hydrogen production assisted by cellulose decomposition under UV-light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan; Ni, Chengsheng; Huang, Xiubing; Welgamage, Aakash; Lawton, Linda A; Robertson, Peter K J; Irvine, John T S

    2016-01-28

    Photocatalytic conversion of cellulose to sugars and carbon dioxide with simultaneous production of hydrogen assisted by cellulose decomposition under UV or solar light irradiation was achieved upon immobilization of cellulose onto a TiO2 photocatalyst. This approach enables production of hydrogen from water without using valuable sacrificial agents, and provides the possibility for recovering sugars as liquid fuels. PMID:26661296

  9. WPC Hydrolysates Obtained by the Action of a Pancreatin: Preparation, Analysis and Phenylalanine Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa L. Amorin; Mauro R. Silva; Viviane D.M. Silva; Maite C. Silva; Marialice P.C. Silvestre

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use a pancreatin to obtain Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) hydrolysates with high degree of hydrolysis, appropriate peptide profiles from the nutritional point of view as well as with reduced Phenylalanine (Phe) content. Six hydrolysates were prepared by varying the enzyme: Substrate ratio and the substrate concentration. The degree of hydrolysis was calculated by the ratio between a-amino and total nitrogen. The analysis of peptide profile involved the fractionatio...

  10. In vitro antioxidant, antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities of collagen hydrolysates of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Miroslava Suárez-Jiménez; Rosario Maribel Robles-Sánches; Glória Yépiz-Plascencia; Armando Burgos-Hernández; Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractHydrolysates from two different jumbo squid byproducts (fins and arms), produced by trypsin and protease type XIV were compared on the basis of their antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays), antimutagenic (Ames test) and antiproliferative (Transformation cell proliferation in M12.C3F6 murine cells) activities. Jumbo squid arms had higher content of collagen than fins, and their hydrolysates had the highest antioxidant activity. Also, jumbo squid arm-derived collagen hydr...

  11. In Vitro Binding Capacity of Bile Acids by Defatted Corn Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Claver Irakoze

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Defatted corn protein was digested using five different proteases, Alcalase, Trypsin, Neutrase, Protamex and Flavourzyme, in order to produce bile acid binding peptides. Bile acid binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using peptides from different proteases of defatted corn hydrolysate. Some crystalline bile acids like sodium glycocholate, sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate were individually tested using HPLC to see which enzymes can release more peptides with high bile acid binding capacity. Peptides from Flavourzyme defatted corn hydrolysate exhibited significantly (p

  12. Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad Jridi; Imen Lassoued; Rim Nasri; Mohamed Ali Ayadi; Moncef Nasri; Nabil Souissi

    2014-01-01

    Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antiox...

  13. Moisture sorption and stickiness behaviour of hydrolysed whey protein/lactose powders

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, S; O’Callaghan, D.

    2013-01-01

    International audience The potentially negative effects of low molecular weight disaccharides, especially lactose, on spray-drying efficiency and storage stability of dairy powders are often counterbalanced by the presence of intact milk proteins. Hydrolysis of proteins, however, may impair such protective effects and contribute to a loss in production performance. Hydrolysed or non-hydrolysed whey protein/lactose (WP/L) dispersions were spray dried, in order to examine the effects of prot...

  14. Uses of mechanically separated chicken meat for production from protein hydrolysates different proteolytic enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Mari Silvia Rodrigues de Oliveira; Felipe de Lima Franzen; Nelcindo Nascimento Terra

    2014-01-01

    The use of hydrolyzed protein, derived from animal and vegetable sources, in specific formulations, is an area of growing interest. The aim of this study was to develop different powder hydrolysates with high protein value, from the enzymatic hydrolysis of mechanically deboned meat (MDM), a byproduct of the poultry industry, which can be a low-cost source for the production of these hydrolysates. The raw material used was frozen poultry mechanically deboned meat (MDM) purchased from an abatto...

  15. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated fr...

  16. Collagen metabolism of human osteoarthritic articular cartilage as modulated by bovine collagen hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Saskia Schadow; Hans-Christian Siebert; Günter Lochnit; Jens Kordelle; Markus Rickert; Jürgen Steinmeyer

    2013-01-01

    Destruction of articular cartilage is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Collagen hydrolysates are mixtures of collagen peptides and have gained huge public attention as nutriceuticals used for prophylaxis of OA. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether different bovine collagen hydrolysate preparations indeed modulate the metabolism of collagen and proteoglycans from human OA cartilage explants and determined the chemical composition of oligopeptides representing collagen ...

  17. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic date palm wastes to glucose and lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrumman, Sulaiman A.

    2016-01-01

    The bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into high-value bio-products by saccharification and fermentation processes is an important step that can reduce the environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes. In this study, enzymatic saccharification of treated and untreated date palm cellulosic wastes by the cellulases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was optimized. The alkaline pre-treatment of the date palm wastes was found to be effective in increasing the saccharification percentage. The maximum rate of saccharification was found at a substrate concentration of 4% and enzyme concentration of 30 FPU/g of substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the bioconversions were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively, after 24 h of incubation, with a yield of 31.56 mg/mL of glucose at a saccharification degree of 71.03%. The saccharification was increased to 94.88% by removal of the hydrolysate after 24 h by using a two-step hydrolysis. Significant lactic acid production (27.8 mg/mL) was obtained by separate saccharification and fermentation after 72 h of incubation. The results indicate that production of fermentable sugar and lactic acid is feasible and may reduce environmental pollution by using date palm wastes as a cheap substrate. PMID:26887233

  18. Antioxidant Activities of Protein Hydrolysates from Little Hairtail (Trichiurus haumela of East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Jin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated antioxidant properties of the little hairtail (Trichiurus haumela protein hydrolysates obtained by commercial protease of Alcalase through using various antioxidant assays, including reducing power and free radical scavenging activities. The molecular mass distribution of hydrolysates was also examined to evaluate their relationship with antioxidant activity. The results showed that little hairtail protein hydrolysates had good ability to donate electron or hydrogen and scavenge DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. The highest value of reducing power and radical scavenging activities was 1.89, 46.15% (DPPH radical, 75.65% (hydroxyl radical and 82.5% (superoxide anion radical, respectively. The reducing power and free radical scavenging activities of little hairtail protein hydrolysates were related to hydrolysis time to some extent. The molecular mass distribution of hydrolysates showed that their molecular mass was between 337 and 6007Da, which indicated that little hairtail protein hydrolysates were mainly composed of low molecular peptides with antioxidant activity. Conclusively, the little hairtail protein was a good natural source for producing antioxidants, which could be used as antioxidant ingredient with potential applications in various food products.

  19. Antioxidative activities of hydrolysates from edible birds nest using enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Nurul Nadia; Babji, Abdul Salam; Ayub, Mohd Khan

    2015-09-01

    Edible bird's nest protein hydrolysates (EBN) were prepared via enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate its antioxidant activity. Two types of enzyme (alcalase and papain) were used in this study and EBN had been hydrolysed with different hydrolysis time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Antioxidant activities in EBN protein hydrolysate were measured using DPPH, ABTS+ and Reducing Power Assay. From this study, increased hydrolysis time from 30 min to 120 min contributed to higher DH, as shown by alcalase (40.59%) and papain (24.94%). For antioxidant assay, EBN hydrolysed with papain showed higher scavenging activity and reducing power ability compared to alcalase. The highest antioxidant activity for papain was at 120 min hydrolysis time with ABTS (54.245%), DPPH (49.78%) and Reducing Power (0.0680). Meanwhile for alcalase, the highest antioxidant activity was at 30 min hydrolysis time. Even though scavenging activity for EBN protein hydrolysates were high, the reducing power ability was quite low as compared to BHT and ascorbic Acid. This study showed that EBN protein hydrolysate with alcalase and papain treatments potentially exhibit high antioxidant activity which have not been reported before.

  20. Immobilization of collagen peptide on dialdehyde bacterial cellulose nanofibers via covalent bonds for tissue engineering and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoxiao; Zheng, Yudong; Wu, Jian; Wang, Lu-Ning; Yuan, Zhenya; Peng, Jiang; Meng, Haoye

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is an alternative nanostructured biomaterial to be utilized for a wide range of biomedical applications. Because of its low bioactivity, which restricted its practical application, collagen and collagen hydrolysate were usually composited into BC. It is necessary to develop a new method to generate covalent bonds between collagen and cellulose to improve the immobilization of collagen on BC. This study describes a facile dialdehyde BC/collagen peptide nanocomposite. BC was oxidized into dialdehyde bacterial cellulose (DBC) by regioselective oxidation, and then composited with collagen peptide (Col-p) via covalent bonds to form Schiff’s base type compounds, which was demonstrated by the results of microstructures, contact angle, Col-p content, and peptide-binding ratio. The peptide-binding ratio was further affected by the degree of oxidation, pH value, and zeta potential. In vitro desorption measurement of Col-p suggested a controlled release mechanism of the nanocomposite. Cell tests indicated that the prepared DBC/Col-p composite was bioactive and suitable for cell adhesion and attachment. This work demonstrates that the DBC/Col-p composite is a promising material for tissue engineering and regeneration. PMID:26229466

  1. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  2. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  3. [Audiometry in the cellulose industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, C R; Milano, L; Pedulla, P; Carlesi, G; Bacaloni, A; Monaco, E

    1993-01-01

    A noise level dosimetry and audiometric testing were conducted in a cellulose factory to determine the hazardous noise level and the prevalence of noise induced hearing loss among the exposed workers. The noise level was recorded up to 90 db (A) in several working areas. 18 workers, potentially exposed to noise injury, evidenced a significant hearing loss. While no evidence of noise injury was recorded in a control group of 100 subjects. This finding suggest a strict relationship between audiometric tests, the noise level recorded in the working place and the working seniority of exposed employers. PMID:7720969

  4. Effects of a cellulose mask synthesized by a bacterium on facial skin characteristics and user satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnuaikit T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanaporn Amnuaikit, Toon Chusuit, Panithi Raknam, Prapaporn BoonmeDepartment of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandBackground: Cellulose masks obtained from natural sources such as bacteria are of interest as cosmetic devices for the treatment of dry skin because they not only improve hydration of the skin, but have low toxicity and are biodegradable. The aims of this study were to determine the in vivo effects of a cellulose mask obtained from Acetobacter xylinum on skin characteristics and to evaluate user satisfaction with the product.Methods: Thirty healthy Thai volunteers aged 21–40 years participated in the study. The volunteers were randomly separated into a control group and an experimental group. For the control group, volunteers were assigned to apply moist towels to the face for 25 minutes. For the experimental group, the volunteers were assigned to apply the masks, ie, translucent patches which could be fitted onto the face for the same period. The following week, the groups were changed over to the alternative treatment. Skin moisture, sebum, elasticity, texture, dullness, and desquamation levels were assessed using a system used for routine skin counseling before applying the trial product and five minutes after its removal. Degree of satisfaction with use of the cellulose mask was investigated using a five-point rating scale.Results: The cellulose mask increased moisture levels in the skin significantly more than moist towels (P < 0.05 after a single application. No obvious effects on other skin characteristics were found. The cellulose mask product rated around 4/5 on the satisfaction rating scale.Conclusions: A single application of the trial cellulose mask enhanced moisture uptake by facial skin. Users also reported being satisfied with the trial product.Keywords: bacterial cellulose, facial mask, skin characteristics, skin hydration, user

  5. Impairment of cellulose- and cellobiose-degrading soil Bacteria by two acidic herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Stefanie; Drake, Harold L; Kolb, Steffen

    2012-02-01

    Herbicides have the potential to impair the metabolism of soil microorganisms. The current study addressed the toxic effect of bentazon and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid on aerobic and anaerobic Bacteria that are involved in cellulose and cellobiose degradation in an agricultural soil. Aerobic saccharide degradation was reduced at concentrations of herbicides above environmental values. Microbial processes (e.g. fermentations, ferric iron reduction) that were linked to anaerobic cellulose and cellobiose degradation were reduced in the presence of both herbicides at concentrations above and at those that occur in crop field soil. 16S rRNA gene transcript numbers of total Bacteria, and selected bacterial taxa (Clostridia [Group I], Planctomycetaceae, and two uncultivated taxa of Bacteroidetes) decreased more in anoxic than in oxic cellulose-supplemented soil microcosms in the presence of both herbicides. Collectively, the results suggested that the metabolism of anaerobic cellulose-degrading Bacteria was impaired by typical in situ herbicide concentrations, whereas in situ concentrations did not impair metabolism of aerobic cellulose- and cellobiose-degrading soil Bacteria. PMID:22098368

  6. Rheological characterization of microcrystalline cellulose and silicified microcrystalline cellulose wet masses using a mixer torque rheometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, P; Schaefer, T; Hellén, L; Juppo, A M; Yliruusi, J

    1999-10-25

    The rheological properties of silicified microcrystalline cellulose (Prosolv 50) were compared with those of standard grades of microcrystalline cellulose (Emcocel 50 and Avicel PH 101). Cellulose samples were analyzed using nitrogen adsorption together with particle size, flowability, density and swelling volume studies. The rheological behaviour of the wet powder masses was studied as a function of mixing time using a mixer torque rheometer (MTR). Silicified microcrystalline cellulose exhibited improved flow characteristics and increased specific surface area compared to standard microcrystalline cellulose grades. Although the silicification process affected the swelling properties and, furthermore, the mixing kinetics of microcrystalline cellulose, the source of the microcrystalline cellulose had a stronger influence than silicification on the liquid requirement at peak torque. PMID:10518674

  7. Effect of rheological properties of dissolved cellulose/microfibrillated cellulose blend suspensions on film forming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikoski, Eve; Rissanen, Marja; Seppälä, Jukka

    2015-03-30

    Enzymatically treated cellulose was dissolved in a NaOH/ZnO solvent system and mixed together with microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in order to find the threshold in which MFC fibers form a percolation network within the dissolved cellulose solution and in order to improve the properties of regenerated cellulose films. In the aqueous state, correlations between the rheological properties of dissolved cellulose/MFC blend suspensions and MFC fiber concentrations were investigated and rationalized. In addition, rheological properties of diluted MFC suspensions were characterized and a correlation with NaOH concentration was found, thus partly explaining the flow properties of dissolved cellulose/MFC blend suspensions. Finally, based on results from Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), MFC addition had strengthening/plasticizing effect on regenerated cellulose films if low concentrations of MFC, below the percolation threshold (5.5-6 wt%, corresponding to 0.16-0.18 wt% of MFC in the blend suspensions), were used. PMID:25563945

  8. Reproducibility of polycarbonate reference material in toxicity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    A specific lot of bisphenol A polycarbonate has been used for almost four years as the reference material for the NASA-USF-PSC toxicity screening test method. The reproducibility of the test results over this period of time indicate that certain plastics may be more suitable reference materials than the more traditional cellulosic materials.

  9. Cellulose nanocrystals: synthesis, functional properties, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Johnsy George, SN Sabapathi Food Engineering and Packaging Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddarthanagar, Mysore, Karnataka, India Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals are unique nanomaterials derived from the most abundant and almost inexhaustible natural polymer, cellulose. These nanomaterials have received significant interest due to their mechanical, optical, chemical, and rheological properties. Cellulose nanocrystals primarily obtained from naturally occurring cellulose fibers are biodegradable and renewable in nature and hence they serve as a sustainable and environmentally friendly material for most applications. These nanocrystals are basically hydrophilic in nature; however, they can be surface functionalized to meet various challenging requirements, such as the development of high-performance nanocomposites, using hydrophobic polymer matrices. Considering the ever-increasing interdisciplinary research being carried out on cellulose nanocrystals, this review aims to collate the knowledge available about the sources, chemical structure, and physical and chemical isolation procedures, as well as describes the mechanical, optical, and rheological properties, of cellulose nanocrystals. Innovative applications in diverse fields such as biomedical engineering, material sciences, electronics, catalysis, etc, wherein these cellulose nanocrystals can be used, are highlighted. Keywords: sources of cellulose, mechanical properties, liquid crystalline nature, surface modification, nanocomposites 

  10. Use of Different Proteases to Obtain Flaxseed Protein Hydrolysates with Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karamać

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of flaxseed protein hydrolysates obtained using five different enzymes was evaluated. Proteins were isolated from flaxseed cake and were separately treated with papain, trypsin, pancreatin, Alcalase and Flavourzyme. The degree of hydrolysis (DH was determined as the percentage of cleaved peptide bonds using a spectrophotometric method with o-phthaldialdehyde. The distribution of the molecular weights (MW of the hydrolysis products was profiled using Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Tricine-SDS-PAGE and size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC separations. The antioxidant activities of the protein isolate and hydrolysates were probed for their radical scavenging activity using 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate radical cation (ABTS•+ and photochemiluminescence (PCL-ACL assays, and for their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and ability to bind Fe2+. The hydrolysates were more effective as antioxidants than the protein isolate in all systems. The PCL-ACL values of the hydrolysates ranged from 7.2 to 35.7 μmol Trolox/g. Both the FRAP and ABTS•+ scavenging activity differed among the hydrolysates to a lower extent, with the ranges of 0.20–0.24 mmol Fe2+/g and 0.17–0.22 mmol Trolox/g, respectively. The highest chelating activity (71.5% was noted for the pancreatin hydrolysate. In general, the hydrolysates obtained using Alcalase and pancreatin had the highest antioxidant activity, even though their DH (15.4% and 29.3%, respectively and the MW profiles of the peptides varied substantially. The O2•− scavenging activity and the ability to chelate Fe2+ of the Flavourzyme hydrolysate were lower than those of the Alcalase and pancreatin hydrolysates. Papain was the least effective in releasing the peptides with antioxidant activity. The study showed that the type of enzyme used for flaxseed protein hydrolysis determines the antioxidant

  11. Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folador, J F; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Parsons, C M; Bauer, L L; Utterback, P L; Schasteen, C S; Bechtel, P J; Fahey, G C

    2006-10-01

    An experiment to determine the chemical composition and protein quality of 13 fish substrates (pollock by-products, n = 5; fish protein hydrolysates, n = 5; and fish meals, n = 3) was conducted. Two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) and salmon meal with crushed bones (SMB), were used to determine their palatability as components of dog diets. Pollock by-products differed in concentrations of CP, crude fat, and total AA by 71, 79, and 71%, respectively, and GE by 4.1 kcal/g. Fish protein hydrolysates and fish meals were less variable (approximately 18, 14, and 17%, and 1.4 kcal/g, respectively). Biogenic amine concentrations were much higher in fish protein hydrolysates as compared with pollock by-products and fish meals. Pollock liver and viscera had the highest total fatty acid concentrations; however, red salmon hydrolysate and SMB had the highest total PUFA concentrations (49.63 and 48.60 mg/g, respectively). Salmon protein hydrolysate had the highest protein solubility in 0.2% KOH. Based on calculations using immobilized digestive enzyme assay values, lysine digestibility of fish meal substrates was comparable to in vivo cecectomized rooster assay values and averaged approximately 90.3%. Also, pollock milt, pollock viscera, red salmon hydrolysate, and sole hydrolysate had comparable values as assessed by immobilized digestive enzyme assay and rooster assays. A chick protein efficiency ratio (PER) assay compared SMB and SPH to a whole egg meal control and showed that SMB had high protein quality (PER = 3.5), whereas SPH had poor protein quality (PER value less than 1.5). However, using whole egg meal as the reference protein, both fish substrates were found to be good protein sources with an essential AA index of 1.0 and 0.9 for SMB and SPH, respectively. In the dog palatability experiments, a chicken-based control diet and 2 diets containing 10% of either SPH or SMB were tested. Dogs consumed more of the SPH diet compared with the control

  12. Wood hydrolysis and hydrolysate detoxification for subsequent xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Converti, A.; Perego, P.; Zilli, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' ; Dominguez, J.M. [Universidad de Vigo, Ourense (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Edificio Politecnico; Silverio da Silva, S. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL) (Brazil). Departamento de Biotecnologia

    2000-11-01

    A great deal of work has been done during the last decade to develop alternative processes for the integral utilization and revaluation of vegetable biomass. Hardwoods (in particular Eucalyptus globulus) were demonstrated to be of particular interest, because of their rapid growth as well as of the excellent quality of the wood pulp that can be obtained. Today only the cellulose fraction is used for paper production from wood pulp, whereas the lignin and hemicellulose fractions are burnt to produce heat or wasted. This process could be performed in a more profitable way by fractionating the woody material into these fractions and separately using them in different processes. (orig.)

  13. Beryllium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008 Page ...

  14. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  15. Evaluation of nutrient supplementation to charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Inês Mussatto; Inês Conceição Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Xylitol was produced by Candida guilliermondii from charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate with or without nutrients (ammonium sulphate, calcium chloride, rice bran extract). Both, xylitol yield and volumetric productivity decreased significantly when the nutrients were added to treated and untreated hydrolysates. In the treated hydrolysate, the efficiency of xylose conversion to xylitol was 79% when the nutrients were omitted. The results demonstrated that rice ...

  16. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Raheleh Ghanbari; Mohammad Zarei; Afshin Ebrahimpour; Azizah Abdul-Hamid; Amin Ismail; Nazamid Saari

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates,...

  17. Identification of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Razor Clam Sinonovacula constricta

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Li; Sadiq, Faizan A.; Li Fu; Hui Zhu; Minghua Zhong; Muhammad Sohail

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of razor clam hydrolysates produced using five proteases, namely, pepsin, trypsin, alcalase, flavourzyme and proteases from Actinomucor elegans T3 was investigated. Flavourzyme hydrolysate showed the highest level of degree of hydrolysis (DH) (45.87%) followed by A. elegans T3 proteases hydrolysate (37.84%) and alcalase (30.55%). The A. elegans T3 proteases was observed to be more effective in generating small peptides with ACE-inhibit...

  18. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Salmon By-products: Effect of Process Conditions on ACE Inhibiting Activities of Fish Protein Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Five, Kathrine

    2013-01-01

    By-products from the salmon farming industry contain valuable components, such as proteins and lipids. By-products like frames, heads and viscera can be used as raw material for the production of fish protein hydrolysates with high nutritional value, but also bioactive properties. The hydrolysates are produced by enzymatic hydrolysis using endogenous and commercial enzymes, and the process conditions and raw material influence the properties of the hydrolysate. The first aim of this thesis wa...

  19. Preparation of Low-phenylalanine Whey Hydrolysates, Using Papain and Pancreatin Immobilized on Activated Carbon and Alumina

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane D.M. Silva; Leticia M. De Marco; Wendel O. Afonso; Daniella C.F. Lopes; JoseN. Januario; Marcos J.B. Aguiar; Ana Lucia P. Starling; Marialice P.C. Silvestre

    2007-01-01

    This study involves the preparation of whey hydrolysates with low phenylalanine (Phe) content aiming the treatment of phenylketonuria. For hydrolysing the proteins, two enzymes were used, papain and pancreatin, in an immobilized form, on Activated Carbon (AC) and alumina (AL) and three enzyme: substrate ratios (E:S) were tested for each enzyme. Activated carbon was used to remove Phe from hydrolysates. The second order spectrophotometry was used to evaluate the efficiency of Phe removal as we...

  20. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, A. M.; Dela Mines, A. S.; Banzon, R. B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z. F.

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulosic material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism.

  1. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulose material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism. (author)

  2. Single-cell protein from waste cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, C. E.; Callihan, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    The recycle, reuse, or reclamation of single cell protein from liquid and solid agricultural waste fibers by a fermentation process is reported. It is shown that cellulose comprises the bulk of the fibers at 50% to 55% of the dry weight of the refuse and that its biodegradability is of prime importance in the choice of a substrate. The application of sodium hydroxide followed by heat and pressure serves to de-polymerize and disrupt lignin structure while swelling the cellulose to increase water uptake and pore volume. Some of the lignin, hemi-celluloses, ash, and cellulose of the material is hydrolized and solubilized. Introduction of microorganisms to the substrate fibers mixed with nutrients produces continuous fermentation of cellulose for further protein extraction and purification.

  3. Photophysics of alloxazines on cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Marek; Sikorska, Ewa; Khmelinskii, Igor V; Gonzalez-Moreno, Rafael; Bourdelande, José L; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander

    2002-09-01

    We report the UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and transient absorption spectra of selected methylalloxazines adsorbed on cellulose from a polar solvent. The ground-state properties of these probe molecules in the cellulose matrix are similar to those in polar protic solvents. Fluorescence decay data allowed identification of three emitting species for every molecule studied, excluding 1-methyllumichrome which lacks the capacity to rearrange into an isoalloxazinic form. The short-lived emission component was attributed to the neutral form of the molecule, and the two longer-lived components were assigned to the two distinct deprotonated monoanionic forms resulting from dissociation at the respective N(3) and N(1) nitrogen atoms. The two monoanions coexist due to their very similar pKa, values. Transient absorption experiments detected two species created by the laser pulse in these systems. The short-lived species was identified as the triplet excited state, and the long-lived species as the semireduced radical, formed by hydrogen atom or proton transfer from the glycosidic unit to the alloxazine carbonyl group. PMID:12665311

  4. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  5. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  6. Evaluation of cotton stalk hydrolysate for xylitol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapcı, Burcu; Akpinar, Ozlem; Bolukbasi, Ufuk; Yilmaz, Levent

    2016-07-01

    Cotton stalk is a widely distributed and abundant lignocellulosic waste found in Turkey. Because of its rich xylose content, it can be a promising source for the production of xylitol. Xylitol can be produced by chemical or biotechnological methods. Because the biotechnological method is a simple process with great substrate specificity and low energy requirements, it is more of an economic alternative for the xylitol production. This study aimed to use cotton stalk for the production of xylitol with Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022. For this purpose, the combined effects of different oxygen concentration, inoculum level and substrate concentration were investigated to obtain high xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate. Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022 afforded different concentrations of xylitol depending on xylose concentration, inoculum level, and oxygen concentration. The optimum xylose, yeast concentration, and airflow rate for cotton stalk hydrolysate were found as 10.41 g L(-1), 0.99 g L(-1), and 1.02 vvm, respectively, and under these conditions, xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate were obtained as 36% and 0.06 g L(-1) hr(-1), respectively. The results of this study show that cotton stalk can serve as a potential renewable source for the production of xylitol. PMID:26444685

  7. Screening of Yeasts for Selection of Potential Strains and Their Utilization for In Situ Microbial Detoxification (ISMD) of Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulosic Hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luma C S R; Chandel, Anuj K; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Gaikwad, Swapnil C; Rai, Mahendra; da Silva, Silvio S

    2016-06-01

    Many toxic compounds are produced and released in the hemicellulosic hydrolyzates during the acid pretreatment step, which are required for the disruption of the lignocelluloses matrix and sugars release. The conventional methods of detoxification i.e. overliming, activated charcoal, ion exchange or even membrane-based separations have the limitations in removal of these toxic inhibitors in fermentation process. Hence, it is imperative to explore biological methods to overcome the inhibitors by minimizing the filtration steps, sugar loss and chemical additions. In the present study we screened sixty-four strains of yeasts to select potential strains for detoxification of furfural, acetic acid, ferulic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) as carbon and energy source. Among these strains Pichia occidentalis M1, Y1'a, Y1'b and Y3' showed a significant decrease in the toxic compounds but we selected two best yeast strains i.e. P. occidentalis Y1'a and P. occidentalis M1 for the further experiments with an aim to remove the fermentation inhibitors. The yeasts P. occidentalis Y1'a and P. occidentalis M1 were grown aerobically in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate under submerged cultivation. For each yeast, a 2(2) full factorial design was performed considering the variables-pH (4.0 or 5.0) and agitation rate (100 or 300 rpm), and the percentage removal of HMF, furfural, acetic acid and phenols from hemicellulosic hydrolysates were responsive variables. After 96 h of biological treatment, P. occidentalis M1 and P. occidentalis Y1'a showed 42.89 and 46.04 % cumulative removal of inhibitors, respectively. PMID:27570309

  8. Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eColla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L. coleoptile elongation rate test (experiment 1, a rooting test on tomato cuttings (experiment 2; and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L. growth test (experiment 3, and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. nitrogen uptake trial (experiment 4. Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the four concentrations tested (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid (IAA treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21%, 35%, 24%, and 26%, respectively in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L significantly increased the shoot length of the giberellin (GA-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5%, 15% and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances.

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ovomucoid and the functional properties of its hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyrathne, E D N S; Lee, H Y; Jo, C; Suh, J W; Ahn, D U

    2015-09-01

    Ovomucoid is well known as a "trypsin inhibitor" and is considered to be the main food allergen in egg. However, the negative functions of ovomucoid can be eliminated if the protein is cut into small peptides. The objectives of this study were to hydrolyze ovomucoid using various enzyme combinations, and compare the functional properties of the hydrolysates. Purified ovomucoid was dissolved in distilled water (20 mg/mL) and treated with 1% of pepsin, α-chymotrypsin, papain, and alcalase, singly or in combinations. Sodium sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide (SDS-PAGE) results of the hydrolysates indicated that pepsin (OMP), alcalase (OMAl), alcalase+trypsin (OMAlTr), and alcalase+papain (OMAlPa) treatments best hydrolyzed the ovomucoid, and the 4 treatments were selected to determine their functional characteristics. Among the 4 enzyme treatments, hydrolysate from OMAlTr showed the highest iron-chelating and antioxidant activities, while OMP showed higher ACE-inhibitory activity, but lower Fe-chelating activity than the other treatments. However, no difference in the copper-chelating activity among the treatments was found. MS/MS analysis identified numerous peptides from the hydrolysates of OMAlPa and OMAlTr, and majority of the peptides produced were <2 kDa. Pepsin treatment (OMP), however, hydrolyzed ovomucoid almost completely and produced only amino acid monomers, di- and tri-peptides. The ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant and iron-chelating activities of the enzyme hydrolysates were not consistent with the number and size of peptides in the hydrolysates, but we do not have information about the quantity of each peptide present in the hydrolysates at this point. PMID:26195809

  10. Effects and mechanism of cerebroprotein hydrolysate on learning and memory ability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L; Han, X; Li, H; Ma, Y; Shi, L; Xu, G; Yuan, G; Sun, J; Zhao, N; Sheng, Y; Wang, M; Du, P

    2016-01-01

    Cerebroprotein hydrolysate is an extract from porcine brain tissue that acts on the central nervous system in various ways to protect neurons and improve memory, attention, and vigilance. This study examined the effect and mechanism of cerebroprotein hydrolysate on learning and memory in mice with scopolamine-induced impairment. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine hydrobromide to establish a murine model of learning and memory impairment. After 35 successive days of cerebroprotein hydrolysate treatment, their behaviors were observed in the Morris water maze and step-down test. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamic acid (Glu) levels in the brain tissue of the mice were determined, and pathological changes in the hippocampus were examined. The results of the water-maze test showed that cerebroprotein hydrolysate shortened the escape latency and increased the number of platform crossings. In the step-down test, cerebroprotein hydrolysate treatment prolonged the step-down latency and reduced the number of errors; cerebroprotein hydrolysate increased the activity of SOD, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, and AChE, reduced the levels of MDA, decreased the Glu/GABA ratio in brain tissue, and reduced pathological changes in the hippocampus. The results indicate that cerebroprotein hydrolysate can improve learning and memory in mice with scopolamine-induced impairment. This effect may be associated with its ability to reduce injury caused by free radicals, improve acetylcholine function, and modulate the Glu/GABA learning and memory regulation system, reducing excitotoxicity caused by Glu. PMID:27525868

  11. Bioprocessing of bagasse hydrolysate for ethanol and xylitol production using thermotolerant yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Dheeran, Pratibha; Singh, Surendra P; Mishra, Indra M; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation of xylose-rich and glucose-rich bagasse hydrolysates, obtained from the two-stage acid hydrolysis was studied using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. The yeast could grow on xylose-rich hydrolysate at 50 °C with the dry cell weight, cell mass yield and maximum specific growth rate of 5.35 g l(-1), 0.58 g g(-1) and 0.13 h(-1), respectively. The yeast was found to be very promising for ethanol as well as xylitol production from the sugars obtained from the lignocellulosic biomass. Batch fermentations of xylose-rich and glucose-rich hydrolysates yielded 0.61 g g(-1) xylitol and 0.43 g g(-1) ethanol in the broth, respectively based on the sugars present in the hydrolysate. Overall ethanol yield of 165 g (210 ml) and 183 g xylitol per kg of bagasse was obtained, when bagasse hydrolysate was used as a substrate. Utilization of both the glucose and xylose sugars makes the process most economical by producing both ethanol and xylitol based on biorefinery concept. On validating the experimental data of ethanol fermentation, the modified Luong kinetic model for product inhibition as well as inhibition due to inhibitory compounds present in hydrolysate, the model was found to be the best fit for ethanol formation from bagasse hydrolysate using Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. PMID:25090978

  12. Uses of mechanically separated chicken meat for production from protein hydrolysates different proteolytic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Silvia Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrolyzed protein, derived from animal and vegetable sources, in specific formulations, is an area of growing interest. The aim of this study was to develop different powder hydrolysates with high protein value, from the enzymatic hydrolysis of mechanically deboned meat (MDM, a byproduct of the poultry industry, which can be a low-cost source for the production of these hydrolysates. The raw material used was frozen poultry mechanically deboned meat (MDM purchased from an abattoir in southern Brazil, before use it was thawed under refrigeration and homogenized in a processor by 2 minutes. Three commercial enzymes were used, Papain, Protamex® and Flavourzyme®. The hydrolysis occurred in a thermostatized bath with temperature, time and pH controlled. Proximal composition of the raw material and lyophilized hydrolysates, control analysis such as hydrolysis degree of hydrolysis, protein, total solids, ash and amino acid characterization of the hydrolysates were performed. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukey’s averages test. The hydrolyzed obtained from the papain enzyme showed the best behavior, followed by Protamex and Flavourzyme. The hydrolysates from papain enzyme had higher protein content, soluble solids and lower ash content compared to other hydrolysates. The amino acid composition showed that the hydrolyzate from papain has a closer composition to what is recommended by the control organs. It was concluded that the protein hydrolysates obtained from mechanically deboned chicken had high protein content characterizing them as a promising raw material in the formulation of special diets.

  13. IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysate lowers blood pressure in subjects with stage 1 hypertension, a randomized controlled trial

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    Kloek Joris

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk derived peptides have been identified as potential antihypertensive agents. The primary objective was to investigate the effectiveness of IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysates (MPH on reducing blood pressure (BP as well as to investigate safety parameters and tolerability. The secondary objective was to confirm or falsify ACE inhibition as the mechanism underlying BP reductions by measuring plasma renin activity and angiotensin I and II. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study including 70 Caucasian subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension. Study treatments consisted of daily consumption of two capsules MPH1 (each containing 7.5 mg Isoleucine-Proline-Proline; IPP, MPH2 (each containing 6.6 mg Methionine-Alanine-Proline, 2.3 mg Leucine-Proline-Proline, 1.8 mg IPP, or placebo (containing cellulose for 4 weeks. Results In subjects with stage 1 hypertension, MPH1 lowered systolic BP by 3.8 mm Hg (P = 0.0080 and diastolic BP by 2.3 mm Hg (P = 0.0065 compared with placebo. In prehypertensive subjects, the differences in BP between MPH1 and placebo were not significant. MPH2 did not change BP significantly compared with placebo in stage I hypertensive or prehypertensive subjects. Intake of MPHs was well tolerated and safe. No treatment differences in hematology, clinical laboratory parameters or adverse effects were observed. No significant differences between MPHs and placebo were found in plasma renin activity, or angiotensin I and II. Conclusions MPH1, containing IPP and no minerals, exerts clinically relevant BP lowering effects in subjects with stage 1 hypertension. It may be included in lifestyle changes aiming to prevent or reduce high BP. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00471263

  14. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable production of transportation fuels and chemicals because of its abundance, the need to find uses for this problematic waste, and its low and perhaps negative cost. However, significant heterogeneity and possible toxic contaminants are barriers to biological conversion to ethanol and other products. In this study, we obtained six fractions of sorted MSW from a waste processing facility in Fontana, California: 1) f...

  15. Simulations of Cellulose Translocation in the Bacterial Cellulose Synthase Suggest a Regulatory Mechanism for the Dimeric Structure of Cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Brandon C.; Crowley, Michael F.; Himmel, Michael E.; Zimmer, Jochen; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-05-01

    The processive cycle of the bacterial cellulose synthase (Bcs) includes the addition of a single glucose moiety to the end of a growing cellulose chain followed by the translocation of the nascent chain across the plasma membrane. The mechanism of this translocation and its precise location within the processive cycle are not well understood. In particular, the molecular details of how a polymer (cellulose) whose basic structural unit is a dimer (cellobiose) can be constructed by adding one monomer (glucose) at a time are yet to be elucidated. Here, we have utilized molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations to the shed light on these questions. We find that translocation forward by one glucose unit is quite favorable energetically, giving a free energy stabilization of greater than 10 kcal mol-1. In addition, there is only a small barrier to translocation, implying that translocation is not rate limiting within the Bcs processive cycle (given experimental rates for cellulose synthesis in vitro). Perhaps most significantly, our results also indicate that steric constraints at the transmembrane tunnel entrance regulate the dimeric structure of cellulose. Namely, when a glucose molecule is added to the cellulose chain in the same orientation as the acceptor glucose, the terminal glucose freely rotates upon forward motion, thus suggesting a regulatory mechanism for the dimeric structure of cellulose. We characterize both the conserved and non-conserved enzyme-polysaccharide interactions that drive translocation, and find that 20 of the 25 residues that strongly interact with the translocating cellulose chain in the simulations are well conserved, mostly with polar or aromatic side chains. Our results also allow for a dynamical analysis of the role of the so-called 'finger helix' in cellulose translocation that has been observed structurally. Taken together, these findings aid in the elucidation of the translocation steps of the Bcs

  16. Pharmacopoeial and physicochemical properties of α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders derived from cornstalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuemeka P Azubuike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suitable α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders for use in the pharmaceutical industry can be derived from agricultural wastes. Aims: The pharmacopoeial and physicochemical properties of cornstalk α-cellulose (CCC and cornstalk microcrystalline cellulose powders (MCCC were compared to a commercial brand of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH101 to evaluate their usefulness as pharmaceutical excipients. Settings and Design: Physicochemical properties of an excipient play a very crucial role in the functions of the excipient; hence, these properties were evaluated and compared with a commercial brand. Materials and Methods: α-cellulose was extracted from cornstalks. Modification of this α-cellulose powder was carried out by its partial hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid (HCl to obtain a microcrystalline cellulose powder. Their pharmacopoeial, physicochemical and microbiological properties were evaluated using standard methods. Statistical Analysis: OriginPro 8 SR2 v. 0891 (B891 software (OriginLab Corporation USA was used for statistical evaluation. One-way analysis of variance was used to differentiate between samples and decide where significant differences were established. Results: The yield of α-cellulose from the cornstalks was 32.5%w/w and that of microcrystalline cellulose 26%w/w. All the cellulose samples met all the pharmacopoeial parameters that were carried out. The comparison of physicochemical properties of the CCC, MCCC and Avicel PH101 suggests that the microcrystalline celluloses might have better flow and compression properties than the CCC sample. The three cellulose powders were of high microbial excipient quality. For almost all parameters evaluated, it was generally observed that the MCCC has similar characteristics to Avicel PH101. Conclusions: MCCC can be a suitable alternative to the expensive Avicel PH101as pharmaceutical excipients.

  17. Toxic neuropathies

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    Misra Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic neuropathies generally result in length dependent axonal neuropathy with the exception of diphtheria and a few toxic neuropathies. In spite of occurrence of diphtheria in India there is paucity of published reports on diphtheritic neuropathy. Arsenic neuropathy commonly occurs in Bengal and Bangladesh because of ground water contamination whereas in Punjab it is due to contamination of opium. Lead neuropathy is rare and has been reported in battery workers and silver refining workers. It produces motor neuropathy resulting in foot drop and wrist drop. Organophosphates are used as pesticides, industrial chemicals and food adulterant. Certain organophosphates such as triorthocresyl phosphate used for or oil adulteration inhibit neurotoxic esterase and result in a delayed type of axonal neuropathy. Alcohol related neuropathy is a controversial issue whether it is due to alcohol related toxicity or due to nutritional deficiencies. Indian studies have revealed that neuropathy occurs both in alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis. Hexane neuropathy is reported in screen printers and these cases highlight the need for better preventive and occupational measures. Iatrogenic toxic neuropathies have been reported with cisplatin and vincristine. Because of geographical, occupational and health related conditions toxic neuropathies are likely to be more common than reported and greater awareness is needed.

  18. Towards an Understanding of How Protein Hydrolysates Stimulate More Efficient Biosynthesis in Cultured Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemensma, André; Babcock, James; Wilcox, Chris; Huttinga, Hans

    In the light of the growing demand for high quality plant-derived hydrolysates (i.e., HyPep™ and UltraPep™ series), Sheffield Bio-Science has developed a new hydrolysate platform that addresses the need for animal-free cell culture medium supplements while also minimizing variability concerns. The platform is based upon a novel approach to enzymatic digestion and more refined processing. At the heart of the platform is a rationally designed animal component-free (ACF) enzyme cocktail that includes both proteases and non-proteolytic enzymes (hydrolases) whose activities can also liberate primary components of the polymerized non-protein portion of the raw material. This enzyme system is added during a highly optimized process step that targets specific enzyme-substrate reactions to expand the range of beneficial nutritional factors made available to cells in culture. Such factors are fundamental to improving the bio-performance of the culture system, as they provide not merely growth-promoting peptides and amino acids, but also key carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and vitamins that improve both rate and quality of protein expression, and serve to improve culture life due to osmo-protectant and anti-apoptotic properties. Also of significant note is that, compared to typical hydrolysates, the production process is greatly reduced and requires fewer steps, intrinsically yielding a better-controlled and therefore more reproducible product. Finally, the more sophisticated approach to enzymatic digestion renders hydrolysates more amenable to sterile filtration, allowing hydrolysate end users to experience streamlined media preparation and bioreactor supplementation activities. Current and future development activities will evolve from a better understanding of the complex interactions within a handful of key biochemical pathways that impact the growth and productivity of industrially relevant organisms. Presented in this chapter are some examples of the efforts that

  19. Degradation of cellulose by basidiomycetous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrian, Petr; Valásková, Vendula

    2008-05-01

    Cellulose is the main polymeric component of the plant cell wall, the most abundant polysaccharide on Earth, and an important renewable resource. Basidiomycetous fungi belong to its most potent degraders because many species grow on dead wood or litter, in environment rich in cellulose. Fungal cellulolytic systems differ from the complex cellulolytic systems of bacteria. For the degradation of cellulose, basidiomycetes utilize a set of hydrolytic enzymes typically composed of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase and beta-glucosidase. In some species, the absence of cellobiohydrolase is substituted by the production of processive endoglucanases combining the properties of both of these enzymes. In addition, systems producing hydroxyl radicals based on cellobiose dehydrogenase, quinone redox cycling or glycopeptide-based Fenton reaction are involved in the degradation of several plant cell wall components, including cellulose. The complete cellulolytic complex used by a single fungal species is typically composed of more than one of the above mechanisms that contribute to the utilization of cellulose as a source of carbon or energy or degrade it to ensure fast substrate colonization. The efficiency and regulation of cellulose degradation differs among wood-rotting, litter-decomposing, mycorrhizal or plant pathogenic fungi and yeasts due to the different roles of cellulose degradation in the physiology and ecology of the individual groups. PMID:18371173

  20. Aggregation properties of whey protein hydrolysates generated with Bacillus licheniformis proteinase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, David; Kenny, Patricia; O'Cuinn, Gerard; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2005-02-23

    Hydrolysis of whey protein concentrate (WPC) with Alcalase 2.4 L, a Bacillus licheniformis proteinase preparation, induces gelation. The aggregation behavior of WPC hydrolysates generated with Alcalase and Prolyve 1000, a Bacillus licheniformis proteinase that did not induce gelation, were studied by turbidity and particle size analysis. With the use of synthetic peptide substrates, it was shown that Alcalase contains a glutamyl endopeptidase (GE) activity not present in Prolyve. Comparison of the aggregation behavior of WPC hydrolysates generated with Alcalase, Prolyve, and combinations of Prolyve with a GE activity isolated from Alcalase showed that GE was responsible for the observed enzyme-induced peptide aggregation in Alcalase hydrolysates. Hydrolysates generated with Prolyve, having a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 11.8% and 10.4% of peptide material greater than 10 kDa, could be induced to aggregate by the addition of GE. These results emphasize the contribution of enzyme specificity to the physicochemical and functional characteristics of proteinase hydrolysates of WPC. PMID:15713050

  1. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced tolerance to hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, María P; Reyes, Luis H; Kao, Katy C

    2013-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has become an important feedstock to mitigate current ethical and economical concerns related to the bio-based production of fuels and chemicals. During the pre-treatment and hydrolysis of the lignocellulosic biomass, a complex mixture of sugars and inhibitors are formed. The inhibitors interfere with microbial growth and product yields. This study uses an adaptive laboratory evolution method called visualizing evolution in real-time (VERT) to uncover the molecular mechanisms associated with tolerance to hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. VERT enables a more rational scheme for isolating adaptive mutants for characterization and molecular analyses. Subsequent growth kinetic analyses of the mutants in individual and combinations of common inhibitors present in hydrolysates (acetic acid, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural) showed differential levels of resistance to different inhibitors, with enhanced growth rates up to 57%, 12%, 22%, and 24% in hydrolysates, acetic acid, HMF and furfural, respectively. Interestingly, some of the adaptive mutants exhibited reduced fitness in the presence of individual inhibitors, but showed enhanced fitness in the presence of combinations of inhibitors compared to the parental strains. Transcriptomic analysis revealed different mechanisms for resistance to hydrolysates and a potential cross adaptation between oxidative stress and hydrolysates tolerance in several of the mutants. PMID:23613173

  2. Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates prepared from alkaline-aided channel catfish protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Ann E; Raghavan, Sivakumar; Kristinsson, Hordur G

    2008-08-27

    Antioxidative activity of hydrolyzed protein prepared from alkali-solubilized catfish protein isolates was studied. The isolates were hydrolyzed to 5, 15, and 30% degree of hydrolysis using the protease enzyme, Protamex. Hydrolyzed protein was separated into hydrolysates and soluble supernatants, and both of these fractions were studied for their metal chelating ability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and their ability to inhibit the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in washed tilapia muscle containing tilapia hemolysate. Both hydrolysates and supernatants were characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results showed that DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of catfish protein hydrolysates decreased, whereas the ORAC value, metal chelating ability, and ability to inhibit TBARS increased, with an increase in the degree of hydrolysis. Hydrolysate samples showed higher DPPH radical scavenging ability and Fe(3+) reducing ability, and supernatant samples had higher metal chelating ability. In general, low molecular weight (MW) peptides had high ORAC values and high metal chelating ability, and high MW peptides had a higher reducing power (FRAP) and were more effective in scavenging DPPH radicals. In a washed muscle model system, the ability of catfish protein hydrolysates and their corresponding supernatants to inhibit the formation of TBARS increased with an increase in the degree of hydrolysis. PMID:18662014

  3. Characterisation of hydrolysates prepared from engraved catfish (Nemapteryx caelata) roe by serial hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsi, P K; Viji, P; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Mathew, Suseela; Zynudheen, A A; Ravishankar, C N

    2016-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates were prepared from defatted engraved catfish roe using alcalase enzyme by a two-stage serial hydrolysis process. The soluble hydrolysate formed after first stage of hydrolysis was removed (RH-1) and fresh enzyme was added at the same concentration to achieve further hydrolysis (RH-2). Further, compositional, surface-active and antioxidant properties of both hydrolysates were compared. The SDS-PAGE profile showed two distinct bands for RH-1, whereas no bands were visible for RH-2. On the other hand, gel filtration chromatography of the hydrolysates indicated 3-4 distinct fractions. Both the hydrolysates showed similar foam forming abilities, however, RH-1 exhibited poor foam stability. Emulsion properties of RH-1 were superior to that of RH-2. The major fractions eluted through gel filtration column were screened for antioxidant properties. Higher DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating properties were observed for RH-1 second fragment, whereas FRAP and Fe(2+) reducing power was highest for second fragment of RH-2. PMID:26787939

  4. Regulation of Exacerbated Immune Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Cells by Hydrolysed Egg White Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Molina, Elena; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    The anti-allergic potential of egg white protein hydrolysates (from ovalbumin, lysozyme and ovomucoid) was evaluated as their ability to hinder cytokine and IgE production by Th2-skewed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as the release of pro-inflammatory factors and generation of reactive oxygen species from Th1-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). The binding to IgE of egg allergic patients was determined and the peptides present in the hydrolysates were identified. The hydrolysates with alcalase down-regulated the production of Th2-biased cytokines and the secretion of IgE to the culture media of Th2-skewed PBMCs, and they significantly neutralized oxidative stress in PBLs. The hydrolysates of ovalbumin and ovomucoid with pepsin helped to re-establish the Th1/Th2 balance in Th2-biased PBMCs, while they also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and reduced oxidative stress in PBLs treated with inflammatory stimuli. The hydrolysates with alcalase, in addition to equilibrating Th2 differentiation, exhibited a low IgE-binding. Therefore, they would elicit mild allergic reactions while retaining T cell-stimulating abilities, which might correlate with an anti-allergic benefit. PMID:27007699

  5. Regulation of Exacerbated Immune Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Cells by Hydrolysed Egg White Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo

    Full Text Available The anti-allergic potential of egg white protein hydrolysates (from ovalbumin, lysozyme and ovomucoid was evaluated as their ability to hinder cytokine and IgE production by Th2-skewed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, as well as the release of pro-inflammatory factors and generation of reactive oxygen species from Th1-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs. The binding to IgE of egg allergic patients was determined and the peptides present in the hydrolysates were identified. The hydrolysates with alcalase down-regulated the production of Th2-biased cytokines and the secretion of IgE to the culture media of Th2-skewed PBMCs, and they significantly neutralized oxidative stress in PBLs. The hydrolysates of ovalbumin and ovomucoid with pepsin helped to re-establish the Th1/Th2 balance in Th2-biased PBMCs, while they also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and reduced oxidative stress in PBLs treated with inflammatory stimuli. The hydrolysates with alcalase, in addition to equilibrating Th2 differentiation, exhibited a low IgE-binding. Therefore, they would elicit mild allergic reactions while retaining T cell-stimulating abilities, which might correlate with an anti-allergic benefit.

  6. Development of an enzymatic fish hydrolysate and its use in instant soup bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, A; Morales de Léon, J; Bourges Rodríguez, H

    1985-12-01

    The successful conservation of fish products, at low costs, is a subject of special interest in the developing countries. Conscious of this fact, our group has been studying several fish conservation methods, such as autolysis with high salt concentrations, and has obtained a sauce of high nutritive value and long shelf life. Nevertheless, the reaction process takes from four to six months. In the study herein reported, the hydrolysis was accelerated and controlled by using the following enzymes: papain, HT proteolytic, and Brew (N) zyme. The hydrolysate was then mixed with cereals to prepare instant soups. As results indicated, the best hydrolysate was obtained with Brew (N) zyme at 50 degrees C and 8.30 hours. This hydrolysate contains 93.0 g/100 g crude protein with a protein efficiency ratio (PER) and a net protein utilization (NPU) of 60% that of casein's NPU as well as a content of 0.8% ether extract. The lowest-cost mixtures with the highest nutritive value were: hydrolysate-wheat-soymeal, and hydrolysate-rice-soymeal, with 38.3 and 29.7 protein per 100 g of mixture, respectively, and a NPU of 79.0 and 79.8% in relation to casein, respectively. The soups prepared had a satisfactory acceptance rating. There were no significant differences in flavor and aroma at a confidence level of 95%. The cost per gram of protein is about US$ 0.22 per kg. PMID:3842931

  7. Comparison of immunomodulating properties of Beta-lactoglobulin and its hydrolysates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-cui Duan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cow's milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. Beta-lactoglobulin (β- lg is a dominant allergen in cow's milk. Hydrolysis is known as an effective method to reduce the allergenicity of proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the allergenicity of β-lg and its hydrolysates using an animal model. Twenty four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and subcutaneously injected with native bovine β-lg and its hydrolysates on days 0, 7 and 14. During the sensitization period, a number of systemic anaphylactic indicators were observed in mice sensitized by β-lg compared to those sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg. Mice sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg showed a significantly lower spleen lymphocyte proliferation level than that sensitized by intact β-lg. Antibody levels of β-lg-specific IgE in serum induced by native β-lg were significantly high. Plasma histamine levels were also evaluated and showed the same trend as IgE. Moreover, the hydrolysates of β-lg significantly down-regulated IL-4 and IL-5 secretions in serum. These results suggested that enzymatic hydrolysis could reduce the allergenicity of β-lg.

  8. Comparison of immunomodulating properties of Beta-lactoglobulin and its hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Cui-cui; Li, Ai-li; Yang, Li-jie; Zhao, Rui; Fan, Wen-guang; Huo, Gui-cheng

    2014-02-01

    Cow's milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. Beta-lactoglobulin (β- lg) is a dominant allergen in cow's milk. Hydrolysis is known as an effective method to reduce the allergenicity of proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the allergenicity of β-lg and its hydrolysates using an animal model. Twenty four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and subcutaneously injected with native bovine β-lg and its hydrolysates on days 0, 7 and 14. During the sensitization period, a number of systemic anaphylactic indicators were observed in mice sensitized by β-lg compared to those sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg. Mice sensitized by hydrolysates of β-lg showed a significantly lower spleen lymphocyte proliferation level than that sensitized by intact β-lg. Antibody levels of β-lg-specific IgE in serum induced by native β-lg were significantly high. Plasma histamine levels were also evaluated and showed the same trend as IgE. Moreover, the hydrolysates of β-lg significantly down-regulated IL-4 and IL-5 secretions in serum. These results suggested that enzymatic hydrolysis could reduce the allergenicity of β-lg. PMID:24338225

  9. Colonization of Crystalline Cellulose by Clostridium cellulolyticum ATCC 35319

    OpenAIRE

    Gelhaye, E.; Gehin, A; Petitdemange, H.

    1993-01-01

    Cellulose colonization by Clostridium cellulolyticum was studied by using [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation. The colonization process indicated that a part of the bacterial population was released from cellulose to the liquid phase before binding and colonizing another adhesion site of the cellulose. We postulate that cellulose colonization occurs according to the following process: adhesion, colonization, release, and readhesion.

  10. Surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Neng; DING Enyong; CHENG Rongshi

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the dispersibility of cellulose nanocrystal(CNC) particles,three difierent grafted reactions of acetylation,hydroxyethylation and hydroxypropylation were introduced to modify the CNC surface.The main advantages of these methods were the simple and easily controlled reaction conditions,and the dispersibility of the resulting products was distinctly improved.The properties of the modified CNC were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR),13 C nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR),transmission electron microscopy(TEM)and thermogravimetric analyses(TGA).The results indicated mat after desiccation,the modification products could be dispersed again in the proper solvents by ultrasonic treatments,and the diameter of their particles had no obvious changes.However,their thermal degradation behaviors were quite different.The initial decomposition temperature of the modified products via hydroxyethylation or hydroxypropylation was lower than that of modified products via acetylation.

  11. Butanol production employing fed-batch fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum GX01 using alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysed by enzymes from Thermoascus aurantiacus QS 7-2-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zong-Wen; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Zheng-Wu; Liang, Jing-Juan; Du, Liang-Wei; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SB) is a potential feedstock for butanol production. However, biological production of butanol from SB is less economically viable. In this study, evaluation of eight pretreatments on SB showed that alkali pretreatment efficiently removed lignin from SB while retaining the intact native structure of the released microfibrils. In total, 99% of cellulose and 100% of hemicellulose in alkali-pretreated SB were hydrolysed by enzymes from Thermoascus aurantiacus. The hydrolysate was used to produce butanol in a fed-batch fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. At 60h, 14.17 and 21.11gL(-1) of butanol and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) were produced from 68.89gL(-1) of total sugars, respectively, yielding 0.22 and 0.33gg(-1) of sugars. The maximum yield of butanol and ABE reached 15.4g and 22.9g per 100g raw SB, respectively. This established process may have potential application for butanol production from SB. PMID:27089425

  12. Lyocell, The New Generation of Regenerated Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Borbély

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available For the majority of the last century, commercial routes to regenerated cellulosefibres have coped with the difficulties of making a good cellulose solution by using an easyto dissolve derivative (e.g. xanthane in the case of viscose rayon or complex (e.g.cuprammonium rayon. For the purposes of this paper, advanced cellulosic fibres aredefined as those made from a process involving direct dissolution of cellulose. The firstexamples of such fibres have now been generically designaed as lyocell fibres todistinguish them from rayons, and the first commercial lyocell fibre is Courtaulds’ Tencel.

  13. Preparation of membranes from cellulose obtained of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, cellulose obtained from sugarcane bagasse to produce both cellulose and acetylated cellulose to prepare asymmetric membranes. Membranes was procedure used a mixture of materials of DMAc/ LiCl systemic in different conditions. Cellulose and acetylated cellulose were characterized by thermogravimetric (TG), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Observed less stability thermal of acetylated cellulose when compared of cellulose. All membranes procedure were asymmetric, characterized by presence of a dense skin and porous support can be observed. SEM showed that the morphology of the superficial of membranes depends on the method preparation. (author)

  14. Hydrolyzability of xylan after adsorption on cellulose: Exploration of xylan limitation on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Li, Kena; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Junhua

    2016-09-01

    During pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials, the dissolved xylan would re-adsorb on cellulose, and then inhibits the cellulose hydrolysis by cellulases. However, the hydrolyzability of xylan adsorbed on cellulose is not clear. In this work, the adsorption behavior of xylans on celluloses and the hydrolysis of adsorbed xylan by xylanase (XYL) were investigated. The results indicated that the adsorption of beechwood xylan (BWX) and oat spelt xylan (OSX) on Avicel was conformed to Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm. Higher ion strength increased the adsorption of BWX on Avicel, but not that of OSX. Both BWX and OSX adsorbed on Avicel and corn stover after dilute acid pretreatment (CS-DA) could be hydrolyzed by XYL. Compared to OSX, BWX adsorbed on cellulosic materials could be more easily hydrolyzed by XYL. Thus, supplementation of XYL could hydrolyze the xylan adsorbed on cellulose and potentially improved hydrolysis efficiency of lignocelluloses. PMID:27185150

  15. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young; Whang, Kwang-Youn

    2015-12-01

    Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. PMID:26367331

  16. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth. PMID:21452895

  17. Potentials of polyacrylamide-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose graft polymer as flooding material in enhanced crude oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellulose-based derivatives have been used in drilling fluids as viscosifiers and fluid loss reducers for many years. But more recently due to evident advantages, such as technology and relative ease of large-scale production of cellulose derivatives as powders or granules and the generally non-toxic nature of cellulose ethers, research efforts have been intensified to optimize their possible applications as polymer flooding materials in enhanced oil recovery. Consequently, this paper addresses the synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose graft polymer produced from locally available cellulose materials. Notable improvement was achieved in the specific viscosity of the graft polymer when compared with the unmodified sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC). For a 1% (wt%) solution at 25 deg. c and a shear rate of 200s/sup -1/-1, NaCMC has a viscosity of 74.6 centipose while the graft polymer recorded a viscosity of 154 centipose. The influence of mono and multivalent cations such as sodium, calcium and aluminum ions on the viscosity of the graft polymer solution was relatively minimal, suggesting improvement in the so-called salt tolerance or cation compatibility. (author)

  18. Brittle Culm1, a COBRA-like protein, functions in cellulose assembly through binding cellulose microfibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Liu

    Full Text Available Cellulose represents the most abundant biopolymer in nature and has great economic importance. Cellulose chains pack laterally into crystalline forms, stacking into a complicated crystallographic structure. However, the mechanism of cellulose crystallization is poorly understood. Here, via functional characterization, we report that Brittle Culm1 (BC1, a COBRA-like protein in rice, modifies cellulose crystallinity. BC1 was demonstrated to be a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored protein and can be released into cell walls by removal of the GPI anchor. BC1 possesses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM at its N-terminus. In vitro binding assays showed that this CBM interacts specifically with crystalline cellulose, and several aromatic residues in this domain are essential for binding. It was further demonstrated that cell wall-localized BC1 via the CBM and GPI anchor is one functional form of BC1. X-ray diffraction (XRD assays revealed that mutations in BC1 and knockdown of BC1 expression decrease the crystallite width of cellulose; overexpression of BC1 and the CBM-mutated BC1s caused varied crystallinity with results that were consistent with the in vitro binding assay. Moreover, interaction between the CBM and cellulose microfibrils was largely repressed when the cell wall residues were pre-stained with two cellulose dyes. Treating wild-type and bc1 seedlings with the dyes resulted in insensitive root growth responses in bc1 plants. Combined with the evidence that BC1 and three secondary wall cellulose synthases (CESAs function in different steps of cellulose production as revealed by genetic analysis, we conclude that BC1 modulates cellulose assembly by interacting with cellulose and affecting microfibril crystallinity.

  19. Flecainide toxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, G A; Martin, R P

    1989-01-01

    Flecainide toxicity occurred in an infant being treated for refractory atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia. Ventricular tachycardia developed when dextrose was substituted for milk feeds. We believe that milk was interfering with the absorption of flecainide, and so a high serum concentration developed when milk feeds were stopped.

  20. Reaction mechanisms in cellulose pyrolysis: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molton, P.M.; Demmitt, T.F.

    1977-08-01

    A bibliographic review of 195 references is presented outlining the history of the research into the mechanisms of cellulose pyrolysis. Topics discussed are: initial product identification, mechanism of initial formation of levoglucosan, from cellulose and from related compounds, decomposition of cellulose to other compounds, formation of aromatics, pyrolysis of levoglucosan, crosslinking of cellulose, pyrolytic reactions of cellulose derivatives, and the effects of inorganic salts on the pyrolysis mechanism. (JSR)

  1. Preparation, characterisation and wetting of fluorinated cellulose surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Aulin, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the wetting by oil mixtures of two different model cellulose surfaces. The surfaces studied were a regenerated cellulose (RG) surface prepared by spin-coating, and a film consisting of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) of Poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and a carboxymethylated Microfibrillated Cellulose (MFC). After coating or covalently modifying the cellulose surfaces with various amounts of fluorosurfactants, the fluorinated cellulose films were used to follow the spreadin...

  2. Cellulosic Bionanocomposites: A Review of Preparation, Properties and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Dufresne; Gilberto Siqueira; Julien Bras

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature. Extracted from natural fibers, its hierarchical and multi-level organization allows different kinds of nanoscaled cellulosic fillers—called cellulose nanocrystals or microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)—to be obtained. Recently, such cellulose nanoparticles have been the focus of an exponentially increasing number of works or reviews devoted to understanding such materials and their applications. Major studies over the last decades have s...

  3. Spray-Dried Cellulose Nanofibers as Novel Tablet Excipient

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Peltonen, Leena; Laaksonen, Timo; Putkisto, Kaisa; Laukkanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jouni

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of cellulose nanofibers (also referred as microfibrillated cellulose, nanocellulose, nanofibrillated, or nanofibrillar cellulose) as novel tabletting material. For this purpose, physical and mechanical properties of spray-dried cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were examined, and results were compared to those of two commercial grades of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), Avicel PH101 and Avicel PH102, which are the most commonly and widely used...

  4. Role of bacterial cellulose fibrils in Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthysse, A G

    1983-01-01

    During the attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to carrot tissue culture cells, the bacteria synthesize cellulose fibrils. We examined the role of these cellulose fibrils in the attachment process by determining the properties of bacterial mutants unable to synthesize cellulose. Such cellulose-minus bacteria attached to the carrot cell surface, but, in contrast to the parent strain, with which larger clusters of bacteria were seen on the plant cell, cellulose-minus mutant bacteria were att...

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ovomucin and the functional and structural characteristics of peptides in the hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyrathne, E D N S; Lee, H Y; Jo, C; Suh, J W; Ahn, D U

    2016-02-01

    Ovomucin was hydrolyzed using enzymes or by heating under alkaline conditions (pH 12.0), and the functional, structural and compositional characteristics of the peptides in the hydrolysates were determined. Among the treatments, heating at 100 °C for 15 min under alkaline conditions (OM) produced peptides with the highest iron-binding and antioxidant capacities. Ovomucin hydrolyzed with papain (OMPa) or alcalase (OMAl) produced peptides with high ACE-inhibitory activity. The mass spectrometry analysis indicated that most of the peptides from OMPa were 2 kDa. OMAl hydrolyzed ovomucin almost completely and no peptides within 700-5000 Da were found in the hydrolasate. The results indicated that the number and size of peptides were closely related to the functionality of the hydrolysates. Considering the time, cost and activities of the hydrolysates, OM was the best treatment for hydrolyzing ovomucin to produce functional peptides. PMID:26304326

  6. The application of thrombectomy with hydrolyser catheter in the treatment of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of thrombectomy with hydrolyser catheter combined with catheter-directed thrombolysis in the treatment of chronic lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (LEDVT). Methods: 15 patients with thrombosis in left iliac veins (n = 2), left iliac and femoral veins (n = 8 ), left and right iliac and femoral veins (n = 5). Inferior vena cava filters (LVCF) were placed in all patients via the normal femoral veins. Antegrade puncture and catheterization was carried out through the femoral veins or popliteal veins in the thrombotic side. Thrombus aspiration with hydrolyser catheter combined with intravascular thrombolysis was accomplished. Results: The success rate of percutaneous catheterization was 100% (15/15). Total effective rate was 93% (14/15). No serious complications were observed. Conclusion: Thrombectomy with hydrolyser catheter combined with catheter-directed thrombolysis in the treatments of LEDVT is safe and effective

  7. Study on the Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Sea Cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) Gelatin Hydrolysate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  8. Quantitative analysis of complex casein hydrolysates based on chromatography and membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wei; Yu Yanjun; He Zhimin

    2006-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysates of casein are so complex that there is no effective method to do quantitative analysis.The common techniques,such as high performance chromatography and SDS-PAGE,can only carry out qualitative analysis.On the basis of membrane separation and high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC),standard peptides with different molecular mass range were prepared,and the linear relationships between mass concentration of the standard peptides and the ultraviolet absorption of corresponding peak areas were established.Consequently,mass concentration of the different hydrolysates at different reaction times could be accurately calculated.The combination of chromatography and membrane separation is of great importance to the quantitative analysis of the complex hydrolysates,which can also be applied to the other macromolecular systems,such as carbohydrates.

  9. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

    2012-12-15

    The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). PMID:22980905

  10. Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) gelatin hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Xiao, Feng; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Li, Bafang; Dong, Shiyuan

    2007-07-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  11. HYDROLYSIS OF WHEAT STRAW HEMICELLULOSE AND DETOXIFICATION OF THE HYDROLYSATE FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Zhuang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol can be obtained from wheat straw hemicellulose containing a high content of xylan. This study describes a new system of hydrolysis, utilizing a mixed solution of formic acid and hydrochloric acid in which xylan can be hydrolyzed effectively. The hydrolysate contains a high content of formic acid, which markedly inhibits the fermentation. One of the most efficient methods for removing inhibiting compounds is treatment of the hydrolysate with ion-exchange resins. Formate can be removed by a factor of 77.78%, and furfural, acetic acid, phenolic compounds can be removed by 90.36%, 96.29%, and 77.44%, respectively after the hydrolysate has been treated with excess Ca(OH2 and D311 ion-exchange resin. The xylose from the hydrolysis process can be fermented by Candida tropicalis strain (AS2.1776 to produce xylitol with a yield of 41.88 % (xylitol/xylose.

  12. Single cell protein production by penicillium expansum incorporating of acid hydrolysate of rice husk in medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the research work is to bioconversion of rice husk to single cell protein by penicillium expansum. The rice husk was degraded chemically using sulphuric acid and perchloric acid with various concentrations (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60 N) to fermentable sugars and these were used as substrate for the production of single cell protein by penicillium expansum. It was observed that the amount of single cell protein is higher in case of perchloric acid hydrolysate in comparison to sulphuric acid hydrolysate, while the protein content of single cell protein is higher in sulphuric acid hydrolysate. The single cell protein of penicillium expansum contains nearly all essential amino acids while it free from aflatoxin. (author)

  13. Fabrication of polyaniline/carboxymethyl cellulose/cellulose nanofibrous mats and their biosensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI nanorods have been grown onto the surface of CMC/cellulose nanofibers for the fabrication of biosensor substrate material. • The proposed laccase biosensor exhibited a low detection limit and high sensitivity in the detection of catechol. • Hierarchical PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers are the promising material in the design of high-efficient biosensors. - Abstract: We report a facile approach to synthesizing and immobilizing polyaniline nanorods onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-modified cellulose nanofibers for their biosensing application. Firstly, the hierarchical PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers were fabricated by in situ polymerization of aniline on the CMC-modified cellulose nanofiber. Subsequently, the PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibrous mat modified with laccase (Lac) was used as biosensor substrate material for the detection of catechol. PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers with highly conductive and three dimensional nanostructure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimum conditions, the Lac/PANI/CMC/cellulose/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited a fast response time (within 8 s), a linear response range from 0.497 μM to 2.27 mM with a high sensitivity and low detection limit of 0.374 μM (3σ). The developed biosensor also displayed good repeatability, reproducibility as well as selectivity. The results indicated that the composite mat has potential application in enzyme biosensors

  14. Fabrication of polyaniline/carboxymethyl cellulose/cellulose nanofibrous mats and their biosensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jiapeng, E-mail: firgexiao@sina.cn; Pang, Zengyuan, E-mail: pangzengyuan1212@163.com; Yang, Jie, E-mail: young1993@126.com; Huang, Fenglin, E-mail: flhuang@jiangnan.edu.cn; Cai, Yibing, E-mail: yibingcai@jiangnan.edu.cn; Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI nanorods have been grown onto the surface of CMC/cellulose nanofibers for the fabrication of biosensor substrate material. • The proposed laccase biosensor exhibited a low detection limit and high sensitivity in the detection of catechol. • Hierarchical PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers are the promising material in the design of high-efficient biosensors. - Abstract: We report a facile approach to synthesizing and immobilizing polyaniline nanorods onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-modified cellulose nanofibers for their biosensing application. Firstly, the hierarchical PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers were fabricated by in situ polymerization of aniline on the CMC-modified cellulose nanofiber. Subsequently, the PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibrous mat modified with laccase (Lac) was used as biosensor substrate material for the detection of catechol. PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers with highly conductive and three dimensional nanostructure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimum conditions, the Lac/PANI/CMC/cellulose/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited a fast response time (within 8 s), a linear response range from 0.497 μM to 2.27 mM with a high sensitivity and low detection limit of 0.374 μM (3σ). The developed biosensor also displayed good repeatability, reproducibility as well as selectivity. The results indicated that the composite mat has potential application in enzyme biosensors.

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Fish Protein Hydrolysates in in vitro Assays and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    The aim of this study was to screen different protein hydrolysates with respect to their antioxidative properties in order to select the most promising extracts for further evaluation in oil-in-water emulsions. Three fractions of protein hydrolysates (Crude, >5kDa and 5kDa, 3-5kDa and...

  16. Antioxidant and Functional Properties of Collagen Hydrolysates from Spanish Mackerel Skin as Influenced by Average Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Feng Chi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the relationships between functional properties and average molecular weight (AMW of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius skin were researched. Seven hydrolysate fractions (5.04 ≤ AMW ≤ 47.82 kDa from collagen of Spanish mackerel skin were obtained through the processes of acid extraction, proteolysis, and fractionation using gel filtration chromatography. The physicochemical properties of the collagen hydrolysate fractions were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results indicated that there was an inverse relationship between the antioxidant activities and the logarithm of the AMW of the hydrolysate fractions in the tested AMW range. However, the reduction of AMW significantly enhanced the solubility of the hydrolysate fractions, and a similar AMW decrease of the hydrolysate fractions negatively affected the emulsifying and foaming capacities. This presented as a positive correlation between the logarithm of AMW and emulsion stability index, emulsifying activity index, foam stability, and foam capacity. Therefore, these collagen hydrolysates with excellent antioxidant activities or good functionalities as emulsifiers could be obtained by controlling the effect of the digestion process on the AMW of the resultant hydrolysates.

  17. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast...

  18. Antioxidant and sensory properties of protein hydrolysate derived from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by one- and two-step hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yarnpakdee, Suthasinee; Benjakul, Soottawat; Kristinsson, Hordur G.; Kishimura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant and sensory properties of Nile tilapia protein hydrolysates prepared by one- and two-step hydrolysis using commercial proteases were investigated. Hydrolysates prepared using single protease including Alcalase (HA), Flavourzyme (HF), Protamex (HPr) and papain (HPa) had increases in antioxidant activities as the degree of hydrolysis (DH) increased up to 40 % (P 

  19. Characterization of Animal By-Product Hydrolysates to Be Used as Healthy and Bioactive Ingredients in Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Trine Desiree

    nutritious as well as being good sources of protein, they represent interesting substrates for the generation of bioactive hydrolysates and peptides. Different porcine and bovine by-products were hydrolysed with a mixture consisting of Alcalase®and Protamex, and tested in relation to antioxidant capacity and...

  20. Antioxidant potential of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed protein hydrolysates and carnosine in food and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2015-01-28

    Date seed protein hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant activity as well as solubility and water-holding capacity in food and biological model systems. Date seed protein hydrolysates as well as carnosine exhibited >80% of solubility over a pH range of 2-12. The hydrolysates and carnosine at 0.5% (w/w) were also found to be effective in enhancing water-holding capacity and cooking yield in a fish model system, which was nearly similar to sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP; 0.3%, w/w). Incorporation of hydrolysates (200 ppm) in fish model systems resulted in the highest inhibition (30%) of oxidation in comparison to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 9%). In addition, hydrolysates and carnosine inhibited β-carotene oxidation by 75%. The hydrolysates (0.1 mg/mL) inhibited LDL cholesterol oxidation by 60%, whereas carnosine inhibited oxidation by 80% after 12 h of incubation. Additionally, hydrolysates and carnosine effectively inhibited hydroxyl (6 mg/mL) and peroxyl (0.1 mg/mL) radical-induced DNA scission. Therefore, date seed protein hydrolysates could be used as a potential functional food ingredient for health promotion. PMID:25553507

  1. Rapid saccharification for production of cellulosic biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Seok; Wi, Seung Gon; Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Yoon-Gyo; Kim, Yeong-Suk; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2014-04-01

    The economical production of biofuels is hindered by the recalcitrance of lignocellulose to processing, causing high consumption of processing enzymes and impeding hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. We determined the major rate-limiting factor in the hydrolysis of popping pre-treated rice straw (PPRS) by examining cellulase adsorption to lignin and cellulose, amorphogenesis of PPRS, and re-hydrolysis. Based on the results, equivalence between enzyme loading and the open structural area of cellulose was required to significantly increase productive adsorption of cellulase and to accelerate enzymatic saccharification of PPRS. Amorphogenesis of PPRS by phosphoric acid treatment to expand open structural area of the cellulose fibers resulted in twofold higher cellulase adsorption and increased the yield of the first re-hydrolysis step from 13% to 46%. The total yield from PPRS was increased to 84% after 3h. These results provide evidence that cellulose structure is one of major effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:24607460

  2. Carboxymethylation of Cellulose by Microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE; Jun

    2001-01-01

    Cellulose may be readily converted into ethers involving primary and secondary alcohol groups in each monomer unit and the glycosidic bonds. However, these reactions are rather more complicated than with simple substances, because the stereochemistry of the cellulose molecule is such that the vast majority of its hydroxyl groups form intra-chain hydrogen bonds or inter-chain hydrogen bonds with contiguous molecules. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has played an important part in the commercial uses of cellulose derivatives. CMC becomes alkali and water soluble. The polarity can, in fact, be increased by introduction of ionizing groups, ie carboxymethyl group. CMC is generally produced by the reaction of alkali cellulose with chloroacetic acid.……

  3. Cellulosic ethanol is ready to go

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, M. [SunOpta BioProcess Group, Brampton, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A corporate overview of the SunOpta organization was presented. The organization includes three divisions, notably organic food, industrial minerals, and a bioprocess group. It is a Canadian organization that has experienced over 60 per cent growth per year since 1999. The presentation provided a history of the bioprocess group from 1973 to 2003. The presentation also illustrated the biomass process from wood, straw or corn stover to cellulosic ethanol and acetone and butanol. Several images were presented. The production of xylitol from oat hulls and birch and from ryegrass straw to linerboard was also illustrated. Last, the presentation illustrated the biomass production of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin extraction as well as the ammonia pretreatment of cellulosics. The presentation also listed several current and future developments such as an expansion plan and implementation of cellulosic ethanol. Economic success was defined as requiring proximity to market; high percentage concentration to distillation; and co-located within existing infrastructure. figs.

  4. Percutaneous removal of pulmonary artery emboli with hydrolyser catheter in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Hydrolyser catheter for per,cutaneous treatment of massive pulmonary embolism in pigs. Twelve pigs, each weighing between 55 kg and 89 kg, were used. Radio-opaque 9 cm x 0.8 cm and 4.5 cm x 0.8 cm clots, produced by mixing pig blood with iodinated contrast agent in vacutainers, were injected via the jugular vein until central pulmonary embolism (main and proximal lobar arteries) was obtained with significant systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic modifications. From a femoral approach, the 7-French Hydrolyser thrombectomy catheter was run over a 0.025-inch (0.64-mm) guide wire to remove the pulmonary emboli. Hemodynamic, gasometric and angiographic monitoring was performed before and after treatment. The procedure's safety and completeness of emboli removal was assessed by cardiopulmonary autopsy. Three of the 12 pigs died during embolization. Thrombectomy was therefore performed in 9, and central emboli could be obtained in 7 of the 9. The Hydrolyser could be manipulated only in central pulmonary arteries and could aspirate only central emboli in 5 of the 7 pigs that had them. Despite minimal angiographic improvement seen in these 5, there was no significant hemodynamic and gasometric improvement after treatment. The procedure induced an increase in free hemoglobin blood levels. Autopsies revealed an average of 2 endothelial injuries per pig (mainly adherent endocardial thrombi) in both nontreated (n = 3) and Hydrolyser-treated (n = 9) groups. The Hydrolyser thrombectomy catheter can be promptly positioned and easily steered in central pulmonary arteries. It can be used to partially remove central emboli, but not peripheral pulmonary emboli. Most of the injuries observed may not have been strictly related to Hydrolyser use. The pig might not be a suitable animal model for treatment of massive pulmonary embolism. (author)

  5. Industrial scale chromatographic separation of valuable compounds from biomass hydrolysates and side streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, P.

    2011-06-15

    Carbohydrates are composed of a number of various monosaccharides, glucose being the most abundant. Some of the monosaccharides are valuable compounds used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. They can be separated from biomass hydrolysates e.g. by chromatographic methods. In this thesis, chromatographic separation of valuable compounds using ion exchange resins was studied on an industrial scale. Of special interest were rare monosaccharides in biomass hydrolysates. A novel chromatographic separation process was developed for fucose, starting from pre-processed spent sulfite liquor. The core of the process consists of three chromatographic separations with different types of ion exchange resins. Chromatographic separation of galactose was tested with three biomass hydrolysates; lactose, gum arabic and hemicellulose hydrolysates. It was demonstrated that also galactose can be separated from complex carbohydrate mixtures. A recovery process for arabinose from citrus pectin liquid residual and for mannose from wood pulp hydrolysate were also developed and experimentally verified. In addition to monosaccharides, chromatographic separation of glycinebetaine from vinasse was examined with a hydrogen form weak acid cation exchange resin. The separation involves untypical peak formation depending, for example, on the pH and the cation composition. The retention mechanism was found to be hydrogen bonding between glycinebetaine and the resin. In the experimental part, all four resin types - strong acid cation, strong base anion, weak acid cation and weak base anion exchange resins - were used. In addition, adsorption equilibria data of seven monosaccharides and sucrose were measured with the resins in sodium and sulfate forms because such data have been lacking. It was found out that the isotherms of all sugars were linear under industrial conditions. A systematic method for conceptual process design and sequencing of chromatographic separation steps were developed

  6. Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Protein Hydrolysate from Muscle of Barbel (Barbus callensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaad Sila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of barbel muscle protein hydrolysate prepared with Alcalase. The barbel muscle protein hydrolysate displayed a high ACE inhibitory activity (CI50=0.92 mg/mL. The antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysate at different concentrations were evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical method and reducing power assay. The barbel muscle protein hydrolysate exhibited an important radical scavenging effect and reducing power. These results obtained by in vitro systems obviously established the antioxidant potency of barbel hydrolysate to donate electron or hydrogen atom to reduce the free radical. Furthermore, these bioactive substances can be exploited into functional foods or used as source of nutraceuticals.

  7. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep and pig plasma using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A

    2015-06-01

    Plasma separated from deer, sheep and pig blood, obtained from abattoirs, was hydrolysed using protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained after 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, were investigated. The release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was monitored using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay, while the hydrolysis profiles were visualised using SDS-PAGE. The major plasma proteins in the animal plasmas were identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Hydrolysates of plasma generated with fungal proteases exhibited higher DPPH radical-scavenging, oxygen radical-scavenging capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) than those generated with plant proteases for all three animal plasmas. No antimicrobial activity was detected in the hydrolysates. The results indicated that proteolytic hydrolysis of animal blood plasmas, using fungal protease preparations in particular, produces hydrolysates with high antioxidant properties. PMID:25624206

  8. Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Ameliorates Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Steatosis in Zucker Fatty Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Garcés-Rimón

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications.

  9. Cellulose whisker/epoxy resin nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Liming; Weder, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    New nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanofibers or “whiskers” and an epoxy resin were prepared. Cellulose whiskers with aspect ratios of ∼10 and ∼84 were isolated from cotton and sea animals called tunicates, respectively. Suspensions of these whiskers in dimethylformamide were combined with an oligomeric difunctional diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with an epoxide equivalent weight of 185−192 and a diethyl toluenediamine-based curing agent. Thin films were produced by casting these mixtu...

  10. Nanopores Structure in Electrospun Bacterial Cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Basmaji; Gabriel Molina de Olyveira; Ligia Maria Manzine Costa; Lauro Xavier Filho

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has established to be a remarkably versatile biomaterial and can be used in wide variety of applied scientific endeavours, especially for medical devices, lately, bacterial cellulose mats are used in the treatment of skin conditions such as burns and ulcers, because of the morphology of fibrous biopolymers serving as a support for cell proliferation, its pores allow gas exchange between the organism and the environment. Moreover, the nanostructure and morphological si...

  11. Cellulose composite structures – by design

    OpenAIRE

    Winkworth-Smith, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was to investigate different mechanical and chemical pre-treatments which can dramatically change the properties of native cellulose and add alternative routes to structure formation. Ball milled cellulose, which had a reduced crystallinity, degree of polymerisation and degradation temperature, was rehydrated in excess water resulting in recrystallisation. Fully amorphous samples recrystallised to the more thermodynamically stable type II polymorph...

  12. Nanosized Cellulose Fibrils as Stabilizer of Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Xhanari, Klodian

    2011-01-01

    Pickering emulsions have been a subject of research for many years due to their practical applications not only in everyday life products but also in industry. The stability of these emulsions is due to the irreversible adsorption of colloid particles at the oil/water interface which prevents droplet coalescence. Cellulose materials are among the different types of particles used as stabilizers. Most of the studies report the use of native cellulose as stabilizer of oil-in-water emulsions due...

  13. Production of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, A. U.; I. B. Obot; Umoren, S. A.; Mkpenie, V.; Asuquo, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Cellulosic polymers namely cellulose, di-and triacetate were produced from fourteen agricultural wastes; Branch and fiber after oil extraction from oil palm (Elais guineensis), raffia, piassava, bamboo pulp, bamboo bark from raphia palm (Raphia hookeri), stem and cob of maize plant (Zea mays), fruit fiber from coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera), sawdusts from cotton tree (Cossypium hirsutum), pear wood (Manilkara obovata), stem of Southern gamba green (Andropogon tectorus), sugarcane baggase (Sac...

  14. Improvement of biotechnological xylitol production by glucose during cultive of Candida guilliermondii in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Danielle Virgínio da Silva; Ismael Maciel de Mancilha; Silvio Silvério da Silva; Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe

    2007-01-01

    The effect of glucose on xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion by Candida guilliermondii was examined by adding it to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate medium to obtain different glucose:xylose ratios (1:25, 1:12, 1:5 and 1:2.5). Under experimental conditions, increasing glucose:xylose ratio improved the assimilation of the xylose present in the hydrolysate by yeast, resulting in biomass increase, and in the formation of xylitol and glycerol/ethanol by-products. Maximum values of xylitol yield (0.59 g ...

  15. Influence of the concentration of locust bean gum on the gelling ability of whey peptic hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Cristina M. R.; Hilliou, L.; Teixeira, J. A.; M. P. GONçALVES

    2008-01-01

    The gelling ability of whey proteins can be changed by limited hydrolysis and by the presence of other components such as polysaccharides; depending on the environmental conditions it can either be improved or impaired. In this work the effect of LBG on the heat-set gelation of aqueous whey protein hydrolysates (10 % w/w) from pepsin was assessed at pH 7.0 by small deformation rheology. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysates with a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 1.5, ...

  16. Functional properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed protein isolate and hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Bučko Sandra Đ.; Katona Jaroslav M.; Popović Ljiljana M.; Vaštag Žužana G.; Petrović Lidija B.

    2016-01-01

    Pumpkin seed protein isolate (PSPI) was enzymatically hydrolysed by pepsin to obtain pumpkin seed protein hydrolysate, PSPH. Investigation on solubility, interfacial and emulsifying properties of both PSPI and PSPH was conducted under different conditions of pH (3-8) and ionic strength (0-1 mol/dm3 NaCl). PSPI had the lowest solubility, i.e. isoelectric point (pI), at pH 5. PSPH had higher solubility than PSPI over whole range of pH and ionic strengths test...

  17. Salmon protein hydrolysate as a protein source in feed for young pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    combinations hereof. Five diets were composed, all fulfilling the nutrient recommendations for young pigs. All diets contained 172gsoybeanmeal/kg. One diet was supplemented with 123gSPH/kg, and equivalent protein was supplied as SPC or FM in two other diets. Two diets were composed by combining half the amount......Salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) is made from fresh by-products from farmed salmon that are minced and acidified to hydrolyse proteins into peptides and free amino acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate SPH in young pigs compared to soy protein concentrate (SPC), fish meal (FM) and...

  18. Oil Production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g Using Rice Bran Hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Yeshitila Asteraye Tsigie; Chun-Yuan Wang; Kasim, Novy S.; Quy-Do Diem; Lien-Huong Huynh; Quoc-Phong Ho; Chi-Thanh Truong; Yi-Hsu Ju

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce microbial oil from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g grown in defatted rice bran hydrolysate. After removing oil from rice bran by Soxhlet extraction, the bran is subjected to acid hydrolysis with various sulfuric acid concentrations (1–4% v/v), reaction times (1–8 h), and reaction temperatures (60– 1 2 0 ∘ C). The optimal conditions for maximum total sugar production from the hydrolysate were found to be 3% sulfuric acid at 9 0 ∘ C for 6 h. Glucose was the pre...

  19. Comparison of immunomodulating properties of Beta-lactoglobulin and its hydrolysates.

    OpenAIRE

    Cui-cui Duan; Ai-li Li; Li-jie Yang; Rui Zhao; Wen-guang Fan; Gui-cheng Huo

    2014-01-01

    Cow's milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. Beta-lactoglobulin (β- lg) is a dominant allergen in cow's milk. Hydrolysis is known as an effective method to reduce the allergenicity of proteins. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the allergenicity of β-lg and its hydrolysates using an animal model. Twenty four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and subcutaneously injected with native bovine β-lg and its hydrolysates on days 0, 7 and 14. During...

  20. Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

  1. Biohydrogen, bioelectricity and bioalcohols from cellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissila, M.

    2013-03-01

    The demand for renewable energy is increasing due to increasing energy demand and global warming associated with increasing use of fossil fuels. Renewable energy can be derived from biological production of energy carriers from cellulosic biomass. These biochemical processes include biomass fermentation to hydrogen, methane and alcohols, and bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The objective of this study was to investigate the production of different energy carriers (hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol, bioelectricity) through biochemical processes. Hydrogen production potential of a hot spring enrichment culture from different sugars was determined, and hydrogen was produced continuously from xylose. Cellulolytic and hydrogenic cultures were enriched on cellulose, cellulosic pulp materials, and on silage at different process conditions. The enrichment cultures were further characterized. The effect of acid pretreatment on hydrogen production from pulp materials was studied and compared to direct pulp fermentation to hydrogen. Electricity and alcohol(s) were simultaneously produced from xylose in MFCs and the exoelectrogenic and alcohologenic enrichment cultures were characterized. In the end, the energy yields obtained from different biochemical processes were determined and compared. In this study, cultures carrying out simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and hydrogen fermentation were enriched from different sources at different operational conditions. These cultures were successfully utilized for cellulose to hydrogen fermentation in batch systems. Based on these results further research should be conducted on continuous hydrogen production from cellulosic materials.

  2. Nanofibrillar cellulose films for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Peltonen, Leena; Laukkanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jouni; Laaksonen, Timo

    2012-10-01

    Nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) (also referred to as cellulose nanofibers, nanocellulose, microfibrillated, or nanofibrillated cellulose) has gotten recent and wide attention in various research areas. Here, we report the application of nanofibrillar cellulose as a matrix-former material for long-lasting (up to three months) sustained drug delivery. Film-like matrix systems with drug loadings between 20% and 40% were produced by a filtration method. This simple production method had an entrapment efficacy>90% and offers a possibility for the film thickness adjustment as well as applicability in the incorporation of heat sensitive compounds. The films had excellent mechanical properties suitable for easy handling and shape tailoring of the drug release systems. They were characterized in terms of the internal morphology, and the physical state of the encapsulated drug. The drug release was assessed by dissolution tests, and suitable mathematical models were used to explain the releasing kinetics. The drug release was sustained for a three month period with very close to zero-order kinetics. It is assumed that the nanofibrillar cellulose film sustains the drug release by forming a tight fiber network around the incorporated drug entities. The results indicate that the nanofibrillar cellulose is a highly promising new material for sustained release drug delivery applications. PMID:22750440

  3. Cellulose fractionation with IONCELL-P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, A M; Monshizadeh, A; Hummel, M; Roselli, A; Sixta, H

    2016-10-01

    IONCELL-P is a solvent fractionation process, which can separate pulps almost quantitatively into pure cellulose and hemicellulose fractions using IL-water mixtures. In this work the role of the molecular weight of cellulose on its solubility in ionic liquid-water mixtures is studied. The aim of this study was to understand and identify the determining factors of this IONCELL-P fractionation. Cotton linters (CL) served as model cellulose substrate and was degraded by ozone treatment to adjust the molecular weight to that of hemicelluloses and low molar mass cellulose in commercial pulps. The ozone treated CLs were subjected to the IONCELL-P process using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim][OAc]) and water mixtures with a water content between 13.5 and 19wt%. Based on the molar mass distributions of dissolved and undissolved cellulose the effect of the molecular weight of cellulose in IL-water mixture appears to be a key factor in the fractionation process. PMID:27312618

  4. Isolation of cellulose microfibrils - An enzymatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sain, M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation methods and applications of cellulose microfibrils are expanding rapidly due to environmental benefits and specific strength properties, especially in bio-composite science. In this research, we have success-fully developed and explored a novel bio-pretreatment for wood fibre that can substantially improve the microfibril yield, in comparison to current techniques used to isolate cellulose microfibrils. Microfibrils currently are isolated in the laboratory through a combination of high shear refining and cryocrushing. A high energy requirement of these procedures is hampering momentum in the direction of microfibril isolation on a sufficiently large scale to suit potential applications. Any attempt to loosen up the microfibrils by either complete or partial destruction of the hydrogen bonds before the mechanical process would be a step forward in the quest for economical isolation of cellulose microfibrils. Bleached kraft pulp was treated with OS1, a fungus isolated from Dutch Elm trees infected with Dutch elm disease, under different treatment conditions. The percentage yield of cellulose microfibrils, based on their diameter, showed a significant shift towards a lower diameter range after the high shear refining, compared to the yield of cellulose microfibrils from untreated fibres. The overall yield of cellulose microfibrils from the treated fibres did not show any sizeable decrease.

  5. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational...

  6. Testing zinc chloride as a new catalyst for direct synthesis of cellulose di- and tri-acetate in a solvent free system under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Ragab, Safaa; El Sikaily, Amany

    2016-10-20

    This research demonstrates the effect of ZnCl2 as a catalyst on the esterification of commercial cotton cellulose using acetic anhydride in order to obtain di- and tri-cellulose acetates under microwave irradiation. It was discovered that microwave irradiation significantly increased the yield and reduced the reaction time. It was found that the maximum yield for cellulose triacetates was 95.83% under the reaction conditions that were as follows: 3min reaction time, 200mg of ZnCl2 catalyst and 20ml of Ac2O for 5g cellulose. However, the cellulose acetate obtained in this manner had the highest DS (2.87). The cellulose di-acetate was produced with the maximum yield of 89.97% and with the highest DS (2.69) using 25ml Ac2O, 200mg of ZnCl2 for 5g cellulose and in 3min reaction time. The effect of some factors such as the amount of used catalyst, the quantity of acetic acid anhydride and the reaction time of the esterification process have been investigated. The production of di- and tri-cellulose acetate and the degree of substitution were confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The thermal stability was investigated using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The molecular weight and the degree of polymerization were obtained using Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of di- and tri-cellulose acetate without degradation during the reaction; these results were found to be in contrast to some recent studies. The present study reveals that ZnCl2 is a new catalyst; it is effective as well as inexpensive and is a low toxicity catalyst for usage in cellulose esterification. PMID:27474655

  7. Cellulose nanofibers from Curaua fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curaua is a plant from Amazon region whose leaves were used by the indians of the region to make nets, ropes, fishing wires, etc., due to their high mechanical resistance. Nowadays, some industries, mainly textile and automobile, have increased their interest on these fibers to prepare polymer composites, because their properties could be compared to composites with glass fibers. In this work, cellulose nanofibers were obtained from curaua fibers, which were submitted to alkaline treatment with a solution of NaOH 5%. Nanofibers, in watery suspension, were characterized morphologically by TEM and AFM, and they show needle like format and the ratio L/D of 14. The suspension was dried by freeze dried process, in vacuum and air circulation oven, and these nanofibers were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, presenting high crystalline index, and by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which showed that nanofibers have poorer thermal stability than the treated fiber, but they can reach values next to the ones of the original fibers, depending on the drying process of the suspension. (author)

  8. High-performance supercapacitor electrode from cellulose-derived, inter-bonded carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Niu, Haitao; Wang, Hongxia; Shao, Hao; Fang, Jian; He, Jingren; Xiong, Hanguo; Ma, Chengjie; Lin, Tong

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers with inter-bonded fibrous structure show high supercapacitor performance when being used as electrode materials. Their preparation is highly desirable from cellulose through a pyrolysis technique, because cellulose is an abundant, low cost natural material and its carbonization does not emit toxic substance. However, interconnected carbon nanofibers prepared from electrospun cellulose nanofibers and their capacitive behaviors have not been reported in the research literature. Here we report a facile one-step strategy to prepare inter-bonded carbon nanofibers from partially hydrolyzed cellulose acetate nanofibers, for making high-performance supercapacitors as electrode materials. The inter-fiber connection shows considerable improvement in electrode electrochemical performances. The supercapacitor electrode has a specific capacitance of ∼241.4 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 current density. It maintains high cycling stability (negligible 0.1% capacitance reduction after 10,000 cycles) with a maximum power density of ∼84.1 kW kg-1. They may find applications in the development of efficient supercapacitor electrodes for energy storage applications.

  9. Degradation of γ-irradiated cellulose by the accumulating culture of a cellulose bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility of degradation of γ-irradiated cellulose by the accumulating culture of an anaerobic cellulose bacterium has been investigated. Cellulose irradiation by γ-quanta (Co60) has been carried out using the RKh-30 device with 35.9 Gy/min dose rate. Radiation monitoring has been carried out by the standard ferrosulfate method. Samples have been irradiated in dry state or when water presenting with MGy. It is detected that the accumulating culture with the growth on the irradiated cellulose has a lag-phase, which duration reduces when the cellulose cleaning by flushing with distillation water. The culture has higher growth and substrate consumption rate when growing by cellulose irradiated in comparison with non-irradiated one. The economical coefficient is the same in using both the irradiated and non-irradiated cellulose. The quantity of forming reducing saccharides, organic acids, methane and carbon dioxide is the same both when cultivating by irradiated cellulose and by non-irradiated. pH of the culture liquid is shifted to the acid nature in the process of growth

  10. Preparation of cellulose II and IIII films by allomorphic conversion of bacterial cellulose I pellicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural changes resulting from the conversion of native cellulose I (Cel I) into allomorphs II (Cel II) and IIII (Cel IIII) have usually been studied using powder samples from plant or algal cellulose. In this work, the conversion of Cel I into Cel II and Cel IIII was performed on bacterial cellulose films without any mechanical disruption. The surface texture of the films was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the morphology of the constituting cellulose ribbons, by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structural changes were characterized using solid-state NMR spectroscopy as well as X-ray and electron diffraction. The allomorphic change into Cel II and Cel IIII resulted in films with different crystallinity, roughness and hydrophobic/hydrophilicity surface and the films remained intact during all process of allomorphic conversion. - Highlights: • Description of a method to modify the allomorphic structure of bacterial cellulose films • Preparation of films with specific morphologies and hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface characters • First report on cellulose III films from bacterial cellulose under swelling conditions • Detailed characterization of cellulose II and III films with complementary techniques • Development of films with specific properties as potential support for cells, enzymes, and drugs

  11. Cellulose-clay layered nanocomposite films fabricated from aqueous cellulose/LiOH/urea solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Quanling; Wu, Chun-Nan; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2014-01-16

    Transparent and flexible cellulose-clay (montmorillonite, MTM) nanocomposite films are prepared from cellulose/LiOH/urea solutions. The results show that the composites possess intercalated nanolayered structures. Almost no Na ions are present in MTM, probably because they are substituted by Li ions. The nanocomposite films possess high mechanical strength and gas barrier properties, and lower coefficients of thermal expansion than those of the original cellulose film. In particular, the composite film of 85% cellulose and 15% MTM has the highest tensile strength and Young's modulus 161 and 180% greater than those of the 100% cellulose film, and coefficient of thermal expansion and oxygen permeability at 50-75% RH decrease to 60 and 42-33%, respectively. Moreover, the initial hydrophilic nature of cellulose film changes to somewhat hydrophobic through incorporation of hydrophilic MTM platelets. This is probably because the orientation of cellulose chains on the film surface changes by the formation of numerous hydrogen bonds between cellulose molecules and MTM platelets. PMID:24188852

  12. Engineering of a novel cellulose-adherent cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae for cellulosic biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Sasaki, Kengo; den Haan, Riaan; Inokuma, Kentaro; Ogino, Chiaki; van Zyl, Willem H.; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Cellulosic biofuel is the subject of increasing attention. The main obstacle toward its economic feasibility is the recalcitrance of lignocellulose requiring large amount of enzyme to break. Several engineered yeast strains have been developed with cellulolytic activities to reduce the need for enzyme addition, but exhibiting limited effect. Here, we report the successful engineering of a cellulose-adherent Saccharomyces cerevisiae displaying four different synergistic cellulases on the cell surface. The cellulase-displaying yeast strain exhibited clear cell-to-cellulose adhesion and a “tearing” cellulose degradation pattern; the adhesion ability correlated with enhanced surface area and roughness of the target cellulose fibers, resulting in higher hydrolysis efficiency. The engineered yeast directly produced ethanol from rice straw despite a more than 40% decrease in the required enzyme dosage for high-density fermentation. Thus, improved cell-to-cellulose interactions provided a novel strategy for increasing cellulose hydrolysis, suggesting a mechanism for promoting the feasibility of cellulosic biofuel production. PMID:27079382

  13. Laser cleaning of particulates from paper: Comparison between sized ground wood cellulose and pure cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visible laser cleaning of charcoal particulates from yellow acid mechanical ground wood cellulose paper was compared with that from bleached sulphite softwood cellulose paper. About one order of magnitude of fluence range is available for a cleaning dynamics between the cleaning threshold and the destruction threshold for two laser pulses. Wood cellulose paper exhibited a higher destruction threshold of the original paper than that of the contaminated specimen because of heat transfer from the hot or evaporating charcoal particulates. In contrast, the contaminated bleached cellulose paper exhibited a higher destruction threshold due to shading by the particulates. The graphite particles are not only detached thermo-mechanically, but also by evaporation or combustion. A cleaning effect was found also outside the illuminated areas due to lateral blasting. Infrared measurements revealed dehydration/dehydrogenation reactions and cross-links by ether bonds together with structural changes of the cellulose chain arrangement and the degree of crystallinity.

  14. Laser cleaning of particulates from paper: Comparison between sized ground wood cellulose and pure cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, S.; Kautek, W., E-mail: wolfgang.kautek@univie.ac.at

    2013-07-01

    Visible laser cleaning of charcoal particulates from yellow acid mechanical ground wood cellulose paper was compared with that from bleached sulphite softwood cellulose paper. About one order of magnitude of fluence range is available for a cleaning dynamics between the cleaning threshold and the destruction threshold for two laser pulses. Wood cellulose paper exhibited a higher destruction threshold of the original paper than that of the contaminated specimen because of heat transfer from the hot or evaporating charcoal particulates. In contrast, the contaminated bleached cellulose paper exhibited a higher destruction threshold due to shading by the particulates. The graphite particles are not only detached thermo-mechanically, but also by evaporation or combustion. A cleaning effect was found also outside the illuminated areas due to lateral blasting. Infrared measurements revealed dehydration/dehydrogenation reactions and cross-links by ether bonds together with structural changes of the cellulose chain arrangement and the degree of crystallinity.

  15. Acid hydrolysis of cellulosic fibres: Comparison of bleached kraft pulp, dissolving pulps and cotton textile cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, Anna; Theliander, Hans; Brelid, Harald

    2016-01-20

    The behaviour of different cellulosic fibres during acid hydrolysis has been investigated and the levelling-off degree of polymerisation (LODP) has been determined. The study included a bleached kraft pulp (both never-dried and once-dried) and two dissolving pulps (once-dried). Additionally, cotton cellulose from new cotton sheets and sheets discarded after long-time use was studied. Experimental results from the investigation, together with results found in literature, imply that ultrastructural differences between different fibres affect their susceptibility towards acid hydrolysis. Drying of a bleached kraft pulp was found to enhance the rate of acid hydrolysis and also result in a decrease in LODP. This implies that the susceptibility of cellulosic fibres towards acid hydrolysis is affected by drying-induced stresses in the cellulose chains. In cotton cellulose, it was found that use and laundering gave a substantial loss in the degree of polymerisation (DP), but that the LODP was only marginally affected. PMID:26572472

  16. Surface modification of cellulose by PCL grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, Olivier; Krouit, Mohammed; Bras, Julien [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes Papetiers (UMR 5518 CNRS-CTP-INPG), Grenoble INP-Pagora, 461 Rue de la papeterie, F-38402 St Martin d' Heres (France); Thielemans, Wim [Driving Innovation in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (DICE), School of Chemistry and Process and Environmental Research Division - Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur, E-mail: Naceur.Belgacem@efpg.inpg.fr [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes Papetiers (UMR 5518 CNRS-CTP-INPG), Grenoble INP-Pagora, 461 Rue de la papeterie, F-38402 St Martin d' Heres (France)

    2010-02-15

    Two cellulosic substrates (microcrystalline cellulose, MCC, and bleached kraft softwood pulps, BSK) were grafted by polycaprolactone (PCL) chains with different molecular weights, following a three-step procedure using non-swelling conditions in order to limit the reaction to their surface. First, one of the two OH PCL ends was blocked by phenyl isocyanate and the reaction product (adduct 1) was subsequently reacted with 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (adduct 2) to provide it with an NCO function, capable of reacting with cellulose. The ensuing PCL-grafted cellulosic materials were characterized by weight gain, elemental analysis, contact angle measurements, attenuated total reflexion-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and biodegradation tests. The modification was proven to occur by the presence of nitrogen atoms in the elemental analysis tests and XPS spectra of modified and soxhlet-extracted cellulose. The contact angle measurements have also shown that the surface became as hydrophobic as PCL itself. The polar component of the surface energy of cellulosic substrates before treatment was found to be about 32 and 10 mJ m{sup -2}, for MCC and BSK, respectively. This value vanished to practically zero after grafting with different PCLs. The strategy proposed in the present work is original since, to the best of our knowledge, this paper reports for the first time the chemical 'grafting onto' of the cellulose surface by PCL macromolecular structures, with the aim of obtaining fibre-matrix co-continuous fully sustainable and biodegradable composite materials.

  17. Effect of ionizing radiation on starch and cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation is reported of the effects of ionizing radiation both on macromolecular systems generally and on polysaccharides, starch and cellulose. Attention is focused on changes in the physical and physico-chemical properties of starch and cellulose, such as starch swelling, gelation, viscosity, solubility, reaction with iodine, UV, IR and ESR spectra, chemical changes resulting from radiolysis and from the effect of amylases on irradiated starch, changes in cellulose fibre strength, water absorption, stain affinity, and also the degradation of cellulose by radiation and the effect of cellulases on irradiated cellulose. Practical applications of the findings concerning cellulose degradation are discussed. (author)

  18. Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice protein with papain and antioxidation activity of hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzymatic hydrolysis technology of rice protein and the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate were studied. Substrate concentration,enzyme dose,pH value and temperature were selected as factors to optimize the hydrolysis parameters with single—factor and orthogonal tests. Results show the opti...

  19. SOYBEAN AND CASEIN HYDROLYSATES INDUCE GRAPEVINE IMMUNE RESPONSES AND RESISTANCE AGAINST PLASMOPARA VITICOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihed eLachhab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy and casein (cas to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defence responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signalling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defence genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas one. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack.

  20. Removal of thrombus from aortocoronary bypass grafts and coronary arteries using the 6Fr hydrolyser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanOmmen, VG; vandenBos, AA; Pieper, M; denHeyer, P; Thomas, MR; Ozbeck, S; Bar, FW; Wellens, HJJ

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility and safety of a 6Fr hydrodynamic thrombectomy catheter, the Hydrolyser, in native coronary arteries and aortocoronory bypass grafts. With use of a conventional contrast injector, saline solution is injected into the narrow lumen of the catheter which makes a 180

  1. Characterization of peptides found in unprocessed and extruded amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) pepsin/pancreatin hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; González de Mejía, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH) and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH) and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM) (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da) of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da), 120 min (802 Da) and 180 min (567 Da) in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da) and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da). Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases. PMID:25894223

  2. In vitro bioactive properties of intact and enzymatically hydrolysed whey protein: targeting the enteroinsular axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power-Grant, O; Bruen, C; Brennan, L; Giblin, L; Jakeman, P; FitzGerald, R J

    2015-03-01

    Enzymatically hydrolysed milk proteins have a variety of biofunctional effects some of which may be beneficial in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercially available intact and hydrolysed whey protein ingredients (DH 32, DH 45) on markers of the enteroinsular axis (glucagon like peptide-1 secretion, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition, insulin secretion and antioxidant activity) before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID). A whey protein hydrolysate, DH32, significantly enhanced (P whey protein hydrolysates inhibited dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity, yielding half maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC50) of 1.5 ± 0.1 and 1.1 ± 0.1 mg mL(-1) for the DH 32 and DH 45, samples respectively, and were significantly more potent than the intact whey (P whey protein significantly enhanced (P antioxidant activity compared to intact whey, as measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). This antioxidant activity was maintained (DH 32, P > 0.05) or enhanced (DH 45, P whey stimulated GLP-1 secretion from enteroendocrine cells compared to vehicle control (P whey proteins and peptides can act through multiple targets within the enteroinsular axis and as such may have glucoregulatory potential. PMID:25666373

  3. WPC Hydrolysates Obtained by the Action of a Pancreatin: Preparation, Analysis and Phenylalanine Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa L. Amorin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to use a pancreatin to obtain Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC hydrolysates with high degree of hydrolysis, appropriate peptide profiles from the nutritional point of view as well as with reduced Phenylalanine (Phe content. Six hydrolysates were prepared by varying the enzyme: Substrate ratio and the substrate concentration. The degree of hydrolysis was calculated by the ratio between a-amino and total nitrogen. The analysis of peptide profile involved the fractionation of hydrolysates by high performance size-exclusion liquid chromatography and the rapid correct fraction area method was used to quantify the chromatographic fraction components. The activated carbon was used to remove Phe and the efficiency of this procedure was evaluated by measuring the amount of this amino acid by second derivative spectrophotometry. The results showed that the degree of hydrolysis changed from 15 to 30%. An appropriate peptide profile was obtained with high free amino acid (55.43% and low large peptide (15.75% contents as well as an amount of di and tripeptides greater than 6%. Also, Phe removal changed from 59.1 to 81.3%. The economical advantage of using the smallest enzyme: Substrate ratio (1:100 was associated to the achievement of the best peptide profile. Thus, the use of a pancreatin in the hydrolytic conditions tested in the current study produced WPC hydrolysates with high degree of hydrolysis, suitable peptide profile and reduced Phe content.

  4. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with fish protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moreno, Pedro J; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-07-15

    The emulsifying and antioxidant properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the physical and oxidative stabilization of 5% (by weight) fish oil-in-water emulsions were investigated. Muscle proteins from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) were hydrolyzed to degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 3-4-5-6% with subtilisin. Sardine hydrolysates with low DH, 3% and 4%, presented the most effective peptides to physically stabilize emulsions with smaller droplet size. This implied more protein adsorbed at the interface to act as physical barrier against prooxidants. This fact might also be responsible for the higher oxidative stability of these emulsions, as shown by their lowest peroxide value and concentration of volatiles such as 1-penten-3-one and 1-penten-3-ol. Among the hydrolysates prepared from small-spotted catshark only the hydrolysate with DH 3% yielded a physically stable emulsion with low concentration of unsaturated aldehydes. These results show the potential of FPH as alternative protein emulsifiers for the production of oxidatively stable fish oil-in-water emulsions. PMID:26948597

  5. The extraction kinetics of calcium ions at hydrolyses of proto-pectin of sunflower heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of present work is studying of extraction kinetics of calcium ions at acid hydrolyses of proto-pectin of sunflower heads. Obtained experimental data in this article shows important role of calcium ions in stabilization of various component structures of proto-pectin hydrolysis and possibility of process regulation by selective removal of calcium ions

  6. Distribution of calcium ions in hydrolyses products of proto-pectin of sunflower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of present work is determination calcium ions containing in hydrolyses products of proto-pectins of sunflowers heads which let elaborate optimal method of high quality pectin obtaining. Obtained data in this article indicate that at least one of chemical reactions at hydrolysis passes with participations calcium ions

  7. N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolysing phospholipase D lacks the ability to transphosphatidylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, G.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1999-01-01

    The N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolysing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) generates N-acylethanolamines, including N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine (anandamide), that may be neuroprotective and analgesic. The properties of NAPE-PLD from rat heart and brain microsomes are investigated and compared to...

  8. Antioxidant Activities of Hydrolysates of Arca Subcrenata Prepared with Three Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Song

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to get products with antioxidant activity from Arca subcrenata Lischke, the optimal hydrolase and hydrolysis conditionswere investigated in the paper. Three proteases (neutrase, alcalase and papain were applied to hydrolyze the homogenate of A. subcrenata. An orthogonaldesign was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions, and the pH-stat methods was used to determine the degree of hydrolysis. Viewed from the angle ofreducing power, such as scavenging activities against α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide, the antioxidantactivities of the alcalase hydrolysate (AH were superior to neutrase hydrolysate (NH and papain hydrolysate (PH, and its EC50 values in DPPHradical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect were 6.23 mg/ml and 19.09 mg/ml, respectively. Moreover, compared with products hydrolyzed byneutrase and papain, the molecular mass of AH was lower and its content ofamino acid of peptides was higher. Therefore, alcalase was selected as theoptimal enzyme to produce active ingredients since its hydrolysate exhibitedthe best antioxidant activity among them and possessed large amount ofpotential active peptides.

  9. Protein Hydrolysates from Beta-Conglycinin Enriched Soybean Genotypes Inhibit Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a worldwide health concern and a well recognized predictor of premature mortality associated with a state of chronic inflammation. The objective was to evaluate the effect of soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) produced from different soybean genotypes by alcalase (SAH) or simulated gastroint...

  10. Preparation of antioxidative corn protein hydrolysates, purification and evaluation of three novel corn antioxidant peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Du-Xin; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Wang, Xiao-Jie; He, Jun-Fang

    2016-08-01

    Corn gluten meal is a major co-product of corn wet milling. Corn gluten meal was hydrolyzed with Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Alcalase+Flavourzyme and Flavourzyme+Alcalase. At the substrate concentration of 10%, corn protein hydrolysate catalyzed by Alcalase had a degree of hydrolysis of 17.83%, which was higher than that by Flavourzyme (3.65%). The hydrolysate catalyzed by Alcalase+Flavourzyme exhibited better antioxidant activities and was further purified. Three novel antioxidant peptides were purified by a series of chromatographic techniques. Sequences of the three peptides were identified as Cys-Ser-Gln-Ala-Pro-Leu-Ala, Tyr-Pro-Lys-Leu-Ala-Pro-Asn-Glu and Tyr-Pro-Gln-Leu-Leu-Pro-Asn-Glu, respectively. Among the three peptides, Cys-Ser-Gln-Ala-Pro-Leu-Ala exhibited good reducing power and excellent scavenging capacities for DPPH radical and superoxide anion radical, with IC50 values of 0.116 and 0.39mg/ml, respectively. The results from our study indicate antioxidant potency of corn protein hydrolysates and peptides separated from corn gluten meal and can provide basic understanding for the application of corn protein hydrolysates as natural antioxidants. PMID:26988521

  11. Deletion of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 gene in Pachysolen tannophilus improves ethanol production from corn stover hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although ethanol derived from lignocellulosic biomass is a promising alternative biofuel, the conversion rate of xylose to ethanol by fermentation is not ideal due to the low efficiency of many common yeasts in utilizing xylose. Pachysolen tannophilus can convert hexose and pentose such as L-arabinose, xylose and glucose in lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol simultaneously. To increase the conversion of corn stover hydrolysates to bioethanol, the effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 gene (adh2 deletion in P. tannophilus on bioethanol production from corn stover hydrolysates was investigated. Two adh2 deletants (heterozygote ND and homozygote MC were constructed by using the short flanking homology PCR (SFH-PCR. The ND and MC strains showed lower alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2 activity than the initial strain P-01. In the fermented pentose and hexose sugars of MC and ND, the ethanol concentrations (g/L reached 15.8 and 18.9 versus14.6 of the initial P-01, while in the corn stover hydrolysate medium, the ethanol concentrations (g/L were 9.1 for MC and 9.8 for ND versus 7.5 for the initial strain P-01. This research provides useful information for improving the conversion efficiency of hexose and pentose to bioethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus.

  12. The Secondary Structure of Heated Whey Protein and Its Hydrolysates Antigenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANGZhi-hua; ZHU Jun; WU Wei-jing; WANG Fang; RENFa-zheng; ZHANG Lu-daa; GUOHui-yuan

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FFIR) and circular dichroism (CD) were used to investigate the conformational changes of heated whey protein (WP) and the corresponding changes in the hydrolysates immunoreactivity were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results showed that the contents of α- helix and β-sheet of WP did not decrease much under mild heating conditions and the antigenicity was relatively high; when the heating intensity increased (70 ℃ for 25 min or 75 ℃ for 20 min),the content of α- helix and β-sheet decreased to the minimum,so was the antigenicity; However,when the WP was heated at even higher temperature and for a longer time,the β-sheet associated with protein aggregation begun to increase and the antigenicity increased correspondingly.It was concluded that the conformations of heated WP and the antigenicity of its hydrolysates are related and the optimum structure for decreasing the hydrolysates antigeniity is the least content of α-helix and β-sheet.Establishing the elationship between the WP secondary structure and WP hydrolysates antigenicity is significant to supply the reference for antigenicity reduction by enzymolysis.

  13. Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.; Alting, A.C.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Soy-derived proteins (soy protein isolate, glycinin, and ß-conglycinin) and bovine whey-derived proteins (whey protein isolate, ¿-lactalbumin, ß-lactoglobulin) were hydrolyzed using subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, trypsin, bromelain, and papain. The (in)solubility of the hydrolysates ob

  14. Preparation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Honeybee-Collected Pollen Using Plant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita D. Marinova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8 mAU/g substrate in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05 U/g substrate and proline iminopeptidase (0.03 U/g substrate from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, and aminopeptidase (0.2 U/g substrate from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L. were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH, total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20–28%, total phenolics (15.3–27.2 μg/mg sample powder, and proteins (162.7–242.8 μg/mg sample powder, respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42–46% inhibition. The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications.

  15. Antioxidant and antihypertensive activity of gelatin hydrolysate from Nile tilapia skin

    OpenAIRE

    Choonpicharn, Sadabpong; Jaturasitha, Sanchai; Rakariyatham, Nuansri; Suree, Nuttee; Niamsup, Hataichanoke

    2014-01-01

    Fish skin, a by-product from fish processing industries, still contains a significant amount of protein-rich material. Gelatin was extracted from Nile tilapia skin with the yield 20.77 ± 0.80 % wet weight. Gelatin was then separately hydrolyzed by proteases, including bromelain, papain, trypsin, flavourzyme, alcalase and neutrase. Low molecular weight gelatin hydrolysate (

  16. Safety evaluation of an IPP tripeptide-containing milk protein hydrolysate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponstein-Simarro Doorten, A.Y.; Wiel, J.A.G. van de; Jonker, D.

    2009-01-01

    Tensguard™ is a milk protein hydrolysate containing the lactotripeptide IPP. It is derived from cow's milk, which is present in the human diet and has a safe history of consumption. The final Tensguard™ product, a supplement or a functional food ingredient, is intended for use by people who want to

  17. Preparation and characterisation of protein hydrolysates from Indian defatted rice bran meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Misra, Gautam; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Rice bran meal is a very good source of protein along with other micronutrients. Rice bran meal has been utilized to produce protein isolates and respective protein hydrolysates for potential application in various food products. De-oiled rice bran meal, available from Indian rice bran oil extraction plants, was initially screened by passing through an 80-mesh sieve (yield about 70%). A fraction (yield-30%) rich in fibre and silica was initially discarded from the meal. The protein content of the through fraction increased from 20.8% to 24.1% whereas silica content reduced from 3.1% to 0.4%. Rice bran protein isolate (RPI) was prepared by alkaline extraction followed by acidic precipitation at isoelectric point. This protein isolate was hydrolysed by papain at pH 8.0 and at 37 degrees C for 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The peptides produced by partial hydrolysis had been evaluated by determining protein solubility, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam capacity and foam stability (FS). All protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original protein isolate. These improved functional properties of rice bran protein hydrolysates would make it useful for various application especially in food, pharmaceutical and related industries. PMID:18075222

  18. Oil Production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g Using Rice Bran Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshitila Asteraye Tsigie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to produce microbial oil from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g grown in defatted rice bran hydrolysate. After removing oil from rice bran by Soxhlet extraction, the bran is subjected to acid hydrolysis with various sulfuric acid concentrations (1–4% v/v, reaction times (1–8 h, and reaction temperatures (60–120∘C. The optimal conditions for maximum total sugar production from the hydrolysate were found to be 3% sulfuric acid at 90∘C for 6 h. Glucose was the predominant sugar (43.20±0.28 g/L followed by xylose (4.93±0.03 g/L and arabinose (2.09±0.01 g/L. The hydrolysate was subsequently detoxified by neutralization to reduce the amount of inhibitors such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF and furfural to increase its potential as a medium for culturing Y. lipolytica Po1g. Dry cell mass and lipid content of Y. lipolytica Po1g grown in detoxified defatted rice bran hydrolysate (DRBH under optimum conditions were 10.75 g/L and 48.02%, respectively.

  19. Oil production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g using rice bran hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigie, Yeshitila Asteraye; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Kasim, Novy S; Diem, Quy-Do; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Ho, Quoc-Phong; Truong, Chi-Thanh; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce microbial oil from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g grown in defatted rice bran hydrolysate. After removing oil from rice bran by Soxhlet extraction, the bran is subjected to acid hydrolysis with various sulfuric acid concentrations (1-4% v/v), reaction times (1-8 h), and reaction temperatures (60-120°C). The optimal conditions for maximum total sugar production from the hydrolysate were found to be 3% sulfuric acid at 90°C for 6 h. Glucose was the predominant sugar (43.20 ± 0.28 g/L) followed by xylose (4.93 ± 0.03 g/L) and arabinose (2.09 ± 0.01 g/L). The hydrolysate was subsequently detoxified by neutralization to reduce the amount of inhibitors such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural to increase its potential as a medium for culturing Y. lipolytica Po1g. Dry cell mass and lipid content of Y. lipolytica Po1g grown in detoxified defatted rice bran hydrolysate (DRBH) under optimum conditions were 10.75 g/L and 48.02%, respectively. PMID:22496604

  20. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. PMID:25647030

  1. A novel family VIII carboxylesterase hydrolysing third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Jung Hun; Koo, Bon-Sung; Lee, Chang-Muk; Lee, Sang Hee; Kang, Sung Gyun; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A metagenomic library was constructed from a soil sample of spindle tree-rhizosphere. From this library, one clone with esterase activity was selected. The sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (EstSTR1) encoded protein of 390 amino acids. EstSTR1 is a family VIII carboxylesterase and retains the S-X-X-K motif conserved in both family VIII carboxylesterases and class C β-lactamases. The estSTR1 gene was overexpressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified by purified by metal chelating affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. EstSTR1 hydrolysed p-nitrophenyl esters, exhibited the highest activity toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Furthermore, EstSTR1 could hydrolyse third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime and cefepime) as well as first-generation cephalosporin (cephalothin). Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that a catalytic residue, Ser71, of EstSTR1 plays an essential role in hydrolysing both antibiotics and p-nitrophenyl esters. We demonstrate that a metagenome-derived carboxylesterase displays β-lactam-hydrolysing activities toward third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. PMID:27186489

  2. Bactericidal effect of hydrolysable and condensed tannin extracts on Campylobacter jejuni in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robin C; Vodovnik, Maša; Min, Byeng R; Pinchak, William E; Krueger, Nathan A; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J

    2012-07-01

    Strategies are sought to reduce intestinal colonisation of food-producing animals by Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness worldwide. Presently, we tested the antimicrobial activity of hydrolysable-rich blackberry, cranberry and chestnut tannin extracts and condensed tannin-rich mimosa, quebracho and sorghum tannins (each at 100 mg/mL) against C. jejuni via disc diffusion assay in the presence of supplemental casamino acids. We found that when compared to non-tannin-treated controls, all tested tannins inhibited the growth of C. jejuni and that inhibition by the condensed tannin-rich mimosa and quebracho extracts was mitigated in nutrient-limited medium supplemented with casamino acids. When tested in broth culture, both chestnut and mimosa extracts inhibited growth of C. jejuni and this inhibition was much greater in nutrient-limited than in full-strength medium. Consistent with observations from the disc diffusion assay, the inhibitory activity of the condensed tannin-rich mimosa extracts but not the hydrolysable tannin-rich chestnut extracts was mitigated by casamino acid supplementation to the nutrient-limited medium, likely because the added amino acids saturated the binding potential of the condensed tannins. These results demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of various hydrolysable and condensed tannin-rich extracts against C. jejuni and reveal that condensed tannins may be less efficient than hydrolysable tannins in controlling C. jejuni in gut environments containing high concentrations of amino acids and soluble proteins. PMID:22528299

  3. Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice protein, a byproduct of rice syrup production, is abundant but, its lack of functionality prevents its wide use as a food ingredient. Maillard reaction products of (MRPs) hydrolysates from the limited hydrolysis of rice protein (LHRP) and various mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides were evaluat...

  4. Protein Hydrolysates from Non-bovine and Plant Sources Replaces Tryptone in Microbiological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Yamini; Patel, Shifa; Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Meganathan, R.

    Tryptone (pancreatic digest of casein) is a common ingredient in laboratory and fermentation media for growing wild-type and genetically modified microorganisms. Many of the commercially manufactured products such as human growth hormone, antibiotics, insulin, etc. are produced by recombinant strains grown on materials derived from bovine sources. With the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the consequent increase in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, elimination of materials of bovine origin from fermentation media is of paramount importance. To achieve this objective, a number of protein hydrolysates derived from non-bovine animal and plant sources were evaluated. Tryptone in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was replaced with an equal quantity of alternate protein hydrolysates. Four of the six hydrolysates (one animal and three from plants) were found to efficiently replace the tryptone present in LB-medium as measured by growth rate and growth yield of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. In addition, we have determined plasmid stability, inducibility and activity of the plasmid encoded β-galactosidase in the recombinant strain grown in the presence of various protein hydrolysates.

  5. Characterization of Peptides Found in Unprocessed and Extruded Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus Pepsin/Pancreatin Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Montoya-Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da, 120 min (802 Da and 180 min (567 Da in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da. Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases.

  6. Effect of hydrolysable tannins on intestinal morphology, proliferation and apoptosis in entire male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić-Šobot, Diana; Kubale, Valentina; Škrlep, Martin; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta; Prevolnik Povše, Maja; Fazarinc, Gregor; Škorjanc, Dejan

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hydrolysable tannin supplementation on morphology, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the intestine and liver of fattening boars. A total of 24 boars (Landrace × Large white) were assigned to four treatment groups: Control (fed commercial feed mixture) and three experimental groups fed the same diet supplemented with 1%, 2% and 3% of hydrolysable tannin-rich extract. Animals were housed individually with ad libitum access to feed and then slaughtered at 193 d of age and 122 ± 10 kg body weight. Diets supplemented with hydrolysable tannin affected the morphometric traits of the duodenum mucosa as reflected in increased villus height, villus perimeter and mucosal thickness. No effect was observed on other parts of the small intestine. In the large intestine, tannin supplementation reduced mitosis (in the caecum and descending colon) and apoptosis (in the caecum, ascending and descending colon). No detrimental effect of tannin supplementation on liver tissue was observed. The present findings suggest that supplementing boars with hydrolysable tannins at concentrations tested in this experiment has no unfavourable effects on intestinal morphology. On the contrary, it may alter cell debris production in the large intestine and thus reduce intestinal skatole production. PMID:27434497

  7. Production of Ammonium Lactate by Fed-batch Fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae from Corncob Hydrolysate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Dong-mei; LI Shi-zhong; LIN Fang-qian

    2004-01-01

    L- (+)-Lactic acid production from corncob hydrolysate as a cheap carbohydrate source by fed-batch fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae HZS6 was studied. After 96 h of fermentation in a 5 L fermentor, the final concentration of ammonium L-(+)-lactate, average productivity(based on initial xylose concentration) and max(+)-lactate was 98.8%.

  8. Soybean and casein hydrolysates induce grapevine immune responses and resistance against Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachhab, Nihed; Sanzani, Simona M; Adrian, Marielle; Chiltz, Annick; Balacey, Suzanne; Boselli, Maurizio; Ippolito, Antonio; Poinssot, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy) and casein (cas) to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defense responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signaling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defense genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas ones. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack. PMID:25566290

  9. Isolation and characterization of two cellulose morphology mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769 producing cellulose with lower crystallinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Fang, Lin; Luan, Xin; Catchmark, Jeffrey M; Tien, Ming; Kao, Teh-hui

    2015-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a Gram-negative bacterium, produces and secrets highly crystalline cellulose into growth medium, and has long been used as a model system for studying cellulose synthesis in higher plants. Cellulose synthesis involves the formation of β-1,4 glucan chains via the polymerization of glucose units by a multi-enzyme cellulose synthase complex (CSC). These glucan chains assemble into ordered structures including crystalline microfibrils. AcsA is the catalytic subunit of the cellulose synthase enzymes in the CSC, and AcsC is required for the secretion of cellulose. However, little is known about other proteins required for the assembly of crystalline cellulose. To address this question, we visually examined cellulose pellicles formed in growth media of 763 individual colonies of G. hansenii generated via Tn5 transposon insertion mutagenesis, and identified 85 that produced cellulose with altered morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis of these 85 mutants identified two that produced cellulose with significantly lower crystallinity than wild type. The gene disrupted in one of these two mutants encoded a lysine decarboxylase and that in the other encoded an alanine racemase. Solid-state NMR analysis revealed that cellulose produced by these two mutants contained increased amounts of non-crystalline cellulose and monosaccharides associated with non-cellulosic polysaccharides as compared to the wild type. Monosaccharide analysis detected higher percentages of galactose and mannose in cellulose produced by both mutants. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that cellulose produced by the mutants was unevenly distributed, with some regions appearing to contain deposition of non-cellulosic polysaccharides; however, the width of the ribbon was comparable to that of normal cellulose. As both lysine decarboxylase and alanine racemase are required for the integrity of peptidoglycan, we propose a model for the role of peptidoglycan in the

  10. Isolation and characterization of two cellulose morphology mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769 producing cellulose with lower crystallinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Deng

    Full Text Available Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a Gram-negative bacterium, produces and secrets highly crystalline cellulose into growth medium, and has long been used as a model system for studying cellulose synthesis in higher plants. Cellulose synthesis involves the formation of β-1,4 glucan chains via the polymerization of glucose units by a multi-enzyme cellulose synthase complex (CSC. These glucan chains assemble into ordered structures including crystalline microfibrils. AcsA is the catalytic subunit of the cellulose synthase enzymes in the CSC, and AcsC is required for the secretion of cellulose. However, little is known about other proteins required for the assembly of crystalline cellulose. To address this question, we visually examined cellulose pellicles formed in growth media of 763 individual colonies of G. hansenii generated via Tn5 transposon insertion mutagenesis, and identified 85 that produced cellulose with altered morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis of these 85 mutants identified two that produced cellulose with significantly lower crystallinity than wild type. The gene disrupted in one of these two mutants encoded a lysine decarboxylase and that in the other encoded an alanine racemase. Solid-state NMR analysis revealed that cellulose produced by these two mutants contained increased amounts of non-crystalline cellulose and monosaccharides associated with non-cellulosic polysaccharides as compared to the wild type. Monosaccharide analysis detected higher percentages of galactose and mannose in cellulose produced by both mutants. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that cellulose produced by the mutants was unevenly distributed, with some regions appearing to contain deposition of non-cellulosic polysaccharides; however, the width of the ribbon was comparable to that of normal cellulose. As both lysine decarboxylase and alanine racemase are required for the integrity of peptidoglycan, we propose a model for the role of

  11. Screening of whey protein isolate hydrolysates for their dual functionality: influence of heat pre-treatment and enzyme specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjonu, Randy; Doran, Gregory; Torley, Peter; Agboola, Samson

    2013-02-15

    Heat pre-treated and non heat pre-treated whey protein isolate (WPI) were hydrolysed using α-chymotrypsin (chymotrypsin), pepsin and trypsin. The in vitro antioxidant activity, ACE-inhibition activity and surface hydrophobicities of the hydrolysates were measured in order to determine if peptides with dual functionalities were present. Dual functional peptides have both biological (e.g. antioxidant, ACE-inhibition, opioid activities) and technological (e.g. nanoemulsification abilities) functions in food systems. Heat pre-treatment marginally enhanced the hydrolysis of WPI by pepsin and trypsin but had no effect on WPI hydrolysis with chymotrypsin. With the exception of the hydrolysis by trypsin, heat pre-treatment did not affect the peptide profile of the hydrolysates as analysed using size exclusion chromatography, or the antioxidant activity (P>0.05). Heat pre-treatment significantly affected the ACE-inhibition activities and the surface hydrophobicities of the hydrolysates (P0.05) but in some instances caused a reduction in the antioxidant activity of WPI hydrolysates. The chymotrypsin hydrolysate showed a broad MW size range, and was followed by pepsin and then trypsin. The bioactivities of the hydrolysates generally decreased in the order; chymotrypsin>trypsin>pepsin. This study showed that by manipulating protein conformation with pre-hydrolysis heat treatment, combined with careful enzyme selection, peptides with dual functionalities can be produced from WPI for use as functional ingredients in the manufacture of functional foods. PMID:23194546

  12. Biocompatibility of Bacterial Cellulose Based Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar P. Troncoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some bacteria can synthesize cellulose when they are cultivated under adequate conditions. These bacteria produce a mat of cellulose on the top of the culture medium, which is formed by a three-dimensional coherent network of pure cellulose nanofibers. Bacterial cellulose (BC has been widely used in different fields, such as the paper industry, electronics and tissue engineering due to its remarkable mechanical properties, conformability and porosity. Nanocomposites based on BC have received much attention, because of the possibility of combining the good properties of BC with other materials for specific applications. BC nanocomposites can be processed either in a static or an agitated medium. The fabrication of BC nanocomposites in static media can be carried out while keeping the original mat structure obtained after the synthesis to form the final nanocomposite or by altering the culture media with other components. The present article reviews the issue of biocompatibility of BC and BC nanocomposites. Biomedical aspects, such as surface modification for improving cell adhesion, in vitro and in vivo studies are given along with details concerning the physics of network formation and the changes that occur in the cellulose networks due to the presence of a second phase. The relevance of biocompatibility studies for the development of BC-based materials in bone, skin and cardiovascular tissue engineering is also discussed.

  13. Cellulose multilayer Membranes manufacture with Ionic liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Livazovic, S.

    2015-05-09

    Membrane processes are considered energy-efficient for water desalination and treatment. However most membranes are based on polymers prepared from fossil petrochemical sources. The development of multilayer membranes for nanofiltration and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions in tetrahydrofuran, followed by solvent evaporation and cellulose regeneration by acid treatment; (ii) casting from solution in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolum acetate ([C2mim]OAc), an ionic liquid, followed by phase inversion in water. By these methods porous supports could be easily coated with semi-crystalline cellulose. The membranes were hydrophilic with contact angles as low as 22.0°, molecular weight cut-off as low as 3000 g mol-1 with corresponding water permeance of 13.8 Lm−2 h−1 bar−1. Self-standing cellulose membranes were also manufactured without porous substrate, using only ionic liquid as green solvent. This membrane was insoluble in water, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, N,N-dimethylformamide, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and N,N-dimethylacetamide.

  14. Clean conversion of cellulose into fermentable glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Zhuang, Junping; Lin, Lu; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2009-01-01

    We studied the process of conversion of microcrystalline-cellulose into fermentable glucose in the formic acid reaction system using cross polarization/magic angle spinning (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that formic acid as an active agent was able to effectively penetrate into the interior space of the cellulose molecules, thus collapsing the rigid crystalline structure and allowing hydrolysis to occur easily in the amorphous zone as well as in the crystalline zone. The microcrystalline-cellulose was hydrolyzed using formic acid and 4% hydrochloric acid under mild conditions. The effects of hydrochloric acid concentration, the ratio of solid to liquid, temperature (55-75 degrees C) and retention time (0-9 h), and the concentration of glucose were analyzed. The hydrolysis velocities of microcrystalline-cellulose were 6.14 x 10(-3) h(-1) at 55 degrees C, 2.94 x 10(-2) h(-1) at 65 degrees C, and 6.84x10(-2) h(-1) at 75 degrees C. The degradation velocities of glucose were 0.01 h(-1) at 55 degrees C, 0.14 h(-1) at 65 degrees C, 0.34 h(-1) at 75 degrees C. The activation energy of microcrystalline-cellulose hydrolysis was 105.61 kJ/mol, and the activation energy of glucose degradation was 131.37 kJ/mol. PMID:19409478

  15. Antimicrobial potential for the combination of bovine lactoferrin or its hydrolysate with lactoferrin-resistant probiotics against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P-W; Jheng, T T; Shyu, C-L; Mao, F C

    2013-03-01

    Previous reports have shown that several probiotic strains can resist the antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLf), but the results are inconsistent. Moreover, a portion of orally administered apo-bLf is digested in vivo by pepsin to yield bLf hydrolysate, which produces stronger antibacterial activity than that observed with apo-bLf. However, whether bLf hydrolysate affects the growth of probiotic strains is unclear. Therefore, various probiotic strains in Taiwan were collected and evaluated for activity against apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate in vitro. Thirteen probiotic strains were evaluated, and the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707, and Bifidobacterium lactis BCRC 17394 were inhibited by both apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate. The growth of 8 strains were not affected by apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, including L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11739, Lactobacillus coryniformis ATCC 25602, L. acidophilus BCRC 14065, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697, Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8081. However, apo-bLf and its hydrolysate inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, the supernatants produced by L. fermentum, B. lactis, and B. longum inhibited the growth of most pathogens. Importantly, a combination of apo-bLf or bLf hydrolysate with the supernatants of cultures of the organisms described above showed synergistic or partially synergistic effects against the growth of most of the selected pathogens. In conclusion, several probiotic strains are resistant to apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, warranting clinical studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential for the combination of apo-bLf or its hydrolysate with specific probiotics. PMID:23332852

  16. The effect of soy hydrolysates on changes in cholesterol content and its oxidation products in fine - ground model sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bilska

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Meat products belong to products particularly at risk of fat oxidation processes. One of the methods to prevent disadvantageous oxidative changes of lipids in food is the application of antioxidants. Material and methods. The experimental material consisted of fine – ground model sausages. Produced processed meats differed in terms of the presence and amount of acid and enzymatic soy hydrolysates (0.3% and 0.7%. The reference sample comprised processed meat product with no hydrolysate added. Model processed meat products were stored at 4°C for 29 days. The analyses included changes in peroxide value, changes in cholesterol and its oxidation products. Results. It was found that changes of peroxide value, 7α-OHC, 7β-OHC, α-epoxy-C, β-epoxy-C, 20α-OHC, 25-OHC and total oxisterols were statistically significantly affected, apart from storage time, also by the type and level of applied hydrolysates. The addition of enzymatic and acid hydrolysates to batter of experimental sausages effectively inhibited the process of fat oxidation. Conclusions. In samples with enzymatic hydrolysate an approx. 20% loss of initial cholesterol content was recorded. In contrast, in the other samples this loss amounted to approx. 10%. The process of cholesterol metabolism in tested processed meat products was affected by their storage time and the type of added hydrolysate. It was observed that the highest dynamics of cholesterol metabolism occurred in a sample with no hydrolysate added. The level of total oxisterols in the sample with no addition of hydrolysate was over two times higher than in samples with an addition of hydrolysate.

  17. Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) collagen hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zunying; Su, Yicheng; Zeng, Mingyong

    2011-03-01

    Giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the β and α 1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 50°c with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17 kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions ( 10 kDa), and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa ( P 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions ( P4.0. Under pH 7.0 and pH 10.0, the 3-10 kDa fraction showed higher EAI value and the fraction of > 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

  18. Protein hydrolysates from the alga Chlorella vulgaris 87/1 with potentialities in immuno nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae) has received a particular attention in the programmes of microalgae utilisation in biotechnology. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cell proteins represents a very promising method to increase protein digestibility and thus, for obtaining hydrolysates with improved nutritional and functional properties. However, this technology has been little approached and the biological evaluation of hydrolysates has had a strictly nutritional nature. The design of hydrolysis conditions that combined for the first time, the use of C.vulgaris 87/1 treated with ethanol and pancreatin at pH values of 7.5-8.0, led to a product with a degree of hydrolysis of 20-22% and yields of 50-55%, characterised by a high digestibility (97.2%) and nitrogen solubility over a wide pH range (2.0-10.0). Hydrolysis curves were fitted to an exponential model, common to many food proteins. The bulk of the product dry matter consists of soluble peptides and free amino acids (47.7%) with three main peptides of molecular masses between 2 and 5 kDa. The oral administration of Chlorella hydrolysate (500 mg/kg) to undernourished Balb/c mice provided benefits in terms of liver protein metabolism and the induction of anabolic processes in gut mucosa. The hydrolysate also enhanced the immunological recovery, as judged by the stimulation of haemopoiesis, monocyte macrophage system activation, as well as humoral and cell mediated immune functions, like T-dependent antibody response and the reconstitution of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. These results represent the first findings in the world concerning the immunomodulating effects of a microalgae protein hydrolysate. (author)

  19. Amino Acid Composition and Functional Properties of Giant Red Sea Cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) Collagen Hydrolysates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zunying; SU Yicheng; ZENG Mingyong

    2011-01-01

    Giant red sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the β and α1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 500C with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions (<3kDa, 3-10kDa, and > 10 kDa),and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa (P<0.05). The fraction of > 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions (P<0.05). The pH had an important effect on the EAI, ESI, FE and FS. All the fractions showed undesirable emulsion and forming properties at pH 4.0. Under pH 7.0 and pH 10.0, the 3-10kDa fraction showed higher EAI value and the fraction of > 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

  20. Iron (II)-chelating activity of buffalo αS-casein hydrolysed by corolase PP, alcalase and flavourzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Arvind; Bajaj, Rajesh; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a vital substance for human health which participates in many biochemical reactions. It also act as initiator for many harmful oxidative process. Buffalo αS-casein enriched fraction (80 %) was hydrolysed independently by corolase PP (H1), alcalase (H2), flavourzyme (H3) and sequentially by alcalase-flavourzyme (H4). After ultrafiltration (10 and 3 kDa) hydrolysates were analysed for their iron chelation activity using ferrozine. For H1 group of hydrolysates highest iron (II)-chelation...

  1. Direct Conversion of Cellulose into Ethyl Lactate in Supercritical Ethanol-Water Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lisha; Yang, Xiaokun; Tian, Elli; Lin, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    Biomass-derived ethyl lactate is a green solvent with a growing market as the replacement for petroleum-derived toxic organic solvents. Here we report, for the first time, the production of ethyl lactate directly from cellulose with the mesoporous Zr-SBA-15 silicate catalyst in a supercritical mixture of ethanol and water. The relatively strong Lewis and weak Brønsted acid sites on the catalyst, as well as the surface hydrophobicity, were beneficial to the reaction and led to synergy during consecutive reactions, such as depolymerization, retro-aldol condensation, and esterification. Under the optimum reaction conditions, ∼33 % yield of ethyl lactate was produced from cellulose with the Zr-SBA-15 catalyst at 260 °C in supercritical 95:5 (w/w) ethanol/water. PMID:26685114

  2. POLYETHERSULFONE COMPOSITE MEMBRANE BLENDED WITH CELLULOSE FIBRILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Qu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyethersulfone (PES is a common material used for ultrafiltration (UF membranes, which has good chemical resistance, high mechanical properties, and wide temperature tolerances. The hydrophobic property of the PES membrane seriously limits its application. Cellulose fibrils are composed of micro-sized and nano-sized elements, which have high hydrophilicity, strength, and biodegradation. A composite membrane was prepared by the phase inversion induced by an immersion process. The characteristics of the composite membrane were investigated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The pure water flux of the composite membrane increased dramatically with the increase of cellulose firbils. Mean pore size and porosity were significantly increased. Both mechanical properties and hydrophilicity were enhanced due to the addition of the cellulose firbils.

  3. Prospects for Irradiation in Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Saini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Second generation bioethanol production technology relies on lignocellulosic biomass composed of hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignin components. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sources of fermentable sugars. But the structural characteristics of lignocelluloses pose hindrance to the conversion of these sugar polysaccharides into ethanol. The process of ethanol production, therefore, involves an expensive and energy intensive step of pretreatment, which reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulose and makes feedstock more susceptible to saccharification. Various physical, chemical, biological, or combined methods are employed to pretreat lignocelluloses. Irradiation is one of the common and promising physical methods of pretreatment, which involves ultrasonic waves, microwaves, γ-rays, and electron beam. Irradiation is also known to enhance the effect of saccharification. This review explains the role of different radiations in the production of cellulosic ethanol.

  4. Prospects for Irradiation in Cellulosic Ethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K; Sharma, Anuja; Yadav, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Second generation bioethanol production technology relies on lignocellulosic biomass composed of hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignin components. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sources of fermentable sugars. But the structural characteristics of lignocelluloses pose hindrance to the conversion of these sugar polysaccharides into ethanol. The process of ethanol production, therefore, involves an expensive and energy intensive step of pretreatment, which reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulose and makes feedstock more susceptible to saccharification. Various physical, chemical, biological, or combined methods are employed to pretreat lignocelluloses. Irradiation is one of the common and promising physical methods of pretreatment, which involves ultrasonic waves, microwaves, γ-rays, and electron beam. Irradiation is also known to enhance the effect of saccharification. This review explains the role of different radiations in the production of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:26839707

  5. Magnetic alignment and patterning of cellulose fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alignment and patterning of cellulose fibers under magnetic fields are reported. Static and rotating magnetic fields were used to align cellulose fibers with sizes ranging from millimeter to nanometer sizes. Cellulose fibers of the millimeter order, which were prepared for papermaking, and much smaller fibers with micrometer to nanometer sizes prepared by the acid hydrolysis of larger ones underwent magnetic alignment. Under a rotating field, a uniaxial alignment of fibers was achieved. The alignment was successfully fixed by the photopolymerization of a UV-curable resin precursor used as matrix. A monodomain chiral nematic film was prepared from an aqueous suspension of nanofibers. Using a field modulator inserted in a homogeneous magnetic field, simultaneous alignment and patterning were achieved

  6. Magnetic alignment and patterning of cellulose fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Kimura and Tsunehisa Kimura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The alignment and patterning of cellulose fibers under magnetic fields are reported. Static and rotating magnetic fields were used to align cellulose fibers with sizes ranging from millimeter to nanometer sizes. Cellulose fibers of the millimeter order, which were prepared for papermaking, and much smaller fibers with micrometer to nanometer sizes prepared by the acid hydrolysis of larger ones underwent magnetic alignment. Under a rotating field, a uniaxial alignment of fibers was achieved. The alignment was successfully fixed by the photopolymerization of a UV-curable resin precursor used as matrix. A monodomain chiral nematic film was prepared from an aqueous suspension of nanofibers. Using a field modulator inserted in a homogeneous magnetic field, simultaneous alignment and patterning were achieved

  7. Magnetic alignment and patterning of cellulose fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Fumiko; Kimura, Tsunehisa [Division of Forest and Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: tkimura@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2008-04-01

    The alignment and patterning of cellulose fibers under magnetic fields are reported. Static and rotating magnetic fields were used to align cellulose fibers with sizes ranging from millimeter to nanometer sizes. Cellulose fibers of the millimeter order, which were prepared for papermaking, and much smaller fibers with micrometer to nanometer sizes prepared by the acid hydrolysis of larger ones underwent magnetic alignment. Under a rotating field, a uniaxial alignment of fibers was achieved. The alignment was successfully fixed by the photopolymerization of a UV-curable resin precursor used as matrix. A monodomain chiral nematic film was prepared from an aqueous suspension of nanofibers. Using a field modulator inserted in a homogeneous magnetic field, simultaneous alignment and patterning were achieved.

  8. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  9. Cationic nanofibrillar cellulose with high antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, Achraf; Boufi, Sami

    2015-10-20

    Cationic nanofibrillar cellulose (C-NFC) has been prepared via a high pressure homogenization using quaternized cellulose fibers with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride. It has been shown that the quaternization of dried softwood pulp facilitated the defibrillation processes and prevented clogging of the homogenizer. The effects of the trimethylammonium chloride content on the fibrillation yield, the transparency degree of the gel, the rheological behavior of the NFC suspension and their electrokinetic properties were investigated. AFM observation showed that the NFC suspension consisted of individualized cellulose I nanofibrils 4-5nm in width and length in the micronic scale. In addition to their strong reinforcing potential, the inclusion of C-NFC into a polymer matrix was shown to efficiently enhance the antibacterial activity. The reinforcing potential of C-NFC, studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), was compared to anionic NFC and the difference was explained in terms of the nanofibrils capacities to build up a strong networks held by hydrogen bonding. PMID:26256179

  10. Segal crystallinity index revisited by the simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns of cotton cellulose Iβ and cellulose II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sunghyun; French, Alfred D; Condon, Brian D; Concha, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The Segal method estimates the amorphous fraction of cellulose Iβ materials simply based on intensity at 18° 2θ in an X-ray diffraction pattern and was extended to cellulose II using 16° 2θ intensity. To address the dependency of Segal amorphous intensity on crystal size, cellulose polymorph, and the degree of polymorphic conversion, we simulated the diffraction patterns of cotton celluloses (Iβ and II) and compared the simulated amorphous fractions with the Segal values. The diffraction patterns of control and mercerized cottons, respectively, were simulated with perfect crystals of cellulose Iβ (1.54° FWHM) and cellulose II (2.30° FWHM) as well as 10% and 35% amorphous celluloses. Their Segal amorphous fractions were 15% and 31%, respectively. The higher Segal amorphous fraction for control cotton was attributed to the peak overlap. Although the amorphous fraction was set in the simulation, the peak overlap induced by the increase of FWHM further enhanced the Segal amorphous intensity of cellulose Iβ. For cellulose II, the effect of peak overlap was smaller; however the lower reflection of the amorphous cellulose scattering in its Segal amorphous location resulted in smaller Segal amorphous fractions. Despite this underestimation, the relatively good agreement of the Segal method with the simulation for mercerized cotton was attributed to the incomplete conversion to cellulose II. The (1-10) and (110) peaks of cellulose Iβ remained near the Segal amorphous location of cellulose II for blends of control and mercerized cotton fibers. PMID:26453844

  11. Relaxation properties of natural and artificial cellulose materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to relaxation properties of natural and artificial cellulose materials. Therefore the dielectric properties of natural and artificial cellulose materials depending on influence of frequency and temperature are studied.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of cellulose-dissolving magnetic ionic liquid

    OpenAIRE

    MURAOKA, Jin; Kamiya, Noriho; Ito, Yuji; ムラオカ, ジン; カミヤ, ノリホ; イトウ, ユウジ; 村岡, 仁; 神谷, 典穂; 伊東, 祐二

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted attention as potential pretreatment agents in cellulosic biomass processing. Here we report on a new magnetic ionic liquid that can dissolve crystalline cellulose and be collected by a magnet.

  13. Carboxymethyl ethers of cellulose obtained from secondary products of fine-stapled cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to synthesis and properties of carboxymethyl ethers of cellulose obtained from secondary products of fine-stapled cotton. The investigation of extraction conditions of cellulose on the quality of carboxymethyl ethers of cellulose is conducted. The qualitative characteristics of cotton cellulose are considered. The synthesis of carboxymethyl ethers of cellulose from obtained cellulose is described.

  14. Cellobiohydrolase 1 from Trichoderma reesei degrades cellulose in single cellobiose steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonia K.; Sreelatha, Sarangapani; Feng, Yinnian; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Lang, Matthew J.

    2015-12-01

    Cellobiohydrolase 1 from Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) processively hydrolyses cellulose into cellobiose. Although enzymatic techniques have been established as promising tools in biofuel production, a clear understanding of the motor's mechanistic action has yet to be revealed. Here, we develop an optical tweezers-based single-molecule (SM) motility assay for precision tracking of TrCel7A. Direct observation of motility during degradation reveals processive runs and distinct steps on the scale of 1 nm. Our studies suggest TrCel7A is not mechanically limited, can work against 20 pN loads and speeds up when assisted. Temperature-dependent kinetic studies establish the energy requirements for the fundamental stepping cycle, which likely includes energy from glycosidic bonds and other sources. Through SM measurements of isolated TrCel7A domains, we determine that the catalytic domain alone is sufficient for processive motion, providing insight into TrCel7A's molecular motility mechanism.

  15. Effect of γ-radiation on the saccharification of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation on the acid and saccharification of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated. Radiation doses of 200 KGy and higher significantly increased the saccharification of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The observed radiation effects varied with the cellulosic material. Rice straw exhibited the greatest radiosensitivity while rice hull showed the least susceptibility to gamma radiation. Possible mechanisms for the radiation-induced degradation of cellulose and agricultural cellulosic wastes are discussed. (author)

  16. The pressure-volume-temperature relationship of cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Jallabert, Bastien; Vaca Medina, Guadalupe; Cazalbou, Sophie; Rouilly, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Pressure–volume–temperature (PVT) mea- surements of a-cellulose with different water contents, were performed at temperatures from 25 to 180 °C and pressures from 19.6 to 196 MPa. PVT measurements allowed observation of the combined effects of pressure and temperature on the specific volume during cellulose thermo-compression. All isobars showed a decrease in cellulose specific volume with temperature. This densification is associated with a transition process of the cellulose, occurring at a...

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation study of polyelectrolyte adsorption on cellulose surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Biermann, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The adsorption of two polyelectrolyte ((carboxy methyl) cellulose and poly(acrylate) in water on crystalline cellulose is studied in this work. The multi-component problem has been splitted up into simulations of solutions of the polyelectrolyte (polyanions including sodium counterions) in water, into simulations of the interface of crystalline cellulose towards water. Finally polyelectrolyte-cellulose systems were studied. Molecular dynamics simulations of diluted (_ 2:5 weight percent) aque...

  18. Microbial Cellulose Production from Bacteria Isolated from Rotten Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Rangaswamy, B.E.; Vanitha, K. P.; Hungund, Basavaraj S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial cellulose, an exopolysaccharide produced by bacteria, has unique structural and mechanical properties and is highly pure compared to plant cellulose. Present study represents isolation, identification, and screening of cellulose producing bacteria and further process optimization. Isolation of thirty cellulose producers was carried out from natural sources like rotten fruits and rotten vegetables. The bacterial isolates obtained from rotten pomegranate, rotten sweet potato, and rott...

  19. Review: current international research into cellulose nanofibres and nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorn, S. J.; Dufresne, A; Aranguren, M.; Marcovich, N. E.; Capadona, J R; Rowan, S. J.; Weder, Christoph; Thielemans, W.; Roman, M.; Renneckar, S.; Gindl, W.; Veigel, S.; Keckes, J.; Yano, H.; Abe, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent progress made in the area of cellulose nanofibre-based nanocomposites. An introduction into the methods used to isolate cellulose nanofibres (nanowhiskers, nanofibrils) is given, with details of their structure. Following this, the article is split into sections dealing with processing and characterisation of cellulose nanocomposites and new developments in the area, with particular emphasis on applications. The types of cellulose nanofibres covered a...

  20. Continuous Cellulosic Bioethanol Fermentation by Cyclic Fed-Batch Cocultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, He-Long; He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Hemme, Christopher L.; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose...

  1. Characterising the cellulose synthase complexes of cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansoori Zangir, N.

    2012-01-01

    One of the characteristics of the plant kingdom is the presence of a structural cell wall. Cellulose is a major component in both the primary and secondary cell walls of plants. In higher plants cellulose is synthesized by so called rosette protein complexes with cellulose synthases (CESAs) as the c

  2. Structural differences of xylans affect their interaction with cellulose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, M.A.; Borne, van den H.; Vincken, J.P.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The affinity of xylan to cellulose is an important aspect of many industrial processes, e.g. production of cellulose, paper making and bio-ethanol production. However, little is known about the adsorption of structurally different xylans to cellulose. Therefore, the adsorption of various xylans to b

  3. Cyanobacterial cellulose synthesis in the light of the photanol concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Schuurmans; H.C.P. Matthijs; L.J. Stal; K.J. Hellingwerf

    2014-01-01

    The detailed knowledge already available about cellulose synthases and their regulation, plus emerging insights into the process of cellulose secretion in cyanobacteria make cellulose an attractive polymer for the application of the photanol concept in an economically viable production process. By v

  4. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of...

  5. Effect of milk hydrolysates on inflammation markers and drug-induced transcriptional alterations in cell-based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ditte Søvsø Gundelund; Theil, Peter Kappel; Larsen, Lotte Bach;

    2012-01-01

    underlying mechanisms that support inflammation and wound healing are not completely understood, but transcriptional alterations may be used as markers for inflammation and wound healing. The bioactivity of 3 CH prepared by treatment of commercial casein with pepsin (60 min) followed by corolase (0, 10, or......B (NFκB) by real-time PCR. Furthermore, the effect of CH on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation was evaluated in macrophages by measuring PG E2 levels. Casein hydrolysates treated with corolase for 10 or 60 min after pepsin treatment downregulated transcription of TGF-β1 and NFκB (P < 0.05) compared...... with the hydrolysate treated with pepsin only. Hydrolysate prepared by corolase treatment for 60 min after pepsin hydrolysis downregulated transcription of COX-2 (P < 0.05) compared with hydrolysate treated with corolase for only 10 min whereas transcription of PPAR-γ was not affected (P > 0...

  6. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM A MEMBRANE PURIFIED HEMICELLULOSIC HYDROLYSATE DERIVED FROM SUGAR MAPLE BY PICHIA STIPITIS NRRL Y-7124

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna M. Stoutenburg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to devise inexpensive and sustainable production of ethanol fuel, experiments were conducted to establish conditions for Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 to ferment a membrane treated wood hydrolysate derived from sugar maple to produce ethanol. The degree of aeration required to effectively utilize xylose, produce ethanol, and minimize xylitol formation as well as the optimal hydrolysate concentration were the conditions examined. P. stipitis produced the highest concentrations of ethanol in shake flasks at 150 rpm (14.3 g/L in 71 h, and 50% hydrolysate maximized ethanol yield (12.4 g/L in 51.5 h. In the 50% hydrolysate cultures, P. stipitis produced ethanol at a rate of 0.24 g/Lh with a yield of 0.41 g ethanol/g wood-derived carbohydrate.

  7. Cellulose chain binding free energy drives the processive move of cellulases on the cellulose surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yefei; Zhang, Shujun; Song, Xiangfei; Yao, Lishan

    2016-09-01

    Processivity is essential for cellulases in their catalysis of cellulose hydrolysis. But what drives the processive move is not well understood. In this work, we use Trichoderma reesei Cel7B as a model system and show that its processivity is directly correlated to the binding free energy difference of a cellulose chain occupying the binding sites -7 to +2 and that occupying sites -7 to -1. Several mutants that have stronger interactions with glycosyl units in sites +1 and +2 than the wild type enzyme show higher processivity. The results suggest that after the release of the product cellobiose located in sites +1 and +2, the enzyme pulls the cellulose chain to fill the vacant sites, which propels its processive move on the cellulose surface. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1873-1880. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26928155

  8. Segal crystallinity index revisited by the simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns of cotton cellulose IB and cellulose II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Segal method estimates the amorphous fraction of cellulose IB materials simply based on intensity at 18o 20 in an X-ray diffraction pattern and was extended to cellulose II using 16o 2O intensity. To address the dependency of Segal amorphous intensity on crystal size, cellulose polymorph, and th...

  9. Protein enrichment of an Opuntia ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate by cultivation of Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus

    OpenAIRE

    Akanni, Gabriel B; du Preez, James C.; Steyn, Laurinda; Kilian, Stephanus G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) have a low protein content; for use as a balanced feed, supplementation with other protein sources is therefore desirable. We investigated protein enrichment by cultivation of the yeasts Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus in an enzymatic hydrolysate of the cladode biomass. RESULTS Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sun-dried cladodes resulted in a hydrolysate containing (per litre) 45.5 g glucose, ...

  10. Identification of furfural as a key toxin in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and evolution of a tolerant yeast strain

    OpenAIRE

    Heer, Dominik; Sauer, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Summary The production of fuel ethanol from low‐cost lignocellulosic biomass currently suffers from several limitations. One of them is the presence of inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates that are released during pre‐treatment. These compounds inhibit growth and hamper the production of ethanol, thereby affecting process economics. To delineate the effects of such complex mixtures, we conducted a chemical analysis of four different real‐world lignocellulosic hydrolysates and determined...

  11. Use of Cellulose and Oxidized Cellulose Nanocrystals from Olive Stones in Chitosan Bionanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Abou-Zeid, Ragab E.; Hassan, Enas A.; Fedia Bettaieb; Ramzi Khiari; Mohammad L. Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxyl- (TEMPO-) oxidized cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-TEMPO) were prepared from olive stones. The prepared nanocrystals were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and carboxylic groups content determination. The prepared nanocrystals were used as reinforcing elements in chitosan nanocomposites, which were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and tensile ...

  12. Viscoelastic evaluation of topical creams containing microcrystalline cellulose/sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as stabilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyeye, Moji Christianah; Jain, Ashwinkumar C.; Ghorab, Mohamed K. M.; Reilly, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viscoelastic properties of topical creams containing various concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Avicel® CL-611) as a stabilizer. Avicel CL-611 was used at 4 different levels (1%, 2%, 4%, and 6% dispersion) to prepare topical creams, and hydrocortisone acetate was used as a model drug. The viscoelastic properties such as loss modulus (G), storage modulus (G), and loss tangent (tan δ) of these creams were...

  13. LUFFA CYLINDRICA AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC SOURCE OF FIBER, MICROFIBRILLATED CELLULOSE, AND CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTALS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Siqueira; Julien Bras; Alain Dufresne

    2010-01-01

    In this work the annual plant called Luffa cylindrica (LC) has been characterized and used to prepare macroscopic lignocellulosic fibers and cellulosic nanoparticles, viz. microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) and whiskers, each of which can be used as a reinforcing phase in bionanocomposites. The morphological, chemical, and physical properties of LC fibers were first characterized. The contents of lignin, hemicellulose, and other constituents were determined, and scanning electron microscopy (SE...

  14. Engineering of a novel cellulose-adherent cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae for cellulosic biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo Liu; Shih-Hsin Ho; Kengo Sasaki; Riaan den Haan; Kentaro Inokuma; Chiaki Ogino; van Zyl, Willem H; Tomohisa Hasunuma; Akihiko Kondo

    2016-01-01

    Cellulosic biofuel is the subject of increasing attention. The main obstacle toward its economic feasibility is the recalcitrance of lignocellulose requiring large amount of enzyme to break. Several engineered yeast strains have been developed with cellulolytic activities to reduce the need for enzyme addition, but exhibiting limited effect. Here, we report the successful engineering of a cellulose-adherent Saccharomyces cerevisiae displaying four different synergistic cellulases on the cell ...

  15. Environmental sustainability of cellulosic energy cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental sustainability of bioenergy production depends on both direct and indirect effects of the production systems to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This chapter evaluates what is known about the environmental sustainability of cellulosic bioenergy crop production for the types of produc...

  16. Herstellung und Beurteilung funktionalisierter Cellulose-Tiefenfilterschichten

    OpenAIRE

    Lösch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Entwicklung funktionalisierter Cellulose-Tiefenfilterschichten. Dazu werden kommerzielle Kationenaustauscher in einer Kugelmühle nass zerkleinert und bei der Herstellung in die Tiefenfilterschichten eingebettet. Die mechanischen Eigenschaften und das Filtrationsverhalten dieser Schichten sind vergleichbar mit kommerziellen Produkten. Der maximale, technisch einsetzbare Masseanteil an Ionenaustauscher beträgt dabei ca. 40 %. In Durchströmungsversuchen wird die...

  17. Formation of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, H.; Altena, F.W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Cellulose acetate membranes were prepared from casting solutions containing dioxane as a solvent and varying concentrations (up to 6%) of maleic acid as an additive. Coagulation took place in water at different temperatures. The effect of these variables on membrane structure and membrane properties

  18. Evaluation of drug interactions with nanofibrillar cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Peltonen, Leena; Laukkanen, Antti; Hellman, Maarit; Laaksonen, Päivi; Linder, Markus B; Hirvonen, Jouni; Laaksonen, Timo

    2013-11-01

    Nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) (also referred to as cellulose nanofibers, nanocellulose, microfibrillated, or nanofibrillated cellulose) has recently gotten wide attention in various research areas and it has also been studied as excipient in formulation of the pharmaceutical dosage forms. Here, we have evaluated the interactions between NFC and the model drugs of different structural characteristics (size, charge, etc.). The series of permeation studies were utilized to evaluate the ability of the drugs in solution to diffuse through the thin, porous, dry NFC films. An incubation method was used to determine capacity of binding of chosen model drugs to NFC as well as isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to study thermodynamics of the binding process. A genetically engineered fusion protein carrying double cellulose binding domain was used as a positive control since its affinity and capacity of binding for NFC have already been reported. The permeation studies revealed the size dependent diffusion rate of the model drugs through the NFC films. The results of both binding and ITC studies showed that the studied drugs bind to the NFC material and indicated the pH dependence of the binding and electrostatic forces as the main mechanism. PMID:23774185

  19. Chemistry, Technology and Aplications of Oxidized Celluloses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, P.; Sopuch, T.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Suchý, P.; Masteikova, R.; Bajerová, M.; Gajdziok, J.; Milichovský, M.; Švorčík, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, C (2010), s. 205-245. ISBN 978-1-608-76-388-7 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : oxidation * cellulose * in-vitro Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=14049

  20. Methacrylate hydrogels reinforced with bacterial cellulose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobzová, Radka; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Michálek, Jiří; Karpushkin, Evgeny; Gatenholm, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 7 (2012), s. 1193-1201. ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400500902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : bacterial cellulose * methacrylate hydrogel * composite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.125, year: 2012