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Sample records for cellulose triacetate based

  1. Cellulose Triacetate Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Cellulose triacetate investigated for use as dielectric material in high-energy-density capacitors for pulsed-electrical-power systems. Films of cellulose triacetate metalized on one or both sides for use as substrates for electrodes and/or as dielectrics between electrodes in capacitors. Used without metalization as simple dielectric films. Advantages include high breakdown strength and self-healing capability.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of amorphous cellulose from triacetate of cellulose

    Vega-Baudrit, Jose; Sibaja, Maria; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Rivera A, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    It was carried-out a study for the synthesis and characterization of amorphous cellulose starting from cellulose triacetate. X-rays diffraction was used in order to obtain the cellulose crystallinity degree, also infrared spectroscopy FTIR was used. (author)

  3. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  4. Properties of cellulose triacetate dose meter

    Tamura, N.; Tanaka, R.; Mitomo, S.; Matsuda, K.; Nagai, S.

    1981-01-01

    Several clear plastics and dyed plastics are commercially available for dosimetry in intense radiation field, especially for radiation processing applications. Among these dose meters cellulose triacetate (CTA) dose meter has two advantages for routine uses; (1) it has linear response in mega-rad dose region and (2) the main product form is long tape. However, the manufacture of Numelec CTA film so far used had been discontinued, and for this reason we developed a new film for dosimetry uses. To determine the manufacturing conditions of the film, we examined the influence of additives, triphenylphosphate (TPP) and others, and film thickness on the dosimetric properties, since these two conditions remarkably influence the sensitivity of the dose meter. It is necessary for the reliability of plastic dose meters that the radiation induced colorations should be understood as radiation chemical processes. In this paper we describe the determination of the manufacturing conditions of the new film, the feature of the new dose meter, and the coloration mechanism. (author)

  5. Cellulose Triacetate Synthesis from Cellulosic Wastes by Heterogeneous Reactions

    Sherif Shawki Z. Hindi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic fibers from cotton fibers (CF, recycled writing papers (RWP, recycled newspapers (RN, and macerated woody fibers of Leucaena leucocephala (MWFL were acetylated by heterogeneous reactions with glacial acetic acid, concentrated H2SO4, and acetic anhydride. The resultant cellulose triacetate (CTA was characterized for yield and solubility as well as by using 1H-NMR spectroscopy and SEM. The acetylated product (AP yields for CF, RWP, RN, and MWFL were 112, 94, 84, and 73%, respectively. After isolation of pure CTA from the AP, the CTA yields were 87, 80, 68, and 54%. The solubility test for the CTA’s showed a clear solubility in chloroform, as well as mixture of chloroform and methanol (9:1v/v and vice versa for acetone. The degree of substitution (DS values for the CTA’s produced were nearly identical and confirmed the presence of CTA. In addition, the pore diameter of the CTA skeleton ranged from 0.072 to 0.239 µm for RWP and RN, and within the dimension scale of the CTA pinholes confirm the synthesis of CTA. Accordingly, pouring of the AP liquor at 25 °C in distilled water at the end of the acetylation and filtration did not hydrolyze the CTA to cellulose diacetate.

  6. Effect of DS Concentration on the PRO Performance Using a 5-Inch Scale Cellulose Triacetate-Based Hollow Fiber Membrane Module

    Masahiro Yasukawa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO performance of a 5-inch scale cellulose triacetate (CTA-based hollow fiber (HF membrane module was evaluated under a wide range of operating conditions (0.0–6.0 MPa of applied pressure, 0.5–2.0 L/min feed solution (FS inlet flow rate, 1.0–6.0 L/min DS inlet flow rate and 0.1–0.9 M draw solution (DS concentration by using a PRO/reverse osmosis (RO hybrid system. The subsequent RO system for DS regeneration enabled the evaluation of the steady-stated module performance. In the case of pilot-scale module operation, since the DS dilution and the feed solution (FS up-concentration had occurred and was not negligible, unlike the lab-scale experiment, PRO performance strongly depended on operating conditions such as inlet flow rates of both the DS and FS concentration. To compare the module performance with different configurations, we proposed a converted parameter in which a difference of the packing density between the spiral wound (SW and the HF module was fairly considered. In the case of HF configuration, because of high packing density, volumetric-based performance was higher than that of SW module, that is, the required number of the module would be less than that of SW module in a full-scale PRO plant.

  7. Diffusion and saponification inside porous cellulose triacetate fibers.

    Braun, Jennifer L; Kadla, John F

    2005-01-01

    Cellulose triacetate (CTA) fibers were partially hydrolyzed in 0.054 N solutions of NaOH/H(2)O and NaOMe/MeOH. The surface concentration of acetyl groups was determined using ATR-FTIR. Total acetyl content was determined by the alkaline hydrolysis method. Fiber cross-sections were stained with Congo red in order to examine the interface between reacted and unreacted material; these data were used to estimate the rate constant k and effective diffusivity D(B) for each reagent during the early stages of reaction by means of a volume-based unreacted core model. For NaOH/H(2)O, k = 0.37 L mol(-1) min(-1) and D(B) = 6.2 x 10(-7) cm(2)/sec; for NaOMe/MeOH, k = 4.0 L mol(-1) min(-1) and D(B) = 5.7 x 10(-6) cm(2)/sec. The NaOMe/MeOH reaction has a larger rate constant due to solvent effects and the greater nucleophilicity of MeO(-) as compared to OH(-); the reaction has a larger effective diffusivity because CTA swells more in MeOH than it does in water. Similarities between calculated concentration profiles for each case indicate that the relatively diffuse interface seen in fibers from the NaOMe/MeOH reaction results from factors not considered in the model; shrinkage of stained fiber cross-sections suggests that increased disruption of intermolecular forces may be the cause.

  8. Phase Analysis of the Cellulose Triacetate-Nitromethane System

    Anna B. Shipovskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was made on the cellulose triacetate-nitromethane system to explore its phase separation within ranges 2–25 wt.% and −5÷+80°C by means of polarization light and electron microscopy, the turbidity spectrum method, differential thermal and X-ray analyses, and rheological techniques. The physical state of the polymer was identified within the phase coexistence boundaries on the phase diagram which included three types of phase separation (amorphous (with a UCST at Tcr=57∘C and ccr=7.3 wt.%, crystal, and liquid crystal. The boundaries of the regions determining the coexistence of the liquid crystal (LC and the partly crystal phase were found to be inside the region of amorphous liquid-liquid phase separation. For cellulose ester-solvent systems, this state diagram is the first experimental evidence for the possibility of coexistence of several phases with amorphous, LC, and crystal polymer ordering.

  9. Cyanoresin, cyanoresin/cellulose triacetate blends for thin film, dielectric capacitors

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Lewis, Carol R. (Inventor); Cygan, Peter J. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Non brittle dielectric films are formed by blending a cyanoresin such as cyanoethyl, hydroxyethyl cellulose (CRE) with a compatible, more crystalline resin such as cellulose triacetate. The electrical breakdown strength of the blend is increased by orienting the films by uniaxial or biaxial stretching. Blends of high molecular weight CRE with high molecular weight cyanoethyl cellulose (CRC) provide films with high dielectric constants.

  10. A new generation of cellulose triacetate suitable for online haemodiafiltration

    Francisco Maduell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF is currently the most effective dialysis technique that also improves survival. To date, high permeability membranes with low albumin loss, such as polysulfone, polyamide and polyacrylonitrile membranes have been the most widely used. However, the initially restricted use of cellulose triacetate (CTA membranes in OL-HDF has expanded. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether the latest generation asymmetric CTA membranes are more effective in obtaining high convective transport. Patients and methods: A total of 16 patients (10 males and 6 females undergoing OL-HDF were studied. Each patient underwent 4 different sessions, with haemodialysis or OL-HDF, and/or with CTA or asymmetric CTA 1.9 m2 membranes. Each session was assigned in a randomised order. Serum levels of urea, creatinine, β2-microglobulin, myoglobin, prolactin, α1-microglobulin, α1-acid glycoprotein and albumin where measured at the beginning and end of each session to obtain the reduction rate. The loss of solutes and albumin was quantified from the dialysate. Results: A significantly greater replacement volume in OL-HDF (32.1 ± 3.1 vs. 19.7 ± 4.5 l, p < 0.001 was obtained by using asymmetrical CTA membranes compared to conventional CTA membranes. Regarding uraemic toxin removal, both membranes obtained similar results for small molecules, whereas asymmetric CTA membranes achieved better results for large molecules, increasing the reduction ratio by 29% for β2-microglobulin, 27.7% for myoglobin, 19.5% for prolactin, 49% for α1-microglobulin and double for α1-acid glycoprotein (p < 0.01 in all situations. The loss of albumin was less than 2 g for all treatment sessions. Conclusion: Latest-generation asymmetric CTA have proven to be effective in attaining OL-HDF objectives without increased albumin loss. Resumen: Antecedentes: La hemodiafiltración on-line (HDF-OL es actualmente

  11. An integrated theoretical and experimental investigation of insensitive munition compounds adsorption on cellulose, cellulose triacetate, chitin and chitosan surfaces.

    Gurtowski, Luke A; Griggs, Chris S; Gude, Veera G; Shukla, Manoj K

    2018-02-01

    This manuscript reports results of combined computational chemistry and batch adsorption investigation of insensitive munition compounds, 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) and nitroguanidine (NQ), and traditional munition compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on the surfaces of cellulose, cellulose triacetate, chitin and chitosan biopolymers. Cellulose, cellulose triacetate, chitin and chitosan were modeled as trimeric form of the linear chain of 4 C 1 chair conformation of β-d-glucopyranos, its triacetate form, β-N-acetylglucosamine and D-glucosamine, respectively, in the 1➔4 linkage. Geometries were optimized at the M062X functional level of the density functional theory (DFT) using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set in the gas phase and in the bulk water solution using the conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) approach. The nature of potential energy surfaces of the optimized geometries were ascertained through the harmonic vibrational frequency analysis. The basis set superposition error (BSSE) corrected interaction energies were obtained using the 6-311G(d,p) basis set at the same theoretical level. The computed BSSE in the gas phase was used to correct interaction energy in the bulk water solution. Computed and experimental results regarding the ability of considered surfaces in adsorbing the insensitive munitions compounds are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Gamma radiations induced micro-structural modifications and track registration properties in cellulose triacetate polymer

    Prasher, Sangeeta; Mukesh Kumar; Singh, Surinder

    2015-01-01

    The influences of gamma radiations from a 60 Co source on the physical and the chemical properties of cellulose triacetate polymer have been analyzed and reported. The analytical techniques such as FTIR and UV-VIS spectroscopy have been employed to study the chemical properties of the polymer before and after irradiation. The band gap and urbech's energies have been calculated from the UV-VIS spectral data and those were found to remain constant up to a gamma dose of 10 kGy and decrease thereafter. FTIR studies reveal the fact that there is a generation of CO 2 and -OH groups at higher doses, which is further confirmed from the decarboxylation mechanism in esters. Aliphatic C-H stretching intensity has also been found to increase with gamma dose. G-value for some groups and bond stretches, has also been reported evidencing the percentage degradation of the polymer by gamma radiations. The changes in track registration properties of the polymer alongwith the activation energies for bulk and track etch rates have been reported. The etch rates have been observed to increase, which can accounts for the presence of oxygen. It is found that cellulose triacetate is a highly radiation resistant polymer as it is influenced to a very little extent up to the dose of 10 kGy. The changes are pronounced at higher gamma doses of 500 and 10 3 kGy. (author)

  13. Studies on the radiation-induced coloration mechanism of the cellulose triacetate film dosimeter

    Matsuda, Koji; Nagai, Siro

    1991-01-01

    The species responsible for the coloration of the cellulose triacetate (CTA) film dosemeter have been studied using ultraviolet, electron spin resonance, infrared and gas chromatographic techniques. The post-irradiation change in the optical density at 280 nm indicates that the coloration occurs not only during irradiation (in situ coloration) but also after irradiation (post-irradiation coloration) and that in situ coloration is due to unstable and stable components. The species responsible for the unstable component of in situ coloration are ascribed to the radicals produced from CTA molecules and those for the stable component to the radiolysis products from CTA and triphenyl phosphate contained in the dosimeter. On the other hand, post-irradiation coloration is attributed to the formation of carbonyl groups in CTA molecules, which is induced by reaction with NO 2 produced by irradiation of air. (author)

  14. Alkaline elution of DNA from mammalian cells on cellulose triacetate filters

    Moss, A.J. Jr.; Nagle, W.A.; Henle, K.J.; Prior, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The alkaline elution technique is widely used for the estimation of cellular DNA damage because of its sensitivity in the biologically relevant dose range. The authors have extended the original studies and provide additional characterization of the cellulose triacetate alkaline elution method. This filter material permits the elution of approximately 80 percent of cellular DNA from untreated V79 cells. the total radioactivity in the system was compartmentalized with respect to 1) lysing solution, 2) washing solution, 3) elution fractions, and 4) membrane retained activity. In these studies [/sup 3/H]-thymidine labeled untreated internal control cells were co-eluted with X-irradiated [/sup 14/C]-thymidine labeled cells. For the estimation of DNA damage, elution profiles for treated cells were directly compared with untreated internal control cells. The quantity of DNA eluting in excess of the labeled internal control per fraction is directly proportional to the extent of DNA damage in the treated sample. Using the technique the necessity of an irradiated internal control is eliminated

  15. Adsorption of TNT, DNAN, NTO, FOX7, and NQ onto cellulose, chitin, and cellulose triacetate. Insights from Density Functional Theory calculations

    Todde, Guido; Jha, Sanjiv K.; Subramanian, Gopinath; Shukla, Manoj K.

    2018-02-01

    Insensitive munitions (IM) compounds such as DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole), NTO (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one), NQ (nitroguanidine), and FOX7 (1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene) reduce the risk of accidental explosions due to shock and high temperature exposure. These compounds are being used as replacements for sensitive munition compounds such as TNT (2,4,6-trinitromethylbenzene) and RDX (1,3,5-hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine). NTO and NQ in IM compounds are more soluble than TNT or RDX, hence they can easily spread in the environment and get dissolved if exposed to precipitation. DNAN solubility is comparable to TNT solubility. Cellulosic biomass, due to its abundance in the environment and its chemical structure, has a high probability of adsorbing these IM compounds, and thus, it is important to investigate the interactions between cellulose and cellulose like biopolymers (e.g. cellulose triacetate and chitin) with IM compounds. Using Density Functional Theory methods, we have studied the adsorption of TNT, DNAN, NTO, NQ, and FOX7 onto cellulose Iα and Iβ, chitin, and cellulose triacetate I (CTA I). Solvent effects on the adsorption were also investigated. Our results show that all contaminants are more strongly adsorbed onto chitin and cellulose Iα than onto CTA I and cellulose Iβ. Dispersion forces were found to be the predominant contribution to the adsorption energies of all contaminants.

  16. Electrochemical Characterization of a Polymer Inclusion Membrane Made of Cellulose Triacetate and Aliquat 336 and Its Application to Sulfonamides Separation

    Juana Benavente

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical characterization of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM fabricated with the ionic liquid (IL Aliquat 336 (26% and the polymer cellulose triacetate (CTA (76% is presented. Considering the use of PIMs in separation systems to remove pollutants from water, the characterization was performed with NaCl solutions by measuring membrane potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and salt diffusion and results were compared with those obtained from dry membranes. Results showed a significant reduction in the membrane diffusive permeability and electrical conductivity as well as the transport number of cation Na+ across the PIM when compared with solution values, which could be mainly related to the dense character of the membrane. Membrane application in the separation of different sulfonamides (sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole from water, with 1 M NaCl solution as striping phase, was also considered. These results indicated that the different chemical characteristics of the compounds, as well as the compact structure of the PIM, limited the transport of the organic molecules though it.

  17. Dosimetry in the region of 0.25 Mrad and 25 Mrad using cellulose triacetate films (CTA)

    Dafferner, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The dosimetric characteristics of a cellulose triacetate dosimetric film (CTA) from different places of origin, recently placed on the market to be used in dosimetry, are investigated. The charge in the optical absorption in the ultraviolet region induced by gamma radiation of Co-60 is found to be a linear behavior with the absorbed total dose, within a range of 0.25 to 25 Megarad. For the spectrophotometric reading the wavelength of 290 nm was chosen for the French CTA film, while 294 nm was used for the Japanese one. The response of the film is stable in time after the irradiation. By means of an adequate and careful handling the response does not change. One must always maintain, in practical usage, the same conditions of irradiation and the spectrophotometric reading used in the calibration. This film appears well suited for monitoring and control the dose of industrial irradiation process such as: process that involve application of chemical effects undergo by polymers when irradiated (polymerization), radiosterilization of medical products and equipments, food sterillization etc. (Author) [pt

  18. Comparison of biofouling mechanisms between cellulose triacetate (CTA) and thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide forward osmosis membranes in osmotic membrane bioreactors.

    Wang, Xinhua; Zhao, Yanxiao; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2016-02-01

    There are two types of popular forward osmosis (FO) membrane materials applied for researches on FO process, cellulose triacetate (CTA) and thin film composite (TFC) polyamide. However, performance and fouling mechanisms of commercial TFC FO membrane in osmotic membrane bioreactors (OMBRs) are still unknown. In current study, its biofouling behaviors in OMBRs were investigated and further compared to the CTA FO membrane. The results indicated that β-D-glucopyranose polysaccharides and microorganisms accounted for approximately 77% of total biovolume on the CTA FO membrane while β-D-glucopyranose polysaccharides (biovolume ratio of 81.1%) were the only dominant biofoulants on the TFC FO membrane. The analyses on the biofouling structure implied that a tighter biofouling layer with a larger biovolume was formed on the CTA FO membrane. The differences in biofouling behaviors including biofoulants composition and biofouling structure between CTA and TFC FO membranes were attributed to different membrane surface properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acetone-based cellulose solvent.

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; Heinze, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Acetone containing tetraalkylammonium chloride is found to be an efficient solvent for cellulose. The addition of an amount of 10 mol% (based on acetone) of well-soluble salt triethyloctylammonium chloride (Et3 OctN Cl) adjusts the solvent's properties (increases the polarity) to promote cellulose dissolution. Cellulose solutions in acetone/Et3 OctN Cl have the lowest viscosity reported for comparable aprotic solutions making it a promising system for shaping processes and homogeneous chemical modification of the biopolymer. Recovery of the polymer and recycling of the solvent components can be easily achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Direct resolution and quantitative analysis of flurbiprofen enantiomers using microcrystalline cellulose triacetate plates: applications to the enantiomeric purity control and optical isomer determination in widely consumed drugs.

    Del Bubba, M; Checchini, L; Ciofi, L; Furlanetto, S; Lepri, L

    2014-01-01

    Flurbiprofen enantiomers have very different pharmacological properties, since the (S)-(+) form has a much higher anti-inflammatory activity than the (R)-(-) isomer, the latter being responsible for very undesirable side effects, such as gastrointestinal irritation. Based on the different biological properties of flurbiprofen enantiomers, the development of chiral chromatographic methods for the control of the enantiomeric purity is a very important topic. In this study the separation of flurbiprofen enantiomers was achieved using for the first time noncommercial MCTA layers with polyvinyl alcohol as binder, which gives to these plates a mechanical stability equivalent to that of marketed ones. Baseline resolution (α = 1.31; RS = 2.0) was obtained with ethanol-acetic acid solution (pH 3.0 ± 0.1; 60:40, v/v) as eluent and a migration distance of about 14.5 cm. Under these experimental conditions, the thin-layer chromatography determination of the enantiomeric purity of the pharmacologically active (S)-(+)-flurbiprofen in the presence of 1% of the undesired (R)-(-) form was demonstrated. Moreover, the quantitative analysis of flurbiprofen enantiomers was achieved, obtaining quantification limits and detection limits of 50 and 25 ng of each enantiomer applied to the plate, respectively. The method was succesfully applied to the enantiomer determination in widely consumed drugs, obtaining results consistent with the flurbiprofen content declared in the drug facts. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cellulose-Based Nanomaterials for Energy Applications.

    Wang, Xudong; Yao, Chunhua; Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaodong

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant natural polymer on earth, providing a sustainable green resource that is renewable, degradable, biocompatible, and cost effective. Recently, nanocellulose-based mesoporous structures, flexible thin films, fibers, and networks are increasingly developed and used in photovoltaic devices, energy storage systems, mechanical energy harvesters, and catalysts components, showing tremendous materials science value and application potential in many energy-related fields. In this Review, the most recent advancements of processing, integration, and application of cellulose nanomaterials in the areas of solar energy harvesting, energy storage, and mechanical energy harvesting are reviewed. For solar energy harvesting, promising applications of cellulose-based nanostructures for both solar cells and photoelectrochemical electrodes development are reviewed, and their morphology-related merits are discussed. For energy storage, the discussion is primarily focused on the applications of cellulose-based nanomaterials in lithium-ion batteries, including electrodes (e.g., active materials, binders, and structural support), electrolytes, and separators. Applications of cellulose nanomaterials in supercapacitors are also reviewed briefly. For mechanical energy harvesting, the most recent technology evolution in cellulose-based triboelectric nanogenerators is reviewed, from fundamental property tuning to practical implementations. At last, the future research potential and opportunities of cellulose nanomaterials as a new energy material are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Advancing cellulose-based nanotechnology

    Theodore H. Wegner; Philip E. Jones

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology has applications across most economic sectors and allows the development of new enabling science with broad commercial potential. Cellulose and lignocellulose have great potential as nanomaterials because they are abundant, renewable, have a nanofibrillar structure, can be made multifunctional, and self-assemble into well-defined architectures. To...

  3. Electrospinning cellulose based nanofibers for sensor applications

    Nartker, Steven

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens have recently become a serious threat to the food and water supply. A biosensor based on an electrochemical immunoassay has been developed for detecting food borne pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. These sensors consist of several materials including, cellulose, cellulose nitrate, polyaniline and glass fibers. The current sensors have not been optimized in terms of microscale architecture and materials. The major problem associated with the current sensors is the limited concentration range of pathogens that provides a linear response on the concentration conductivity chart. Electrospinning is a process that can be used to create a patterned fiber mat design that will increase the linear range and lower the detection limit of these sensors by improving the microscale architecture. Using the electrospinning process to produce novel mats of cellulose nitrate will offer improved surface area, and the cellulose nitrate can be treated to further improve chemical interactions required for sensor activity. The macro and micro architecture of the sensor is critical to the performance of the sensors. Electrospinning technology can be used to create patterned architectures of nanofibers that will enhance sensor performance. To date electrospinning of cellulose nitrate has not been performed and optimization of the electrospinning process will provide novel materials suitable for applications such as filtration and sensing. The goal of this research is to identify and elucidate the primary materials and process factors necessary to produce cellulose nitrate nanofibers using the electrospinning process that will improve the performance of biosensors. Cellulose nitrate is readily dissolved in common organic solvents such as acetone, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N,N dimethylformamide (DMF). These solvents can be mixed with other latent solvents such as ethanol and other alcohols to provide a solvent system with good electrospinning behavior

  4. Nanotechnology : emerging applications of cellulose-based green magnetic nanocomposites

    Tao Wang; Zhiyong Cai; Lei Liu; Ilker S. Bayer; Abhijit Biswas

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a new type of nanocomposite – cellulose based hybrid nanocomposites, which adopts cellulose nanofibers as matrices, has been intensively developed. Among these materials, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of cellulosic fibers and magnetic nanoparticles have recently attracted much attention due to their potential novel applications in biomedicine,...

  5. Triacetic acid lactone production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical produced from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by the Gerbera hybrida 2-pyrone synthase (2PS) gene. Studies are ongoing to optimize production, purification, and chemical modification of TAL, which can be used to create the commercial chemicals...

  6. Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger

    Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

    2011-07-01

    Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

  7. Extraction of cellulose from pistachio shell and physical and mechanical characterisation of cellulose-based nanocomposites

    Movva, Mounika; Kommineni, Ravindra

    2017-04-01

    Cellulose is an important nanoentity that have been used for the preparation of composites. The present work focuses on the extraction of cellulose from pistachio shell and preparing a partially degradable nanocomposite with extracted cellulose. Physical and microstructural characteristics of nanocellulose extracted from pistachio shell powder (PSP) through various stages of chemical treatment are identified from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Later, characterized nanocellulose is reinforced in a polyester matrix to fabricate nanocellulose-based composites according to the ASTM standard. The resulting nanocellulose composite performance is evaluated in the mechanical perspective through tensile and flexural loading. SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that the process for extraction is efficient in obtaining 95% crystalline cellulose. Cellulose also showed good thermal stability with a peak thermal degradation temperature of 361 °C. Such cellulose when reinforced in a matrix material showed a noteworthy rise in tensile and flexural strengths of 43 MPa and 127 MPa, at a definite weight percent of 5%.

  8. Environmentally friendly cellulose-based polyelectrolytes in wastewater treatment.

    Grenda, Kinga; Arnold, Julien; Gamelas, José A F; Rasteiro, Maria G

    2017-09-01

    Natural-based polyelectrolytes (PELs), with all the advantages coming from being produced from renewable and biodegradable sources, are a potential solution for the removal of dyes from wastewater. In this work, surplus Eucalyptus bleached cellulose fibres from a paper mill were modified to increase the charge and solubility of cellulose. First, reactive aldehyde groups were introduced in the cellulose backbone by periodate oxidation of cellulose. Further modification with alkylammonium produced positively charged cellulose-based PELs. The final products were characterized by several analytical techniques. The PEL with the highest substitution degree of cationic groups was evaluated for its performance in decolouration processes, bentonite being used as aid. This was found to be effective for colour removal of either anionic or cationic dyes. Bio-PELs can thus be considered as very favourable eco-friendly flocculation agents for decolouration of harsh effluents from several industries, considering their biodegradable nature and thus the ability to produce less sludge.

  9. Superhydrophobic cellulose-based bionanocomposite films from Pickering emulsions

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Steele, Adam; Martorana, Philip J.; Loth, Eric; Miller, Lance

    2009-04-01

    Inherently superhydrophobic and flexible cellulose-based bionanocomposites were fabricated from solid stabilized (Pickering) emulsions. Emulsions were formed by dispersing cyclosiloxanes in water stabilized by layered silicate particles and were subsequently modified by blending into a zinc oxide nanofluid. The polymer matrix was a blend of cellulose nitrate and fluoroacrylic polymer (Zonyl 8740) precompatibilized in solution. Coatings were spray cast onto aluminum substrates from polymer blends dispersed in modified Pickering emulsions. No postsurface treatment was required to induce superhydrophobicity. Effect of antiseptic additives on bionanocomposite superhydrophobicity is also discussed. Replacing cellulose nitrate with commercial liquid bandage solutions produced identical superhydrophobic coatings.

  10. Biodegradable Cellulose-based Hydrogels: Design and Applications

    Sannino, Alessandro; Demitri, Christian; Madaghiele, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogels are macromolecular networks able to absorb and release water solutions in a reversible manner, in response to specific environmental stimuli. Such stimuli-sensitive behaviour makes hydrogels appealing for the design of ‘smart’ devices, applicable in a variety of technological fields. In particular, in cases where either ecological or biocompatibility issues are concerned, the biodegradability of the hydrogel network, together with the control of the degradation rate, may provide additional value to the developed device. This review surveys the design and the applications of cellulose-based hydrogels, which are extensively investigated due to the large availability of cellulose in nature, the intrinsic degradability of cellulose and the smart behaviour displayed by some cellulose derivatives.

  11. Biodegradable Cellulose-based Hydrogels: Design and Applications

    Marta Madaghiele

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are macromolecular networks able to absorb and release water solutions in a reversible manner, in response to specific environmental stimuli. Such stimuli-sensitive behaviour makes hydrogels appealing for the design of ‘smart’ devices, applicable in a variety of technological fields. In particular, in cases where either ecological or biocompatibility issues are concerned, the biodegradability of the hydrogel network, together with the control of the degradation rate, may provide additional value to the developed device. This review surveys the design and the applications of cellulose-based hydrogels, which are extensively investigated due to the large availability of cellulose in nature, the intrinsic degradability of cellulose and the smart behaviour displayed by some cellulose derivatives.

  12. Characterization of cellulose acetate obtained from sugarcane bagasse by 1H-NMR

    Cerqueira, Daniel A.; Rodrigues Filho, Guimes; Carvalho, Rui A.; Valente, Artur J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cellulose from sugarcane bagasse was used for synthesizing cellulose acetate with different degrees of substitution, which were characterized by 1 H-NMR through the relationship between the peak areas of the hydrogen atoms present at the acetate groups (-(C=O)OCH 3 ) and the peaks of the hydrogen bonded to the carbon atoms of the glycosidic rings. Suppression was carried out in order to remove the peak of residual water in the materials and the peak related to impurities in cellulose triacetate. Degree of substitution values obtained through the resonance deconvolution were compared to those obtained by chemical determination through an acid-base titration. The determined degrees of substitution of the cellulose samples were 2.94 and 2.60. (author)

  13. Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration Multilayer Membranes Based on Cellulose

    Livazovic, Sara

    2016-06-09

    Membrane processes are considered energy-efficient for water desalination and treatment. However most membranes are based on polymers prepared from fossil petrochemical sources. The development of multilayer membranes for nanofiltration and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose, has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions in tetrahydrofuran, followed by solvent evaporation and cellulose regeneration by acid treatment; (ii) casting from solution in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolum acetate ([C2mim]OAc), an ionic liquid, followed by phase inversion in water. In the search for less harsh, greener membrane manufacture, the combination of cellulose and ionic liquid is of high interest. Due to the abundance of OH groups and hydrophilicity, cellulose-based membranes have high permeability and low fouling tendency. Membrane fouling is one of the biggest challenges in membrane industry and technology. Accumulation and deposition of foulants onto the surface reduce membrane efficiency and requires harsh chemical cleaning, therefore increasing the cost of maintenance and replacement. In this work the resistance of cellulose 5 membranes towards model organic foulants such as Suwanee River Humic Acid (SRHA) and crude oil have been investigated. Cellulose membrane was tested in this work for oil-water (o/w) separation and exhibited practically 100 % oil rejection with good flux recovery ratio and membrane resistivity. The influence of anionic, cationic and ionic surfactant as well as pH and crude oil concentration on oil separation was investigated, giving a valuable insight in experimental and operational planning.

  14. Characterization of blend hydrogels based on plasticized starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose synthesized by electron beam irradiation

    Senna, Magdy M.; Mostafa, Abo El-Khair B.; Mahdy, Sanna R.; El-Naggar, Abdel Wahab M.

    2016-11-01

    Blend hydrogels based on aqueous solutions of plasticized starch and different ratios of cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared by electron beam irradiation (EB). The blends before and after EB irradiation were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physico-chemical properties of blend hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation were improved compared to unirradiated blends.

  15. Morphological structure of Gluconacetobacter xylinus cellulose and cellulose-based organic-inorganic composite materials

    Smyslov, R. Yu; Ezdakova, K. V.; Kopitsa, G. P.; Khripunov, A. K.; Bugrov, A. N.; Tkachenko, A. A.; Angelov, B.; Pipich, V.; Szekely, N. K.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Latysheva, E.; Chetverikov, Yu O.; Haramus, V.

    2017-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS), as well as low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, were used in the studies of micro- and mesostructure of polymer matrix prepared from air-dry preliminarily disintegrated cellulose nano-gel film (synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus) and the composites based on this bacterial cellulose. The composites included ZrO2 nanoparticles, Tb3+ in the form of low molecular weight salt and of metal-polymer complex with poly(vinylpyrrolydone)-poly(methacryloyl-o-aminobenzoic acid) copolymer. The combined analysis of the data obtained allowed revealing three levels of fractal organization in mesostructure of G. xylinus cellulose and its composites. It was shown that both the composition and an aggregation state of dopants have a significant impact on the structural characteristics of the organic-inorganic composites. The composites containing Tb3+ ions demonstrate efficient luminescence; its intensity is an order of magnitude higher in the case of the composites with the metal-polymer complex. It was found that there is the optimal content of ZrO2 nanoparticles in composites resulting in increased Tb3+ luminescence.

  16. Hydrolysis of the amorphous cellulose in cotton-based paper.

    Stephens, Catherine H; Whitmore, Paul M; Morris, Hannah R; Bier, Mark E

    2008-04-01

    Hydrolysis of cellulose in Whatman no. 42 cotton-based paper was studied using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and uniaxial tensile testing to understand the course and kinetics of the reaction. GPC results suggested that scission reactions passed through three stages. Additionally, the evolution of soluble oligomers in the ESI-MS data and the steady course of strength loss showed that the hydrolysis reaction occurred at a constant rate. These findings are explained with a more detailed description of the cellulose hydrolysis, which includes multiple chain scissions on amorphous segments. The breaks occur with increasing frequency near the ends of amorphous segments, where chains protrude from crystalline domains. Oligomers unattached to crystalline domains are eventually created. Late-stage reactions near the ends of amorphous segments produce a kinetic behavior that falsely suggests that hydrolysis had ceased. Monte Carlo simulations of cellulose degradation corroborated the experimental findings.

  17. Effect of cellulose-based fibers extracted from pineapple (Ananas ...

    New polyurethane foams were fabricated utilizing cellulose-based fibers extracted from pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaf as raw material. The pineapple leaf fibers (PALF) were treated with alkali and subsequently bleached to enhance its fiber-matrix adhesion. Polyurethane composites have been prepared by ...

  18. Characterization of blend hydrogels based on plasticized starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose synthesized by electron beam irradiation

    Senna, Magdy M., E-mail: magdysenna@hotmail.com [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Abo El-Khair B. [Chemistry Department, College for Girls, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Mahdy, Sanna R.; El-Naggar, Abdel Wahab M. [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Semi-interpenetrating (IPN) blend hydrogels were synthesized by EB irradiation. • The hydrogels were based on starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose blends. • The gelation, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties of hydrogels were studied. • The thermal stability was studied by determining kinetic energy by different methods. - Abstract: Blend hydrogels based on aqueous solutions of plasticized starch and different ratios of cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared by electron beam irradiation (EB). The blends before and after EB irradiation were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physico-chemical properties of blend hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation were improved compared to unirradiated blends.

  19. Characterization of blend hydrogels based on plasticized starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose synthesized by electron beam irradiation

    Senna, Magdy M.; Mostafa, Abo El-Khair B.; Mahdy, Sanna R.; El-Naggar, Abdel Wahab M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Semi-interpenetrating (IPN) blend hydrogels were synthesized by EB irradiation. • The hydrogels were based on starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose blends. • The gelation, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties of hydrogels were studied. • The thermal stability was studied by determining kinetic energy by different methods. - Abstract: Blend hydrogels based on aqueous solutions of plasticized starch and different ratios of cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared by electron beam irradiation (EB). The blends before and after EB irradiation were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physico-chemical properties of blend hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation were improved compared to unirradiated blends.

  20. Enzymatic Systems for Cellulose Acetate Degradation

    Oskar Haske-Cornelius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA-based materials, like cigarette filters, contribute to landscape pollution challenging municipal authorities and manufacturers. This study investigates the potential of enzymes to degrade CA and to be potentially incorporated into the respective materials, enhancing biodegradation. Deacetylation studies based on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Time of Flight (LC-MS-TOF, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and spectrophotometric analysis showed that the tested esterases were able to deacetylate the plasticizer triacetin (glycerol triacetate and glucose pentaacetate (cellulose acetate model compound. The most effective esterases for deacetylation belong to the enzyme family 2 (AXE55, AXE 53, GAE, they deacetylated CA with a degree of acetylation of up to 1.8. A combination of esterases and cellulases showed synergistic effects, the absolute glucose recovery for CA 1.8 was increased from 15% to 28% when an enzymatic deacetylation was performed. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO, and cellobiohydrolase were able to cleave cellulose acetates with a degree of acetylation of up to 1.4, whereas chitinase showed no activity. In general, the degree of substitution, chain length, and acetyl group distribution were found to affect CA degradation. This study shows that, for a successful enzyme-based deacetylation system, a cocktail of enzymes, which will randomly cleave and generate shorter CA fragments, is the most suitable.

  1. Triacetic acid lactone production in industrial Saccharomyces yeast strains

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical that can be produced in yeast. To evaluate the potential for industrial yeast strains to produce TAL, the g2ps1 gene encoding 2-pyrone synthase was transformed into thirteen industrial yeast strains of varied genetic background. TAL produ...

  2. Cellulose Anionic Hydrogels Based on Cellulose Nanofibers As Natural Stimulants for Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Minmin; Luan, Qian; Tang, Hu; Huang, Fenghong; Xiang, Xia; Yang, Chen; Bao, Yuping

    2017-05-17

    Cellulose anionic hydrogels were successfully prepared by dissolving TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers in NaOH/urea aqueous solution and being cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. The hydrogels exhibited microporous structure and high hydrophilicity, which contribute to the excellent water absorption property. The growth indexes, including the germination rate, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, and dry weight of the seedlings, were investigated. The results showed that cellulose anionic hydrogels with suitable carboxylate contents as plant growth regulators could be beneficial for seed germination and growth. Moreover, they presented preferable antifungal activity during the breeding and growth of the sesame seed breeding. Thus, the cellulose anionic hydrogels with suitable carboxylate contents could be applied as soilless culture mediums for plant growth. This research provided a simple and effective method for the fabrication of cellulose anionic hydrogel and evaluated its application in agriculture.

  3. A comparative study of green composites based on tapioca starch and celluloses

    Owi, Wei Tieng; Lin, Ong Hui; Sam, Sung Ting; Mern, Chin Kwok; Villagracia, Al Rey; Santos, Gil Nonato C.; Akil, Hazizan Md

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the properties of green composites based on tapioca starch (TS) and celluloses isolated from empty fruit bunches (EFB) and commercial celluloses from cotton linter (supplied by Sigma). Empty fruit bunches (EFB) acted as the main source to obtain the cellulose by using a chemical approach whereas the commercial cellulose from Sigma was used as reference. The TS/cellulose composite films were prepared using cellulose in varying proportions as filler into TS matrix by a casting method. The amount of celluloses added into the tapioca starch were 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 phr (as per dry mass of TS). The celluloses were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTTR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). While the green composite films were analyzed in terms of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), SEM and tensile properties. FTTR analysis confirmed the removal of non-cellulosic materials such as hemicelluloses and lignin from raw EFB after the chemical treatment. XRD diffractograms revealed that the crystallinity of celluloses EFB increased from 43.1 % of raw EFB to 52.1 %. SEM images showed the fibrillar structure of cellulose isolated from EFB. The TGA and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of green composite films showed no significant effect on the thermal stability. Melting temperature of TS/cellulose EFB higher than neat TS while TS/cellulose Sigma lower than neat TS. The green composite films with 15 phr cellulose from EFB filler loading provided the best tensile properties in term of its strength and modulus. However, in term of elongation at break, the percentage elongation decreased with the increased of the amount of filler loading. SEM images of the films demonstrated a good interaction between cellulose filler and TS matrix especially with the addition of 15 phr of cellulose from EFB.

  4. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications.

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-26

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  5. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    Asif Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of cellulose nanocrystal based transparent electroactive polyurethane

    Ko, Hyun-U.; Kim, Hyun Chan; Kim, Jung Woong; Zhai, Lindong; Jayaramudu, Tippabattini; Kim, Jaehwan

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) based transparent and electroactive polyurethane (CPPU), suitable for actively tunable optical lens. CNC is used for high dielectric filler to improve electromechanical behavior of CPPU. For high transparency and homogeneous distribution of CNC in polyurethane, CNC-poly[di(ethylene glycol) adipate] is used to play a role of polyol and isocyanate salt. The fabricated CPPU exhibits high transparency (>90%) and 10% of electromechanical strain under 3 V μm-1 electric field. Mechanical, dielectric properties as well as physical and chemical characteristics are investigated to prove the electromechanical behavior of CPPU.

  7. {sup 1}H-NMR characterization of cellulose acetate obtained from sugarcane bagasse; Caracterizacao de acetato de celulose obtido a partir do bagaco de cana-de-acucar por {sup 1}H-RMN

    Cerqueira, Daniel A., E-mail: daniel.cerqueira@ufba.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Ambientais e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel; Rodrigues Filho, Guimes [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Carvalho, Rui de A. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Bioquimica; Valente, Artur J.M. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Cellulose from sugarcane bagasse was used for synthesizing cellulose acetate with different degrees of substitution, which were characterized by {sup 1}H-NMR through the relationship between the peak areas of the hydrogen atoms of the acetate groups (-(C=O)OCH{sub 3}) and the peaks of the hydrogen bonded to the carbon atoms of the glycosidic rings. Suppression of some signals was carried out in order to remove the residual water resonance in the materials and those related to impurities in cellulose triacetate as well. A deconvolution method for the computation of the degree of substitution of acetylation is proposed. The degrees of substitution for the cellulose samples were 2.94 and 2.60, in good agreement with those obtained by chemical determination through an acid-base titration. (author)

  8. Characterization of cellulose acetate obtained from sugarcane bagasse by {sup 1}H-NMR; Caracterizacao de acetato de celulose obtido a partir do bagaco de cana-de-acucar por {sup 1}H-RMN

    Cerqueira, Daniel A.; Rodrigues Filho, Guimes, E-mail: d.a.cerqueira@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Uberlendia (IQ/UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Carvalho, Rui A. [Universidade de Coimbra (UC) (Portugal). Dept. de Bioquimica; Valente, Artur J.M. [Universidade de Coimbra (UC) (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Cellulose from sugarcane bagasse was used for synthesizing cellulose acetate with different degrees of substitution, which were characterized by {sup 1}H-NMR through the relationship between the peak areas of the hydrogen atoms present at the acetate groups (-(C=O)OCH{sub 3} ) and the peaks of the hydrogen bonded to the carbon atoms of the glycosidic rings. Suppression was carried out in order to remove the peak of residual water in the materials and the peak related to impurities in cellulose triacetate. Degree of substitution values obtained through the resonance deconvolution were compared to those obtained by chemical determination through an acid-base titration. The determined degrees of substitution of the cellulose samples were 2.94 and 2.60. (author)

  9. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    Asif Khan; Zafar Abas; Heung Soo Kim; Jaehwan Kim

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active pa...

  10. Preparation of sago starch-based biocomposite reinforced microfibrillated cellulose of bamboo assisted by mechanical treatment

    Silviana, S.; Hadiyanto, H.

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of green composites by using natural fibres is developed due to their availability, ecological benefits, and good properties in mechanical and thermal. One of the potential sources is bamboo that has relative high cellulose content. This paper was focused on the preparation of sago starch-based reinforced microfribrillated cellulose of bamboo that was assisted by mechanical treatment. Microfibrillated cellulose of bamboo was prepared by isolation of cellulose with chemical treatment. Preparation of bamboo microfibrillated cellulose was conducted by homogenizers for dispersing bamboo cellulose, i.e. high pressure homogenizer and ultrasonic homogenizer. Experiments were elaborated on several variables such as the concentration of bamboo microfibrillated cellulose dispersed in water (1-3 %w) and the volume of microfibrillated cellulose (37.5-75%v). Four %w of sago starch solution was mixed with bamboo microfibrillated cellulose and glycerol with plasticizer and citric acid as cross linker. This paper provided the analysis of tensile strength as well as SEM for mechanical and morphology properties of the biocomposite. The results showed that the preparation of sago starch-based biocomposite reinforced bamboo microfibrillated cellulose by using ultrasonic homogenizer yielded the highest tensile strength and well dispersed in the biocomposite.

  11. Development of wet-dry reversible reverse osmosis membrane with high performance from cellulose acetate and cellulose triactate blend

    Vasarhelyi, K.; Ronner, J.A.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wet-dry reversible membrane were prepared bt a two-step coagulation procedure. A cast film containing a blend of cellulose triacetate as polymers, dioxane and acetone as solvents and maleic acid and methanol as additives was immersed consecutively in two aqueous coagulation baths, the first bath

  12. Cellulose-Based Bio- and Nanocomposites: A Review

    Susheel Kalia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose macro- and nanofibers have gained increasing attention due to the high strength and stiffness, biodegradability and renewability, and their production and application in development of composites. Application of cellulose nanofibers for the development of composites is a relatively new research area. Cellulose macro- and nanofibers can be used as reinforcement in composite materials because of enhanced mechanical, thermal, and biodegradation properties of composites. Cellulose fibers are hydrophilic in nature, so it becomes necessary to increase their surface roughness for the development of composites with enhanced properties. In the present paper, we have reviewed the surface modification of cellulose fibers by various methods. Processing methods, properties, and various applications of nanocellulose and cellulosic composites are also discussed in this paper.

  13. Structure/Function Analysis of Cotton-Based Peptide-Cellulose Conjugates: Spatiotemporal/Kinetic Assessment of Protease Aerogels Compared to Nanocrystalline and Paper Cellulose

    J. Vincent Edwards

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose has high specific surface area, hydration properties, and ease of derivatization to prepare protease sensors. A Human Neutrophil Elastase sensor designed with a nanocellulose aerogel transducer surface derived from cotton is compared with cotton filter paper, and nanocrystalline cellulose versions of the sensor. X-ray crystallography was employed along with Michaelis–Menten enzyme kinetics, and circular dichroism to contrast the structure/function relations of the peptide-cellulose conjugate conformation to enzyme/substrate binding and turnover rates. The nanocellulosic aerogel was found to have a cellulose II structure. The spatiotemporal relation of crystallite surface to peptide-cellulose conformation is discussed in light of observed enzyme kinetics. A higher substrate binding affinity (Km of elastase was observed with the nanocellulose aerogel and nanocrystalline peptide-cellulose conjugates than with the solution-based elastase substrate. An increased Km observed for the nanocellulosic aerogel sensor yields a higher enzyme efficiency (kcat/Km, attributable to binding of the serine protease to the negatively charged cellulose surface. The effect of crystallite size and β-turn peptide conformation are related to the peptide-cellulose kinetics. Models demonstrating the orientation of cellulose to peptide O6-hydroxymethyl rotamers of the conjugates at the surface of the cellulose crystal suggest the relative accessibility of the peptide-cellulose conjugates for enzyme active site binding.

  14. Structure/Function Analysis of Cotton-Based Peptide-Cellulose Conjugates: Spatiotemporal/Kinetic Assessment of Protease Aerogels Compared to Nanocrystalline and Paper Cellulose

    Edwards, J. Vincent; Fontenot, Krystal; Liebner, Falk; Pircher, Nicole Doyle nee; French, Alfred D.; Condon, Brian D.

    2018-01-01

    Nanocellulose has high specific surface area, hydration properties, and ease of derivatization to prepare protease sensors. A Human Neutrophil Elastase sensor designed with a nanocellulose aerogel transducer surface derived from cotton is compared with cotton filter paper, and nanocrystalline cellulose versions of the sensor. X-ray crystallography was employed along with Michaelis–Menten enzyme kinetics, and circular dichroism to contrast the structure/function relations of the peptide-cellulose conjugate conformation to enzyme/substrate binding and turnover rates. The nanocellulosic aerogel was found to have a cellulose II structure. The spatiotemporal relation of crystallite surface to peptide-cellulose conformation is discussed in light of observed enzyme kinetics. A higher substrate binding affinity (Km) of elastase was observed with the nanocellulose aerogel and nanocrystalline peptide-cellulose conjugates than with the solution-based elastase substrate. An increased Km observed for the nanocellulosic aerogel sensor yields a higher enzyme efficiency (kcat/Km), attributable to binding of the serine protease to the negatively charged cellulose surface. The effect of crystallite size and β-turn peptide conformation are related to the peptide-cellulose kinetics. Models demonstrating the orientation of cellulose to peptide O6-hydroxymethyl rotamers of the conjugates at the surface of the cellulose crystal suggest the relative accessibility of the peptide-cellulose conjugates for enzyme active site binding. PMID:29534033

  15. Water hyacinth cellulose-based membrane for adsorption of liquid waste dyes and chromium

    Agtasia Putri, Cintia; Yulianti, Ian; Desianna, Ika; Sholihah, Anisa; Sujarwata

    2018-04-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) is a weed in aquatic area whose trunk contains a lot of cellulose. Cellulose contained can be used as dyes adsorbent in a form of composite membrane. This study aims to investigate the capacity of water hyacinth cellulose-based membrane to adsorb dye and Chromium (Cr) contained in liquid. The process of membrane fabrication begins with isolation of water hyacinth cellulose. The isolated cellulose powder was used to make the membrane by mixing it with polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol (PVA-PEG) with various compositions. The morphology of membrane surface was analyzed using CCD microscope. The analysis using Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) indicate that the membrane with composition ratio of cellulose: PVA: PEG of 6.5: 2.5: 1 adsorb Cr up to 38.75%.

  16. Production of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Wastes

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic polymers namely cellulose, di-and triacetate were produced from fourteen agricultural wastes; Branch and fiber after oil extraction from oil palm (Elais guineensis, raffia, piassava, bamboo pulp, bamboo bark from raphia palm (Raphia hookeri, stem and cob of maize plant (Zea mays, fruit fiber from coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera, sawdusts from cotton tree (Cossypium hirsutum, pear wood (Manilkara obovata, stem of Southern gamba green (Andropogon tectorus, sugarcane baggase (Saccharium officinarum and plantain stem (Musa paradisiaca. They were subjected to soda pulping and hypochlorite bleaching system. Results obtained show that pulp yield from these materials were: 70.00, 39.59, 55.40, 86.00, 84.60, 80.00, 40.84, 81.67, 35.70, 69.11, 4.54, 47.19, 31.70 and 52.44% respectively. The pulps were acetylated with acetic anhydride in ethanoic acid catalyzed by conc. H2SO4 to obtain cellulose derivatives (Cellulose diacetate and triacetate. The cellulose diacetate yields were 41.20, 17.85, 23.13, 20.80, 20.23, 20.00, 39.00, 44.00, 18.80, 20.75, 20.03, 41.20, 44.00, and 39.00% respectively while the results obtained as average of four determinations for cellulose triacetate yields were: 52.00, 51.00, 43.10, 46.60, 49.00, 35.00, 40.60, 54.00, 57.50, 62.52, 35.70. 52.00, 53.00 and 38.70% respectively for all the agricultural wastes utilized. The presence of these cellulose derivatives was confirmed by a solubility test in acetone and chloroform.

  17. Films based on oxidized starch and cellulose from barley.

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Deon, Vinícius Gonçalves; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Villanova, Franciene Almeida; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-11-20

    Starch and cellulose fibers were isolated from grains and the husk from barley, respectively. Biodegradable films of native starch or oxidized starches and glycerol with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. Cellulose fibers isolated from the barley husk were obtained with 75% purity and high crystallinity. The morphology of the films of the oxidized starches, regardless of the fiber addition, was more homogeneous as compared to the film of the native starch. The addition of cellulose fibers in the films increased the tensile strength and decreased elongation. The water vapor permeability of the film of oxidized starch with 20% of cellulose fibers was lower than the without fibers. However the films with cellulose fibers had the highest decomposition with the initial temperature and thermal stability. The oxidized starch and cellulose fibers from barley have a good potential for use in packaging. The addition of cellulose fibers in starch films can contribute to the development of films more resistant that can be applied in food systems to maintain its integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 36 CFR 1237.30 - How do agencies manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film?

    2010-07-01

    ... records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? 1237.30 Section 1237.30 Parks, Forests... and cellulose-acetate base film? (a) The nitrocellulose base, a substance akin to gun cotton, is chemically unstable and highly flammable. Agencies must handle nitrocellulose-base film (used in the...

  19. "Smart" Materials Based on Cellulose: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications.

    Qiu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Shuwen

    2013-02-28

    Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature, and possesses some promising properties, such as mechanical robustness, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Thus, cellulose has been widely applied in many fields. "Smart" materials based on cellulose have great advantages-especially their intelligent behaviors in reaction to environmental stimuli-and they can be applied to many circumstances, especially as biomaterials. This review aims to present the developments of "smart" materials based on cellulose in the last decade, including the preparations, properties, and applications of these materials. The preparations of "smart" materials based on cellulose by chemical modifications and physical incorporating/blending were reviewed. The responsiveness to pH, temperature, light, electricity, magnetic fields, and mechanical forces, etc. of these "smart" materials in their different forms such as copolymers, nanoparticles, gels, and membranes were also reviewed, and the applications as drug delivery systems, hydrogels, electronic active papers, sensors, shape memory materials and smart membranes, etc. were also described in this review.

  20. Possibility of cellulose-based electro-active paper energy scavenging transducer.

    Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Zhai, Lindong; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo Hyung

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a cellulose-based Electro-Active Paper (EAPap) energy scavenging transducer is presented. Cellulose is proven as a smart material, and exhibits piezoelectric effect. Specimens were prepared by coating gold electrodes on both sides of cellulose film. The fabricated specimens were tested by a base excited aluminum cantilever beam at resonant frequency. Different tests were performed with single and multiple parallel connected electrodes coated on the cellulose film. A maximum of 131 mV output voltage was measured, when three electrodes were connected in parallel. It was observed that voltage output increases significantly with the area of electrodes. From these results, it can be concluded that the piezoelectricity of cellulose-based EAPap can be used in energy transduction application.

  1. Chitosan Based Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Functionalized with Plasma and Ultrasound

    Urška Vrabič Brodnjak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The great potential of regenerated cellulose fibers, which offer excellent possibilities as a matrix for the design of bioactive materials, was the lead for our research. We focused on the surface modification of fibers to improve the sorption properties of regenerated cellulose and biocomposite regenerated cellulose/chitosan fibers, which are on the market. The purpose of our investigation was also the modification of regenerated cellulose fibers with the functionalization by chitosan as a means of obtaining similar properties to biocomposite regenerated cellulose/chitosan fibers on the market. Argon gas plasma was used for fiber surface activation and chitosan adsorption. Ultrasound was also used as a treatment procedure for the surface activation of regenerated cellulose fibers and treatment with chitosan. Analyses have shown that ultrasonic energy or plasma change the accessibility of free functional groups, structure and reactivity, especially in regenerated cellulose fibers. Changes that occurred in the morphology and in the structure of fibers were also reflected in their physical and chemical properties. Consequently, moisture content, sorption properties and water retention improved.

  2. Preparation and characterization of transparent PMMA-cellulose-based nanocomposites.

    Kiziltas, Esra Erbas; Kiziltas, Alper; Bollin, Shannon C; Gardner, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose were made by a solution casting method using acetone as the solvent. The nanofiber networks were prepared using three different types of cellulose nanofibers: (i) nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), (ii) cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and (iii) bacterial cellulose from nata de coca (NDC). The loading of cellulose nanofibrils in the PMMA varied between 0.25 and 0.5 wt%. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated using a dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA). The flexural modulus of the nanocomposites reinforced with NDC at the 0.5 wt% loading level increased 23% compared to that of pure PMMA. The NFC composite also exhibited a slightly increased flexural strength around 60 MPa while PMMA had a flexural strength of 57 MPa. The addition of NDC increased the storage modulus (11%) compared to neat PMMA at room temperature while the storage modulus of PPMA/CNC nanocomposite containing 0.25 and 0.5 wt% cellulose increased about 46% and 260% to that of the pure PMMA at the glass transition temperature, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that there was no significant change in thermal stability of the composites. The UV-vis transmittance of the CNF nanocomposites decreased by 9% and 27% with the addition of 0.25 wt% CNC and NDC, respectively. This work is intended to spur research and development activity for application of CNF reinforced PMMA nanocomposites in applications such as: packaging, flexible screens, optically transparent films and light-weight transparent materials for ballistic protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Grafted Cellulose Based Adsorbents for Selective Separation Purposes

    Takacs, E; Wojnarovits, L [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-09-15

    The effect of high energy ionizing radiation on cotton-cellulose was studied. It was found that degradation of cellulose started at low doses, below 5 kGy, resulting in decrease in the degree of polymerization. However, the mechanical properties of cotton-cellulose samples only slightly changed with the dose up to 40 kGy. Acrylate type monomers were successfully grafted to cellulose by mutual and by pre-irradiation grafting technique. With both techniques the grafting yield increased with increasing dose and monomer concentration. In the case of pre-irradiation grafting the increase in grafting time also resulted in an increase in grafting percentage. Cotton-cellulose was functionalized using pre-irradiation grafting (PIG) and simultaneous grafting (SG) of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The adsorption properties of this material were further enhanced by {beta}-cyclodextrin (CD) immobilization. This molecule is known for its unique ability to form inclusion complexes among others with aromatic compounds like phenols, pesticide, dyes, etc. (author)

  4. Magnetic poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and cellulose particles for MRI-based cell tracking

    Nkansah, Michael K.; Thakral, Durga; Shapiro, Erik M.

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradable, superparamagnetic micro- and nanoparticles of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and cellulose were designed, fabricated and characterized for magnetic cell labeling. Monodisperse nanocrystals of magnetite were incorporated into micro- and nanoparticles of PLGA and cellulose with high efficiency using an oil-in-water single emulsion technique. Superparamagnetic cores had high magnetization (72.1 emu/g). The resulting polymeric particles had smooth surface morphology and high magnetite content (43.3 wt% for PLGA and 69.6 wt% for cellulose). While PLGA and cellulose nanoparticles displayed highest r2* values per millimole of iron (399 s-1mM-1 for cellulose and 505 s-1mM-1 for PLGA), micron-sized PLGA particles had a much higher r2* per particle than either. After incubation for a month in citrate buffer (pH 5.5), magnetic PLGA particles lost close to 50% of their initial r2* molar relaxivity, while magnetic cellulose particles remained intact, preserving over 85% of their initial r2* molar relaxivity. Lastly, mesenchymal stem cells and human breast adenocarcinoma cells were magnetically labeled using these particles with no detectable cytotoxicity. These particles are ideally suited for non-invasive cell tracking in vivo via MRI and due to their vastly different degradation properties, offer unique potential for dedicated use for either short (PLGA-based particles) or long term (cellulose-based particles) experiments. PMID:21404328

  5. The sonochemical arylation of malonic esters mediated by manganese triacetate.

    Meciarova, M; Toma, S; Luche, J L

    2001-04-01

    The intermolecular arylation of malonate esters in acetic acid solution in the presence of manganese(III) triacetate is known to proceed via an Electron Transfer mechanism. Under sonication, this reaction undergoes only minor changes. In contrast, the intramolecular reaction of dimethyl alpha-(3-phenylpropyl)malonate provides a new case of sonochemical switching, with the formation of compounds 7-9, while conventional thermal conditions generate only the bicyclic compound 6. Reactions using the more powerful oxidant, cerium ammonium nitrate are governed by the formation of the nitrate ester 11. Compounds 7-9 are isolated in yields lower than with MnTA, and in proportions depending on the conditions, thermal or sonochemical.

  6. Native Cellulose Microfiber-Based Hybrid Piezoelectric Generator for Mechanical Energy Harvesting Utility.

    Alam, Md Mehebub; Mandal, Dipankar

    2016-01-27

    A flexible hybrid piezoelectric generator (HPG) based on native cellulose microfiber (NCMF) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as conducting filler is presented where the further chemical treatment of the cellulose and traditional electrical poling steps for piezoelectric voltage generation is avoided. It delivers a high electrical throughput that is an open circuit voltage of ∼30 V and power density ∼9.0 μW/cm(3) under repeated hand punching. We demonstrate to power up various portable electronic units by HPG. Because cellulose is a biocompatible material, suggesting that HPG may have greater potential in biomedical applications such as implantable power source in human body.

  7. Preparation, Characterization, and Cationic Functionalization of Cellulose-Based Aerogels for Wastewater Clarification

    Yang Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerogels are a series of materials with porous structure and light weight which can be applied to many industrial divisions as insulators, sensors, absorbents, and cushions. In this study, cellulose-based aerogels (aerocelluloses were prepared from cellulosic material (microcrystalline cellulose in sodium hydroxide/water solvent system followed by supercritical drying operation. The average specific surface area of aerocelluloses was 124 m2/g. The nitrogen gas (N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms revealed type H1 hysteresis loops for aerocelluloses, suggesting that aerocelluloses may possess a porous structure with cylindrically shaped pores open on both ends. FTIR and XRD analyses showed that the crystallinity of aerocelluloses was significantly decreased as compared to microcrystalline cellulose and that aerocelluloses exhibited a crystalline structure of cellulose II as compared to microcrystalline cellulose (cellulose I. To perform cationic functionalization, a cationic agent, (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride, was used to introduce positively charged sites on aerocelluloses. The cationized aerocelluloses exhibited a strong ability to remove anionic dyes from wastewater. Highly porous and low cost aerocelluloses prepared in this study would be also promising as a fast absorbent for environmental pollutants.

  8. Plasticized Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid) Based Composites Containing Cellulose in Micro- and Nanosize

    Halász, Katalin; Csóka, Levente

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of thermal processed poly(lactic acid) composites. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG400), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and ultrasound-treated microcrystalline cellulose (USMCC) were used in 1, 3, and 5 weight percents to modify the attributes of PLA matrix. The composite films were produced by twin screw extrusion followed by film extrusion. The manufactured PLA-based films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorim...

  9. Characterization of an engineered cellulose based membrane by thiol dendrimer for heavy metals removal

    Algarra, Manuel; Vázquez, María Isabel; Alonso, Beatriz S.; Casado, Carmen Mª.; Casado, Juan; Benavente, Juana

    2014-01-01

    Diaminobutane based poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer functionalized with sixteen thiol groups, DAB-3-(SH)16, was successfully embeded in a swollen cellulosic support in order to achieve an easily handle engineered membrane. The membrane was characterised by physicochemical, electrical and transport measurements, and the effect of the dendrimer was established by comparing these results with those obtained for the original cellulosic support. Results show that dendrimer inclusion improves the me...

  10. Bionanocomposite films based on plasticized PLA-PHB/cellulose nanocrystal blends.

    Arrieta, M P; Fortunati, E; Dominici, F; López, J; Kenny, J M

    2015-05-05

    Optically transparent plasticized poly(lactic acid) (PLA) based bionanocomposite films intended for food packaging were prepared by melt blending. Materials were plasticized with 15wt% of acetyl(tributyl citrate) (ATBC) to improve the material processability and to obtain flexibile films. Poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) was used to increase PLA crystallinity. The thermal stability of the PLA-PHB blends was improved by the addition of 5 wt% of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) or modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) synthesized from microcrystalline cellulose. The combination of ATBC and cellulose nanocrystals, mainly the better dispersed CNCs, improved the interaction between PLA and PHB. Thus, an improvement on the oxygen barrier and stretchability was achieved in PLA-PHB-CNCs-ATBC which also displayed somewhat UV light blocking effect. All bionanocomposite films presented appropriate disintegration in compost suggesting their possible applications as biodegradable packaging materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of actinobacteria agent inoculation methods on cellulose degradation during composting based on redundancy analysis.

    Zhao, Yue; Lu, Qian; Wei, Yuquan; Cui, Hongyang; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xueqin; Shan, Si; Wei, Zimin

    2016-11-01

    In this study, actinobacteria agent including Streptomyces sp. and Micromonospora sp. were inoculated during chicken manure composting by different inoculation methods. The effect of different treatments on cellulose degradation and the relationship between inoculants and indigenous actinobacteria were investigated during composting. The results showed that inoculation in different stages of composting all improved the actinobacteria community diversity particularly in the cooling stage of composting (M3). Moreover, inoculation could distinctly accelerate the degradation of organic matters (OM) especially celluloses. Redundancy analysis indicated that the correlation between indigenous actinobacteria and degradation of OM and cellulose were regulated by inoculants and there were significant differences between different inoculation methods. Furthermore, synergy between indigenous actinobacteria and inoculants for degradation of OM and cellulose in M3 was better than other treatments. Conclusively, we suggested an inoculation method to regulate the indigenous actinobacteria based on the relationship between inoculants and indigenous actinobacteria and degradation content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Semisynthetic cellulose derivatives as the base of hydrophilic gel systems].

    Bajerová, M; Gajdziok, J; Dvorácková, K; Masteiková, R; Kollár, P

    2008-04-01

    The field of drug technology widely ulilizes gel systems of high-molecular substances, which have a number of advantages, such as low toxicity, availability, unique physical properties, biocompatibility, mucoadhesivity, and others. Gel systems are used in the field of local as well as general therapy, in both shape-specific and shape-non-specific dosage forms, in medicaments of the first, second, and third generations. An important group of gels employed in pharmacy are hydrophilic gels or hydrogels, most frequently composed of hydrophilic polymers of natural, semisynthetic and synthetic origin. Though cellulose derivatives as the representatives of polymers of semisynthetic origin are used in pharmaceutical technology for a long time, their research continues and their other possible uses are being searched for. Their advantages include especially safety, easy availability, and a relatively low price. The review paper describes selected cellulose derivatives, their properties and uses in pharmaceutical technology with regard to their use in the field of production of gel systems.

  13. Cellulose-based materials as scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Novotná, Katarína; Havelka, P.; Sopuch, T.; Kolářová, K.; Vosmanská, V.; Lisá, Věra; Švorčík, V.; Bačáková, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2013), s. 2263-2278 ISSN 0969-0239 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1168; GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : polysacharide materials * oxidized cellulose * vascular smooth muscle cells * chitosan Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.033, year: 2013

  14. Construction of cellulose-utilizing Escherichia coli based on a secretable cellulase.

    Gao, Dongfang; Luan, Yaqi; Wang, Qian; Liang, Quanfeng; Qi, Qingsheng

    2015-10-09

    The microbial conversion of plant biomass into value added products is an attractive option to address the impacts of petroleum dependency. The Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is commonly used as host for the industrial production of various chemical products with a variety of sugars as carbon sources. However, this strain neither produces endogenous cellulose degradation enzymes nor secrets heterologous cellulases for its poor secretory capacity. Thus, a cellulolytic E. coli strain capable of growth on plant biomass would be the first step towards producing chemicals and fuels. We previously identified the catalytic domain of a cellulase (Cel-CD) and its N-terminal sequence (N20) that can serve as carriers for the efficient extracellular production of target enzymes. This finding suggested that cellulose-utilizing E. coli can be engineered with minimal heterologous enzymes. In this study, a β-glucosidase (Tfu0937) was fused to Cel-CD and its N-terminal sequence respectively to obtain E. coli strains that were able to hydrolyze the cellulose. Recombinant strains were confirmed to use the amorphous cellulose as well as cellobiose as the sole carbon source for growth. Furthermore, both strains were engineered with poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis pathway to demonstrate the production of biodegradable polyesters directly from cellulose materials without exogenously added cellulases. The yield of PHB reached 2.57-8.23 wt% content of cell dry weight directly from amorphous cellulose/cellobiose. Moreover, we found the Cel-CD and N20 secretion system can also be used for the extracellular production of other hydrolytic enzymes. This study suggested that a cellulose-utilizing E. coli was created based on a heterologous cellulase secretion system and can be used to produce biofuels and biochemicals directly from cellulose. This system also offers a platform for conversion of other abundant renewable biomass to biofuels and biorefinery products.

  15. From Cellulosic Based Liquid Crystalline Sheared Solutions to 1D and 2D Soft Materials

    Maria Helena Godinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystalline cellulosic-based solutions described by distinctive properties are at the origin of different kinds of multifunctional materials with unique characteristics. These solutions can form chiral nematic phases at rest, with tuneable photonic behavior, and exhibit a complex behavior associated with the onset of a network of director field defects under shear. Techniques, such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Rheology coupled with NMR (Rheo-NMR, rheology, optical methods, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Wide Angle X-rays Scattering (WAXS, were extensively used to enlighten the liquid crystalline characteristics of these cellulosic solutions. Cellulosic films produced by shear casting and fibers by electrospinning, from these liquid crystalline solutions, have regained wider attention due to recognition of their innovative properties associated to their biocompatibility. Electrospun membranes composed by helical and spiral shape fibers allow the achievement of large surface areas, leading to the improvement of the performance of this kind of systems. The moisture response, light modulated, wettability and the capability of orienting protein and cellulose crystals, opened a wide range of new applications to the shear casted films. Characterization by NMR, X-rays, tensile tests, AFM, and optical methods allowed detailed characterization of those soft cellulosic materials. In this work, special attention will be given to recent developments, including, among others, a moisture driven cellulosic motor and electro-optical devices.

  16. Flammability of Cellulose-Based Fibers and the Effect of Structure of Phosphorus Compounds on Their Flame Retardancy

    Khalifah A. Salmeia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fibers are promoted for use in various textile applications due their sustainable nature. Cellulose-based fibers vary considerably in their mechanical and flammability properties depending on their chemical composition. The chemical composition of a cellulose-based fiber is further dependent on their source (i.e., seed, leaf, cane, fruit, wood, bast, and grass. Being organic in nature, cellulose fibers, and their products thereof, pose considerable fire risk. In this work we have compared the flammability properties of cellulose fibers obtained from two different sources (i.e., cotton and peat. Compared to cotton cellulose textiles, peat-based cellulose textiles burn longer with a prominent afterglow which can be attributed to the presence of lignin in its structure. A series of phosphoramidates were synthesized and applied on both cellulose textiles. From thermogravimetric and pyrolysis combustion flow analysis of the treated cellulose, we were able to relate the flame retardant efficacy of the synthesized phosphorus compounds to their chemical structure. The phosphoramidates with methyl phosphoester groups exhibited higher condensed phase flame retardant effects on both types of cellulose textiles investigated in this study. In addition, the bis-phosphoramidates exhibited higher flame retardant efficacy compared to the mono-phosphoramidates.

  17. “Smart” Materials Based on Cellulose: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications

    Qiu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Shuwen

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature, and possesses some promising properties, such as mechanical robustness, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Thus, cellulose has been widely applied in many fields. “Smart” materials based on cellulose have great advantages—especially their intelligent behaviors in reaction to environmental stimuli—and they can be applied to many circumstances, especially as biomaterials. This review aims to present the developments of “smart” materials based on cellulose in the last decade, including the preparations, properties, and applications of these materials. The preparations of “smart” materials based on cellulose by chemical modifications and physical incorporating/blending were reviewed. The responsiveness to pH, temperature, light, electricity, magnetic fields, and mechanical forces, etc. of these “smart” materials in their different forms such as copolymers, nanoparticles, gels, and membranes were also reviewed, and the applications as drug delivery systems, hydrogels, electronic active papers, sensors, shape memory materials and smart membranes, etc. were also described in this review. PMID:28809338

  18. “Smart” Materials Based on Cellulose: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications

    Shuwen Hu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature, and possesses some promising properties, such as mechanical robustness, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Thus, cellulose has been widely applied in many fields. “Smart” materials based on cellulose have great advantages—especially their intelligent behaviors in reaction to environmental stimuli—and they can be applied to many circumstances, especially as biomaterials. This review aims to present the developments of “smart” materials based on cellulose in the last decade, including the preparations, properties, and applications of these materials. The preparations of “smart” materials based on cellulose by chemical modifications and physical incorporating/blending were reviewed. The responsiveness to pH, temperature, light, electricity, magnetic fields, and mechanical forces, etc. of these “smart” materials in their different forms such as copolymers, nanoparticles, gels, and membranes were also reviewed, and the applications as drug delivery systems, hydrogels, electronic active papers, sensors, shape memory materials and smart membranes, etc. were also described in this review.

  19. Formulation and Physical Characterization of Microemulsions Based Carboxymethyl Cellulose as Vitamin C Carrier

    Suria Ramli; Safiah Mohd Jaafar; Muhd Asri Abd Sisak; Norhidayu Zainuddin; Irman Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to develop a cellulose derivative based microemulsion for transdermal delivery system. In this research, cellulose derivative used is carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) that was converted from cellulose by etherification reaction and analysed by FTIR instrument. The degree of substitution (DS) for carboxymethyl cellulose is 0.492. Microemulsion system consists of oleic acid as oil phase, Tween 20 as surfactant and propylene glycol as co-surfactant. The active ingredient used in this system is vitamin C. Determination of microemulsion area in the ternary phase diagram was done by titration method. From the result, microemulsion system with surfactant/co-surfactant ratio (K m =3:1) produced the largest surface area in the ternary phase diagram. Microemulsions with and without vitamin C and CMC were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), electrical conductivity and rheometer. For size particle analysis, system without vitamin C and CMC have microemulsion droplet size between 20-200 nm. Based on the electrical conductivity and viscosity test, phase transition occurred in the microemulsion system from water-in-oil (w/o) to bicontinuous phase at 20 wt. % water percentage. The stability test showed microemulsion systems with the percentage of water up to 30 wt. % were stable at temperatures 4, 25 and 40 degree Celsius upon three weeks storage. (author)

  20. Suite of Activity-Based Probes for Cellulose-Degrading Enzymes

    Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Weaver, Holly M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Koech, Phillip K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-12-19

    Microbial glycoside hydrolases play a dominant role in the biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to high-value biofuels. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are capable of producing multicomplex catalytic subunits containing cell-adherent cellulases, hemicellulases, xylanases, and other glycoside hydrolases to facilitate the degradation of highly recalcitrant cellulose and other related plant cell wall polysaccharides. Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulosome producing bacterium that couples rapid reproduction rates to highly efficient degradation of crystalline cellulose. Herein, we have developed and applied a suite of difluoromethylphenyl aglycone, N-halogenated glycosylamine, and 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglycoside activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes to the direct labeling of the C. thermocellum cellulosomal secretome. These activity-based probes (ABPs) were synthesized with alkynes to harness the utility and multimodal possibilities of click chemistry, and to increase enzyme active site inclusion for LC-MS analysis. We directly analyzed ABP-labeled and unlabeled global MS data, revealing ABP selectivity for glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes in addition to a large collection of integral cellulosome-containing proteins. By identifying reactivity and selectivity profiles for each ABP, we demonstrate our ability to widely profile the functional cellulose degrading machinery of the bacterium. Derivatization of the ABPs, including reactive groups, acetylation of the glycoside binding groups, and mono- and disaccharide binding groups, resulted in considerable variability in protein labeling. Our probe suite is applicable to aerobic and anaerobic cellulose degrading systems, and facilitates a greater understanding of the organismal role associated within biofuel development.

  1. Autohydrolysis processing as an alternative to enhance cellulose solubility and preparation of its regenerated bio-based materials

    Gan, Sinyee, E-mail: gansinyee@hotmail.com; Zakaria, Sarani, E-mail: szakaria@ukm.edu.my; Chen, Ruey Shan; Chia, Chin Hua; Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad; Moosavi, Seyedehmaryam

    2017-05-01

    Kenaf core pulp has been successfully autohydrolysed using an autoclave heated in oil bath at various reaction temperature at 100, 120 and 140 °C. Membranes, hydrogels and aerogels were then prepared from autohydrolysed kenaf in urea/alkaline medium by casting on the glass plate, by using epichlorohydrin (ECH) as cross-linker via stirring and freeze-drying method, respectively. The autohydrolysis process reduced the molecular weight of cellulose and enhanced cellulose solubility and viscosity. Structure and properties of the regenerated products were measured with Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectrophotometer and swelling testing. As the autohydrolysis temperature increased, the porosity of cellulose membranes (as seen from the morphology) increased. The autohydrolysis process improved the swelling porperties and transparency of regenerated cellulose hydrogels. This finding is expected to be useful in reducing molecular weight of cellulose in order to produce regenerated bio-based cellulose materials. - Highlights: • Autohydrolysis temperature is negatively correlated to cellulose molecular weight. • Cellulose solubility and viscosity are improved after cellulose pretreatment. • Autohydrolysis improved the properties of regenerated cellulose materials.

  2. Proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs on cellulose-based hydrogels.

    Raucci, Maria Grazia; Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio; Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study the proliferation and differentiation of human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) onto a cellulose-based hydrogel for bone tissue engineering. Modified-cellulose hydrogel was prepared via double esterification crosslinking using citric acid. The response of human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation into osteoblastic phenotype was evaluated by using Alamar blue assay and Alkaline phosphatase activity. The results showed that CMCNa and CMCNa_CA have no negative effect on hMSC, adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the increase of the ALP expression for CMCNa_CA confirms the ability of the hydrogels to support the osteoblastic differentiation. The cellulose-based hydrogels have a potential application as filler in bone tissue regeneration.

  3. Lactate Biosensor Based on Cellulose Acetate Membrane Bound Lactate Oxidase

    Suman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactate biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing lactate oxidase in cellulose acetate membrane and by mounting over the sensing part of Pt electrode (working and connected to Ag/AgCl electrode (reference along with auxillary electrode through potentiostat. The enzyme electrode was anodically polarized at +400 mV to generate electrons from H2O2, which was formed from oxidation of serum lactate by immobilized lactate oxidase. The minimum detection limit of the electrode was 0.1mmoles/L and sensitivity of the sensor was 0.008 mA/mM/L lactate. Assay coefficients of variation were < 2% .A good correlation (r=0.99 was found between lactate values obtained by colorimetric method and lactate biosensor. The self-life of the biosensor was 18 days at 4ºC and enzyme electrode can be re-used 150 times without any significant loss in enzyme activity.

  4. High-performance green flexible electronics based on biodegradable cellulose nanofibril paper.

    Jung, Yei Hwan; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Zhang, Huilong; Yao, Chunhua; Zheng, Qifeng; Yang, Vina W; Mi, Hongyi; Kim, Munho; Cho, Sang June; Park, Dong-Wook; Jiang, Hao; Lee, Juhwan; Qiu, Yijie; Zhou, Weidong; Cai, Zhiyong; Gong, Shaoqin; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2015-05-26

    Today's consumer electronics, such as cell phones, tablets and other portable electronic devices, are typically made of non-renewable, non-biodegradable, and sometimes potentially toxic (for example, gallium arsenide) materials. These consumer electronics are frequently upgraded or discarded, leading to serious environmental contamination. Thus, electronic systems consisting of renewable and biodegradable materials and minimal amount of potentially toxic materials are desirable. Here we report high-performance flexible microwave and digital electronics that consume the smallest amount of potentially toxic materials on biobased, biodegradable and flexible cellulose nanofibril papers. Furthermore, we demonstrate gallium arsenide microwave devices, the consumer wireless workhorse, in a transferrable thin-film form. Successful fabrication of key electrical components on the flexible cellulose nanofibril paper with comparable performance to their rigid counterparts and clear demonstration of fungal biodegradation of the cellulose-nanofibril-based electronics suggest that it is feasible to fabricate high-performance flexible electronics using ecofriendly materials.

  5. Biopolymer Electrolyte Based on Derivatives of Cellulose from Kenaf Bast Fiber

    Mohd Saiful Asmal Rani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cellulose derivative, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, was synthesized by the reaction of cellulose from kenaf bast fiber with monochloroacetic acid. A series of biopolymer electrolytes comprised of the synthesized CMC and ammonium acetate (CH3COONH4 were prepared by the solution-casting technique. The biopolymer-based electrolyte films were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to investigate the formation of the CMC–CH3COONH4 complexes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was conducted to obtain their ionic conductivities. The highest conductivity at ambient temperature of 5.77 × 10−4 S cm−1 was obtained for the electrolyte film containing 20 wt% of CH3COONH4. The biopolymer electrolyte film also exhibited electrochemical stability up to 2.5 V. These results indicated that the biopolymer electrolyte has great potential for applications to electrochemical devices, such as proton batteries and solar cells.

  6. Plasticized Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid Based Composites Containing Cellulose in Micro- and Nanosize

    Katalin Halász

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of thermal processed poly(lactic acid composites. Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG400, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, and ultrasound-treated microcrystalline cellulose (USMCC were used in 1, 3, and 5 weight percents to modify the attributes of PLA matrix. The composite films were produced by twin screw extrusion followed by film extrusion. The manufactured PLA-based films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, and degradation test.

  7. Facile Fabrication of 100% Bio-based and Degradable Ternary Cellulose/PHBV/PLA Composites

    Tao Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Modifying bio-based degradable polymers such as polylactide (PLA and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV with non-degradable agents will compromise the 100% degradability of their resultant composites. This work developed a facile and solvent-free route in order to fabricate 100% bio-based and degradable ternary cellulose/PHBV/PLA composite materials. The effects of ball milling on the physicochemical properties of pulp cellulose fibers, and the ball-milled cellulose particles on the morphology and mechanical properties of PHBV/PLA blends, were investigated experimentally and statistically. The results showed that more ball-milling time resulted in a smaller particle size and lower crystallinity by way of mechanical disintegration. Filling PHBV/PLA blends with the ball-milled celluloses dramatically increased the stiffness at all of the levels of particle size and filling content, and improved their elongation at the break and fracture work at certain levels of particle size and filling content. It was also found that the high filling content of the ball-milled cellulose particles was detrimental to the mechanical properties for the resultant composite materials. The ternary cellulose/PHBV/PLA composite materials have some potential applications, such as in packaging materials and automobile inner decoration parts. Furthermore, filling content contributes more to the variations of their mechanical properties than particle size does. Statistical analysis combined with experimental tests provide a new pathway to quantitatively evaluate the effects of multiple variables on a specific property, and figure out the dominant one for the resultant composite materials.

  8. EB and EUV lithography using inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto; Oshima, Akihiro; Kashiwakura, Miki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2016-03-01

    The validity of our approach of inedible cellulose-based resist material derived from woody biomass has been confirmed experimentally for the use of pure water in organic solvent-free water spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide(TMAH)-free water-developable techniques of eco-conscious electron beam (EB) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The water developable, non-chemically amplified, high sensitive, and negative tone resist material in EB and EUV lithography was developed for environmental affair, safety, easiness of handling, and health of the working people. The inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material was developed by replacing the hydroxyl groups in the beta-linked disaccharides with EB and EUV sensitive groups. The 50-100 nm line and space width, and little footing profiles of cellulose-based biomass resist material on hardmask and layer were resolved at the doses of 10-30 μC/cm2. The eco-conscious lithography techniques was referred to as green EB and EUV lithography using inedible cellulose-based biomass resist material.

  9. LUBRICANT SENSITIVITY IN RELATION TO BULK-DENSITY FOR GRANULATIONS BASED ON STARCH OR CELLULOSE

    BOS, CE; VROMANS, H; LERK, CF

    1991-01-01

    The study described in this paper was concerned with the susceptibility to lubrication with magnesium stearate of tablets compressed from granulations based on native starches or on modified celluloses. Different properties of the granulations, like particle size, flowability and surface area, were

  10. Optimization of some electrochemical etching parameters for cellulose derivatives

    Chowdhury, Annis; Gammage, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Electrochemical etching of fast neutron induced recoil particle tracks in cellulose derivatives and other polymers provides an inexpensive and sensitive means of fast neutron personnel dosimetry. A study of the shape, clarity, and size of the tracks in Transilwrap polycarbonate indicated that the optimum normality of the potassium hydroxide etching solution is 9 N. Optimizations have also been attempted for cellulose nitrate, triacetate, and acetobutyrate with respect to such electrochemical etching parameters as frequency, voltage gradient, and concentration of the etching solution. The measurement of differential leakage currents between the undamaged and the neutron damaged foils aided in the selection of optimum frequencies. (author)

  11. A Nanocellulose Polypyrrole Composite Based on Tunicate Cellulose

    Dawei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-dispersed conductive polypyrrole (PPy was prepared via the in situ oxidative chemical polymerization by using ammonium persulfate (APS as oxidant and tunicate cellulose nanocrystals (T-CNs as a dopant and template for tuning the morphologies of PPy nanoparticles. Highly flexible paper-like materials of PPy/T-CNs nanocomposites with high electrical conductivity values and good mechanical properties were prepared. The structure of nanocomposites of PPy/T-CNs was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses of the composites revealed that PPy consisted of nanoparticles about 2.5 nm in mean size to form a continuous coating covered on the T-CNs. The diameters of the PPy nanoparticles increased from 10 to 100 nm with the increasing pyrrole amount. Moreover, electrical properties of the obtained PPy/T-CNs films were studied using standard four-probe technique and the electrical conductivity could be as high as 10−3 S/cm.

  12. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO 2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

  13. Novel spider-web-like nanoporous networks based on jute cellulose nanowhiskers.

    Cao, Xinwang; Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Sun, Gang

    2013-02-15

    Cellulose nanowhiskers as a kind of renewable and biocompatible nanomaterials evoke much interest because of its versatility in various applications. Herein, for the first time, a novel controllable fabrication of spider-web-like nanoporous networks based on jute cellulose nanowhiskers (JCNs) deposited on the electrospun (ES) nanofibrous membrane by simple directly immersion-drying method is reported. Jute cellulose nanowhiskers were extracted from jute fibers with a high yield (over 80%) via a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)/NaBr/NaClO system selective oxidization combined with mechanical homogenization. The morphology of JCNs nanoporous networks/ES nanofibrous membrane architecture, including coverage rate, pore-width and layer-by-layer packing structure of the nanoporous networks, can be finely controlled by regulating the JCNs dispersions properties and drying conditions. The versatile nanoporous network composites based on jute cellulose nanowhiskers with ultrathin diameters (3-10 nm) and nanofibrous membrane supports with diameters of 100-300 nm, would be particularly useful for filter applications. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-05-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength).

  15. Novel route of synthesis for cellulose fiber-based hybrid polyurethane

    Ikhwan, F. H.; Ilmiati, S.; Kurnia Adi, H.; Arumsari, R.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    Polyurethanes, obtained by the reaction of a diisocyanate compound with bifunctional or multifunctional reagent such as diols or polyols, have been studied intensively and well developed. The wide range modifier such as chemical structures and molecular weight to build polyurethanes led to designs of materials that may easily meet the functional product demand and to the extraordinary spreading of these materials in market. Properties of the obtained polymer are related to the chemical structure of polyurethane backbone. A number polyurethanes prepared from biomass-based monomers have been reported. Cellulose fiber, as a biomass material is containing abundant hydroxyl, promising material as chain extender for building hybrid polyurethanes. In previous researches, cellulose fiber was used as filler in synthesis of polyurethane composites. This paper reported a novel route of hybrid polyurethane synthesis, which a cellulose fiber was used as chain extender. The experiment performed by reacting 4,4’-Methylenebis (cyclohexyl isocyanate) (HMDI) and polyethylene glycol with variation of molecular weight to obtained pre-polyurethane, continued by adding micro fiber cellulose (MFC) with variation of type and composition in the mixture. The experiment was evaluated by NMR, FTIR, SEM and STA measurement. NMR and FTIR confirmed the reaction of the hybrid polyurethane. STA showed hybrid polyurethane has good thermal stability. SEM showed good distribution and dispersion of sorghum-based MFC.

  16. DMC-grafted cellulose as green-based flocculants for agglomerating fine kaolin particles

    Meng Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel cellulose based flocculants C-g-P (DMC with various chain architectures are synthesized through a situ graft copolymerization. The cationic ammonium chloride group (DMC is grafted onto cellulose by two separate inverse emulsion polymerization with γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570 and double bond addition reactions, which is a new and simple method to employ KH-570 as a bridge for the connection of cellulose matrix and DMC group. The effects of pH, flocculant dose, standing time on turbidity of kaolin suspensions and particle sizes have been studied systematically. In addition, the response surface methodology (RSM study confirms that PAC and C-g-P (DMC have synergy in turbidity removal with a higher removal efficiency of 98.32%. Moreover, C-g-P (DMC 1 has higher removal efficiency with 96.5% at a low dosage of 0.6 mg L−1 and better floc properties than C-g-P (DMC 2 and C-g-P (DMC 3, suggesting that the length and quantity of cationic branch chains play a crucial role in Kaolin flocculation due to their dramatically enhanced bridging effects. Keywords: Cellulose, Cationic flocculant, Inverse emulsion polymerization, Kaolin suspension

  17. Direct enantioseparation of nitrogen-heterocyclic pesticides on cellulose-based chiral column by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Chai, Tingting; Yang, Wenwen; Qiu, Jing; Hou, Shicong

    2015-01-01

    The enantiomeric separation of eight pesticides including bitertanol (), diclobutrazol (), fenbuconazole (), triticonazole (), imazalil (), triapenthenol (), ancymidol (), and carfentrazone-ethyl () was achieved, using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on two cellulosed-based chiral columns. The effects of isopropanol composition from 2% to 30% in the mobile phase and column temperature from 5 to 40 °C were investigated. Satisfactory resolutions were obtained for bitertanol (), triticonazole (), imazalil () with the (+)-enantiomer eluted first and fenbuconazole () with the (-)-enantiomer eluted first on Lux Cellulose-2 and Lux Cellulose-3. (+)-Enantiomers of diclobutrazol () and triapenthenol () were first eluted on Lux Cellulose-2. (-)-Carfentrazone-ethyl () were eluted first on Lux Cellulose-2 and Lux Cellulose-3 with incomplete separation. Reversed elution orders were obtained for ancymidol (7). (+)-Ancymidol was first eluted on Lux Cellulose-2 while on Lux Cellulose-3 (-)-ancymidol was first eluted. The results of the elution order at different column temperatures suggested that column temperature did not affect the optical signals of the enantiomers. These results will be helpful to prepare and analyze individual enantiomers of chiral pesticides. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cellulose-based graft copolymers prepared by simplified electrochemically mediated ATRP

    P. Chmielarz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brush-shaped block copolymer with a dual hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid-block-poly(oligo(ethylene glycol acrylate (PAA-b-POEGA arms was synthesized for the first time via a simplified electrochemically mediated ATRP (seATRP under both constant potential electrolysis and constant current electrolysis conditions, utilizing only 30 ppm of catalyst complex. The polymerization conditions were optimized to provide fast reactions while employing low catalyst concentrations and preparation of cellulose-based brush-like copolymers with narrow molecular weight distributions. The results from proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectral studies support the formation of cellulose-based graft (copolymers. It is expected that these new polymer brushes may find application as pH- and thermo-sensitive drug delivery systems.

  19. Cellulose acetate-based molecularly imprinted polymeric membrane for separation of vanillin and o-vanillin

    Zhang,Chunjing; Zhong,Shian; Yang,Zhengpeng

    2008-01-01

    Cellulose acetate-based molecularly imprinted polymeric membranes were prepared using vanillin as template molecule. The microscopic structure of the resultant polymeric membranes was characterized by SEM and FTIR spectroscopy, and the selective binding properties and separation capacity of the membranes for vanillin and o-vanillin were tested with binding experiments and separate experiments, respectively. The results showed that the vanillin-imprinted polymeric membranes displayed higher bi...

  20. Humidity Responsive Photonic Sensor based on a Carboxymethyl Cellulose Mechanical Actuator

    Hartings, Matthew; Douglass, Kevin O.; Neice, Claire; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2017-01-01

    We describe an intuitive and simple method for exploiting humidity-driven volume changes in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to fabricate a humidity responsive actuator on a glass fiber substrate. We optimize this platform to generate a photonic-based humidity sensor where CMC coated on a fiber optic containing a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) actuates a mechanical strain in response to humidity changes. The humidity-driven mechanical deformation of the FBG results in a large lin...

  1. Fabrication and investigation of a biocompatible microfilament with high mechanical performance based on regenerated bacterial cellulose and bacterial cellulose.

    Wu, Huan-Ling; Bremner, David H; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wu, Jun-Zi; Li, He-Yu; Wu, Jian-Rong; Niu, Shi-Wei; Zhu, Li-Min

    2017-10-01

    A high-strength regenerated bacterial cellulose (RBC)/bacterial cellulose (BC) microfilament of potential use as a biomaterial was successfully prepared via a wet spinning process. The BC not only consists of a 3-D network composed of nanofibers with a diameter of several hundred nanometers but also has a secondary structure consisting of highly oriented nanofibrils with a diameter ranging from a few nanometers to tens of nanometers which explains the reason for the high mechanical strength of BC. Furthermore, a strategy of partially dissolving BC was used and this greatly enhanced the mechanical performance of spun filament and a method called post-treatment was utilized to remove residual solvents from the RBC/BC filaments. A comparison of structure, properties, as well as cytocompatibility between BC nanofibers and RBC/BC microfilaments was achieved using morphology, mechanical properties, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay. The RBC/BC microfilament has a uniform groove structure with a diameter of 50-60μm and XRD indicated that the crystal form was transformed from cellulose Iα to cellulose III I and the degree of crystallinity of RBC/BC (33.22%) was much lower than the original BC (60.29%). The enzymatic hydrolysis assay proved that the RBC/BC material was more easily degraded than BC. ICP detection indicated that the residual amount of lithium was 0.07mg/g (w/w) and GC-MS analysis showed the residual amount of DMAc to be 8.51μg/g (w/w) demonstrating that the post-treatment process is necessary and effective for removal of residual materials from the RBC/BC microfilaments. Also, a cell viability assay demonstrated that after post-treatment the RBC/BC filaments had good cytocompatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Dimethyl Carbonate Plasticizer on Ionic Conductivity of Methyl Cellulose-Based Polymer Electrolytes

    Mustafa, M.F.; Ridwan, N.I.M.; Hatta, F.F.; Yahya, M.Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Influences of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) plasticizer on ionic conductivity, dielectric permittivity and electrical modulus formalism of methyl cellulose (MC)-based polymer electrolytes have been studied. The room temperature electrical conductivity as measured by impedance spectroscopy shows that a methyl cellulose film has a conductivity of ∼10 -10 S cm -1 . In this study, other than KOH ionic dopant, DMC plasticizer is also added to the polymer with the aim of enhancing the electrical conductivity of the polymer. The highest room temperature conductivity of the plasticised sample is ∼10 -5 S cm -1 . The plot of log σ versus 10 3 / T for the highest conducting sample obeys Arrhenius rule indicating that the conductivity occurs by thermally activated mechanism. (author)

  3. Synthesis of flexible magnetic nanohybrid based on bacterial cellulose under ultrasonic irradiation

    Zheng, Yi; Yang, Jingxuan; Zheng, Weili; Wang, Xiao; Xiang, Cao; Tang, Lian; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Shiyan; Wang, Huaping

    2013-01-01

    Flexible magnetic membrane based on bacterial cellulose (BC) was successfully prepared by in-situ synthesis of the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles under different conditions and its properties were characterized. The results demonstrated that the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles coated with PEG were well homogeneously dispersed in the BC matrix under ultrasonic irradiation with the saturation magnetization of 40.58 emu/g. Besides that, the membranes exhibited the striking flexibility and mechanical properties. This study provided a green and facile method to inhibit magnetic nanoparticle aggregation without compromising the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. Magnetically responsive BC membrane would have potential applications in electronic actuators, information storage, electromagnetic shielding coating and anti-counterfeit. - Highlights: ► Flexible magnetic film is prepared by in situ synthesis on bacterial cellulose. ► Ultrasound and PEG are used together to inhibit the nanoparticle aggregation. ► The magnetic membrane demonstrates the great superparamagnetic behavior

  4. Biodegradable Composite Films based on κ-carrageenan Reinforced by Cellulose Nanocrystal from Kenaf Fibers

    Siti Zarina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Through alkali treatment, bleaching, and sulfuric acid hydrolysis, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs were prepared from kenaf fibers and were used as reinforcement materials in biocomposites based on κ-carrageenan. Biocomposites in the form of films were prepared by solution casting of a mixture of κ-carrageenan, glycerol, and various amounts of CNCs (0 to 8 wt%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR revealed that alkali treatment followed by bleaching totally removed lignin and hemicellulose from the kenaf. Morphological analysis of the fibers, cellulose, and κ-carrageenan of biocomposite films were carried out using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The effects of filler content on the mechanical and thermal stability of the k-carrageenan biocomposite films were analyzed through tensile strength measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. At an optimum CNC content of 4%, the κ-carrageenan biocomposite films showed good dispersion, superior mechanical properties, and improved thermal stability.

  5. Electrode effects of a cellulose-based electro-active paper energy harvester

    Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Zhai, Lindong; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of cellulose-based electro-active paper (EAPap) as a vibrational energy transducer was investigated in this paper. Thin cellulose EAPap film specimens were prepared by the regenerating process. Three different metal electrodes of gold, silver and aluminum were deposited on a 50 × 50 mm 2 cellulose film using a thermal evaporator. An aluminum cantilever beam was used as a vibrational bender and EAPap was attached close to the root of the cantilever beam. The voltage output of the EAPap was measured under harmonic base excitation of the cantilever beam. The EAPap with aluminum electrode provided the largest open circuit voltage output compared to those with gold or silver electrodes. The output voltages of the EAPap increased linearly with increase of the area of the electrodes. The output voltages also increased with increasing input acceleration but became saturated at a certain magnitude. From the experimental results, we conclude that EAPap with metal electrodes can be used as a flexible energy harvesting transducer by external mechanical stress, and the output voltage is related to the electrode material due to its work function. (paper)

  6. Tunable d-Limonene Permeability in Starch-Based Nanocomposite Films Reinforced by Cellulose Nanocrystals.

    Liu, Siyuan; Li, Xiaoxi; Chen, Ling; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Zhu, Jie

    2018-01-31

    In order to control d-limonene permeability, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were used to regulate starch-based film multiscale structures. The effect of sphere-like cellulose nanocrystal (CS) and rod-like cellulose nanocrystal (CR) on starch molecular interaction, short-range molecular conformation, crystalline structure, and micro-ordered aggregated region structure were systematically discussed. CNC aspect ratio and content were proved to be independent variables to control d-limonene permeability via film-structure regulation. New hydrogen bonding formation and increased hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) relative crystallinity could be the reason for the lower d-limonene permeability compared with tortuous path model approximation. More hydrogen bonding formation, higher HPS relative crystallinity and larger size of micro-ordered aggregated region in CS0.5 and CR2 could explain the lower d-limonene permeability than CS2 and CR0.5, respectively. This study provided new insight for the control of the flavor release from starch-based films, which favored its application in biodegradable food packaging and flavor encapsulation.

  7. The ability of retention, drug release and rheological properties of nanogel bioadhesives based on cellulose derivatives.

    Keshavarz, M; Kaffashi, B

    2014-12-01

    The rheological and drug release behavior of biopolymer nanocomposite gels based on the cellulose derivatives, formulated as the bioadhesive drug delivery platforms, were investigated. The bioadhesive gel is composed of the microcrystalline cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and phosphate buffered saline (pH = 7.4 at 20 °C) as the dissolution and release medium. The reinforcing nanofillers such as MMT-clay, fumed porous silica and porous starch were used as additives in the nanogel bioadhesive. The constant steady state viscosities of this nanogels upon incorporation of various nanofillers into the systems is the sign of structural stability. Hence, this system is suitable for use in the controlled drug delivery systems in contact with the biological tissues. Based on the rheological measurements, the shear flow properties (i.e. zero shear viscosity and yield stress) were influenced by the concentration of polymers and nanoparticles. The results indicate that the nonlinear rheological data are fitted properly by the Giesekus model. Furthermore, the results showed that the nonlinear viscoelastic parameters (λ and α) are highly affected by the biogel and nanoparticles concentrations. Finally, the drug release was measured, and the results indicated that the biopolymer-clay nanocomposites have appropriate release pattern as the release is better controlled compared to the other nanogel formulations.

  8. Aspergillus oryzae-based cell factory for direct kojic acid production from cellulose.

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Yoshie, Toshihide; Wakai, Satoshi; Asai-Nakashima, Nanami; Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Ogino, Chiaki; Hisada, Hiromoto; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-05-18

    Kojic acid (5-Hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-pyrone) is one of the major secondary metabolites in Aspergillus oryzae. It is widely used in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The production cost, however, is too high for its use in many applications. Thus, an efficient and cost-effective kojic acid production process would be valuable. However, little is known about the complete set of genes for kojic acid production. Currently, kojic acid is produced from glucose. The efficient production of kojic acid using cellulose as an inexpensive substrate would help establish cost-effective kojic acid production. A kojic acid transcription factor gene over-expressing the A. oryzae strain was constructed. Three genes related to kojic acid production in this strain were transcribed in higher amounts than those found in the wild-type strain. This strain produced 26.4 g/L kojic acid from 80 g/L glucose. Furthermore, this strain was transformed with plasmid harboring 3 cellulase genes. The resultant A. oryzae strain successfully produced 0.18 g/L of kojic acid in 6 days of fermentation from the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose. Kojic acid was produced directly from cellulose material using genetically engineered A. oryzae. Because A. oryzae has efficient protein secretion ability and secondary metabolite productivity, an A. oryzae-based cell factory could be a platform for the production of various kinds of bio-based chemicals.

  9. Biomimetic Inks Based on Cellulose Nanofibrils and Cross-Linkable Xylans for 3D Printing.

    Markstedt, Kajsa; Escalante, Alfredo; Toriz, Guillermo; Gatenholm, Paul

    2017-11-22

    This paper presents a sustainable all-wood-based ink which can be used for 3D printing of constructs for a large variety of applications such as clothes, furniture, electronics, and health care products with a customized design and versatile gel properties. The 3D printing technologies where the material is dispensed in the form of liquids, so called inks, have proven suitable for 3D printing dispersions of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) because of their unique shear thinning properties. In this study, novel inks were developed with a biomimetic approach where the structural properties of cellulose and the cross-linking function of hemicelluloses that are found in the plant cell wall were utilized. The CNF was mixed with xylan, a hemicellulose extracted from spruce, to introduce cross-linking properties which are essential for the final stability of the printed ink. For xylan to be cross-linkable, it was functionalized with tyramine at different degrees. Evaluation of different ink compositions by rheology measurements and 3D printing tests showed that the degree of tyramine substitution and the ratio of CNFs to xylan-tyramine in the prepared inks influenced the printability and cross-linking density. Both two-layered gridded structures and more complex 3D constructs were printed. Similarly to conventional composites, the interactions between the components and their miscibility are important for the stability of the printed and cross-linked ink. Thus, the influence of tyramine on the adsorption of xylan to cellulose was studied with a quartz crystal microbalance to verify that the functionalization had little influence on xylan's adsorption to cellulose. Utilizing xylan-tyramine in the CNF dispersions resulted in all-wood-based inks which after 3D printing can be cross-linked to form freestanding gels while at the same time, the excellent printing properties of CNFs remain intact.

  10. Formulation and release of alaptide from cellulose-based hydrogels

    Zbyněk Sklenář

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern drug alaptide, synthetic dipeptide, shows regenerative effects and effects on the epitelisation process. A commercial product consisting of 1% alaptide hydrophilic cream is authorised for use in veterinary practice. This study focuses on the formulation of alaptide into semi-synthetic polymer-based hydrogels. The aim of the present study is to prepare hydrogels and to evaluate the liberation of alaptide from hydrogels. The hydrogels were prepared on the basis of three gel-producing substances: methylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose and hydroxypropylcellulose. To enhance the drug release from hydrogel humectants, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol in various concentrations were evaluated. The permeation of the alaptide from gels into the acceptor solution was evaluated with the use of the permeable membrane neprophane. The amount of drug released from prepared hydrogels was determined spectrophotometrically. Hydrogels with optimal alaptide liberation properties were subjected to the study of rheological properties in the next phase. The optimal composition of hydrogel as established in this study was 1% alaptide + 3% hydroxyethylcellulose with the addition of 10% glycerol as humectant. Due to the advantageous properties of hydrogels in wounds, alaptide could be incorporated into a hydrogel base for use in veterinary medicine.

  11. Multi-scale cellulose based new bio-aerogel composites with thermal super-insulating and tunable mechanical properties.

    Seantier, Bastien; Bendahou, Dounia; Bendahou, Abdelkader; Grohens, Yves; Kaddami, Hamid

    2016-03-15

    Bio-composite aerogels based on bleached cellulose fibers (BCF) and cellulose nanoparticles having various morphological and physico-chemical characteristics are prepared by a freeze-drying technique and characterized. The various composite aerogels obtained were compared to a BCF aerogel used as the reference. Severe changes in the material morphology were observed by SEM and AFM due to a variation of the cellulose nanoparticle properties such as the aspect ratio, the crystalline index and the surface charge density. BCF fibers form a 3D network and they are surrounded by the cellulose nanoparticle thin films inducing a significant reduction of the size of the pores in comparison with a neat BCF based aerogel. BET analyses confirm the appearance of a new organization structure with pores of nanometric sizes. As a consequence, a decrease of the thermal conductivities is observed from 28mWm(-1)K(-1) (BCF aerogel) to 23mWm(-1)K(-1) (bio-composite aerogel), which is below the air conductivity (25mWm(-1)K(-1)). This improvement of the insulation properties for composite materials is more pronounced for aerogels based on cellulose nanoparticles having a low crystalline index and high surface charge (NFC-2h). The significant improvement of their insulation properties allows the bio-composite aerogels to enter the super-insulating materials family. The characteristics of cellulose nanoparticles also influence the mechanical properties of the bio-composite aerogels. A significant improvement of the mechanical properties under compression is obtained by self-organization, yielding a multi-scale architecture of the cellulose nanoparticles in the bio-composite aerogels. In this case, the mechanical property is more dependent on the morphology of the composite aerogel rather than the intrinsic characteristics of the cellulose nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioinspired Layer-by-Layer Microcapsules Based on Cellulose Nanofibers with Switchable Permeability

    Paulraj, Thomas; Riazanova, Anastasia V; Yao, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Green, all-polysaccharide based microcapsules with mechanically robust capsule walls and fast, stimuli-triggered, and switchable permeability behavior show great promise in applications based on selective and timed permeability. Taking a cue from nature, the build-up and composition of plant......-by-layer technique on sacrificial CaCO3 templates, using plant polysaccharides (pectin, cellulose nanofibers, and xyloglucan) only. In water, the capsule wall was permeable to labeled dextrans with a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼6.6 nm. Upon exposure to NaCl, the porosity of the capsule wall quickly changed allowing...

  13. Internally plasticised cellulose polymers

    Burnup, M.; Hayes, G.F.; Fydelor, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Plasticised cellulose polymers comprise base polymer having a chain of β-anhydroglucose units joined by ether linkages, with at least one of said units carrying at least one chemically unreactive side chain derived from an allylic monomer or a vinyl substituted derivative of ferrocene. The side chains are normally formed by radiation grafting. These internally plasticised celluloses are useful in particular as inhibitor coatings for rocket motor propellants and in general wherever cellulose polymers are employed. (author)

  14. Comparing life cycle energy and GHG emissions of bio-based PET, recycled PET, PLA and man-made cellulosics

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the environmental profiles of petrochemical PET, (partially) bio-based PET, recycled PET, and recycled (partially) bio-based PET, and compare them with other bio-based materials, namely PLA (polylactic acid, a bio-based polyester) and man-made cellulose

  15. Bacterial cellulose production from cotton-based waste textiles: enzymatic saccharification enhanced by ionic liquid pretreatment.

    Hong, Feng; Guo, Xiang; Zhang, Shuo; Han, Shi-fen; Yang, Guang; Jönsson, Leif J

    2012-01-01

    Cotton-based waste textiles were explored as alternative feedstock for production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The cellulosic fabrics were treated with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl). [AMIM]Cl caused 25% inactivation of cellulase activity at a concentration as low as of 0.02 g/mL and decreased BC production during fermentation when present in concentrations higher than 0.0005 g/mL. Therefore, removal of residual IL by washing with hot water was highly beneficial to enzymatic saccharification as well as BC production. IL-treated fabrics exhibited a 5-7-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis rate and gave a seven times larger yield of fermentable sugars than untreated fabrics. BC from cotton cloth hydrolysate was obtained at an yield of 10.8 g/L which was 83% higher than that from the culture grown on glucose-based medium. The BC from G. xylinus grown on IL-treated fabric hydrolysate had a 79% higher tensile strength than BC from glucose-based culture medium which suggests that waste cotton pretreated with [AMIM]Cl has potential to serve as a high-quality carbon source for BC production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cotton-based Cellulose Nanomaterials for Applications in Composites and Electronics

    Farahbakhsh, Nasim

    A modern society demands development of highly valued and sustainable products via innovative process technologies and utilizing bio-based alternatives for petroleum based materials. Systematic comparative study of nanocellulose particles as a biodegradable and renewable reinforcing agent can help to develop criteria for selecting an appropriate candidate to be incorporated in polymer nanocomposites. Of particular interest has been nanocellulosic materials including cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and micro/nanofibrilated cellulose (MFC/NFC) which possess a hierarchical structure that permits an ordered structure with unique properties that has served as building blocks for the design of green and novel materials composites for applications in flexible electronics, medicine and composites. Key differences exist in nanocellulosic materials as a result the process by which the material is produced. This research demonstrates the applicability for the use of recycled cotton as promising sustainable material to be utilized as a substrate for electronic application and a reinforcing agent choice that can be produced without any intensive purification process and be applied to synthetic-based polymer nanocomposites in melt-processing. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  17. Synthesis and study of nano-structured cellulose acetate based materials for energy applications

    Fischer, F.

    2006-12-01

    Nano-structured materials have unique properties (high exchange areas, containment effect) because of their very low characteristic dimensions. The elaboration way set up in this PhD work consists in applying the classical processes for the preparation of aerogel-like materials (combining sol-gel synthesis and CO 2 supercritical extraction) to cellulosic polymers. This work is divided in four parts: a literature review, the presentation and the study of the chemical synthesis that leads to cellulose acetate-based aerogel, the characterizations (chemical, structural and thermal) of the elaborated nano-materials, and finally the study of the first carbons that were obtained after pyrolysis of the organic matrix. The formulations and the sol-gel protocol lead to chemical gels by crosslinking cellulose acetate using a poly-functional iso-cyanate. The dry materials obtained after solvent extraction with supercritical CO 2 are nano-structured and mainly meso-porous. Correlations between chemical synthesis parameters (reagent concentrations, crosslinking rate and degree of polymerisation) and porous properties (density, porosity, pore size distribution) were highlighted thanks to structural characterizations. An ultra-porous reference aerogel, with a density equals to 0,245 g.cm -3 together with a meso-porous volume of 3,40 cm 3 .g -1 was elaborated. Once in granular shape, this material has a thermal conductivity of 0,029 W.m -1 .K -1 . In addition, carbon materials produced after pyrolysis of the organic matrix and after grinding are nano-structured and nano-porous, even if important structural modifications have occurred during the carbonization process. The elaborated materials are evaluated for applications in relation with energy such as thermal insulation (organic aerogels) but also for energy conversion and storage through electrochemical way (carbon aerogels). (author)

  18. Preparation of conductive paper composites based on natural cellulosic fibers for packaging applications.

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Samahy, Magda Ali; Abdel Rehim, Mona H

    2012-08-01

    Conducting paper based on natural cellulosic fibers and conductive polymers was prepared using unbleached bagasse and/or rice straw fibers (as cellulosic raw materials) and polyaniline (PANi) as conducting polymer. These composites were synthesized by in situ emulsion polymerization using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant in the presence of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) as emulsifier. The prepared composites were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and their morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Electrical conductivity measurements showed that the conductivity of the paper sheets increases by increasing the ratio of PANi in the composite. Mechanical properties of the paper sheets were also investigated, the results revealed that the values of breaking length, burst factor, and tear factor are decreased with increasing ratio of added PANi, and this effect is more pronounced in bagasse-based composites. The new conductive composites can have potential use as anti-static packaging material or anti-bacterial paper for packaging applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment of cellulose based fillers for wood plastic composites

    Lekobou, William; Englund, Karl; Pedrow, Patrick; Scudiero, Louis

    2011-10-01

    The main challenge of wood plastic composites (WPC) resides in the low interfacial adhesion due to incompatibility between the cellulose based filler that has a polar surface and most common matrixes, polyolefins which are non-polar. Plasma treatment is a promising technique for surface modification and its implementation into the processing of WPC would provide this industry with a versatile and nearly environmentally benign manufacturing tool. Our investigation aims at designing a cold atmospheric pressure plasma reactor for coating fillers with a hydrophobic material prior to compounding with the matrix. Deposition was achieved with our reactor that includes an array of high voltage needles, a grounded metal mesh, Ar as carrier gas and C2H2 as the precursor molecule. Parameters studied have included gas feed rates and applied voltage; FTIR, ESCA, AFM and SEM imaging were used for film diagnostics. We will also report on deposition rate and its dependence on radial and axial position as well as the effects of plasma-polymerized acetylene on the surface free energy of cellulose based substrates.

  20. A continuum-based structural modeling approach for cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs)

    Shishehbor, Mehdi; Dri, Fernando L.; Moon, Robert J.; Zavattieri, Pablo D.

    2018-02-01

    We present a continuum-based structural model to study the mechanical behavior of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), and analyze the effect of bonded and non-bonded interactions on the mechanical properties under various loading conditions. In particular, this model assumes the uncoupling between the bonded and non-bonded interactions and their behavior is obtained from atomistic simulations. Our results indicates that the major contribution to the tensile and bending stiffness is mainly due to the cellulose chain stiffness, and the shear behavior is mainly governed by Van der Waals (VdW) forces. In addition, we report a negligible torsional stiffness, which may explain the CNC tendency to easily twist under very small or nonexistent torques. In addition, the sensitivity of geometrical imperfection on the mechanical properties using an analytical model of the CNC structure was investigated. Our results indicate that the presence of imperfections have a small influence on the majority of the elastic properties. Finally, it is shown that a simple homogeneous and orthotropic representation of a CNC under bending underestimates the contribution of non-bonded interaction leading up to 60% error in the calculation of the bending stiffness of CNCs. On the other hand, the proposed model can lead to more accurate predictions of the elastic behavior of CNCs. This is the first step toward the development of a more efficient model that can be used to model the inelastic behavior of single and multiple CNCs.

  1. Bottom-up fabrication of paper-based microchips by blade coating of cellulose microfibers on a patterned surface.

    Gao, Bingbing; Liu, Hong; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-12-23

    We report a method for the bottom-up fabrication of paper-based capillary microchips by the blade coating of cellulose microfibers on a patterned surface. The fabrication process is similar to the paper-making process in which an aqueous suspension of cellulose microfibers is used as the starting material and is blade-coated onto a polypropylene substrate patterned using an inkjet printer. After water evaporation, the cellulose microfibers form a porous, hydrophilic, paperlike pattern that wicks aqueous solution by capillary action. This method enables simple, fast, inexpensive fabrication of paper-based capillary channels with both width and height down to about 10 μm. When this method is used, the capillary microfluidic chip for the colorimetric detection of glucose and total protein is fabricated, and the assay requires only 0.30 μL of sample, which is 240 times smaller than for paper devices fabricated using photolithography.

  2. The use of sodium alginate-based coating and cellulose acetate in papaya post-harvest preservation

    Denise Andrade Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the ripening of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. at room temperature (±25°C and10°C with 80% relative humidity, coated with edible film based on sodium alginate (1% and cellulose acetate film (3% by dipping the fruit in the suspensions for 1 min. On the application of the treatment and every three days during 12 days of storage, fruit were evaluated for weight loss, firmness, total carotenoid content, lycopene content and vitamin C content of the pulp. The cellulose acetate film extended the shelf-life of papayas, without affecting their quality. This treatment delayed fruit ripening, whose changes in all the parameters analyzed were significantly slower than fruit treated with sodium alginate-based coating. The coating with cellulose acetate at 3% was more effective in the preservation of papaya stored for 12 days under both temperatures.

  3. Hybrid nanocomposite based on cellulose and tin oxide: growth, structure, tensile and electrical characteristics

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-01-01

    A highly flexible nanocomposite was developed by coating a regenerated cellulose film with a thin layer of tin oxide (SnO 2 ) by liquid-phase deposition. Tin oxide was crystallized in solution and formed nanocrystal coatings on regenerated cellulose. The nanocrystalline layers did not exfoliate from cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy suggest that SnO 2 was not only deposited over the cellulose surface, but also nucleated and grew inside the cellulose film. Current-voltage characteristics of the nanocomposite revealed that its electrical resistivity decreases with deposition time, with the lowest value obtained for 24 h of deposition. The cellulose-SnO 2 hybrid nanocomposite can be used for biodegradable and disposable chemical, humidity and biosensors.

  4. Composite polymer electrolytes based on MG49 and carboxymethyl cellulose from kenaf

    Jafirin, Serawati; Ahmad, Ishak; Ahmad, Azizan

    2013-01-01

    The development of 49% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG49) and carboxymethyl cellulose as a composite polymer electrolyte film incorporating LiCF 3 SO 3 were explored. Carboxymethyl cellulose was synthesized from kenaf bast fibres via carboxymethylation process by alkali catalyzed reaction of cellulose with sodium chloroacetate. Reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy showed the presence of carboxyl peak after modification of cellulose with sodium chloroacetate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity of cellulose was decrease after synthesis. High performance composite polymer electrolytes were prepared with various composition of carboxymethyl cellulose (2–10 wt%) via solution-casting method. The conductivity was increased with carboxymethyl cellulose loading. The highest conductivity value achieved was 3.3 × 10 −7 Scm −1 upon addition of 6% wt carboxymethyl cellulose. 6% wt carboxymethyl cellulose composition showed the highest tensile strength value of 7.9 MPa and 273 MPa of modulus value which demonstrated high mechanical performance with accepatable level of ionic conductivity

  5. Composite polymer electrolytes based on MG49 and carboxymethyl cellulose from kenaf

    Jafirin, Serawati; Ahmad, Ishak; Ahmad, Azizan [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The development of 49% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG49) and carboxymethyl cellulose as a composite polymer electrolyte film incorporating LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} were explored. Carboxymethyl cellulose was synthesized from kenaf bast fibres via carboxymethylation process by alkali catalyzed reaction of cellulose with sodium chloroacetate. Reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy showed the presence of carboxyl peak after modification of cellulose with sodium chloroacetate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity of cellulose was decrease after synthesis. High performance composite polymer electrolytes were prepared with various composition of carboxymethyl cellulose (2–10 wt%) via solution-casting method. The conductivity was increased with carboxymethyl cellulose loading. The highest conductivity value achieved was 3.3 × 10{sup −7} Scm{sup −1} upon addition of 6% wt carboxymethyl cellulose. 6% wt carboxymethyl cellulose composition showed the highest tensile strength value of 7.9 MPa and 273 MPa of modulus value which demonstrated high mechanical performance with accepatable level of ionic conductivity.

  6. Composite polymer electrolytes based on MG49 and carboxymethyl cellulose from kenaf

    Jafirin, Serawati; Ahmad, Ishak; Ahmad, Azizan

    2013-11-01

    The development of 49% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG49) and carboxymethyl cellulose as a composite polymer electrolyte film incorporating LiCF3SO3 were explored. Carboxymethyl cellulose was synthesized from kenaf bast fibres via carboxymethylation process by alkali catalyzed reaction of cellulose with sodium chloroacetate. Reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy showed the presence of carboxyl peak after modification of cellulose with sodium chloroacetate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity of cellulose was decrease after synthesis. High performance composite polymer electrolytes were prepared with various composition of carboxymethyl cellulose (2-10 wt%) via solution-casting method. The conductivity was increased with carboxymethyl cellulose loading. The highest conductivity value achieved was 3.3 × 10-7 Scm-1 upon addition of 6% wt carboxymethyl cellulose. 6% wt carboxymethyl cellulose composition showed the highest tensile strength value of 7.9 MPa and 273 MPa of modulus value which demonstrated high mechanical performance with accepatable level of ionic conductivity.

  7. Chitosan-based microcapsules containing grapefruit seed extract grafted onto cellulose fibers by a non-toxic procedure.

    Alonso, Diana; Gimeno, Miquel; Sepúlveda-Sánchez, José D; Shirai, Keiko

    2010-04-19

    A novel non-toxic procedure is described for the grafting of chitosan-based microcapsules containing grapefruit seed oil extract onto cellulose. The cellulose was previously UV-irradiated and then functionalized from an aqueous emulsion of the chitosan with the essential oil. The novel materials are readily attained with durable fragrance and enhanced antimicrobial properties. The incorporation of chitosan as determined from the elemental analyses data was 16.08+/-0.29 mg/g of sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) provided further evidence for the successful attachment of chitosan microcapsules containing the essential oil to the treated cellulose fibers. The materials thus produced displayed 100% inhibition of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis up to 48 h of incubation. Inhibition of bacteria by the essential oil was also evaluated at several concentrations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanocoating cellulose paper based microextraction combined with nanospray mass spectrometry for rapid and facile quantitation of ribonucleosides in human urine.

    Wan, Lingzhong; Zhu, Haijing; Guan, Yafeng; Huang, Guangming

    2017-07-01

    A rapid and facile analytical method for quantification of ribonucleosides in human urine was developed by the combination of nanocoating cellulose paper based microextraction and nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nESI-MS/MS). Cellulose paper used for microextraction was modified by nano-precision deposition of uniform ultrathin zirconia gel film using a sol-gel process. Due to the large surface area of the cellulose paper and the strong affinity between zirconia and the cis-diol compounds, the target analytes were selectively extracted from the complex matrix. Thus, the detection sensitivity was greatly improved. Typically, the nanocoating cellulose paper was immersed into the diluted urine for selective extraction of target analytes, then the extracted analytes were subjected to nESI-MS/MS detection. The whole analytical procedure could be completed within 10min. The method was evaluated by the determination of ribonucleosides (adenosine, cytidine, uridine, guanosine) in urine sample. The signal intensities of the ribonuclesides extracted by the nanocoating cellulose paper were greatly enhanced by 136-459-folds compared with the one of the unmodified cellulose paper based microextraction. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the four ribonucleosides were in the range of 0.0136-1.258μgL -1 and 0.0454-4.194μgL -1 , respectively. The recoveries of the target nucleosides from spiked human urine were in the range of 75.64-103.49% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 9.36%. The results demonstrate the potential of the proposed method for rapid and facile determination of endogenous ribonucleosides in urine sample. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Facile and green fabrication of cellulosed based aerogels for lampblack filtration from waste newspaper.

    Fan, Peidong; Yuan, Yali; Ren, Junkai; Yuan, Bin; He, Qian; Xia, Guangmei; Chen, Fengxia; Song, Rui

    2017-04-15

    In this study, the lightweight, hydrophobic and porous cellulose-based aerogels (CAGs) were synthesized through a freeze-drying process using waste newspaper as the only raw material. After crosslinking with glutaraldehyde and treatment with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) using a simple thermal chemical vapor deposition process, the resulting CAGs became hydrophobic and oleophilic. Furthermore, the as-prepared CAGs exhibited a low density (17.4-28.7mgcm -3 ) and mesoporous inner-structure. All these properties attributed the novel aerogel not only with a good adsorption capability of oils and organic solvents, including kerosene, nitrobenzene, and chloroform, but also an excellent filtration capacity of lampblack. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of novel cellulose- based antibacterial composites of Ag nanoparticles@ metal-organic frameworks@ carboxymethylated fibers.

    Duan, Chao; Meng, Jingru; Wang, Xinqi; Meng, Xin; Sun, Xiaole; Xu, Yongjian; Zhao, Wei; Ni, Yonghao

    2018-08-01

    A novel cellulose-based antibacterial material, namely silver nanoparticles@ metal-organic frameworks@ carboxymethylated fibers composites (Ag NPs@ HKUST-1@ CFs), was synthesized. The results showed that the metal-organic frameworks (HKUST-1) were uniformly anchored on the fiber's surfaces by virtue of complexation between copper ions in HKUST-1 and carboxyl groups on the carboxymethylated fibers (CFs). The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were immobilized and well-dispersed into the pores and/or onto the surfaces of HKUST-1 via in situ microwave reduction, resulting in the formation of novel Ag NPs@ HKUST-1@ CFs composites. The antibacterial assays showed that the as-prepared composites exhibited a much higher antibacterial activity than Ag NPs@ CFs or HKUST-1@ CFs samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent Progress in Fabrication and Applications of Superhydrophobic Coating on Cellulose-Based Substrates

    Liu, Hui; Gao, Shou-Wei; Cai, Jing-Sheng; He, Cheng-Lin; Mao, Jia-Jun; Zhu, Tian-Xue; Chen, Zhong; Huang, Jian-Ying; Meng, Kai; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Lai, Yue-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Multifuntional fabrics with special wettability have attracted a lot of interest in both fundamental research and industry applications over the last two decades. In this review, recent progress of various kinds of approaches and strategies to construct super-antiwetting coating on cellulose-based substrates (fabrics and paper) has been discussed in detail. We focus on the significant applications related to artificial superhydrophobic fabrics with special wettability and controllable adhesion, e.g., oil-water separation, self-cleaning, asymmetric/anisotropic wetting for microfluidic manipulation, air/liquid directional gating, and micro-template for patterning. In addition to the anti-wetting properties and promising applications, particular attention is paid to coating durability and other incorporated functionalities, e.g., air permeability, UV-shielding, photocatalytic self-cleaning, self-healing and patterned antiwetting properties. Finally, the existing difficulties and future prospects of this traditional and developing field are briefly proposed and discussed. PMID:28773253

  12. Cellulose Perversions

    Maria H. Godinho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose micro/nano-fibers can be produced by electrospinning from liquid crystalline solutions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM and polarizing optical microscopy (POM measurements showed that cellulose-based electrospun fibers can curl and twist, due to the presence of an off-core line defect disclination, which was present when the fibers were prepared. This permits the mimicking of the shapes found in many systems in the living world, e.g., the tendrils of climbing plants, three to four orders of magnitude larger. In this work, we address the mechanism that is behind the spirals’ and helices’ appearance by recording the trajectories of the fibers toward diverse electrospinning targets. The intrinsic curvature of the system occurs via asymmetric contraction of an internal disclination line, which generates different shrinkages of the material along the fiber. The completely different instabilities observed for isotropic and anisotropic electrospun solutions at the exit of the needle seem to corroborate the hypothesis that the intrinsic curvature of the material is acquired during liquid crystalline sample processing inside the needle. The existence of perversions, which joins left and right helices, is also investigated by using suspended, as well as flat, targets. Possible routes of application inspired from the living world are addressed.

  13. An overview on cellulose-based material in tailoring bio-hybrid nanostructured photocatalysts for water treatment and renewable energy applications.

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Abd Mutalib, Muhazri; Mohd Hir, Zul Adlan; M Zain, M F; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Jeffery Minggu, Lorna; Awang, Nor Asikin; W Salleh, W N

    2017-10-01

    A combination between the nanostructured photocatalyst and cellulose-based materials promotes a new functionality of cellulose towards the development of new bio-hybrid materials for various applications especially in water treatment and renewable energy. The excellent compatibility and association between nanostructured photocatalyst and cellulose-based materials was induced by bio-combability and high hydrophilicity of the cellulose components. The electron rich hydroxyl group of celluloses helps to promote superior interaction with photocatalyst. The formation of bio-hybrid nanostructured are attaining huge interest nowadays due to the synergistic properties of individual cellulose-based material and photocatalyst nanoparticles. Therefore, in this review we introduce some cellulose-based material and discusses its compatibility with nanostructured photocatalyst in terms of physical and chemical properties. In addition, we gather information and evidence on the fabrication techniques of cellulose-based hybrid nanostructured photocatalyst and its recent application in the field of water treatment and renewable energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of pH on production of xylanase by Trichoderma reesei on xylan- and cellulose-based media

    Bailey, M.J. (VTT, Biotechnical Lab., Espoo (Finland)); Buchert, J. (VTT, Biotechnical Lab., Espoo (Finland)); Viikari, L. (VTT, Biotechnical Lab., Espoo (Finland))

    1993-11-01

    Trichoderma reesei VTT-D-86271 (Rut C-30) was cultivated on media based on cellulose and xylan as the main carbon source in fermentors with different pH minimum controls. Production of xylanase was favoured by a rather high pH minimum control between 6.0 and 7.0 on both cellulose- and xylan-based media. Although xylanase was produced efficiently on cellulose as well as on xylan as the carbon source, significant production of cellulase was observed only on the cellulose-based medium and best production was at lower pH (4.0 minimum). Production of xylanase at pH 7.0 was shown to be dependent on the nature of the xylan in the cultivation medium but was independent of other organic components. Best production of xylanase was observed on insoluble, unsubstituted beech xylan at pH 7.0. Similar results were obtained in laboratory and pilot (200-1) fermentors. Downstream processing of the xylanase-rich, low-cellulase culture filtrate presented no technical problems despite apparent autolysis of the fungus at the high pH. Enzyme produced in the 200-1 pilot fermentor was shown to be suitable for use in enzyme-aided bleaching of kraft pulp. Due to the high xylanase/cellulase ratio of enzyme activities in the culture filtrate, pretreatment for removal of cellulase activity prior to pulp bleaching was unnecessary. (orig.)

  15. Interfacial improvements in biocomposites based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bioplastics reinforced and grafted with α-cellulose fibers

    Liqing Wei; Nicole M. Stark; Armando G. McDonald

    2015-01-01

    In this study, α-cellulose fibers reinforced green biocomposites based on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and the copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were prepared and characterized. The α-cellulose fibers were isolated from at-risk intermountain lodgepole pine wood by successive removal of extractives, lignin and hemicellulose...

  16. Bacterial Cellulose: A Robust Platform for Design of Three Dimensional Carbon-Based Functional Nanomaterials.

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Liang, Hai-Wei; Chen, Li-Feng; Hu, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-01-19

    Three dimensional (3D) carbon nanomaterials exhibit great application potential in environmental protection, electrochemical energy storage and conversion, catalysis, polymer science, and advanced sensors fields. Current methods for preparing 3D carbon nanomaterials, for example, carbonization of organogels, chemical vapor deposition, and self-assembly of nanocarbon building blocks, inevitably involve some drawbacks, such as expensive and toxic precursors, complex equipment and technological requirements, and low production ability. From the viewpoint of practical application, it is highly desirable to develop a simple, cheap, and environmentally friendly way for fabricating 3D carbon nanomaterials in large scale. On the other hand, in order to extend the application scope and improve the performance of 3D carbon nanomaterials, we should explore efficient strategies to prepare diverse functional nanomaterials based on their 3D carbon structure. Recently, many researchers tend to fabricate high-performance 3D carbon-based nanomaterials from biomass, which is low cost, easy to obtain, and nontoxic to humans. Bacterial cellulose (BC), a typical biomass material, has long been used as the raw material of nata-de-coco (an indigenous dessert food of the Philippines). It consists of a polysaccharide with a β-1,4-glycosidic linkage and has a interconnected 3D porous network structure. Interestingly, the network is made up of a random assembly of cellulose nanofibers, which have a high aspect ratio with a diameter of 20-100 nm. As a result, BC has a high specific surface area. Additionally, BC hydrogels can be produced on an industrial scale via a microbial fermentation process at a very low price. Thus, it can be an ideal platform for design of 3D carbon-based functional nanomaterials. Before our work, no systematic work and summary on this topic had been reported. This Account presents the concepts and strategies of our studies on BC in the past few years, that is

  17. Preparation and characterization of oil palm frond based cellulose hydrogel and its swelling properties

    Selvakumaran, Nesha; Lazim, Mohd Azwani Shah bin Mat

    2016-11-01

    Malaysia is one of the largest producer of palm oil thus the quantity of biomass each year from this industry is very large. The oil palm frond from palm oil industry can be used as a source of cellulose which can be incorporated into hydrogel to be used as adsorbent. This research reported how to disperse 2 % cellulose in a `green-solution' prepared by using urea and sodium hydroxide. Polymerization is carried out between the monomers polyacrylamide and cellulose using microwave to form hydrogel. Hydrogel with 2 % cellulose have a swelling index of 1814 %. Meanwhile, zero hydrogel which is made with only polyacrylamide has swelling index of 15 %. Scanning electron microscope shows that cellulose hydrogel have a rough surface compared with zero hydrogel. This might attribute to the high swelling index for cellulose hydrogel compared with zero hydrogel. Meanwhile, FTIR shows that successful polymerization has occurred between polyacrylamide and cellulose with the characteristic band at 1657.99 cm-1 which is for N-H bond.

  18. Application of cellulose nanofibers to remove water-based flexographic inks from wastewaters.

    Balea, Ana; Monte, M Concepción; de la Fuente, Elena; Negro, Carlos; Blanco, Ángeles

    2017-02-01

    Water-based or flexographic inks in paper and plastic industries are more environmentally favourable than organic solvent-based inks. However, their use also creates new challenges because they remain dissolved in water and alter the recycling process. Conventional deinking technologies such as flotation processes do not effectively remove them. Adsorption, coagulation/flocculation, biological and membrane processes are either expensive or have negative health impacts, making the development of alternative methods necessary. Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) are biodegradable, and their structural and mechanical properties are useful for wastewater treatment. TEMPO-oxidised CNF have been evaluated for the decolourisation of wastewaters that contained copper phthalocyanine blue, carbon black and diarlyide yellow pigments. CNF in combination with a cationic polyacrylamide (cPAM) has also been tested. Jar-test methodology was used to evaluate the efficiency of the different treatments and cationic/anionic demand, turbidity and ink concentration in waters were measured. Results show that dual-component system for ink removal has a high potential as an alternative bio-based adsorbent for the removal of water-based inks. In addition, experiments varying CNF and cPAM concentrations were performed to optimise the ink-removal process. Ink concentration reductions of 100%, 87.5% and 83.3% were achieved for copper phthalocyanine blue, carbon black and diarlyide yellow pigments, respectively. Flocculation studies carried out show the decolourisation mechanism during the dual-component treatment of wastewaters containing water-based inks.

  19. Carboxymethyl Cellulose From Kenaf Reinforced Composite Polymer Electrolytes Based 49 % Poly (Methyl Methacrylate)-Grafted Natural Rubber

    Serawati Jafirin; Ishak Ahmad; Azizan Ahmad; Ishak Ahmad; Azizan Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Composite polymer electrolytes based 49 % poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG49) incorporating lithium triflate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) were prepared. The study mainly focuses on the ionic conductivity performances and mechanical properties. Prior to that, carboxymethyl cellulose was synthesized from kenaf fiber. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance (EIS) spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), universal testing machine and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conductivity was found to increase with carboxymethyl cellulose loading. The highest conductivity value achieved was 6.5 x 10 -6 Scm -1 upon addition of 6 wt % carboxymethyl cellulose. LSV graph shows the stability of this film was extended to 2.7 V at room temperature. The composition with 6 wt % carboxymethyl cellulose composition showed the highest tensile strength value of 7.9 MPa and 273 MPa of Young's modulus. The morphology of the electrolytes showed a smooth surface of films after addition of salt and filler indicating amorphous phase in electrolytes system. Excellent mechanical properties and good ionic conductivity are obtained, enlightening that the film is suitable for future applications as thin solid polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. (author)

  20. Calcium hydroxide nanoparticles for the conservation of cultural heritage: new formulations for the deacidification of cellulose-based artifacts

    Poggi, G.; Toccafondi, N.; Melita, L. N.; Knowles, J. C.; Bozec, L.; Giorgi, R.; Baglioni, P.

    2014-03-01

    Alkaline earth metal hydroxide nanoparticles dispersions have demonstrated to be efficient for the preservation of cellulose-based artifacts, providing a stable neutral environment and, if in excess, turning into mild alkaline species. New formulations tailored for specific conservation issues have been recently obtained via a solvothermal reaction, starting from bulk metal, and short chain alcohols. Using this synthetic procedure, stable, and high concentrated calcium hydroxide nanoparticles dispersions can be obtained. The characterization of nanoparticles was carried out by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction and showed that the dispersed systems are particularly suitable for the application on porous substrates. In a direct application of this technology, acidic paper and canvas samples were artificially aged after deacidification using calcium hydroxide nanoparticles dispersed in short chain alcohols. Cellulose viscosimetric polymerization degree (DPv), cellulose pyrolysis temperature, and samples' pH were evaluated upon the aging and in terms of protective action arising from the applied treatment. In particular, determinations of DPv clearly showed that the degradation of acidic paper and canvas samples proceeds at higher rates with respect to deacidified samples. These evidences were also confirmed by the thermogravimetric analysis of samples, in which the benefits due to the deacidification treatments are measured in terms of pyrolysis temperature of cellulose. These new formulations of nanoparticles dispersions expand the palette of available tools for the conservation of cellulose-based works of art, such as easel paintings, and manuscripts, potentially opening the way for the intervention on parchment and leather, whose preservation is a particularly challenging task.

  1. Fibrillar assembly of bacterial cellulose in the presence of wood-based hemicelluloses.

    Penttilä, Paavo A; Imai, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Junji

    2017-09-01

    Composite materials mimicking the plant cell wall structure were made by culturing cellulose-producing bacteria together with secondary-wall hemicelluloses from wood. The effects of spruce galactoglucomannan (GGM) and beech xylan on the nanoscale morphology of bacterial cellulose were studied in the original, hydrated state with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The SAXS intensities were fitted with a model covering multiple levels of the hierarchical structure. Additional information on the structure of dried samples was obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and infra-red spectroscopy. Both hemicelluloses induced a partial conversion of the cellulose crystal structure from I α to I β and a reduction of the cross-sectional dimensions of the cellulose microfibrils, thereby affecting also their packing into bundles. The differences were more pronounced in samples with xylan instead of GGM, and they became more significant with higher hemicellulose concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    Fornetti, Micheal [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States); Freeman, Douglas [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States)

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  3. Preparation of cellulose based microspheres by combining spray coagulating with spray drying.

    Wang, Qiao; Fu, Aiping; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Jingquan; Guo, Peizhi; Zhao, Xiu Song; Xia, Lin Hua

    2014-10-13

    Porous microspheres of regenerated cellulose with size in range of 1-2 μm and composite microspheres of chitosan coated cellulose with size of 1-3 μm were obtained through a two-step spray-assisted approach. The spray coagulating process must combine with a spray drying step to guarantee the formation of stable microspheres of cellulose. This approach exhibits the following two main virtues. First, the preparation was performed using aqueous solution of cellulose as precursor in the absence of organic solvent and surfactant; Second, neither crosslinking agent nor separated crosslinking process was required for formation of stable microspheres. Moreover, the spray drying step also provided us with the chance to encapsulate guests into the resultant cellulose microspheres. The potential application of the cellulose microspheres acting as drug delivery vector has been studied in two PBS (phosphate-buffered saline) solution with pH values at 4.0 and 7.4 to mimic the environments of stomach and intestine, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of barrier coatings for cellulosic-based materials by cold plasma methods

    Denes, Agnes Reka

    Cellulose-based materials are ideal candidates for future industries that need to be based on environmentally safe technologies and renewable resources. Wood represents an important raw material and its application as construction material is well established. Cellophane is one of the most important cellulosic material and it is widely used as packaging material in the food industry. Outdoor exposure of wood causes a combination of physical and chemical degradation processes due to the combined effects of sunlight, moisture, fungi, and bacteria. Cold-plasma-induced surface modifications are an attractive way for tailoring the characteristics of lignocellulosic substrates to prevent weathering degradation. Plasma-polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDSO) was deposited onto wood surfaces to create water repellent characteristics. The presence of a crosslinked macromolecular structure was detected. The plasma coated samples exhibited very high water contact angle values indicating the existence of hydrophobic surfaces. Reflective and electromagnetic radiation-absorbent substances were incorporated with a high-molecular-weight polydimethylsiloxane polymer in liquid phase and deposited as thin layers on wood surfaces. The macromolecular films, containing the dispersed materials, were then converted into a three dimensional solid state network by exposure to a oxygen-plasma. It was demonstrated that both UV-absorbent and reflectant components incorporated into the plasma-generated PDMSO matrix protected the wood from weathering degradation. Reduced oxidation and less degradation was observed after simulated weathering. High water contact angle values indicated a strong hydrophobic character of the oxygen plasma-treated PDMSO-coated samples. Plasma-enhanced surface modifications and coatings were employed to create water-vapor barrier layers on cellophane substrate surfaces. HMDSO was selected as a plasma gas and oxygen was used to ablate amorphous regions. Oxygen plasma

  5. Mechanical Properties and Kinetics of Thermal Degradation of Bioplastics based on Straw Cellulose and Whole Wheat Flour

    Hesam Omrani fard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During  the  past  two  decades  the  use  of  bioplastics,  as  a  suitable  alternative to  petroleum-based  plastics,  has  attracted  researchers'  attention  to  a  great extent.  In  this  study,  the whole wheat four and  straw cellulose at different proportions were mixed with glycerol and bioplastics sheets were obtained by a press type molding machine.  The mechanical  properties  of  samples  were  examined  on compositions prepared by whole wheat weight in three proportions of 70, 60 and 50% and the cellulose in three proportions 75, 70 and 65%. The tensile tests on the samples indicated  that with  lowering  proportions  of  both  four  and  cellulose,  the modulus of elasticity and  tensile  strength of  the bioplastics dropped as well. The maximum modulus of  elasticity  achieved  for  the four  and  cellulose  compositions were 12.5, and 8.6 MPa, and the maximum tensile strengths were 878 and 202 kPa, respectively. The TGA tests indicated that the bioplastics prepared from whole wheat four showed higher temperatures of thermal degradation. The activation energies calculated for the four and cellulose bioplastics, as estimated by Arrhenius type equation, were 133.0 and 63.8 kJ/mol, respectively.

  6. Core/shell cellulose-based microspheres for oral administration of Ketoprofen Lysinate.

    Guarino, Vincenzo; Caputo, Tania; Calcagnile, Paola; Altobelli, Rosaria; Demitri, Christian; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2018-01-26

    Herein, we propose the fabrication of a new carrier with core/shell structure-inner core of cellulose acetate (CA) coated by a micrometric layer of chitosan (CS)-fabricated through an integrated process, which combines Electro Dynamic Atomization (EDA) and layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. We demonstrate that CA based microspheres possess a unique capability to relevantly retain the drugs-that is, Ketoprofen Lysinate (KL)-along the gastric tract, while providing a massive release along the intestine. CS shell slightly influences the morphology and water retention under different pH conditions, improving drug encapsulation without compromising drug release kinetics. In vitro studies in simulated gastric and intestine fluids (SGF, SIF) with physiological enzymes, show a moderate release of LSK during the first 2 h (ca. 20% at pH 2), followed by a sustained release during the next 6 h (ca. 80% at pH 7). The obtained results demonstrate that CA-based microspheres hold strong potential to be used as carriers for a delayed oral administration of anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Enriched glucose and dextrin mannitol-based media modulates fibroblast behavior on bacterial cellulose membranes

    Stumpf, Taisa R.; Pértile, Renata A.N.; Rambo, Carlos R.; Porto, Luismar M.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii is a suitable biopolymer for biomedical applications. In order to modulate the properties of BC and expand its use as substrate for tissue engineering mainly in the form of biomembranes, glucose or dextrin were added into a BC fermentation mannitol-based medium (BCGl and BCDe, respectively) under static culture conditions. SEM images showed effects on fiber density and porosity on both sides of the BC membranes. Both enriched media decreased the BET surface area, water holding capacity, and rehydration rate. Fourier transform infrared (attenuated total reflectance mode) spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) analysis revealed no change in the chemical structure of BC. L929 fibroblast cells were seeded on all BC-based membranes and evaluated in aspects of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology. BCG1 membranes showed the highest biological performance and hold promise for the use in tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Glucose and dextrin were used to modify culture media for BC production. • Microarchitecture of BC was different depending on the enriching agent. • Fibroblasts adhered on the surface of BC modified microarchitectures. • Fibroblasts adhered on glucose modified BC exhibited healthy cell morphology

  8. Comparison of the mechanical properties between carbon nanotube and nanocrystalline cellulose polypropylene based nano-composites

    Huang, Jun; Rodrigue, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SWCNT and NCC can effectively improve the mechanical properties of nano-composites. • SWCNT is more effective than NCC to increase modulus and strength. • Longer NCC is more effective to improve the mechanical properties of nano-composites. • It is more economic to use NCC than SWCNT to improve mechanical properties. - Abstract: Using beam and tetrahedron elements to simulate nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and polypropylene (PP), finite element method (FEM) is used to predict the mechanical properties of nano-composites. The bending, shear and torsion behaviors of nano-composites are especially investigated due to the limited amount of information in the present literature. First, mixed method (MM) and FEM are used to compare the bending stiffness of NCC/PP and SWCNT/PP composites. Second, based on mechanics of materials, the shear moduli of both types of nano-composites are obtained. Finally, fixing the number of fibers and for different volume contents, four NCC lengths are used to determine the mechanical properties of the composites. The bending and shearing performances are also compared between NCC and SWCNT based composites. In all cases, the elastic–plastic analyses are carried out and the stress or strain distributions for specific regions are also investigated. From all the results obtained, an economic analysis shows that NCC is more interesting than SWCNT to reinforce PP

  9. Enriched glucose and dextrin mannitol-based media modulates fibroblast behavior on bacterial cellulose membranes

    Stumpf, Taisa R.; Pértile, Renata A.N. [Integrated Technologies Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Food Engineering (Brazil); Rambo, Carlos R., E-mail: rambo@intelab.ufsc.br [Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900 (Brazil); Porto, Luismar M. [Integrated Technologies Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Food Engineering (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii is a suitable biopolymer for biomedical applications. In order to modulate the properties of BC and expand its use as substrate for tissue engineering mainly in the form of biomembranes, glucose or dextrin were added into a BC fermentation mannitol-based medium (BCGl and BCDe, respectively) under static culture conditions. SEM images showed effects on fiber density and porosity on both sides of the BC membranes. Both enriched media decreased the BET surface area, water holding capacity, and rehydration rate. Fourier transform infrared (attenuated total reflectance mode) spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) analysis revealed no change in the chemical structure of BC. L929 fibroblast cells were seeded on all BC-based membranes and evaluated in aspects of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology. BCG1 membranes showed the highest biological performance and hold promise for the use in tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Glucose and dextrin were used to modify culture media for BC production. • Microarchitecture of BC was different depending on the enriching agent. • Fibroblasts adhered on the surface of BC modified microarchitectures. • Fibroblasts adhered on glucose modified BC exhibited healthy cell morphology.

  10. Flexible supercapacitor electrodes based on real metal-like cellulose papers.

    Ko, Yongmin; Kwon, Minseong; Bae, Wan Ki; Lee, Byeongyong; Lee, Seung Woo; Cho, Jinhan

    2017-09-14

    The effective implantation of conductive and charge storage materials into flexible frames has been strongly demanded for the development of flexible supercapacitors. Here, we introduce metallic cellulose paper-based supercapacitor electrodes with excellent energy storage performance by minimizing the contact resistance between neighboring metal and/or metal oxide nanoparticles using an assembly approach, called ligand-mediated layer-by-layer assembly. This approach can convert the insulating paper to the highly porous metallic paper with large surface areas that can function as current collectors and nanoparticle reservoirs for supercapacitor electrodes. Moreover, we demonstrate that the alternating structure design of the metal and pseudocapacitive nanoparticles on the metallic papers can remarkably increase the areal capacitance and rate capability with a notable decrease in the internal resistance. The maximum power and energy density of the metallic paper-based supercapacitors are estimated to be 15.1 mW cm -2 and 267.3 μWh cm -2 , respectively, substantially outperforming the performance of conventional paper or textile-type supercapacitors.With ligand-mediated layer-by-layer assembly between metal nanoparticles and small organic molecules, the authors prepare metallic paper electrodes for supercapacitors with high power and energy densities. This approach could be extended to various electrodes for portable/wearable electronics.

  11. Formulation development and characterization of cellulose acetate nitrate based propellants for improved insensitive munitions properties

    Thelma Manning

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate nitrate (CAN was used as an insensitive energetic binder to improve the insensitive munitions (IM properties of gun propellants to replace the M1 propellant used in 105 mm artillery charges. CAN contains the energetic nitro groups found in nitrocellulose (NC, but also acetyl functionalities, which lowered the polymer's sensitivity to heat and shock, and therefore improved its IM properties relative to NC. The formulation, development and small-scale characterization testing of several CAN-based propellants were done. The formulations, using insensitive energetic solid fillers and high-nitrogen modifiers in place of nitramine were completed. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and chemical compatibility were done. The mechanical response of the propellants under high-rate uni-axial compression at, hot, cold, and ambient temperatures were also completed. Critical diameter testing, hot fragment conductive ignition (HFCI tests were done to evaluate the propellants' responses to thermal and shock stimuli. Utilizing the propellant chemical composition, theoretical predictions of erosivity were completed. All the small scale test results were utilized to down-select the promising CAN based formulations for large scale demonstration testing such as the ballistic performance and fragment impact testing in the 105 mm M67 artillery charge configurations. The test results completed in the small and large scale testing are discussed.

  12. Combustion performance of cellulosic biomass in a gasifier-based cookstove

    Sulaiman, Shaharin A.; Romli, Raffisyazana

    2012-06-01

    Depletion in fossil fuel and increase in the world population may change the trend in future kitchens in households. Cooking with LPG fuel may one day become impossible and households would have to consider alternatives such as electric stoves. One other solution to this problem is through the use of biomass cook stoves. However, traditional cook stoves, predominantly used in the households, are not efficient and its utilizations for domestic cooking have been a major contributor to the ill effects related in respiratory and other health problem. Improved cook stoves programs implemented in the developing world attempt to address these problems. Biomass gasification appears to have significant potential in Asia for domestic cooking applications. Gasifier-based cook stoves are fuel efficient in comparison to traditional cook stove. The objective of this paper is to study the performance of various type of cellulosic biomass in a gasifier-based cook stove. The biomass considered in this study are oil palm fronds, dried leaves, wood sticks, coconut shells, bagasse, charcoal, and saw dust. The samples are analyzed in order to study their chemical properties. The thermochemical properties of the biomass were characterized. The performance of the each of the samples is studied by observing the time taken to boil water. It is found that oil palm fronds are the best type of biomass for the gasifer cook stove. It is also concluded that the higher the carbon content and the calorific value in a biomass, the lesser the time taken to boil the water.

  13. Formation of radical cations and dose response of alpha-terthiophene-cellulose triacetate films irradiated by electrons and gamma rays

    Emmi, S S; Ceroni, P; D'Angelantonio, M; Lavalle, M; Fuochi, P G; Kovács, A

    2002-01-01

    The radiation-induced UV-vis spectrum of alpha-terthiophene radical cation in solid is reported. The radical cation initiates an oligomerization in the CTA matrix producing permanently coloured conjugated polarons. The specific net absorbance at 465 nm is linearly related with dose up to 2x10 sup sup 6 sup sup G y, for electrons and gamma irradiation. The decrease of the UV typical absorption (355 nm) and of four IR bands of alpha-terthiophene is linear with dose, as well. Although sensitivity is influenced by dose rate, it turned out that a linear relationship holds between sensitivity and log dose rate, in the range from 2 to 10 sup sup 5 Gy, min. These findings suggest a potential application of the system for dosimetric purposes over a wide range of dose and dose rate.

  14. Design, optimization and characterization of coenzyme Q10- and D-panthenyl triacetate-loaded liposomes

    Çelik B

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Burak Çelik,1 Ali Asram Sağıroğlu,1 Samet Özdemir2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bezmialem Vakif University, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 is a lipid-soluble molecule found naturally in many eukaryotic cells and is essential for electron transport chain and energy generation in mitochondria. D-Panthenyl triacetate (PTA is an oil-soluble derivative of D-panthenol, which is essential for coenzyme A synthesis in the epithelium. Liposomal formulations that encapsulate both ingredients were prepared and optimized by applying response surface methodology for increased stability and skin penetration. The optimum formulation comprised 4.17 mg CoQ10, 4.22 mg PTA and 13.95 mg cholesterol per 100 mg of soy phosphatidylcholine. The encapsulation efficiency of the optimized formulation for CoQ10 and PTA was found to be 90.89%±3.61% and 87.84%±4.61%, respectively. Narrow size distribution was achieved with an average size of 161.6±3.6 nm, while a spherical and uniform shape was confirmed via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. Cumulative release of 90.93% for PTA and 24.41% for CoQ10 was achieved after 24 hours of in vitro release study in sink conditions. Physical stability tests indicated that the optimized liposomes were suitable for storage at 4°C for at least 60 days. The results suggest that the optimized liposomal formulation would be a promising delivery system for both ingredients in various topical applications. Keywords: coenzyme Q10, D-panthenyl triacetate, liposomes, response surface methodology, stability

  15. A review on cellulose and lignin based binders and electrodes: Small steps towards a sustainable lithium ion battery.

    Nirmale, Trupti C; Kale, Bharat B; Varma, Anjani J

    2017-10-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIB) are the most promising energy storage systems for portable electronics and future electric or hybrid-electric vehicles. However making them safer, cost effective and environment friendly is the key challenge. In this regard, replacing petro-derived materials by introducing renewable biomass derived cellulose derivatives and lignin based materials into the battery system is a promising approach for the development of green materials for LIB. These biomaterials introduce sustainability as well as improved safety in the final disposal of LIB batteries. In this review we introduce LIB materials technology in brief and recent developments in electrodes and binders based on cellulose and their derivatives and lignin for lithium ion batteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In-depth investigation of enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass wastes based on three major components: Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.

    Lin, Lili; Yan, Rong; Liu, Yongqiang; Jiang, Wenju

    2010-11-01

    The artificial biomass based on three biomass components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) were developed on the basis of a simplex-lattice approach. Together with a natural biomass sample, they were employed in enzymatic hydrolysis researches. Different enzyme combines of two commercial enzymes (ACCELLERASE 1500 and OPTIMASH BG) showed a potential to hydrolyze hemicellulose completely. Negligible interactions among the three components were observed, and the used enzyme ACCELLERASE 1500 was proven to be weak lignin-binding. On this basis, a multiple linear-regression equation was established for predicting the reducing sugar yield based on the component proportions in a biomass. The hemicellulose and cellulose in a biomass sample were found to have different contributions in staged hydrolysis at different time periods. Furthermore, the hydrolysis of rice straw was conducted to validate the computation approach through considerations of alkaline solution pretreatment and combined enzymes function, so as to understand better the nature of biomass hydrolysis, from the aspect of three biomass components.

  17. Hybrid Drug Delivery Patches Based on Spherical Cellulose Nanocrystals and Colloid Titania—Synthesis and Antibacterial Properties

    Olga L. Evdokimova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Spherical cellulose nanocrystal-based hybrids grafted with titania nanoparticles were successfully produced for topical drug delivery. The conventional analytical filter paper was used as a precursor material for cellulose nanocrystals (CNC production. Cellulose nanocrystals were extracted via a simple and quick two-step process based on first the complexation with Cu(II solution in aqueous ammonia followed by acid hydrolysis with diluted H2SO4. Triclosan was selected as a model drug for complexation with titania and further introduction into the nanocellulose based composite. Obtained materials were characterized by a broad variety of microscopic, spectroscopic, and thermal analysis methods. The drug release studies showed long-term release profiles of triclosan from the titania based nanocomposite that agreed with Higuchi model. The bacterial susceptibility tests demonstrated that released triclosan retained its antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. It was found that a small amount of titania significantly improved the antibacterial activity of obtained nanocomposites, even without immobilization of model drug. Thus, the developed hybrid patches are highly promising candidates for potential application as antibacterial agents.

  18. Electrospun phase change fibers based on polyethylene glycol/cellulose acetate blends

    Chen, Changzhong; Wang, Linge; Huang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ultrafine PEG/CA phase change fibers were fabricated by electrospinning. → PEG content dramatically influenced the fiber morphology and phase change behaviors. → The electrospun fibers have excellent thermal properties for thermal energy storage. - Abstract: Ultrafine phase change fibers based on polyethylene glycol (PEG)/cellulose acetate (CA) blends in which PEG acts as a model phase change material (PCM) and CA acts as a supporting material, were successfully prepared via electrospinning. The effect of PEG content on the morphology, crystalline properties, phase change behaviors and tensile properties of the composite fibers was studied systematically by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a tensile tester, respectively. The SEM observation indicates that maximum PEG content in the fibers could reach up to 70 wt%, and the morphology and average diameter of the composite fibers vary with PEG content. Thermal analysis results show that the latent heats of the phase change fibers increase with the increasing of PEG content in the fibers, and the PEG/CA fibers with high enthalpies have a good capability to regulate their interior temperature as the ambient temperature alters. Therefore, the developed phase change fibers have enormous applicable potentials in thermal energy storage and temperature regulation.

  19. Barrier Properties of Polylactic Acid in Cellulose Based Packages Using Montmorillonite as Filler

    Daniela Sánchez Aldana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA and montmorillonite (CB as filler were studied as coatings for cellulose based packages. Amorphous (AM and semi crystalline (SC PLA were used at different concentrations according to a 2 × 6 × 3 full factorial experimental design. CB loading was three concentrations and coating was performed by casting. Contact angle (CA, water vapor (WVP and grease permeabilities were measured for each resultant package and were compared to commercial materials (Glassine Paper, Grease Proof Papers 1 and 2 produced commercially. Significant differences were found and the main factors were the type and concentration of PLA. The best values were: for grease penetration, +1800 s; WVP from 161.36 to 237.8 g·µm·kPa−1·m−2·d−1 and CA from 69° to 73° for PLA–AM 0.5% and CB variable. These parameters are comparable to commercial packages used in the food industry. DSC revealed three different thermal events for PLA–SC and just Tg for PLA–AM. Crystallinity was also verified, obtaining a ΔHcrys of 3.7 J·g−1 for PLA–SC and 14 J·g−1 for PLA–SC–BC, evidencing clay interaction as a crystal nucleating agent. Differences found were explained on terms of the properties measured, where structural and chemical arrays of the coatings play a fundamental role for the barrier properties.

  20. Potential of Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent Hydrogels as Water Reservoir in Agriculture

    C. Demitri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the development of a biodegradable superabsorbent hydrogel, based on cellulose derivatives, for the optimization of water resources in agriculture, horticulture and, more in general, for instilling a wiser and savvier approach to water consumption. The sorption capability of the proposed hydrogel was firstly assessed, with specific regard to two variables that might play a key role in the soil environment, that is, ionic strength and pH. Moreover, a preliminary evaluation of the hydrogel potential as water reservoir in agriculture was performed by using the hydrogel in experimental greenhouses, for the cultivation of tomatoes. The soil-water retention curve, in the presence of different hydrogel amounts, was also analysed. The preliminary results showed that the material allowed an efficient storage and sustained release of water to the soil and the plant roots. Although further investigations should be performed to completely characterize the interaction between the hydrogel and the soil, such findings suggest that the envisaged use of the hydrogel on a large scale might have a revolutionary impact on the optimization of water resources management in agriculture.

  1. Superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on copolymer cellulose/poly (vinyl alcohol)/CNT

    Khoerunnisa, Fitri, E-mail: fitri.khoerunnisa@gmail.com; Hendrawan,; Sonjaya, Yaya; Putri, Oceu Dwi [Department of Chemistry, Indonesia University of Education, Setiabudi 229 Bandung, West Java, Indonesia 40154 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Superabsorbent hydrogels are cross-linked hydrophilic polymers that can absorb and retain a large volume of water, saline solution, or physiological fluids. A distinctive superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on cellulose/ poly (vinyl alcohol)/ carbon nanotubes was successfully synthesized via the graft bio-copolymerization in an aqueous medium with glutaraldehide as a crosslinking agent. The effect of carbon nanotubes (CNT) on water absorption capacity and mechanical properties of superabsorbent composite were particularly investigated. The Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the evidence of copolymerization of hydrogel precursors as well as the interaction of CNT filler with the hydrogel matrices, as indicated by the shifting of peak intensity and position of several functional groups (O-H, C-H sp{sup 3}, C=O, C-N, C-O). The modification of hydrogel surface morphology and porosity owing to CNT insertion was also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. The CNT insertion improved the mechanical strength of superabsorbent hydrogel composites. Moreover, insertion of CNT into hydrogel matrix remarkably increased the swelling capacity of superabsorbent composites up to 840%. This huge water absorption capacity of hydrogel composites offers promising applications in development of superabsorbent polymers.

  2. Superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on copolymer cellulose/poly (vinyl alcohol)/CNT

    Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Hendrawan,; Sonjaya, Yaya; Putri, Oceu Dwi

    2016-01-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels are cross-linked hydrophilic polymers that can absorb and retain a large volume of water, saline solution, or physiological fluids. A distinctive superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on cellulose/ poly (vinyl alcohol)/ carbon nanotubes was successfully synthesized via the graft bio-copolymerization in an aqueous medium with glutaraldehide as a crosslinking agent. The effect of carbon nanotubes (CNT) on water absorption capacity and mechanical properties of superabsorbent composite were particularly investigated. The Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the evidence of copolymerization of hydrogel precursors as well as the interaction of CNT filler with the hydrogel matrices, as indicated by the shifting of peak intensity and position of several functional groups (O-H, C-H sp"3, C=O, C-N, C-O). The modification of hydrogel surface morphology and porosity owing to CNT insertion was also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. The CNT insertion improved the mechanical strength of superabsorbent hydrogel composites. Moreover, insertion of CNT into hydrogel matrix remarkably increased the swelling capacity of superabsorbent composites up to 840%. This huge water absorption capacity of hydrogel composites offers promising applications in development of superabsorbent polymers.

  3. New transparent flexible nanopaper as ultraviolet filter based on red emissive Eu(III) nanofibrillated cellulose

    Zhang, Zhao; Chang, Hui; Xue, Bailiang; Han, Qing; Lü, Xingqiang; Zhang, Sufeng; Li, Xinping; Zhu, Xunjin; Wong, Wai-kwok; Li, Kecheng

    2017-11-01

    A new kind of highly red emissive and transparent nanopapers as ultraviolet filter are produced from lanthanide complex Eu(TTA)3(H2O)2 grafted nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) by a filtration process using a Buchner funnel. The nanopapers Eu-NFC 1-4 with different thickness (0.023 mm, 1; 0.04 mm, 2; 0.081 mm, 3 and 0.1 mm, 4) possess a fibres with dimensions of approximately 50 nm in diameter and several micrometres in length. Those nanopapers exhibit excellent ultraviolet A (UVA; 320-400 nm) filter property and high optical transmittance (>73% at wavelength of 600 nm). The presence of Eu(TTA)3(H2O)2 in Eu-NFC nanopapers can block 97% UVA (at 348 nm) light and convert it into pure red emission (CIE: x = 0.663, y = 0.333) through the efficient triplet-triplet energy transfer process. The efficient red emission can significantly improve the photo-stability of β-diketones type UVA filter. It can sustain for 10 h without decomposition under UV irradiation at 365 nm, which makes it possible to be applied in UVA filters. Moreover, its low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE: 6.39 ppm K-1 of nanocellulose), is superior to petroleum-based materials for red organic light-emitting devices.

  4. Cellulose is not just cellulose

    Hidayat, Budi Juliman; Felby, Claus; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2012-01-01

    are not regions where free cellulose ends are more abundant than in the bulk cell wall. In more severe cases cracks between fibrils form at dislocations and it is possible that the increased accessibility that these cracks give is the reason why hydrolysis of cellulose starts at these locations. If acid...... or enzymatic hydrolysis of plant cell walls is carried out simultaneously with the application of shear stress, plant cells such as fibers or tracheids break at their dislocations. At present it is not known whether specific carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) and/or cellulases preferentially access cellulose...

  5. Synthesis, characterization and adsorption properties of microcrystalline cellulose based nanogel for dyes and heavy metals removal.

    El-Naggar, Mehrez E; Radwan, Emad K; El-Wakeel, Shaimaa T; Kafafy, Hany; Gad-Allah, Tarek A; El-Kalliny, Amer S; Shaheen, Tharwat I

    2018-07-01

    Recently, naturally occurring biopolymers have attracted the attention as potential adsorbents for the removal of water contaminants. In this work, we present the development of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)-based nanogel grafted with acrylamide and acrylic acid in the presence of methylene bisacrylamide and potassium persulphate as a crosslinking agent and initiator, respectively. World-class facilities such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), surface analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and zeta sizer were used to characterize the synthesized MCC based nanogel. The prepared nanogel was applied to remove reactive red 195 (RR195) dye and Cd (II) from aqueous medium at different operational conditions. The adsorption experiments showed that the feed concentration of monomers has a significant effect on the removal of RR195 which peaked (93% removal) after 10min of contact time at pH2 and a dose of 1.5g/L. On contrary, the feed concentration has insignificant effect on the removal of Cd (II) which peaked (97% removal) after 30min of contact time at pH6 and a dose of 0.5g/L. The adsorption equilibrium data of RR195 and Cd (II) was best described by Freundlich and Langmuir, respectively. Conclusively, the prepared MCC based nanogels were proved as promising adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants as well as heavy metals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biodegradable packaging materials conception based on starch and polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced with cellulose.

    Masmoudi, Fatma; Bessadok, Atef; Dammak, Mohamed; Jaziri, Mohamed; Ammar, Emna

    2016-10-01

    The plastic materials used for packaging are increasing leading to a considerable amount of undegradable solid wastes. This work deals with the reduction of conventional plastics waste and the natural resources preservation by using cellulosic polymers from renewable resources (alfa and luffa). Plasticized starch films syntheses were achieved at a laboratory scale. These natural films showed some very attractive mechanical properties at relatively low plasticizers levels (12 to 17 % by weight). Furthermore, mixtures including polylactic acid polymer (PLA) and cellulose fibers extracted from alfa and luffa were investigated by melt extrusion technique. When used at a rate of 10 %, these fibers improved the mixture mechanical properties. Both developed materials were biodegradable, but the plasticized starch exhibited a faster biodegradation kinetic compared to the PLA/cellulose fibers. These new materials would contribute to a sustainable development and a waste reduction.

  7. Haptic device development based on electro static force of cellulose electro active paper

    Yun, Gyu-young; Kim, Sang-Youn; Jang, Sang-Dong; Kim, Dong-Gu; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-04-01

    Haptic is one of well-considered device which is suitable for demanding virtual reality applications such as medical equipment, mobile devices, the online marketing and so on. Nowadays, many of concepts for haptic devices have been suggested to meet the demand of industries. Cellulose has received much attention as an emerging smart material, named as electro-active paper (EAPap). The EAPap is attractive for mobile haptic devices due to its unique characteristics in terms of low actuation power, suitability for thin devices and transparency. In this paper, we suggest a new concept of haptic actuator with the use of cellulose EAPap. Its performance is evaluated depending on various actuation conditions. As a result, cellulose electrostatic force actuator shows a large output displacement and fast response, which is suitable for mobile haptic devices.

  8. A 24-GHz Front-End Integrated on a Multilayer Cellulose-Based Substrate for Doppler Radar Sensors

    Federico Alimenti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a miniaturized Doppler radar that can be used as a motion sensor for low-cost Internet of things (IoT applications. For the first time, a radar front-end and its antenna are integrated on a multilayer cellulose-based substrate, built-up by alternating paper, glue and metal layers. The circuit exploits a distributed microstrip structure that is realized using a copper adhesive laminate, so as to obtain a low-loss conductor. The radar operates at 24 GHz and transmits 5 mW of power. The antenna has a gain of 7.4 dBi and features a half power beam-width of 48 degrees. The sensor, that is just the size of a stamp, is able to detect the movement of a walking person up to 10 m in distance, while a minimum speed of 50 mm/s up to 3 m is clearly measured. Beyond this specific result, the present paper demonstrates that the attractive features of cellulose, including ultra-low cost and eco-friendliness (i.e., recyclability and biodegradability, can even be exploited for the realization of future high-frequency hardware. This opens opens the door to the implementation on cellulose of devices and systems which make up the “sensing layer” at the base of the IoT ecosystem.

  9. Optical Sensor based Chemical Modification as a Porous Cellulose Acetate Film and Its Application for Ethanol Sensor

    Mulijani, S.; Iswantini, D.; Wicaksono, R.; Notriawan, D.

    2018-03-01

    A new approach to design and construction of an optical ethanol sensor has been developed by immobilizing a direct dye at a porous cellulosic polymer fllm. This sensor was fabricated by binding Nile Red to a cellulose acetate membrane that had previously been subjected to an exhaustive base hydrolysis. The prepared optical ethanol sensor was enhanced by adding pluronic as a porogen in the membrane. The addition of pluronic surfactant into cellulose acetate membrane increased the hydrophilic and porous properties of membrane. Advantageous features of the design include simple and easy of fabrication. Variable affecting sensor performance of dye concentration have been fully evaluated and optimized. The rapid response results from the porous structure of the polymeric support, which minimizes barriers to mass transport. Signal of optical sensor based on reaction of dye nile red over the membrane with ethanol and will produce the purple colored product. Result was obtained that maximum intensity of dye nile red reacted with alcohol is at 630-640 nm. Linear regression equation (r2), limit of detection, and limit of quantitation of membrane with 2% dye was 0.9625, 0.29%, and 0.97%. Performance of optical sensor was also evaluated through methanol, ethanol and propanol. This study was purposed to measure the polarity and selectivity of optic sensor toward the alcohol derivatives. Fluorescence intensity of optic sensor membrane for methanol 5%, ethanol 5% and propanol 5% was 15113.56, 16573.75 and 18495.97 respectively.

  10. Novel cellulose-based halochromic test strips for naked-eye detection of alkaline vapors and analytes.

    Abou-Yousef, Hussein; Khattab, Tawfik A; Youssef, Yehia A; Al-Balakocy, Naser; Kamel, Samir

    2017-08-01

    A simple, portable and highly sensitive naked-eye test strip is successfully prepared for optical detection of gaseous and aqueous alkaline analytes. Novel pH-sensory tricyanofuran-hydrazone (TCFH) disperse colorant containing a hydrazone recognition functional moiety is successfully synthesized via azo-coupling reaction between active methyl-containing tricyanofuran (TCF) heterocycle and diazonium salt of 4-aminobenzaldehyde followed by Knoevenagel condensation with malononitrile. UV-vis absorption spectra display solvatochromism and reversible color changes of the TCFH solution in dimethyl sulfoxide in response to pH variations. We investigate the preparation of hydrophobic cellulose/polyethylene terephthalate composites characterized by their high affinity for disperse dyes. Composite films made from CA, Cell/CA, PET/CA, and Cell/PET-CA are produced via solvent-casting procedure using 10-30% modified cellulose or modified polyethylene terephthalate. The mechanical properties and morphologies of these composite films are investigated. The prepared pH-sensory hydrazone-based disperse dye is then applied to dye the produced cellulose-based composite films employing the high temperature pressure dyeing procedure. The produced halochromic PET-CA-TCFH test strip provide an instant visible signal from orange to purple upon exposure to alkaline conditions as proved by the coloration measurements. The sensor strip exhibits high sensitivity and quick detection toward ammonia in both of aqueous and vapor phases by naked-eye observations at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A promising cellulose-based polyzwitterion with pH-sensitive charges

    Thomas Elschner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel polyzwitterion possessing weak ionic groups could be efficiently synthesized from cellulose phenyl carbonate. Polyanion, polycation, and polyzwitterion are accessible by orthogonal removal of protecting groups. The molecular structure was proofed by FTIR- and NMR spectroscopy. Characteristic properties of the cellulose derivatives, e.g., acid dissociation constants, isoelectric point and complexation, were investigated by potentiometric titration (pH, nephelometry, rheology and dynamic light-scattering. The formation of pH-responsive interpolyelectrolyte complexes applying polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride was preliminary studied.

  12. Cellulose multilayer Membranes manufacture with Ionic liquid

    Livazovic, Sara; Li, Z.; Behzad, Ali Reza; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2015-01-01

    and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions

  13. Ultra-high mechanical properties of porous composites based on regenerated cellulose and cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol).

    Teng, Jian; Yang, Biao; Zhang, Liang-Qing; Lin, Sheng-Qiang; Xu, Ling; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Tang, Jian-Hua; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2018-01-01

    The ultra-high mechanical, biocompatible and biodegradable porous regenerated cellulose/poly(ethylene glycol) (RC/PEG) composites with double network structure were fabricated via an simple method to dissolve cellulose followed by UV irradiation. The porous structure of RC/PEG was sensitively altered by PEG contents, which led to the porous structure morphology transition from 3D fibrillar network to close-grained sheet-like-network with the loading of cross-linked PEG. The porous RC/PEG showed excellent mechanical properties, i.e., the compressive strength can reach 33 times higher than that of neat RC (0.07MPa) at the compressive strain of 30%. Porous RC/PEG also displayed outstanding properties with openly porous structure and structural stabilization. Besides, porous RC/PEG exhibited good water absorbency, which the water absorbency ratio at equilibrium state was 83% higher than that of porous RC. This work provides an environmentally friendly and simple pathway to prepare non-toxic and biocompatible porous regenerated cellulose-based composites with high strength, structural stabilization and good water absorbency, which could be useful for packaging, biomedical applications, sewage purification, etc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cellulose-polyhydroxylated fatty acid ester-based bioplastics with tuning properties: Acylation via a mixed anhydride system.

    Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Goldoni, Luca; Benítez, José J; Davis, Alexander; Ceseracciu, Luca; Cingolani, Roberto; Bayer, Ilker S; Heinze, Thomas; Koschella, Andreas; Heredia, Antonio; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-10-01

    The synthesis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and 9,10,16-hydroxyhexadecanoic (aleuritic) acid ester-based bioplastics was investigated through acylation in a mixed anhydride (trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)/trifluoroacetic acid anhydride (TFAA)), chloroform co-solvent system. The effects of chemical interactions and the molar ratio of aleuritic acid to the anhydroglucose unit (AGU) of cellulose were investigated. The degree of substitution (DS) of new polymers were characterized by two-dimensional solution-state NMR and ranged from 0.51 to 2.60. The chemical analysis by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) confirmed the presence of aleuritate groups in the structure induces the formation of new H-bond networks. The tensile analysis and the contact angle measurement confirmed the ductile behavior and the hydrophobicity of the prepared bioplastics. By increasing the aleuritate amounts, the glass transition temperature decreased and the solubility of bioplastic films in most common solvents was improved. Furthermore, this new polymer exhibits similar properties compared to commercial cellulose derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Renewable Modified Cellulose Bearing Chelating Schiff Base for Adsorptive Removal of Heavy Metal Ions and Antibacterial Action.

    Saravanan, R; Ravikumar, L

    2017-07-01

      A novel approach toward chemically modified cellulose bearing active chelating Schiff base with hydroxyl group (Cell-Hy) was synthesized. The modified cellulose was examined for its heavy metal ion uptake potential from aqueous solution. The chemical and structural features of the adsorbent were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), solid state 13C-NMR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) observations. The experimental conditions and adsorption parameters, including pH, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dosage, temperature, and contact time were optimized for the removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions. Kinetic parameters, equilibrium adsorption capacities, and correlation coefficients for pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were carried out. The data obtained from the adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) onto Cell-Hy were subjected to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters have also been evaluated. The antibacterial activity of modified cellulose was tested toward specific bacterial species.

  16. Assessing the impact of lyophilization process in production of implants based on the bacterial cellulose using Raman spectroscopy method

    Timchenko, E V; Timchenko, P E; Pisareva, E V; Vlasov, M Yu; Revin, V V; Klenova, N A; Asadova, A A

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present the research results of lyophilization process influence on the composition of hybrid materials based on the bacterial cellulose (BC) using Raman spectroscopy method. As an object of research was used BC, as well as hybrids based on it, comprising the various combinations of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and collagen. Our studies showed that during the lyophilization process changes the ratio of the individual components. It was found that for samples hybrid based on BC with addition of HAP occurs increase of PO 4 3- peak intensity in the region 956 cm -1 with decreasing width, which indicates a change in the degree of HAP crystallinity. (paper)

  17. Assessing the impact of lyophilization process in production of implants based on the bacterial cellulose using Raman spectroscopy method

    Timchenko, E. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Pisareva, E. V.; Vlasov, M. Yu; Revin, V. V.; Klenova, N. A.; Asadova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present the research results of lyophilization process influence on the composition of hybrid materials based on the bacterial cellulose (BC) using Raman spectroscopy method. As an object of research was used BC, as well as hybrids based on it, comprising the various combinations of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and collagen. Our studies showed that during the lyophilization process changes the ratio of the individual components. It was found that for samples hybrid based on BC with addition of HAP occurs increase of PO4 3- peak intensity in the region 956 cm-1 with decreasing width, which indicates a change in the degree of HAP crystallinity.

  18. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose concentration on physical properties of biodegradable cassava starch-based films

    Sriburi Pensiri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava starch, the economically important agricultural commodity in Thailand, can readily be cast into films. However, the cassava starch film is brittle and weak, leading to inadequate mechanical properties. The properties of starch film can be improved by adding plasticizers and blending with the other biopolymers. Results Cassava starch (5%w/v based films plasticized with glycerol (30 g/100 g starch were characterized with respect to the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%w/w total solid and relative humidity (34 and 54%RH on the mechanical properties of the films. Additionally, intermolecular interactions were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, melting temperature by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Water solubility of the films was also determined. Increasing concentration of CMC increased tensile strength, reduced elongation at break, and decreased water solubility of the blended films. FT-IR spectra indicated intermolecular interactions between cassava starch and CMC in blended films by shifting of carboxyl (C = O and OH groups. DSC thermograms and SEM micrographs confirmed homogeneity of cassava starch-CMC films. Conclusion The addition of CMC to the cassava starch films increased tensile strength and reduced elongation at break of the blended films. This was ascribed to the good interaction between cassava starch and CMC. Cassava starch-CMC composite films have the potential to replace conventional packaging, and the films developed in this work are suggested to be suitable for low moisture food and pharmaceutical products.

  19. Mechanical characterization of scalable cellulose nano-fiber based composites made using liquid composite molding process

    Bamdad Barari; Thomas K. Ellingham; Issam I. Ghamhia; Krishna M. Pillai; Rani El-Hajjar; Lih-Sheng Turng; Ronald Sabo

    2016-01-01

    Plant derived cellulose nano-fibers (CNF) are a material with remarkable mechanical properties compared to other natural fibers. However, efforts to produce nano-composites on a large scale using CNF have yet to be investigated. In this study, scalable CNF nano-composites were made from isotropically porous CNF preforms using a freeze drying process. An improvised...

  20. Morphological, mechanical, barrier and properties of films based on acetylated starch and cellulose from barley.

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Biduski, Bárbara; Evangelho, Jarine Amaral do; Bruni, Graziella Pinheiro; Antunes, Mariana Dias; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable films of native or acetylated starches with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. The tensile strength of the acetylated starch film was lower than those of the native starch film, without fibers. The addition of fibers increased the tensile strength and decreased the elongation and the moisture of native and acetylated starches films. The acetylated starch film showed higher water solubility when compared to native starch film. The addition of cellulose fibers reduced the water solubility of the acetylated starch film. The films reinforced with cellulose fiber exhibited a higher initial decomposition temperature and thermal stability. The mechanical, barrier, solubility, and thermal properties are factors which direct the type of the film application in packaging for food products. The films elaborated with acetylated starches of low degree of substitution were not effective in a reduction of the water vapor permeability. The addition of the cellulose fiber in acetylated and native starches films can contribute to the development of more resistant films to be applied in food systems that need to maintain their integrity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Realization and characterization of a cellulose and conducting polymer-based ultrathin films composite material

    Henry, Christelle

    1998-01-01

    This work was dedicated to the realization and the characterization of an organic composite material in order to obtain organized ultrathin films with high conductivity and good mechanical properties. In this purpose, the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of a crosslinked alkyl cellulose (rigid-rod polymer) was used as a host matrix for the electro-polymerization of alkyl thiophene and pyrrole. The first interesting result was the synthesis of a bigger amount of conducting alkyl polymer in the presence of cellulose. With the help of a photo-patterning technique, we were able to form contacts more or less conducting on the substrate. We have also shown that the conducting polymer grows beyond the electrode area until distances never described up to now in the literature. A preferential orientation of the conducting polymer chains along the LB dipping direction of the cellulose has been observed in some cases. Even for the films without molecular orientation, we have systematically observed a microscopic or macroscopic anisotropy. This phenomenon appears as domains concentrated in conducting polymers with anisotropic shapes oriented along the dipping direction. Finally, we have noticed that cellulose doesn't change the conductivity and the electrochromic properties of the conducting polymer. Beyond the keeping of these intrinsic properties, the matrix allows to stabilize the film when it is in contact with an organic solvent. (author) [fr

  2. Surface-type humidity sensor based on cellulose-PEPC for telemetry systems

    Karimov, Kh. S.; Saleem, M.; Qasuria, T. A.; Farooq, M.

    2011-01-01

    Au/cellulose-PEPC/Au surface-type humidity sensors were fabricated by drop-casting cellulose and poly-N-epoxypropylcarbazole (PEPC) blend thin films. A blend of 2wt% of each cellulose and PEPC in benzol was used for the deposition of humidity sensing films. Blend films were deposited on glass substrates with preliminary deposited surface-type gold electrodes. Films of different thicknesses of cellulose and PEPC composite were deposited by drop-casting technique. A change in electrical resistance and capacitance of the fabricated devices was observed by increasing the relative humidity in the range of 0-95% RH. It was observed that the capacitances of the sensors increase, while their resistances decrease with increasing the relative humidity. The sensors were connected to op-amp square wave oscillators. It was observed that with increasing the relative humidity, the oscillator's frequencies were also increased in the range of 4.2-12.0 kHz for 65 μm thick film sample, 4.1-9.0 kHz for 88 μm thick film sample, and 4.2-9.0 kHz for 210 μm sample. Effects of film thickness on the oscillator's frequency with respect to humidity were also investigated. This polymer humidity sensor controlled oscillator can be used for short-range and long-range remote systems at environmental monitoring and assessment of the humidity level. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Vascular smooth muscle cells in cultures on biofunctionalized cellulose-based scaffolds

    Novotná, Katarína; Bačáková, Lucie; Lisá, Věra; Havelka, P.; Sopuch, T.; Klepetář, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, 89-91 (2009), s. 21-24 ISSN 1429-7248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06173; GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : oxidized cellulose * vascular tissue engineering * biofunctionalization Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  4. High oxygen nanocomposite barrier films based on xylan and nanocrystalline cellulose

    Amit Saxena; Thomas J. Elder; Jeffrey Kenvin; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work is to produce nanocomposite film with low oxygen permeability by casting an aqueous solution containing xylan, sorbitol and nanocrystalline cellulose. The morphology of the resulting nanocomposite films was examined by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy which showed that control films containing xylan and sorbitol had a more...

  5. Cellulosic-based ethanol and the contribution from agriculture and forestry

    Robert D. Perlack; Bryce J. Stokes; John Ferrell; Mary Bohman; Kenneth E. Skog; Dennis P. Dykstra; Patricia K. Lebow; Patrick D. Miles

    2008-01-01

    The cellulosic feedstocks (see chapter 2) needed to produce 20 billion gallons per year (BGY) of second-generation and other renewable fuels can come from a wide variety of cropland and forestland sources, including imports. The impact of producing these biofuels on U.S. agriculture and forestry will very much depend on the relative proportions of cropland- and...

  6. Fabrication, characterization and evaluation of bacterial cellulose-based capsule shells for oral drug delivery

    Ullah, Hanif; Badshah, Munair; Mäkilä, Ermei

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) was investigated for the first time for the preparation of capsule shells for immediate and sustained release of drugs. The prepared capsule shells were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The BC...... to gelatin capsules with both immediate and sustained drug release properties depending upon the compositions of the encapsulated materials....

  7. Mechanical properties of cellulose nanomaterials studied by contact resonance atomic force microscopy

    Ryan Wagner; Robert J. Moon; Arvind Raman

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the mechanical properties of cellulose nanomaterials is key to the development of new cellulose nanomaterial based products. Using contact resonance atomic force microscopy we measured and mapped the transverse elastic modulus of three types of cellulosic nanoparticles: tunicate cellulose nanocrystals, wood cellulose nanocrystals, and wood cellulose...

  8. Physicotechnical, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric properties of powdered cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose derived from groundnut shells

    Chukwuemeka P. Azubuike

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available α-Cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders, derived from agricultural waste products, that have for the pharmaceutical industry, desirable physical (flow properties were investigated. α–Cellulose (GCN was extracted from groundnut shell (an agricultural waste product using a non-dissolving method based on inorganic reagents. Modification of this α -cellulose was carried out by partially hydrolysing it with 2N hydrochloric acid under reflux to obtain microcrystalline cellulose (MCGN. The physical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of the derived α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders were compared with Avicel® PH 101, a commercial brand of microcrystalline cellulose (MCCA, using standard methods. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the α-cellulose had lower crystallinity. This suggested that treatment with 2N hydrochloric acid led to an increase in the crystallinity index. Thermogravimetric analysis showed quite similar thermal behavior for all cellulose samples, although the α-cellulose had a somewhat lower stability. A comparison of the physical properties between the microcrystalline celluloses and the α-cellulose suggests that microcrystalline cellulose (MCGN and MCCA might have better flow properties. In almost all cases, MCGN and MCCA had similar characteristics. Since groundnut shells are agricultural waste products, its utilization as a source of microcrystalline cellulose might be a good low-cost alternative to the more expensive commercial brand.

  9. Effect of citric acid crosslinking cellulose-based hydrogels on osteogenic differentiation.

    Raucci, M G; Alvarez-Perez, M A; Demitri, C; Giugliano, D; De Benedictis, V; Sannino, A; Ambrosio, L

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the relationships between material surface properties and cellular responses is essential to designing optimal material surfaces for implantation and tissue engineering. In this study, cellulose hydrogels were crosslinked using a non-toxic and natural component namely citric acid. The chemical treatment induces COOH functional groups that improve the hydrophilicity, roughness, and materials rheological properties. The physiochemical, morphological, and mechanical analyses were performed to analyze the material surface before and after crosslinking. This approach would help determine if the effect of chemical treatment on cellulose hydrogel improves the hydrophilicity, roughness, and rheological properties of the scaffold. In this study, it was demonstrated that the biological responses of human mesenchymal stem cell with regard to cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation were influenced in vitro by changing the surface chemistry and roughness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Stress sensitive electricity based on Ag/cellulose nanofiber aerogel for self-reporting.

    Yao, Qiufang; Fan, Bitao; Xiong, Ye; Wang, Chao; Wang, Hanwei; Jin, Chunde; Sun, Qingfeng

    2017-07-15

    A self-reporting aerogel toward stress sensitive slectricity (SSE) was presented using an interconnected 3D fibrous network of Ag nanoparticles/cellulose nanofiber aerogel (Ag/CNF), which was prepared via combined routes of silver mirror reaction and ultrasonication. Sphere-like Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) with mean diameter of 74nm were tightly anchored in the cellulose nanofiber through by the coherent interfaces as the conductive materials. The as-prepared Ag/CNF as a self-reporting material for SSE not only possessed quick response and sensitivity, but also be easily recovered after 100th compressive cycles without plastic deformation or degradation in compressive strength. Consequently, Ag/CNF could play a viable role in self-reporting materials as a quick electric-stress responsive sensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Conductive nano composites based on cellulose nano fiber coated poly aniline via in situ polymerization

    Silva, Michael J. da; Sanches, Alex O.; Malmonge, Luiz F.; Malmonge, Jose A.; Medeiros, Eliton S. de; Rosa, Morsyleide F.

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose nano fiber (CNF) was extracted by acid hydrolysis from cotton microfibril and nano composites of CNF/PANI-DBSA were obtained by in situ polymerization of aniline onto CNF. The ratios between DBSA/aniline and aniline/oxidant were varied and the nano composites were characterized by four probes direct current (dc) electrical conductivity, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis-NIR) and FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrical conductive about ∼10 -1 S/cm was research and was independent of DBSA/aniline molar ratio between 2-4 and the aniline/oxidant molar ratio between 1-5. X-ray patterns of the samples show crystalline peaks characteristic of cellulose I. The FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of PANI and CNF in all samples. (author)

  12. Technological Foresight Based on Citing and Cited Patents of Cellulose with Pharmaceutical Aplications.

    Deysimar de Souza Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to present the relevance of cellulose by means of the technological foresight study through citing and cited documents from a patent application (WO 9745131 A1 as indicators of innovation. The European database of patents (espacenet was used, combining keywords and IPC. The major applicants, countries of publication and uses were mapped. The patent requests collected are mainly distributed in the area of polymers to medical devices and therapeutic methods that utilize cellulose. The results obtained revealed that the US were the main country with studies directed to this technological area (18 patent applications and the major applicant was the company Micro Therapeutics Inc. Therefore, we can understand that this is a promising technology that may reflect in an increase of R&D activities and in the patent deposits in this area.

  13. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose

    Carol López de Dicastillo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate, that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials.

  14. Cellulose-based graft copolymers with controlled architecture prepared in a homogeneous phase

    Raus, Vladimír; Štěpánek, M.; Uchman, M.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Látalová, Petra; Čadová, Eva; Netopilík, Miloš; Kříž, Jaroslav; Dybal, Jiří; Vlček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 20 (2011), s. 4353-4367 ISSN 0887-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/1348; GA ČR GAP208/10/0353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) * cellulose * graft copolymers Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 3.919, year: 2011

  15. Physicochemical and biochemical interactions in yeast immobilization by adhesion to a cellulose based support

    Kurec, M.; Brányik, Tomáš; Mota, André; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    An important quality of yeast cell wall is the ability to adhere to other cell walls or solid surfaces. This feature of yeast is responsible for technologically important phenomena such as flocculation at the end of beer fermentation and cell adhesion to immobilization supports e.g. spent grains, DEAE-cellulose etc. Physicochemical properties of yeast surfaces, e.g. hydrophobicity and surface charge, have a substantial impact on cell adhesion and flocculation. The interaction e...

  16. Natural organic UV-absorbent coatings based on cellulose and lignin: designed effects on spectroscopic properties.

    Hambardzumyan, Arayik; Foulon, Laurence; Chabbert, Brigitte; Aguié-Béghin, Véronique

    2012-12-10

    Novel nanocomposite coatings composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and lignin (either synthetic or fractionated from spruce and corn stalks) were prepared without chemical modification or functionalization (via covalent attachment) of one of the two biopolymers. The spectroscopic properties of these coatings were investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. When using the appropriate weight ratio of CNC/lignin (R), these nanocomposite systems exhibited high-performance optical properties, high transmittance in the visible spectrum, and high blocking in the UV spectrum. Atomic force microscopy analysis demonstrated that these coatings were smooth and homogeneous, with visible dispersed lignin nodules in a cellulosic matrix. It was also demonstrated that the introduction of nanoparticles into the medium increases the weight ratio and the CNC-specific surface area, which allows better dispersion of the lignin molecules throughout the solid film. Consequently, the larger molecular expansion of these aromatic polymers on the surface of the cellulosic nanoparticles dislocates the π-π aromatic aggregates, which increases the extinction coefficient and decreases the transmittance in the UV region. These nanocomposite coatings were optically transparent at visible wavelengths.

  17. Investigation of Waste Paper Cellulosic Fibers Utilization into Cement Based Building Materials

    Viola Hospodarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the utilization of renewable natural cellulosic materials, such as wood, plants, and waste paper in the preparation of building materials has attracted significant interest. This is due to their advantageous properties, low environmental impact and low cost. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of recycled cellulosic fibers (in the amount 0.5 wt % of the filler and binder weight and superplasticizer (in the amount 0.5 wt % of the cement weight on the resulting properties of cement composites (consistency of fresh mixture, density, thermal conductivity, and compressive and flexural strength for hardening times of 1, 3, 7, 28, and 90 days. Plasticizer use improved the workability of fresh cement mixture. In comparison to the reference sample, the results revealed a decrease in density of 6.8% and in the thermal conductivity of composites with cellulosic fibers of 34%. The highest values of compressive (48.4 MPa and flexural (up to 7 MPa strength were achieved for hardened fiber cement specimens with plasticizer due to their significantly better dispersion of cement particles and improved bond strength between fibers and matrix.

  18. Utilization of Cellulose from Pineapple Leaf Fibers as Nanofiller in Polyvinyl Alcohol-Based Film

    Kendri Wahyuningsih

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose from pineapple leaf fibers as one of the natural polymer which has biodegradable property in a nanometer’s scale, can be formed as a filler in composite of Poly(vinyl Alcohol/PVA is expected to increase the physical, thermal, and barrier properties of composite films similar to conventional plastic. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fibrillation of cellulose fibers from pineapple leaf fibers using a combined technique of chemical-mechanical treatments, to investigate the reinforcing effect of concentration of nanocellulose fibrils in the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA matrix on physical properties, thermal properties, water vapor transmission rate, light transmittance and morphological with and without addition of glycerol. Nanocellulose was made from cellulose of pineapple leaf fiber using wet milling (Ultra Fine Grinder. The composite film production was carried out by using casting solution method by mixing PVA solution with nanocellulose (10-50% and glycerol (0-1%. The characterization of film covered physical properties (thickness, moisture content and density, thermal properties, permeability (WVTR, light transmittance, morphology, and crystallinity. Nanocellulose from pineapple leaf fibers was produced by Ultra Fine Grinder shows that the size reduction process was accurate. Nanocellulose addition on PVA composite film was affected to increasing the physical, thermal, and barrier properties. Meanwhile, decreasing the percentage of composite film transmittance, thus the transparency decrease (opaque. Water vapor transmission rate (WVTR the film was increased with increasing glycerol concentration, but the physical and thermal properties was decreased.

  19. Use of agroindustrial waste in the preparation of nanocomposites based on bacterial cellulose and hydroxyapatite

    Duarte, Eden B.; Chagas, Bruna S. das; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Andrade, Fabia K.; Borges, Maria F.; Muniz, Celli R.; Souza Filho, Men de Sa M.; Rosa, Morsyleide F.; Brigida, Ana I.; Morais, Joao P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental issues have supported the interest in renewable sources and agroindustrial residues became a significant resource for the production of new materials. The present work presents the use of agroindustrial residues to obtain bacterial cellulose (BC) for further elaboration of nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite (HA). The production of BC membranes occurred in Hestrin & Schramm medium, cashew juice and sisal liquid waste cultivated under static conditions. After the incubation period, the BC membranes were purified and nanocomposites prepared by successive immersion of the purified membranes in solutions of Calcium Chloride (CaCl_2), and Sodium Phosphate (Na_2HPO_4), followed by drying and subsequent characterization. The materials obtained were characterized by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Additionally, in vitro tests were performed for nanocomposites. The results showed the production of cellulose from the three substrates studied, without the need for further supplementation or pH change. In all characterizations, structure and typical behavior of bacterial cellulose were found. The composites showed bioactivity and the adsorption capacity of proteins, which lead to potential biocompatibility of these materials. (author)

  20. Novel solid – solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose used for temperature stabilisation

    Wojda Marta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal management is one of crucial issues in the development of modern electronic devices. In the recent years interest in phase change materials (PCMs as alternative cooling possibility has increased significantly. Preliminary results concerning the research into possibility of the use of solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs for stabilisation temperature of electronic devices has been presented in the paper. Novel solid-solid phase change material based on polyethylene glycol and cellulose has been synthesized. Attempt to improve its thermal conductivity has been taken. Material has been synthesized for the purpose of stabilisation of temperature of electronic devices.

  1. Renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven as lithium-ion battery separator.

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Kong, Qingshan; Zhang, Chuanjian; Pang, Shuping; Yue, Liping; Wang, Xuejiang; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei

    2013-01-01

    A renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven was explored as lithium-ion battery separator via an electrospinning technique followed by a dip-coating process. It was demonstrated that such nanofibrous composite nonwoven possessed good electrolyte wettability, excellent heat tolerance, and high ionic conductivity. The cells using the composite separator displayed better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention, when compared to those of commercialized polypropylene separator under the same conditions. These fascinating characteristics would endow this renewable composite nonwoven a promising separator for high-power lithium-ion battery.

  2. Synthesis and study of nano-structured cellulose acetate based materials for energy applications; Synthese et etude de materiaux nanostructures a base d'acetate de cellulose pour applications energetiques

    Fischer, F

    2006-12-15

    Nano-structured materials have unique properties (high exchange areas, containment effect) because of their very low characteristic dimensions. The elaboration way set up in this PhD work consists in applying the classical processes for the preparation of aerogel-like materials (combining sol-gel synthesis and CO{sub 2} supercritical extraction) to cellulosic polymers. This work is divided in four parts: a literature review, the presentation and the study of the chemical synthesis that leads to cellulose acetate-based aerogel, the characterizations (chemical, structural and thermal) of the elaborated nano-materials, and finally the study of the first carbons that were obtained after pyrolysis of the organic matrix. The formulations and the sol-gel protocol lead to chemical gels by crosslinking cellulose acetate using a poly-functional iso-cyanate. The dry materials obtained after solvent extraction with supercritical CO{sub 2} are nano-structured and mainly meso-porous. Correlations between chemical synthesis parameters (reagent concentrations, crosslinking rate and degree of polymerisation) and porous properties (density, porosity, pore size distribution) were highlighted thanks to structural characterizations. An ultra-porous reference aerogel, with a density equals to 0,245 g.cm{sup -3} together with a meso-porous volume of 3,40 cm{sup 3}.g{sup -1} was elaborated. Once in granular shape, this material has a thermal conductivity of 0,029 W.m{sup -1}.K{sup -1}. In addition, carbon materials produced after pyrolysis of the organic matrix and after grinding are nano-structured and nano-porous, even if important structural modifications have occurred during the carbonization process. The elaborated materials are evaluated for applications in relation with energy such as thermal insulation (organic aerogels) but also for energy conversion and storage through electrochemical way (carbon aerogels). (author)

  3. Nano-cellulose based nano-coating biomaterial dataset using corn leaf biomass: An innovative biodegradable plant biomaterial

    A.B.M. Sharif Hossain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The nanocellulose derived biodegradable plant biomaterial as nano-coating can be used in the medical, biomedical cosmetics, and bioengineering products. Bio-plastic and some synthetic derived materials are edible and naturally biodegradable. The study was conducted to investigate edible nano-biopolymer based nano-coating of capsules and drugs or other definite biomedical materials from corn leaf biomass. Corn leaf biomass was used as an innovative sample to produce edible nano-coating bioplastic for drug and capsule coating and other industrial uses. The data show the negligible water 0.01% absorbed by bio-plastic nanocoating. Odor represented by burning test was under the completely standard based on ASTM. Moreover, data on color coating, tensile strength, pH, cellulose content have been shown under standard value of ASTM (American standard for testing and materials standard. In addition to that data on the chemical element test like K+, CO3−−, Cl-, Na+ exhibited positive data compared to the synthetic plastic in the laboratory using the EN (166 standardization. Therefore, it can be concluded that both organic (cellulose and starch based edible nano-coating bioplastic may be used for drug and capsule coating as biomedical and medical components in the pharmaceutical industries. Keywords: Nanocellulose, Nanobioplastic, Nanocoating, Biodegradable, Corn leaf

  4. Antimicrobial effectiveness of oregano and sage essential oils incorporated into whey protein films or cellulose-based filter paper.

    Royo, Maite; Fernández-Pan, Idoya; Maté, Juan I

    2010-07-01

    In this study the antimicrobial effectiveness of oregano and sage essential oils (EOs) incorporated into two different matrices, whey protein isolate (WPI) and cellulose-based filter paper, was analysed. Antimicrobial properties of WPI-based films containing oregano and sage EOs were tested against Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis. Oregano EO showed antimicrobial activity against all three micro-organisms. The highest inhibition zones were against L. innocua. However, sage EO did not show antimicrobial activity against any of the micro-organisms. Antimicrobial activity was confirmed for both EOs using cellulose-based filter paper as supporting matrix, although it was significantly more intense for oregano EO. Inhibition surfaces were significantly greater when compared with those of the WPI films. This finding is likely due to the higher porosity and diffusivity of the active compounds in the filter paper. The interactions between the EOs and the films have a critical effect on the diffusivity of the active compounds and therefore on the final antimicrobial activity. As a result, to obtain active edible films, it is necessary to find the equilibrium point between the nature and concentration of the active compounds in the EO and the formulation of the film.

  5. Saccharification of cellulose by acetolysis

    Tanaka, T; Yamanaka, S; Takinami, K

    1978-01-01

    For saccharification of cellulose, an acetolysis method using assimilable acid with a microorganism was applied. Based on this method, a new method which gave totally assimilable products was established. The rigid crystalline structure of cellulose was disrupted by acetolysis with 2-2.5 times as much acetic anhydride as cellulose on a weight basis and 1 N sulfuric acid as a catalyst. Then for cleavage of O-acetyl ester and glycosidic bonds, the resulting amorphous acetolysate of cellulose could easily be hydrolyzed by heating in 1 N sulfuric acid at 120/sup 0/C for 1-1.5 h without over-disruption of glucose. Ninety-eight % of the cellulose used was recovered in the form of hydrolysate having about 30% saccharide concentration. The hydrolysate obtained was composed of 74% glucose, 13% cellobiose and 11% mono-O-acetyl glucose on a weight basis.

  6. The cellulose resource matrix

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  7. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOSE BASED BIO-POLYMER AEROGEL ISOLATED FROM WASTE OF BLUEBERRY TREE (VACCINIUM MYRTILLUS

    Mehmet KAYA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose aerogel (CA has highly porous structure, environmentally friendly, thermally stable and flame retardant properties. These properties in material worlds have attracted large interest as a potentially industrial material. In this paper, cellulose aerogel with flame retardant was produced from pruned branches and bushes of blueberries wastes (PBBW. Firstly, cellulose raw material these wastes was obtained and then, cellulose aerogel via freeze-drying, followed by cellulose hydrogel production. Our reports showed that three dimensionally network aerogel structure prepared from NaOH/Urea as scaffold solution. The present cellulose aerogel has excellent flame retardancy, which can extinguish within 140 s. By the way, it was inferred thermal stability performance of cellulose aerogel could be efficient potential thermal insulating material. Besides, this process are sustainable, easily available at low cost and suitable for industrial applications.

  8. Biopolymer electrolytes based on blend of kappa-carrageenan and cellulose derivatives for potential application in dye sensitized solar cell

    Rudhziah, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, I.; Mohamed, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan was used as the principle host for developing new biopolymer electrolytes based on the blend of carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose. The blending of carboxymethyl cellulose into carboxymethyl kappa-carragenan was found to be a promising strategy to improve the material properties such as conductive properties. The electrolyte samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, ionic transference number measurement and linear sweep voltammetry in order to investigate their structural, thermal and electrochemical properties. Impedance study showed that the ionic conductivity increased with the increment of ammonium iodide concentration. The highest room temperature ionic conductivity achieved was 2.41 × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 30 wt% of the salt. The increment of conductivity was due to the increase of formation of transient cross-linking between the carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose chains and the doping salt as indicated the T g trend. The conductivity was also attributed by the increase in the number of charge carriers in the biopolymer electrolytes system. The interactions between polymers and salt were confirmed by FTIR study. The transference number measurements showed that the conductivity was predominantly ionic. Temperature dependent conductivity study showed that conductivity increased with the reciprocal of temperature. The conductivity-temperature plots suggested that the conductivity obeyed the Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher relation and the activation energy for the best conducting sample was 0.010 eV. This system was used for the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells, FTO/TiO 2 -dye/CMKC/CMCE-NH 4 I + I 2 /Pt. The fabricated cell showed response under light intensity of 100 mW cm −2 with efficiency of 0.13% indicating that the blend biopolymer

  9. Key product development based on cyclo olefin polymer for LCD-TV

    Konishi, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Masahi; Arakawa, Kouhei

    2006-09-01

    Cyclo Olefin Polymer (COP), which was developed by Zeon Corporation, is well known and used as an optical plastic in optical markets, having unique properties such as high light transmission, low water absorption, low birefringence etc. Optes Inc, who is ZEON CORPORATION's affiliate optical parts manufacturer, has succeeded in the development of high performance optical base films. These are used for retardation and polarizing films in LCD's (Liquid Crystal Displays), made from Cyclo Olefin Polymer with own film extrusion technologies. The Optical base film developed by Optes Inc has superior properties compared with those of existing products such as polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and Triacetate Cellulose (TAC) base in terms of low birefringence, high optical isotropy and high dimensional stability under high humidity and temperature conditions.

  10. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  11. Dried blood spots on carboxymethyl cellulose sheets: Rapid sample preparation based on dissolution and precipitation

    Skoglund Ask, Kristine; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This short communication describes the use of carboxymethyl cellulose sheets as sampling material for dried blood spots. Whole blood, spiked with quetiapine, a hydrophobic and basic small molecule drug substance, was spotted on the sheet and subsequently dried. The dried spot was then almost...... completely dissolved in acidified aqueous solution. It was shown that the dissolved polymer, together with major blood components can easily be precipitated and removed with acetonitrile. The presented sampling on a water-soluble biopolymer derivative followed by precipitation resulted in a simple protocol...

  12. Electrical and mechanical characterization of nanoscale-layered cellulose-based electro-active paper.

    Yun, Gyu-Young; Yun, Ki-Ju; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the electro-mechanical behavior of piezoelectric electro active paper (EAPap), the converse and direct piezoelectric characterization of cellulose EAPap was studied and compared. A delay between the electrical field and the induced strain of EAPap was observed due to the inner nano-voids or the localized amorphous regions in layer-by-layered structure to capture or hold the electrical charges and remnant ions. The linear relation between electric field and induced strain is also observed. The electro-mechanical performance of EAPap is discussed in detail in this paper.

  13. Nano-cellulose biopolymer based nano-biofilm biomaterial using plant biomass: An innovative plant biomaterial dataset

    A.B.M. Sharif hossain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The nano-cellulose derived nano-biofilm keeps a magnificent role in medical, biomedical, bioengineering and pharmaceutical industries. Plant biomaterial is naturally organic and biodegradable. This study has been highlighted as one of the strategy introducing biomass based nano-bioplastic (nanobiofilm to solve dependency on petroleum and environment pollution because of non-degradable plastic. The data study was carried out to investigate the nano-biopolymer (nanocellulose based nano-biofilm data from corn leaf biomass coming after bioprocess technology without chemicals. Corn leaf biomass was used to produce biodegradable nano-bioplastic for medical and biomedical and other industrial uses. Data on water absorption, odor, pH, cellulose content, shape and firmness, color coating and tensile strength test have been exhibited under standardization of ASTM (American standard for testing and materials. Moreover, the chemical elements of nanobiofilm like K+, CO3−−, Cl−, Na+ showed standard data using the EN (166. Keywords: Nanocellulose, Nanobiofilm, Nanobioplastic, Biodegradable, Corn leaf

  14. Preparation and characterization of novel wound dressing based on silver nanoparticle-impregnated bacterial cellulose and bacterial cellulose-aloe vera

    Ventigan, Sarla V.; Santiago, Karen S.; Balitaan, Jolleen Natalie I.

    2015-01-01

    Ideal wound dressings stimulate wound healing, control unpleasant odors, and provide antimicrobial action in wounds. However, most traditional wound dressings such as gauze and biological dressings exhibit exudate leaking which increases the risk of infection and delayed wound healing of tissues. This study aims to develop and characterize a bio-composite of bacterial cellulose and aloe vera having the ideal features of a wound dressing from Acetobacter xylinum-activated culture medium supplemented with various aloe vera concentrations from )-50% (v/v) and the film which exhibits the most uniform results is used for the incorporation of silver nanoparticle as an antibacterial agent. The biopolymer composites of bacterial cellulose and aloe vera were developed by adding 0-50% aloe vera (v/v) in the A. xylinum-activated coconut water medium during biosynthesis in static cultivation for 10 days. The films obtained after drying the membranes were named as bacterial cellulose-aloe vera (BC-A) films. The moisture content of films reached 99% which indicates that the films may be suitable for providing a moist environment to facilitate wound healing fast. With the addition of aloe vera up to 30% (v/v) during BC synthesis, it resulted in a significant improvement in the water absorption capacity of the films showing a WAC ration of 36.46 (r.s.d.= 12.17%, n=3) compared to the unmodified film having a ratio of 9.03 (r.s.d.= 13.95%, n=3). However, the addition of aloe vera at a concentration greater than 30% (v/v) resulted in a decrease in pellicle formation which can be observed from the very weak properties of the films. The BC-A (30%) displayed significantly improved in comparison to the unmodified BC film. Also, it is capable of absorbing high amount of water than its weight and can act as a potential wound dressing which reduces irritation and inflammation. (author)

  15. Production and characterization of composites based on ramie cellulose micro fibers filler

    Edi Syafri; Anwar Kasim and Alfi Asben; Hairul Abral; Sudirman

    2018-01-01

    This research studied production and characterization of bioplastic composites by using cellulose fibers (Cellulose Micro Fibers/CMF) as reinforcement in tapioca starch. CMF ramie was produced by using milling method (CMFM) and ultrasonication (CMFU) with particle size 3,51 μm and 0,388 μm, respectively. The fabrication of the bioplastic composites was performed by solution casting with addition glycerol as a plasticizer. SEM, UTM, XRD, and DSC characterization were carried out. The results show that the size and concentration of CMF significantly affect the physical bioplastic composites. The SEM displays the good interaction CMF filler with the tapioca starch matrix, where the small sized hemophytic CMF bioplastic exhibits are more homogeneous compact and surface structure. The optimum value of tensile strength is found in the addition of 8 % (w/w)CMF ramie from ultrasonication and milling results increased from 1.64 MPa to 3.31 MPa and 2.71 MPa, respectively. The thermal properties have low significant effect with addition ramie CMF.X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD) showed that the crystallinity of bioplastic composites increased with the addition of ramie CMF from 8.65 % to 20.21 % for CMFM and 15.12 % for CMFU. (author)

  16. Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of pehuen cellulosic husk and its pehuen-starch based composites.

    Castaño, J; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S; Carrasco, C; Bouza, R

    2012-11-06

    Pehuen cellulosic husk was characterized and employed as reinforcement for composite materials. In this research, thermoplastic pehuen starch (TPS) and TPS/poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites, reinforced with 5 and 10% of pehuen husk, were prepared by melt-blending. Comparative samples of pehuen TPS and TPS/PLA/PVA blend were also studied. Physical, thermal, structural and mechanical properties of composites were evaluated. Pehuen husk mainly consists of cellulose (50 wt%), hemicellulose (30 wt%) and lignin (14 wt%). In respect to lipids, this husk has only a 0.6 wt%. Its surface is smooth and damage-free and it is decomposed above 325 °C. The incorporation of pehuen husk improved considerably the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the studied composites, mainly in TPS composites. Their thermal stability enhances since biofiber hinders the "out-diffusion" of volatile molecules from the polymer matrix, while mechanical properties could raise due to the natural affinity between husk and starch in the pehuen seed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bio-hydrogen production based on catalytic reforming of volatiles generated by cellulose pyrolysis: An integrated process for ZnO reduction and zinc nanostructures fabrication

    Maciel, Adriana Veloso; Job, Aldo Eloizo; Nova Mussel, Wagner da; Brito, Walter de; Duarte Pasa, Vanya Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a process of cellulose thermal degradation with bio-hydrogen generation and zinc nanostructures synthesis. Production of zinc nanowires and zinc nanoflowers was performed by a novel processes based on cellulose pyrolysis, volatiles reforming and direct reduction of ZnO. The bio-hydrogen generated in situ promoted the ZnO reduction with Zn nanostructures formation by vapor-solid (VS) route. The cellulose and cellulose/ZnO samples were characterized by thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA) and the gases evolved were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The hydrogen was detected by TPR (Temperature Programmed Reaction) tests. The results showed that in the presence of ZnO the cellulose thermal degradation produced larger amounts of H 2 when compared to pure cellulose. The process was also carried out in a tubular furnace with N 2 atmosphere, at temperatures up to 900 o C, and different heating rates. The nanostructures growth was catalyst-free, without pressure reduction, at temperatures lower than those required in the carbothermal reduction of ZnO with fossil carbon. The nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL). One mechanism was presented in an attempt to explain the synthesis of zinc nanostructures that are crystalline, were obtained without significant re-oxidation and whose morphologies are dependent on the heating rates of the process. This route presents a potential use as an industrial process taking into account the simple operational conditions, the low costs of cellulose and the importance of bio-hydrogen and nanostructured zinc.

  18. Hybrid nanocomposites based on electroactive hydrogels and cellulose nanocrystals for high-sensitivity electro-mechanical underwater actuation

    Santaniello, Tommaso; Migliorini, Lorenzo; Locatelli, Erica; Monaco, Ilaria; Yan, Yunsong; Lenardi, Cristina; Comes Franchini, Mauro; Milani, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication and characterization of a hybrid hydrogel/cellulose nanocomposite, which exhibits high-performance electro-mechanical underwater actuation and high sensitivity in response to electrical stimuli below the standard potential of water electrolysis. The macromolecular structure of the material is constituted by an electroactive hydrogel, obtained through a photo-polymerization reaction with the use of three vinylic co-monomers: Na-4-vinylbenzenesulfonate, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, and acrylonitrile. Different amounts (from 0.1% to 1.4% w/w) of biodegradable cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with sulfonate surface groups, obtained through the acidic hydrolysis of sulphite pulp lapsheets, are physically incorporated into the gel matrix during the synthesis step. Freestanding thin films of the nanocomposites are molded, and their swelling, mechanical and responsive properties are fully characterized. We observed that the embedding of the CNCs enhanced both the material Young’s modulus and its sensitivity to the applied electric field in the sub-volt regime (down to 5 mV cm-1). A demonstrator integrating multiple actuators that cooperatively bend together, mimicking the motion of an electro-valve, is also prototyped and tested. The presented nanocomposite is suitable for the development of soft smart components for bio-robotic applications and cells-based and bio-hybrid fluidic devices fabrication.

  19. Cost evaluation of cellulase enzyme for industrial-scale cellulosic ethanol production based on rigorous Aspen Plus modeling.

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Cost reduction on cellulase enzyme usage has been the central effort in the commercialization of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose biomass. Therefore, establishing an accurate evaluation method on cellulase enzyme cost is crucially important to support the health development of the future biorefinery industry. Currently, the cellulase cost evaluation methods were complicated and various controversial or even conflict results were presented. To give a reliable evaluation on this important topic, a rigorous analysis based on the Aspen Plus flowsheet simulation in the commercial scale ethanol plant was proposed in this study. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) was used as the indicator to show the impacts of varying enzyme supply modes, enzyme prices, process parameters, as well as enzyme loading on the enzyme cost. The results reveal that the enzyme cost drives the cellulosic ethanol price below the minimum profit point when the enzyme is purchased from the current industrial enzyme market. An innovative production of cellulase enzyme such as on-site enzyme production should be explored and tested in the industrial scale to yield an economically sound enzyme supply for the future cellulosic ethanol production.

  20. A soft biomolecule actuator based on a highly functionalized bacterial cellulose nano-fiber network with carboxylic acid groups.

    Wang, Fan; Jeon, Jin-Han; Park, Sukho; Kee, Chang-Doo; Kim, Seong-Jun; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-01-07

    Upcoming human-related applications such as soft wearable electronics, flexible haptic systems, and active bio-medical devices will require bio-friendly actuating materials. Here, we report a soft biomolecule actuator based on carboxylated bacterial cellulose (CBC), ionic liquid (IL), and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) electrodes. Soft and biocompatible polymer-IL composites were prepared via doping of CBC with ILs. The highly conductive PSS layers were deposited on both sides of the CBC-IL membranes by a dip-coating technique to yield a sandwiched actuator system. Ionic conductivity and ionic exchange capacity of the CBC membrane can be increased up to 22.8 times and 1.5 times compared with pristine bacterial cellulose (BC), respectively, resulting in 8 times large bending deformation than the pure BC actuators with metallic electrodes in an open air environment. The developed CBC-IL actuators show significant progress in the development of biocompatible and soft actuating materials with quick response, low operating voltage and comparatively large bending deformation.

  1. The elution of erbium from a cation exchanger bed by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine triacetic acid

    Amer Amezaga, S.

    1963-01-01

    A physicochemical study of the phenomena resulting when erbium is eluted from a cation-exchanger bed at a steady by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine-triacetic acid (HEDTA) is made. Two different retaining beds are used, a hydrogen bed, in which no ammonium passes through, and a zinc bed, which leaks ammonium ion. Good agreement between experimental and calculated values by using the equations deduced for the concentrations of the main species has been achieved, with errors around 1-2% in most of the experiments. (Author) 69 refs

  2. Lignocellulose-Adapted Endo-Cellulase Producing Streptomyces Strains for Bioconversion of Cellulose-Based Materials.

    Ventorino, Valeria; Ionata, Elena; Birolo, Leila; Montella, Salvatore; Marcolongo, Loredana; de Chiaro, Addolorata; Espresso, Francesco; Faraco, Vincenza; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four Actinobacteria strains, isolated from Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Populus nigra biomass during natural biodegradation and with potential enzymatic activities specific for the degradation of lignocellulosic materials, were identified by a polyphasic approach. All strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces ( S .) and in particular, the most highly represented species was Streptomyces argenteolus representing 50% of strains, while 8 strains were identified as Streptomyces flavogriseus (synonym S. flavovirens ) and Streptomyces fimicarius (synonyms Streptomyces acrimycini, Streptomyces baarnensis, Streptomyces caviscabies , and Streptomyces flavofuscus ), and the other four strains belonged to the species Streptomyces drozdowiczii, Streptomyces rubrogriseus, Streptomyces albolongus , and Streptomyces ambofaciens . Moreover, all Streptomyces strains, tested for endo and exo-cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase, ligninase, peroxidase, and laccase activities using qualitative and semi-quantitative methods on solid growth medium, exhibited multiple enzymatic activities (from three to six). The 24 strains were further screened for endo-cellulase activity in liquid growth medium and the four best endo-cellulase producers ( S. argenteolus AE58P, S. argenteolus AE710A, S. argenteolus AE82P, and S. argenteolus AP51A) were subjected to partial characterization and their enzymatic crude extracts adopted to perform saccharification experiments on A. donax pretreated biomass. The degree of cellulose and xylan hydrolysis was evaluated by determining the kinetics of glucose and xylose release during 72 h incubation at 50°C from the pretreated biomass in the presence of cellulose degrading enzymes (cellulase and β-glucosidase) and xylan related activities (xylanase and β-xylosidase). The experiments were carried out utilizing the endo-cellulase activities from the selected S. argenteolus strains supplemented with commercial β-gucosidase and

  3. Luminescence resonance energy transfer-based nucleic acid hybridization assay on cellulose paper with upconverting phosphor as donors.

    Zhou, Feng; Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2014-03-04

    A bioassay based on DNA hybridization on cellulose paper is a promising format for gene fragment detection that may be suited for in-field and rapid diagnostic applications. We demonstrate for the first time that luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) associated with upconverting phosphors (UCPs) can be used to develop a paper-based DNA hybridization assay with high sensitivity, selectivity and fast response. UCPs with strong green emission were synthesized and subsequently functionalized with streptavidin (UCP-strep). UCP-strep particles were immobilized on cellulose paper, and then biotinylated single-stranded oligonucleotide probes were conjugated onto the UCPs via streptavidin-biotin linkage. The UCPs served as donors that were LRET-paired with Cy3-labeled target DNA. Selective DNA hybridization enabled the proximity required for LRET-sensitized emission from Cy3, which was used as the detection signal. Hybridization was complete within 2 min, and the limit of detection of the method was 34 fmol, which is a significant improvement in comparison to an analogous fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay based on quantum dots. The assay exhibited excellent resistance to nonspecific adsorption of noncomplementary short/long DNA and protein. The selectivity of the assay was further evaluated by one base pair mismatched (1BPM) DNA detection, where a maximum signal ratio of 3.1:1 was achieved between fully complementary and 1BPM samples. This work represents a preliminary but significant step for the development of paper-based UCP-LRET nucleic acid hybridization assays, which offer potential for lowering the limit of detection of luminescent hybridization assays due to the negligible background signal associated with optical excitation by near-infrared (NIR) light.

  4. Distance-Based Tear Lactoferrin Assay on Microfluidic Paper Device Using Interfacial Interactions on Surface-Modified Cellulose.

    Yamada, Kentaro; Henares, Terence G; Suzuki, Koji; Citterio, Daniel

    2015-11-11

    "Distance-based" detection motifs on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) allow quantitative analysis without using signal readout instruments in a similar manner to classical analogue thermometers. To realize a cost-effective and calibration-free distance-based assay of lactoferrin in human tear fluid on a μPAD not relying on antibodies or enzymes, we investigated the fluidic mobilities of the target protein and Tb(3+) cations used as the fluorescent detection reagent on surface-modified cellulosic filter papers. Chromatographic elution experiments in a tear-like sample matrix containing electrolytes and proteins revealed a collapse of attractive electrostatic interactions between lactoferrin or Tb(3+) and the cellulosic substrate, which was overcome by the modification of the paper surface with the sulfated polysaccharide ι-carrageenan. The resulting μPAD based on the fluorescence emission distance successfully analyzed 0-4 mg mL(-1) of lactoferrin in complex human tear matrix with a lower limit of detection of 0.1 mg mL(-1) by simple visual inspection. Assay results of 18 human tear samples including ocular disease patients and healthy volunteers showed good correlation to the reference ELISA method with a slope of 0.997 and a regression coefficient of 0.948. The distance-based quantitative signal and the good batch-to-batch fabrication reproducibility relying on printing methods enable quantitative analysis by simply reading out "concentration scale marks" printed on the μPAD without performing any calibration and using any signal readout instrument.

  5. Study of the ionic conduction mechanism based on carboxymethyl cellulose biopolymer electrolytes

    Samsudin, A. S.; Isa, M. I. N. [Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu (Mali)

    2014-11-15

    Biodegradable carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) doped with various compositions of NH{sub 4}Br biopolymer electrolytes (BE) were successfully prepared via a solution-cast technique. The ionic conductivity for the CMC-NH{sub 4}Br BE system was measured by using impedance spectroscopy, and the highest ambient temperature conductivity was observed to be 1.12 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} for the sample containing 25-wt.% NH{sub 4}Br. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity revealed that the BE system followed an Arrhenius behavior. Jonscher's universal power law was applied to analyze the AC conductivity of the highest conducting sample in the BE system, and the results indicate that the conduction is due to small polaron hopping (SPH) caused by a non-adiabatic mechanism.

  6. A pyranose dehydrogenase-based biosensor for kinetic analysis of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Badino, Silke Flindt; Tokin, Radina Naytchova

    2014-01-01

    A novel electrochemical enzyme biosensor was developed for real-time detection of cellulase activity when acting on their natural insoluble substrate, cellulose. The enzyme biosensor was constructed with pyranose dehydrongease (PDH) from Agaricus meleagris that was immobilized on the surface......-biosensor was shown to be anomer unspecific and it can therefore be used in kinetic studies over broad time-scales of both retaining- and inverting cellulases (in addition to enzyme cocktails). The biosensor was used for real-time measurements of the activity of the inverting cellobiohydrolase Cel6A from Hypocrea...... equation for processive cellulases, and it was found that the turnover for HjCel6A at saturating substrate concentration (i.e. maximal apparent specific activity) was similar (0.39–0.40 s−1) for the two substrates. Conversely, the substrate load at half-saturation was much lower for BMCC compared to Avicel...

  7. Electrical study on Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Polyvinyl alcohol based bio-polymer blend electrolytes

    Saadiah, M. A.; Samsudin, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    The present work deals with the formulation of bio-materials namely carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for bio-polymer blend electrolytes (BBEs) system which was successfully carried out with different ratio of polymer blend. The biopolymer blend was prepared via economical & classical technique that is solution casting technique and was characterized by using impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The ionic conductivity was achieved to optimum value 9.12 x 10-6 S/cm at room temperature for sample containing ratio 80:20 of CMC:PVA. The highest conducting sample was found to obey the Arrhenius behaviour with a function of temperature. The electrical properties were analyzed using complex permittivity ε* and complex electrical modulus M* for BBEs system and it shows the non-Debye characteristics where no single relaxation time has observed.

  8. Implementation of recycled cellulosic fibres into cement based composites and testing their influence on resulting properties

    Hospodarova, V.; Stevulova, N.; Vaclavik, V.; Dvorsky, T.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, the application of raw materials from renewable sources such as wood, plants and waste paper to building materials preparing has gained a significant interest in this research area. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of the selected plasticizer on properties of fibres composites made of cellulosic fibres coming from recycled waste paper and cement. Investigations were performed on specimens with 0.5 wt. % of fibre addition without and with plasticizer. A comparative study did not show positive influence of plasticizer on the density and thermal conductivity of 28 days hardened composite. The specimens after 1, 3 and 7 days of hardening with plasticizer exhibited the highest impact on compressive strength in comparison to composite without plasticizer but 28 days hardened specimens reached the same value of strength characteristic (41 MPa).

  9. Polymorphy in native cellulose: recent developments

    Atalla, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    In a number of earlier studies, the authors developed a model of cellulose structure based on the existence of two stable, linearly ordered conformations of the cellulose chain that are dominant in celluloses I and II, respectively. The model rests on extensive Raman spectral observations together with conformational considerations and solid-state 13 C-NMR studies. More recently, they have proposed, on the basis of high resolution solid-state 13 C-NMR observations, that native celluloses are composites of two distinct crystalline forms that coexist in different proportions in all native celluloses. In the present work, they examine the Raman spectra of the native celluloses, and reconcile their view of conformational differences with the new level of crystalline polymorphy of native celluloses revealed in the solid-state 13 C-NMR investigations

  10. Thermal degradation kinetics of polylactic acid/acid fabricated cellulose nanocrystal based bionanocomposites.

    Monika; Dhar, Prodyut; Katiyar, Vimal

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are fabricated from filter paper (as cellulosic source) by acid hydrolysis using different acids such as sulphuric (H 2 SO 4 ), phosphoric (H 3 PO 4 ), hydrochloric (HCl) and nitric (HNO 3 ) acid. The resulting acid derived CNC are melt mixed with Polylactic acid (PLA) using extruder at 180°C. Thermogravimetric (TGA) result shows that increase in 10% and 50% weight loss (T 10 , T 50 ) temperature for PLA-CNC film fabricated with HNO 3 , H 3 PO 4 and HCl derived CNC have improved thermal stability in comparison to H 2 SO 4 -CNC. Nonisothermal kinetic studies are carried out with modified-Coats-Redfern (C-R), Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) and Kissinger method to predict the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. Subsequently prediction of these parameter leads to the proposal of thermal induced degradation mechanism of nanocomposites using Criado method. The distribution of E a calculated from OFW model are (PLA-H 3 PO 4 -CNC: 125-139 kJmol -1 ), (PLA-HNO 3 -CNC: 126-145 kJmol -1 ), (PLA-H 2 SO 4 -CNC: 102-123 kJmol -1 ) and (PLA-HCl-CNC: 140-182 kJmol -1 ). This difference among E a for the decomposition of PLA-CNC bionanocomposite is probably due to various acids used in this study. The E a calculated by these two methods are found in consonance with that observed from Kissinger method. Further, hyphenated TG-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) result shows that gaseous products such as CO 2 , CO, lactide, aldehydes and other compounds are given off during the thermal degradation of PLA-CNC nanocomposite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of thermal behavior of natural and hot-washed sisal fibers based on their main components: Cellulose, xylan and lignin. TG-FTIR analysis of volatile products

    Benítez-Guerrero, Mónica, E-mail: monica_benitez_guerrero@yahoo.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Materiales y Fabricación, Universidad de Málaga, Escuela de Ingenierías, C/ Dr. Ortiz Ramos s/n, Campus Teatinos, 29071 Málaga (Spain); López-Beceiro, Jorge [Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial II, Escola Politécnica Superior, Universidade da Coruña, Avda. Mendizábal, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Sánchez-Jiménez, Pedro E. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, C/ Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Pascual-Cosp, José [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Materiales y Fabricación, Universidad de Málaga, Escuela de Ingenierías, C/ Dr. Ortiz Ramos s/n, Campus Teatinos, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Thermal decomposition of sisal fibers has been discussed. • Decompositions of lignocellulosic components and sisal are compared by TXRD and TG-FTIR. • Hot washing reduces the temperature range in which sisal decomposition occurs. • Sisal cellulose decomposition goes by an alternative route to levoglucosan generation. - Abstract: This paper presents in a comprehensive way the thermal behavior of natural and hot-washed sisal fibers, based on the fundamental components of lignocellulosic materials: cellulose, xylan and lignin. The research highlights the influence exerted on the thermal stability of sisal fibers by other constituents such as non-cellulosic polysaccharides (NCP) and mineral matter. Thermal changes were investigated by thermal X-ray diffraction (TXRD), analyzing the crystallinity index (%Ic) of cellulosic samples, and by simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis coupled with Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry (TG/DTA-FTIR), which allowed to examine the evolution of the main volatile compounds evolved during the degradation under inert and oxidizing atmospheres. The work demonstrates the potential of this technique to elucidate different steps during the thermal decomposition of sisal, providing extensible results to other lignocellulosic fibers, through the analysis of the evolution of CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, formaldehyde and 2-butanone, and comparing it with the volatile products from pyrolysis of the biomass components. The hydroxyacetaldehyde detected during pyrolysis of sisal is indicative of an alternative route to that of levoglucosan, generated during cellulose pyrolysis. Hot-washing at 75 °C mostly extracts non-cellulosic components of low decomposition temperature, and reduces the range of temperature in which sisal decomposition occurs, causing a retard in the pyrolysis stage and increasing Tb{sub NCP} and Tb{sub CEL}, temperatures at the

  12. Cellulose Insulation

    1980-01-01

    Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.

  13. Prevalence and trends of cellulosics in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Mastropietro, David J; Omidian, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Many studies have shown that cellulose derivatives (cellulosics) can provide various benefits when used in virtually all types of dosage forms. Nevertheless, the popularity of their use in approved drug products is rather unknown. This research reports the current prevalence and trends of use for 15 common cellulosics in prescription drug products. The cellulosics were powdered and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), hypromellose (HPMC), HPMC phthalate, HPMC acetate succinate, cellulose acetate (CA), CA phthalate, sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), croscarmellose sodium (XCMCNa), methyl cellulose, and low substituted HPC. The number of brand drug products utilizing each cellulosics was determined using the online drug index Rxlist. A total of 607 brand products were identified having one or more of the cellulosics as an active or inactive ingredient. An array of various dosage forms was identified and revealed HPMC and MCC to be the most utilized cellulosics in all products followed by XCMCNa and HPC. Many products contained two or more cellulosics in the formulation (42% containing two, 23% containing three, and 4% containing 4-5). The largest combination occurrence was HPMC with MCC. The use of certain cellulosics within different dosage form types was found to contain specific trends. All injectables utilized only CMCNa, and the same with all ophthalmic solutions utilizing HPMC, and otic suspensions utilizing HEC. Popularity and trends regarding cellulosics use may occur based on many factors including functionality, safety, availability, stability, and ease of manufacturing.

  14. An oil palm-based biorefinery concept for cellulosic ethanol and phytochemicals production: Sustainability evaluation using exergetic life cycle assessment

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Lee, Keat Teong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, thermo-environmental sustainability of an oil palm-based biorefinery concept for the co-production of cellulosic ethanol and phytochemicals from oil palm fronds (OPFs) was evaluated based on exergetic life cycle assessment (ExLCA). For the production of 1 tonne bioethanol, the exergy content of oil palm seeds was upgraded from 236 MJ to 77,999 MJ during the farming process for OPFs production. Again, the high exergy content of the OPFs was degraded by about 62.02% and 98.36% when they were converted into cellulosic ethanol and phenolic compounds respectively. With a total exergy destruction of about 958,606 MJ (internal) and 120,491 MJ (external or exergy of wastes), the biorefinery recorded an overall exergy efficiency and thermodynamic sustainability index (TSI) of about 59.05% and 2.44 per tonne of OPFs' bioethanol respectively. Due to the use of fossil fuels, pesticides, fertilizers and other toxic chemicals during the production, the global warming potential (GWP = 2265.69 kg CO 2 eq.), acidification potential (AP = 355.34 kg SO 2 eq.) and human toxicity potential (HTP = 142.79 kg DCB eq.) were the most significant environmental impact categories for a tonne of bioethanol produced in the biorefinery. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) unit emerged as the most exergetically efficient (89.66%), thermodynamically sustainable (TSI = 9.67) and environmentally friendly (6.59% of total GWP) production system. -- Highlights: • Thermo-environmental sustainability of palm-based biorefinery was assessed. • OPFs' exergy content was degraded when converted into bioethanol and phytochemicals. • Exergy efficiency (59.05%) and TSI (2.44) were recorded for the biorefinery • Global warming potential of 2265.6 kg CO 2 eq. was recorded for the whole biorefinery

  15. Preparation and characterization of thermo- and pH dual-responsive 3D cellulose-based aerogel for oil/water separation

    Zhao, Linyan; Li, Lian; Wang, Yixi; Wu, Jianning; Meng, Guihua; Liu, Zhiyong; Guo, Xuhong

    2018-01-01

    Oily wastewater caused by industrial production and crude oil leakage has attracted worldwide attention. Here, a thermo- and pH dual-responsive biodegradable cellulose-based aerogel for oil-water separation was designed and prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of non-fluorine-containing 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). The cellulose-based aerogel exhibit switchable superhydrophilicity with a water contact angle (WCA) of 0° and hydrophobicity (WCA 130°) by modulating pH or temperature. The functionalized cellulose-based aerogels could be used to absorb the water under 60 °C (pH 7.0) and pH is 1.0 (T = 25 °C), while absorb oil underwater when the temperature is above 60 °C (pH 7.0) or pH is 13.0 (T = 25 °C). So this adsorbent were suitable for the separation of water-rich or oil-rich oil/water mixtures, and it could adsorb oil over ten times its own weight, and had a good reusability. What's more, the cellulose-based aerogel is green, low cost, and environmental friendly, which makes it a promising candidate to be used for oil-water separation.

  16. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    Salvi, Denise T.B. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Caiut, Jose Mauricio A.

    2011-01-01

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  17. Construction of proton exchange membranes under ultrasonic irradiation based on novel fluorine functionalizing sulfonated polybenzimidazole/cellulose/silica bionanocomposite.

    Esmaielzadeh, Sheida; Ahmadizadegan, Hashem

    2018-03-01

    Novel sulfonated polybenzimidazole (s-PBI)/cellulose/silica bionanocomposite membranes were prepared from fluorine-containing s-PBI copolymer with a cellulose/silica precursor and a bonding agent. The introduction of the bonding agent results in the reinforcing interfacial interaction between s-PBI chains and the cellulose/silica nanoparticles. Commercially available silica nanoparticles were modified with biodegradable nanocellolose through ultrasonic irradiation technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses showed that the cellulose/silica composites were well dispersed in the s-PBI matrix on a nanometer scale. The mechanical properties and the methanol barrier ability of the s-PBI films were improved by the addition of cellulose/silica. The modulus of the s-PBI/10 wt% cellulose/silica nanocomposite membranes had a 45% increase compared to the pure s-PBI films, and the methanol permeability decreased by 62% with respect to the pure s-PBI membranes. The conductivities of the s-PBI/cellulose/silica nanocomposites were slightly lower than the pure s-PBI. The antibacterial activity of (s-PBI)/cellulose/silica was investigated against Gram-positive bacteria, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria, ie, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the disc diffusion method using Mueller Hinton agar at different sizes of cellulose/silica. All of the synthesized (s-PBI)/cellulose/silica were found to have high antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Disintegration Process in Microcrystalline Cellulose Based Tablets, Part 1: Influence of Temperature, Porosity and Superdisintegrants

    Yassin, Samy; Goodwin, Daniel J; Anderson, Andrew; Sibik, Juraj; Wilson, D Ian; Gladden, Lynn F; Zeitler, J Axel

    2015-01-01

    Disintegration performance was measured by analysing both water ingress and tablet swelling of pure microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and in mixture with croscarmellose sodium using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Tablets made from pure MCC with porosities of 10% and 15% showed similar swelling and transport kinetics: within the first 15 s, tablets had swollen by up to 33% of their original thickness and water had fully penetrated the tablet following Darcy flow kinetics. In contrast, MCC tablets with a porosity of 5% exhibited much slower transport kinetics, with swelling to only 17% of their original thickness and full water penetration reached after 100 s, dominated by case II transport kinetics. The effect of adding superdisintegrant to the formulation and varying the temperature of the dissolution medium between 20°C and 37°C on the swelling and transport process was quantified. We have demonstrated that TPI can be used to non-invasively analyse the complex disintegration kinetics of formulations that take place on timescales of seconds and is a promising tool to better understand the effect of dosage form microstructure on its performance. By relating immediate-release formulations to mathematical models used to describe controlled release formulations, it becomes possible to use this data for formulation design. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3440–3450, 2015 PMID:26073446

  19. Characterization and swelling-deswelling properties of wheat straw cellulose based semi-IPNs hydrogel.

    Liu, Jia; Li, Qian; Su, Yuan; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2014-07-17

    A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly(potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) hydrogel was prepared by polymerizing wheat straw and an aqueous solution of acrylic acid (AA), and further semi-interpenetrating with PVA occurred during the chemosynthesis. The swelling and deswelling properties of WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel and WSC-g-PKA hydrogel were studied and compared in various pH solutions, salt solutions, temperatures, particle sizes and ionic strength. The results indicated that both hydrogels had the largest swelling capacity at pH=6, and the effect of ions on the swelling of hydrogels was in the order: Na(+)>K(+)>Mg(2+)>Ca(2+). The Schott's pseudo second order model can be effectively used to evaluate swelling kinetics of hydrogels. Moreover, the semi-IPNs hydrogel had improved swelling-deswelling properties compared with that of WSC-g-PKA hydrogel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cellular compatibility of nanocomposite scaffolds based on hydroxyapatite entrapped in cellulose network for bone repair

    Beladi, Faranak [Material and Biomaterial Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saber-Samandari, Samaneh, E-mail: samaneh.saber@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa, TRNC via Mersin 10 (Turkey); Saber-Samandari, Saeed, E-mail: saeedss@aut.ac.ir [New Technologies Research Center, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    In the past few decades, artificial graft materials for bone tissue engineering have gained much importance. In this study, novel porous 3D nanocomposite scaffolds composed of polyacrylamide grafted cellulose and hydroxyapatite were proposed. They were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The swelling behavior of the scaffolds was examined in both water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution. The cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was determined by MTT assays on human fibroblast gum (HuGu) cells. Results showed that the nanocomposite scaffolds were highly porous with maximum porosity of 85.7% interconnected with a pore size of around 72–125 μm. The results of cell culture experiments showed that the scaffolds extracts do not have cytotoxicity in any concentration. Obtained results suggested that the introduced scaffolds are comparable with the trabecular bone from the compositional, structural, and mechanical perspectives and have a great potential as a bone substitute. - Highlights: • A series of biocompatible scaffolds were synthesized through a novel multi-step route. • The porosity increased by increasing n-HAp amounts in the structure of the scaffold. • The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were found close to those of trabecular bone. • The results suggest that the scaffold extracts do not have any cell cytotoxicity. • The scaffold can be efficient as a bioactive bone implant for tissue engineering.

  1. Facile synthesis of cellulose-based carbon with tunable N content for potential supercapacitor application.

    Chen, Zehong; Peng, Xinwen; Zhang, Xiaoting; Jing, Shuangshuang; Zhong, Linxin; Sun, Runcang

    2017-08-15

    Producing hierarchical porous N-doped carbon from renewable biomass is an essential and sustainable way for future electrochemical energy storage. Herein we cost-efficiently synthesized N-doped porous carbon from renewable cellulose by using urea as a low-cost N source, without any activation process. The as-prepared N-doped porous carbon (N-doped PC) had a hierarchical porous structure with abundant macropores, mesopores and micropores. The doping N resulted in more disordered structure, and the doping N content in N-doped PC could be easily tunable (0.68-7.64%). The doping N functionalities could significantly improve the supercapacitance of porous carbon, and even a little amount of doping N (e.g. 0.68%) could remarkably improve the supercapacitance. The as-prepared N-doped PC with a specific surface area of 471.7m 2 g -1 exhibited a high specific capacitance of 193Fg -1 and a better rate capability, as well as an outstanding cycling stability with a capacitance retention of 107% after 5000 cycles. Moreover, the N-doped porous carbon had a high energy density of 17.1Whkg -1 at a power density of 400Wkg -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cellular compatibility of nanocomposite scaffolds based on hydroxyapatite entrapped in cellulose network for bone repair

    Beladi, Faranak; Saber-Samandari, Samaneh; Saber-Samandari, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    In the past few decades, artificial graft materials for bone tissue engineering have gained much importance. In this study, novel porous 3D nanocomposite scaffolds composed of polyacrylamide grafted cellulose and hydroxyapatite were proposed. They were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The swelling behavior of the scaffolds was examined in both water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution. The cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was determined by MTT assays on human fibroblast gum (HuGu) cells. Results showed that the nanocomposite scaffolds were highly porous with maximum porosity of 85.7% interconnected with a pore size of around 72–125 μm. The results of cell culture experiments showed that the scaffolds extracts do not have cytotoxicity in any concentration. Obtained results suggested that the introduced scaffolds are comparable with the trabecular bone from the compositional, structural, and mechanical perspectives and have a great potential as a bone substitute. - Highlights: • A series of biocompatible scaffolds were synthesized through a novel multi-step route. • The porosity increased by increasing n-HAp amounts in the structure of the scaffold. • The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were found close to those of trabecular bone. • The results suggest that the scaffold extracts do not have any cell cytotoxicity. • The scaffold can be efficient as a bioactive bone implant for tissue engineering.

  3. Thermoset nanocomposites from waterborne bio-based epoxy resin and cellulose nanowhiskers.

    Wu, Guo-min; Liu, Di; Liu, Gui-feng; Chen, Jian; Huo, Shu-ping; Kong, Zhen-wu

    2015-01-01

    Thermoset nanocomposites were prepared from a waterborne terpene-maleic ester type epoxy resin (WTME) and cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs). The curing behaviors of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites were measured with rotational rheometer. The results show that the storage modulus (G') of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites increased with the increase of CNWs content. Observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrate that the incorporation of CNWs in WTME matrix caused microphase separation and destroyed the compactness of the matrix. This effect leads to the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites slightly decrease with the increase of CNWs content, which were confirmed by both DSC and DMA tests. The mechanical properties of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites were investigated by tensile testing. The Yong's modulus (E) and tensile strength (σb) of the nanocomposites were significantly reinforced by the addition of CNWs. These results indicate that CNWs exhibit excellent reinforcement effect on WTME matrix, due to the formation and increase of interfacial interaction by hydrogen bonds between CNWs nano-filler and the WTME matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Disintegration Process in Microcrystalline Cellulose Based Tablets, Part 1: Influence of Temperature, Porosity and Superdisintegrants.

    Yassin, Samy; Goodwin, Daniel J; Anderson, Andrew; Sibik, Juraj; Wilson, D Ian; Gladden, Lynn F; Zeitler, J Axel

    2015-10-01

    Disintegration performance was measured by analysing both water ingress and tablet swelling of pure microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and in mixture with croscarmellose sodium using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Tablets made from pure MCC with porosities of 10% and 15% showed similar swelling and transport kinetics: within the first 15 s, tablets had swollen by up to 33% of their original thickness and water had fully penetrated the tablet following Darcy flow kinetics. In contrast, MCC tablets with a porosity of 5% exhibited much slower transport kinetics, with swelling to only 17% of their original thickness and full water penetration reached after 100 s, dominated by case II transport kinetics. The effect of adding superdisintegrant to the formulation and varying the temperature of the dissolution medium between 20°C and 37°C on the swelling and transport process was quantified. We have demonstrated that TPI can be used to non-invasively analyse the complex disintegration kinetics of formulations that take place on timescales of seconds and is a promising tool to better understand the effect of dosage form microstructure on its performance. By relating immediate-release formulations to mathematical models used to describe controlled release formulations, it becomes possible to use this data for formulation design. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3440-3450, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Creep behavior of starch-based nanocomposite films with cellulose nanofibrils.

    Li, Meng; Li, Dong; Wang, Li-jun; Adhikari, Benu

    2015-03-06

    Nanocomposite films were successfully prepared by incorporating cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from sugar beet pulp into plasticized starch (PS) at CNFs concentration of 5-20%. The storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli, creep and creep-recovery behavior of these films were studied. The creep behavior of these films at long time frame was studied using time-temperature superposition (TTS). The CNFs were uniformly distributed within these films up to 15% of CNFs. The PS-only and the PS/CNFs nanocomposite films exhibited dominant elastic behavior. The incorporation of CNFs increased both the G' and G″. The CNFs improved the creep resistance and reduced the creep recovery rate of the PS/CNFs nanocomposite films. TTS method was successfully used to predict the creep behavior of these films at longer time frame. Power law and Burgers model were capable (R(2)>0.98) of fitting experimental G' versus angular frequency and creep strain versus time data, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of carboxymethyl cellulose-based hydrogel and nanosilver composite as antimicrobial agents for UTI pathogens.

    Alshehri, Saad M; Aldalbahi, Ali; Al-Hajji, Abdullah Baker; Chaudhary, Anis Ahmad; Panhuis, Marc In Het; Alhokbany, Norah; Ahamad, Tansir

    2016-03-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) containing hydrogel composite were first synthesized by preparing a new hydrogel from carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and the cross-linker ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE), followed by the incorporation of AgNPs by microwave radiation. The resulting neat hydrogels and AgNPs-hydrogel composites were characterized using spectral, thermal, microscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The SEM and TEM results demonstrated that the synthesized AgNPs were spherical with diameters ranging from 8 to 14nm. In addition, the XRD analysis confirmed the nanocrystalline phase of silver with face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the AgNPs confirmed the presence of an elemental silver signal, and no peaks of any other impurities were detected. Additionally, the antibacterial activities of the neat hydrogel and AgNPs-hydrogel composites were measured by Kirby-Bauer method against urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogens. The rheology measurement revealed that the values of storage modulus (G') were higher than that of loss modulus (G″). The AgNPs-hydrogel composites exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis compared to the corresponding neat hydrogel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sonication reduces the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells to bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models and cut plant material.

    Tan, Michelle S F; Rahman, Sadequr; Dykes, Gary A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the removal of bacterial surface structures, particularly flagella, using sonication, and examined its effect on the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells to plant cell walls. S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells were subjected to sonication at 20 kHz to remove surface structures without affecting cell viability. Effective removal of flagella was determined by staining flagella of sonicated cells with Ryu's stain and enumerating the flagella remaining by direct microscopic counting. The attachment of sonicated S. Typhimurium cells to bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models and cut plant material (potato, apple, lettuce) was then evaluated. Varying concentrations of pectin and/or xyloglucan were used to produce a range of bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models. As compared to the non-sonicated controls, sonicated S. Typhimurium cells attached in significantly lower numbers (between 0.5 and 1.0 log CFU/cm 2 ) to all surfaces except to the bacterial cellulose-only composite without pectin and xyloglucan. Since attachment of S. Typhimurium to the bacterial cellulose-only composite was not affected by sonication, this suggests that bacterial surface structures, particularly flagella, could have specific interactions with pectin and xyloglucan. This study indicates that sonication may have potential applications for reducing Salmonella attachment during the processing of fresh produce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Obtaining and Application of New Cellulose- and Graphene Oxide-Based Adsorbents for Treatment of Industrial Waste Containing Heavy Metals

    Beata Fryczkowska

    2017-11-01

    The studies show that doping of cellulose with graphene oxide clearly affects the physical properties of this biopolymer. GO improves the water absorption of CEL/GO composite cellulose granules only in the concentration above 0.05% w/w. For a concentration of 0.1% w/w of GO in cellulose, water absorption is increased by ~108% compared to pure cellulose granules. In addition, the use of dry and wet granules in the study changes their sorption properties with respect to all tested substances. Studies on test solutions have shown that the sorption of cellulose granules decreases with increasing molar mass of test compounds, in the following order: FeCl3, methylene blue (MB and bovine albumin (BSA. This means that the cellulose granules obtained in the experiment are made up of small micropores, which makes the diffusion of compounds of high molecular weight difficult. The best sorption results were obtained for ferric ions and amounted to 66-72% for FeCl3 solution, and ~92% for the wastewater that was sorbed on pure cellulose granules.

  9. Novel robust cellulose-based foam with pH and light dual-response for oil recovery

    Wang, Qian; Meng, Guihua; Wu, Jianning; Wang, Yixi; Liu, Zhiyong; Guo, Xuhong

    2018-05-01

    We fabricated pH and light dual-responsive adsorption materials which could induce the transition of surface wettability between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity by using ATRP. The structure and morphology of adsorption materials were confirmed by ATR-FTIR, XPS, TGA and SEM. It showed that the modified cellulose (CE)-based foam was hydrophobic, which can adsorb a range of oils and organic solvents in water under pH = 7.0 or visible light irradiation (λ > 500 nm). Meanwhile, the wettability of robust CE-based foam can convert hydrophobicity into hydrophilicity and underwater oleophobicity under pH = 3.0 or UV irradiation (λ = 365 nm), giving rise to release oils and organic solvents. Most important of all, the adsorption and desorption processes of the modified CE-based foam could be switched by external stimuli. Furthermore, the modified CE-based foam was not damaged and still retained original performance after reversible cycle repeated for many times with variation of surface wettability. In short, it indicates that CE-based foam materials with switchable surface wettability are new responsive absorbent materials and have owned potential application in the treatment of oil recovery.

  10. Formulation of Polyherbal Patches Based on Polyvinyl Alcohol and Hydroxypropylmethyl Cellulose: Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation.

    Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Nawathong, Noramon; Anakkawee, Rinrada; Pichayakorn, Wiwat

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare and characterize polyherbal patches made from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) with glycerine as a plasticizer. Polyherbal extracts were Luk-Pra-Kob recipes extracted with 95% ethanol. They were prepared by mixing the polymer solutions and glycerine in a beaker; subsequently, the polyherbal extracts were homogeneously mixed. Then, they were transferred into a Petri dish and dried in a hot-air oven at 70 ± 2°C for 5 h. The dry polyherbal patches were evaluated for physicochemical properties by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and a scanning electron microscope. They were studied for in vitro release and skin permeation of the marker active compound (E)-4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-l-ol (compound D) using a modified Franz-type diffusion cell. The polyherbal patches made from PVA as a matrix layer were homogeneous, smooth, and compact relative to HPMC-containing polyherbal patches. The selected polyherbal patches made from PVA produced a release profile with an initial burst effect in which compound D release was 74.21 ± 6.13% within 8 h, but compound D could permeate the pig skin only 37.28 ± 5.52% and was highly accumulated in newborn pig skin at 35.90 ± 6.72%. The in vitro release and skin permeation kinetics of compound D were fitted to the Higuchi model. The polyherbal patches made from PVA could be suitably used for herbal medicine application.

  11. Cultivation and utilization of specific wood biomass for synthesis of cellulose based bioethanol

    Fara, L.; Comaneci, D. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Cincu, C.; Hubca, G.; Zaharia, C.; Diacon, A. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania). Faculty of Applied Chemistry; Filat, M.; Chira, D. [Forest Research and Management Inst., Ilfov (Romania); Nutescu, C. [National Wood Inst., Bucharest (Romania); Fara, S. [Inst. for Research and Design of Automation, Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    The energetic characteristics of 6 types of poplar clones cultivated for different pedoclimatic conditions in Romania were determined. Four clones were developed in Italy and 2 in Romania. Five experimental cultures were used to analyze the plant survival rate and biomass production rate. After 2 years of study, the Italian clones were found to have very good adaptability to the pedoclimatic conditions in Romania in comparison with local clones. The Italian clones Monviso and AF-6 registered the most substantial growths and the highest resistance to disease. Bioethanol was synthesized by acidic hydrolysis of the cellulose using 2 approaches. In the first approach the lignocellulosic raw material was hydrolyzed with diluted sulfuric acid at 50 degrees C for 24 hours. After filtration, the solid residue was treated with 30 per cent H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 100 degrees C for 6 hours. The resulting solutions were neutralized with Ca(OH){sub 2} following another filtration and the resulted solution with pH 6.5 was subjected to fermentation with Saccharomices Cerevisiae. In the second approach the lignocellulosic raw material was subjected to hydrolysis with 10 per cent H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 100 degrees C for 4 hours. After filtration, the solid residue was hydrolyzed with 30 per cent H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 100 degrees for 6 hours. The solution was neutralized with Ca(OH){sub 2} and subjected to alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomices Cerevisiae. The fermentation took place at 25 degrees C for 72 hours. The results for the two methods were similar.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Ethyl Cellulose-Based Polymeric Calcium(II) Hydrogen Phosphate Composite

    Mohammad, Faruq; Arfin, Tanvir; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A.

    2018-03-01

    The present report deals with the synthesis, characterization and testing of an ethyl cellulose-calcium(II) hydrogen phosphate (EC-CaHPO4) composite, where a sol-gel synthesis method was applied for the preparation of the composite so as to test its efficacy towards the electrochemical, biological, and adsorption related applications. The physical properties of the composite were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet- visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. On testing, the mechanical properties indicated that the composite is highly stable due to the cross-linked rigid framework and the enhanced interactions offered by the EC polymer supported for its binding very effectively. In addition, the conductivity of EC-CaHPO4 is completely governed by the transport mechanism where the electrolyte concentration has preference towards the adsorption of ions and the variations in the conductivity significantly affected the material's performance. We observed an increasing order of KCl > NaCl for the conductivity when 1:1 electrolytes were applied. Further, the material was tested for its usefulness towards the purification of industrial waste waters by removing harmful metal ions from the samples collected near the Aligarh city, India where the data indicates that the material has highest affinity towards Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Fe3+ metal ions. Finally, the biological efficiency of the material was confirmed by means of testing the antibacterial activity against two gram positive (staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus thuringiensis) and two gram negative bacteriums (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Patoea dispersa). Thus, from the cumulative study of outcomes, it indicates that the EC-CaHPO4 composite found to serve as a potential smart biomaterial due to its efficiency in many different applications that includes the electrical conductivity, adsorption capability, and antimicrobial activity.

  13. Incorporation of citrus essential oils into bacterial cellulose-based edible films and assessment of their physical properties

    Indrarti, L.; Indriyati

    2017-03-01

    The use of edible films in food protection and preservation has recently gained more interest since they offer several advantages over synthetic packaging materials. Biocellulose (BC) offers great opportunity as edible film due to their unique physical and mechanical properties. In this study, biocellulose films were prepared by solution casting with addition of 30% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 30% glycerol as the homogenizer and plasticizer, respectively. Furthermore, various citrus essential oils (EOs) including lemon, lime, and sweet orange were added at 50% w/w of BC dried weight. The solutions were then cast on the tray and allowed to dry in the air convection oven at 40°C overnight. The films were characterized for water solubility, tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), water vapour transmission rate (WVTR), and color. Those characteristics may influence consumer acceptability of the packaged products. Results revealed that addition of lemon and sweet orange EOs into BC-based edible film decreased water solubility and TS, but improved EB, as these oils acted as plasticizers in the film. However, different trend was observed for BC-based film incorporated with lime oil, which had higher solubility and TS, but lower EB and WVTR compared with that of control film. Addition of citrus EOs into BC-based films did not have much effect on color properties as stated in L*, a*, and b* values.

  14. Experimental study on the liquefaction of cellulose in supercritical ethanol

    Peng, Jinxing; Liu, Xinyuan; Bao, Zhenbo

    2018-03-01

    Cellulose is the major composition of solid waste for producing biofuel; cellulose liquefaction is helpful for realizing biomass supercritical liquefaction process. This paper is taking supercritical ethanol as the medium, liquefied cellulose with the intermittence installation of high press cauldron. Experiments have studied technical condition and the technology parameter of cellulose liquefaction in supercritical ethanol, and the pyrolysis mechanism was analysed based on the pyrolysis product. Results show that cellulose can be liquefied, can get good effect through appropriate technology condition. Under not catalyst, highest liquefaction rate of cellulose can reach 73.5%. The composition of the pyrolysis product was determined by GC-MS.

  15. Bio-active nanocomposite films based on nanocrystalline cellulose reinforced styrylquinoxalin-grafted-chitosan: Antibacterial and mechanical properties.

    Fardioui, Meriem; Meftah Kadmiri, Issam; Qaiss, Abou El Kacem; Bouhfid, Rachid

    2018-07-15

    In this study, active nanocomposite films based on cellulose nanocrystalline (NCC) reinforced styrylquinoxalin-grafted-chitosan are prepared by solvent-casting process. The structures of the two styrylquinoxaline derivatives were confirmed by FT-IR, 1 H, 13 C NMR spectral data and the study of the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (EC), Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Bacillus subtilis (BS) and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (PA) exhibits that they have a good antibacterial activity against (PA). On their side, the styrylquinoxalin-g-chitosan films are able to inhibit the growth of (PA) through their contact area without being damaged by the antibacterial test conditions. The addition of 5wt% of NCCs as nano-reinforcements revealed no change at the level of antibacterial activity but led to an important improvement of the mechanical properties (more than 60% and 90% improvement in Young's modulus and tensile strength, respectively) of the modified-chitosan films. Thereby, the present nanocomposite films are prepared by a simple way and featured by good mechanical and antibacterial properties which enhance the possibility to use them as bio-based products for biomedical and food packaging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A bio-based ‘green’ process for catalytic adipic acid production from lignocellulosic biomass using cellulose and hemicellulose derived γ-valerolactone

    Han, Jeehoon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A bio-based ‘green’ process for catalytic conversion of corn stover to adipic acid (ADA) is studied. • New separations for effective recovery of biomass derivatives are developed. • Separations are integrated with cellulose/hemicellulose-to-ADA conversions. • Proposed process can compete economically with the current petro-based process. - Abstract: A bio-based ‘green’ process is presented for the catalytic conversion of corn stover to adipic acid (ADA) based on experimental studies. ADA is used for biobased nylon 6.6 manufacturing from lignocellulosics as carbon and energy source. In this process, the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions are catalytically converted to γ-valerolactone (GVL), using cellulose and hemicellulose-derived GVL as a solvent, and subsequently upgrading to ADA. Experimental studies showed maximal carbon yields (biomass-to-GVL: 41% and GVL-to-ADA: 46%) at low concentrations (below 16 wt% solids) using large volumes of GVL solvents while requiring efficient interstage separations and product recovery. This work presents an integrated process, including catalytic conversion and separation subsystems for GVL and ADA production and recovery, and designs a heat exchanger network to satisfy the total energy requirements of the integrated process via combustion of biomass residues (lignin and humins). Finally, an economic analysis shows that 2000 metric tonnes (Mt) per day of corn stover feedstock processing results in a minimum selling price of $633 per Mt if using the best possible parameters.

  17. One-pot synthesis of magnetic hybrid materials based on ovoid-like carboxymethyl-cellulose/cetyltrimethylammonium-bromide templates

    Torres-Martínez, Nubia E. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, 66450 Nuevo León (Mexico); Garza-Navarro, M.A., E-mail: marco.garzanr@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, 66450 Nuevo León (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología, Apodaca, 66600 Nuevo León (Mexico); Lucio-Porto, Raúl [Université de Nantes, CNRS, Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); and others

    2013-09-16

    A novel one-pot synthetic procedure to obtain magnetic hybrid nanostructured materials (HNM), based on magnetic spinel-metal-oxide (SMO) nanoparticles stabilized in ovoid-like carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC)/cetyltrimethylammonium-bromide (CTAB) templates, is reported. The HNM were synthesized from the controlled hydrolysis of inorganic salts of Fe (II) and Fe (III) into aqueous dissolutions of CMC and CTAB. The synthesized HNM were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and static magnetic measurements. The experimental evidence suggests that, due to the competition between CTAB molecules and SMO nanoparticles to occupy CMC intermolecular sites nearby to its carboxylate functional groups, the size of both, SMO nanoparticles and ovoid-like CMC/CTAB templates can be tuned, varying the CTAB:SMO weight ratio. Moreover, it was found that the magnetic response of the HNM depends on the confinement degree of the SMO nanoparticles into the CMC/CTAB template. Hence, their magnetic characteristics can be adjusted controlling the size of the template, the quantity and distribution of the SMO nanoparticles within the template and their size. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The synthesis of magnetic hybrid materials is reported. • The hybrid materials were synthesized following a novel one-pot procedure. • The magnetic nanoparticles were stabilized in ovoid-like templates. • The size of the templates was tuned adjusting nanoparticles weight content. • The magnetic properties of hybrid materials depend on the size of the template.

  18. Improvement in Functional Properties of Soy Protein Isolate-Based Film by Cellulose Nanocrystal–Graphene Artificial Nacre Nanocomposite

    Kuang Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A facile, inexpensive, and green approach for the production of stable graphene dispersion was proposed in this study. We fabricated soy protein isolate (SPI-based nanocomposite films with the combination of 2D negative charged graphene and 1D positive charged polyethyleneimine (PEI-modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNC via a layer-by-layer assembly method. The morphologies and surface charges of graphene sheets and CNC segments were characterized by atomic force microscopy and Zeta potential measurements. The hydrogen bonds and multiple interface interactions between the filler and SPI matrix were analyzed by Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transform Infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the cross-linked and laminated structures in the fracture surface of the films. In comparison with the unmodified SPI film, the tensile strength and surface contact angles of the SPI/graphene/PEI-CNC film were significantly improved, by 99.73% and 37.13% respectively. The UV–visible light barrier ability, water resistance, and thermal stability were also obviously enhanced. With these improved functional properties, this novel bio-nanocomposite film showed considerable potential for application for food packaging materials.

  19. Structural and ionic conductivity studies on proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolyte based on 2hydroxyethyl cellulose incorporated DTAB

    Ahmad, N. H.; Bakar, N. Y.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2017-09-01

    Solid biopolymer electrolytes (SBEs) based on 2hydroxyethyl cellulose (2HEC) complexes with dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) salt in various composition (wt. %) were successfully prepared by using solution casting technique. The ion - polymer interaction and structural studies have been reported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) supported with X - ray diffraction (XRD) and Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FTIR spectral shows interaction of 2HEC with DTAB happen at peak 2914cm-1, 2848cm-1, 2353cm-1, 2328cm-1, 1720cm-1, 1437cm-1, 1344cm-1, 1198cm-1 1095cm-1 1051cm-1, 912cm-1 and 872cm-1. The interaction of complexes leads to an increase in number of ion jump into neighboring vacant sites until it reaches the highest conductivity at room temperature which is 2.80 x 10-5 Scm-1 for sample containing 9wt. % of DTAB. The temperature dependence of the SBEs system exhibits Arrhenius behavior and the XRD spectral analysis shows the higher salt loading the crystallinity of the SBEs which also increased.

  20. Exploring the potential of polacrilin potassium as a novel superdisintegrant in microcrystalline cellulose based pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization

    Amita K Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polacrilin potassium (PP, an ion exchange resin, was used as a superdisintegrant to improve the dissolution of rifampicin, from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC based pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization. Production of fast release pellets by extrusion-spheronization using MCC is a complicated process. In the present study, pellets were prepared containing 50% w/w rifampicin (BCS class II drug and 40% w/w MCC as extrusion-spheronization aid. Different levels of PP and lactose ratio investigated were 0:10, 2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2, and 10:0. Pellets were evaluated for yield, size, size distribution, shape, porosity, friability, residual moisture, and dissolution efficiency (DE at 30 minutes. Incorporation of this novel superdisintegrant had no adverse effect on the mechanical and micromeritic characteristics of pellets. All the batches of pellets showed high yields′, ~90%; narrow particle size distribution; aspect ratio, 1.0-1.1; friability, <1%; and porosity, 45.51-49.84%. Dissolution profiles were compared using model-independent approaches; DE and similarity factor, f 2 . Addition of Polacrilin results in significant improvement in the DE of rifampicin. The dissolution profiles were significantly different from the dissolution profile of pellets formulated without PP. This preliminary study indicates that PP can serve as an effective superdisintegrant in MCC pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization.

  1. In situ development of self-reinforced cellulose nanocrystals based thermoplastic elastomers by atom transfer radical polymerization.

    Yu, Juan; Wang, Chunpeng; Wang, Jifu; Chu, Fuxiang

    2016-05-05

    Recently, the utilization of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as a reinforcing material has received a great attention due to its high elastic modulus. In this article, a novel strategy for the synthesis of self-reinforced CNCs based thermoplastic elastomers (CTPEs) is presented. CNCs were first surface functionalized with an initiator for surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Subsequently, SI-ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA) was carried out in the presence of sacrificial initiator to form CTPEs in situ. The CTPEs together with the simple blends of CNCs and linear poly(MMA-co-BA) copolymer (P(MMA-co-BA)) were characterized for comparative study. The results indicated that P(MMA-co-BA) was successfully grafted onto the surface of CNCs and the compatibility between CNCs and the polymer matrix in CTPEs was greatly enhanced. Specially, the CTPEs containing 2.15wt% CNCs increased Tg by 19.2°C and tensile strength by 100% as compared to the linear P(MMA-co-BA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of 2 dapivirine vaginal microbicide gels and their safety vs. Hydroxyethyl cellulose-based universal placebo gel.

    Nel, Annalene M; Smythe, Shanique C; Habibi, Sepideh; Kaptur, Paulina E; Romano, Joseph W

    2010-10-01

    Dapivirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is in development as a microbicide for the protection of women against HIV infection. A randomized, double-blind, phase 1 trial was conducted in 36 healthy HIV-negative women to compare the pharmacokinetics of 2 dapivirine vaginal gel formulations (0.05% each) and their safety with the hydroxyethyl cellulose-based universal placebo gel. Gel was self-administered once daily for a total of 11 days. Blood and vaginal fluid samples were collected sequentially over 24 days for pharmacokinetic analysis. Safety was evaluated by pelvic examination, colposcopy, adverse events, and clinical laboratory assessments. Adverse event profiles were similar for the 3 gels. Most events were mild and not related to study gel. Headache and vaginal hemorrhage (any vaginal bleeding) were most common. Plasma concentrations of dapivirine did not exceed 1.1 ng/mL. Steady-state conditions were reached within approximately 10 days. Dapivirine concentrations in vaginal fluids were slightly higher for Gel 4789, but Cmax values on days 1 and 14 were not significantly different. Terminal half-life was 72-73 hours in plasma and 15-17 hours in vaginal fluids. Both formulations of dapivirine gel were safe and well tolerated. Dapivirine was delivered to the lower genital tract at concentrations at least 5 logs greater than in vitro inhibitory concentrations.

  3. Versatile fabrication of a superhydrophobic and ultralight cellulose-based aerogel for oil spillage clean-up.

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Yuqi; Xu, Yaoguang; Lu, Zexiang; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Fan, Mizi

    2016-10-12

    To deal with marine oil spillage and chemical leakage issues, a highly efficient absorbent (cellulose based aerogel) with a low density (ρ 98.5%) and high mechanical strength was fabricated via a novel physical-chemical foaming method, plasma treatment and subsequent silane modification process. This aerogel has a perfect 3D skeleton and interconnected pores similar to honeycomb, which are favorable to oil adsorption and storage. More importantly, without introducing additional micro/nanoparticles, the rough micro/nano structure of the surface was directly constructed using plasma irradiation in this study. The low surface energy substrate was further introduced using a simple physical-soaking method and the resulting aerogel exhibited excellent superhydrophobicity (WCA > 156°) and superoleophilicity (OCA = 0°), which can selectively and efficiently absorb various oils or organic solvents from polluted water. In addition, this aerogel has a high storage capacity and absorption capacity (up to 4300% and 99% of its weight and volume, respectively). More interestingly, this aerogel exhibits excellent mechanical abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance even in strong acid, alkali solution and salt marine environment. The aerogel could be reused more than 30 times after removal of the absorbed oil by rinsing with ethanol.

  4. Single and binary adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using sugarcane cellulose-based adsorbent.

    Wang, Futao; Pan, Yuanfeng; Cai, Pingxiong; Guo, Tianxiang; Xiao, Huining

    2017-10-01

    A high efficient and eco-friendly sugarcane cellulose-based adsorbent was prepared in an attempt to remove Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ from aqueous solutions. The effects of initial concentration of heavy metal ions and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the bioadsorbent were investigated. The adsorption isotherms showed that the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ followed the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorptions were as high as 558.9, 446.2 and 363.3mg·g -1 , respectively, in single component system. The binary component system was better described with the competitive Langmuir isotherm model. The three dimensional sorption surface of binary component system demonstrated that the presence of Pb 2+ decreased the sorption of Cu 2+ , but the adsorption amount of other metal ions was not affected. The result from SEM-EDAX revealed that the adsorption of metal ions on bioadsorbent was mainly driven by coordination, ion exchange and electrostatic association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of some natural water-insoluble cellulosic material as lost circulation control additives in water-based drilling fluid

    Ahmed Mohamed Alsabagh

    2015-12-01

    In this work, three natural water-insoluble cellulosic materials; peanut hulls, bagasse and sawdust were investigated as lost circulation control materials. One hundred and eight different LCM samples made of various materials were tested with mud. The experiments were conducted in a permeability plugging apparatus (PPA at a differential pressure of 100 psi and 300 psi, using 10, 60 and 90 ceramic discs. The performance of each LCM sample was determined based on the amount of spurt loss and total fluid loss of the mud according to the American Petroleum Institute (API standard. The obtained results showed that, the amount of the fluid loss depends on the LCM material, concentration and size distribution, testing results show that, the peanut gives the best results among the bagasse and sawdust, especially fine size which exhibited better results in the filtration characteristics due to the better filling properties of this size. Peanut hulls, bagasse and sawdust show a slight effect on the rheological properties of the mud. The results were discussed on light of particle size distribution.

  6. Cellulose utilization: an overview

    Bassham, J A

    1975-01-01

    To summarize, the conversion of cellulose to ethanol via hydrolysis to glucose followed by fermentation appears to be highly efficient in terms of energy conservation, yield, and quality of product, especially when reasonably high quality cellulosic waste is available.

  7. Analyses of ionic conductivity and dielectric behavior of solid polymer electrolyte based 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose doped ammonium nitrate plasticized with ethylene carbonate

    Hafiza, M. N.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2017-09-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) based 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (2-HEC) doped ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) plasticized with ethylene carbonate (EC) has been investigated using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The highest ionic conductivity of (1.17±0.01) × 10-3 Scm-1 was obtained for 2-HEC-NH4NO3 plasticized with 16 wt.% EC. Dielectric and modulus study showed non-Debye type of 2-HEC-NH4NO3-EC SPE.

  8. Preparation of micro-fibrillated cellulose based on sugar palm ijuk (Arenga pinnata) fibres through partial acid hydrolysis

    Saputro, A.; Verawati, I.; Ramahdita, G.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and characterized micro-fibrillated cellulose (MFC) from sugar palm/ijuk fibre (Arenga pinnata) by partial sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Cellulose fibre was prepared by repeated treatments with 5 wt% sodium hydroxide 2 h at 80°C, followed by bleaching with 1.7 wt% sodium chlorite for 2 h at 80°C in acidic environment under stirring. MFC was prepared by partial hydrolysis with sulfuric acid in various concentrations (30, 40, 50, and 60 % for 45 min at 45 °C) under stirring. Fourier Transform Infrared, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer and X-ray Diffraction characterized cellulose fibre and MFC. FTIR measurements showed that alkaline and bleaching treatments were effective to remove non-cellulosic constituents such as wax, lignin and hemicellulose. FESEM observation revealed conversion into more clear surface and defibrillation of cellulosic fibre after pre-treatments. XRD measurement revealed increase in crystallinity after pre-treatments and acid hydrolysis from 54.4 to 87.8%. Thermal analysis showed that increasing acid concentration reduced thermal stability.

  9. Alkali-based pretreatments distinctively extract lignin and pectin for enhancing biomass saccharification by altering cellulose features in sugar-rich Jerusalem artichoke stem.

    Li, Meng; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yuezhou; Xie, Guanghui

    2016-05-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) has been known as a potential nonfood feedstock for biofuels. Based on systems analysis of total 59 accessions, both soluble sugar and ash could positively affect biomass digestibility after dilute sodium hydroxide pretreatment (A). In this study, one representative accession (HEN-3) was used to illustrate its enzymatic digestibility with pretreatments of ultrasonic-assisted dilute sodium hydroxide (B), alkaline peroxide (C), and ultrasonic-assisted alkaline peroxide (D). Pretreatment D exhibited the highest hexose release rate (79.4%) and total sugar yield (10.4 g/L), which were 2.4 and 2.6 times higher, respectively, than those of the control. The analysis of cellulose crystalline index (CrI), cellulose degree of polymerization (DP), thermal behavior and SEM suggested that alkali-based pretreatments could distinctively extract lignin and pectin polymers, leading to significant alterations of cellulose CrI and DP for high biomass saccharification. Additionally, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could significant reduce the generation of fermentation inhibitors during alkali-based pretreatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of composite based on cellulose acetate and hydroxyapatite application to the absorption of harmful substances.

    Azzaoui, Khalil; Lamhamdi, Abdelatif; Mejdoubi, El Miloud; Berrabah, Mohammed; Hammouti, Belkheir; Elidrissi, Abderrahman; Fouda, Moustafa M G; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2014-10-13

    The aim of this work is to develop composite materials with hydroxyapatite (HAp) mineral and organic matrix such as cellulosic polymers. We use cellulose acetate with different percentages, and then inorganic-organic films were fabricated by evaporation of solvent. The composite films were characterized using emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectra. Test results show that these films are uniform and have good ductility. A strong interaction existed between HAp and cellulosic polymers, and the method allows the production of very fine particles size of about 92 nm. We have developed a new chromatographic method for the quantification of bisphenol A (BPA) in samples of baby food. The result of this study demonstrates how to use this type of composite materials to remove pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Removal of phenol from aqueous solution using polymer inclusion membrane based on mixture of CTA and CA

    Benosmane, Nadjib; Boutemeur, Baya; Hamdi, Safouane M.; Hamdi, Maamar

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, there are increasingly stringent regulations requiring more and more treatment of industrial effluents to generate product waters which could be easily reused or disposed of to the environment without any harmful effects. In the present work, the removal of phenol from aqueous solution across polymer inclusion membrane (PIM), based on mixture of cellulose triacetate and cellulose acetate as support (75/25%), calix[4]resorcinarene derivative as a carrier and 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (2-NPOE) as plasticizer was investigated. The experimental part of this investigation involved the influence of carrier nature, plasticizer concentration, pH phases, and phenol initial concentration on the removal efficiency of phenol from synthetic wastewater. A PIM containing 0.1 g (of mixture polymer), (0.15 g/g mixture of polymer) of carrier and (0.03 ml/g mixture of polymer) of 2-NPOE provided the highest percentage of phenol removal efficiency over a 6-day transport; the removal was found to be about 95%, indeed the removal was found to be highly dependent of pH phases. The feed solution in these transport experiments was at pH 2, while the stripping solution contained 0.20 M NaOH. This study claims that the PIM with a mixture of cellulose derivatives can be used effectively to remove phenols from wastewaters.

  12. Cellulose bearing Schiff base and carboxylic acid chelating groups: a low cost and green adsorbent for heavy metal ion removal from aqueous solution.

    Saravanan, R; Ravikumar, L

    2016-10-01

    Chemically modified cellulose bearing metal binding sites like Schiff base and carboxylic acid groups was synthesized and characterized through Fourier transform infrared and solid state 13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The chemically modified cellulose (Cell-PA) adsorbent was examined for its metal ion uptake ability for Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. Kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out under optimum conditions. Pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm fit well with the experimental data. Thermodynamic studies were also performed along with adsorption regeneration performance studies. The adsorbent (Cell-PA) shows high potential for the removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) metal ions, and it shows antibacterial activity towards selected microorganisms.

  13. Microfibrillated cellulose and new nanocomposite materials: a review

    Siró, Istvan; Plackett, David

    2010-01-01

    Due to their abundance, high strength and stiffness, low weight and biodegradability, nano-scale cellulose fiber materials (e.g., microfibrillated cellulose and bacterial cellulose) serve as promising candidates for bio-nanocomposite production. Such new high-value materials are the subject...... in order to address this hurdle. This review summarizes progress in nanocellulose preparation with a particular focus on microfibrillated cellulose and also discusses recent developments in bio-nanocomposite fabrication based on nanocellulose....

  14. A comparative study of gelatin and starch-based nano-composite films modified by nano-cellulose and chitosan for food packaging applications.

    Noorbakhsh-Soltani, S M; Zerafat, M M; Sabbaghi, S

    2018-06-01

    Environmental concerns have led to extensive research for replacing polymer-based food packaging with bio-nano-composites. In this study, incorporation of nano-cellulose into gelatin and starch matrices is investigated for this purpose. Chitosan is used to improve mechanical, anti-fungal and waterproof properties. Experiments are designed and analyzed using response surface methodology. Nano-Cellulose is synthesized via acid hydrolysis and incorporated in base matrices through wet processing. Also, tensile strength test, food preservation, transparency in visible and UV and water contact angle are performed on the nano-composite films. DSC/TGA and air permeability tests are also performed on the optimal films. The results show that increasing nano-cellulose composition to 10% leads to increase the tensile strength at break to 8121 MN/m 2 and decrease the elongation at break. Also, increasing chitosan composition from 5% to 30% can enhance food preservation up to 15 days. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biofunctional Paper via Covalent Modification of Cellulose

    Yu, Arthur; Shang, Jing; Cheng, Fang; Paik, Bradford A.; Kaplan, Justin M.; Andrade, Rodrigo B.; Ratner, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Paper-based analytical devices are the subject of growing interest for the development of low-cost point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring technologies and research tools for limited-resource settings. However, there are limited chemistries available for the conjugation of biomolecules to cellulose for use in biomedical applications. Herein, divinyl sulfone (DVS) chemistry was demonstrated to covalently immobilize small molecules, proteins and DNA onto the hydroxyl groups of cellulose membranes through nucleophilic addition. Assays on modified cellulose using protein-carbohydrate and protein-glycoprotein interactions as well as oligonucleotide hybridization showed that the membrane’s bioactivity was specific, dose-dependent, and stable over a long period of time. Use of an inkjet printer to form patterns of biomolecules on DVS-activated cellulose illustrates the adaptability of the DVS functionalization technique to pattern sophisticated designs, with potential applications in cellulose-based lateral flow devices. PMID:22708701

  16. Improvement of thermal and mechanical properties of composite based on polylactic acid and microfibrillated cellulose through chemical modification

    Suryanegara, L.; Nugraha, R. A.; Achmadi, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is the most representative sustainable and bio-based polymer environmentally friendly that has a great potential to replace petroleum-based plastics. However, brittleness, low heat resistance, and slow crystallization limit the wide application of PLA. One of strategies to improve PLA properties is by reinforcing with microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). Unfortunately, the hydrophilic properties of MFC make it difficult to attain good dispersion in a hydrophobic PLA matrix. Therefore, modification of MFC was needed to increase its compatibility with PLA in the composite formation. In this experiment, MFC was modified with partial acetylation (degree of substitution: 1) and further grafted with lactide monomers through ring-opening polymerization using Sn(Oct)2 catalyst. The result of acetylation and grafting were verified by infrared spectra. Composites were prepared by mixing PLA (molecular weight of 200,000) and the modified MFC at 9:1 ratio through organic solvent method. Followed by 8 min-kneading and hot pressing at 180°C, the resulted composites were evaluated for their mechanical and thermal properties. Thermal characterization carried out using differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that the presence of modified MFC increased the temperature of glass transition and accelerated the crystallization of PLA. Mechanical properties measurement showed that the presence of modified MFC enhanced the elongation at break (1.1 to 1.8%), tensile strength (14.9 to 25.7 MPa), and modulus of elasticity (1.7 to 2.1 GPa). These results demonstrated that the modified MFC could extend the application of PLA in industry.

  17. pH-Responsive Shape Memory Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(ε-caprolactone)-based Polyurethane/Cellulose Nanocrystals Nanocomposite.

    Li, Ying; Chen, Hongmei; Liu, Dian; Wang, Wenxi; Liu, Ye; Zhou, Shaobing

    2015-06-17

    In this study, we developed a pH-responsive shape-memory polymer nanocomposite by blending poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-based polyurethane (PECU) with functionalized cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). CNCs were functionalized with pyridine moieties (CNC-C6H4NO2) through hydroxyl substitution of CNCs with pyridine-4-carbonyl chloride and with carboxyl groups (CNC-CO2H) via 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) mediated surface oxidation, respectively. At a high pH value, the CNC-C6H4NO2 had attractive interactions from the hydrogen bonding between pyridine groups and hydroxyl moieties; at a low pH value, the interactions reduced or disappeared due to the protonation of pyridine groups, which are a Lewis base. The CNC-CO2H responded to pH variation in an opposite manner. The hydrogen bonding interactions of both CNC-C6H4NO2 and CNC-CO2H can be readily disassociated by altering pH values, endowing the pH-responsiveness of CNCs. When these functionalized CNCs were added in PECU polymer matrix to form nanocomposite network which was confirmed with rheological measurements, the mechanical properties of PECU were not only obviously improved but also the pH-responsiveness of CNCs could be transferred to the nanocomposite network. The pH-sensitive CNC percolation network in polymer matrix served as the switch units of shape-memory polymers (SMPs). Furthermore, the modified CNC percolation network and polymer molecular chains also had strong hydrogen bonding interactions among hydroxyl, carboxyl, pyridine moieties, and isocyanate groups, which could be formed or destroyed through changing pH value. The shape memory function of the nanocomposite network was only dependent on the pH variation of the environment. Therefore, this pH-responsive shape-memory nancomposite could be potentially developed into a new smart polymer material.

  18. Characterization of cellulose nanowhiskers

    Nascimento, Nayra R.; Pinheiro, Ivanei F.; Morales, Ana R.; Ravagnani, Sergio P.; Mei, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer earth. The cellulose nanowhiskers can be extracted from the cellulose. These have attracted attention for its use in nanostructured materials for various applications, such as nanocomposites, because they have peculiar characteristics, among them, high aspect ratio, biodegradability and excellent mechanical properties. This work aims to characterize cellulose nanowhiskers from microcrystalline cellulose. Therefore, these materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to assess the degree of crystallinity, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to the morphology of nanowhiskers and thermal stability was evaluated by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). (author)

  19. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  20. Coarse-grained model for the interconversion between different crystalline cellulose allomorphs

    Langan, Paul [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of Langevin dynamics simulations on a coarse grained model for crystalline cellulose. In particular, we analyze two different cellulose crystalline forms: cellulose I (the natural form of cellulose) and cellulose IIII (obtained after cellulose I is treated with anhydrous liquid ammonia). Cellulose IIII has been the focus of wide interest in the field of cellulosic biofuels as it can be efficiently hydrolyzed to glucose (its enzymatic degradation rates are up to 5 fold higher than those of cellulose I ). In turn, glucose can eventually be fermented into fuels. The coarse-grained model presented in this study is based on a simplified geometry and on an effective potential mimicking the changes in both intracrystalline hydrogen bonds and stacking interactions during the transition from cellulose I to cellulose IIII. The model accurately reproduces both structural and thermomechanical properties of cellulose I and IIII. The work presented herein describes the structural transition from cellulose I to cellulose IIII as driven by the change in the equilibrium state of two degrees of freedom in the cellulose chains. The structural transition from cellulose I to cellulose IIII is essentially reduced to a search for optimal spatial arrangement of the cellulose chains.

  1. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis of Biorefinery Siting Based on Cellulosic Feedstock Grown on Marginal Lands

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01

    and PostgreSQL database hosting. The second resource was the DOE-JGCRI 'Evergreen' cluster, capable of executing millions of simulations in relatively short periods. ARRA funding also supported a PhD student from UMD who worked on creating the geodatabases and executing some of the simulations in this study. Using a physically based classification of marginal lands, we simulated production of cellulosic feedstocks from perennial mixtures grown on these lands in the US Midwest. Marginal lands in the western states of the US Midwest appear to have significant potential to supply feedstocks to a cellulosic biofuel industry. Similar results were obtained with simulations of N-fertilized perennial mixtures. A detailed spatial analysis allowed for the identification of possible locations for the establishment of 34 cellulosic ethanol biorefineries with an annual production capacity of 5.6 billion gallons. In summary, we have reported on the development of a spatially explicit national geodatabase to conduct biofuel simulation studies and provided simulation results on the potential of perennial cropping systems to serve as feedstocks for the production of cellulosic ethanol. To accomplish this, we have employed sophisticated spatial analysis methods in combination with the process-based biogeochemical model EPIC. The results of this study will be submitted to the USDOE Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework as a way to contribute to the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry. This work provided the opportunity to test the hypothesis that marginal lands can serve as sources of cellulosic feedstocks and thus contribute to avoid potential conflicts between bioenergy and food production systems. This work, we believe, opens the door for further analysis on the characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks as major contributors to the development of a sustainable bioenergy economy.

  2. A continuum-based structural modeling approach for cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs)

    Mehdi Shishehbor; Fernando L. Dri; Robert J. Moon; Pablo D. Zavattieri

    2018-01-01

    We present a continuum-based structural model to study the mechanical behavior of cel- lulose nanocrystals (CNCs), and analyze the effect of bonded and non-bonded interactions on the mechanical properties under various loading conditions. In particular, this model assumes the uncoupling between the bonded and non-bonded interactions and their be- havior is obtained...

  3. Cellobiose as a model system to reveal cellulose dissolution mechanism in acetate-based ionic liquids: Density functional theory study substantiated by NMR spectra.

    Cao, Bobo; Du, Jiuyao; Du, Dongmei; Sun, Haitao; Zhu, Xiao; Fu, Hui

    2016-09-20

    Cellulose dissolution mechanism in acetate-based ionic liquids was systematically studied in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra and Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods by using cellobiose and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BmimAc) as a model system. The solubility of cellulose in ionic liquid increased with temperature increase in the range of 90-140°C. NMR spectra suggested OAc(-) preferred to form stronger hydrogen bonds with hydrogen of hydroxyl in cellulose. Electrostatic potential method was employed to predict the most possible reaction sites and locate the most stable configuration. Atoms in molecules (AIM) theory was used to study the features of bonds at bond critical points and the variations of bond types. Simultaneously, noncovalent interactions were characterized and visualized by employing reduced density gradient analysis combined with Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) program. Natural bond orbital (NBO) theory was applied to study the noncovalent nature and characterize the orbital interactions between cellobiose and Bmim[OAc]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics of unique HBr-hydrolyzed cellulose nanocrystals from freshwater green algae (Cladophora rupestris) and its reinforcement in starch-based film.

    Sucaldito, Melvir R; Camacho, Drexel H

    2017-08-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are promising materials that are readily extracted from plants and other cellulose-containing organisms. In this study, CNCs were isolated from freshwater green algae (Cladophora rupestris) thriving in a volcanic lake, using hydrobromic acid (HBr) hydrolysis. Morphological and structural studies revealed highly crystalline CNCs (94.0% crystallinity index) with preferred orientation to [100] lattice plane as shown by XRD measurements and have an average diameter of 20.0 (±4.4)nm as shown by TEM. Thermal studies showed increased temperature for thermal decomposition of CNCs (381.6°C), which is a result of HBr hydrolysis for CNCs isolation. The isolated CNCs were reinforced into starch based biocomposites via solution casting and evaporation method. Mechanical strength was improved as high as 78% upon addition of 1% cellulose nanocrystals in the films. The produced films are promising materials for their high mechanical strength, biodegradability and availability of raw materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A potential bioactive wound dressing based on carboxymethyl cellulose/ZnO impregnated MCM-41 nanocomposite hydrogel.

    Rakhshaei, Rasul; Namazi, Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Lack of antibacterial activity, deficient water vapor and oxygen permeability, and insufficient mechanical properties are disadvantages of existing wound dressings. Hydrogels could absorb wound exudates due to their strong swelling ratio and give a cooling sensation and a wet environment. To overcome these shortcomings, flexible nanocomposite hydrogel films was prepared through combination of zinc oxide impregnated mesoporous silica (ZnO-MCM-41) as a nano drug carrier with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrogel. Citric acid was used as cross linker to avoid the cytotoxicity of conventional cross linkers. The prepared nanocomposite hydrogel was characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential and UV-vis spectroscopy. Results of swelling and erosion tests showed CMC/ZnO nanocomposite hydrogel disintegrated during the first hours of the test. Using MCM-41 as a substrate for ZnO nanoparticles solved this problem and the CMC/ZnO-MCM-41 showed a great improvement in tensile strength (12%), swelling (100%), erosion (53%) and gas permeability (500%) properties. Drug delivery and antibacterial properties of the nanocomposite hydrogel films studied using tetracycline (TC) as a broad spectrum antibiotic and showed a sustained TC release. This could efficiently decrease bandage exchange. Cytocompatibility of the nanocomposite hydrogel films has been analyzed in adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and results showed cytocompatibility of CMC/ZnO-MCM-41. Based on these results the prepared CMC nanocomposite hydrogel containing ZnO impregnated MCM-41, could serve as a kind of promising wound dressing with sustained drug delivery properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Achieving a Collapsible, Strong, and Highly Thermally Conductive Film Based on Oriented Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanosheets and Cellulose Nanofiber.

    Wu, Kai; Fang, Jinchao; Ma, Jinrui; Huang, Rui; Chai, Songgang; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2017-09-06

    Boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS) films receive wide attention in both academia and industry because of their high thermal conductivity (TC) and good electrical insulation capability. However, the brittleness and low strength of the BNNS film largely limit its application. Herein, functionalized BNNSs (f-BNNSs) with a well-maintained in-plane crystalline structure were first prepared utilizing urea in the aqueous solution via ball-milling for the purpose of improving their stability in water and enhancing the interaction with the polymer matrix. Then, a biodegradable and highly thermally conductive film with an orderly oriented structure based on cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) and f-BNNSs was prepared just by simple vacuum-assisted filtration. The modification of the BNNS and the introduction of the CNF result in a better orientation of the f-BNNS, sufficient connection between f-BNNS themselves, and strong interaction between f-BNNS and CNF, which not only make the prepared composite film strong and tough but also possess higher in-plane TC. An increase of 70% in-plane TC, 63.2% tensile strength, and 77.8% elongation could be achieved for CNF/f-BNNS films, compared with that for CNF/BNNS films at the filler content of 70%. Although at such a high f-BNNS content, this composite film can be bended and folded. It is even more interesting to find that the in-plane TC could be greatly enhanced with the decrease of the thickness of the film, and a value of 30.25 W/m K can be achieved at the thickness of ∼30 μm for the film containing 70 wt % f-BNNS. We believe that this highly thermally conductive film with good strength and toughness could have potential applications in next-generation highly powerful and collapsible electronic devices.

  7. A potential bioactive wound dressing based on carboxymethyl cellulose/ZnO impregnated MCM-41 nanocomposite hydrogel

    Rakhshaei, Rasul [Research Laboratory of Dendrimers and Nanopolymers, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, P.O. Box 51666, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Namazi, Hassan, E-mail: namazi@tabrizu.ac.ir [Research Laboratory of Dendrimers and Nanopolymers, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, P.O. Box 51666, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Lack of antibacterial activity, deficient water vapor and oxygen permeability, and insufficient mechanical properties are disadvantages of existing wound dressings. Hydrogels could absorb wound exudates due to their strong swelling ratio and give a cooling sensation and a wet environment. To overcome these shortcomings, flexible nanocomposite hydrogel films was prepared through combination of zinc oxide impregnated mesoporous silica (ZnO-MCM-41) as a nano drug carrier with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrogel. Citric acid was used as cross linker to avoid the cytotoxicity of conventional cross linkers. The prepared nanocomposite hydrogel was characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential and UV–vis spectroscopy. Results of swelling and erosion tests showed CMC/ZnO nanocomposite hydrogel disintegrated during the first hours of the test. Using MCM-41 as a substrate for ZnO nanoparticles solved this problem and the CMC/ZnO-MCM-41 showed a great improvement in tensile strength (12%), swelling (100%), erosion (53%) and gas permeability (500%) properties. Drug delivery and antibacterial properties of the nanocomposite hydrogel films studied using tetracycline (TC) as a broad spectrum antibiotic and showed a sustained TC release. This could efficiently decrease bandage exchange. Cytocompatibility of the nanocomposite hydrogel films has been analyzed in adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and results showed cytocompatibility of CMC/ZnO-MCM-41. Based on these results the prepared CMC nanocomposite hydrogel containing ZnO impregnated MCM-41, could serve as a kind of promising wound dressing with sustained drug delivery properties. - Highlights: • CMC nanocomposite hydrogel incorporated with TC loaded ZnO-MCM-41 nanoparticles have been prepared as active wound dressing. • Citric acid was used as cross linker to avoid conventional toxic crosslinkers. • CMC/ZnO-MCM-41

  8. Alginate based nanocomposite for microencapsulation of probiotic: Effect of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and lecithin.

    Huq, Tanzina; Fraschini, Carole; Khan, Avik; Riedl, Bernard; Bouchard, Jean; Lacroix, Monique

    2017-07-15

    Probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595) was encapsulated in alginate-CNC-lecithin microbeads to produce nutraceutical microcapsules. Addition of CNC and lecithin in alginate microbeads (ACL-1) improved the viability of L. rhamnosus during gastric passage and storage. The compression strength of the freeze-dried ACL-1 microbeads improved 40% compared to alginate microbeads alone. Swelling studies revealed that addition of CNC and lecithin in alginate microbeads decreased (around 47%) the gastric fluid absorption but increased the dissolution time by 20min compared to alginate microbeads (A-0). During transition through the gastric passage, the viability of L. rhamnosus in dried ACL-1 microbeads was increased 37% as compared to A-0 based beads. At 25 and 4°C storage conditions, the viability of L. rhamnosus encapsulated in ACL-1 microbeads decreased by 1.23 and 1.08 log respectively, whereas the encapsulation with A-0 microbeads exhibited a 3.17 and 1.93 log reduction respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Can Hawaii Meet Its Renewable Fuel Target? Case Study of Banagrass-Based Cellulosic Ethanol

    Chinh Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Banagrass is a biomass crop candidate for ethanol production in the State of Hawaii. This study examines: (i whether enough banagrass can be produced to meet Hawaii’s renewable fuel target of 20% highway fuel demand produced with renewable sources by 2020 and (ii at what cost. This study proposes to locate suitable land areas for banagrass production and ethanol processing, focusing on the two largest islands in the state of Hawaii—Hawaii and Maui. The results suggest that the 20% target is not achievable by using all suitable land resources for banagrass production on both Hawaii and Maui. A total of about 74,224,160 gallons, accounting for 16.04% of the state’s highway fuel demand, can be potentially produced at a cost of $6.28/gallon. Lower ethanol cost is found when using a smaller production scale. The lowest cost of $3.31/gallon is found at a production processing capacity of about 9 million gallons per year (MGY, which meets about 2% of state demand. This cost is still higher than the average imported ethanol price of $3/gallon. Sensitivity analysis finds that it is possible to produce banagrass-based ethanol on Hawaii Island at a cost below the average imported ethanol price if banagrass yield increases of at least 35.56%.

  10. Design of cellulose ether-based macromolecular prodrugs of ciprofloxacin for extended release and enhanced bioavailability.

    Amin, Muhammad; Abbas, Nazia Shahana; Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Sher, Muhammad; Edgar, Kevin J

    2018-07-01

    The present study reveals the syntheses of hydroxypropylcellulose‑(HPC) and hydroxyethylcellulose‑(HEC) based macromolecular prodrugs (MPDs) of ciprofloxacin (CIP) using homogeneous reaction methodology. Covalently loaded drug content (DC) of each prodrug was quantified using UV-Vis spectrophotometry to determine degree of substitution (DS). HPC-ciprofloxacin (HPC-CIP) conjugates showed DS of CIP in the range 0.87-1.15 whereas HEC-ciprofloxacin (HEC-CIP) conjugates showed DS range 0.51-0.75. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that HPC-CIP conjugate 2 and HEC-CIP conjugate 6 self-assembled into nanoparticles of 150-300 and 180-250nm, respectively. Size exclusion chromatography revealed HPC-CIP conjugate 2 and HEC-CIP conjugate 6 as monodisperse systems. In vitro drug release studies indicated 15 and 43% CIP release from HPC-CIP conjugate 2 after 6h in simulated gastric and simulated intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), respectively. HEC-CIP conjugate 6 showed 16% and 46% release after 6h in SGF and SIF, respectively. HPC-CIP conjugate 2 and HEC-CIP conjugate 6 exhibited half-lives of 10.87 and 11.71h, respectively with area under the curve values of 164 and 175hμgmL -1 , respectively, indicating enhanced bioavailability and improved pharmacokinetic profiles in animal model. Equal antibacterial activities to that of unmodified CIP confirmed their competitive efficacies. Cytotoxicity studies supported their non-toxic nature and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sepiolite functionalized with N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]-ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt. Part I: Preparation and characterization

    Lazarević Slavica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural sepiolite from Andrici (Serbia was functionalized by covalent grafting of N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt to the Si-OH sepiolite groups. The functionalized material, MSEAS, was characterized by determination of phase composition by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, analysis of morphological characteristics by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, differential thermal analyses (DTA, determination of specific surface areas and pore size distribution using B.E.T. method and point of zero charge (pHpzc determination. The crystal structure of sepiolite does not change significantly upon surface modification. FT-IR and DTA analysis confirmed that the modified sample maintained the basic structure of sepiolite and also the presence of organic groups in functionalized sepiolite sample. The point of zero charge of MSEAS in KNO3 solutions of different concentrations determination by the batch technique from was at pH 7.0 ± 0.1. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019, and FP7 NANOTECH FTM No. 245916

  12. CELLULOSIC NANOCOMPOSITES: A REVIEW

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of their wide abundance, their renewable and environmentally benign nature, and their outstanding mechanical properties, a great deal of attention has been paid recently to cellulosic nanofibrillar structures as components in nanocomposites. A first major challenge has been to find efficient ways to liberate cellulosic fibrils from different source materials, including wood, agricultural residues, or bacterial cellulose. A second major challenge has involved the lack of compatibility of cellulosic surfaces with a variety of plastic materials. The water-swellable nature of cellulose, especially in its non-crystalline regions, also can be a concern in various composite materials. This review of recent work shows that considerable progress has been achieved in addressing these issues and that there is potential to use cellulosic nano-components in a wide range of high-tech applications.

  13. Preparation, structural characterization, and catalytic performance of Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes derived from cellulose Schiff base

    Baran, Talat; Yılmaz Baran, Nuray; Menteş, Ayfer

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we reported production, characterization, and catalytic behavior of two novel heterogeneous palladium(II) and platinum(II) catalysts derived from cellulose biopolymer. In order to eliminate the use of toxic organic or inorganic solvents and to reduce the use of excess energy in the coupling reactions, we have developed a very simple, rapid, and eco-friendly microwave irradiation protocol. The developed microwave-assisted method of Suzuki cross coupling reactions produced excellent reaction yields in the presence of cellulose supported palladium and platinum (II) catalysts. Moreover, the catalysts easily regenerated after simple filtration, and they gave good reusability. This study revealed that the designed catalysts and method provide clean, simple, rapid, and impressive catalytic performance for Suzuki coupling reactions.

  14. Mechanical reinforcement of Bioglass (R)-based scaffolds by novel polyvinyl-alcohol/microfibrillated cellulose composite coating

    Bertolla, Luca; Dlouhý, Ivo; Philippart, A.; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, MAR (2014), s. 204-207 ISSN 0167-577X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 - GLACERCO Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : bioactive glass * mechanical properties * scaffolds * cellulose * coatings Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.489, year: 2014

  15. Optimization of cellulose acrylate and grafted 4-vinylpyridine and 1-vinylimidazole synthesis

    Bojanić Vaso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of cellulose acrylate synthesis by reaction with sodium cellulosate and acryloyl chloride was carried out. Optimal conditions for conducting the synthesis reaction of cellulose acrylate were as follows: the molar ratio of cellulose/potassium-t-butoxide/acryloyl chloride was 1:3:10 and the optimal reaction time was 10 h. On the basis of elemental analysis with optimal conditions for conducting the reaction of cellulose acrylate, the percentage of substitution of glucose units in cellulose Y = 80.7%, and the degree of substitution of cellulose acrylate DS = 2.4 was determined. The grafting reaction of acrylate vinyl monomers onto cellulose in acetonitrile with initiator azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN in a nitrogen atmosphere was performed, by mixing for 5 h at acetonitrile boiling temperature. Radical copolymerization of synthesized cellulose acrylate and 4-vinylpyridine, 1-vinylimidazole, 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone and 9-vinylcarbazole, cellulose-poly-4-vinylpyridine (Cell-PVP, cellulose-poly-1- vinylimidazole (Cell-PVIm and cellulose-poly-1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (Cell-P1V2P and cellulose-poly-9-vinylcarbazole (Cell-P9VK were synthesized. Acrylate cellulose and cellulose grafted copolymers were confirmed by IR spectroscopy, based on elementary analysis and the characteristics of grafted copolymers of cellulose were determined. The mass share of grafted copolymers, X, the relationship of derivative parts/cellulose vinyl group, Z, and the degree of grafting copolymers of cellulose (mass% were determined. In reaction of methyl iodide and cellulose-poly-4-vinylpyridine (Cell-PVP the cellulose-1-methyl-poly-4-vinylpyridine iodide (Cell-1-Me-PVPJ was synthesized. Cellulose acrylate and grafted copolymers were obtained with better thermal, electrochemical and ion-emulation properties for bonding of noble metals Au, Pt, Pd from water solutions. The synthesis optimization of cellulose acrylate was applied as a model for the synthesis of grafted

  16. Radiation modification of cellulose pulps. Preparation of cellulose derivatives

    Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Stupinska, H.; Mikolajczyk, W; Starostka, P.

    2005-01-01

    type LAE 13/9. The accelerator's power output was suitably adjusted to yield the overall radiation energy doses absorbed by the pulps of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 50 kGy. After the exposure, the pulps underwent structural and physicochemical investigations. Structural examinations were carried out using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel chromatography and IR spectrophotometry. In the course of the physicochemical tests, such parameters as viscosity limit, mean degree of polymerization and the a-cellulose content were determined. Based on the results obtained, it is possible to make a statement that in the tested samples of pulps the cellulose depolymerization took place, reflected in the decrease of viscosity and the value of the related mean polymerization degree, as well as the a-cellulose content. The cellulose pulps subjected to electron irradiation were subsequently analysed by means of gel chromatography in order to determine their molecular parameters. These combined with the results of viscosimetric analyses made the choice of the possible accelerator operational parameters. Further fine-tuning of the irradiation process involved verification of the spatial distribution of the electron doses in the cellulose sheets exposed. The optimization of the accelerator operational parameters performed indicated that the most desired modifications were obtained when the selected pulps were exposed to doses of 10 and 15 kGy (D mean = 12.5 kGy). The Alicell viscose pulp and the pinewood paper pulp were chosen for further examination. Laboratory trials on the preparation of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carbomate (CC) and cellulose acetate from the cellulose pulps, modified by electron-beam treatment with doses of 10 and 15 kGy, have been carried out. The prepared carbomate from electron beam modified Alicell pulps possessed high contents of nitrogen and were well soluble. In the case of preparation of carboxymethylcellulose, it was found that preliminary irradiation

  17. Mechanical, Thermal, and Morphological Properties of Nanocomposites Based on Polyvinyl Alcohol and Cellulose Nanofiber from Aloe vera Rind

    Adel Ramezani Kakroodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was devoted to reinforcement of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA using cellulose nanofibers from Aloe vera rind. Nanofibers were isolated from Aloe vera rind in the form of an aqueous suspension using chemimechanical technique. Mechanical characterizations showed that incorporation of even small amounts of nanofibers (as low as 2% by weight had significant effects on both the modulus and strength of PVA. Tensile modulus and strength of PVA increased, 32 and 63%, respectively, after adding 2% of cellulose nanofiber from Aloe vera rind. Samples with higher concentrations of nanofibers also showed improved mechanical properties due to a high level of interfacial adhesion and also dispersion of fibers. The results showed that inclusion of nanofibers decreased deformability of PVA significantly. Dynamic mechanical analysis revealed that, at elevated temperatures, improvement of mechanical properties due to the presence of nanofibers was even more noticeable. Addition of nanofibers resulted in increased thermal stability of PVA in thermogravimetric analysis due to the reduction in mobility of matrix molecules. Morphological observations showed no signs of agglomeration of fibers even in composites with high cellulose nanofiber contents. Inclusion of nanofibers was shown to increase the density of composites.

  18. Enzymic hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes to glucose

    Spano, L A; Medeiros, J; Mandels, M

    1976-01-01

    An enzymic process for the conversion of cellulose to glucose is based on the use of a specific enzyme derived from mutant strains of the fungus trichoderma viride which is capable of reacting with the crystalline fraction of the cellulose molecule. The production and mode of action of the cellulase complex produced during the growth of trichoderma viride is discussed as well as the application of such enzymes for the conversion of cellulosic wastes to crude glucose syrup for use in production of chemical feedstocks, single-cell proteins, fuels, solvents, etc.

  19. Assessing nano cellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    Milanez, Douglas Henrique; Amaral, Roniberto Morato do; Faria, Leandro Innocentini Lopes de; Gregolin, Jose Angelo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nano cellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nano cellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nano materials. Scientific and technological future developments in nano cellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nano cellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nano cellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nano cellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nano cellulose S and T advances in the coming years. (author)

  20. Assessing nano cellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    Milanez, Douglas Henrique; Amaral, Roniberto Morato do; Faria, Leandro Innocentini Lopes de; Gregolin, Jose Angelo Rodrigues, E-mail: douglasmilanez@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Informacao Tecnologica em Materiais. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nano cellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nano cellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nano materials. Scientific and technological future developments in nano cellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nano cellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nano cellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nano cellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nano cellulose S and T advances in the coming years. (author)

  1. Flexible, highly graphitized carbon aerogels based on bacterial cellulose/lignin: Catalyst-free synthesis and its application in energy storage devices

    Xu, Xuezhu

    2015-04-15

    Currently, most carbon aerogels are based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or graphene, which are produced through a catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. Biomass based organic aerogels and carbon aerogels, featuring low cost, high scalability, and small environmental footprint, represent an important new research direction in (carbon) aerogel development. Cellulose and lignin are the two most abundant natural polymers in the world, and the aerogels based on them are very promising. Classic silicon aerogels and available organic resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) or lignin-resorcinol-formaldehyde (LRF) aerogels are brittle and fragile; toughening of the aerogels is highly desired to expand their applications. This study reports the first attempt to toughen the intrinsically brittle LRF aerogel and carbon aerogel using bacterial cellulose. The facile process is catalyst-free and cost-effective. The toughened carbon aerogels, consisting of blackberry-like, core-shell structured, and highly graphitized carbon nanofibers, are able to undergo at least 20% reversible compressive deformation. Due to their unique nanostructure and large mesopore population, the carbon materials exhibit an areal capacitance higher than most of the reported values in the literature. This property makes them suitable candidates for flexible solid-state energy storage devices. Besides energy storage, the conductive interconnected nanoporous structure can also find applications in oil/water separation, catalyst supports, sensors, and so forth. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  3. The Synthesis of a Novel Cellulose Physical Gel

    Jiufang Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose possessing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD was used as a host molecule and cellulose possessing ferrocene (Fc as a guest polymer. Infrared spectra, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV, and contact angle analysis were used to characterise the material structure and the inclusion behaviour. The results showed that the β-CD-cellulose and the Fc-cellulose can form inclusion complexes. Moreover, ferrocene oxidation, and reduction of state can be adjusted by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO as an oxidant and glutathione (GSH as a reductant. In this study, a physical gel based on β-CD-cellulose/Fc-cellulose was formed under mild conditions in which autonomous healing between cut surfaces occurred after 24 hours. The physical gel can be controlled in the sol-gel transition. The compressive strength of the Fc-cellulose/β-CD-cellulose gel increased with increased cellulose concentration. The host-guest interaction between the side chains of cellulose could strengthen the gel. The cellulose physical gel may eventually be used as a stimulus-responsive, healing material in biomedical applications.

  4. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  5. Novel proton exchange membranes based on structure-optimized poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s and nanocrystalline cellulose

    Ni, Chuangjiang; Wei, Yingcong; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Baijun; Sun, Zhaoyan; Gu, Yan; Zhang, Mingyao; Hu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Two sulfonated fluorenyl-containing poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s (SFPEEKKs) were synthesized as the matrix of composite proton exchange membranes by directly sulfonating copolymer precursors comprising non-sulfonatable fluorinated segments and sulfonatable fluorenyl-containing segments. Surface-modified nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was produced as the "performance-enhancing" filler by treating the microcrystalline cellulose with acid. Two families of SFPEEKK/NCC nanocomposite membranes with various NCC contents were prepared via a solution-casting procedure. Results revealed that the insertion of NCC at a suitable ratio could greatly enhance the proton conductivity of the pristine membranes. For example, the proton conductivity of SFPEEKK-60/NCC-4 (SFPEEKK with 60% fluorenyl segments in the repeating unit, and inserted with 4% NCC) composite membrane was as high as 0.245 S cm-1 at 90 °C, which was 61.2% higher than that of the corresponding pure SFPEEKK-60 membrane. This effect could be attributed to the formation of hydrogen bond networks and proton conduction paths through the interaction between -SO3H/-OH groups on the surface of NCC particles and -SO3H groups on the SFPEEKK backbones. Furthermore, the chemically modified NCC filler and the optimized chemical structure of the SFPEEKK matrix also provided good dimensional stability and mechanical properties of the obtained nanocomposites. In conclusion, these novel nanocomposites can be promising proton exchange membranes for fuel cells at moderate temperatures.

  6. Structure-based drug design of novel peptidomimetic cellulose derivatives as HCV-NS3 protease inhibitors.

    Saleh, Noha A; Elshemey, Wael M

    2017-10-15

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) represents a global health threat not only due to the large number of reported worldwide HCV infections, but also due to the absence of a reliable vaccine for its prevention. HCV NS3 protease is one of the most important targets for drug design aiming at the deactivation of HCV. In the present work, molecular docking simulations are carried out for suggested novel NS3 protease inhibitors applied to the Egyptian genotype 4. These inhibitors are modifications of dimer cellulose by adding a hexa-peptide to the cellulose at one of the positions 2, 3, 6, 2', 3' or 6'. Results show that the inhibitor compound with the hexa-peptide at position 6 shows significantly higher simulation docking score with HCV NS3 protease active site. This is supported by low total energy value of docking system, formation of two H-bonds with HCV NS3 protease active site residues, high binding affinity and increased stability in the interaction system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Optical sensor platform based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) - 4'-(hexyloxy)-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (HOBC) bi-phase nematic liquid crystal composite films.

    Santos, Moliria V; Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Barud, Hernane S; Napoli, Mariana; Nalin, Marcelo; Ribeiro, Sidney J L

    2017-07-15

    The preparation of composite materials has gained tremendous attention due to the potential synergy of the combined materials. Here we fabricate novel thermal/electrical responsive photonic composite films combining cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) with a low molecular weight nematic liquid crystal (NLC), 4'-(hexyloxy)-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (HOBC). The obtained composite material combines both intense structural coloration of photonic cellulose and thermal and conductive properties of NLC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results confirmed that liquid crystals coated CNC films maintain chiral nematic structure characteristic of CNC film and simultaneously, transversal cross-section scanning electron microscopy images indicated penetration of liquid crystals through the CNC layers. Investigated composite film maintain NLC optical properties being switchable as a function of temperature during heating/cooling cycles. The relationship between the morphology and thermoresponsive in the micro/nanostructured materials was investigated by using transmission optical microscopy (TOM). Conductive response of the composite films was proved by Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) measurement. Designed thermo- and electro-responsive materials open novel simple pathway of fabrication of CNC-based materials with tunable properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Determination of cellulose I crystallinity by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Two new methods based on FT-Raman spectroscopy, one simple, based on band intensity ratio, and the other, using a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model, are proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. In the simple method, crystallinity in semicrystalline cellulose I samples was determined based on univariate regression that was first developed using the...

  9. Cellulose: To depolymerize… or not to?

    Coseri, Sergiu

    Oxidation of the primary OH groups in cellulose is a pivotal reaction both at lab and industrial scale, leading to the value-added products, i.e. oxidized cellulose which have tremendous applications in medicine, pharmacy and hi-tech industry. Moreover, the introduction of carboxyl moieties creates prerequisites for further cellulose functionalization through covalent attachment or electrostatic interactions, being an essential achievement designed to boost the area of cellulose-based nanomaterials fabrication. Various methods for the cellulose oxidation have been developed in the course of time, aiming the selective conversion of the OH groups. These methods use: nitrogen dioxide in chloroform, alkali metal nitrites and nitrates, strong acids alone or in combination with permanganates or sodium nitrite, ozone, and sodium periodate or lead (IV) tetraacetate. In the case of the last two reagents, cellulose dialdehydes derivatives are formed, which are further oxidized by sodium chlorite or hydrogen peroxide to form dicarboxyl groups. A major improvement in the cellulose oxidation was represented by the introduction of the stable nitroxyl radicals, such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO). However, a major impediment for the researchers working in this area is related with the severe depolymerisation occurred during the TEMPO-mediated conversion of CH 2 OH into COOH groups. On the other hand, the cellulose depolymerisation represent the key step, in the general effort of searching for alternative strategies to develop new renewable, carbon-neutral energy sources. In this connection, exploiting the biomass feed stocks to produce biofuel and other low molecular organic compounds, involves a high amount of research to improve the overall reaction conditions, limit the energy consumption, and to use benign reagents. This work is therefore focused on the parallelism between these two apparently antagonist processes involving cellulose, building a necessary

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomimetic bacterial cellulose-hemicellulose composites.

    Penttilä, Paavo A; Imai, Tomoya; Hemming, Jarl; Willför, Stefan; Sugiyama, Junji

    2018-06-15

    The production of biofuels and other chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is limited by the inefficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. Here a biomimetic composite material consisting of bacterial cellulose and wood-based hemicelluloses was used to study the effects of hemicelluloses on the enzymatic hydrolysis with a commercial cellulase mixture. Bacterial cellulose synthesized in the presence of hemicelluloses, especially xylan, was found to be more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis than hemicellulose-free bacterial cellulose. The reason for the easier hydrolysis could be related to the nanoscale structure of the substrate, particularly the packing of cellulose microfibrils into ribbons or bundles. In addition, small-angle X-ray scattering was used to show that the average nanoscale morphology of bacterial cellulose remained unchanged during the enzymatic hydrolysis. The reported easier enzymatic hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose produced in the presence of wood-based xylan offers new insights to overcome biomass recalcitrance through genetic engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and properties of regenerated cellulose-based hydrogels with high strength and transparency for potential use as an ocular bandage

    Patchan, M.; Graham, J.L.; Xia, Z.; Maranchi, J.P.; McCally, R.; Schein, O.; Elisseeff, J.H.; Trexler, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose is a biologically derived material with excellent wound-healing properties. The high strength of cellulose fibers and the ability to synthesize gels with high optical transparency make these materials suitable for ocular applications. In this study, cellulose materials derived from wood pulp, cotton, and bacterial sources were dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide to form regenerated cellulose hydrogels. Material properties of the resulting hydrogels, including water content, optical transparency, and tensile and tear strengths, were evaluated. Synthesis parameters, including activation time, dissolution time, relative humidity, and cellulose concentration, were found to impact the material properties of the resulting hydrogels. Overnight activation time improves the optical transparency of the hydrogels from 77% to 97% at 550 nm, whereas controlling cellulose concentration improves their tear strength by as much as 200%. On the basis of the measured transmittance and strength values of the regenerated hydrogels prepared via the optimized synthesis parameters, Avicel PH 101, Sigma-Aldrich microcrystalline cellulose 435236, and bacterial cellulose types were prioritized for future biocompatibility testing and potential clinical investigation. - Highlights: • Hydrogels were prepared (via LiCl/DMAc) from 7 different types of cellulose. • Synthesis parameters (activation, gelation, and concentration) were optimized. • Impact of synthesis parameters on transparency and strength was explored

  12. Synthesis and properties of regenerated cellulose-based hydrogels with high strength and transparency for potential use as an ocular bandage

    Patchan, M. [Research and Exploratory Development Department, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Graham, J.L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Avenue/Ross 720, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Xia, Z.; Maranchi, J.P. [Research and Exploratory Development Department, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); McCally, R. [Research and Exploratory Development Department, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Schein, O. [Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Elisseeff, J.H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Avenue/Ross 720, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Trexler, M.M., E-mail: morgana.trexler@jhuapl.edu [Research and Exploratory Development Department, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Cellulose is a biologically derived material with excellent wound-healing properties. The high strength of cellulose fibers and the ability to synthesize gels with high optical transparency make these materials suitable for ocular applications. In this study, cellulose materials derived from wood pulp, cotton, and bacterial sources were dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide to form regenerated cellulose hydrogels. Material properties of the resulting hydrogels, including water content, optical transparency, and tensile and tear strengths, were evaluated. Synthesis parameters, including activation time, dissolution time, relative humidity, and cellulose concentration, were found to impact the material properties of the resulting hydrogels. Overnight activation time improves the optical transparency of the hydrogels from 77% to 97% at 550 nm, whereas controlling cellulose concentration improves their tear strength by as much as 200%. On the basis of the measured transmittance and strength values of the regenerated hydrogels prepared via the optimized synthesis parameters, Avicel PH 101, Sigma-Aldrich microcrystalline cellulose 435236, and bacterial cellulose types were prioritized for future biocompatibility testing and potential clinical investigation. - Highlights: • Hydrogels were prepared (via LiCl/DMAc) from 7 different types of cellulose. • Synthesis parameters (activation, gelation, and concentration) were optimized. • Impact of synthesis parameters on transparency and strength was explored.

  13. Isolation of cellulose fibers from kenaf using electron beam

    Shin, Hye Kyoung; Pyo Jeun, Joon; Bin Kim, Hyun; Hyun Kang, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose fibers were isolated from a kenaf bast fiber using a electron beam irradiation (EBI) treatment. The methods of isolation were based on a hot water treatment after EBI and two-step bleaching processes. FT-IR spectroscopy demonstrated that the content of lignin and hemicellulose in the bleached cellulose fibers treated with various EBI doses decreased with increasing doses of EBI. Specifically, the lignin in the bleached cellulose fibers treated at 300 kGy, was almost completely removed. Moreover, XRD analyses showed that the bleached cellulose fibers treated at 300 kGy presented the highest crystallinity of all the samples treated with EBI. Finally, the morphology of the bleached fiber was characterized by SEM imagery, and the studies showed that the separated degree of bleached cellulose fibers treated with various EBI doses increased with an increase of EBI dose, and the bleached cellulose fibers obtained by EBI treatment at 300 kGy was separated more uniformly than the bleached cellulose fiber obtained by alkali cooking with non-irradiated kenaf fiber. - Highlights: ► This study was to provide a progressive and convenient cellulose isolation process. ► Using an electron beam irradiation, we can obtain cellulose fibers using only water without chemicals during cooking process. ► We think that this cellulose isolation method will have an effect on enormous environmental and economic benefits.

  14. Fractal analysis of SEM images and mercury intrusion porosimetry data for the microstructural characterization of microcrystalline cellulose-based pellets

    Gomez-Carracedo, A.; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C.; Coca, R.; Martinez-Pacheco, R.; Concheiro, A.; Gomez-Amoza, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure of theophylline pellets prepared from microcrystalline cellulose, carbopol and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, according to a mixture design, was characterized using textural analysis of gray-level scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and thermodynamic analysis of the cumulative pore volume distribution obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry. Surface roughness evaluated in terms of gray-level non-uniformity and fractal dimension of pellet surface depended on agglomeration phenomena during extrusion/spheronization. Pores at the surface, mainly 1-15 μm in diameter, determined both the mechanism and the rate of theophylline release, and a strong negative correlation between the fractal geometry and the b parameter of the Weibull function was found for pellets containing >60% carbopol. Theophylline mean dissolution time from these pellets was about two to four times greater. Textural analysis of SEM micrographs and fractal analysis of mercury intrusion data are complementary techniques that enable complete characterization of multiparticulate drug dosage forms

  15. Final report (September, 1999--February, 2002) [Public outreach and information dissemination - cellulosic and corn-based ethanol outreach project

    Ames, Jeremy; Werner, Carol

    2002-08-01

    EESI's ''Ethanol, Climate Protection, Oil Reduction'' (ECO) electr[on]ic newsletter reaches out to the environmental and agricultural communities, state/local government officials and other interested parties, and provides a forum for dialogue about ''the potential benefits of ethanol--and particularly the expanded opportunities provided by cellulosic ethanol--with a special focus on climate protection.'' Each issue features expert commentary, excerpts from recent studies about ethanol, a summary of current government activity on ethanol, and ''notable quotables.'' The newsletter is distributed primarily via email and is also posted on EESI's web site. EESI also conducts outreach on the benefits of ethanol and other biofuels by attending and speaking at conferences, meetings and workshops around the country. The 16 issues of the newsletter published through December 2001 are included as attachments.

  16. Slow-release NPK fertilizer encapsulated by carboxymethyl cellulose-based nanocomposite with the function of water retention in soil.

    Olad, Ali; Zebhi, Hamid; Salari, Dariush; Mirmohseni, Abdolreza; Reyhani Tabar, Adel

    2018-09-01

    In this study, new slow release fertilizer encapsulated by superabsorbent nanocomposite was prepared by in-situ graft polymerization of sulfonated-carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) with acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), silica nanoparticles and nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) (NPK) fertilizer compound. The prepared materials were characterized by FT-IR, XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The incorporation of NPK fertilizer into hydrogel nanocomposite network was verified by results of these analyses. Also, the swelling behavior in various pH and saline solutions as well as water retention capability of the prepared hydrogel nanocomposite was evaluated. The fertilizer release behavior of the NPK loaded hydrogel nanocomposite was in good agreement with the standard of Committee of European Normalization (CEN), indicating its excellent slow release property. These good characteristics revealed that the hydrogel nanocomposite fertilizer formulation can be practically used in agricultural and horticultural applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel Proton Conducting Solid Bio-polymer Electrolytes Based on Carboxymethyl Cellulose Doped with Oleic Acid and Plasticized with Glycerol

    Chai, M. N.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2016-06-01

    The plasticized solid bio-polymer electrolytes (SBEs) system has been formed by introducing glycerol (Gly) as the plasticizer into the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) doped with oleic acid (OA) via solution casting techniques. The ionic conductivity of the plasticized SBEs has been studied using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. The highest conductivity achieved is 1.64 × 10-4 S cm-1 for system containing 40 wt. % of glycerol. FTIR deconvolution technique had shown that the conductivity of CMC-OA-Gly SBEs is primarily influenced by the number density of mobile ions. Transference number measurement has shown that the cation diffusion coefficient and ionic mobility is higher than anion which proved the plasticized polymer system is a proton conductor.

  18. Fulton Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    Sumait, Necy [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Cuzens, John [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Klann, Richard [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    Final report on work performed by BlueFire on the deployment of acid hydrolysis technology to convert cellulosic waste materials into renewable fuels, power and chemicals in a production facility to be located in Fulton, Mississippi.

  19. Magnetic Cellulose Nanocrystal Based Anisotropic Polylactic Acid Nanocomposite Films: Influence on Electrical, Magnetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties.

    Dhar, Prodyut; Kumar, Amit; Katiyar, Vimal

    2016-07-20

    This paper reports a single-step co-precipitation method for the fabrication of magnetic cellulose nanocrystals (MGCNCs) with high iron oxide nanoparticle content (∼51 wt % loading) adsorbed onto cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopic studies confirmed that the hydroxyl groups on the surface of CNCs (derived from the bamboo pulp) acted as anchor points for the adsorption of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The fabricated MGCNCs have a high magnetic moment, which is utilized to orient the magnetoresponsive nanofillers in parallel or perpendicular orientations inside the polylactic acid (PLA) matrix. Magnetic-field-assisted directional alignment of MGCNCs led to the incorporation of anisotropic mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties in the fabricated PLA-MGCNC nanocomposites. Thermomechanical studies showed significant improvement in the elastic modulus and glass-transition temperature for the magnetically oriented samples. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and XRD studies confirmed that the alignment of MGCNCs led to the improvement in the percentage crystallinity and, with the absence of the cold-crystallization phenomenon, finds a potential application in polymer processing in the presence of magnetic field. The tensile strength and percentage elongation for the parallel-oriented samples improved by ∼70 and 240%, respectively, and for perpendicular-oriented samples, by ∼58 and 172%, respectively, in comparison to the unoriented samples. Furthermore, its anisotropically induced electrical and magnetic properties are desirable for fabricating self-biased electronics products. We also demonstrate that the fabricated anisotropic PLA-MGCNC nanocomposites could be laminated into films with the incorporation of directionally tunable mechanical properties. Therefore, the current study provides a novel noninvasive approach of orienting nontoxic bioderived CNCs in the presence of low

  20. Transparent bionanocomposite films based on chitosan and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers with enhanced mechanical and barrier properties.

    Soni, Bhawna; Hassan, El Barbary; Schilling, M Wes; Mahmoud, Barakat

    2016-10-20

    The development of biobased active films for use in food packaging is increasing due to low cost, environmental appeal, renewability and availability. The objective of this research was to develop an effective and complete green approach for the production of bionanocomposite films with enhanced mechanical and barrier properties. This was accomplished by incorporating TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical) into a chitosan matrix. An aqueous suspension of chitosan (100-75wt%), sorbitol (25wt%) and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TEMPO-CNFs, 0-25wt%) were cast in an oven at 40°C for 2-4days. Films were preconditioned at 25°C and 50% RH for characterization. The surface morphology of the films was revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermal properties and crystal structure of the films were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Incorporation of TEMPO-CNFs enhanced the mechanical strength of the films due to the high aspect ratio (3-20nm width, and 10-100nm length) of TEMPO-CNFs and strong interactions with the chitosan matrix. Oxygen and water vapor transmission rates for films that are prepared with chitosan and TEMPO-CNFs (15-25wt%) were significantly reduced. Furthermore, these bionanocomposite films had good thermal stability. Use of TEMPO-CNFs in this method makes it possible to produce bionanocomposite films that are flexible, transparent, and thus have potential in food packaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

    1983-05-13

    A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  2. Evaluation of ethanol productivity from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum

    Kurose, N; Yagyu, J; Miyazaki, T; Uchida, M; Hanai, S; Obayashi, A

    1986-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, directly converts cellulose to EtOH. To estimate its EtOH production from cellulose, we used a new method based on material balance by which the efficiencies of the enzymes that convert cellulose to ethanol were calculated. Using this method, the maximum efficiency of ethanol production of two strains of C. thermocellum was estimated to be 0.05, with 0.67 as the theoretical maximum. 3 references.

  3. Isolation of cellulose microfibrils - An enzymatic approach

    Sain, M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation methods and applications of cellulose microfibrils are expanding rapidly due to environmental benefits and specific strength properties, especially in bio-composite science. In this research, we have success-fully developed and explored a novel bio-pretreatment for wood fibre that can substantially improve the microfibril yield, in comparison to current techniques used to isolate cellulose microfibrils. Microfibrils currently are isolated in the laboratory through a combination of high shear refining and cryocrushing. A high energy requirement of these procedures is hampering momentum in the direction of microfibril isolation on a sufficiently large scale to suit potential applications. Any attempt to loosen up the microfibrils by either complete or partial destruction of the hydrogen bonds before the mechanical process would be a step forward in the quest for economical isolation of cellulose microfibrils. Bleached kraft pulp was treated with OS1, a fungus isolated from Dutch Elm trees infected with Dutch elm disease, under different treatment conditions. The percentage yield of cellulose microfibrils, based on their diameter, showed a significant shift towards a lower diameter range after the high shear refining, compared to the yield of cellulose microfibrils from untreated fibres. The overall yield of cellulose microfibrils from the treated fibres did not show any sizeable decrease.

  4. Biohydrogen, bioelectricity and bioalcohols from cellulosic materials

    Nissila, M.

    2013-03-01

    The demand for renewable energy is increasing due to increasing energy demand and global warming associated with increasing use of fossil fuels. Renewable energy can be derived from biological production of energy carriers from cellulosic biomass. These biochemical processes include biomass fermentation to hydrogen, methane and alcohols, and bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The objective of this study was to investigate the production of different energy carriers (hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol, bioelectricity) through biochemical processes. Hydrogen production potential of a hot spring enrichment culture from different sugars was determined, and hydrogen was produced continuously from xylose. Cellulolytic and hydrogenic cultures were enriched on cellulose, cellulosic pulp materials, and on silage at different process conditions. The enrichment cultures were further characterized. The effect of acid pretreatment on hydrogen production from pulp materials was studied and compared to direct pulp fermentation to hydrogen. Electricity and alcohol(s) were simultaneously produced from xylose in MFCs and the exoelectrogenic and alcohologenic enrichment cultures were characterized. In the end, the energy yields obtained from different biochemical processes were determined and compared. In this study, cultures carrying out simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and hydrogen fermentation were enriched from different sources at different operational conditions. These cultures were successfully utilized for cellulose to hydrogen fermentation in batch systems. Based on these results further research should be conducted on continuous hydrogen production from cellulosic materials.

  5. A xylanase-aided enzymatic pretreatment facilitates cellulose nanofibrillation.

    Long, Lingfeng; Tian, Dong; Hu, Jinguang; Wang, Fei; Saddler, Jack

    2017-11-01

    Although biological pretreatment of cellulosic fiber based on endoglucanases has shown some promise to facilitate cellulose nanofibrillation, its efficacy is still limited. In this study, a xylanase-aided endoglucanase pretreatment was assessed on the bleached hardwood and softwood Kraft pulps to facilitate the downstream cellulose nanofibrillation. Four commercial xylanase preparations were compared and the changes of major fiber physicochemical characteristics such as cellulose/hemicellulose content, gross fiber properties, fiber morphologies, cellulose accessibility/degree of polymerization (DP)/crystallinity were systematically evaluated before and after enzymatic pretreatment. It showed that the synergistic cooperation between endoglucanase and certain xylanase (Biobrite) could efficiently "open up" the hardwood Kraft pulp with limited carbohydrates degradation (cellulose nanofibrillation during mild sonication process (90Wh) with more uniform disintegrated nanofibril products (50-150nm, as assessed by scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Polymer Electrolyte for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on a Poly(Polyvinylidenefluoride-Co-Hexafluoropropylene)/Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose Blend

    Won, Lee Ji; Kim, Jae Hong; Thogiti, Suresh

    2018-03-01

    A novel polymer blend electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was synthesized by quasi-solidifying a liquid-based electrolyte containing an iodide/triiodide redox couple and supporting salts with a mixture of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) and indigenous hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC). A high ionic conductivity of 8.8 × 10-4 S cm-1 was achieved after introducing 5 wt% of HPMC with respect to the weight of PVDH-HFP. DSSCs were fabricated using gel polymer blend electrolytes, and the J-V characteristics of the fabricated devices were analyzed. Under optimal conditions, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of cells with the novel HPMC-blended gel electrolyte (5.34%) was significantly greater than that of cells without HPMC (3.97%).

  7. Composite scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering based on natural polymers of bacterial origin, thermoplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and micro-fibrillated bacterial cellulose

    Akaraonye, E.; Filip, J.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Salih, V.; Keshavarz, T.; Knowles, J.C.; Roy, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 7 (2016), s. 780-791 ISSN 0959-8103 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : polyhydroxyalkanoates * poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) * bacterial cellulose * micro-fibrillated cellulose * tissue engineering scaffold * composite materials Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.070, year: 2016

  8. Direct conversion of cellulose to glycolic acid with a phosphomolybdic acid catalyst in a water medium

    Zhang, Jizhe; Liu, Xin; Sun, Miao; Ma, Xiaohua; Han, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Direct conversion of cellulose to fine chemicals has rarely been achieved. We describe here an eco-benign route for directly converting various cellulose-based biomasses to glycolic acid in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere in which

  9. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Micklem, Chris N.; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S.; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae. Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology. PMID:27247386

  10. Caracterização de acetato de celulose obtido a partir do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar por ¹H-RMN 1H-NMR characterization of cellulose acetate obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    Daniel A. Cerqueira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A celulose do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar foi usada para sintetizar acetato de celulose com diferentes graus de substituição, os quais foram caracterizados por ¹H-RMN através da relação entre as áreas dos picos dos átomos de hidrogênio presentes nos grupos acetato (-(C=OOCH3 e os picos dos hidrogênios ligados aos átomos de carbono dos anéis glicosídicos. A supressão de alguns sinais foi feita para remover sinais de ressonância da água residual nos materiais e também para remover sinais de impurezas no triacetato de celulose. Um método de deconvolução para o cálculo computacional do grau de substituição foi proposto. Os graus de substituição das amostras de acetato de celulose foram 2,94 e 2,60, o que está de acordo com os resultados por determinação química através de uma titulação ácido base.Cellulose from sugarcane bagasse was used for synthesizing cellulose acetate with different degrees of substitution, which were characterized by ¹H-NMR through the relationship between the peak areas of the hydrogen atoms of the acetate groups (-(C=OOCH3 and the peaks of the hydrogen bonded to the carbon atoms of the glucosidic rings. Suppression of some signals was carried out in order to remove the residual water resonance in the materials and those related to impurities in cellulose triacetate as well. A deconvolution method for the computation of the degree of substitution of acetylation is proposed. The degrees of substitution for the cellulose samples were 2.94 and 2.60, in good agreement with those obtained by chemical determination through an acid-base titration.

  11. Physicochemical analysis of cellulose from microalgae ...

    USER

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... The extraction method of algae cellulose was a modification of ... triplicate. Characterization of cellulose. Analysis of ... The current analysis of the cellulose extracted .... Cellulose nanomaterials review: structure, properties and.

  12. Effect of combining cellulose nanocrystals and graphene nanoplatelets on the properties of poly(lactic acid based films

    S. Montes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC and graphene nanoplatelets (GR were combined in two different ratios and incorporated into polylactic acid (PLA by melt blending technique, at a total loading level of 1 wt%. The obtained PLA-CNC/GR nanocomposites were further processed by hot pressing for manufacturing films. For comparison purposes, PLA-CNC, PLA-GR and PLA-T (PLA blended with the organic surfactant Triton X-100 compositions were also prepared following the same procedure. The produced materials were characterized by several techniques, including Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM. The mechanical properties assessment showed an increase of 8 and 11% in the Young’s modulus and tensile strength respectively for PLA- CNC/GR (ratio 50/50 film compared to PLA-T. The thermal properties were also positively influenced by the incorporation of both nanofillers. Similarly, the gas barrier properties were improved by 23% in Oxygen Transmission Rate (OTR for films containing simultaneously CNC and GR. Finally, the antifungal properties were evaluated against Aspergillus Niger finding a superior antifungal activity in the CNC/GR hybrid films. The incorporation of CNC and GR in PLA showed a favourable impact in the overall properties of the obtained materials with only 1 wt% of nanofiller content. These results suggest that CNC/GR hybrid nanocomposites have a considerable potential in agricultural films or in food packaging trays applications.

  13. Application of Nanofibrillated Cellulose on BOPP/LDPE Film as Oxygen Barrier and Antimicrobial Coating Based on Cold Plasma Treatment

    Peng Lu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanofibrillated cellulose (NC films in packaging industry has been hindered by its lack of heat-sealing ability. Incorporation of NC films with the biaxially oriented polypropylene/low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDPE laminates can take advantage of each material and endow the films with novel functions for food packaging applications. In this study, a coating that consists of NC and nisin was applied onto a cold plasma treated BOPP/LDPE film to fabricate a novel active packaging with an improved oxygen barrier performance and an added antimicrobial effect. The results showed that cold plasma treatment improved the surface hydrophilicity of BOPP/LDPE films for better attachment of the coatings. NC coatings significantly enhanced oxygen barrier property of the BOPP/LDPE film, with an oxygen transmission rate as low as 24.02 cc/m2·day as compared to that of the non-coated one (67.03 cc/m2·day. The addition of nisin in the coating at a concentration of 5 mg/g caused no significant change in barrier properties but imparted the film excellent antimicrobial properties, with a growth inhibition of L. monocytogenes by 94%. All films exhibit satisfying mechanical properties and transparency, and this new film has the potential to be used as antimicrobial and oxygen barrier packaging.

  14. A Highly Flexible Supercapacitor Based on MnO2/RGO Nanosheets and Bacterial Cellulose-Filled Gel Electrolyte

    Haojie Fei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The flexible supercapacitors (SCs of the conventional sandwich-type structure have poor flexibility due to the large thickness of the final entire device. Herein, we have fabricated a highly flexible asymmetric SC using manganese dioxide (MnO2 and reduced graphene oxide (RGO nanosheet-piled hydrogel films and a novel bacterial cellulose (BC-filled polyacrylic acid sodium salt-Na2SO4 (BC/PAAS-Na2SO4 neutral gel electrolyte. Apart from being environmentally friendly, this BC/PAAS-Na2SO4 gel electrolyte has high viscosity and a sticky property, which enables it to combine two electrodes together. Meanwhile, the intertangling of the filled BC in the gel electrolyte hinders the decrease of the viscosity with temperature, and forms a separator to prevent the two electrodes from short-circuiting. Using these materials, the total thickness of the fabricated device does not exceed 120 μm. This SC device demonstrates high flexibility, where bending and even rolling have no obvious effect on the electrochemical performance. In addition, owing to the asymmetric configuration, the cell voltage of this flexible SC has been extended to 1.8 V, and the energy density can reach up to 11.7 Wh kg−1 at the power density of 441 W kg−1. This SC also exhibits a good cycling stability, with a capacitance retention of 85.5% over 5000 cycles.

  15. Effect of cellulosic fiber scale on linear and non-linear mechanical performance of starch-based composites.

    Karimi, Samaneh; Abdulkhani, Ali; Tahir, Paridah Md; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-10-01

    Cellulosic nanofibers (NFs) from kenaf bast were used to reinforce glycerol plasticized thermoplastic starch (TPS) matrices with varying contents (0-10wt%). The composites were prepared by casting/evaporation method. Raw fibers (RFs) reinforced TPS films were prepared with the same contents and conditions. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of filler dimension and loading on linear and non-linear mechanical performance of fabricated materials. Obtained results clearly demonstrated that the NF-reinforced composites had significantly greater mechanical performance than the RF-reinforced counterparts. This was attributed to the high aspect ratio and nano dimension of the reinforcing agents, as well as their compatibility with the TPS matrix, resulting in strong fiber/matrix interaction. Tensile strength and Young's modulus increased by 313% and 343%, respectively, with increasing NF content from 0 to 10wt%. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed an elevational trend in the glass transition temperature of amylopectin-rich domains in composites. The most eminent record was +18.5°C shift in temperature position of the film reinforced with 8% NF. This finding implied efficient dispersion of nanofibers in the matrix and their ability to form a network and restrict mobility of the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and characterization of bacterial cellulose reinforced biocomposite films based on protein from buckwheat distiller's dried grains.

    Wang, Xuejiao; Ullah, Niamat; Sun, Xuchun; Guo, Yan; Chen, Lin; Li, Zhixi; Feng, Xianchao

    2017-03-01

    Biocomposite films were manufactured by combining protein extracted from buckwheat distiller's dried grains with bacterial cellulose (BC). The film microstructures showed that BC is compatible with protein matrix and endows the film with high rigidity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that BC can promote thermal stability of the composite films. BC promoted the transition from a Newtonian to a non-Newtonian fluid and the shear thinning behavior of protein-BC solution. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the main functional groups' absorption peaks shifted to lower wavenumbers. Results of both FTIR and viscosity analysis proved the formation of intermolecular interactions through hydrogen bonds. These bonds affected film characteristics such as moisture content (MC), water solubility (WS), and water vapor permeability (WVP), which decreased with addition of BC. The WVP (6.68±0.78-5.95±0.54×10 -10 gm/Pasm 2 ) of the films were lower than other protein films. Tensile strength (TS) values of films containing 1.8% and 2.0% BC (14.98±0.97 and 15.03±2.04MPa) were significantly higher than that of pure protein films (4.26±0.66MPa). Combination of proteins extracted from a waste product and BC led to composite films with low water vapor permeability and excellent mechanical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Regiocontroll synthesis cellulose-graft-polycaprolactone copolymer (2,3-di-O-PCL-cellulose by a new route

    K. L. Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new and convenient route to the regiocontrolled synthesis of a cellulose-based derivate copolymer (2,3-di-O-polycaprolactone-cellulose grafting ε-caprolactone (ε-CL from α-cellulose, cellulose-graft-polycaprolactone (cellulose-g-PCL, by a classical ring-opening polymerization (ROP reaction, using stannous octoate (Sn(Oct2 as catalyst, in 68% concentration of zinc chloride aqueous solution at 120 °C was presented. By controlling the hydroxyl of cellulose/ε-CL, catalyst/monomer ratio and the reaction time, the molecular architecture of the copolymers can be altered. The solubility of cellulose in zinc chloride aqueous was indicated by UV/VIS spectrometer and rheological measurements. The structures and thermal properties of cellulose-g-polycaprolactone copolymers were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H NMR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES. The interesting results confirm that zinc chloride solution can break the intra-molecular hydrogen bonds of cellulose selectively (not only O3H···O5, but also O2H···O6, and has no effect on the inter-molecular hydrogen bonds (O6H···O3. And the grafting reactivity of hydroxyl on cellulose is C2–OH > C3–OH >> C6–OH in zinc chloride solution, and this is clearly different from other researches. Most importantly, this work confirms that the method to regiocontrolled synthesis cellulose-based derivative polymers by regiobreaking hydrogen bonds is feasible. It is strongly believed that the new discovery may give a novel, environmental, simple and inexpensive method to modify cellulose chemically with various side chains grafted on a given hydroxyl, through liberating hydroxyl as reactive group from hydrogen bonds broken selectively by different solvents.

  18. Natural cellulose fiber as substrate for supercapacitor.

    Gui, Zhe; Zhu, Hongli; Gillette, Eleanor; Han, Xiaogang; Rubloff, Gary W; Hu, Liangbing; Lee, Sang Bok

    2013-07-23

    Cellulose fibers with porous structure and electrolyte absorption properties are considered to be a good potential substrate for the deposition of energy material for energy storage devices. Unlike traditional substrates, such as gold or stainless steel, paper prepared from cellulose fibers in this study not only functions as a substrate with large surface area but also acts as an interior electrolyte reservoir, where electrolyte can be absorbed much in the cellulose fibers and is ready to diffuse into an energy storage material. We demonstrated the value of this internal electrolyte reservoir by comparing a series of hierarchical hybrid supercapacitor electrodes based on homemade cellulose paper or polyester textile integrated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by simple solution dip and electrodeposited with MnO2. Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 onto the fiber surface was used to limit electrolyte absorption into the fibers for comparison. Configurations designed with different numbers of ion diffusion pathways were compared to show that cellulose fibers in paper can act as a good interior electrolyte reservoir and provide an effective pathway for ion transport facilitation. Further optimization using an additional CNT coating resulted in an electrode of paper/CNTs/MnO2/CNTs, which has dual ion diffusion and electron transfer pathways and demonstrated superior supercapacitive performance. This paper highlights the merits of the mesoporous cellulose fibers as substrates for supercapacitor electrodes, in which the water-swelling effect of the cellulose fibers can absorb electrolyte, and the mesoporous internal structure of the fibers can provide channels for ions to diffuse to the electrochemical energy storage materials.

  19. Cellulose multilayer Membranes manufacture with Ionic liquid

    Livazovic, Sara

    2015-05-09

    Membrane processes are considered energy-efficient for water desalination and treatment. However most membranes are based on polymers prepared from fossil petrochemical sources. The development of multilayer membranes for nanofiltration and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions in tetrahydrofuran, followed by solvent evaporation and cellulose regeneration by acid treatment; (ii) casting from solution in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolum acetate ([C2mim]OAc), an ionic liquid, followed by phase inversion in water. By these methods porous supports could be easily coated with semi-crystalline cellulose. The membranes were hydrophilic with contact angles as low as 22.0°, molecular weight cut-off as low as 3000 g mol-1 with corresponding water permeance of 13.8 Lm−2 h−1 bar−1. Self-standing cellulose membranes were also manufactured without porous substrate, using only ionic liquid as green solvent. This membrane was insoluble in water, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, N,N-dimethylformamide, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and N,N-dimethylacetamide.

  20. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  1. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo, E-mail: francisco.rodriguez.m@usach.cl [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA). Universidad de Santiago de Chile. Faculty of Technology. Department of Food Science and Technology. Food Packaging Laboratory. Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  2. Calculation of single chain cellulose elasticity using fully atomistic modeling

    Xiawa Wu; Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals, a potential base material for green nanocomposites, are ordered bundles of cellulose chains. The properties of these chains have been studied for many years using atomic-scale modeling. However, model predictions are difficult to interpret because of the significant dependence of predicted properties on model details. The goal of this study is...

  3. Reaction kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis in subcritical and supercritical water

    Olanrewaju, Kazeem Bode

    The uncertainties in the continuous supply of fossil fuels from the crisis-ridden oil-rich region of the world is fast shifting focus on the need to utilize cellulosic biomass and develop more efficient technologies for its conversion to fuels and chemicals. One such technology is the rapid degradation of cellulose in supercritical water without the need for an enzyme or inorganic catalyst such as acid. This project focused on the study of reaction kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis in subcritical and supercritical water. Cellulose reactions at hydrothermal conditions can proceed via the homogeneous route involving dissolution and hydrolysis or the heterogeneous path of surface hydrolysis. The work is divided into three main parts. First, the detailed kinetic analysis of cellulose reactions in micro- and tubular reactors was conducted. Reaction kinetics models were applied, and kinetics parameters at both subcritical and supercritical conditions were evaluated. The second major task was the evaluation of yields of water soluble hydrolysates obtained from the hydrolysis of cellulose and starch in hydrothermal reactors. Lastly, changes in molecular weight distribution due to hydrothermolytic degradation of cellulose were investigated. These changes were also simulated based on different modes of scission, and the pattern generated from simulation was compared with the distribution pattern from experiments. For a better understanding of the reaction kinetics of cellulose in subcritical and supercritical water, a series of reactions was conducted in the microreactor. Hydrolysis of cellulose was performed at subcritical temperatures ranging from 270 to 340 °C (tau = 0.40--0.88 s). For the dissolution of cellulose, the reaction was conducted at supercritical temperatures ranging from 375 to 395 °C (tau = 0.27--0.44 s). The operating pressure for the reactions at both subcritical and supercritical conditions was 5000 psig. The results show that the rate-limiting step in

  4. Extraction of cellulose microcrystalline from galam wood for biopolymer

    Ismail, Ika; Sa'adiyah, Devy; Rahajeng, Putri; Suprayitno, Abdi; Andiana, Rocky

    2018-04-01

    Consumption of plastic raw materials tends to increase, but until now the meet of the consumption of plastic raw are still low, even some are still imported. Nowadays, Indonesia's plastic needs are supported by petrochemicals where raw materials are still dependent abroad and petropolymer raw materials are derived from petroleum which will soon be depleted due to rising petroleum needs. Therefore, various studies have been conducted to develop natural fiber-based polymers that are biodegradable and abundant in nature. It is because the natural polymer production process is very efficient and very environmentally friendly. There have been many studies of biopolymers especially natural fiber-based polymers from plants, due to plants containing cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. However, cellulose is the only one who has crystalline structures. Cellulose has a high crystality compared to amorphous lignin and hemicellulose. In this study, extracted cellulose as biopolymer and amplifier on composite. The cellulose is extracted from galam wood from East Kalimantan. Cellulose extraction will be obtained in nano / micro form through chemical and mechanical treatment processes. The chemical treatment of cellulose extraction is alkalinization process using NaOH solution, bleaching using NaClO2 and acid hydrolysis using sulfuric acid. After chemical treatment, ultrasonic mechanical treatment is made to make cellulose fibers into micro or nano size. Besides, cellulose results will be characterized. Characterization was performed to analyze molecules of cellulose compounds extracted from plants using Fourier Transformation Infra Red (FTIR) testing. XRD testing to analyze cellulose crystallinity. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) test to analyze morphology and fiber size.

  5. Natural cellulose ionogels for soft artificial muscles.

    Nevstrueva, Daria; Murashko, Kirill; Vunder, Veiko; Aabloo, Alvo; Pihlajamäki, Arto; Mänttäri, Mika; Pyrhönen, Juha; Koiranen, Tuomas; Torop, Janno

    2018-01-01

    Rapid development of soft micromanipulation techniques for human friendly electronics has raised the demand for the devices to be able to carry out mechanical work on a micro- and macroscale. The natural cellulose-based ionogels (CEL-iGEL) hold a great potential for soft artificial muscle application, due to its flexibility, low driving voltage and biocompatibility. The CEL-iGEL composites undergo reversible bending already at ±500mV step-voltage values. A fast response to the voltage applied and high ionic conductivity of membranous actuator is achieved by a complete dissolution of cellulose in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIm][OAc]. The CEL-iGEL supported cellulose actuator films were cast out of cellulose-[EMIm][OAc] solution via phase inversion in H 2 O. The facile preparation method ensured uniform morphology along the layers and stand for the high ionic-liquid loading in a porous cellulose scaffold. During the electromechanical characterization, the CEL-iGEL actuators showed exponential dependence to the voltage applied with the max strain difference values reaching up to 0.6% at 2 V. Electrochemical analysis confirmed the good stability of CEL-iGEL actuators and determined the safe working voltage value to be below 2.5V. To predict and estimate the deformation for various step input voltages, a mathematical model was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cellulose-reinforced composites: from micro-to nanoscale

    Alain Dufresne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the most relevant advances in the fields of: i cellulose fibres surface modification; ii cellulose fibres-based composite materials; and iii nanocomposites based on cellulose whiskers or starch platelet-like nanoparticles. The real breakthroughs achieved in the first topic concern the use of solvent-free grafting process (plasma and the grafting of the matrix at the surface of cellulose fibres through isocyanate-mediated grafting or thanks to "click chemistry". Concerning the second topic, it is worth to mention that for some cellulose/matrix combination and in the presence of adequate aids or specific surface treatment, high performance composite materials could be obtained. Finally, nanocomposites allow using the semi-crystalline nature and hierarchical structure of lignocellulosic fibres and starch granules to more deeply achieve this goal profitably exploited by Mother Nature

  7. Biofunctional paper via the covalent modification of cellulose.

    Yu, Arthur; Shang, Jing; Cheng, Fang; Paik, Bradford A; Kaplan, Justin M; Andrade, Rodrigo B; Ratner, Daniel M

    2012-07-31

    Paper-based analytical devices are the subject of growing interest for the development of low-cost point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring technologies, and research tools for limited-resource settings. However, there are limited chemistries available for the conjugation of biomolecules to cellulose for use in biomedical applications. Herein, divinyl sulfone (DVS) chemistry was demonstrated to immobilize small molecules, proteins, and DNA covalently onto the hydroxyl groups of cellulose membranes through nucleophilic addition. Assays on modified cellulose using protein-carbohydrate and protein-glycoprotein interactions as well as oligonucleotide hybridization showed that the membrane's bioactivity was specific, dose-dependent, and stable over a long period of time. The use of an inkjet printer to form patterns of biomolecules on DVS-activated cellulose illustrates the adaptability of the DVS functionalization technique to pattern sophisticated designs, with potential applications in cellulose-based lateral flow devices.

  8. Valorization of lignin and cellulose in acid-steam-exploded corn stover by a moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment based on an integrated biorefinery concept

    Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Yue; Yue, Wen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yun-Yan; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the unsustainable consumption of fossil resources, great efforts have been made to convert lignocellulose into bioethanol and commodity organic compounds through biological methods. The conversion of cellulose is impeded by the compactness of plant cell wall matrix and crystalline structure of the native cellulose. Therefore, appropriate pretreatment and even post-treatment are indispensable to overcome this problem. Additionally, an adequate utilization of coproduct lignin ...

  9. Versatile High-Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes Prepared using Trimethylsilyl Cellulose as a Precursor

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2018-05-01

    Cellulose has emerged as an indispensable membrane material due to its abundant availability, low cost, fascinating physiochemical properties and environment benignancy. However, it is believed that the potential of this polymer is not fully explored yet due to its insolubility in the common organic solvents, encouraging the use of derivatization-regeneration method as a viable alternative to the direct dissolution in exotic or reactive solvents. In this work, we use trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC), a highly soluble cellulose derivative, as a precursor for the fabrication of cellulose thin film composite membranes. TMSC is an attractive precursor to assemble thin cellulose films with good deposition behavior and film morphology; cumbersome solvents used in the one step cellulose processing are avoided. This derivative is prepared from cellulose by the known silylation reaction. The complete transformation of TMSC back into cellulose after the membrane formation is carried out by vapor-phase acid treatment, which is simple, scalable and reproducible. This process along with the initial TMSC concentration determines the membrane sieving characteristics. Unlike the typical regenerated cellulose membranes with meso- or macropores, membranes regenerated from TMSC display micropores suitable for the selective separation of nanomolecules in aqueous and organic solvent nanofiltration. The membranes introduced in this thesis represent the first polymeric membranes ever reported for highly selective separation of similarly sized small organic molecules based on charge and size differences with outstanding fluxes. Owing to its strong hydrophilic and amorphous character, the membranes also demonstrate excellent air-dehumidification performance as compared to previously reported thin film composite membranes. Moreover, the use of TMSC enables the creation of the previously unfeasible cellulose–polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and cellulose–polyethyleneimine (PEI) blend membranes

  10. Development of green nanocomposites reinforced by cellulose nanofibers extracted from paper sludge

    Takagi, Hitoshi; Nakagaito, Antonio N.; Kusaka, Kazuya; Muneta, Yuya

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been showing much greater potential to enhance the mechanical and physical properties of polymer-based composite materials. The purpose of this study is to extract the cellulose nanofibers from waste bio-resources; such as waste newspaper and paper sludge. The cellulosic raw materials were treated chemically and physically in order to extract individualized cellulose nanofiber. The combination of acid hydrolysis and following mechanical treatment resulted in the extraction of cellulose nanofibers having diameter of about 40 nm. In order to examine the reinforcing effect of the extracted cellulose nanofibers, fully biodegradable green nanocomposites were fabricated by composing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) resin with the extracted cellulose nanofibers, and then the tensile tests were conducted. The results showed that the enhancement in mechanical properties was successfully obtained in the cellulose nanofiber/PVA green nanocomposites.

  11. Biocompatibility and biomechanical characteristics of loofah based scaffolds combined with hydroxyapatite, cellulose, poly-L-lactic acid with chondrocyte-like cells

    Cecen, Berivan; Kozaci, Leyla Didem; Yuksel, Mithat; Ustun, Ozcan; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Havitcioglu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    The current study reports the biocompatibility and biomechanical characteristics of loofah-based scaffolds combined with hydroxyapatite (HA), cellulose, poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) with chondrocytes-like cells. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of the scaffolds showed that the addition of PLLA usually resulted in an increase in cell's attachment on scaffolds. Mechanical and elemental analyzes were assessed using tensile test and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), respectively. In summary, we showed that the loofah + PLLA + HA scaffolds perform significantly better than other loofah–based scaffolds employed in terms of increasing a diversity of mechanical properties including tensile strength and Young's modulus. Based on the analysis of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms and EDS spectrums that give an idea about the calcium phosphate (CaP) ratios, the improvement in the mechanical properties could principally be recognized to the strong interaction formed between loofah, PLLA and HA. The viability of chondrocytes on loofah–based scaffolds was analyzed by XTT tests. However, none of the scaffolds have proved to be toxic in metabolic activity. The histological evaluation obtained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome, toluidine blue and immunohistochemistry methods showed that cells in all scaffolds produced extracellular matrix that defined proteoglycan and type I-II collagens. The results of this study suggest that the loofah-based scaffold with desirable properties can be considered as an ideal candidate for cartilage tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • In this study we designed a new scaffold and characterized it using biochemical and biomechanical assays. • Our manuscript with the novelty of the scaffold design will add new perspective in the literature about loofah based scaffolds. • The objective of the study is to investigate the natural and novel loofah based scaffolds with

  12. Biocompatibility and biomechanical characteristics of loofah based scaffolds combined with hydroxyapatite, cellulose, poly-L-lactic acid with chondrocyte-like cells

    Cecen, Berivan, E-mail: berivan.erik@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, The Institute of Health Science, Department of Biomechanics, 35340 Izmir (Turkey); Kozaci, Leyla Didem [Yildirim Beyazit University, Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Biochemistry, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Yildirim Beyazit University, Musculoskeletal System Studies Research Center, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Yuksel, Mithat [Ege University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Ustun, Ozcan; Ergur, Bekir Ugur [Dokuz Eylul University, Department of Histology & Embryology, 35340 Izmir (Turkey); Havitcioglu, Hasan [Dokuz Eylul University, The Institute of Health Science, Department of Biomechanics, 35340 Izmir (Turkey); Dokuz Eylul University, Medicine Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, 35340 Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-12-01

    The current study reports the biocompatibility and biomechanical characteristics of loofah-based scaffolds combined with hydroxyapatite (HA), cellulose, poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) with chondrocytes-like cells. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of the scaffolds showed that the addition of PLLA usually resulted in an increase in cell's attachment on scaffolds. Mechanical and elemental analyzes were assessed using tensile test and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), respectively. In summary, we showed that the loofah + PLLA + HA scaffolds perform significantly better than other loofah–based scaffolds employed in terms of increasing a diversity of mechanical properties including tensile strength and Young's modulus. Based on the analysis of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms and EDS spectrums that give an idea about the calcium phosphate (CaP) ratios, the improvement in the mechanical properties could principally be recognized to the strong interaction formed between loofah, PLLA and HA. The viability of chondrocytes on loofah–based scaffolds was analyzed by XTT tests. However, none of the scaffolds have proved to be toxic in metabolic activity. The histological evaluation obtained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome, toluidine blue and immunohistochemistry methods showed that cells in all scaffolds produced extracellular matrix that defined proteoglycan and type I-II collagens. The results of this study suggest that the loofah-based scaffold with desirable properties can be considered as an ideal candidate for cartilage tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • In this study we designed a new scaffold and characterized it using biochemical and biomechanical assays. • Our manuscript with the novelty of the scaffold design will add new perspective in the literature about loofah based scaffolds. • The objective of the study is to investigate the natural and novel loofah based scaffolds with

  13. Spray-Dried Cellulose Nanofibril-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites for Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing: Nonisothermal Crystallization Kinetics and Thermal Expansion

    Lu Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Isotactic polypropylene (iPP is a versatile polymer. It accounts for the second-largest polymer consumption worldwide. However, iPP is difficult to 3D print via extrusion-based processing. This is attributable to its rapid crystallization rate. In this study, spray-dried cellulose nanofibrils (SDCNF and maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP were investigated to reveal their effects on the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics and thermal expansion of iPP. SDCNF at 3 wt % and 30 wt % accelerated the crystallization rate of iPP, while SDCNF at 10 wt % retarded the crystallization rate by restricting crystal growth and moderately increasing the nucleation density of iPP. Additionally, adding MAPP into iPP/SDCNF composites accelerated the crystallization rate of iPP. The effective activation energy of iPP increased when more than 10 wt % SDCNF was added. Scanning electron microscopy and polarized light microscopy results indicated that high SDCNF content led to a reduced gap size among SDCNF, which hindered the iPP crystal growth. The coefficient of thermal expansion of iPP/SDCNF10% was 11.7% lower than the neat iPP. In summary, SDCNF, at 10 wt %, can be used to reduce the warping of iPP during extrusion-based additive manufacturing.

  14. Nanomanufacturing metrology for cellulosic nanomaterials: an update

    Postek, Michael T.

    2014-08-01

    The development of the metrology and standards for advanced manufacturing of cellulosic nanomaterials (or basically, wood-based nanotechnology) is imperative to the success of this rising economic sector. Wood-based nanotechnology is a revolutionary technology that will create new jobs and strengthen America's forest-based economy through industrial development and expansion. It allows this, previously perceived, low-tech industry to leap-frog directly into high-tech products and processes and thus improves its current economic slump. Recent global investments in nanotechnology programs have led to a deeper appreciation of the high performance nature of cellulose nanomaterials. Cellulose, manufactured to the smallest possible-size ( 2 nm x 100 nm), is a high-value material that enables products to be lighter and stronger; have less embodied energy; utilize no catalysts in the manufacturing, are biologically compatible and, come from a readily renewable resource. In addition to the potential for a dramatic impact on the national economy - estimated to be as much as $250 billion worldwide by 2020 - cellulose-based nanotechnology creates a pathway for expanded and new markets utilizing these renewable materials. The installed capacity associated with the US pulp and paper industry represents an opportunity, with investment, to rapidly move to large scale production of nano-based materials. However, effective imaging, characterization and fundamental measurement science for process control and characterization are lacking at the present time. This talk will discuss some of these needed measurements and potential solutions.

  15. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquid: A review

    Mohd, N.; Draman, S. F. S.; Salleh, M. S. N.; Yusof, N. B.

    2017-02-01

    Dissolution of cellulose with ionic liquids (IL) and deep eutectic solvent (DES) lets the comprehensive dissolution of cellulose. Basically, cellulose can be dissolved, in some hydrophilic ionic liquids, such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). Chloride based ionic liquids are suitable solvents for cellulose dissolution. Although the ILs is very useful in fine chemical industry, its application in the pharmaceutical and food industry have been very limited due to issues with toxicity, purity, and high cost. Seeing to these limitations, new green alternative solvent which is DES was used. This green solvents, may be definitely treated as the next-generation reagents for more sustainable industrial development. Thus, this review aims to discuss the dissolution of cellulose either with ionic liquids or DES and its application.

  16. NANOCOMPOSITES OF POLY(LACTIC ACID REINFORCED WITH CELLULOSE NANOFIBRILS

    Liping Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A chemo-mechanical method was used to prepare cellulose nanofibrils dispersed uniformly in an organic solvent. Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG 1000 was added to the matrix as a compatibilizer to improve the interfacial interaction between the hydrophobic poly(lactic acid (PLA and the hydrophilic cellulose nanofibrils. The composites obtained by solvent casting methods from N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc were characterized by tensile testing machine, atomic force microscope (AFM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The tensile test results indicated that, by adding PEG to the PLA and the cellulose nanofibrils matrix, the tensile strength and the elongation rate increased by 56.7% and 60%, respectively, compared with the PLA/cellulose nanofibrils composites. The FT-IR analysis successfully showed that PEG improved the intermolecular interaction, which is based on the existence of inter-molecular hydrogen bonding among PLA, PEG, and cellulose nanofibrils.

  17. Regulation of cellulose synthesis in response to stress.

    Kesten, Christopher; Menna, Alexandra; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara

    2017-12-01

    The cell wall is a complex polysaccharide network that provides stability and protection to the plant and is one of the first layers of biotic and abiotic stimuli perception. A controlled remodeling of the primary cell wall is essential for the plant to adapt its growth to environmental stresses. Cellulose, the main component of plant cell walls is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthases moving along cortical microtubule tracks. Recent advancements demonstrate a tight regulation of cellulose synthesis at the primary cell wall by phytohormone networks. Stress-induced perturbations at the cell wall that modify cellulose synthesis and microtubule arrangement activate similar phytohormone-based stress response pathways. The integration of stress perception at the primary cell wall and downstream responses are likely to be tightly regulated by phytohormone signaling pathways in the context of cellulose synthesis and microtubule arrangement. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Applications of bacterial cellulose and its composites in biomedicine.

    Rajwade, J M; Paknikar, K M; Kumbhar, J V

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial cellulose produced by few but specific microbial genera is an extremely pure natural exopolysaccharide. Besides providing adhesive properties and a competitive advantage to the cellulose over-producer, bacterial cellulose confers UV protection, ensures maintenance of an aerobic environment, retains moisture, protects against heavy metal stress, etc. This unique nanostructured matrix is being widely explored for various medical and nonmedical applications. It can be produced in various shapes and forms because of which it finds varied uses in biomedicine. The attributes of bacterial cellulose such as biocompatibility, haemocompatibility, mechanical strength, microporosity and biodegradability with its unique surface chemistry make it ideally suited for a plethora of biomedical applications. This review highlights these qualities of bacterial cellulose in detail with emphasis on reports that prove its utility in biomedicine. It also gives an in-depth account of various biomedical applications ranging from implants and scaffolds for tissue engineering, carriers for drug delivery, wound-dressing materials, etc. that are reported until date. Besides, perspectives on limitations of commercialisation of bacterial cellulose have been presented. This review is also an update on the variety of low-cost substrates used for production of bacterial cellulose and its nonmedical applications and includes patents and commercial products based on bacterial cellulose.

  19. Light Weight Biomorphous Cellular Ceramics from Cellulose Templates

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Yee, Bo-Moon; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Bimorphous ceramics are a new class of materials that can be fabricated from the cellulose templates derived from natural biopolymers. These biopolymers are abundantly available in nature and are produced by the photosynthesis process. The wood cellulose derived carbon templates have three- dimensional interconnectivity. A wide variety of non-oxide and oxide based ceramics have been fabricated by template conversion using infiltration and reaction-based processes. The cellular anatomy of the cellulose templates plays a key role in determining the processing parameters (pyrolysis, infiltration conditions, etc.) and resulting ceramic materials. The processing approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the biomorphous cellular ceramics (silicon carbide and oxide based) have been discussed.

  20. Preparation of PbO nanoparticles by microwave irradiation and their application to Pb(II)-selective electrode based on cellulose acetate

    Li Shengying; Yang Wu; Chen Miao; Gao Jinzhang; Kang Jingwan; Youli, Q.

    2005-01-01

    Nanosized lead oxide particles were prepared by thermal decomposition of lead hydroxycarbonate synthesized under microwave irradiation. Urea and lead nitrate were used as the starting materials. Microstructure and morphology of the products were investigated by means of XRD, AFM, TEM, and IR absorption spectra. The results indicated that well crystallized, finely dispersed and spherical α-PbO nanoparticles with a size of ca. 30 nm were obtained. Meanwhile, an orthogonal phase β-PbO with a size of ca. 38 nm was also obtained when the calcinations temperature was up to 600 deg. C. In addition, a Pb(II)-selective electrode based on cellulose acetate was prepared using nanosized α-PbO powders synthesized. The electrode exhibited a Nernstian slope of 29±1 mV per decade in a linear range of 2.5x10 -5 mol L -1 to 1.0x10 -1 mol L -1 for Pb 2+ ion. The detection limit of this electrode is down to 8.0x10 -6 mol L -1 . This sensor has a short response time of about 10 s and could be used in a pH range of 2.0-8.0. High selectivity was obtained over a wide variety of metal ions

  1. Microbiological quality and other characteristics of refrigerated chicken meat in contact with cellulose acetate-based film incorporated with rosemary essential oil

    Adriane Alexandre Machado de Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial active packaging delays or inhibits microorganism growth in packed products, and it can be used in a variety of food systems. The objective of the present research was to develop packaging incorporated with natural antimicrobial agents (active film. The effects of the active film on the spoilage, pathogenic microorganism counts, pH and color of the refrigerated chicken breast cuts were analyzed. Cellulose acetate-based active films incorporating two concentrations (20% and 50%, v/w of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil were manufactured and placed in contact with the chicken breast cuts for six days. An analysis of variance and mean comparison tests (Tukey's test, p<0.05 were performed on the results. The films that contained 20% essential oil and were intercalated with chicken breast samples did not demonstrate significant effects on the control of psychrotrophic or total coliform microorganisms during the storage period; however, the films incorporated with 50% essential oil demonstrated efficacy toward the control of coliforms during the storage of the samples (6 days, 2 ± 2ºC. The pH was related to the psychrotrophic microorganism count and was not influenced by the treatment. The color was not influenced by the time of storage or the treatment. The results demonstrate that active films incorporating 50% rosemary essential oil are effective at controlling certain microorganisms in chicken breast cuts.

  2. Flexible Lamination-Fabricated Ultra-High Frequency Diodes Based on Self-Supporting Semiconducting Composite Film of Silicon Micro-Particles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose

    Sani, Negar; Wang, Xin; Granberg, Hjalmar; Andersson Ersman, Peter; Crispin, Xavier; Dyreklev, Peter; Engquist, Isak; Gustafsson, Göran; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    Low cost and flexible devices such as wearable electronics, e-labels and distributed sensors will make the future “internet of things” viable. To power and communicate with such systems, high frequency rectifiers are crucial components. We present a simple method to manufacture flexible diodes, operating at GHz frequencies, based on self-adhesive composite films of silicon micro-particles (Si-μPs) and glycerol dispersed in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC, Si-μPs and glycerol are mixed in a water suspension, forming a self-supporting nanocellulose-silicon composite film after drying. This film is cut and laminated between a flexible pre-patterned Al bottom electrode and a conductive Ni-coated carbon tape top contact. A Schottky junction is established between the Al electrode and the Si-μPs. The resulting flexible diodes show current levels on the order of mA for an area of 2 mm2, a current rectification ratio up to 4 × 103 between 1 and 2 V bias and a cut-off frequency of 1.8 GHz. Energy harvesting experiments have been demonstrated using resistors as the load at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. The diode stack can be delaminated away from the Al electrode and then later on be transferred and reconfigured to another substrate. This provides us with reconfigurable GHz-operating diode circuits.

  3. Albendazole Microcrystal Formulations Based on Chitosan and Cellulose Derivatives: Physicochemical Characterization and In Vitro Parasiticidal Activity in Trichinella spiralis Adult Worms.

    Priotti, Josefina; Codina, Ana V; Leonardi, Darío; Vasconi, María D; Hinrichsen, Lucila I; Lamas, María C

    2017-05-01

    The oral route has notable advantages to administering dosage forms. One of the most important questions to solve is the poor solubility of most drugs which produces low bioavailability and delivery problems, a major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. Albendazole is a benzimidazole carbamate extensively used in oral chemotherapy against intestinal parasites, due to its extended spectrum activity and low cost. Nevertheless, the main disadvantage is the poor bioavailability due to its very low solubility in water. The main objective of this study was to prepare microcrystal formulations by the bottom-up technology to increase albendazole dissolution rate, in order to enhance its antiparasitic activity. Thus, 20 novel microstructures based on chitosan, cellulose derivatives, and poloxamer as a surfactant were produced and characterized by their physicochemical properties and in vitro biological activity. To determine the significance of type and concentration of polymer, and presence or absence of surfactant in the crystals, the variables area under the curve, albendazole microcrystal solubility, and drug released (%) at 30 min were analyzed with a three-way ANOVA. This analysis indicated that the microcrystals made with hydroxyethylcellulose or chitosan appear to be the best options to optimize oral absorption of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. The in vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity on adult forms of Trichinella spiralis identified system S10A as the most effective, of choice for testing therapeutic efficacy in vivo.

  4. Nature-Inspired Green Procedure for Improving Performance of Protein-Based Nanocomposites via Introduction of Nanofibrillated Cellulose-Stablized Graphene/Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid

    Shicun Jin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soy protein isolate (SPI provides a potential alternative biopolymer source to fossil fuels, but improving the mechanical properties and water resistance of SPI composites remains a huge challenge. Inspired by the synergistic effect of natural nacre, we developed a novel approach to fabricate high-performance SPI nanocomposite films based on 2D graphene (G nanosheets and 1D carbon nanotubes (CNTs and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC using a casting method. The introduction of web-like NFC promoted the uniform dispersion of graphene/CNTs in the biopolymer matrix, as well as a high extent of cross-linkage combination between the fillers and SPI matrix. The laminated and cross-linked structures of the different nanocomposite films were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM images. Due to the synergistic interactions of π–π stacking and hydrogen bonding between the nanofillers and SPI chains, the tensile strength of SPI/G/CNT/NFC film significantly increased by 78.9% and the water vapor permeability decreased by 31.76% in comparison to neat SPI film. In addition, the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis light barrier performance, thermal stability, and hydrophobicity of the films were significantly improved as well. This bioinspired synergistic reinforcing strategy opens a new path for constructing high-performance nanocomposites.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose derivatives obtained from bacterial cellulose

    Oliveira, Rafael L. de; Barud, Hernane; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Messaddeq, Younes

    2011-01-01

    The chemical modification of cellulose leads to production of derivatives with different properties from those observed for the original cellulose, for example, increased solubility in more traditional solvents. In this work we synthesized four derivatives of cellulose: microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose acetate, methylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose using bacterial cellulose as a source. These were characterized in terms of chemical and structural changes by examining the degree of substitution (DS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - NMR 13 C. The molecular weight and degree of polymerization were evaluated by viscometry. The characterization of the morphology of materials and thermal properties were performed with the techniques of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy images, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis. (author)

  6. Glucose production for cellulose

    Suzuki, S; Karube, I

    1977-04-16

    Glucose was produced from cellulose by passing a cellulose solution through a column of an immobilized cellulase which was prepared by coating an inorganic carrier such as macadam or stainless steel beads with collagen containing the cellulase. Thus, 4 mL of 5% cellulase T-AP (60,000 units/g) solution was dissolved in 100 g of 0.9% collagen solution and the solution mixed with 60 g of macadam (diam. = 0.5 to 1.5 mm) and stirred for 10 min. The treated beads were dried in air at 10/sup 0/ to yield an immobilized enzyme retaining 64% of its activity. Through a column (0.8 x 20 cm) packed with 3 g of the immobilized enzyme, 100 mL of 0.33% Avicel SF solution was circulated at 26.4 mL/min at 30/sup 0/ for 60 h. The Avicel SF conversion to glucose was 23%.

  7. High Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    Ali, Ola

    2013-01-01

    Regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes are extensively used in medical and pharmaceutical separation processes due to their biocompatibility, low fouling tendency and solvent resistant properties. They typically possess ultrafiltration

  8. High-performance intrinsically microporous dihydroxyl-functionalized triptycene-based polyimide for natural gas separation

    Alaslai, Nasser Y.; Ghanem, Bader; Alghunaimi, Fahd; Pinnau, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    A novel polyimide of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-PI) was synthesized from a 9,10-diisopropyl-triptycene-based dianhydride (TPDA) and dihydroxyl-functionalized 4,6-diaminoresorcinol (DAR). The unfunctionalized TPDA-m-phenylenediamine (mPDA) polyimide derivative was made as a reference material to evaluate the effect of the OH group in TPDA-DAR on its gas transport properties. Pure-gas permeability coefficients of He, H2, N2, O2, CH4, and CO2 were measured at 35 °C and 2 atm. The BET surface area based on nitrogen adsorption of dihydroxyl-functionalized TPDA-DAR (308 m2g-1) was 45% lower than that of TPDA-mPDA (565 m2g-1). TPDA-mPDA had a pure-gas CO2 permeability of 349 Barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 32. The dihydroxyl-functionalized TPDA-DAR polyimide exhibited enhanced pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivity of 46 with a moderate decrease in CO2 permeability to 215 Barrer. The CO2 permeability of TPDA-DAR was ∼30-fold higher than that of a commercial cellulose triacetate membrane coupled with 39% higher pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivity. The TPDA-based dihydroxyl-containing polyimide showed good plasticization resistance and maintained high mixed-gas selectivity of 38 when tested at a typical CO2 natural gas wellhead CO2 partial pressure of 10 atm.

  9. High-performance intrinsically microporous dihydroxyl-functionalized triptycene-based polyimide for natural gas separation

    Alaslai, Nasser Y.

    2016-03-22

    A novel polyimide of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-PI) was synthesized from a 9,10-diisopropyl-triptycene-based dianhydride (TPDA) and dihydroxyl-functionalized 4,6-diaminoresorcinol (DAR). The unfunctionalized TPDA-m-phenylenediamine (mPDA) polyimide derivative was made as a reference material to evaluate the effect of the OH group in TPDA-DAR on its gas transport properties. Pure-gas permeability coefficients of He, H2, N2, O2, CH4, and CO2 were measured at 35 °C and 2 atm. The BET surface area based on nitrogen adsorption of dihydroxyl-functionalized TPDA-DAR (308 m2g-1) was 45% lower than that of TPDA-mPDA (565 m2g-1). TPDA-mPDA had a pure-gas CO2 permeability of 349 Barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 32. The dihydroxyl-functionalized TPDA-DAR polyimide exhibited enhanced pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivity of 46 with a moderate decrease in CO2 permeability to 215 Barrer. The CO2 permeability of TPDA-DAR was ∼30-fold higher than that of a commercial cellulose triacetate membrane coupled with 39% higher pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivity. The TPDA-based dihydroxyl-containing polyimide showed good plasticization resistance and maintained high mixed-gas selectivity of 38 when tested at a typical CO2 natural gas wellhead CO2 partial pressure of 10 atm.

  10. Valorization of lignin and cellulose in acid-steam-exploded corn stover by a moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment based on an integrated biorefinery concept.

    Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Yue; Yue, Wen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yun-Yan; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unsustainable consumption of fossil resources, great efforts have been made to convert lignocellulose into bioethanol and commodity organic compounds through biological methods. The conversion of cellulose is impeded by the compactness of plant cell wall matrix and crystalline structure of the native cellulose. Therefore, appropriate pretreatment and even post-treatment are indispensable to overcome this problem. Additionally, an adequate utilization of coproduct lignin will be important for improving the economic viability of modern biorefinery industries. The effectiveness of moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment on the bioconversion efficiency of cellulose in the acid-steam-exploded corn stover was investigated in this study. Results showed that an increase of the alcoholic sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration from 0.05 to 4% led to a decrease in the lignin content in the post-treated samples from 32.8 to 10.7%, while the cellulose digestibility consequently increased. The cellulose conversion of the 4% alcoholic NaOH integrally treated corn stover reached up to 99.3% after 72 h, which was significantly higher than that of the acid steam exploded corn stover without post-treatment (57.3%). In addition to the decrease in lignin content, an expansion of cellulose I lattice induced by the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment played a significant role in promoting the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover. More importantly, the lignin fraction (AL) released during the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment and the lignin-rich residue (EHR) remained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treated acid-steam-exploded corn stover were employed to synthesize lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resins. The plywoods prepared with the resins exhibit satisfactory performances. An alkaline ethanol system with an appropriate NaOH concentration could improve the removal of lignin and modification of the crystalline structure of cellulose in acid

  11. Drug-loaded Cellulose Acetate and Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films ...

    The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the contribution of formulation variables on release properties of matrix type ocular films containing chloramphenicol as a model drug. This study investigated the use of cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate as film-forming agents in development of ocular films.

  12. Rapid saccharification for production of cellulosic biofuels.

    Lee, Dae-Seok; Wi, Seung Gon; Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Yoon-Gyo; Kim, Yeong-Suk; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2014-04-01

    The economical production of biofuels is hindered by the recalcitrance of lignocellulose to processing, causing high consumption of processing enzymes and impeding hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. We determined the major rate-limiting factor in the hydrolysis of popping pre-treated rice straw (PPRS) by examining cellulase adsorption to lignin and cellulose, amorphogenesis of PPRS, and re-hydrolysis. Based on the results, equivalence between enzyme loading and the open structural area of cellulose was required to significantly increase productive adsorption of cellulase and to accelerate enzymatic saccharification of PPRS. Amorphogenesis of PPRS by phosphoric acid treatment to expand open structural area of the cellulose fibers resulted in twofold higher cellulase adsorption and increased the yield of the first re-hydrolysis step from 13% to 46%. The total yield from PPRS was increased to 84% after 3h. These results provide evidence that cellulose structure is one of major effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Insights into engineering of cellulosic ethanol].

    Yue, Guojun; Wu, Guoqing; Lin, Xin

    2014-06-01

    For energy security, air pollution concerns, coupled with the desire to sustain the agricultural sector and revitalize the rural economy, many countries have applied ethanol as oxygenate or fuel to supplement or replace gasoline in transportation sector. Because of abundant feedstock resources and effective reduction of green-house-gas emissions, the cellulosic ethanol has attracted great attention. With a couple of pioneers beginning to produce this biofuel from biomass in commercial quantities around the world, it is necessary to solve engineering problems and complete the economic assessment in 2015-2016, gradually enter the commercialization stage. To avoid "competing for food with humans and competing for land with food", the 1st generation fuel ethanol will gradually transit to the 2nd generation cellulosic ethanol. Based on the overview of cellulosic ethanol industrialization from domestic and abroad in recent years, the main engineering application problems encountered in pretreatment, enzymes and enzymatic hydrolysis, pentose/hexose co-fermentation strains and processes, equipment were discussed from chemical engineering and biotechnology perspective. The development direction of cellulosic ethanol technology in China was addressed.

  14. Ductile all-cellulose nanocomposite films fabricated from core-shell structured cellulose nanofibrils.

    Larsson, Per A; Berglund, Lars A; Wågberg, Lars

    2014-06-09

    Cellulosic materials have many desirable properties such as high mechanical strength and low oxygen permeability and will be an important component in a sustainable biomaterial-based society, but unfortunately they often lack the ductility and formability offered by petroleum-based materials. This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of nanocomposite films made of core-shell modified cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) surrounded by a shell of ductile dialcohol cellulose, created by heterogeneous periodate oxidation followed by borohydride reduction of the native cellulose in the external parts of the individual fibrils. The oxidation with periodate selectively produces dialdehyde cellulose, and the process does not increase the charge density of the material. Yet the modified cellulose fibers could easily be homogenized to CNFs. Prior to film fabrication, the CNF was shown by atomic force microscopy to be 0.5-2 μm long and 4-10 nm wide. The films were fabricated by filtration, and besides uniaxial tensile testing at different relative humidities, they were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and oxygen permeability. The strength-at-break at 23 °C and 50% RH was 175 MPa, and the films could, before rupture, be strained, mainly by plastic deformation, to about 15% and 37% at 50% RH and 90% RH, respectively. This moisture plasticization was further utilized to form a demonstrator consisting of a double-curved structure with a nominal strain of 24% over the curvature. At a relative humidity of 80%, the films still acted as a good oxygen barrier, having an oxygen permeability of 5.5 mL·μL/(m(2)·24 h·kPa). These properties indicate that this new material has a potential for use as a barrier in complex-shaped structures and hence ultimately reduce the need for petroleum-based plastics.

  15. Novel, reagentless, amperometric biosensor for uric acid based on a chemically modified screen-printed carbon electrode coated with cellulose acetate and uricase.

    Gilmartin, M A; Hart, J P

    1994-05-01

    Amperometry in stirred solution has been used for the systematic evaluation of modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) with a view to developing a reagentless biosensor for uric acid. The developed system consists of a base cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) electrode tailored to the electrocatalytic oxidation of H2O2 by means of a cellulose acetate (CA)-uricase bilayer. Uricase was immobilized by drop-coating the enzyme onto the CA membrane covering the CoPC-SPCE. The device exploits the near-universal H2O2-generating propensity of oxidases, the permselectivity of the CA film towards H2O2 and the electrocatalytic oxidation of this product at the CoPC-SPCE. The electrochemical oxidation of the resulting Co+ species was used as the analytical signal, facilitating the application of a greatly reduced operating potential when compared with that required for direct oxidation of H2O2 at unmodified electrodes. The time required to achieve 95% of the steady-state current (t95i(ss)) was 44 s [relative standard deviation = 7.5% (n = 10)]. Amperometric calibrations were linear over the range from 13 x 10(-6) to 1 x 10(-3) mol dm-3, with the former representing the limit of detection. The CA membrane extended the linear range of the biosensor by over two orders of magnitude, when apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (Km') of immobilized and free enzymes are compared. This suggests that the process is diffusion-controlled and not governed by the kinetics of the enzyme. The precision of electrode fabrication was determined by cyclic voltammetry to be 4.9% (n = 6).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Development of a ratiometric fluorescent urea biosensor based on the urease immobilized onto the oxazine 170 perchlorate-ethyl cellulose membrane.

    Dinh Duong, Hong; Il Rhee, Jong

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the oxazine 170 perchlorate (O17)-ethyl cellulose (EC) membrane was successfully applied in the fabrication of a urea-sensing membrane. The urea-sensing membrane was a double layer consisting of the O17-EC membrane and a layer of the enzyme urease entrapped into EC matrix. The sensing principle of urea was based on the hydrolysis reaction of urea under the catalysis of the urease to produce ammonia in water and also on the binding of ammonia with the dye O17 to create the shift in the emission wavelength from λ(em)=630 nm to λ(em)=565 nm. The data collected from the ratio of the fluorescence intensities at λ(em)=630 nm and λ(em)=565 nm was proportional to urea concentration. The urea-sensing membrane with the ratiometric method was used to measure the concentrations of urea in the range of 0.01-0.1 M with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.027 mM and 0.1-1.0 M with LOD of 0.224 mM. It showed fast response time, high reversibility and long-term stability in this concentration range. The recovery percentage of urea concentrations of the urea-sensing membrane for two kinds of biological urine solutions (BU1, BU2) was around 85-118%. The measured results were in good agreement with standard urea concentrations in the range of 0.06 M to 1.0 M. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Reactive Ionic Liquid or Plasticizer Incorporation on the Physicochemical and Transport Properties of Cellulose Acetate Propionate-Based Membranes

    Edyta Rynkowska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervaporation is a membrane-separation technique which uses polymeric and/or ceramic membranes. In the case of pervaporation processes applied to dehydration, the membrane should transport water molecules preferentially. Reactive ionic liquid (RIL (3-(1,3-diethoxy-1,3-dioxopropan-2-yl-1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium was used to prepare novel dense cellulose acetate propionate (CAP based membranes, applying the phase-inversion method. The designed polymer-ionic liquid system contained ionic liquid partially linked to the polymeric structure via the transesterification reaction. The various physicochemical, mechanical, equilibrium and transport properties of CAP-RIL membranes were determined and compared with the properties of CAP membranes modified with plasticizers, i.e., tributyl citrate (TBC and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA testified that CAP-RIL membranes as well as CAP membranes modified with TBC and ATBC are thermally stable up to at least 120 °C. Tensile tests of the membranes revealed improved mechanical properties reflected by reduced brittleness and increased elongation at break achieved for CAP-RIL membranes in contrast to pristine CAP membranes. RIL plasticizes the CAP matrix, and CAP-RIL membranes possess preferable mechanical properties in comparison to membranes with other plasticizers investigated. The incorporation of RIL into CAP membranes tuned the surface properties of the membranes, enhancing their hydrophilic character. Moreover, the addition of RIL into CAP resulted in an excellent improvement of the separation factor, in comparison to pristine CAP membranes, in pervaporation dehydration of propan-2-ol. The separation factor β increased from ca. 10 for pristine CAP membrane to ca. 380 for CAP-16.7-RIL membranes contacting an azeotropic composition of water-propan-2-ol mixture (i.e., 12 wt % water.

  18. Preparation and characterization of green-nano-composite material based on polyaniline, multiwalled carbon nano tubes and carboxymethyl cellulose: For electrochemical sensor applications.

    Gautam, Vineeta; Singh, Karan Pratap; Yadav, Vijay Laxmi

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we are presenting the preparation and characterization of "polyaniline/multiwalled carbon nanotubes/carboxymethyl cellulose" based novel composite material. It's morphological, thermal, structural, and electrochemical properties were investigated by using different instrumental techniques. During the in-situ chemical polymerization of aniline in the aqueous suspension of CMC and MWCNTs, the particle size change in two different ways "top to bottom" (low molecular weight oligomers grows in size) and "bottom to top" (long fibers of CMC fragmented in the reaction mixture). The combination of these two processes facilitated the fabrication of an integrated green-nano-composite material. In addition, a little amount of conductive nanofillers (MWCNTs) boosts the electrical and electrocatalytic properties of the material. Electron-rich centers of benzenoid rings exhibited π-π stacking with sp 2 carbon of MWCNTs. CMC dominantly impact on the properties of PANI, negatively charged carboxylate group of CMC ionically bonded with protonated amine/imine. FTIR and Raman analysis confirmed that the material has dominated quinoid units and effective charge transfer. Hydroxyl and carboxyl groups and bonded water molecules of CMC results in a network of hydrogen bonds (which induced directional property). PANI/MWCNTs/CMC have nanobead-like structures (TEM analysis), large surface area, large pore volume, small pore diameter (BET and BJH studies) and good dispersion ability in the aqueous phase. Nanostructures of aligned PANI exhibited excellent electrochemical properties have attracted increasing attention. Modified carbon paste electrode was used for electrocatalytic detection of ascorbic acid (as a model analyte). The sensor exhibited a linear range 0.05 mM-5 mM, sensitivity 100.63 μA mM -1  cm -2 , and limit of detection 0.01 mM. PANI/MWCNTs/CMC is suitable nanocomposite material for apply electroactive/conducting ink and membrane (which could be

  19. A cell culture-derived whole virus influenza A vaccine based on magnetic sulfated cellulose particles confers protection in mice against lethal influenza A virus infection.

    Pieler, Michael M; Frentzel, Sarah; Bruder, Dunja; Wolff, Michael W; Reichl, Udo

    2016-12-07

    Downstream processing and formulation of viral vaccines employs a large number of different unit operations to achieve the desired product qualities. The complexity of individual process steps involved, the need for time consuming studies towards the optimization of virus yields, and very high requirements regarding potency and safety of vaccines results typically in long lead times for the establishment of new processes. To overcome such obstacles, to enable fast screening of potential vaccine candidates, and to explore options for production of low cost veterinary vaccines a new platform for whole virus particle purification and formulation based on magnetic particles has been established. Proof of concept was carried out with influenza A virus particles produced in suspension Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The clarified, inactivated, concentrated, and diafiltered virus particles were bound to magnetic sulfated cellulose particles (MSCP), and directly injected into mice for immunization including positive and negative controls. We show here, that in contrast to the mock-immunized group, vaccination of mice with antigen-loaded MSCP (aMSCP) resulted in high anti-influenza A antibody responses and full protection against a lethal challenge with replication competent influenza A virus. Antiviral protection correlated with a 400-fold reduced number of influenza nucleoprotein gene copies in the lungs of aMSCP immunized mice compared to mock-treated animals, indicating the efficient induction of antiviral immunity by this novel approach. Thus, our data proved the use of MSCP for purification and formulation of the influenza vaccine to be fast and efficient, and to confer protection of mice against influenza A virus infection. Furthermore, the method proposed has the potential for fast purification of virus particles directly from bioreactor harvests with a minimum number of process steps towards formulation of low-cost veterinary vaccines, and for screening

  20. Cellulose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phase for the enantioseparation of drugs in supercritical fluid chromatography: comparison with HPLC.

    Kalíková, Květa; Martínková, Monika; Schmid, Martin G; Tesařová, Eva

    2018-03-01

    A cellulose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phase was studied as a tool for the enantioselective separation of 21 selected analytes with different pharmaceutical and physicochemical properties. The enantioseparations were performed using supercritical fluid chromatography. The effect of the mobile phase composition was studied. Four different additives (diethylamine, triethylamine, isopropylamine, and trifluoroacetic acid) and isopropylamine combined with trifluoroacetic acid were tested and their influence on enantioseparation was compared. The influence of two different mobile phase co-solvents (methanol and propan-2-ol) combined with all the additives was also evaluated. The best mobile phase compositions for the separation of the majority of enantiomers were CO 2 /methanol/isopropylamine 80:20:0.1 v/v/v or CO 2 /propan-2-ol/isopropylamine/trifluoroacetic acid 80:20:0.05:0.05 v/v/v/v. The best results were obtained from the group of basic β-blockers. A high-performance liquid chromatography separation system composed of the same stationary phase and mobile phase of similar properties prepared as a mixture of hexane/propan-2-ol/additive 80:20:0.1 v/v/v was considered for comparison. Supercritical fluid chromatography was found to yield better results, i.e. better enantioresolution for shorter analysis times than high-performance liquid chromatography. However, examples of enantiomers better resolved under the optimized conditions in high-performance liquid chromatography were also found. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Investigation of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy as an alternative to the Water Leach Free Acidity test for cellulose acetate-based film

    Johansen, Karin Bonde; Shashoua, Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    Cellulose acetate film loses acetate groups on ageing which results in the formation of damaging acetic acid. Water-Leach Free Acidity Test (WLFAT) is the definitive technique to quantify acidity, but requires 1g film and 26 hours. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is a non-destructive, rapid technique which...

  2. Preparation and properties of shape-stabilized phase change materials based on fatty acid eutectics and cellulose composites for thermal energy storage

    Cao, Lei; Tang, Yaojie; Fang, Guiyin

    2015-01-01

    Shape-stabilized fatty acid eutectics/carboxy methyl cellulose-1 composites as phase change materials (PCMs) were synthesized by absorbing liquid eutectics into the carboxy methyl cellulose-1 fibers. The chemical structure, crystalloid phase and morphology were determined by the Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope, X-ray diffractometer and scanning electronic microscope. The thermal properties and thermal stability were measured by the differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analyzer and the thermal cycling test, respectively. The results indicate that the eutectics are well adsorbed in the porous structure of the carboxy methyl cellulose-1. According to the DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) results, the composites melt at 32.2 °C with latent heat of 114.6 kJ/kg and solidify at 29.2 °C with latent heat of 106.8 kJ/kg. The thermal cycling test proves that the composites have good thermal reliability. It is envisioned that the prepared shape-stabilized PCMs have considerable potential for developing their roles in thermal energy storage. - Highlights: • The fatty acid eutectic/carboxy methyl cellulose-1 composites as PCMs were prepared. • Chemical structure and microstructure of composites were determined by FT-IR and SEM. • Thermal properties and stabilities were investigated by DSC and TGA. • The thermal cycling test confirmed that the composite has good thermal reliability

  3. Nanocellulose-based biosensors: design, preparation, and activity of peptide-linked cotton cellulose nanocrystals having fluorimetric and colorimetric elastase detection sensitivity

    Nanocrystalline cellulose is an amphiphilic, high surface area material that can be easily functionalized and is biocom-patible and eco-friendly. It has been used singularly and in combination with other nanomaterials to optimize biosensor design. The attachment of peptides and proteins to nanocryst...

  4. Nanocellulose prepared by acid hydrolysis of isolated cellulose from sugarcane bagasse

    Wulandari, W. T.; Rochliadi, A.; Arcana, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    Cellulose in nanometer range or called by nano-cellulose has attracted much attention from researchers because of its unique properties. Nanocellulose can be obtained by acid hydrolysis of cellulose. The cellulose used in this study was isolated from sugarcane bagasse, and then it was hydrolyzed by 50% sulfuric acid at 40 °C for 10 minutes. Nanocellulose has been characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Analysis of FTIR showed that there were not a new bond which formed during the hydrolysis process. Based on the TEM analysis, nano-cellulose has a spherical morphology with an average diameter of 111 nm and a maximum distribution of 95.9 nm determined by PSA. The XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity degree of nano-cellulose was higher than cellulose in the amount of 76.01%.

  5. Role of cellulose functionality in bio-inspired synthesis of nano bioactive glass.

    Gupta, Nidhi; Santhiya, Deenan

    2017-06-01

    In search of abundant cheaper natural polymer for bio-inspired bioactive glass nanoparticles synthesis, cellulose and its derivatives have been considered as a template. Different templates explored in the present studies are pure cellulose, methyl cellulose and amine grafted cellulose. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time of the considered templates, pure cellulose and amine grafted cellulose results in in situ nano particulate composite formation while interestingly methyl cellulose proves to be an excellent sacrificial template for the synthesis of uniform bioglass nanoparticles of diameter in the range of 55nm. Further, viscoelastic measurements were carried out using dynamic mechanical analyzer. Herein, an attempt has been made to establish structure-mechanical relationship based on the templates. Moreover, in vitro bioactivity is also observed to be affected by the nature of the template molecule used for the synthesis of bioactive glass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    Leonhardt, J.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Langguth, H.; Gey, M.; Huebert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given. (author)

  7. Cellulose synthase complex organization and cellulose microfibril structure.

    Turner, Simon; Kumar, Manoj

    2018-02-13

    Cellulose consists of linear chains of β-1,4-linked glucose units, which are synthesized by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). In plants, these chains associate in an ordered manner to form the cellulose microfibrils. Both the CSC and the local environment in which the individual chains coalesce to form the cellulose microfibril determine the structure and the unique physical properties of the microfibril. There are several recent reviews that cover many aspects of cellulose biosynthesis, which include trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane and the relationship between the movement of the CSC and the underlying cortical microtubules (Bringmann et al. 2012 Trends Plant Sci. 17 , 666-674 (doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2012.06.003); Kumar & Turner 2015 Phytochemistry 112 , 91-99 (doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.07.009); Schneider et al. 2016 Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 34 , 9-16 (doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2016.07.007)). In this review, we will focus on recent advances in cellulose biosynthesis in plants, with an emphasis on our current understanding of the structure of individual catalytic subunits together with the local membrane environment where cellulose synthesis occurs. We will attempt to relate this information to our current knowledge of the structure of the cellulose microfibril and propose a model in which variations in the structure of the CSC have important implications for the structure of the cellulose microfibril produced.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Mass spectrometric studies of fast pyrolysis of cellulose

    Degenstein, John; Hurt, Matt; Murria, Priya; Easton, McKay; Choudhari, Harshavardhan; Yang, Linan; Riedeman, James; Carlsen, Mark; Nash, John; Agrawal, Rakesh; Delgass, W.; Ribeiro, Fabio; Kenttämaa, Hilkka

    2015-01-01

    A fast pyrolysis probe/linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer combination was used to study the primary fast pyrolysis products (those that first leave the hot pyrolysis surface) of cellulose, cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and cellohexaose, as well as of cellobiosan, cellotriosan, and cellopentosan, at 600°C. Similar products with different branching ratios were found for the oligosaccharides and cellulose, as reported previously. However, identical products (with the exception of two) with similar branching ratios were measured for cellotriosan (and cellopentosan) and cellulose. This result demonstrates that cellotriosan is an excellent small-molecule surrogate for studies of the fast pyrolysis of cellulose and also that most fast pyrolysis products of cellulose do not originate from the reducing end. Based on several observations, the fast pyrolysis of cellulose is suggested to initiate predominantly via two competing processes: the formation of anhydro-oligosaccharides, such as cellobiosan, cellotriosan, and cellopentosan (major route), and the elimination of glycolaldehyde (or isomeric) units from the reducing end of oligosaccharides formed from cellulose during fast pyrolysis.

  9. Analysis of mercerization process based on the intensity change of deconvoluted resonances of 13C CP/MAS NMR: Cellulose mercerized under cooling and non-cooling conditions

    Miura, Kento; Nakano, Takato

    2015-01-01

    The area intensity change of C1, C4, and C6 in spectrum obtained by 13 C CP/MAS NMR and the mutual relationship between their changes were examined for cellulose samples treated with various concentrations of aqueous NaOH solutions under non-cooling and cooling conditions. The area intensity of C1-up and C6-down changed cooperatively with that of C4-down which corresponds to the crystallinity of samples: “-up” and “-down” are the up- and down- field component in a splitting peak of NMR spectrum, respectively. The intensity change of C1-up starts to decrease with decreasing in that of C4-down after that of C6-down is almost complete. These changes were more clearly observed for samples treated under cooling condition. It can be suggested that their characteristic change relates closely to the change in conformation of cellulose chains by induced decrystallization and the subsequent crystallization of cellulose II, and presumed that their changes at microscopic level relate to the macroscopic morphological changes such as contraction along the length of cellulose chains and recovery along the length. - Highlight: • Samples were mercerized at various NaOH concentrations under non-cooling and cooling. • The intensity change of C1 starts immediately after that of C6 is complete. • The creation of cell-II starts when decrystallization proceeds to a certain state. • This change relates closely to the change in conformation of cellulose chains. • The above change is more clearly found for samples treated under cooling

  10. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasticized Starch Based Bionanocomposites Containing Cellulose Nanowhiskers and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles: Study of Structure and Water Vapor Permeability

    Nasrin Jamshidi Kaljahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The starch-based films have some disadvantages such as weak mechanical and poor water barrier properties that restrict their applications in food packaging. In the present research, to improve the properties of the starch films, a constant level of citric acid and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA (10% with different amounts of glycerol (GLY as a lubricating agent, crystal nanowhiskers (CNW and titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles were used together. Finally, the effects of these compounds on permeability properties of the obtained starch-based bionanocomposites were studied and their optimum values were determined by central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM. The results of X-Ray diffraction (XRD test showed that at low levels of TiO2 and CNW there was no diffractogram peak obtained. However, at high levels of TiO2 and CNW there emerged distinct and sharp peak which was attributed to greater crystalline region and probably non-homogeneity in particle distribution. The Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR data showed that addition of CNW and TiO2 increased hydrogen binding between the nanofillers and biopolymer matrix. The effects of TiO2 and CNW concentrations as quadratic and glycerol concentration as linear and quadratic were significant on water vapor permeability (WVP. The optimum levels of TiO2, CNW and GLY for obtaining minimum WVP corresponded to 0.118, 0.3 g and 1.06 mL, respectively.

  12. Effect of cellulose nanofibers concentration on mechanical, optical, and barrier properties of gelatin-based edible films

    Ricardo David Andrade-Pizarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la concentración de gelatina, glicerol y nanofibras de celulosa (NFC sobre las propiedades mecánicas, permeabilidad al vapor de agua, y los parámetros de color de películas a base de gelatina. Los resultados indican que el color es influenciado sólo por la concentración de gelatina. Las pruebas mecánicas indican que al aumentar la concentración de gelatina y NFC hay un aumento en la resistencia a la tracción, mientras que un aumento en la concentración de glicerol provoca un aumento en el porcentaje de elongación, haciendo que las películas sean más flexibles. Un aumento en la concentración de gelatina y glicerol aumenta la permeabilidad al vapor de agua, mientras que un aumento en la concentración de NFC reduce esta propiedad. Finalmente, la adición de NFC en películas a base de gelatina mejora sus propiedades mecánicas y de barrera (vapor de agua sin afectar a la apariencia (color de las películas.

  13. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  14. Sepiolite functionalized with N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]-ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt. Part II: Sorption of Ni2+ from aqueous solutions

    Lazarević Slavica S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available sorption of Ni2+ on the sepiolite functionalized by covalent grafting of N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt, MSEAS, was studied in batch experiments as a function of the initial metal concentration, the equilibration time, pH value, and temperature. The modification of sepiolite resulted in an enhanced Ni2+ retention with a capacity of 0.261 mmol/g at 298 K. The retention of Ni2+ ions occurred dominantly by specific sorption and exchange of Mg2+ ions from the sepiolite structure. The sorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The sorption equilibrium results were best described by the non-linear form of the Langmuir Sorption Equation. The values of the thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy, free energy and entropy were calculated from temperature dependent sorption isotherms and these values showed that the sorption of Ni2+ onto modified sepiolite was endothermic. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019 i FP7 NANOTECH FTM No. 245916

  15. Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Alan R. White; Ann G. Matthysse

    2004-07-31

    We have cloned the celC gene and its homologue from E. coli, yhjM, in an expression vector and expressed the both genes in E. coli; we have determined that the YhjM protein is able to complement in vitro cellulose synthesis by extracts of A. tumefaciens celC mutants, we have purified the YhjM protein product and are currently examining its enzymatic activity; we have examined whole cell extracts of CelC and various other cellulose mutants and wild type bacteria for the presence of cellulose oligomers and cellulose; we have examined the ability of extracts of wild type and cellulose mutants including CelC to incorporate UDP-14C-glucose into cellulose and into water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble oligosaccharides; we have made mutants which synthesize greater amounts of cellulose than the wild type; and we have examined the role of cellulose in the formation of biofilms by A. tumefaciens. In addition we have examined the ability of a putative cellulose synthase gene from the tunicate Ciona savignyi to complement an A. tumefaciens celA mutant. The greatest difference between our knowledge of bacterial cellulose synthesis when we started this project and current knowledge is that in 1999 when we wrote the original grant very few bacteria were known to synthesize cellulose and genes involved in this synthesis were sequenced only from Acetobacter species, A. tumefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Currently many bacteria are known to synthesize cellulose and genes that may be involved have been sequenced from more than 10 species of bacteria. This additional information has raised the possibility of attempting to use genes from one bacterium to complement mutants in another bacterium. This will enable us to examine the question of which genes are responsible for the three dimensional structure of cellulose (since this differs among bacterial species) and also to examine the interactions between the various proteins required for cellulose synthesis. We have carried out one

  16. Poroelastic Mechanical Effects of Hemicelluloses on Cellulosic Hydrogels under Compression

    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia; Cersosimo, Julie; Wang, Dongjie; Flanagan, Bernadine; Stokes, Jason R.; Gidley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Hemicelluloses exhibit a range of interactions with cellulose, the mechanical consequences of which in plant cell walls are incompletely understood. We report the mechanical properties of cell wall analogues based on cellulose hydrogels to elucidate the contribution of xyloglucan or arabinoxylan as examples of two hemicelluloses displaying different interactions with cellulose. We subjected the hydrogels to mechanical pressures to emulate the compressive stresses experienced by cell walls in planta. Our results revealed that the presence of either hemicellulose increased the resistance to compression at fast strain rates. However, at slow strain rates, only xyloglucan increased composite strength. This behaviour could be explained considering the microstructure and the flow of water through the composites confirming their poroelastic nature. In contrast, small deformation oscillatory rheology showed that only xyloglucan decreased the elastic moduli. These results provide evidence for contrasting roles of different hemicelluloses in plant cell wall mechanics and man-made cellulose-based composite materials. PMID:25794048

  17. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of modified cellulose fiber-based materials and related interactions with water vapor

    Bedane, Alemayehu H., E-mail: Alemayehu.Bedane@unb.ca; Xiao, Huining, E-mail: hxiao@unb.ca; Eić, Mladen, E-mail: meic@unb.ca; Farmahini-Farahani, Madjid, E-mail: Madjid.Farahani@unb.ca

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Coating on paper increases the specific surface area but decreases the pore diameter. • Pore size reduction and decrease of hydrophilic property caused reduction in WVTRs. • The low monolayer moisture content of the sample is generally related to the low WVTR. • The net isosteric heats of adsorption decreased with increased sample moisture content. • FT-IR results reveal the formation of water clusters at higher relative humidities. - Abstract: In this study, the surface characteristics, water vapor interactions, and state of water adsorbed on unmodified and coated paper samples were investigated in an attempt to obtain a better understanding of the fundamental principles related to thermodynamics of this process, as well as to provide essential insight that could be used for further improvement of the papers’ barrier properties. Based on the BET measurement, the coated paper samples showed higher specific surface areas than unmodified paper; however, their mean pore diameters are smaller. The BJH method was used for pore size distribution analysis. Hydrophobic properties of the paper samples were determined from experimental isotherms, e.g., monolayer moisture content, and these results have been related to the water vapor transfer rates (WVTRs) showing a complex nature of these relations. The highest peak corresponding to the modified samples with smaller pore sizes was found to be in the range of 1–30 nm, while it was in the 30–100 nm pore size range for unmodified paper. The net isosteric heats of sorption for different unmodified and modified paper samples were determined from water vapor adsorption isotherms measured at 15, 25, and 35 °C. The net isosteric heats of sorption decreased with an increase of moisture content after reaching the maximum values at 12.53, 15.25, 14.71, 23.2, and 22.77 kJ/mol for unmodified, zein grafted, calendered coated, PLA, and PHBV coated papers, respectively. The state of adsorbed water and water

  18. Approaching zero cellulose loss in cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) production: recovery and characterization of cellulosic solid residues (CSR) and CNC

    Q.Q. Wang; J.Y. Zhu; R.S. Reiner; S.P. Verrill; U. Baxa; S.E. McNeil

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrated the potential of simultaneously recovering cellulosic solid residues (CSR) and producing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by strong sulfuric acid hydrolysis to minimize cellulose loss to near zero. A set of slightly milder acid hydrolysis conditions than that considered as “optimal” were used to significantly minimize the degradation of cellulose...

  19. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 573.420 Section 573.420 Food and... Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether containing...

  20. Evaluation of microcrystalline cellulose modifed from alpha ...

    Alpha cellulose was obtained from Costus afer and part of it was modified to microcrystalline cellulose (CAMCC). The physicochemical properties of the microcrystalline cellulose were determined and compared with those of commercial microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel 101). The swelling capacity, hydration capacity, loss ...

  1. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  2. Cellulose Derivatives Enhanced Stability of Alginate-Based Beads Loaded with Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 against Low pH, High Temperature and Prolonged Storage.

    Fareez, Ismail M; Lim, Siong Meng; Zulkefli, Nurul Aida Ashyqin; Mishra, Rakesh K; Ramasamy, Kalavathy

    2017-05-10

    The susceptibility of probiotics to low pH and high temperature has limited their use as nutraceuticals. In this study, enhanced protection of probiotics via microencapsulation was achieved. Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 were immobilised within polymeric matrix comprised of alginate (Alg) with supplementation of cellulose derivatives (methylcellulose (MC), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)). L. plantarum LAB12 encapsulated in Alg-HPMC(1.0) and Alg-MC(1.0) elicited improved survivability (91%) in simulated gastric conditions and facilitated maximal release (∼100%) in simulated intestinal condition. Alg-HPMC(1.0) and Alg-MC(1.0) significantly reduced (P 7 log CFU g -1 . Alg-MC and Alg-HPMC improved the survival of LAB12 against simulated gastric condition (9.24 and 9.55 log CFU g -1 , respectively), temperature up to 90 °C (9.54 and 9.86 log CFU g -1 , respectively) and 4-week of storage at 4 °C (8.61 and 9.23 log CFU g -1 , respectively) with sustained release of probiotic in intestinal condition (>9 log CFU g -1 ). These findings strongly suggest the potential of cellulose derivatives supplemented Alg bead as protective micro-transport for probiotic strains. They can be safely incorporated into new functional food or nutraceutical products.

  3. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Gey, M.; Hubert, S.; Langguth, H.

    1984-01-01

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment (e.g. radiation influence and influence of lyes) are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given

  4. Cellulose I crystallinity determination using FT-Raman spectroscopy : univariate and multivariate methods

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Two new methods based on FT–Raman spectroscopy, one simple, based on band intensity ratio, and the other using a partial least squares (PLS) regression model, are proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. In the simple method, crystallinity in cellulose I samples was determined based on univariate regression that was first developed using the Raman band...

  5. Cellulose microfibril structure: inspirations from plant diversity

    Roberts, A. W.

    2018-03-01

    Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase catalytic subunits that associate to form cellulose synthesis complexes. Variation in the organization of these complexes underlies the variation in cellulose microfibril structure among diverse organisms. However, little is known about how the catalytic subunits interact to form complexes with different morphologies. We are using an evolutionary approach to investigate the roles of different catalytic subunit isoforms in organisms that have rosette-type cellulose synthesis complexes.

  6. Retention of Cationic Starch onto Cellulose Fibres

    Missaoui, Mohamed; Mauret, Evelyne; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2008-08-01

    Three methods of cationic starch titration were used to quantify its retention on cellulose fibres, namely: (i) the complexation of CS with iodine and measurement of the absorbency of the ensuing blue solution by UV-vis spectroscopy; (ii) hydrolysis of the starch macromolecules followed by the conversion of the resulting sugars to furan-based molecules and quantifying the ensuing mixture by measuring their absorbance at a Ι of 490 nm, using the same technique as previous one and; finally (iii) hydrolysis of starch macromolecules by trifluoro-acetic acid and quantification of the sugars in the resulting hydrolysates by high performance liquid chromatography. The three methods were found to give similar results within the range of CS addition from 0 to 50 mg per g of cellulose fibres.

  7. Reinforced plastics and aerogels by nanocrystalline cellulose

    Leung, Alfred C. W.; Lam, Edmond; Chong, Jonathan; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Luong, John H. T., E-mail: john.luong@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), a rigid rod-like nanoscale material, can be produced from cellulosic biomass in powder, liquid, or gel forms by acid and chemical hydrolysis. Owing to its unique and exceptional physicochemical properties, the incorporation of a small amount of NCC into plastic enhances the mechanical strength of the latter by several orders of magnitudes. Carbohydrate-based NCC poses no serious environmental concerns, providing further impetus for the development and applications of this green and renewable biomaterial to fabricate lightweight and biodegradable composites and aerogels. Surface functionalization of NCC remains the main focus of NCC research to tailor its properties for dispersion in hydrophilic or hydrophobic media. It is of uttermost importance to develop tools and protocols for imaging of NCC in a complex matrix and quantify its reinforcement effect.

  8. Nanofibrillated Cellulose Surface Modification: A Review

    Julien Bras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC has increased notably over recent decades. This bio-based nanomaterial has been used essentially in bionanocomposites or in paper thanks to its high mechanical reinforcement ability or barrier property respectively. Its nano-scale dimensions and its capacity to form a strong entangled nanoporous network have encouraged the emergence of new high-value applications. It is worth noting that chemical surface modification of this material can be a key factor to achieve a better compatibility with matrices. In order to increase the compatibility in different matrices or to add new functions, surface chemical modification of NFC appears to be the prior choice to conserve its intrinsic nanofibre properties. In this review, the authors have proposed for the first time an overview of all chemical grafting strategies used to date on nanofibrillated cellulose with focus on surface modification such as physical adsorption, molecular grafting or polymer grafting.

  9. Recent Strategies in Preparation of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Cellulose Nanofibrils Derived from Raw Cellulose Materials

    Hongxiang Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent strategies in preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs were described. CNCs and CNFs are two types of nanocelluloses (NCs, and they possess various superior properties, such as large specific surface area, high tensile strength and stiffness, low density, and low thermal expansion coefficient. Due to various applications in biomedical engineering, food, sensor, packaging, and so on, there are many studies conducted on CNCs and CNFs. In this review, various methods of preparation of CNCs and CNFs are summarized, including mechanical, chemical, and biological methods. The methods of pretreatment of cellulose are described in view of the benefits to fibrillation.

  10. WOOD CELLULOSE ACETATE MEMBRANE 179

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... 1988), cosmetics and food additives or pharmaceutical applications (Wellisch .... displaced by sample. Determination of percent α-, β- and γ–cellulose ..... addition, the smaller pore diameter would lead to a greater exclusion of ...

  11. Versatile High-Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes Prepared using Trimethylsilyl Cellulose as a Precursor

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2018-01-01

    (TMSC), a highly soluble cellulose derivative, as a precursor for the fabrication of cellulose thin film composite membranes. TMSC is an attractive precursor to assemble thin cellulose films with good deposition behavior and film morphology; cumbersome

  12. INFLUENCE OF CELLULOSE POLYMERIZATION DEGREE AND CRYSTALLINITY ON KINETICS OF CELLULOSE DEGRADATION

    Edita Jasiukaitytė-Grojzdek,; Matjaž Kunaver,; Ida Poljanšek

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose was treated in ethylene glycol with p-toluene sulfonic acid monohydrate as a catalyst at different temperatures. At the highest treatment temperature (150 °C) liquefaction of wood pulp cellulose was achieved and was dependant on cellulose polymerization degree (DP). Furthermore, the rate of amorphous cellulose weight loss was found to increase with cellulose degree of polymerization, while the rate of crystalline cellulose weight loss was reciprocal to the size of the crystallites. ...

  13. Cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants

    Krystyna Kudlicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the control and regulation of cellulose synthesis is fundamental to an understanding of plant development since cellulose is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. In vivo, the polymerization step requires a coordinated transport of substrates across membranes and relies on delicate orientations of the membrane-associated synthase complexes. Little is known about the properties of the enzyme complexes, and many questions about the biosynthesis of cell wall components at the cell surface still remain unanswered. Attempts to purify cellulose synthase from higher plants have not been successful because of the liability of enzymes upon isolation and lack of reliable in vitro assays. Membrane preparations from higher plant cells incorporate UDP-glucose into a glucan polymer, but this invariably turns out to be predominantly β -1,3-linked rather than β -1,4-linked glucans. Various hypotheses have been advanced to explain this phenomenon. One idea is that callose and cellulose-synthase systems are the same, but cell disruption activates callose synthesis preferentially. A second concept suggests that a regulatory protein as a part of the cellulose-synthase complex is rapidly degraded upon cell disruption. With new methods of enzyme isolation and analysis of the in vitro product, recent advances have been made in the isolation of an active synthase from the plasma membrane whereby cellulose synthase was separated from callose synthase.

  14. Disposable chemical sensors and biosensors made on cellulose paper.

    Kim, Joo-Hyung; Mun, Seongcheol; Ko, Hyun-U; Yun, Gyu-Young; Kim, Jaehwan

    2014-03-07

    Most sensors are based on ceramic or semiconducting substrates, which have no flexibility or biocompatibility. Polymer-based sensors have been the subject of much attention due to their ability to collect molecules on their sensing surface with flexibility. Beyond polymer-based sensors, the recent discovery of cellulose as a smart material paved the way to the use of cellulose paper as a potential candidate for mechanical as well as electronic applications such as actuators and sensors. Several different paper-based sensors have been investigated and suggested. In this paper, we review the potential of cellulose materials for paper-based application devices, and suggest their feasibility for chemical and biosensor applications.

  15. Disposable chemical sensors and biosensors made on cellulose paper

    Kim, Joo-Hyung; Mun, Seongcheol; Ko, Hyun-U; Yun, Gyu-Young; Kim, Jaehwan

    2014-01-01

    Most sensors are based on ceramic or semiconducting substrates, which have no flexibility or biocompatibility. Polymer-based sensors have been the subject of much attention due to their ability to collect molecules on their sensing surface with flexibility. Beyond polymer-based sensors, the recent discovery of cellulose as a smart material paved the way to the use of cellulose paper as a potential candidate for mechanical as well as electronic applications such as actuators and sensors. Several different paper-based sensors have been investigated and suggested. In this paper, we review the potential of cellulose materials for paper-based application devices, and suggest their feasibility for chemical and biosensor applications. (topical review)

  16. Rational design of a high-strength bone scaffold platform based on in situ hybridization of bacterial cellulose/nano-hydroxyapatite framework and silk fibroin reinforcing phase.

    Jiang, Pei; Ran, Jiabing; Yan, Pan; Zheng, Lingyue; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite (BC/HAp) composite had favourable bioaffinity but its poor mechanical strength limited its widespread applications in bone tissue engineering (BTE). Silk fibroin, which possesses special crystalline structure, has been widely used as organic reinforcing material, and different SFs have different amino acid sequences, which exhibit different bioaffinity and mechanical properties. In this regard, bacterial cellulose-Antheraea yamamai silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (BC-AYSF/HAp), bacterial cellulose-Bombyx mori silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (BC-BMSF/HAp), and BC/HAp nano-composites were synthesized via a novel in situ hybridization method. Compared with BC/HAp and BC-BMSF/HAp, the BC-AYSF/HAp exhibited better interpenetration, which may benefit for the transportation of nutrients and wastes, the adhesion of cells as well. Additionally, the BC-AYSF/HAp also presented superior thermal stability than the other two composites revealed by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Compression testing indicated that the mechanical strength of BC-BMSF/HAp was greatly reinforced compared with BC/HAp and was even a little higher than that of BC-AYSF/HAp. Tensile testing showed that BC-AYSF/HAp possesses extraordinary mechanical properties with a higher elastic modulus at low strain and higher fracture strength simultaneously than the other two composites. In vitro cell culture exhibited that MC3T3-E1 cells on the BC-AYSF/HAp membrane took on higher proliferative potential than those on the BC-BMSF/HAp membrane. These results suggested that compared with BC-BMSF/HAp, the BC-AYSF/HAp composite was more appropriate as an ideal bone scaffold platform or biomedical membrane to be used in BTE.

  17. The elution of erbium from a cation exchanger bed by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine triacetic acid; Mecanismo de la elucion del erbio en un cambiador cationico con el acido n-hidroxietil-etilen-diamono-triacetico

    Amer Amezaga, S

    1963-07-01

    A physicochemical study of the phenomena resulting when erbium is eluted from a cation-exchanger bed at a steady by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine-triacetic acid (HEDTA) is made. Two different retaining beds are used, a hydrogen bed, in which no ammonium passes through, and a zinc bed, which leaks ammonium ion. Good agreement between experimental and calculated values by using the equations deduced for the concentrations of the main species has been achieved, with errors around 1-2% in most of the experiments. (Author) 69 refs.

  18. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Hansen, Jason K [Idaho National Laboratory; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan [Idaho National Laboratory; Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Laboratory; Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Laboratory; Roni, MD S [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  19. Quantifying Supply Risk at a Cellulosic Biorefinery

    Hansen, Jason K.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S.

    2015-07-01

    In order to increase the sustainability and security of the nation’s energy supply, the U.S. Department of Energy through its Bioenergy Technology Office has set a vision for one billion tons of biomass to be processed for renewable energy and bioproducts annually by the year 2030. The Renewable Fuels Standard limits the amount of corn grain that can be used in ethanol conversion sold in the U.S, which is already at its maximum. Therefore making the DOE’s vision a reality requires significant growth in the advanced biofuels industry where currently three cellulosic biorefineries convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol. Risk mitigation is central to growing the industry beyond its infancy to a level necessary to achieve the DOE vision. This paper focuses on reducing the supply risk that faces a firm that owns a cellulosic biorefinery. It uses risk theory and simulation modeling to build a risk assessment model based on causal relationships of underlying, uncertain, supply driving variables. Using the model the paper quantifies supply risk reduction achieved by converting the supply chain from a conventional supply system (bales and trucks) to an advanced supply system (depots, pellets, and trains). Results imply that the advanced supply system reduces supply system risk, defined as the probability of a unit cost overrun, from 83% in the conventional system to 4% in the advanced system. Reducing cost risk in this nascent industry improves the odds of realizing desired growth.

  20. Ionic liquid processing of cellulose.

    Wang, Hui; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

    2012-02-21

    Utilization of natural polymers has attracted increasing attention because of the consumption and over-exploitation of non-renewable resources, such as coal and oil. The development of green processing of cellulose, the most abundant biorenewable material on Earth, is urgent from the viewpoints of both sustainability and environmental protection. The discovery of the dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids (ILs, salts which melt below 100 °C) provides new opportunities for the processing of this biopolymer, however, many fundamental and practical questions need to be answered in order to determine if this will ultimately be a green or sustainable strategy. In this critical review, the open fundamental questions regarding the interactions of cellulose with both the IL cations and anions in the dissolution process are discussed. Investigations have shown that the interactions between the anion and cellulose play an important role in the solvation of cellulose, however, opinions on the role of the cation are conflicting. Some researchers have concluded that the cations are hydrogen bonding to this biopolymer, while others suggest they are not. Our review of the available data has led us to urge the use of more chemical units of solubility, such as 'g cellulose per mole of IL' or 'mol IL per mol hydroxyl in cellulose' to provide more consistency in data reporting and more insight into the dissolution mechanism. This review will also assess the greenness and sustainability of IL processing of biomass, where it would seem that the choices of cation and anion are critical not only to the science of the dissolution, but to the ultimate 'greenness' of any process (142 references).

  1. Fabrication of porous ethyl cellulose microspheres based on the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system: Controlling porosity via the solvent-removal mode.

    Murakami, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Watanabe, Chie; Kurumado, Yu; Takama, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    Porous ethyl cellulose (EC) microspheres were prepared from the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system using an oil/water (O/W)-type emulsion solvent extraction method. The O/ W type emulsion was prepared using acetone dissolved ethyl cellulose as an oil phase and aqueous glycerin as a water phase. The effects of the different solvent extraction modes on the porosity of the microspheres were investigated. The specific surface area of the porous EC microspheres was estimated by the gas adsorption method. When the solvent was extracted rapidly by mixing the emulsion with water instantaneously, porous EC microspheres with a maximum specific surface area of 40.7±2.1 m2/g were obtained. On the other hand, when water was added gradually to the emulsion, the specific surface area of the fabricated microspheres decreased rapidly with an increase in the infusion period, with the area being 25-45% of the maximum value. The results of an analysis of the ternary phase diagram of the system suggested that the penetration of water and glycerin from the continuous phase to the dispersed phase before solidification affected the porosity of the fabricated EC microspheres.

  2. Formulation and Stabilization of Concentrated Edible Oil-in-Water Emulsions Based on Electrostatic Complexes of a Food-Grade Cationic Surfactant (Ethyl Lauroyl Arginate) and Cellulose Nanocrystals.

    Bai, Long; Xiang, Wenchao; Huan, Siqi; Rojas, Orlando J

    2018-05-14

    We report on high-internal-phase, oil-in-water Pickering emulsions that are stable against coalescence during storage. Viscous, edible oil (sunflower) was emulsified by combining naturally derived cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and a food-grade, biobased cationic surfactant obtained from lauric acid and L-arginine (ethyl lauroyl arginate, LAE). The interactions between CNC and LAE were elucidated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and supplementary techniques. LAE adsorption on CNC surfaces and its effect on nanoparticle electrostatic stabilization, aggregation state, and emulsifying ability was studied and related to the properties of resultant oil-in-water emulsions. Pickering systems with tunable droplet diameter and stability against oil coalescence during long-term storage were controllably achieved depending on LAE loading. The underlying stabilization mechanism was found to depend on the type of complex formed, the LAE structures adsorbed on the cellulose nanoparticles (as unimer or as adsorbed admicelles), the presence of free LAE in the aqueous phase, and the equivalent alkane number of the oil phase (sunflower and dodecane oils were compared). The results extend the potential of CNC in the formulation of high-quality and edible Pickering emulsions. The functional properties imparted by LAE, a highly effective molecule against food pathogens and spoilage organisms, open new opportunities in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical applications, where the presence of CNC plays a critical role in achieving synergistic effects with LAE.

  3. Occurrence of Cellulose-Producing Gluconacetobacter spp. in Fruit Samples and Kombucha Tea, and Production of the Biopolymer.

    Neera; Ramana, Karna Venkata; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose producing bacteria were isolated from fruit samples and kombucha tea (a fermented beverage) using CuSO4 solution in modified Watanabe and Yamanaka medium to inhibit yeasts and molds. Six bacterial strains showing cellulose production were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain DFBT, Ga. xylinus strain dfr-1, Gluconobacter oxydans strain dfr-2, G. oxydans strain dfr-3, Acetobacter orientalis strain dfr-4, and Gluconacetobacter intermedius strain dfr-5. All the cellulose-producing bacteria were checked for the cellulose yield. A potent cellulose-producing bacterium, i.e., Ga. xylinus strain DFBT based on yield (cellulose yield 5.6 g/L) was selected for further studies. Cellulose was also produced in non- conventional media such as pineapple juice medium and hydrolysed corn starch medium. A very high yield of 9.1 g/L cellulose was obtained in pineapple juice medium. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis of the bacterial cellulose showed the characteristic peaks. Soft cellulose with a very high water holding capacity was produced using limited aeration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the surface characteristics of normal bacterial cellulose and soft cellulose. The structural analysis of the polymer was performed using (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More interfibrillar space was observed in the case of soft cellulose as compared to normal cellulose. This soft cellulose can find potential applications in the food industry as it can be swallowed easily without chewing.

  4. The cellulose synthase companion proteins act non-redundantly with CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1/POM2 and CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 6

    Endler, Anne; Schneider, Rene; Kesten, Christopher; Lampugnani, Edwin R.; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is a cell wall constituent that is essential for plant growth and development, and an important raw material for a range of industrial applications. Cellulose is synthesized at the plasma membrane by massive cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes that track along cortical microtubules in elongating cells of Arabidopsis through the activity of the protein CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1 (CSI1). In a recent study we identified another family of proteins that also are associated with the ...

  5. On the determination of crystallinity and cellulose content in plant fibres

    Thygesen, Anders; Oddershede, Jette; Lilholt, Hans

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of cellulose crystallinity based on the sample crystallinity and the cellulose content in plant fibres was performed for samples of different origin. Strong acid hydrolysis was found superior to agricultural fibre analysis and comprehensive plant fibre analysis for a consistent...... determination of the cellulose content. Crystallinity determinations were based on X-ray powder diffraction methods using side-loaded samples in reflection (Bragg-Brentano) mode. Rietveld refinements based on the recently published crystal structure of cellulose I beta followed by integration of the crystalline...... and 60 - 70 g/ 100 g cellulose in wood based fibres. These findings are significant in relation to strong fibre composites and bio-ethanol production....

  6. Hesperetin-5,7,3'-O-triacetate suppresses airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged mice without reversing xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia in normal mice.

    Yang, You-Lan; Chen, Chi-Li; Chen, Chi-Ming; Ko, Wun-Chang

    2017-05-30

    We recently reported that hesperetin-5,7,3'-O-triacetate (HTA) dually inhibited phosphodiesterase (PDE)3/4 with a therapeutic ratio of 20.8. The application and development of PDE4 inhibitors for treating asthma or COPD are limited by their side effects, such as nausea, vomiting and gastric hypersecretion. PDE4 inhibitors were reported to reverse xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia in rats and triggered vomiting in ferrets. Thus the reversing effect of HTA on xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia in mice was studied to assess emetic effect of HTA. The aim of this study was to prove the therapeutic effect of HTA without vomiting effect at an effective dose for treating COPD. Ten female BALB/c mice in each group were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA) on days 0 and 14. On day 21, these mice were emphasized the sensitization by Freund's complete adjuvant. Mice were challenged by 1% OVA nebulization on days 28, 29, and 30. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was assessed on day 32 in each group, using the FlexiVent system to determine airway resistance (R L ) and lung dynamic compliance (C dyn ) in anesthetized ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and challenged mice. Each group was orally administered HTA (10 ~ 100 μmol/kg), roflumilast (1 and 5 mg/kg) or vehicles (controls) 2 h before and 6 and 24 h after OVA provocation. For comparison, sham-treated mice were challenged with saline instead of 1% OVA. The ability to reverse xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia by HTA or roflumilast for 3 h was determined in normal mice. We used roflumilast, a selective PDE4 inhibitor and bronchodilator for severe COPD approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, as a reference drug. In the results, HTA (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) or roflumilast (5 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppressed all R L values of MCh at 0.78 ~ 25 mg/mL and enhanced C dyn values of MCh at 3.125 ~ 25 mg/mL compared to OVA-sensitized and -challenged control mice. Orally administered 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg roflumilast

  7. Binding Cellulose and Chitosan via Intermolecular Inclusion Interaction: Synthesis and Characterisation of Gel

    Jiufang Duan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel cellulose-chitosan gel was successfully prepared in three steps: (1 ferrocene- (Fc- cellulose with degrees of substitution (DS of 0.5 wt% was synthesised by ferrocenecarboxylic acid and cellulose within dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride (DMAc/LiCl; (2 the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD groups were introduced onto the chitosan chains by reacting chitosan with epichlorohydrin in dimethyl sulphoxide and a DS of 0.35 wt%; (3 thus, the cellulose-chitosan gel was obtained via an intermolecular inclusion interaction of Fc-cellulose and β-CD-chitosan in DMA/LiCl, that is, by an intermolecular inclusion interaction, between the Fc groups of cellulose and the β-CD groups on the chitosan backbone at room temperature. The successful synthesis of Fc-cellulose and β-CD-chitosan was characterised by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The gel based on β-CD-chitosan and Fc-cellulose was formed under mild conditions which can engender autonomous healing between cut surfaces after 24 hours: the gel cannot self-heal while the cut surfaces were coated with a solution of a competitive guest (adamantane acid. The cellulose-chitosan complex made by this method underwent self-healing. Therefore, this study provided a novel method of expanding the application of chitosan by binding it with another polymer.

  8. Cellulose nanocrystal properties and their applications

    mahdi jonoobi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to provide an overview of recent research in the area of cellulose nonmaterials production from different sources. Due to their abundance, their renewability, high strength and stiffness, being eco-friendly, and low weight; numerous studies have been reported on the isolation of cellulose nanomaterials from different cellulosic sources and their use in high performance applications. This work covers an introduction into the nano cellulose definition as well as used methods for isolation of nanomaterials (nanocrystals from various sources. The rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNC can be isolated from sources like wood, plant fibers, agriculture and industrial bio residues, tunicates, and bacterial cellulose using acid hydrolysis process. Following this, the paper focused on characterization methods, materials properties and structure. The current review is a comprehensive literature regarding the nano cellulose isolation and demonstrates the potential of cellulose nanomaterials to be used in a wide range of high-tech applications.

  9. Cellulose nanocrystal submonolayers by spin coating

    Kontturi, E.J.; Johansson, L.S.; Kontturi, K.S.; Ahonen, P.; Thune, P.C.; Laine, J.

    2007-01-01

    Dilute concentrations of cellulose nanocrystal solutions were spin coated onto different substrates to investigate the effect of the substrate on the nanocrystal submonolayers. Three substrates were probed: silica, titania, and amorphous cellulose. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM) images,

  10. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    Samaneh Sadat Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4 D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family.

  11. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    Maleki, Samaneh Sadat; Mohammadi, Kourosh; Ji, Kong-shu

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4) D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family. PMID:27314060

  12. A Molecular Description of Cellulose Biosynthesis

    McNamara, Joshua T.; Morgan, Jacob L.W.; Zimmer, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, and certain organisms from bacteria to plants and animals synthesize cellulose as an extracellular polymer for various biological functions. Humans have used cellulose for millennia as a material and an energy source, and the advent of a lignocellulosic fuel industry will elevate it to the primary carbon source for the burgeoning renewable energy sector. Despite the biological and societal importance of cellulose, the molecular mechanism by which it is synthesized is now only beginning to emerge. On the basis of recent advances in structural and molecular biology on bacterial cellulose synthases, we review emerging concepts of how the enzymes polymerize glucose molecules, how the nascent polymer is transported across the plasma membrane, and how bacterial cellulose biosynthesis is regulated during biofilm formation. Additionally, we review evolutionary commonalities and differences between cellulose synthases that modulate the nature of the cellulose product formed. PMID:26034894

  13. Raman spectroscopy in the analysis of cellulose nanomaterials

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials (CNs) are new types of materials derived from celluloses and offer unique challenges and opportunities for Raman spectroscopic investigations. CNs can be classified into the categories of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs, also known as cellulose whisker) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs, also known as nanofibrillated cellulose or NFCs) which when...

  14. Evaluating the effect of potassium on cellulose pyrolysis reaction kinetics

    Trendewicz, Anna; Evans, Robert; Dutta, Abhijit; Sykes, Robert; Carpenter, Daniel; Braun, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes modifications to an existing cellulose pyrolysis mechanism in order to include the effect of potassium on product yields and composition. The changes in activation energies and pre-exponential factors due to potassium were evaluated based on the experimental data collected from pyrolysis of cellulose samples treated with different levels of potassium (0–1% mass fraction). The experiments were performed in a pyrolysis reactor coupled to a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS). Principal component analysis (PCA) performed on the collected data revealed that cellulose pyrolysis products could be divided into two groups: anhydrosugars and other fragmentation products (hydroxyacetaldehyde, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, acetyl compounds). Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) was used to extract the time resolved concentration score profiles of principal components. Kinetic tests revealed that potassium apparently inhibits the formation of anhydrosugars and catalyzes char formation. Therefore, the oil yield predicted at 500 ° C decreased from 87.9% from cellulose to 54.0% from cellulose with 0.5% mass fraction potassium treatment. The decrease in oil yield was accompanied by increased yield of char and gases produced via a catalyzed dehydration reaction. The predicted char and gas yield from cellulose were 3.7% and 8.4%, respectively. Introducing 0.5% mass fraction potassium treatment resulted in an increase of char yield to 12.1% and gas yield to 33.9%. The validation of the cellulose pyrolysis mechanism with experimental data from a fluidized-bed reactor, after this correction for potassium, showed good agreement with our results, with differences in product yields of up to 5%

  15. Probing crystallinity of never-dried wood cellulose with Raman spectroscopy

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Richard S. Reiner; Carlos Baez

    2016-01-01

    The structure of wood cell wall cellulose in its native state remains poorly understood, limiting the progress of research and development in numerous areas, including plant science, biofuels, and nanocellulose based materials. It is generally believed that cellulose in cell wall microfibrils has both crystalline and amorphous regions. However, there is evidence that...

  16. Physical and mechanical testing of essential oil-embedded cellulose ester films

    Polymer films made from cellulose esters are useful for embedding plant essential oils, either for food packaging or air freshener applications. Studies and testing were done on the physical and mechanical properties of cellulose ester-based films incorporating essential oils (EO) from lemongrass (C...

  17. Synthesis and Swelling Behavior of pH-Sensitive Semi-IPN Superabsorbent Hydrogels Based on Poly(acrylic acid Reinforced with Cellulose Nanocrystals

    Lim Sze Lim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available pH-sensitive poly(acrylic acid (PAA hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC was prepared. Acrylic acid (AA was subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent MBA (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide with CNC entrapped in the PAA matrix. The quantity of CNC was varied between 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt %. X-ray diffraction (XRD data showed an increase in crystallinity with the addition of CNC, while rheology tests demonstrated a significant increase in the storage modulus of the hydrogel with an increase in CNC content. It was found that the hydrogel reached maximum swelling at pH 7. The potential of the resulting hydrogels to act as drug carriers was then evaluated by means of the drug encapsulation efficiency test using theophylline as a model drug. It was observed that 15% CNC/PAA hydrogel showed the potential to be used as drug carrier system.

  18. Hydrodeoxygenation of the angelica lactone dimer, a cellulose-based feedstock: simple, high-yield synthesis of branched C7 -C10 gasoline-like hydrocarbons.

    Mascal, Mark; Dutta, Saikat; Gandarias, Inaki

    2014-02-10

    Dehydration of biomass-derived levulinic acid under solid acid catalysis and treatment of the resulting angelica lactone with catalytic K2 CO3 produces the angelica lactone dimer in excellent yield. This dimer serves as a novel feedstock for hydrodeoxygenation, which proceeds under relatively mild conditions with a combination of oxophilic metal and noble metal catalysts to yield branched C7 -C10 hydrocarbons in the gasoline volatility range. Considering that levulinic acid is available in >80 % conversion from raw biomass, a field-to-tank yield of drop-in, cellulosic gasoline of >60 % is possible. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Influence of pH on Cr(VI) ions removal from aqueous solutions using carboxymethyl cellulose-based hydrogel as adsorbent

    Anah, L.; Astrini, N.

    2017-03-01

    The major problem in heavy metal pollution is that these metals are not biodegradable and accordingly accumulate in the bodies of living organisms, causing dangerous diseases and serious cell disorder. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the long term exposure of Cr(VI) levels of over 0.1 ppm causes respiratory problems, liver and kidney damage, and carcinogenicity.Due to its easy operation and of various cheap adsorbents development, adsorption has been proved to be efficient and most economically attractive technique and feasible to the removal of toxic heavy metal from wastewater. The study aimed to report the removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions through adsorption process using carboxymethyl cellulose-graft-poly(acrylic acid) (CMC-g-PAA) hydrogel as adsorbent.Effect of pH was studied to remove hexavalent chromium.Graft copolymerization of poly(acrylic acid) onto carboxymethyl cellulose was carried out in the presence of benzoyl peroxide redox initiator and methylenbisacrylamide as crosslinker agent. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effects ofinitial pH.The adsorption of Cr(VI) ions as a function of pH was conducted in the initial pH range of 1 to 8. The results indicated that acidic pH strongly favored the adsorption. The optimum pH for adsorption of Cr(VI) ranged from 1 to 3, and the maximum uptake of Cr(VI) from the solution was 6.53 mg/g at pH 1 and 30°C. FTIR spectroscopy, SEM analyses were performed on the adsorbent before and after Cr(VI) binding. All analyses confirmed the complexation of Cr(VI) ions on the adsorbent.

  20. Properties of microcrystalline cellulose obtained from coconut ...

    The study revealed that the cellulose material compares favourably with Avicel PH 101 as well as official requirement specified in the British Pharmacopoeia 1993 for microcrystalline cellulose. Keywords: Coconut fruit fibre, microcrystalline cellulose, powder properties. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol. 3 (1) 2006: ...

  1. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent

  2. Bioengineering cellulose-hemicellulose networks in plants

    Obembe, O.

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between cellulose and hemicellulose in the cell walls are important in the industrial application of the cellulose (natural) fibres. We strive to modify these interactions (i) by interfering with cellulose biosynthesis and (ii) by direct interference of the

  3. Regioselective Synthesis of Cellulose Ester Homopolymers

    Daiqiang Xu; Kristen Voiges; Thomas Elder; Petra Mischnick; Kevin J. Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Regioselective synthesis of cellulose esters is extremely difficult due to the small reactivity differences between cellulose hydroxyl groups, small differences in steric demand between acyl moieties of interest, and the difficulty of attaching and detaching many protecting groups in the presence of cellulose ester moieties without removing the ester groups. Yet the...

  4. 21 CFR 172.870 - Hydroxypropyl cellulose.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydroxypropyl cellulose. 172.870 Section 172.870... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.870 Hydroxypropyl cellulose. The food additive hydroxypropyl cellulose may be safely used in food, except standardized foods that do not provide for such use, in...

  5. Cellulose nanomaterials review: structure, properties and nanocomposites

    Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini; John Nairn; John Simonsen; Jeff Youngblood

    2011-01-01

    This critical review provides a processing-structure-property perspective on recent advances in cellulose nanoparticles and composites produced from them. It summarizes cellulose nanoparticles in terms of particle morphology, crystal structure, and properties. Also described are the self-assembly and rheological properties of cellulose nanoparticle suspensions. The...

  6. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Isik, Mehmet; Sardon, Haritz; Mecerreyes, David

    2014-01-01

    Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels. PMID:25000264

  7. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Mehmet Isik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels.

  8. A Sorption Hysteresis Model For Cellulosic Materials

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The equilibrium concentration of adsorbed water in cellulosic materials is dependent on the history of the variations of vapor pressure in the ambient air, i.e. sorption hysteresis. Existing models to describe this phenomenon such as the independent domain theory have numerical drawbacks and....../or imply accounting for the entire history variations of every material point. This paper presents a sorption hysteresis model based on a state formulation and expressed in closed-form solutions, which makes it suitable for implementation into a numerical method....

  9. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phelps, T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  10. Direct conversion of cellulose to glycolic acid with a phosphomolybdic acid catalyst in a water medium

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2012-08-03

    Direct conversion of cellulose to fine chemicals has rarely been achieved. We describe here an eco-benign route for directly converting various cellulose-based biomasses to glycolic acid in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere in which heteromolybdic acids act as multifunctional catalysts to catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose, the fragmentation of monosaccharides, and the selective oxidation of fragmentation products. With commercial α-cellulose powder as the substrate, the yield of glycolic acid reaches 49.3%. This catalytic system is also effective with raw cellulosic biomass, such as bagasse or hay, as the starting materials, giving rise to remarkable glycolic acid yields of ∼30%. Our heteropoly acid-based catalyst can be recovered in solid form after reaction by distilling out the products and solvent for reuse, and it exhibits consistently high performance in multiple reaction runs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Ignition inhibitors for cellulosic materials

    Alvares, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    By exposing samples to various irradiance levels from a calibrated thermal radiation source, the ignition responses of blackened alpha-cellulose and cotton cloth with and without fire-retardant additives were compared. Samples treated with retardant compounds which showed the most promise were then isothermally pyrolyzed in air for comparisons between the pyrolysis rates. Alpha-cellulose samples containing a mixture of boric acid, borax, and ammonium di-hydrogen phosphate could not be ignited by irradiances up to 4.0 cal cm -2 s-1 (16.7 W/cm 2 ). At higher irradiances the specimens ignited, but flaming lasted only until the flammable gases were depleted. Cotton cloth containing a polymeric retardant with the designation THPC + MM was found to be ignition-resistant to all irradiances below 7.0 cal cm -2 s -1 (29.3 W/cm 2 ). Comparison of the pyrolysis rates of the retardant-treated alpha-cellulose and the retardant-treated cotton showed that the retardant mechanism is qualitatively the same. Similar ignition-response measurements were also made with specimens exposed to ionizing radiation. It was observed that gamma radiation results in ignition retardance of cellulose, while irradiation by neutrons does not

  12. Polyvinyl alcohol–cellulose composite

    We have made an attempt to prepare taste sensor material by using functionalized polymer without any lipid. PVA–cellulose composite has been modified to use as the sensor material. The research work covers polymer membrane preparation, morphology study and structural characterization of the membrane and study of ...

  13. Irradiation effects in wood and cellulose

    McLaren, K.G.

    1976-01-01

    For cellulosic materials the predominant effect of high energy radiation is depolymerisation and degradation by chain scission, although there is some evidence that crosslinking or cellulose stabilisation can occur under certain conditions. When the cellulose is in the form of a natural product such as wood, where it is intimately associated with other polysaccharides, lignins, resins and gums, the effects of radiation can be significantly modified. Examination of cellulose produced by chemical pulping treatment of wood which had been previously given small doses of radiation, showed significant differences in the extent of cellulose depolymerisation with different wood species. The relevance of this work to the paper pulp industry will also be discussed. (author)

  14. The Effects of Montmorillonite and Cellulose Nanocrystals on Physical Properties of Carboxymethyl Cellulose/Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend Films

    Leila Abolghasemi Fakhri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanocrystal  CNC is a type of nanomaterial which is produced by  partial hydrolysis of cellulose and elimination of its amorphous regions. CNC has several advantages such as biodegradability and safety toward human health. In this study, CNC was produced from cotton linters and methods such as transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used for confrmation of nanoscale  size production of cellulose crystals. Carboxymethyl cellulose  CMC/polyvinyl alcohol  PVA-nanoclay  MMT and CMC-PVA-CNC flms, containing 3-10% (wt/wt CMC nanofllers, were prepared by casting method and their physical properties were compared in order to approve the use of CNC instead of MMT for its contribution in improving the physical properties of carboxymethyl cellulose-based  flms.  The  X-ray  diffraction  results  indicated  the  formation  of  an exfoliated nanostructure at all nanoparticle concentrations. The results showed that there was no signifcant difference (p < 0.5 between the moisture absorption properties of flms containing the two types of nanofller. The flms containing nanoclay showed higher mechanical strength compared to those containing CNC. The ultimate tensile strengths of the flms containing 10% nanoclay and CNC were higher than the control flm (69.72% and 47.05%, respectively.

  15. Enzymatic degradation of plutonium-contaminated cellulose products

    Heintz, C.E.; Rainwater, K.A.; Swift, L.M.; Barnes, D.L.; Worl, L.; Avens, L.

    1999-01-01

    Enzyme solutions produced for commercial purposes unrelated to waste management have the potential for reducing the volume of wastes in streams containing cellulose, lipid and protein materials. For example, the authors have shown that cellulases used in denim production and in detergent formulations are able to digest cellulose-containing sorbents and other cellulose-based wastes contaminated either with crude oil or with radionuclides. This presentation describes the use of one such enzyme preparation (Rapidase trademark) for the degradation of cotton sorbents intentionally contaminated with low levels of plutonium. This is part of a feasibility study to determine if such treatments have a role in reducing the volume of low level and transuranic wastes to minimize the amount of radionuclide-contaminated waste that must be disposed of in secured storage areas

  16. Enzymatic degradation of plutonium-contaminated cellulose products

    Heintz, C.E.; Rainwater, K.A.; Swift, L.M.; Barnes, D.L.; Worl, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Enzyme solutions produced for commercial purposes unrelated to waste management have the potential for reducing the volume of wastes in streams containing cellulose, lipid and protein materials. For example, the authors have shown previously that cellulases used in denim production and in detergent formulations are able to digest cellulose-containing sorbents and other cellulose-based wastes contaminated either with crude oil or with uranium. This presentation describes the use of one such enzyme preparation (Rapidase trademark, manufactured by Genencor, Rochester, NY) for the degradation of cotton sorbents intentionally contaminated with low levels of plutonium. This is part of a feasibility study to determine if such treatments have a role in reducing the volume of low level and transuranic wastes to minimize the amount of radionuclide-contaminated waste destined for costly disposal options

  17. MICROBIAL FERMENTATION OF ABUNDANT BIOPOLYMERS: CELLULOSE AND CHITIN

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31

    that the chitinase and cellulase systems of this bacterium are distinct in terms of the proteins involved and the regulation of their production. 4. Characterization of the chitinase system of C. uda. A 70,000-Mr endochitinase, designated ChiA, was purified from C. uda culture supernatant fluids and characterized. 5. Analysis of chiA, which codes for the major enzymatic component of the chitinase system of C. uda. The gene encoding the endochitinase ChiA in C. uda was cloned, its complete nucleotide sequence was determined and its implications were investigated. 6. Formation of biofilms by C. uda on cellulose and chitin. Microscopic observations indicated that, under conditions of nitrogen limitation, C. uda cells grew as a biofilm attached tightly to the surface of cellulose or chitin. 7. Development of tools for a genetic approach to studies of cellulose fermentation by cellulolytic clostridia. We have explored the potential of various techniques, and obtained evidence indicating that Tn916 mutagenesis may be particularly effective in this regard. As part of this research, we identified the presence of a plasmid in one strain, which was cloned, sequenced, and analyzed for its utility in the development of vectors for genetic studies. 8. Effects of humic substances on cellulose degradation by anaerobic cellulolytic microbes. We determined that humic substances play an important role in the anaerobic cellulose decomposition and in the physiology of cellulose-fermenting soil bacteria. 9. Nitrogenases of cellulolytic clostridia. We described a nitrogenase gene from a cellulolytic clostridium and presented evidence, based on sequence analyses and conserved gene order, for lateral gene transfer between this bacterium and a methanogenic archaeon. 10. Characterization of Clostridium hungatei, a new N2-fixing cellulolytic species isolated from a methanogenic consortium from soil. 11. Understanding the molecular architecture of the multicomplex cellulase-xylanase system of

  18. Structure and engineering of celluloses.

    Pérez, Serge; Samain, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This chapter collates the developments and conclusions of many of the extensive studies that have been conducted on cellulose, with particular emphasis on the structural and morphological features while not ignoring the most recent results derived from the elucidation of unique biosynthetic pathways. The presentation of structural and morphological data gathered together in this chapter follows the historical development of our knowledge of the different structural levels of cellulose and its various organizational levels. These levels concern features such as chain conformation, chain polarity, chain association, crystal polarity, and microfibril structure and organization. This chapter provides some historical landmarks related to the evolution of concepts in the field of biopolymer science, which parallel the developments of novel methods for characterization of complex macromolecular structures. The elucidation of the different structural levels of organization opens the way to relating structure to function and properties. The chemical and biochemical methods that have been developed to dissolve and further modify cellulose chains are briefly covered. Particular emphasis is given to the facets of topochemistry and topoenzymology where the morphological features play a key role in determining unique physicochemical properties. A final chapter addresses what might be considered tomorrow's goal in amplifying the economic importance of cellulose in the context of sustainable development. Selected examples illustrate the types of result that can be obtained when cellulose fibers are no longer viewed as inert substrates, and when the polyhydroxyl nature of their surfaces, as well as their entire structural complexity, are taken into account. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization, thermal stability, and antimicrobial activity of cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites

    Li, Shu-Ming; Fu, Lian-Hua; Ma, Ming-Guo; Zhu, Jie-Fang; Sun, Run-Cang; Xu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    By means of a simultaneous microwave-assisted method and a simple chemical reaction, cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized using cellulose solution and AgNO 3 in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) solvent. The cellulose solution was firstly prepared by the dissolution of the microcrystalline cellulose and lithium chloride (LiCl) in DMAc. DMAc acts as both a solvent and a microwave absorber. LiCl was used as the reactant to fabricate AgCl crystals. The effects of the heating time and heating temperature on the products were studied. This method is based on the simultaneous formation of AgCl nanoparticles and precipitation of the cellulose, leading to a homogeneous distribution of AgCl nanoparticles in the cellulose matrix. The experimental results confirmed the formation of cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites with high-purity, good thermal stability and antimicrobial activity. This rapid, green and environmentally friendly microwave-assisted method opens a new window to the high value-added applications of biomass. -- Highlights: ► Cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites have been synthesized by microwave method. ► Effect of heating temperature on the nanocomposites was researched. ► Thermal stability of the nanocomposites was investigated. ► Cellulose/AgCl nanocomposites had good antimicrobial activity. ► This method is based on the simultaneous formation of AgCl and cellulose.

  20. Mechanistic studies of the alkaline degradation of cellulose in cement

    Greenfield, B.F.; Robertson, G.P.; Spindler, M.W.; Harrison, W.N.; Somers, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    The alkaline degradation of cellulose-based materials under conditions simulating those of a deep underground radioactive waste repository has been investigated. A number of key degradation products, of which 2-C-(hydroxymethyl)-3-deoxy-D-pentonic acid (isosaccharinic acid) is the most important, have been synthesised, and the solubilities of their plutonium complexes have been determined. Analysis of leachates of anaerobically degraded cellulose has shown concentrations of organic acids which are broadly consistent with the enhanced plutonium solubilities found in these leachates. Reaction mechanisms have been identified that can lead to isosaccharinic acid production by non-oxidative transformations, which may be catalysed by some divalent cations. (Author)

  1. Elucidating the Potential Biological Impact of Cellulose Nanocrystals

    Sandra Camarero-Espinosa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanocrystals exhibit an interesting combination of mechanical properties and physical characteristics, which make them potentially useful for a wide range of consumer applications. However, as the usage of these bio-based nanofibers increases, a greater understanding of human exposure addressing their potential health issues should be gained. The aim of this perspective is to highlight how knowledge obtained from studying the biological impact of other nanomaterials can provide a basis for future research strategies to deduce the possible human health risks posed by cellulose nanocrystals.

  2. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  3. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  4. Printed optically transparent graphene cellulose electrodes

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas; Andrushchenko, Anatoly

    2016-02-01

    Optically transparent electrodes are a key component in variety of products including bioelectronics, touch screens, flexible displays, low emissivity windows, and photovoltaic cells. Although highly conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films are often used in these electrode applications, the raw material is very expensive and the electrodes often fracture when mechanically stressed. An alternative low-cost material for inkjet printing transparent electrodes on glass and flexible polymer substrates is described in this paper. The water based ink is created by using a hydrophilic cellulose derivative, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), to help suspend the naturally hydrophobic graphene (G) sheets in a solvent composed of 70% DI water and 30% 2-butoxyethanol. The CMC chain has hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional sites which allow adsorption on G sheets and, therefore, permit the graphene to be stabilized in water by electrostatic and steric forces. Once deposited on the functionalized substrate the electrical conductivity of the printed films can be "tuned" by decomposing the cellulose stabilizer using thermal reduction. The entire electrode can be thermally reduced in an oven or portions of the electrode thermally modified using a laser annealing process. The thermal process can reduce the sheet resistance of G-CMC films to < 100 Ω/sq. Experimental studies show that the optical transmittance and sheet resistance of the G-CMC conductive electrode is a dependent on the film thickness (ie. superimposed printed layers). The printed electrodes have also been doped with AuCl3 to increase electrical conductivity without significantly increasing film thickness and, thereby, maintain high optical transparency.

  5. Cellulose whisker/epoxy resin nanocomposites.

    Tang, Liming; Weder, Christoph

    2010-04-01

    New nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanofibers or "whiskers" and an epoxy resin were prepared. Cellulose whiskers with aspect ratios of approximately 10 and approximately 84 were isolated from cotton and sea animals called tunicates, respectively. Suspensions of these whiskers in dimethylformamide were combined with an oligomeric difunctional diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with an epoxide equivalent weight of 185-192 and a diethyl toluenediamine-based curing agent. Thin films were produced by casting these mixtures and subsequent curing. The whisker content was systematically varied between 4 and 24% v/v. Electron microscopy studies suggest that the whiskers are evenly dispersed within the epoxy matrix. Dynamic mechanical thermoanalysis revealed that the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the materials was not significantly influenced by the incorporation of the cellulose filler. Between room temperature and 150 degrees C, i.e., below T(g), the tensile storage moduli (E') of the nanocomposites increased modestly, for example from 1.6 GPa for the neat polymer to 4.9 and 3.6 GPa for nanocomposites comprising 16% v/v tunicate or cotton whiskers. The relative reinforcement was more significant at 185 degrees C (i.e., above T(g)), where E' was increased from approximately 16 MPa (neat polymer) to approximately 1.6 GPa (tunicate) or approximately 215 MPa (cotton). The mechanical properties of the new materials are well-described by the percolation model and are the result of the formation of a percolating whisker network in which stress transfer is facilitated by strong interactions between the whiskers.

  6. Self-Assembled Polymeric Ionic Liquid-Functionalized Cellulose Nano-crystals: Constructing 3D Ion-conducting Channels Within Ionic Liquid-based Composite Polymer Electrolytes.

    Shi, Qing Xuan; Xia, Qing; Xiang, Xiao; Ye, Yun Sheng; Peng, Hai Yan; Xue, Zhi Gang; Xie, Xiao Lin; Mai, Yiu-Wing

    2017-09-04

    Composite polymeric and ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes are some of the most promising electrolyte systems for safer battery technology. Although much effort has been directed towards enhancing the transport properties of polymer electrolytes (PEs) through nanoscopic modification by incorporating nano-fillers, it is still difficult to construct ideal ion conducting networks. Here, a novel class of three-dimensional self-assembled polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-functionalized cellulose nano-crystals (CNC) confining ILs in surface-grafted PIL polymer chains, able to form colloidal crystal polymer electrolytes (CCPE), is reported. The high-strength CNC nano-fibers, decorated with PIL polymer chains, can spontaneously form three-dimensional interpenetrating nano-network scaffolds capable of supporting electrolytes with continuously connected ion conducting networks with IL being concentrated in conducting domains. These new CCPE have exceptional ionic conductivities, low activation energies (close to bulk IL electrolyte with dissolved Li salt), high Li + transport numbers, low interface resistances and improved interface compatibilities. Furthermore, the CCPE displays good electrochemical properties and a good battery performance. This approach offers a route to leak-free, non-flammable and high ionic conductivity solid-state PE in energy conversion devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Films Based on Poly(lactic acid Biopolymer: Effect of Clay and Cellulosic Nanoparticles on their Physical, Mechanical and Structural Properties

    Saeed Dadashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical, mechanical and structural properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA-basedfilms containing different amounts of nanoclay and cellulose prepared bysolvent casting method were examined. Physical properties including thickness,transparency and color did not change significantly with addition of nanoparticles to the polymer matrix. X-Ray diffraction (XRD patterns showed that pure PLA has a semi-crystalline structure and addition of nanoclay into this polymer would produce more regular structure which results in improved crystallization. It also showed that the peak is shifted to lower degrees, with greater interlayer distance of nanoclay giving an intercalated structure. Because of the nature and particle size of the MCC, it did not interact sufficiently with the polymer. Tensile strength, elastic modulus andelongation-at-break of neat PLA were 27.44 MPa, 1.84 GPa and 24.53% which with the addition of 7% of nanoclay, was changed to 40.34, 2.62 and 10.36°C, respectively. As the results of XRD, MCC were indications of no significant effect on mechanical properties, AFM images were used to evaluate the surface morphology and roughness of PLA films. Neat PLA had smoother surfaces and a lower roughness parameter (Sa. This study indicates that PLA has acceptable properties which could be used forpackaging and other applications.

  8. Electrospun Poly(lactic acid)-Based Fibrous Nanocomposite Reinforced by Cellulose Nanocrystals: Impact of Fiber Uniaxial Alignment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties.

    Huan, Siqi; Liu, Guoxiang; Cheng, Wanli; Han, Guangping; Bai, Long

    2018-03-12

    Uniform poly(lactic acid)/cellulose nanocrystal (PLA/CNC) fibrous mats composed of either random or aligned fibers reinforced with up to 20 wt % CNCs were successfully produced by two different electrospinning processes. Various concentrations of CNCs could be stably dispersed in PLA solution prior to fiber manufacture. The microstructure of produced fibrous mats, regardless of random or aligned orientation, was transformed from smooth to nanoporous surface by changing CNC loading levels. Aligning process through secondary stretching during high-speed collection can also affect the porous structure of fibers. With the same CNC loading, fibrous mats produced with aligned fibers had higher degree of crystallinity than that of fibers with random structure. The thermal properties and mechanical performances of PLA/CNC fibrous mats can be enhanced, showing better enhancement effect of aligned fibrous structure. This results from a synergistic effect of the increased crystallinity of fibers, the efficient stress transfer from PLA to CNCs, and the ordered arrangement of electrospun fibers in the mats. This research paves a way for developing an electrospinning system that can manufacture high-performance CNC-enhanced PLA fibrous nanocomposites.

  9. Early summer precipitation in the lower Yangtze River basin for AD 1845-2011 based on tree-ring cellulose oxygen isotopes

    Xu, Chenxi; Shi, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Yesi; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Shi, Shiyuan; Guo, Zhengtang

    2018-04-01

    Precipitation from June to August is generally used to reflect the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) variability. However, the principal modes of the EASM rainfall are different between May-June (MJ) and July-August due to the seasonal march of East Asian subtropical front. Therefore, it is necessary to study them separately. In this study, we reconstruct a 167-year MJ precipitation time series using tree-ring cellulose δ18O that explains 46.9% of the variance in the lower Yangtze River basin, Southeast China, that extends the meteorological data back more than 100 years and makes the precipitation study at decadal scales possible. The decades with 5 or more anomalously dry or wet years are the 1880s, 1890s, and 1910s, and the 1980s and 2000s have only one anomalous year per decade. MJ precipitation shows a significantly negative relationship with absolute Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature, especially during the developing phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation, indicating that there is less rainfall during El Niño events. However, the relationship is not uniform throughout the period. Further analyses show that it is stronger when the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is in its positive phases.

  10. Cellulose acetate-based SiO2/TiO2 hybrid microsphere composite aerogel films for water-in-oil emulsion separation

    Yang, Xue; Ma, Jianjun; Ling, Jing; Li, Na; Wang, Di; Yue, Fan; Xu, Shimei

    2018-03-01

    The cellulose acetate (CA)/SiO2-TiO2 hybrid microsphere composite aerogel films were successfully fabricated via water vapor-induced phase inversion of CA solution and simultaneous hydrolysis/condensation of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) at room temperature. Micro-nano hierarchical structure was constructed on the surface of the film. The film could separate nano-sized surfactant-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions only under gravity. The flux of the film for the emulsion separation was up to 667 L m-2 h-1, while the separation efficiency was up to 99.99 wt%. Meanwhile, the film exhibited excellent stability during multiple cycles. Moreover, the film performed excellent photo-degradation performance under UV light due to the photocatalytic ability of TiO2. Facile preparation, good separation and potential biodegradation maked the CA/SiO2-TiO2 hybrid microsphere composite aerogel films a candidate in oil/water separation application.

  11. Comparison of Tensile, Permeability and Color Properties of Starch-based Bionanocomposites Containing Two Types of Fillers: Sodium Montmorilonite and Cellulose Nanocrystal

    Nooshin Noushirvani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the tensile, permeability, solubility and color properties of plasticized starch-polyvinyl alcohol-Montmo-rillonite (PS-PVA-MMT and plasticized starch-polyvinyl alcohol-cellulose nanocrystal (PS-PVA-NCC bionanocomposite flms. The results showed that adding MMT (7%, increased the ultimate tensile strenght from 4.2 MPa to 4.61 MPa, however, NCC (7% did not show signifcant (p < 0.5 effect on the ultimate tensile strength. Addition of MMT decreased while NCC  increased  the  strain-to-break of  the flms. The solubility in water decreased from 23.56% to 18.77% and 11.75% for the flms containing NCC and MMT, respectively. Similarly, water vapor permeability value of 7.41 ×10-7 g/m.h.Pa was dropped to 7.05×10-7 g/m.h.Pa and 6.19×10-7 g/m.h.Pa in flms containing NCC and MMT, respectively. The results showed that the effects of MMT on tensile and permeability were higher than NCC, which can be attributed to differences in the structure and hydrophilicity of two nanoparticles.

  12. Active bio-based food-packaging: Diffusion and release of active substances through and from cellulose nanofiber coating toward food-packaging design.

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Guillard, Valérie; Desloges, Isabelle; Gontard, Nathalie; Bras, Julien

    2016-09-20

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were recently investigated for the elaboration of new functional food-packaging materials. Their nanoporous network was especially of interest for controlling the release of active species. Qualitative release studies were conducted, but quantification of the diffusion phenomenon observed when the active species are released from and through CNF coating has not yet been studied. Therefore, this work aims to model CNF-coated paper substrates as controlled release system for food-packaging using release data obtained for two model molecules, namely caffeine and chlorhexidine digluconate. The applied mathematical model - derived from Fickian diffusion - was validated for caffeine only. When the active species chemically interacts with the release device, another model is required as a non-predominantly diffusion-controlled release was observed. From caffeine modeling data, a theoretical active food-packaging material was designed. The use of CNFs as barrier coating was proved to be the ideal material configuration that best meets specifications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Anaerobic biodegradation of cellulosic material: Batch experiments and modelling based on isotopic data and focusing on aceticlastic and non-aceticlastic methanogenesis

    Qu, X.; Vavilin, V.A.; Mazeas, L.; Lemunier, M.; Duquennoi, C.; He, P.-J.; Bouchez, T.

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing stable carbon isotope data to account for aceticlastic and non-aceticlastic pathways of methane generation, a model was created to describe laboratory batch anaerobic decomposition of cellulosic materials (office paper and cardboard). The total organic and inorganic carbon concentrations, methane production volume, and methane and CO 2 partial pressure values were used for the model calibration and validation. According to the fluorescent in situ hybridization observations, three groups of methanogens including strictly hydrogenotrophic methanogens, strictly aceticlastic methanogens (Methanosaeta sp.) and Methanosarcina sp., consuming both acetate and H 2 /H 2 CO 3 as well as acetate-oxidizing syntrophs, were considered. It was shown that temporary inhibition of aceticlastic methanogens by non-ionized volatile fatty acids or acidic pH was responsible for two-step methane production from office paper at 35 o C where during the first and second steps methane was generated mostly from H 2 /H 2 CO 3 and acetate, respectively. Water saturated and unsaturated cases were tested. According to the model, at the intermediate moisture (150%), much lower methane production occurred because of full-time inhibition of aceticlastic methanogens. At the lowest moisture, methane production was very low because most likely hydrolysis was seriously inhibited. Simulations showed that during cardboard and office paper biodegradation at 55 o C, non-aceticlastic syntrophic oxidation by acetate-oxidizing syntrophs and hydrogenotrophic methanogens were the dominant methanogenic pathways.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity analysis of a novel cellulose based drug carrier for the controlled delivery of 5-fluorouracil, an anticancer drug

    Anirudhan, Thayyath S.; Nima, Jayachandran; Divya, Peethambaran L.

    2015-11-01

    The present investigation concerns the development and evaluation of a novel drug delivery system, aminated-glycidylmethacrylate grafted cellulose-grafted polymethacrylic acid-succinyl cyclodextrin (Cell-g-(GMA/en)-PMA-SCD) for the controlled release of 5-Fluorouracil, an anticancer drug. The prepared drug carrier was characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM techniques. Binding kinetics and isotherm studies of 5-FU onto Cell-g-(GMA/en)-PMA-SCD were found to follow pseudo-second-order and Langmuir model respectively. Maximum binding capacity of drug carrier was found to be 149.09 mg g-1 at 37 °C. Swelling studies, in vitro release kinetics, drug loading efficiency and encapsulation efficiency of Cell-g-(GMA/en)-PMA-SCD were studied. The release kinetics was analyzed using Ritger-Peppas equation at pH 7.4. Cytotoxicity analysis on MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma) cells indicated that the drug carrier shows sustained and controlled release of drug to the target site. Hence, it is evident from this investigation that Cell-g-(GMA/en)-PMA-SCD could be a promising carrier for 5-FU.

  15. Using cellulose nanofiber as filler of urea formaldehyde resin in plywood manufacture

    samira barzali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, physical and mechanical properties of poplar (Populus nigra plywood made by urea-formaldehyde resin along with nano fiber cellulose were studied. For this reason, the nanofiber cellulose as filler at five levels 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7% based on oven dry weight of resin were used. Physical and mechanical properties of the samples, including water absorption and thickness swelling after 2 and 24 hours immersion in water, bending strength and modulus of elasticity (parallel and perpendicular to surface grain and bonding shear strength were measured. The results showed that increasing the amount of nano fiber cellulose improved the dimentional stability of the boards. Also increasing the amount of nano fiber cellulose increases the bending strength and modulus of elasticity parallel to surface grain. On the other hand, increasing the amount of nano fiber cellulose increases the bonding shear strength but no significant differences observed between the different treatments.

  16. A Gibberellin-Mediated DELLA-NAC Signaling Cascade Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Rice[OPEN

    Huang, Debao; Wang, Shaogan; Zhang, Baocai; Shang-Guan, Keke; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Xiangling; Wu, Kun; Xu, Zuopeng; Fu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Yihua

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose, which can be converted into numerous industrial products, has important impacts on the global economy. It has long been known that cellulose synthesis in plants is tightly regulated by various phytohormones. However, the underlying mechanism of cellulose synthesis regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that in rice (Oryza sativa), gibberellin (GA) signals promote cellulose synthesis by relieving the interaction between SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor of GA signaling, and NACs, the top-layer transcription factors for secondary wall formation. Mutations in GA-related genes and physiological treatments altered the transcription of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE genes (CESAs) and the cellulose level. Multiple experiments demonstrated that transcription factors NAC29/31 and MYB61 are CESA regulators in rice; NAC29/31 directly regulates MYB61, which in turn activates CESA expression. This hierarchical regulation pathway is blocked by SLR1-NAC29/31 interactions. Based on the results of anatomical analysis and GA content examination in developing rice internodes, this signaling cascade was found to be modulated by varied endogenous GA levels and to be required for internode development. Genetic and gene expression analyses were further performed in Arabidopsis thaliana GA-related mutants. Altogether, our findings reveal a conserved mechanism by which GA regulates secondary wall cellulose synthesis in land plants and provide a strategy for manipulating cellulose production and plant growth. PMID:26002868

  17. A Gibberellin-Mediated DELLA-NAC Signaling Cascade Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Rice.

    Huang, Debao; Wang, Shaogan; Zhang, Baocai; Shang-Guan, Keke; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Xiangling; Wu, Kun; Xu, Zuopeng; Fu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Yihua

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose, which can be converted into numerous industrial products, has important impacts on the global economy. It has long been known that cellulose synthesis in plants is tightly regulated by various phytohormones. However, the underlying mechanism of cellulose synthesis regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that in rice (Oryza sativa), gibberellin (GA) signals promote cellulose synthesis by relieving the interaction between SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor of GA signaling, and NACs, the top-layer transcription factors for secondary wall formation. Mutations in GA-related genes and physiological treatments altered the transcription of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE genes (CESAs) and the cellulose level. Multiple experiments demonstrated that transcription factors NAC29/31 and MYB61 are CESA regulators in rice; NAC29/31 directly regulates MYB61, which in turn activates CESA expression. This hierarchical regulation pathway is blocked by SLR1-NAC29/31 interactions. Based on the results of anatomical analysis and GA content examination in developing rice internodes, this signaling cascade was found to be modulated by varied endogenous GA levels and to be required for internode development. Genetic and gene expression analyses were further performed in Arabidopsis thaliana GA-related mutants. Altogether, our findings reveal a conserved mechanism by which GA regulates secondary wall cellulose synthesis in land plants and provide a strategy for manipulating cellulose production and plant growth. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Characteristic of Hybrid Cellulose-Amino Functionalized POSS-Silica Nanocomposite and Antimicrobial Activity

    Sivalingam Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cellulose has much attention as an emerging renewable nanomaterial which holds promising properties having unique piezoelectricity, insulating, and biodegradable nature for various applications. Also, the modified properties of cellulose by appropriate chemical modifications in various functional groups with outstanding properties or significantly improved physical, chemical, biological, and electronic properties will widen the way for it to be utilized in different usages. Therefore, in this paper, cellulose-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS based materials were considered an important class of high-performance hybrid nanocomposite materials. To functionalize the regenerated cellulose, amino functionalized POSS material was synthesized via sol-gel covalent crosslinking process in presence of amino coupling agent. In this reaction, tetraethoxsilane (TEOS and γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (γ-APTES as coupling agent for metal precursors were selected. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized bonding and covalent crosslinking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectral analysis. From the TEM results, well-dispersed hybrid cellulose-functionalized POSS-silica composites are observed. The resulting cellulose-POSS-silica hybrid nanocomposites materials provided significantly improved the optical transparency, and thermal and morphological properties to compare the cellulose-silica hybrid materials. Further, antimicrobial test against pathogenic bacteria was carried out.

  19. Three-dimensional cellulose sponge: Fabrication, characterization, biomimetic mineralization, and in vitro cell infiltration.

    Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Pant, Hem Raj; Tiwari, Arjun Prasad; Maharjan, Bikendra; Liao, Nina; Kim, Han Joo; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-01-20

    In this study, cellulose based scaffolds were produced by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) solution followed by its saponification with NaOH/ethanol system for 24h. The resulting nonwoven cellulose mat was treated with sodium borohydride (SB) solution. In situ hydrolysis of SB solution into the pores of the membrane produced hydrogen gas resulting a three-dimensional (3D) cellulose sponge. SEM images demonstrated an open porous and loosely packed fibrous mesh compared to the tightly packed single-layered structure of the conventional electrospun membrane. 3D cellulose sponge showed admirable ability to nucleate bioactive calcium phosphate (Ca-P) crystals in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the minerals deposited on the nanofibers have the nonstoichiometric composition similar to that of hydroxyapatite, the mineralized component of the bone. 3D cellulose sponge exhibited the better cell infiltration, spreading and proliferation compared to 2D cellulose mat. Therefore, a facile fabrication of 3D cellulose sponge with improved mineralization represents an innovative strategy for the bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrolysis of cellulose catalyzed by quaternary ammonium perrhenates in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    Wang, Jingyun; Zhou, Mingdong; Yuan, Yuguo; Zhang, Quan; Fang, Xiangchen; Zang, Shuliang

    2015-12-01

    Quaternary ammonium perrhenates were applied as catalyst to promote the hydrolysis of cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl). The quaternary ammonium perrhenates displayed good catalytic performance for cellulose hydrolysis. Water was also proven to be effective to promote cellulose hydrolysis. Accordingly, 97% of total reduced sugar (TRS) and 42% of glucose yields could be obtained under the condition of using 5mol% of tetramethyl ammonium perrhenate as catalyst, 70μL of water, ca. 0.6mmol of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and 2.0g of [Amim]Cl as solvent under microwave irradiation for 30min at 150°C (optimal conditions). The influence of quaternary ammonium cation on the efficiency of cellulose hydrolysis was examined based on different cation structures of perrhenates. The mechanism on perrhenate catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis is also discussed, whereas hydrogen bonding between ReO4 anion and hydroxyl groups of cellulose is assumed to be the key step for depolymerization of cellulose. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Preliminary study on biosynthesis and characterization of bacteria cellulose films from coconut water

    Indrianingsih, A. W.; Rosyida, V. T.; Jatmiko, T. H.; Prasetyo, D. J.; Poeloengasih, C. D.; Apriyana, W.; Nisa, K.; Nurhayati, S.; Hernawan; Darsih, C.; Pratiwi, D.; Suwanto, A.; Ratih, D.

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum is a unique type of bacterial cellulose. It contains more than 90% of water. A preliminary study had shown that bacterial cellulose films has remarkable mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum condition such as percentage of carbon source, time of cultivation, and pH to produce bacterial cellulose films from local coconut water, and its characterization on morphology, swelling ability and tensile strength of dried bacterial cellulose. A. xylinum was grown on coconut water culture medium with addition of 3%, 5%, and 7% of sugar, while the cultivation time was vary from 3 days, 5 days and 7 days. pH condition was conducted in pH 3, pH 5 and pH 7. Bacterial cellulose samples were dried using oven with temperature of 100°C until the moisture content reached 4-5%. This study showed that several parameters for optimum condition to produce bacterial cellulose films from local waste of coconut water had been obtained (5% of carbon source; pH 5; and 7 day of incubation period). The electron microscopy also showed that dried bacterial cellulose films had pores covered by fibrils on the surface. Therefore, the present work proposes the optimum formula and condition that can be used based on properties of end product needed.

  2. Evaluation of uncertainty of measurement for cellulosic fiber and ...

    This research seeks to outline specific factors with adverse contribution to the results for cellulosic-fiber composites based on tensile test. By virtue of the tensile test's inherent similarity in configuration to stress relaxation and creep test, the methodology of quantification of doubt which exists about this test could also be ...

  3. Opportunity for profitable investments in cellulosic biofuels

    Babcock, Bruce A.; Marette, Stephan; Treguer, David

    2011-01-01

    Research efforts to allow large-scale conversion of cellulose into biofuels are being undertaken in the US and EU. These efforts are designed to increase logistic and conversion efficiencies, enhancing the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuels. However, not enough attention has been paid to the future market conditions for cellulosic biofuels, which will determine whether the necessary private investment will be available to allow a cellulosic biofuels industry to emerge. We examine the future market for cellulosic biofuels, differentiating between cellulosic ethanol and 'drop-in' cellulosic biofuels that can be transported with petroleum fuels and have equivalent energy values. We show that emergence of a cellulosic ethanol industry is unlikely without costly government subsidies, in part because of strong competition from conventional ethanol and limits on ethanol blending. If production costs of drop-in cellulosic biofuels fall enough to become competitive, then their expansion will not necessarily cause feedstock prices to rise. As long as local supplies of feedstocks that have no or low-valued alternative uses exist, then expansion will not cause prices to rise significantly. If cellulosic feedstocks come from dedicated biomass crops, then the supply curves will have a steeper slope because of competition for land. (author)

  4. Self-assembled cellulose materials for biomedicine: A review.

    Yang, Jisheng; Li, Jinfeng

    2018-02-01

    Cellulose-based materials have reached a growing interest for the improvement of biomedicine, due to their good biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low toxicity. Self-assembly is a spontaneous process by which organized structures with particular functions and properties could be obtained without additional complicated processing steps. This article describes the modifications, properties and applications of cellulose and its derivatives, which including a detailed review of representative types of solvents such as NMMO, DMAc/LiCl, some molten salt hydrates, some aqueous solutions of metal complexes, ionic liquids and NaOH-water system etc. The modifications were frequently performed by esterification, etherification, ATRP, RAFT, ROP and other novel methods. Stimuli-responsive cellulose-based materials, such as temperature-, pH-, light- and redox-responsive, were synthesized for their superior performance. Additionally, the applications of cellulose-based materials which can self-assemble into micelles, vesicles and other aggregates, for drug/gene delivery, bioimaging, biosensor, are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CELLULOSE DEGRADATION BY OXIDATIVE ENZYMES

    Maria Dimarogona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass has attracted intensive research interest for the production of economically viable biofuels. Here we present an overview of the recent findings on biocatalysts implicated in the oxidative cleavage of cellulose, including polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs or LPMOs which stands for lytic PMOs, cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs and members of carbohydrate-binding module family 33 (CBM33. PMOs, a novel class of enzymes previously termed GH61s, boost the efficiency of common cellulases resulting in increased hydrolysis yields while lowering the protein loading needed. They act on the crystalline part of cellulose by generating oxidized and non-oxidized chain ends. An external electron donor is required for boosting the activity of PMOs. We discuss recent findings concerning their mechanism of action and identify issues and questions to be addressed in the future.

  6. γ radiolysis of cellulose acetate

    Ali, S.M.; Clay, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    The major degradative process in γ-irradiated cellulose acetate is chain scission. For the dry powder the G/sub s/ value (number of scissions per 100 eV of energy absorbed) was found to be 7.1. The water-swollen material was found to degrade at the higher rate of G/sub s/ = 9.45. Additions of ethanol and methanol to the water brought about reductions in G/sub s/, whereas dissolved nitrous oxide produced an increase in G/sub s/. The useful life of cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membranes exposed to γ radiation was estimated by observations of the water permeation rate during irradiation. Membrane breakdown occurred at 15 Mrad in pure water, but the dose to breakdown was extended to 83 Mrad in the presence of 4% methanol. 3 figures, 1 table

  7. Glycerine Treated Nanofibrillated Cellulose Composites

    Esra Erbas Kiziltas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycerine treated nanofibrillated cellulose (GNFC was prepared by mixing aqueous nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC suspensions with glycerine. Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA copolymer composites with different loadings of GNFC were prepared by melt compounding followed by injection molding. The incorporation of GNFC increased tensile and flexural modulus of elasticity of the composites. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that as GNFC loading increased, the thermal stability of the composites decreased marginally. The incorporation of GNFC into the SMA copolymer matrix resulted in higher elastic modulus (G′ and shear viscosities than the neat SMA copolymer, especially at low frequencies. The orientation of rigid GNFC particles in the composites induced a strong shear thinning behavior with an increase in GNFC loading. The decrease in the slope of elastic modulus with increasing GNFC loading suggested that the microstructural changes of the polymer matrix can be attributed to the incorporation of GNFC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images of fracture surfaces show areas of GNFC agglomerates in the SMA matrix.

  8. Polyimide Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Aerogels

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rowan, Stuart; Cudjoe, Elvis; Sandberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Polyimide (PI) aerogels are highly porous solids having low density, high porosity and low thermal conductivity with good mechanical properties. They are ideal for various applications including use in antenna and insulation such as inflatable decelerators used in entry, decent and landing operations. Recently, attention has been focused on stimuli responsive materials such as cellulose nano crystals (CNCs). CNCs are environmentally friendly, bio-renewable, commonly found in plants and the dermis of sea tunicates, and potentially low cost. This study is to examine the effects of CNC on the polyimide aerogels. The CNC used in this project are extracted from mantle of a sea creature called tunicates. A series of polyimide cellulose nanocrystal composite aerogels has been fabricated having 0-13 wt of CNC. Results will be discussed.

  9. Physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on hydroxyethyl cellulose-hyaluronic acid and for applications as transdermal delivery systems for skin lesions.

    Kwon, Soon Sik; Kong, Bong Ju; Park, Soo Nam

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/hyaluronic acid (HA) complex hydrogels containing isoliquiritigenin (ILTG), and discussed potential applications as transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of skin lesions caused by pH imbalance. HA has skin compatibility and pH functional groups and HEC serves as scaffold to build hydrogels with varied HCE:HA mass ratio. Hydrogels were synthesized via chemical cross-linking, and three-dimensional network structures were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling properties and polymer ratios of the hydrogels were investigated at pH values in the range 1-13. HECHA13 (i.e., an HEC:HA mass ratio of 1:3) was found to have optimal rheological and adhesive properties, and was used to investigate the drug release efficiency as a function of pH; the efficiency was greater than 70% at pH 7. Antimicrobial activity assays against Propionibacterium acnes were conducted to take advantage of the pH-sensitive properties of HECHA13. At pH 7, we found that HECHA13, which contained ILTG, inhibited the growth of P. acnes. Furthermore, HECHA13 was found to exhibit excellent permeability into the skin, which penetrated mostly via the hair follicle. These results indicate that this pH-sensitive hydrogel is effective as a transdermal delivery system for antimicrobial therapeutics, with potential applications in the treatment of acne. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    Fakhouri, F. M.; Casari, A. C. A.; Mariano, M.; Yamashita, F.; Innocnentini Mei, L. H.; Soldi, V.; Martelli, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits.

  11. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    Fakhouri, F M; Casari, A C A; Martelli, S M; Mariano, M; Soldi, V; Yamashita, F; Mei, L H Innocnentini

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits

  12. Internal Light Source-Driven Photoelectrochemical 3D-rGO/Cellulose Device Based on Cascade DNA Amplification Strategy Integrating Target Analog Chain and DNA Mimic Enzyme.

    Lan, Feifei; Liang, Linlin; Zhang, Yan; Li, Li; Ren, Na; Yan, Mei; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a chemiluminescence-driven collapsible greeting card-like photoelectrochemical lab-on-paper device (GPECD) with hollow channel was demonstrated, in which target-triggering cascade DNA amplification strategy was ingeniously introduced. The GPECD had the functions of reagents storage and signal collection, and the change of configuration could control fluidic path, reaction time and alterations in electrical connectivity. In addition, three-dimentional reduced graphene oxide affixed Au flower was in situ grown on paper cellulose fiber for achieving excellent conductivity and biocompatibility. The cascade DNA amplification strategy referred to the cyclic formation of target analog chain and its trigger action to hybridization chain reaction (HCR), leading to the formation of numerous hemin/G-quadruplex DNA mimic enzyme with the presence of hemin. Subjected to the catalysis of hemin/G-quadruplex, the strong chemiluminiscence of luminol-H 2 O 2 system was obtained, which then was used as internal light source to excite photoactive materials realizing the simplification of instrument. In this analyzing process, thrombin served as proof-of-concept, and the concentration of target was converted into the DNA signal output by the specific recognition of aptamer-protein and target analog chain recycling. The target analog chain was produced in quantity with the presence of target, which further triggered abundant HCR and introduced hemin/G-quadruplex into the system. The photocurrent signal was obtained after the nitrogen-doped carbon dots sensitized ZnO was stimulated by chemiluminescence. The proposed GPECD exhibited excellent specificity and sensitivity toward thrombin with a detection limit of 16.7 fM. This judiciously engineered GPECD paved a luciferous way for detecting other protein with trace amounts in bioanalysis and clinical biomedicine.

  13. Graphene-cellulose paper flexible supercapacitors

    Weng, Zhe; Su, Yang; Li, Feng; Du, Jinhong; Cheng, Hui-Ming [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Da-Wei [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    A simple and scalable method to fabricate graphene-cellulose paper (GCP) membranes is reported; these membranes exhibit great advantages as freestanding and binder-free electrodes for flexible supercapacitors. The GCP electrode consists of a unique three-dimensional interwoven structure of graphene nanosheets and cellulose fibers and has excellent mechanical flexibility, good specific capacitance and power performance, and excellent cyclic stability. The electrical conductivity of the GCP membrane shows high stability with a decrease of only 6% after being bent 1000 times. This flexible GCP electrode has a high capacitance per geometric area of 81 mF cm{sup -2}, which is equivalent to a gravimetric capacitance of 120 F g{sup -1} of graphene, and retains >99% capacitance over 5000 cycles. Several types of flexible GCP-based polymer supercapacitors with various architectures are assembled to meet the power-energy requirements of typical flexible or printable electronics. Under highly flexible conditions, the supercapacitors show a high capacitance per geometric area of 46 mF cm{sup -2} for the complete devices. All the results demonstrate that polymer supercapacitors made using GCP membranes are versatile and may be used for flexible and portable micropower devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Communication and Sensing Circuits on Cellulose

    Federico Alimenti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a review of several circuits for communication and wireless sensing applications implemented on cellulose-based materials. These circuits have been developed during the last years exploiting the adhesive copper laminate method. Such a technique relies on a copper adhesive tape that is shaped by a photo-lithographic process and then transferred to the hosting substrate (i.e., paper by means of a sacrificial layer. The presented circuits span from UHF oscillators to a mixer working at 24 GHz and constitute an almost complete set of building blocks that can be applied to a huge variety communication apparatuses. Each circuit is validated experimentally showing performance comparable with the state-of-the-art. This paper demonstrates that circuits on cellulose are capable of operating at record frequencies and that ultra- low cost, green i.e., recyclable and biodegradable materials can be a viable solution to realize high frequency hardware for the upcoming Internet of Things (IoT era.

  15. Catalytic modification of cellulose and hemicellulose - Sugarefine

    Repo, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland),Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry], email: timo.repo@helsinki.fi

    2012-07-01

    The main goal of the project is to develop catalytic methods for the modification of lignocellulose-based saccharides in the biorefineries. The products of these reactions could be used for example as biofuel components, raw materials for the chemical industry, solvents and precursors for biopolymers. The catalyst development aims at creating efficient, selective and green catalytic methods for profitable use in biorefineries. The project is divided in three work packages: In WP1 (Catalytic dehydration of cellulose) the aim is at developing non-toxic, efficient methods for the catalytic dehydration of cellulose the target molecule being here 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). 5-HMF is an interesting platform chemical for the production of fuel additives, solvents and polymers. In WP2 (Catalytic reduction), the objective of the catalytic reduction studies is to produce commercially interesting monofunctional chemicals, such as 1-butanol or 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF). In WP3 (Catalytic oxidation), the research focuses on developing a green and efficient oxidation method for producing acids. Whereas acetic and formic acids are bulk chemicals, diacids such as glucaric and xylaric acids are valuable specialty chemicals for detergent, polymer and food production.

  16. Process Intensification for Cellulosic Biorefineries.

    Sadula, Sunitha; Athaley, Abhay; Zheng, Weiqing; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Saha, Basudeb

    2017-06-22

    Utilization of renewable carbon source, especially non-food biomass is critical to address the climate change and future energy challenge. Current chemical and enzymatic processes for producing cellulosic sugars are multistep, and energy- and water-intensive. Techno-economic analysis (TEA) suggests that upstream lignocellulose processing is a major hurdle to the economic viability of the cellulosic biorefineries. Process intensification, which integrates processes and uses less water and energy, has the potential to overcome the aforementioned challenges. Here, we demonstrate a one-pot depolymerization and saccharification process of woody biomass, energy crops, and agricultural residues to produce soluble sugars with high yields. Lignin is separated as a solid for selective upgrading. Further integration of our upstream process with a reactive extraction step makes energy-efficient separation of sugars in the form of furans. TEA reveals that the process efficiency and integration enable, for the first time, economic production of feed streams that could profoundly improve process economics for downstream cellulosic bioproducts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Utilization of agricultural cellulose wastes

    Valkanas, G N; Economidis, D G; Koukios, E G; Valkanas, C G

    1977-05-05

    Wastes, example, straw, are prehydrolyzed to convert pentosanes, starches, and hemicelluloses to monosaccharides; the remaining pulp is 50% cellulose. Thus, dry wheat straw 0.8 kg was treated with 10 L of 0.3% aqueous HCl at 5-5.5 atm and 145/sup 0/ and a space velocity of 0.55 L/min, washed with dry steam, followed by water at 120 to 130/sup 0/, and more dry steam, and compressed at 25 kg/cm/sup 2/ to yield a product containing 45 to 50 wt % water. The sugar solution obtained (1394 L) contained 1.34 wt % reducing sugars, a straw hydrolysis of 23 wt %, and comprised xylose 74.3, mannose 5.2, arabinose 11.8, glucose 5.9, galactose 2.9%, and furfural 0.16 g/L. The cellulose residue had a dry weight of 0.545 kg. a yield of 68.2 wt % and contained cellulose 53.1, hemicelluloses 12.6%, lignin 22.1, ash and extractables 12.2%. The degree of polymerization was 805 glucose units.

  18. Cellulose decomposition and associated nitrogen fixation by mixed cultures of Cellulomonas gelida and Azospirillum species or Bacillus macerans

    Halsall, D.M.; Gibson, A.H.

    1985-10-01

    Mixed cultures of Cellulomonas gelida plus Azospirillum lipoferum or Azospirillum brasilense and C. gelida plus Bacillus macerans were shown to degrade cellulose and straw and to utilize the energy-yielding products to fix atmospheric nitrogen. This cooperative process was followed over 30 days in sand-based cultures in which the breakdown of 20% of the cellulose and 28 to 30% of the straw resulted in the fixation of 12 to 14.6 mg of N per g of cellulose and 17 to 19 mg of N per g of straw consumed. Cellulomonas species have certain advantages over aerobic cellulose-degrading fungi in being able to degrade cellulose at oxygen concentrations as low as 1% O/sub 2/ (vol/vol) which would allow a close association between cellulose-degrading and microaerobic diazotrophic microorganisms. Cultures inoculated with initially different proportions of A. brasilense and C. gelida all reached a stable ratio of approximately 1 Azospirillum/3 Cellulomonas cells.

  19. Biochemistry of cellulose degradation and cellulose utilization for feeds and for protein

    Sadara, J C; Lachke, A H; Shewale, J G

    1979-01-01

    A review discussing production of single-cell protein, fuel, and glucose from cellulose decomposition; surface or solid fermentations of single-cell protein; production of cellulases; and the biochemistry of cellulose degradation was presented.

  20. Cellulose-binding domains: tools for innovation in cellulosic fibre production and modification

    Quentin, M.G.E.; Valk, van der H.C.P.M.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Jong, de E.

    2003-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of cellulose, nature's most abundant macromolecule, and therefore represent a renewable resource of special technical importance. Cellulose degrading enzymes involved in plant cell wall loosening (expansins), or produced by plant pathogenic microorganisms (cellulases),