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Sample records for cellulose ophthalmic inserts

  1. Diclofenac Ophthalmic

    Diclofenac ophthalmic solution is used to treat eye pain, redness, and swelling in patients who are recovering ... treat clouding of the lens in the eye). Diclofenac ophthalmic solution is also used to temporarily relieve ...

  2. Ophthalmic Drug Dosage Forms: Characterisation and Research Methods

    Baranowski, Przemysław; Karolewicz, Bożena; Gajda, Maciej; Pluta, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes hitherto developed drug forms for topical ocular administration, that is, eye drops, ointments, in situ gels, inserts, multicompartment drug delivery systems, and ophthalmic drug forms with bioadhesive properties. Heretofore, many studies have demonstrated that new and more complex ophthalmic drug forms exhibit advantage over traditional ones and are able to increase the bioavailability of the active substance by, among others, reducing the susceptibility of drug forms to...

  3. Engineering Aspergillus oryzae A-4 through the Chromosomal Insertion of Foreign Cellulase Expression Cassette to Improve Conversion of Cellulosic Biomass into Lipids

    Shen, Qi; Ma, Junwei; Fu, Jianrong; Zhao, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    A genetic modification scheme was designed for Aspergillus oryzae A-4, a natural cellulosic lipids producer, to enhance its lipid production from biomass by putting the spotlight on improving cellulase secretion. Four cellulase genes were separately expressed in A-4 under the control of hlyA promoter, with the help of the successful development of a chromosomal genetic manipulation system. Comparison of cellulase activities of PCR-positive transformants showed that these transformants integrated with celA gene and with celC gene had significantly (pcellulase gene in A2-2 and D1-B1 was subsequently investigated. It was noted that cellulase expression repressed biomass formation but enhanced lipid accumulation; whereas the inhibitory effect on cell growth would be shielded during cellulosic lipids production owing to the essential role of cellulase in substrate utilization. Different metabolic profiles also existed between A2-2 and D1-B1, which could be attributed to not only different transgene but also biological impacts of different integration. Overall, both simultaneous saccharification and lipid accumulation were enhanced in A2-2 and D1-B1, resulting in efficient conversion of cellulose into lipids. A regulation of cellulase secretion in natural cellulosic lipids producers could be a possible strategy to enhance its lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:25251435

  4. Engineering Aspergillus oryzae A-4 through the chromosomal insertion of foreign cellulase expression cassette to improve conversion of cellulosic biomass into lipids.

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Ma, Junwei; Fu, Jianrong; Zhao, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    A genetic modification scheme was designed for Aspergillus oryzae A-4, a natural cellulosic lipids producer, to enhance its lipid production from biomass by putting the spotlight on improving cellulase secretion. Four cellulase genes were separately expressed in A-4 under the control of hlyA promoter, with the help of the successful development of a chromosomal genetic manipulation system. Comparison of cellulase activities of PCR-positive transformants showed that these transformants integrated with celA gene and with celC gene had significantly (pcellulase gene in A2-2 and D1-B1 was subsequently investigated. It was noted that cellulase expression repressed biomass formation but enhanced lipid accumulation; whereas the inhibitory effect on cell growth would be shielded during cellulosic lipids production owing to the essential role of cellulase in substrate utilization. Different metabolic profiles also existed between A2-2 and D1-B1, which could be attributed to not only different transgene but also biological impacts of different integration. Overall, both simultaneous saccharification and lipid accumulation were enhanced in A2-2 and D1-B1, resulting in efficient conversion of cellulose into lipids. A regulation of cellulase secretion in natural cellulosic lipids producers could be a possible strategy to enhance its lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass.

  5. Engineering Aspergillus oryzae A-4 through the chromosomal insertion of foreign cellulase expression cassette to improve conversion of cellulosic biomass into lipids.

    Hui Lin

    Full Text Available A genetic modification scheme was designed for Aspergillus oryzae A-4, a natural cellulosic lipids producer, to enhance its lipid production from biomass by putting the spotlight on improving cellulase secretion. Four cellulase genes were separately expressed in A-4 under the control of hlyA promoter, with the help of the successful development of a chromosomal genetic manipulation system. Comparison of cellulase activities of PCR-positive transformants showed that these transformants integrated with celA gene and with celC gene had significantly (p<0.05 higher average FPAase activities than those strains integrated with celB gene and with celD gene. Through the assessment of cellulosic lipids accumulating abilities, celA transformant A2-2 and celC transformant D1-B1 were isolated as promising candidates, which could yield 101%-133% and 35.22%-59.57% higher amount of lipids than the reference strain A-4 (WT under submerged (SmF conditions and solid-state (SSF conditions, respectively. Variability in metabolism associated to the introduction of cellulase gene in A2-2 and D1-B1 was subsequently investigated. It was noted that cellulase expression repressed biomass formation but enhanced lipid accumulation; whereas the inhibitory effect on cell growth would be shielded during cellulosic lipids production owing to the essential role of cellulase in substrate utilization. Different metabolic profiles also existed between A2-2 and D1-B1, which could be attributed to not only different transgene but also biological impacts of different integration. Overall, both simultaneous saccharification and lipid accumulation were enhanced in A2-2 and D1-B1, resulting in efficient conversion of cellulose into lipids. A regulation of cellulase secretion in natural cellulosic lipids producers could be a possible strategy to enhance its lipid production from lignocellulosic biomass.

  6. Basics of Sterile Compounding: Ophthalmic Preparations, Part 1: Ophthalmic Solutions.

    Allen, Loyd V

    2016-01-01

    Ophthalmic preparations are used to treat allergies, bacterial and viral infections, glaucoma, and numerous other eye conditions. When the eye's natural defensive mechanisms are compromised or overcome, an ophthalmic preparation, in a solution, suspension, or ointment form, may be indicated, with solutions being the most common form used to deliver a drug to the eye. This article provides a general discussion on ophthalmic preparations and specifically discusses the preparation of solutions. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  7. Prevalence and trends of cellulosics in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Mastropietro, David J; Omidian, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Many studies have shown that cellulose derivatives (cellulosics) can provide various benefits when used in virtually all types of dosage forms. Nevertheless, the popularity of their use in approved drug products is rather unknown. This research reports the current prevalence and trends of use for 15 common cellulosics in prescription drug products. The cellulosics were powdered and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), hypromellose (HPMC), HPMC phthalate, HPMC acetate succinate, cellulose acetate (CA), CA phthalate, sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), croscarmellose sodium (XCMCNa), methyl cellulose, and low substituted HPC. The number of brand drug products utilizing each cellulosics was determined using the online drug index Rxlist. A total of 607 brand products were identified having one or more of the cellulosics as an active or inactive ingredient. An array of various dosage forms was identified and revealed HPMC and MCC to be the most utilized cellulosics in all products followed by XCMCNa and HPC. Many products contained two or more cellulosics in the formulation (42% containing two, 23% containing three, and 4% containing 4-5). The largest combination occurrence was HPMC with MCC. The use of certain cellulosics within different dosage form types was found to contain specific trends. All injectables utilized only CMCNa, and the same with all ophthalmic solutions utilizing HPMC, and otic suspensions utilizing HEC. Popularity and trends regarding cellulosics use may occur based on many factors including functionality, safety, availability, stability, and ease of manufacturing.

  8. Ophthalmic Drug Dosage Forms: Characterisation and Research Methods

    Przemysław Baranowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes hitherto developed drug forms for topical ocular administration, that is, eye drops, ointments, in situ gels, inserts, multicompartment drug delivery systems, and ophthalmic drug forms with bioadhesive properties. Heretofore, many studies have demonstrated that new and more complex ophthalmic drug forms exhibit advantage over traditional ones and are able to increase the bioavailability of the active substance by, among others, reducing the susceptibility of drug forms to defense mechanisms of the human eye, extending contact time of drug with the cornea, increasing the penetration through the complex anatomical structure of the eye, and providing controlled release of drugs into the eye tissues, which allows reducing the drug application frequency. The rest of the paper describes recommended in vitro and in vivo studies to be performed for various ophthalmic drugs forms in order to assess whether the form is acceptable from the perspective of desired properties and patient’s compliance.

  9. Communication: an ophthalmic practice issue.

    Whitton, S J

    1995-12-01

    In the 1990's communication becomes an ophthalmic practice issue. The present ophthalmic climate of cost containment, downsizing, budget cuts, and lack of appreciation of contributions, results in a low staff morale. Recognition of the effects of job satisfaction and productivity led one group to seek solutions. A communication task force was formed to identify problems and the appropriate interventions.

  10. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze, cotton...

  11. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding skin...

  12. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S

    2016-01-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 Euro......The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170......,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact...

  13. ANAESTHESIA FOR OPHTHALMIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES

    Objective: To review factors influencing the choice of anaesthesia for ophthalmic surgical procedures. ... as risk associated with general anaesthesia (8) they are more .... Wilson ME, Pandey SK, Thakur J. Paediatric cataract blindness in the ...

  14. Polymyxin B and Trimethoprim Ophthalmic

    Polymyxin B and trimethoprim ophthalmic combination is used to treat bacterial infections of the eye including conjunctivitis (pinkeye; infection ... inside and outer parts of the eyelid). Polymyxin B and trimethoprim are in a class of medications ...

  15. Experimental insertions

    Sandweiss, J.; Kycia, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is given of the eight identical experimental insertions for the planned ISABELLE storage rings. Four sets of quadrupole doublets are used to match the β functions in the insertions to the values in the cells, and the total free space available at the crossing point is 40 meters. An asymmetric beam energy operation is planned, which will be useful in a number of experiments

  16. Does Uniformity of Topical Corticosteroid Ophthalmic Medications: Flourometholone Acetate 0.1 Suspension and Loteprednol Etabonate 0.5 gel

    2017-01-03

    following ocular surgery.1 They are available in different forms including emulsions , ointments, solutions, gels, and suspensions. The choice of...study done by Stringer and Bryant compared dose uniformity of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion (Durezol®) with prednisolone acetate (brand name...topical ophthalmic corticosteroid suspensions. Am J Ophthalmol. 1979;87(2): 210- 214. 5 Flarex® [ package insert]. Fort Worth, TX: Alcon Laboratories Inc

  17. Cellulose is not just cellulose

    Hidayat, Budi Juliman; Felby, Claus; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2012-01-01

    are not regions where free cellulose ends are more abundant than in the bulk cell wall. In more severe cases cracks between fibrils form at dislocations and it is possible that the increased accessibility that these cracks give is the reason why hydrolysis of cellulose starts at these locations. If acid...... or enzymatic hydrolysis of plant cell walls is carried out simultaneously with the application of shear stress, plant cells such as fibers or tracheids break at their dislocations. At present it is not known whether specific carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) and/or cellulases preferentially access cellulose...

  18. Ophthalmic Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Sharon J. Krinsky-McHale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of ophthalmic disorders is associated with the phenotype of Down syndrome including strabismus, cataracts, and refractive errors potentially resulting in significant visual impairment. Ophthalmic sequelae have been extensively studied in children and adolescents with Down syndrome but less often in older adults. In-depth review of medical records of older adults with Down syndrome indicated that ophthalmic disorders were common. Cataracts were the most frequent ophthalmic disorder reported, followed by refractive errors, strabismus, and presbyopia. Severity of intellectual disability was unrelated to the presence of ophthalmic disorders. Also, ophthalmic disorders were associated with lower vision-dependent functional and cognitive abilities, although not to the extent that was expected. The high prevalence of ophthalmic disorders highlights the need for periodic evaluations and individualized treatment plans for adults with Down syndrome, in general, but especially when concerns are identified.

  19. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic surgical...

  20. 75 FR 54492 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gentamicin and Betamethasone Ophthalmic...

    2010-09-08

    ... Ophthalmic Solution AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment... acetate ophthalmic solution. This action is being taken to comply with the Federal Food, Drug, and... GENTOCIN DURAFILM (gentamicin sulfate and betamethasone acetate) Ophthalmic Solution, sponsored by Intervet...

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Two Cellulose Morphology Mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769 Producing Cellulose with Lower Crystallinity

    Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Fang, Lin; Luan, Xin; Catchmark, Jeffrey M.; Tien, Ming; Kao, Teh-hui

    2015-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a Gram-negative bacterium, produces and secrets highly crystalline cellulose into growth medium, and has long been used as a model system for studying cellulose synthesis in higher plants. Cellulose synthesis involves the formation of β-1,4 glucan chains via the polymerization of glucose units by a multi-enzyme cellulose synthase complex (CSC). These glucan chains assemble into ordered structures including crystalline microfibrils. AcsA is the catalytic subunit of the cellulose synthase enzymes in the CSC, and AcsC is required for the secretion of cellulose. However, little is known about other proteins required for the assembly of crystalline cellulose. To address this question, we visually examined cellulose pellicles formed in growth media of 763 individual colonies of G. hansenii generated via Tn5 transposon insertion mutagenesis, and identified 85 that produced cellulose with altered morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis of these 85 mutants identified two that produced cellulose with significantly lower crystallinity than wild type. The gene disrupted in one of these two mutants encoded a lysine decarboxylase and that in the other encoded an alanine racemase. Solid-state NMR analysis revealed that cellulose produced by these two mutants contained increased amounts of non-crystalline cellulose and monosaccharides associated with non-cellulosic polysaccharides as compared to the wild type. Monosaccharide analysis detected higher percentages of galactose and mannose in cellulose produced by both mutants. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that cellulose produced by the mutants was unevenly distributed, with some regions appearing to contain deposition of non-cellulosic polysaccharides; however, the width of the ribbon was comparable to that of normal cellulose. As both lysine decarboxylase and alanine racemase are required for the integrity of peptidoglycan, we propose a model for the role of peptidoglycan in the

  2. Isolation and characterization of two cellulose morphology mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769 producing cellulose with lower crystallinity.

    Ying Deng

    Full Text Available Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a Gram-negative bacterium, produces and secrets highly crystalline cellulose into growth medium, and has long been used as a model system for studying cellulose synthesis in higher plants. Cellulose synthesis involves the formation of β-1,4 glucan chains via the polymerization of glucose units by a multi-enzyme cellulose synthase complex (CSC. These glucan chains assemble into ordered structures including crystalline microfibrils. AcsA is the catalytic subunit of the cellulose synthase enzymes in the CSC, and AcsC is required for the secretion of cellulose. However, little is known about other proteins required for the assembly of crystalline cellulose. To address this question, we visually examined cellulose pellicles formed in growth media of 763 individual colonies of G. hansenii generated via Tn5 transposon insertion mutagenesis, and identified 85 that produced cellulose with altered morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis of these 85 mutants identified two that produced cellulose with significantly lower crystallinity than wild type. The gene disrupted in one of these two mutants encoded a lysine decarboxylase and that in the other encoded an alanine racemase. Solid-state NMR analysis revealed that cellulose produced by these two mutants contained increased amounts of non-crystalline cellulose and monosaccharides associated with non-cellulosic polysaccharides as compared to the wild type. Monosaccharide analysis detected higher percentages of galactose and mannose in cellulose produced by both mutants. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that cellulose produced by the mutants was unevenly distributed, with some regions appearing to contain deposition of non-cellulosic polysaccharides; however, the width of the ribbon was comparable to that of normal cellulose. As both lysine decarboxylase and alanine racemase are required for the integrity of peptidoglycan, we propose a model for the role of

  3. Ophthalmic manifestations of head injury.

    Kowal, L

    1992-02-01

    Head injuries are frequently associated with ophthalmic problems. The commonest problems seen in this series of 161 patients with head injury were problems with poor accommodation (16% of patients; 58% of these persisted), convergence (14% of patients; 35% of these persisted), pseudomyopia (19%; 55% persisted) and optic atrophy (26% of the patients; 78% of these were mild and easily missed on routine testing, and 22% were severe). Motility disorders were common, especially cranial nerve palsies. Other less frequent motility disturbances included apparent inferior oblique palsy, comitant esotropia, and exotropia which was often of the convergence insufficiency type.

  4. determinants of general anaesthesia for ophthalmic surgery

    DR. CHARLES IMARENGIAYE

    1999-08-01

    Objectives: To study the pattern of anaesthesia for ophthalmic procedures in order to improve the scheduling of cases in the ophthalmic operating room. Methods: The surgical register of the operating room from. August 01, 1999 to July 31, 2004 was examined, to document the types of procedure, timing of surgery (elective ...

  5. Alternative methods of ophthalmic treatment in Russia.

    Vader, L

    1994-04-01

    Russian ophthalmic nurses and physicians are using alternative methods of treatment to supplement traditional eye care. As acupuncture and iridology become more popular in the United States, ophthalmic nurses need to be more knowledgeable about these treatments and the implications for patients.

  6. Cellulose microfibril deposition: coordinated activity at the plant plasma membrane

    Lindeboom, J.J.; Mulder, B.; Vos, J.W.; Ketelaar, M.J.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cell wall production is a membrane-bound process. Cell walls are composed of cellulose microfibrils, embedded inside a matrix of other polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The cell wall matrix is extruded into the existing cell wall by exocytosis. This same process also inserts the cellulose

  7. Ocular inserts - Advancement in therapy of eye diseases

    Anita Kumari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular insert represents a significant advancement in the therapy of eye disease. Ocular inserts are defined as sterile, thin, multilayered, drug-impregnated, solid or semisolid consistency devices placed into the cul-de-sac or conjuctival sac, whose size and shape are especially designed for ophthalmic application. They are composed of a polymeric support that may or may not contain a drug. The drug can later be incorporated as dispersion or a solution in the polymeric support. They offer several advantages as increased ocular residence and sustained release of medication into the eye. The insert includes a body portion sized to position within a lachrymal canaliculus of the eyelid. The inserts are classified according to their solubility as insoluble, soluble, or bioerodible inserts. The release of drug from the insert depends upon the diffusion, osmosis, and bioerosion of the drug, and this article is an attempt to present a brief about this newer drug delivery system.

  8. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually increasing...

  10. 21 CFR 886.1405 - Ophthalmic trial lens set.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens set. 886.1405 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1405 Ophthalmic trial lens set. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens set is a device that is a set of lenses of various dioptric powers...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1420 - Ophthalmic lens gauge.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic lens gauge. 886.1420 Section 886.1420...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1420 Ophthalmic lens gauge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic lens gauge is a calibrated device intended to manually measure the curvature of a...

  12. 21 CFR 886.1410 - Ophthalmic trial lens clip.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens clip. 886.1410 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1410 Ophthalmic trial lens clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic trial lens clip is a device intended to hold prisms, spheres, cylinders, or...

  13. 21 CFR 886.4750 - Ophthalmic eye shield.

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4750 Ophthalmic eye shield. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic eye shield is a device that consists of a plastic or aluminum eye covering intended to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic eye shield. 886.4750 Section 886.4750...

  14. Cellulose Insulation

    1980-01-01

    Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.

  15. Congenital glaucoma as an ophthalmic manifestation of Frank-Ter Haar syndrome.

    Aktas, Zeynep; Karaca, Emine Esra; Dogan, Nurcan; Çakmak, Tugba; Unlu, Metin; Tok, Levent; Hasanreisoglu, Murat

    2014-04-01

    We report on a patient with Frank-Ter Haar syndrome that is associated with high intraocular pressures. A 21-day-old male patient was referred to our clinic for surgical treatment of congenital glaucoma. On ophthalmic examination, he had buphthalmos, mild corneal edema and high IOP readings in both eyes. The patient underwent uneventful trabeculotomy surgery, bilaterally. Marked bilateral anterior iris insertion was noted during the surgery. Childhood glaucoma may be associated with Frank-Ter Haar syndrome.

  16. Cellulose Perversions

    Maria H. Godinho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose micro/nano-fibers can be produced by electrospinning from liquid crystalline solutions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM and polarizing optical microscopy (POM measurements showed that cellulose-based electrospun fibers can curl and twist, due to the presence of an off-core line defect disclination, which was present when the fibers were prepared. This permits the mimicking of the shapes found in many systems in the living world, e.g., the tendrils of climbing plants, three to four orders of magnitude larger. In this work, we address the mechanism that is behind the spirals’ and helices’ appearance by recording the trajectories of the fibers toward diverse electrospinning targets. The intrinsic curvature of the system occurs via asymmetric contraction of an internal disclination line, which generates different shrinkages of the material along the fiber. The completely different instabilities observed for isotropic and anisotropic electrospun solutions at the exit of the needle seem to corroborate the hypothesis that the intrinsic curvature of the material is acquired during liquid crystalline sample processing inside the needle. The existence of perversions, which joins left and right helices, is also investigated by using suspended, as well as flat, targets. Possible routes of application inspired from the living world are addressed.

  17. Application of ophthalmic ultrasonographyin DR

    Ya-Ke Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the value of ultrasonography in diabetic retinopathy(DR. METHODS: Totally 103 cases(103 eyesof type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected from May 2015 to May 2017 in our hospital, there were 32 patients 32 eyes with non diabetic retinopathy(NDR, 40 patients 40 eyes with non proliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDR, and 31 patients 31 eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR, 40 healthy volunteers(40 eyeswere selected as control group, the maximum systolic blood flow velocity(PSV, end diastolic velocity(EDVand resistance index(RIof the central retinal artery(CRA, posterior ciliary artery(PCAand ophthalmic artery(OAwere detected by color Doppler ultrasound. RESULTS: The difference of PSV, EDV and RI of CRA, PCA and OA in each group was statistically significant(PPPPCONCLUSION: Color Doppler ultrasound monitoring the hemodynamic changes of ocular blood vessels in diabetes can provide evidence for early detection of diabetic retinopathy.

  18. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  19. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh [Memphis, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-28

    A method for the deposition of metals in bacterial cellulose and for the employment of the metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The method for impregnating bacterial cellulose with a metal comprises placing a bacterial cellulose matrix in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal salt is reduced to metallic form and the metal precipitates in or on the matrix. The method for the construction of a fuel cell comprises placing a hydrated bacterial cellulose support structure in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal precipitates in or on the support structure, inserting contact wires into two pieces of the metal impregnated support structure, placing the two pieces of metal impregnated support structure on opposite sides of a layer of hydrated bacterial cellulose, and dehydrating the three layer structure to create a fuel cell.

  20. Cellulose utilization: an overview

    Bassham, J A

    1975-01-01

    To summarize, the conversion of cellulose to ethanol via hydrolysis to glucose followed by fermentation appears to be highly efficient in terms of energy conservation, yield, and quality of product, especially when reasonably high quality cellulosic waste is available.

  1. Ophthalmic masquerades of the atherosclerotic carotids

    Anupriya Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with carotid atherosclerosis can present with ophthalmic symptoms. These symptoms and signs can be due to retinal emboli, hypoperfusion of the retina and choroid, opening up of collateral channels, or chronic hypoperfusion of the globe (ocular ischemic syndrome. These pathological mechanisms can produce many interesting signs and a careful history can bring out important past symptoms pointing toward the carotid as the source of the patient′s presenting symptom. Such patients are at high risk for an ischemic stroke, especially in the subsequent few days following their first acute symptom. It is important for clinicians to be familiar with these ophthalmic symptoms and signs caused by carotid atherosclerosis for making an early diagnosis and to take appropriate measures to prevent a stroke. This review elaborates the clinical features, importance, and implications of various ophthalmic symptoms and signs resulting from atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.

  2. Mydriatics release from solid and semi-solid ophthalmic formulations using different in vitro methods.

    Pescina, Silvia; Macaluso, Claudio; Gioia, Gloria Antonia; Padula, Cristina; Santi, Patrizia; Nicoli, Sara

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present paper was the development of semi-solid (hydrogels) and solid (film) ophthalmic formulations for the controlled release of two mydriatics: phenylephrine and tropicamide. The formulations - based on polyvinylalcohol and hyaluronic acid - were characterized, and release studies were performed with three different in vitro set-ups, i.e. Franz-type diffusion cell, vial method and inclined plane; for comparison, a solution and a commercial insert, both clinically used to induce mydriasis, were evaluated. Both gels and film allowed for a controlled release of drugs, appearing a useful alternative for mydriatics administration. However, the release kinetic was significantly influenced by the method used, highlighting the need for optimization and standardization of in vitro models for the evaluation of drug release from ophthalmic dosage forms.

  3. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous...

  4. 21 CFR 524.390b - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic solution.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol ophthalmic solution. 524.390b... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.390b Chloramphenicol ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains 5...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1982 Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. The drug is...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1044a - Gentamicin ophthalmic solution.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. 524.1044a Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1044a Gentamicin ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1415 - Ophthalmic trial lens frame.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic trial lens frame. 886.1415 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1415 Ophthalmic trial lens frame. (a) Identification. An opthalmic trial lens frame is a mechanical device intended to hold trial lenses for vision...

  8. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    2010-04-01

    ... blood vessels in the eye. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3100 Ophthalmic tantalum clip. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic tantalum clip is a malleable metallic device intended to be implanted permanently...

  9. Treatment of neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis.

    Frohman, Larry P

    2015-03-01

    Because of the rarity of neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis, there are no therapeutic guidelines based on evidence-based medicine for this disorder. Review of literature combined with personal experience. Corticosteroids are the preferred initial therapy for neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis. If patients cannot tolerate the requisite dose of corticosteroid needed to control their disease, or if corticosteroids fail to adequately control the disease process, the choices of a second agent are based on the consideration of rapidity of clinical response and the safety profile. Although methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil are the medications that are often selected after corticosteroid failure, more rapidly acting agents that have been used are infliximab and intravenous cyclophosphamide.

  10. Characterization of cellulose nanowhiskers

    Nascimento, Nayra R.; Pinheiro, Ivanei F.; Morales, Ana R.; Ravagnani, Sergio P.; Mei, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer earth. The cellulose nanowhiskers can be extracted from the cellulose. These have attracted attention for its use in nanostructured materials for various applications, such as nanocomposites, because they have peculiar characteristics, among them, high aspect ratio, biodegradability and excellent mechanical properties. This work aims to characterize cellulose nanowhiskers from microcrystalline cellulose. Therefore, these materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to assess the degree of crystallinity, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to the morphology of nanowhiskers and thermal stability was evaluated by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). (author)

  11. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  12. Topical ophthalmic NSAIDs: a discussion with focus on nepafenac ophthalmic suspension

    Gaynes, Bruce I; Onyekwuluje, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Bruce I Gaynes1,2, Anne Onyekwuluje11Departments of Ophthalmology and 2Pharmacology, Rush College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: The removal of diclofenac sodium ophthalmic solution as a viable pharmaceutical entity in September 1999 from the US market spurred considerable interest in the general safety and effectiveness of topical ophthalmic NSAIDs for treatment of anterior segment inflammation. In late 1999 the use of topical ocular NSAIDs declined in the US as a result of inc...

  13. Lattice insertions for POPAE

    Cho, Y.; Crosbie, E.A.; Diebold, R.; Johnson, D.E.; Ohnuma, S.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Teng, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Four types of insertions are described for the six 200-m straight sections of POPAE. All have dispersion matched to zero. (1) Injection-ejection insertion--This has proper high-β values and phase advances for horizontal injection and vertical ejection. (2) Phase-adjust insertion--The phase advance in this insertion is adjustable over a range of approximately 100 0 . (3) General-purpose insertion--The β* is adjustable from 2.5. to 200 m and the crossing angle is adjustable from 0 to 11 mrad. (4) High-luminosity insertion--This gives an even lower β + of meter

  14. Diquafosol ophthalmic solution for dry eye treatment.

    Nakamura, Masatsugu; Imanaka, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Asuka

    2012-07-01

    There has been rapid progress in our understanding of dry eye pathogenesis, as well as the development of improved diagnostic clinical tests. Various types of dry eye treatment drugs have been developed. This review summarizes the basic and clinical research carried out in the development of diquafosol for ophthalmic use. Diquafosol is a dinucleotide, purinoreceptor P2Y(2) receptor agonist. Basic pharmacological studies have shown that it acts on P2Y(2) receptors at the ocular surface, to promote tear and mucin secretion via elevated intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. Diquafosol also improves tear and mucin secretion in experimental dry eye models. Based on the results of laboratory experiments, the authors conducted a series of clinical studies in patients with dry eye disease. Diquafosol was effective in the treatment of dry eye disease at an optimal dose of 3% six times a day. In comparison to commercially available 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution, 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution showed non-inferiority in improving corneal fluorescein staining scores and superiority in improving keratoconjunctival Rose Bengal staining scores. Diquafosol ophthalmic solution has a novel mechanism of action that is characterized by its stimulatory effects on tear and mucin secretion. This drug has the potential to be effective in patients with tear film instability and short break-up time type of dry eye, which are essential factors in dry eye pathogenesis.

  15. 21 CFR 349.12 - Ophthalmic demulcents.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic demulcents. 349.12 Section 349.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR....2 to 1 percent. (5) Propylene glycol, 0.2 to 1 percent. (e) Polyvinyl alcohol, 0.1 to 4 percent. (f...

  16. Dural AVM supplied by the ophthalmic artery.

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    Dural arteriovenous malformations in the anterior cranial fossa are rare and are especially prone to haemorrhage. These lesions are usually treated by surgical excision. We report the embolization of an anterior cranial fossa DAVM using an endovascular approach via the ophthalmic artery.

  17. Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder

    Paramore, J.E.; King, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references

  18. 21 CFR 349.14 - Ophthalmic emollients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic emollients. 349.14 Section 349.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR.... (4) Petrolatum, up to 100 percent. (5) White ointment, up to 100 percent. (6) White petrolatum, up to...

  19. Ophthalmic gels: Past, present and future.

    Al-Kinani, Ali A; Zidan, Ghada; Elsaid, Naba; Seyfoddin, Ali; Alani, Adam W G; Alany, Raid G

    2018-02-15

    Aqueous gels formulated using hydrophilic polymers (hydrogels) along with those based on stimuli responsive polymers (in situ gelling or gel forming systems) continue to attract increasing interest for various eye health-related applications. They allow the incorporation of a variety of ophthalmic pharmaceuticals to achieve therapeutic levels of drugs and bioactives at target ocular sites. The integration of sophisticated drug delivery technologies such as nanotechnology-based ones with intelligent and environment responsive systems can extend current treatment duration to provide more clinically relevant time courses (weeks and months instead of hours and days) which will inevitably reduce dose frequency, increase patient compliance and improve clinical outcomes. Novel applications and design of contact lenses and intracanalicular delivery devices along with the move towards integrating gels into various drug delivery devices like intraocular pumps, injections and implants has the potential to reduce comorbidities caused by glaucoma, corneal keratopathy, cataract, diabetic retinopathies and age-related macular degeneration. This review describes ophthalmic gelling systems with emphasis on mechanism of gel formation and application in ophthalmology. It provides a critical appraisal of the techniques and methods used in the characterization of ophthalmic preformed gels and in situ gelling systems along with a thorough insight into the safety and biocompatibility of these systems. Newly developed ophthalmic gels, hydrogels, preformed gels and in situ gelling systems including the latest in the area of stimuli responsive gels, molecularly imprinted gels, nanogels, 3D printed hydrogels; 3D printed devices comprising ophthalmic gels are covered. Finally, new applications of gels in the production of artificial corneas, corneal wound healing and hydrogel contact lenses are described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  1. Chest tube insertion

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of amorphous cellulose from triacetate of cellulose

    Vega-Baudrit, Jose; Sibaja, Maria; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Rivera A, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    It was carried-out a study for the synthesis and characterization of amorphous cellulose starting from cellulose triacetate. X-rays diffraction was used in order to obtain the cellulose crystallinity degree, also infrared spectroscopy FTIR was used. (author)

  3. CELLULOSIC NANOCOMPOSITES: A REVIEW

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of their wide abundance, their renewable and environmentally benign nature, and their outstanding mechanical properties, a great deal of attention has been paid recently to cellulosic nanofibrillar structures as components in nanocomposites. A first major challenge has been to find efficient ways to liberate cellulosic fibrils from different source materials, including wood, agricultural residues, or bacterial cellulose. A second major challenge has involved the lack of compatibility of cellulosic surfaces with a variety of plastic materials. The water-swellable nature of cellulose, especially in its non-crystalline regions, also can be a concern in various composite materials. This review of recent work shows that considerable progress has been achieved in addressing these issues and that there is potential to use cellulosic nano-components in a wide range of high-tech applications.

  4. Readability assessment of online ophthalmic patient information.

    Edmunds, Matthew R; Barry, Robert J; Denniston, Alastair K

    2013-12-01

    Patients increasingly use the Internet to access information related to their disease, but poor health literacy is known to impact negatively on medical outcomes. Multiple agencies have recommended that patient-oriented literature be written at a fourth- to sixth-grade (9-12 years of age) reading level to assist understanding. The readability of online patient-oriented materials related to ophthalmic diagnoses is not yet known. To assess the readability of online literature specifically for a range of ophthalmic conditions. Body text of the top 10 patient-oriented websites for 16 different ophthalmic diagnoses, covering the full range of ophthalmic subspecialties, was analyzed for readability, source (United Kingdom vs non-United Kingdom, not for profit vs commercial), and appropriateness for sight-impaired readers. Four validated readability formulas were used: Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Fog Index (GFOG). Data were compared with the Mann-Whitney test (for 2 groups) and Kruskal-Wallis test (for more than 2 groups) and correlation was assessed by the Spearman r. None of the 160 webpages had readability scores within published guidelines, with 83% assessed as being of "difficult" readability. Not-for-profit webpages were of significantly greater length than commercial webpages (P = .02) and UK-based webpages had slightly superior readability scores compared with those of non-UK webpages (P = .004 to P readability formula used). Of all webpages evaluated, only 34% included facility to adjust text size to assist visually impaired readers. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess readability of patient-focused webpages specifically for a range of ophthalmic diagnoses. In keeping with previous studies in other medical conditions, we determined that readability scores were inferior to those recommended, irrespective of the measure used. Although readability is only one

  5. Internally plasticised cellulose polymers

    Burnup, M.; Hayes, G.F.; Fydelor, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Plasticised cellulose polymers comprise base polymer having a chain of β-anhydroglucose units joined by ether linkages, with at least one of said units carrying at least one chemically unreactive side chain derived from an allylic monomer or a vinyl substituted derivative of ferrocene. The side chains are normally formed by radiation grafting. These internally plasticised celluloses are useful in particular as inhibitor coatings for rocket motor propellants and in general wherever cellulose polymers are employed. (author)

  6. Shortcomings of the industrial quality assurance of 106Ru ophthalmic plaques

    Kaulich, T.W.; Nuesslin, F.; Fluehs, D.; Haug, T.; Bamberg, M.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Beta emitting 106 Ru applicators manufactured by Bebig GmbH (Berlin, Germany) are widely used to treat intraocular tumors. The applicators are fixed to the bulbus and removed after several days. The following therapy relevant defects have been detected by an internal clinical acceptance test: risk of leakage and inconsistent dose-rate specifications by the manufacturer. In the meantime, components of the internal clinical acceptance test have been adopted successfully by the manufacturer of the 106 Ru ophthalmic plaques. Material and Method: 106 Ru ophthalmic plaques were tested with the following internal clinical acceptance tests: visual inspection, surface contamination, leakage, and dose-rate verification. The surface contamination test consists of a wet wipe test at moderate pressure. For the leakage test of the 106 Ru ophthalmic plaques a clinically relevant scenario was developed in which the contact of the applicator with human tissue is simulated. In the course of it the applicator is inserted into Ringer's solution for several days. The certified energy dose-rate statements of the manufacturer are examined with a 1 mm 3 plastic scintillator for consistency. (orig.) [de

  7. Are we pharmacovigilant enough in ophthalmic practice?

    Ashok Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No drug is absolutely safe. Pharmacovigilance is the science related to detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems. The ocular medications and devices can cause localized and systemic adverse effects. Not all adverse effects are known when a drug or device is launched in market because of limitations of clinical trials. Many adverse effects are recognized due to the spontaneous reporting of the vigilant doctors who observe and report such events encountered in their practice. Despite a large ophthalmic patient population base, India does not have robust adverse drug reaction (ADR database because of lack of reporting culture. Government of India recently launched the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI to monitor ADRs and create awareness among the healthcare professionals about the importance of ADRs. Suspecting and reporting a possible drug reaction is very important in developing a safe and rational ophthalmic practice.

  8. Medical physics aspects of ophthalmic brachytherapy

    Sharma, S.D.; Shanta, A.; Palani Selvam, T.; Tripathi, U.B.; Bhatt, B.C.

    2004-11-01

    Intraocular melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye. Radiation therapy using ophthalmic plaque has proved successful in the management of various ocular lesions. Although a few centres were using 90 Sr/ 90 Y plaques for shallow turtlours some years ago, eye plaque therapy was not a common practice in India. A revived interest in the use of eye plaque therapy and very high cost of imported sources has led to the development and production of 125 I seed sources by the Radiopharmaceuticals Division, BARC. This report presents a brief description on the clinical, dosimetry and radiation safety aspects of 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 106 Ru/ 106 Rh beta ray and 125 I gamma ray eye plaque applicators. This report has been divided in five Sections. Section I presents general introduction of ophthalmic brachytherapy including the structure of a human eye, types of ophthalmic plaques and characteristics of radioisotopes commonly used in such applications. A brief review of sources, applicators and dosimetry of 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 106 Ru/ 106 Rh beta and 125 I gamma ophthalmic plaques are given in Section II and Section III, respectively. Section IV contains the single seed dosimetry data of BARC OcuProsta 125 I seed as well as dosimetry data of typical eye plaques loaded with BARC OcuProsta 125 I seed. Quality assurance and radiation safety aspects of these eye applicators are described in Section V. A proforma of the application required to be filled in by the user institution for obtaining regulatory consent to start eye plaque therapy has also been appended to this report. (author)

  9. A new kind of monitor for ophthalmic operation

    Li, G; Wang, L L; Wang, Y; Lin, L; Jiang, W; Lu, Stephen C-Y; Besio, Walter G

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of the vision channel is often checked using VEP in order to avoiding damaging important tissue during an ophthalmic operation. But the measurement of before operations has strong side effects, it may damage the eyeball. We will introduce a new kind for monitoring ophthalmic operations in this paper. It uses visual electrical evoked potential to check the integrity of the vision access and it can monitor ophthalmic operations and avoid damaging any tissue, so it ensures the safety of the operation

  10. A new kind of monitor for ophthalmic operation

    Li, G [College of Precision Instrument and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wang, L L [College of Precision Instrument and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wang, Y [College of Precision Instrument and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Lin, L [College of Precision Instrument and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Jiang, W [College of Precision Instrument and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Lu, Stephen C-Y [College of Precision Instrument and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Besio, Walter G [Biomedical Engineering Program, and Center for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Science Louisiana Tech. University, LA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of the vision channel is often checked using VEP in order to avoiding damaging important tissue during an ophthalmic operation. But the measurement of before operations has strong side effects, it may damage the eyeball. We will introduce a new kind for monitoring ophthalmic operations in this paper. It uses visual electrical evoked potential to check the integrity of the vision access and it can monitor ophthalmic operations and avoid damaging any tissue, so it ensures the safety of the operation.

  11. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  12. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    Palte HD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Howard D Palte Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon’s block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it

  13. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  14. Ex vivo rabbit cornea diffusion studies with a soluble insert of moxifloxacin.

    Sebastián-Morelló, María; Calatayud-Pascual, María Aracely; Rodilla, Vicent; Balaguer-Fernández, Cristina; López-Castellano, Alicia

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate an ocular insert for the controlled drug delivery of moxifloxacin which could perhaps be used in the treatment of corneal keratitis or even bacterial endophthalmitis. We have evaluated the ex vivo ocular diffusion of moxifloxacin through rabbit cornea, both fresh and preserved under different conditions. Histological studies were also carried out. Subsequently, drug matrix inserts were prepared using bioadhesive polymers. The inserts were evaluated for their physicochemical parameters. Ophthalmic ex vivo permeation of moxifloxacin was carried out with the most promising insert. The formulate insert was thin and provided higher ocular diffusion than commercial formulations. Ocular diffusion studies revealed significant differences between fresh and frozen corneas. Histological examinations also showed differences in the thickness of stroma between fresh and frozen corneas. The ophthalmic insert we have developed allows a larger quantity of moxifloxacin to permeate through the cornea than existing commercial formulations of the drug. Ocular delivery of moxifloxacin with this insert could be a new approach for the treatment of eye diseases.

  15. Sildenafil dilates ophthalmic artery in type 2 diabetic patients

    Akeel AMH Zwain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conflicting reports exist on the effect of sildenafil on ophthalmic artery blood flow; many visual disturbances due to vascular insult were reported with the use of sildenafil in diabetic patients like nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. Objectives: The present work aimed to investigate whether sildenafil modulates ophthalmic artery vasoreactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Literature reports on this aspect are lacking. Methods: A total of 35 male subjects were enrolled in this study, 18 with type 2 diabetes mellitus matched with 17 normal individuals. Ophthalmic artery was insonated through a transorbital window using colored Doppler equipment with transcranial Doppler facility. Ophthalmic artery reactivity was assessed using breath holding/hyperventilation test, before and after giving 50 mg oral sildenafil. Results: It was found that in both normal subjects and diabetic patients, sildenafil increased baseline control of mean flow velocity of ophthalmic artery significantly (p 0.05 after sildenafil, in normal and diabetic groups. There was a significant increase of resistive index of ophthalmic artery flow in diabetic patients compared with that of normal subject (p < 0.05. Sildenafil decreased resistive index of ophthalmic artery flow significantly only in diabetic patients (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Sildenafil increased MFVopa, but had no significant effect on vasoreactivity of ophthalmic artery; sildenafil decreased resistive index only in type 2 diabetic patients.

  16. 21 CFR 886.4350 - Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument. 886.4350 Section 886.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... suturing needle, lachrymal probe, trabeculotomy probe, cornea-sclera punch, ophthalmic retractor...

  17. Insertion Modeling and Its Applications

    Alexander Letichevsky; Oleksandr Letychevskyi; Vladimir Peschanenko

    2016-01-01

    The paper relates to the theoretical and practical aspects of insertion modeling. Insertion modeling is a theory of agents and environments interaction where an environment is considered as agent with a special insertion function. The main notions of insertion modeling are presented. Insertion Modeling System is described as a tool for development of different kinds of insertion machines. The research and industrial applications of Insertion Modeling System are presented.

  18. Percutaneous Ureteral stent insertion

    Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Percutaneous ureteral stent insertion is a treatment of permanent or temporary urinary diversion to maintain continuity and function of the obstructed and injured ureter. We performed 31 cases of percutaneous double pig tall ureteral stent insertion in 21 patients, included 13 patients with malignant ureteral obstruction and eight patients with injured ureter as well as benign inflammatory stricture. Satisfactory resulted was obtained in all patients but one, who need percutaneous nephrostomy on week later for urinary diversion. No significant complication was encountered. The authors concluded that percutaneous ureteral stent insertion, an interventional procedure alternative to urologic retrograde method, is an effective method for urinary diversion.

  19. Fulton Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    Sumait, Necy [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Cuzens, John [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Klann, Richard [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    Final report on work performed by BlueFire on the deployment of acid hydrolysis technology to convert cellulosic waste materials into renewable fuels, power and chemicals in a production facility to be located in Fulton, Mississippi.

  20. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

    1983-05-13

    A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  1. Influence of Ophthalmic Solutions on Tear Components.

    Shigeyasu, Chika; Yamada, Masakazu; Akune, Yoko

    2016-11-01

    Tear fluids are a mixture of secretions derived from lacrimal glands, accessory lacrimal glands, conjunctiva, and meibomian glands. Compositional changes to tears occur in the normal state and during ocular surface disease, such as dry eye conditions. We have investigated compositional changes to tears after topical application of ophthalmic solutions, with regard to tear-specific proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lipocalin-1, and lysozyme) and ocular surface mucin in normal and dry eye conditions using high-performance liquid chromatography. After application of saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride) in normal subjects, transient but significant decreases in all tear components were observed. The recovery of protein concentrations took up to 30 minutes and lasted longer when the saline solution was applied more frequently. When applying ophthalmic solutions, a balance between washout and dilutional effects should be considered in addition to the therapeutic effect. Investigation of the effect of diquafosol solution (3%) in normal subjects revealed a significant increase in sialic acid concentration, a marker of ocular mucin, at 5 minutes after application, whereas a significant decrease was observed with saline. This result indicates the accelerated secretion of mucin from ocular tissues induced by diquafosol. A clinical study to determine the efficacy of diquafosol in patients with dry eye revealed improvements in tear breakup time, keratoconjunctival staining scores, and Schirmer test score, accompanied by an increase in sialic acid concentration in tears. Investigating normal and dry eye conditions through tear analysis may clarify the pathophysiology of dry eye conditions and support the efficacy of treatments.

  2. Radioactivity measurements for some ophthalmic glasses

    Badawy, W.M.; Ali, E.M.; Gomaa, M.A.; Hussein, A

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the present work is to implant the latest ICRP/IAEA recommendations related to exemption and clearness to the Ophthalmic Glass. As consumer product, glass lenses may contain trace quantities of uranium, thorium and potassium. Glass lenses under investigation were monitored for the detection of gamma rays and beta particles using radiation measuring devices. Using high purity germanium detector radioactivity concentration was estimated in Bq/kg. Activity concentration of 226 Ra, Th-232 and K-40 were determined using the energy gamma lines of 2l4 Pb (352 keV), 212 Pb (238 keV) and 1460 keV gamma line for 40 K respectively .Experimental results showed that radioactivity concentration for radium -226 varies from 0.19 to 4.98 Bq/kg of radium-226, from to 0.18 to 2.83 Bq/kg for thorium -232 and from 0.8 to 1.13 Bq/kg for potassium. Implementing new ICRP recommendation of exemption and clearness indicated that several Ophthalmic Glass should not be in use

  3. Pulsed UV laser technologies for ophthalmic surgery

    Razhev, A M; Bagayev, S N; Churkin, D S; Kargapol’tsev, E S; Chernykh, V V; Iskakov, I A; Ermakova, O V

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the results of multiyear joint researches of team of collaborators of Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS together with NF IRTC “Eye Microsurgery” for the period from 1988 to the present, in which were first proposed and experimentally realized laser medical technologies for correction of refractive errors of known today as LASIK, the treatment of ophthalmic herpes and open-angle glaucoma. It is proposed to carry out operations for the correction of refractive errors the use of UV excimer KrCl laser with a wavelength of 222 nm. The same laser emission is the most suitable for the treatment of ophthalmic herpes, because it has a high clinical effect, combined with many years of absence of recrudescence. A minimally invasive technique of glaucoma operations using excimer XeCl laser (λ=308 nm) is developed. Its wavelength allows perform all stages of glaucoma operations, while the laser head itself has high stability and lifetime, will significantly reduce operating costs, compared with other types of lasers. (paper)

  4. Audit of patients' awareness of ophthalmic diagnoses.

    Sudesh, S; Downes, S M; McDonnell, P J

    1993-09-01

    Providing information to patients about their medical condition and treatment options is important in medical management. To assess patients' knowledge of their ocular disease, prognosis, and treatment a questionnaire based survey was performed. 219 patients selected by random systematic sampling during six months from patients attending general ophthalmic clinics in Selly Oak Hospital, Birmingham, were questioned and 217 questionnaires were analysed. The findings showed that patients' knowledge of their diagnosis depended on their condition: patients with common conditions such as glaucoma and cataract had a better understanding of their condition, its treatment, and prognosis compared with patients with rarer conditions such as retinal detachment or patients with multiple diagnoses. In all, 152 patients (70%) wanted more information about their condition; 49 (23%) did not (although 12 (25%) had attempted to obtain information); and 16 (7%) were undecided. In view of the few patients with a precise understanding of their ophthalmic diagnosis and prognosis and the majority's wish for access to further information, that access needs improvement and different modes of disseminating the information should be implemented.

  5. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan.

    Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Lin, I-Chan; Shen, Yun-Dun; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Ocular Insert: Dosage Form for Sustain Opthalmic Drug Delivery

    Sunil Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Except for skin, the eye is the most easily accessible site for topical administration of a medication. Traditional topical ophthalmic formulations (eye drops and ointments have poor bioavailability because of rapid pre-corneal elimination, conjunctival absorption, solution drainage by gravity, induced lacrimation and normal tear turnover. This leads to frequent installations of concentrated medication to achieve a therapeutic effect. The typical “pulse-entry” type drug release observed with ocular aqueous solutions (eye drops, suspensions and ointments can be replaced by more controlled, sustained, and continuous drug delivery, using a controlled-release ocular drug delivery system. Ocular inserts are solid or semisolid sterile preparations, of appropriate size and shape, designed to be inserted behind the eyelid or held on the eye and to deliver drugs for topical or systemic effect. These are polymeric systems into which the drug is incorporated as a solution or dispersion. They are better tolerated as to drainage and tear flow compared with other ophthalmic formulation and produce reliable drug release in the conjunctival cul-de-sac.

  7. Physicochemical analysis of cellulose from microalgae ...

    USER

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... The extraction method of algae cellulose was a modification of ... triplicate. Characterization of cellulose. Analysis of ... The current analysis of the cellulose extracted .... Cellulose nanomaterials review: structure, properties and.

  8. Laser tissue welding in ophthalmic surgery.

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Ratto, Fulvio; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Pini, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    Laser welding of ocular tissues is an alternative technique or adjunct to conventional suturing in ophthalmic surgery. It is based on the photothermal interaction of laser light with the main components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissues. The advantages of the welding procedure with respect to standard suturing and stapling are reduced operation times, lesser inflammation, faster healing and increased ability to induce tissue regeneration. The procedure we set up is based on the use of an infrared diode laser in association with the topical application of the chromophore Indocyanine Green. Laser light may be delivered either continuously or in pulses, thus identifying two different techniques that have been applied clinically in various types of transplants of the cornea.

  9. An historical ophthalmic study of Jane Austen.

    Wilson, Graham A

    2012-11-01

    Today, no other classic novelist has the popularity or power of Jane Austen, and in 2013 the world will celebrate 200 years of her comic masterpiece Pride and Prejudice. Her millions of fans have an abiding fascination with all aspects of her life, including her health and the cause of her death. This historical ophthalmic study of Jane Austen, based on very incomplete medical bibliographic data, finds that she had a mild ocular surface disorder from age 23. This disorder did not significantly impact on her visual performance for writing. There are many references to eyes in her novels, but Jane's eyes and those of her characters cannot contribute further to the debate around the cause of her death at age 41.

  10. Flow analysis of the ophthalmic artery

    Harada, Kuniaki; Hashimoto, Masato; Bandoh, Michio; Odawara, Yoshihiro; Kamagata, Masaki; Shirase, Ryuji [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the hemodynamics of ophthalmic artery flow using phase contrast MR angiography (PC-MRA). A total of 14 eyes from 10 normal volunteers and a patient with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) were analyzed. The optimal conditions were time repetition (TR)/echo time (TE)/flip angle (FA)/nex=40 ms/minimum/90 deg/2, field of view (FOV)=6 cm, matrix size=256 x 256. The resistive index (RI) and pulsatillity index (PI) values were significantly raised in the patient with NTG when compared to the control group. We therefore believe that PC-MRA may be a useful clinical tool for the assessment of the mechanism of NTG. (author)

  11. Ophthalmic public health; the way ahead.

    Heidary, F; Rahimi, A; Gharebaghi, R

    2012-01-01

    Visual sciences have been progressing quickly in recent decades through globalization phenomenon. An enormous change has taken place in ocular health issues, however, there are various problems facing ophthalmic public health worldwide. In the previous years, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eradicate avoidable blindness by the year 2020, VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has concentrated on the prevention of blindness disability and recognized a health issue-sight as a human right. In view of challenges ahead of visual sciences, close collaboration between international agencies at the global level to implement new strategies and monitor the progress will be mandatory. In these circumstances non-governmental organizations should not be neglected. World Sight Day 2012 would be a great opportunity to be a focus on importance of visual impairment as an important public health issue and discovering new challenges ahead.

  12. Ophthalmic comlications of functional endoscopic sinus surgery

    Sergey A. Karpishchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS is an effective and safe surgical technique, which revolutionized the surgical management of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus diseases. The intimate connection between paranasal sinuses and the orbit places the orbital content at a risk of injury during sinus surgery, especially that of ethmoid sinuses. The orbit, the optic nerve, extraocular muscles and the lacrimal drainage system could be damaged during FESS. The risk of injury correlates to anatomical variations, degree and severity of disease, previous procedure results, and surgical experience. Ophthalmic complications can vary in severity from minor ones, such as localized hematomas, to extremely dangerous, such as optic nerve injury, that could lead to complete blindness. In order to minimize the risk of such complications, it is necessary to consider probable anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses and orbit, which are to be detected by CT scan before surgery.

  13. Numerical Modeling of Ophthalmic Response to Space

    Nelson, E. S.; Myers, J. G.; Mulugeta, L.; Vera, J.; Raykin, J.; Feola, A.; Gleason, R.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate ophthalmic changes in spaceflight, we would like to predict the impact of blood dysregulation and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) on Intraocular Pressure (IOP). Unlike other physiological systems, there are very few lumped parameter models of the eye. The eye model described here is novel in its inclusion of the human choroid and retrobulbar subarachnoid space (rSAS), which are key elements in investigating the impact of increased ICP and ocular blood volume. Some ingenuity was required in modeling the blood and rSAS compartments due to the lack of quantitative data on essential hydrodynamic quantities, such as net choroidal volume and blood flowrate, inlet and exit pressures, and material properties, such as compliances between compartments.

  14. Dosimetry of Sr-90 ophthalmic applicators

    Reft, C.S.; Kuchnir, F.T.; Rosenberg, I.; Myrianthopoulos, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sr-90 ophthalmic applicators are commonly used for the treatment of superficial eye disorders. Although a variety of dosimetric devices such as film, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), ion chambers, and radiochromic foils have been used to measure the peak dose at the applicator surface, there is no internationally agreed upon calibration procedure. Recently, large discrepancies among calibrations of the same applicator at three institutions have been reported. Here we describe a technique to obtain the peak dose rate at the applicator surface using LiF TLD's. The technique can be used for the calibration of flat as well as curved surface applicators. Results for two flat and three concave applicators are presented. Our measurement of the surface dose rate for one of the flat applicators is compared with those obtained by four other institutions, each using different dosimetric devices

  15. ALS insertion devices

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1990-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Nakata, H.; Yorihaz, H.

    1990-04-01

    The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author) [pt

  17. ISABELLE insertion quadrupoles

    Kaugerts, J.; Polk, I.; Sampson, W.; Dahl, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Beam focussing and control at the beam intersection regions of ISABELLE is accomplished by a number of superconducting insertion quadrupoles. These magnets differ from the standard ISABELLE quadrupoles in various ways. In particular, the requirements of limited space near the intersections and aperture for beam extraction impose constraints on their configuration. To achieve optimum beam focussing and provide tuning flexibility calls for stronger quadrupole trim windings than those in the standard quadrupoles. The magnetic and mechanical design of the insertion quadrupoles and their associated correction and steering windings to accomplish the above tasks is presented

  18. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  19. Method of inserting fuel rod

    Kamimoto, Shuji; Imoo, Makoto; Tsuchida, Kenji.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of inserting a fuel rod upon automatic assembling, automatic dismantling and reassembling of a fuel assembly in a light water moderated reactor, as well as a device and components used therefor. That is, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to an aimed point of insertion by surrounding the periphery of the fuel rod to be inserted with guide rods, and thereby suppressing the movement of the fuel rod during insertion. Alternatively, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to a point of insertion by inserting guide rods at the periphery of the point of insertion for the fuel rod to be inserted thereby surrounding the point of insertion with the guide rods or fuel rods. By utilizing fuel rods already present in the fuel assembly as the guide rods described above, the fuel rod can be inserted reliably to the point of insertion with no additional devices. Dummy fuel rods are previously inserted in a fuel assembly which are then utilized as the above-mentioned guide rods to accurately insert the fuel rod to the point of insertion. (I.S.)

  20. Insertion in Persian

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  1. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  2. Risk factors of ophthalmic disorders in children with developmental delay

    Sandfeld, L.N.; Jensen, H.; Skov, L.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12......PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  3. The cellulose resource matrix

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  4. Fuel insert shuffler

    Naser, J.; Colley, R.; Gaiser, J.; Brookmire, T.; Engle, S.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for the use of expert systems in the nuclear power industry is widely recognized. The benefits of such systems include consistency of reasoning during off-normal situations when humans are under great stress, the reduction of time required to perform certain functions and the retention of human expertise in performing specialized functions. As the potential benefits are more and more demonstrated and realized, the development of expert systems becomes a necessary part of the nuclear power industry. The development of the fuel insert shuffle expert system is used as a case study. In fact, it shows that the potential benefits are realizable. Currently, the development of the insert shuffle plan requires three to four man-weeks of effort. Further modifications to this plan are sometimes required dur to either changes in the desired core load pattern or damaged fuel assemblies or inserts. These changes generally require two to four man-days of effort and could be stressful if they are critical path items on the outage schedule

  5. Stability study of azithromycin in ophthalmic preparations

    Andréia de Haro Moreno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A stability study of azithromycin in ophthalmic preparations was developed by submission to different types of light, temperature and pH, using the biodiffusion assay (cylinder 3 x 3 for the quantifications. Bacillus subtilis, ATCC 9372, was used as test organism. The used concentration range was of 50 to 200 µg/mL. The study demonstrated that the drug suffered degradation when submitted to the ultraviolet light, germicide light, solar luminosity, acid solution, basic solution and hydrogen peroxide solution. The results were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA.O estudo de estabilidade de azitromicina em preparações oftálmicas foi realizado após exposição a diferentes tipos de luz, temperatura e pH, utilizando o método de difusão em ágar (cilindros 3 x 3 para as quantificações. A faixa de concentração foi de 50 a 200 µg/mL. O estudo demonstrou que o fármaco sofreu degradação quando submetido às luzes ultravioleta, germicida e solar, e a soluções ácida, alcalina e de peróxido de hidrogênio. Os resultados foram analisados através da análise da variância (ANOVA.

  6. Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery: A nursing perspective

    Mary Elizabeth Davis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma (RB is the most common primary cancer to affect the eyes in children with approximately 350 cases/year in the United States and 8000 worldwide. Today, sadly, 50% of children with RB worldwide die from their disease. In our experience, utilization of ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC has transformed the treatment plan for patients; with over 1500 procedures performed, our survival rate exceeds 98%. It is now our standard first-line therapy for RB. OAC is a surgical outpatient procedure which delivers concentrated doses of chemotherapy directly to the tumor without the toxicities of systemic chemotherapy. Our team approach and nursing management of these patients are the focus of this article. Nursing navigation and collaboration after OAC is vital and requires a combined effort by the nurses along with physicians, interventional radiologists, and the patient's families to ensure appropriate follow-up is established. Proper patient education throughout the process is crucial as is open and available communication for parents of patients with the nursing staff. The success in our treatment of this disease can be much accredited to the multidisciplinary team approach, with nursing playing an integral part in the support and management of these patients.

  7. JPEG and wavelet compression of ophthalmic images

    Eikelboom, Robert H.; Yogesan, Kanagasingam; Constable, Ian J.; Barry, Christopher J.

    1999-05-01

    This study was designed to determine the degree and methods of digital image compression to produce ophthalmic imags of sufficient quality for transmission and diagnosis. The photographs of 15 subjects, which inclined eyes with normal, subtle and distinct pathologies, were digitized to produce 1.54MB images and compressed to five different methods: (i) objectively by calculating the RMS error between the uncompressed and compressed images, (ii) semi-subjectively by assessing the visibility of blood vessels, and (iii) subjectively by asking a number of experienced observers to assess the images for quality and clinical interpretation. Results showed that as a function of compressed image size, wavelet compressed images produced less RMS error than JPEG compressed images. Blood vessel branching could be observed to a greater extent after Wavelet compression compared to JPEG compression produced better images then a JPEG compression for a given image size. Overall, it was shown that images had to be compressed to below 2.5 percent for JPEG and 1.7 percent for Wavelet compression before fine detail was lost, or when image quality was too poor to make a reliable diagnosis.

  8. Optimization of 125I ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy

    Astrahan, M.A.; Luxton, G.; Jozsef, G.; Liggett, P.E.; Petrovich, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Episcleral plaques containing 125 I sources are often used in the treatment of ocular melanoma. Within four years post-treatment, however, the majority of patients experience some visual loss due to radiation retinopathy. The high incidence of late complications suggests that careful treatment optimization may lead to improved outcome. The goal of optimization would be to reduce the magnitude of vision-limiting complications without compromising tumor control. We have developed a three-dimensional computer model for ophthalmic plaque therapy which permits us to explore the potential of various optimization strategies. One simple strategy which shows promise is to maximize the ratio of dose to the tumor apex (T) compared to dose to the macula (M). By modifying the parameters of source location, activity distribution, source orientation, and shielding we find that the calculated T:M ratio can be varied by a factor of 2 for a common plaque design and posterior tumor location. Margins and dose to the tumor volume remain essentially unchanged

  9. Dose uniformity of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel (0.5% compared with branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension (1%

    Marlowe ZT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Zora T Marlowe, Stephen R DavioPharmaceutical Product Development, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Bausch and Lomb, Inc, Rochester, NY, USAIntroduction: Loteprednol etabonate (LE ophthalmic gel 0.5% (Lotemax® is a new polycarbophil-based, nonsettling topical ophthalmic formulation. The formulation is a semisolid gel at rest and a shear thinning fluid when expressed through a dropper tip. The present study was undertaken to determine how the nonsettling character of LE ophthalmic gel affects dose uniformity. Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% (Pred Forte® and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension 1% were used as comparators.Methods: Drug concentrations of LE ophthalmic gel, Pred Forte, and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension were determined following simulated dosing – consisting of 2 drops, expressed four times daily for 2 weeks, with bottles that were shaken or not shaken immediately prior to expressing the drops. Drug concentrations were determined using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method and reported as a percentage of the declared (labeled concentration. Comparative kinetics of drug particle sedimentation were also determined for each formulation, using dispersion analysis under gravity.Results: Mean drug concentrations in drops of all three formulations were within a few percentage points of the declared concentration when the bottles were shaken for 5 seconds prior to dispensing. Only LE ophthalmic gel showed consistent and on-target concentrations when the bottles were unshaken prior to dispensing, with a mean (standard deviation [SD] percent declared concentration of 102% (1.92% over the 2-week dosing regimen. Drug concentrations for the branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions following expression from unshaken bottles were highly variable (overall relative SDs of 16.8% and 20.3%, respectively, with mean concentrations for both falling significantly

  10. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose derivatives obtained from bacterial cellulose

    Oliveira, Rafael L. de; Barud, Hernane; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Messaddeq, Younes

    2011-01-01

    The chemical modification of cellulose leads to production of derivatives with different properties from those observed for the original cellulose, for example, increased solubility in more traditional solvents. In this work we synthesized four derivatives of cellulose: microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose acetate, methylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose using bacterial cellulose as a source. These were characterized in terms of chemical and structural changes by examining the degree of substitution (DS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - NMR 13 C. The molecular weight and degree of polymerization were evaluated by viscometry. The characterization of the morphology of materials and thermal properties were performed with the techniques of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy images, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis. (author)

  11. Glucose production for cellulose

    Suzuki, S; Karube, I

    1977-04-16

    Glucose was produced from cellulose by passing a cellulose solution through a column of an immobilized cellulase which was prepared by coating an inorganic carrier such as macadam or stainless steel beads with collagen containing the cellulase. Thus, 4 mL of 5% cellulase T-AP (60,000 units/g) solution was dissolved in 100 g of 0.9% collagen solution and the solution mixed with 60 g of macadam (diam. = 0.5 to 1.5 mm) and stirred for 10 min. The treated beads were dried in air at 10/sup 0/ to yield an immobilized enzyme retaining 64% of its activity. Through a column (0.8 x 20 cm) packed with 3 g of the immobilized enzyme, 100 mL of 0.33% Avicel SF solution was circulated at 26.4 mL/min at 30/sup 0/ for 60 h. The Avicel SF conversion to glucose was 23%.

  12. Fuel assembly insertion system

    Barkhurst, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor facility having fuel bundles: a system for the insertion of a fuel bundle into a position where vertically arranged fuel bundles surround and are adjacent the system comprising, in combination, separate and individual centering devices secured to and disposed on top of each fuel bundle adjacent the position. Each such centering device has a generally box-like cap configuration on the upper end of each fuel bundle and includes: a top wall; first and second side walls, each secured along and upper edge to the top wall; a rear plate attached along opposite vertical edges to the first and second side walls; a front inclined wall joined along an upper edge to the top to the wall and attached along opposite vertical edges first and second side walls; pad means secured to the lower edge of the first and second side walls, the front inclined wall and the rear plate for mounting each centering device on top of an associated fuel bundle; pin means carried by at least two of the pad means engageable with an associated aperature for locating and laterally fixing each centering device on top of its respective fuel bundle. Each front inclined wall of each of the centering devices is orientated on top of its respective fuel bundle to slope upwardly and away from the position where upon downward insertion of a fuel bundle any contact between the lower end of the fuel bundle inserted with a front inclined wall of a centering device will laterally deflect the fuel bundle. Each centering device further includes a central socket means secured to the top wall, and an elongated handling pole pivotally attached to the socket

  13. High Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    Ali, Ola

    2013-01-01

    Regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes are extensively used in medical and pharmaceutical separation processes due to their biocompatibility, low fouling tendency and solvent resistant properties. They typically possess ultrafiltration

  14. Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution 5%: A Review in Dry Eye Disease.

    Keating, Gillian M

    2017-02-01

    Lifitegrast is a novel small molecule integrin antagonist that blocks the binding of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) to lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). Lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5% (Xiidra™) was recently approved in the USA for the treatment of dry eye disease. The efficacy of lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5% was compared with vehicle in a 12-week phase 2 study and three 12-week phase 3 studies (OPUS-1, OPUS-2 and OPUS-3) in patients with dry eye disease. Taken as a whole, results of these trials support the treatment effect of lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5% in improving a symptom of dry eye disease (i.e. the change from baseline to day 84 in the eye dryness visual analogue scale score) and a sign of dry eye disease (i.e. the change from baseline to day 84 in the inferior corneal fluorescein staining score). Lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5% was generally well tolerated. In conclusion, lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5% provides a new option for the treatment of dry eye disease.

  15. Data Insertion in Bitcoin's Blockchain

    Andrew Sward

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first comprehensive survey of methods for inserting arbitrary data into Bitcoin’s blockchain. Historical methods of data insertion are described, along with lesser-known techniques that are optimized for efficiency. Insertion methods are compared on the basis of efficiency, cost, convenience of data reconstruction, permanence, and potentially negative impact on the Bitcoin ecosystem.

  16. Formulation and development of ophthalmic in situ gel for the treatment ocular inflammation and infection using application of quality by design concept.

    Patel, Nirav; Thakkar, Vaishali; Metalia, Viral; Baldaniya, Lalji; Gandhi, Tejal; Gohel, Mukesh

    2016-09-01

    The conventional liquid ophthalmic delivery systems exhibit short pre-corneal residence time and the relative impermeability to the cornea which leads to poor ocular bioavailability. The aim of this study was to apply quality by design (QbD) for development of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) and tobramycin sulfate (TS)-loaded thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gel containing Poloxamer 407 and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M for prolonging the pre-corneal residence time, ocular bioavability and decreases the frequency of administration of dosage form. The material attributes and the critical quality attributes (CQA) of the in situ gel were identified. Central composite design (CCD) was adopted to optimize the formulation. The ophthalmic in situ forming gels were prepared by cold method. Materials attributes were the amount of Poloxamer 407 and HPMC and CQA identified were Gel strength, mucoadhesive index, gelation temperature and % of drug release of both drug. Optimized batch (F*) containing 16.75% poloxamer 407 and 0.54% HPMC K4M were exhibited all results in acceptable limits. Compared with the marketed formulation, optimized in situ gel showed delayed Tmax, improved Cmax and AUC in rabbit aqueous humor, suggesting the sustained drug release and better corneal penetration and absorption. According to the study, it could be concluded that DSP and TS would be successfully formulated as in situ gelling mucoadhesive system for the treatment of steroid responsive eye infections with the properties of sustained drug release, prolonged ocular retention and improved corneal penetration.

  17. Dose uniformity of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel (0.5%) compared with branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension (1%).

    Marlowe, Zora T; Davio, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Loteprednol etabonate (LE) ophthalmic gel 0.5% (Lotemax®) is a new polycarbophil-based, nonsettling topical ophthalmic formulation. The formulation is a semisolid gel at rest and a shear thinning fluid when expressed through a dropper tip. The present study was undertaken to determine how the nonsettling character of LE ophthalmic gel affects dose uniformity. Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% (Pred Forte®) and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension 1% were used as comparators. Drug concentrations of LE ophthalmic gel, Pred Forte, and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension were determined following simulated dosing - consisting of 2 drops, expressed four times daily for 2 weeks, with bottles that were shaken or not shaken immediately prior to expressing the drops. Drug concentrations were determined using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and reported as a percentage of the declared (labeled) concentration. Comparative kinetics of drug particle sedimentation were also determined for each formulation, using dispersion analysis under gravity. Mean drug concentrations in drops of all three formulations were within a few percentage points of the declared concentration when the bottles were shaken for 5 seconds prior to dispensing. Only LE ophthalmic gel showed consistent and on-target concentrations when the bottles were unshaken prior to dispensing, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) percent declared concentration of 102% (1.92%) over the 2-week dosing regimen. Drug concentrations for the branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions following expression from unshaken bottles were highly variable (overall relative SDs of 16.8% and 20.3%, respectively), with mean concentrations for both falling significantly below the declared concentration for drops expressed at the beginning of the 2-week dosing regimen and significantly above the declared concentration for drops expressed near the end of the dosing

  18. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  19. Determination of permeability coefficients of ophthalmic drugs through different layers of porcine, rabbit and bovine eyes

    Nagel, Stefan; Guthoff, Rudolf F.; Weitschies, Werner; Seidlitz, Anne; Kristl, Albin; Žakelj, Simon; Loch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To treat ophthalmic diseases like glaucoma or inflammatory disorders topically applied ophthalmic formulations such as eye drops are usually used. In addition, novel ophthalmic implants releasing drug substances locally into different parts of the eye are available today. In the work presented here, the permeability coefficients of selected drugs (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride, timolol maleate) for ophthalmic tissues were determined using side-by-side diffusion chambers...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    2010-04-01

    ... ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a...

  1. 76 FR 30176 - Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    2011-05-24

    ... committee will discuss biologics license application (BLA) 125387, aflibercept ophthalmic solution, proposed...] Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...: Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and...

  2. Audit of Referrals to an Ophthalmic Outpatient Clinic of a Tertiary ...

    Objectives: To determine the referral pattern and assess the quality and accuracy of referral letters to the ophthalmic outpatient clinic of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Methods: This study is a prospective cross-sectional survey of all new ophthalmic referrals to the ophthalmic outpatient clinic at University of ...

  3. Challenges Encountered Using Ophthalmic Anesthetics in Space Medicine

    Bayuse, T.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Moynihan, S.; LeBlanc, C.; Langford, K.; Magalhaes, L.

    2015-01-01

    On orbit, ophthalmic anesthetics are used for tonometry and off-nominal corneal examinations. Proparacaine has been flown traditionally. However, the manufacturers recently changed its storage requirements from room temperature storage to refrigerated storage to preserve stability and prolong the shelf-life. Since refrigeration on orbit is not readily available and there were stability concerns about flying proparacaine unrefrigerated, tetracaine was selected as an alternative ophthalmic anesthetic in 2013. We will discuss the challenges encountered flying and using these anesthetics on the International Space Station.

  4. Drug-loaded Cellulose Acetate and Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films ...

    The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the contribution of formulation variables on release properties of matrix type ocular films containing chloramphenicol as a model drug. This study investigated the use of cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate as film-forming agents in development of ocular films.

  5. Ocular lens availability of glutathione from collagen inserts for protection of eye from radiation

    Omer, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Ocular inserts of glutathione ( G ) were prepared using 1 % collagen solution containing free G ,liposomal G and liposomal G with Concanavalin A ,a specific targeting agent of G to ocular lens. These inserts have to be sterilized for in-vivo ophthalmic application by exposure to U V radiation for 2 hr. using dry ice and acetone for protection of G from thermal degradation. In vitro release characteristics of G (17.0 μ mole) from the prepared inserts were investigated at 37deg C in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 . The results of release data showed that the release of G from inserts were arranged in the following order, free G, liposomal G with or without Concanavalin A. The extent of uptake of G from the collagen inserts by rabbit cornea was also tested. The results of ocular lens availability of G from collagen inserts revealed that a highly significant increase in the uptake of G by ocular lenses,where the percentages drug uptake from the applied doses at T max were 1.12% (p(0.05), 2.12% (p(0.01) and 3.4% (p(0.001) in case of using collagen inserts containing free G, liposomal G and liposomal G with Concanavalin A respectively. That is to say,lipid nature of liposomes together with Concanavlin A improved the penetration of the entrapped hydrophilic G through corneal barrier to the ocular lenses

  6. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    Leonhardt, J.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Langguth, H.; Gey, M.; Huebert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given. (author)

  7. Cellulose synthase complex organization and cellulose microfibril structure.

    Turner, Simon; Kumar, Manoj

    2018-02-13

    Cellulose consists of linear chains of β-1,4-linked glucose units, which are synthesized by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). In plants, these chains associate in an ordered manner to form the cellulose microfibrils. Both the CSC and the local environment in which the individual chains coalesce to form the cellulose microfibril determine the structure and the unique physical properties of the microfibril. There are several recent reviews that cover many aspects of cellulose biosynthesis, which include trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane and the relationship between the movement of the CSC and the underlying cortical microtubules (Bringmann et al. 2012 Trends Plant Sci. 17 , 666-674 (doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2012.06.003); Kumar & Turner 2015 Phytochemistry 112 , 91-99 (doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.07.009); Schneider et al. 2016 Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 34 , 9-16 (doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2016.07.007)). In this review, we will focus on recent advances in cellulose biosynthesis in plants, with an emphasis on our current understanding of the structure of individual catalytic subunits together with the local membrane environment where cellulose synthesis occurs. We will attempt to relate this information to our current knowledge of the structure of the cellulose microfibril and propose a model in which variations in the structure of the CSC have important implications for the structure of the cellulose microfibril produced.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  9. Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Alan R. White; Ann G. Matthysse

    2004-07-31

    We have cloned the celC gene and its homologue from E. coli, yhjM, in an expression vector and expressed the both genes in E. coli; we have determined that the YhjM protein is able to complement in vitro cellulose synthesis by extracts of A. tumefaciens celC mutants, we have purified the YhjM protein product and are currently examining its enzymatic activity; we have examined whole cell extracts of CelC and various other cellulose mutants and wild type bacteria for the presence of cellulose oligomers and cellulose; we have examined the ability of extracts of wild type and cellulose mutants including CelC to incorporate UDP-14C-glucose into cellulose and into water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble oligosaccharides; we have made mutants which synthesize greater amounts of cellulose than the wild type; and we have examined the role of cellulose in the formation of biofilms by A. tumefaciens. In addition we have examined the ability of a putative cellulose synthase gene from the tunicate Ciona savignyi to complement an A. tumefaciens celA mutant. The greatest difference between our knowledge of bacterial cellulose synthesis when we started this project and current knowledge is that in 1999 when we wrote the original grant very few bacteria were known to synthesize cellulose and genes involved in this synthesis were sequenced only from Acetobacter species, A. tumefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Currently many bacteria are known to synthesize cellulose and genes that may be involved have been sequenced from more than 10 species of bacteria. This additional information has raised the possibility of attempting to use genes from one bacterium to complement mutants in another bacterium. This will enable us to examine the question of which genes are responsible for the three dimensional structure of cellulose (since this differs among bacterial species) and also to examine the interactions between the various proteins required for cellulose synthesis. We have carried out one

  10. Saccharification of cellulose by acetolysis

    Tanaka, T; Yamanaka, S; Takinami, K

    1978-01-01

    For saccharification of cellulose, an acetolysis method using assimilable acid with a microorganism was applied. Based on this method, a new method which gave totally assimilable products was established. The rigid crystalline structure of cellulose was disrupted by acetolysis with 2-2.5 times as much acetic anhydride as cellulose on a weight basis and 1 N sulfuric acid as a catalyst. Then for cleavage of O-acetyl ester and glycosidic bonds, the resulting amorphous acetolysate of cellulose could easily be hydrolyzed by heating in 1 N sulfuric acid at 120/sup 0/C for 1-1.5 h without over-disruption of glucose. Ninety-eight % of the cellulose used was recovered in the form of hydrolysate having about 30% saccharide concentration. The hydrolysate obtained was composed of 74% glucose, 13% cellobiose and 11% mono-O-acetyl glucose on a weight basis.

  11. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  12. New Zealand health reforms: effect on ophthalmic practice.

    Raynel, S; Reynolds, H

    1999-01-01

    Are specialized ophthalmic units with inpatient facilities going to disappear in the New Zealand public health system? We have entered the era of cost containment, business methodologies, bench marking, day case surgery, and technologic advances. The dilemma for nursing is maintenance of a skill base with dwindling clinical practice areas.

  13. Pediatric ophthalmic indications for examination under anesthesia in ...

    Objective: To determine the ophthalmic indications and challenges for pediatric ocular examination under anesthesia (EUA). Methods: The surgical register and patients' records of children who underwent EUA between 1990 and 2007 were examined to document patients' bio data, diagnoses and details of procedures and ...

  14. Common causes of red eye presenting at an ophthalmic clinic ...

    Background: Redness of the eye is a common ophthalmic symptom. The problem causing redness could arise from within or outside the globe. These range from cases of simple inflammation following itching and minor trauma for example, to severe cases like orbital cellulitis and tumours. Patients may not even be aware of ...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1484a - Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...) Severe infections should be supplemented by systemic therapy. (5) Prolonged administration of the drug... bacteria or fungi appear during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken. (6) Federal law restricts...

  16. 21 CFR 524.390a - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment.

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... treatment for 48 hours (2 days) after eye appears normal. Therapy for cats should not exceed 7 days... therapy should be considered. When infection may be cause of disease, especially in purulent or catarrhal...

  17. Ophthalmic Skills Assessment of Primary Health Care Workers at ...

    Proficiency in the basic ophthalmic skills is a cri cal factor in the effec ve delivery of eye care services at the primary level of care. The aim of the study was to assess the ability of ... out visual acuity test and correctly iden fy cataract and conjunc vi s using pictures of eye condi ons and ..... Medical Laboratory Technician.

  18. Sustained ophthalmic delivery of highly soluble drug using pH-triggered inner layer-embedded contact lens.

    Zhu, Qiang; Cheng, Hongbo; Huo, Yingnan; Mao, Shirui

    2018-06-10

    In the present work the feasibility of using inner layer-embedded contact lenses (CLs) to achieve sustained release of highly water soluble drug, betaxolol hydrochloride (BH) on the ocular surface was investigated. Blend film of cellulose acetate and Eudragit S100 was selected as the inner layer, while silicone hydrogel was used as outer layer to construct inner layer-embedded contact lenses. Influence of polymer ratio in the blend film on in vitro drug release behavior in phosphate buffered solution or simulated tear fluid was studied and drug-polymer interaction, erosion and swelling of the blend film were characterized to better understand drug-release mechanism. Storage stability of the inner layer-embedded contact lenses in phosphate buffer solution was also conducted, with ignorable drug loss and negligible change in drug release pattern within 30 days. In vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits showed sustained drug release for over 240 h in tear fluid, indicating prolonged drug precorneal residence time. In conclusion, cellulose acetate/Eudragit S100 inner layer-embedded contact lenses are quite promising as controlled-release carrier of highly water soluble drug for ophthalmic delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Approaching zero cellulose loss in cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) production: recovery and characterization of cellulosic solid residues (CSR) and CNC

    Q.Q. Wang; J.Y. Zhu; R.S. Reiner; S.P. Verrill; U. Baxa; S.E. McNeil

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrated the potential of simultaneously recovering cellulosic solid residues (CSR) and producing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by strong sulfuric acid hydrolysis to minimize cellulose loss to near zero. A set of slightly milder acid hydrolysis conditions than that considered as “optimal” were used to significantly minimize the degradation of cellulose...

  20. Insertion device and method for accurate and repeatable target insertion

    Gubeli, III, Joseph F.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Bevins, Michael E.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence; Neil, George R.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention discloses a device and a method for inserting and positioning a target within a free electron laser, particle accelerator, or other such device that generates or utilizes a beam of energy or particles. The system includes a three-point registration mechanism that insures angular and translational accuracy and repeatability of positioning upon multiple insertions within the same structure.

  1. A Profile of Neuro-Ophthalmic Practice Around the World.

    Frohman, Larry P

    2018-03-01

    To compare contrast neuro-ophthalmic practice in various countries, an 18-question survey was sent to the international North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS) members in the spring of 2016. At least 1 NANOS member was contacted for each non-US nation in the NANOS membership roster. If there were multiple NANOS members from 1 country, multiple were contacted. If responses were received from more than 1 person from a single country, the first response received was used as the source data. The survey (in English) was emailed to 47 NANOS members from 31 countries. Twenty responses were received representing members from 15 nations. In all 15 nations, at least half of the neuro-ophthalmologists were trained as ophthalmologists. In 60% of nations, at least half of the neuro-ophthalmologists were trained internally, whereas in 33% of countries, at least half were trained in the United States. The number of physicians who practiced a significant amount of neuro-ophthalmology ranged from low (0.08/million, India) to high (3.10/million, Israel). Countries having the highest percentage of neuro-ophthalmologists exclusively practicing neuro-ophthalmology also were those with better patient access to neuro-ophthalmic care. Requirement of approval to see a neuro-ophthalmologist or for imaging studies requested by neuro-ophthalmologists was not typical. In most nations, academic neuro-ophthalmologists were paid a straight salary. In no nation were neuro-ophthalmologists paid more than another ophthalmic subspecialty. Individual national health care system designs and compensation models have had a profound influence on the rewards and challenges that face neuro-ophthalmologists. There seems to have been a connection between recognition of the discipline, financial rewards of neuro-ophthalmic practice, conditions that permit full-time neuro-ophthalmic practice, and patient access to care. A higher percentage of gross national product for health care did not seem to

  2. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 573.420 Section 573.420 Food and... Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether containing...

  3. Evaluation of microcrystalline cellulose modifed from alpha ...

    Alpha cellulose was obtained from Costus afer and part of it was modified to microcrystalline cellulose (CAMCC). The physicochemical properties of the microcrystalline cellulose were determined and compared with those of commercial microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel 101). The swelling capacity, hydration capacity, loss ...

  4. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  5. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Gey, M.; Hubert, S.; Langguth, H.

    1984-01-01

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment (e.g. radiation influence and influence of lyes) are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given

  6. Lithium insertion in nanostructured titanates

    Borghols, W.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Upon nano-sizing of insertion compounds several significant changes in Li-insertion behavior have been observed for sizes below approximately 50 nm. Although the origins of the phenomena are interrelated, the changes can be divided in three main observations. (1) The formation of new phases, leading

  7. Chest tube insertion - series (image)

    Chest tubes are inserted to drain blood, fluid, or air and allow full expansion of the lungs. The tube is placed in the pleural space. The area where the tube will be inserted is numbed (local anesthesia). The patient may also be sedated. The chest ...

  8. Acetone-based cellulose solvent.

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; Heinze, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Acetone containing tetraalkylammonium chloride is found to be an efficient solvent for cellulose. The addition of an amount of 10 mol% (based on acetone) of well-soluble salt triethyloctylammonium chloride (Et3 OctN Cl) adjusts the solvent's properties (increases the polarity) to promote cellulose dissolution. Cellulose solutions in acetone/Et3 OctN Cl have the lowest viscosity reported for comparable aprotic solutions making it a promising system for shaping processes and homogeneous chemical modification of the biopolymer. Recovery of the polymer and recycling of the solvent components can be easily achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV is involved in the cellulose-responsive induction of cellulose biomass-degrading enzyme genes in Aspergillus aculeatus.

    Tani, Shuji; Yuki, Shota; Kunitake, Emi; Sumitani, Jun-Ichi; Kawaguchi, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    We screened for factors involved in the cellulose-responsive induction of cellulose biomass-degrading enzyme genes from approximately 12,000 Aspergillus aculeatus T-DNA insertion mutants harboring a transcriptional fusion between the FIII-avicelase gene (cbhI) promoter and the orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase gene. Analysis of 5-fluoroorodic acid (5-FOA) sensitivity, cellulose utilization, and cbhI expression of the mutants revealed that a mutant harboring T-DNA at the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (dppIV) locus had acquired 5-FOA resistance and was deficient in cellulose utilization and cbhI expression. The deletion of dppIV resulted in a significant reduction in the cellulose-responsive expression of both cbhI as well as genes controlled by XlnR-independent and XlnR-dependent signaling pathways at an early phase in A. aculeatus. In contrast, the dppIV deletion did not affect the xylose-responsive expression of genes under the control of XlnR. These results demonstrate that DppIV participates in cellulose-responsive induction in A. aculeatus.

  10. Cellulose microfibril structure: inspirations from plant diversity

    Roberts, A. W.

    2018-03-01

    Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase catalytic subunits that associate to form cellulose synthesis complexes. Variation in the organization of these complexes underlies the variation in cellulose microfibril structure among diverse organisms. However, little is known about how the catalytic subunits interact to form complexes with different morphologies. We are using an evolutionary approach to investigate the roles of different catalytic subunit isoforms in organisms that have rosette-type cellulose synthesis complexes.

  11. Recent Strategies in Preparation of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Cellulose Nanofibrils Derived from Raw Cellulose Materials

    Hongxiang Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent strategies in preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs were described. CNCs and CNFs are two types of nanocelluloses (NCs, and they possess various superior properties, such as large specific surface area, high tensile strength and stiffness, low density, and low thermal expansion coefficient. Due to various applications in biomedical engineering, food, sensor, packaging, and so on, there are many studies conducted on CNCs and CNFs. In this review, various methods of preparation of CNCs and CNFs are summarized, including mechanical, chemical, and biological methods. The methods of pretreatment of cellulose are described in view of the benefits to fibrillation.

  12. WOOD CELLULOSE ACETATE MEMBRANE 179

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... 1988), cosmetics and food additives or pharmaceutical applications (Wellisch .... displaced by sample. Determination of percent α-, β- and γ–cellulose ..... addition, the smaller pore diameter would lead to a greater exclusion of ...

  13. Versatile High-Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes Prepared using Trimethylsilyl Cellulose as a Precursor

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2018-01-01

    (TMSC), a highly soluble cellulose derivative, as a precursor for the fabrication of cellulose thin film composite membranes. TMSC is an attractive precursor to assemble thin cellulose films with good deposition behavior and film morphology; cumbersome

  14. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    Salvi, Denise T.B. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Caiut, Jose Mauricio A.

    2011-01-01

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  15. INFLUENCE OF CELLULOSE POLYMERIZATION DEGREE AND CRYSTALLINITY ON KINETICS OF CELLULOSE DEGRADATION

    Edita Jasiukaitytė-Grojzdek,; Matjaž Kunaver,; Ida Poljanšek

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose was treated in ethylene glycol with p-toluene sulfonic acid monohydrate as a catalyst at different temperatures. At the highest treatment temperature (150 °C) liquefaction of wood pulp cellulose was achieved and was dependant on cellulose polymerization degree (DP). Furthermore, the rate of amorphous cellulose weight loss was found to increase with cellulose degree of polymerization, while the rate of crystalline cellulose weight loss was reciprocal to the size of the crystallites. ...

  16. Cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants

    Krystyna Kudlicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the control and regulation of cellulose synthesis is fundamental to an understanding of plant development since cellulose is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. In vivo, the polymerization step requires a coordinated transport of substrates across membranes and relies on delicate orientations of the membrane-associated synthase complexes. Little is known about the properties of the enzyme complexes, and many questions about the biosynthesis of cell wall components at the cell surface still remain unanswered. Attempts to purify cellulose synthase from higher plants have not been successful because of the liability of enzymes upon isolation and lack of reliable in vitro assays. Membrane preparations from higher plant cells incorporate UDP-glucose into a glucan polymer, but this invariably turns out to be predominantly β -1,3-linked rather than β -1,4-linked glucans. Various hypotheses have been advanced to explain this phenomenon. One idea is that callose and cellulose-synthase systems are the same, but cell disruption activates callose synthesis preferentially. A second concept suggests that a regulatory protein as a part of the cellulose-synthase complex is rapidly degraded upon cell disruption. With new methods of enzyme isolation and analysis of the in vitro product, recent advances have been made in the isolation of an active synthase from the plasma membrane whereby cellulose synthase was separated from callose synthase.

  17. Ophthalmic examination in early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Xin Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder causing irreversible deterioration in memory and loss of self-care ability, which is seriously affecting the quality of life. There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease. Medication only can control the progression of the disease. Early diagnosis and control of disease progress is of great significance in improving the quality of life of the patients and reducing the burden of family and society. Ophthalmic examination is seen as a window which can “see” brain directly, and some changes in the eye can reflect the changes of the brain most directly. This paper reviews the ophthalmic examination of Alzheimer's disease, including optical coherence tomography(OCT, visual field, contrast sensitivity and eye movements, et al. We hope to provide a new idea for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. A new human eye model for ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry

    Yoriyaz, H.; Sanchez, A.; Dos Santos, A.

    2005-01-01

    The present work proposes a new mathematical eye model for ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry. This new model includes detailed description of internal structures that were not treated in previous works, allowing dose determination in different regions of the eye for a more adequate clinical analysis. Dose calculations were determined with the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo particle transport code running n parallel environment using PVM. The Amersham CKA4 ophthalmic applicator has been chosen and the depth dose distribution has been determined and compared to those provide by the manufacturer. The results have shown excellent agreement. Besides, absorbed dose values due to both 125 I seeds and 60 Co plaques were obtained for each one of the different structures which compose the eye model and can give relevant information in eventual clinical analyses. (authors)

  19. Application and study of conjunctival sac disinfectants in ophthalmic surgeries

    Yan-Fei Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative endophthalmitis is the most serious complications of ophthalmic surgeries. Conjunctival sac disinfection is currently recognized as an effectively important way to reduce the risk of endophthalmitis. At present, there are some disinfectants has been used in clinic or in the researches:mercury agent, gentamicin, povidone iodine and acid electrolytic water. All kinds of disinfectants play the role of disinfection by different ways. Povidone iodine is the most widely used conjunctival sac disinfectant. Mercurial and gentamicin have been rarely used because they pollute the environment, are easy to cause drug resistant bacteria, localized side reactions and so on. The acid electrolyte water is not used in clinic at present. With the popularization and development of the ophthalmic surgeries, the ophthalmologists have become more and more concerned about the postoperative eye comfort, the research and application of conjunctival sac disinfectant in the future will continue to be updated and developed.

  20. OPHTHALMIC FINDINGS IN LATE STAGE SJOGREN-LARSSON SYNDROME.

    Nanda, Tavish; Kovach, Jaclyn L

    2017-03-15

    To report spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence documentation of late stage macular findings associated with Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome in three adult siblings. Three adult siblings with Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome underwent ophthalmic examination and imaging. Crystalline maculopathy and subretinal deposits, presumably lipofuscin accumulation, with macular atrophy were present in varying degrees in all three adult siblings. In adults with Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome, crystalline retinopathy can progress to macular atrophy and the appearance of lipofuscin accumulation.

  1. Digital video recording and archiving in ophthalmic surgery

    Raju Biju

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently most ophthalmic operating rooms are equipped with an analog video recording system [analog Charge Couple Device camera for video grabbing and a Video Cassette Recorder for recording]. We discuss the various advantages of a digital video capture device, its archiving capabilities and our experience during the transition from analog to digital video recording and archiving. The basic terminology and concepts related to analog and digital video, along with the choice of hardware, software and formats for archiving are discussed.

  2. Ophthalmic Drug Delivery Systems for Antibiotherapy—A Review

    Dubald, Marion; Bourgeois, Sandrine; Andrieu, Véronique; Fessi, Hatem

    2018-01-01

    The last fifty years, ophthalmic drug delivery research has made much progress, challenging scientists about the advantages and limitations of this drug delivery approach. Topical eye drops are the most commonly used formulation in ocular drug delivery. Despite the good tolerance for patients, this topical administration is only focus on the anterior ocular diseases and had a high precorneal loss of drugs due to the tears production and ocular barriers. Antibiotics are popularly used in solution or in ointment for the ophthalmic route. However, their local bioavailability needs to be improved in order to decrease the frequency of administrations and the side effects and to increase their therapeutic efficiency. For this purpose, sustained release forms for ophthalmic delivery of antibiotics were developed. This review briefly describes the ocular administration with the ocular barriers and the currently topical forms. It focuses on experimental results to bypass the limitations of ocular antibiotic delivery with new ocular technology as colloidal and in situ gelling systems or with the improvement of existing forms as implants and contact lenses. Nanotechnology is presently a promising drug delivery way to provide protection of antibiotics and improve pathway through ocular barriers and deliver drugs to specific target sites. PMID:29342879

  3. Effects of viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions on cell cultures

    Madhavan Hajib

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mild but significant inflammation probably attributable to viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions in cataract surgery was recently brought to the notice of the authors, and hence a study of the effects of these solutions available in India, on cell cultures was undertaken. We studied the effects of 6 viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions (2 sodium hyaluronate designated as A and B, and 4 hydroxypropylmethylcellulose designated as C, D, E and F on HeLa, Vero and BHK-21 cell lines in tissue culture microtitre plates using undiluted, 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of the solutions, and in cover slip cultures using undiluted solutions. Phase contrast microscopic examination of the solutions was also done to determine the presence of floating particles. The products D and F produced cytotoxic changes in HeLa cell line and these products also showed the presence of floating particles under phase contrast microscopy. Other products did not have any adverse effects on the cell lines nor did they show floating particles. The viscoelastic ophthalmic pharmaceutical products designated D and F have cytotoxic effects on HeLa cell line which appears to be a useful cell line for testing these products for their toxicity. The presence of particulate materials in products D and F indicates that the methods used for purification of the solution are not effective.

  4. Ophthalmic Drug Delivery Systems for Antibiotherapy—A Review

    Marion Dubald

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The last fifty years, ophthalmic drug delivery research has made much progress, challenging scientists about the advantages and limitations of this drug delivery approach. Topical eye drops are the most commonly used formulation in ocular drug delivery. Despite the good tolerance for patients, this topical administration is only focus on the anterior ocular diseases and had a high precorneal loss of drugs due to the tears production and ocular barriers. Antibiotics are popularly used in solution or in ointment for the ophthalmic route. However, their local bioavailability needs to be improved in order to decrease the frequency of administrations and the side effects and to increase their therapeutic efficiency. For this purpose, sustained release forms for ophthalmic delivery of antibiotics were developed. This review briefly describes the ocular administration with the ocular barriers and the currently topical forms. It focuses on experimental results to bypass the limitations of ocular antibiotic delivery with new ocular technology as colloidal and in situ gelling systems or with the improvement of existing forms as implants and contact lenses. Nanotechnology is presently a promising drug delivery way to provide protection of antibiotics and improve pathway through ocular barriers and deliver drugs to specific target sites.

  5. Ophthalmic Morbidity in School Children in Hilly Areas of Uttarakhand

    Surekha Kishore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School children constitute about one fourth of population of India. Early detection and treatment of various eye diseases helps in avoiding many complications. The magnitude of blindness is 3-4 times greater in developing countries. Very few studies have been conducted in Uttarakhand revealing the ophthalmic morbidity in school children or general population. Hilly areas especially the remote ones face various problems like, poor transportation facilities, distant health facilities, use of traditional methods for treatment, faith healing, customs and belief system, lack of information.  Moreover   water supply, poor personal hygiene and other factors also add up to these problems. Aim: To study the ophthalmic morbidities in school children in 3 schools of Thatyur block. Methodology: It was a cross sectional study. Result: A total of 705 students were enrolled. Permission from school authorities was seeked before the start of study. Schools were visited twice in a week current and preliminary information was taken from the students & teacher regarding education, occupation, income etc. General examination and ophthalmic examination was done with day & torch light along with refraction, with the help of standard Snellen’s chart. Each eye was examined separately. A vision of 6/6 was considered as normal. Near vision was tested with new vision Snellen’s chart at 12-14 inches away from eye.

  6. Ophthalmic Morbidity in School Children in Hilly Areas of Uttarakhand

    Surekha Kishore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School children constitute about one fourth of population of India. Early detection and treatment of various eye diseases helps in avoiding many complications. The magnitude of blindness is 3-4 times greater in developing countries. Very few studies have been conducted in Uttarakhand revealing the ophthalmic morbidity in school children or general population. Hilly areas especially the remote ones face various problems like, poor transportation facilities, distant health facilities, use of traditional methods for treatment, faith healing, customs and belief system, lack of information.  Moreover   water supply, poor personal hygiene and other factors also add up to these problems. Aim: To study the ophthalmic morbidities in school children in 3 schools of Thatyur block. Methodology: It was a cross sectional study. Result: A total of 705 students were enrolled. Permission from school authorities was seeked before the start of study. Schools were visited twice in a week current and preliminary information was taken from the students & teacher regarding education, occupation, income etc. General examination and ophthalmic examination was done with day & torch light along with refraction, with the help of standard Snellen’s chart. Each eye was examined separately. A vision of 6/6 was considered as normal. Near vision was tested with new vision Snellen’s chart at 12-14 inches away from eye.

  7. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion

    Kim, Yong-Kyu; Jung, Cheolkyu; Woo, Se Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed...

  8. New biphasic monocomponent composite material obtained by the partial oxypropylation of bacterial cellulose

    Rosa, Joyce Rover; Silva, Ingrid S.V. da; Pasquini, Daniel; Santos, Daniele B. dos; Barud, Hernane S.; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to partial oxypropylation of bacterial cellulose (CB), as well as the characterization of pure CB, oxypropylated CB (CBO) and oxypropylated CB after Soxhlet extraction with hexane (CBOE). The oxypropylation reaction was carried out by propylene oxide polymerization, catalyzed by KOH, in the presence of CB The CB samples, before and after modification, were subjected to analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was possible verify that the partial transformation of bacterial cellulose by inserting a layer of thermoplastic polymer on its surface occurred efficiently, obtaining a biphasic monocomponent composite material. (author)

  9. Ionic liquid processing of cellulose.

    Wang, Hui; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

    2012-02-21

    Utilization of natural polymers has attracted increasing attention because of the consumption and over-exploitation of non-renewable resources, such as coal and oil. The development of green processing of cellulose, the most abundant biorenewable material on Earth, is urgent from the viewpoints of both sustainability and environmental protection. The discovery of the dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids (ILs, salts which melt below 100 °C) provides new opportunities for the processing of this biopolymer, however, many fundamental and practical questions need to be answered in order to determine if this will ultimately be a green or sustainable strategy. In this critical review, the open fundamental questions regarding the interactions of cellulose with both the IL cations and anions in the dissolution process are discussed. Investigations have shown that the interactions between the anion and cellulose play an important role in the solvation of cellulose, however, opinions on the role of the cation are conflicting. Some researchers have concluded that the cations are hydrogen bonding to this biopolymer, while others suggest they are not. Our review of the available data has led us to urge the use of more chemical units of solubility, such as 'g cellulose per mole of IL' or 'mol IL per mol hydroxyl in cellulose' to provide more consistency in data reporting and more insight into the dissolution mechanism. This review will also assess the greenness and sustainability of IL processing of biomass, where it would seem that the choices of cation and anion are critical not only to the science of the dissolution, but to the ultimate 'greenness' of any process (142 references).

  10. Salvage/Adjuvant Brachytherapy After Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Intraocular Retinoblastoma

    Francis, Jasmine H., E-mail: francij1@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; McCormick, Beryl; Segal, Kira; Cohen, Gil [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Brodie, Scott E. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Dunkel, Ira J.; Abramson, David H. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of brachytherapy after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, retrospective study of 15 eyes in 15 patients treated with OAC followed by brachytherapy at (blinded institution) between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, with a median 19 months' follow-up from plaque insertion. Outcome measurements included patient and ocular survival, visual function, and retinal toxicity measured by electroretinogram (ERG). Results: Brachytherapy was used as adjuvant treatment in 2 eyes and as salvage therapy in 13 eyes of which 12 had localized vitreous seeding. No patients developed metastasis or died of retinoblastoma. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of ocular survival was 79.4% (95% confidence interval 48.7%-92.8%) at 18 months. Three eyes were enucleated, and an additional 6 eyes developed out-of-target volume recurrences, which were controlled with additional treatments. Patients with an ocular complication had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 2.5 months (SD 2.3 months), which was statistically less (P=.045) than patients without ocular complication who had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 6.5 months (SD 4.4 months). ERG responses from pre- versus postplaque were unchanged or improved in more than half the eyes. Conclusions: Brachytherapy following OAC is effective, even in the presence of vitreous seeding; the majority of eyes maintained stable or improved retinal function following treatment, as assessed by ERG.

  11. Salvage/Adjuvant Brachytherapy After Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Intraocular Retinoblastoma

    Francis, Jasmine H.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; McCormick, Beryl; Segal, Kira; Cohen, Gil; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P.; Brodie, Scott E.; Dunkel, Ira J.; Abramson, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of brachytherapy after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, retrospective study of 15 eyes in 15 patients treated with OAC followed by brachytherapy at (blinded institution) between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, with a median 19 months' follow-up from plaque insertion. Outcome measurements included patient and ocular survival, visual function, and retinal toxicity measured by electroretinogram (ERG). Results: Brachytherapy was used as adjuvant treatment in 2 eyes and as salvage therapy in 13 eyes of which 12 had localized vitreous seeding. No patients developed metastasis or died of retinoblastoma. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of ocular survival was 79.4% (95% confidence interval 48.7%-92.8%) at 18 months. Three eyes were enucleated, and an additional 6 eyes developed out-of-target volume recurrences, which were controlled with additional treatments. Patients with an ocular complication had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 2.5 months (SD 2.3 months), which was statistically less (P=.045) than patients without ocular complication who had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 6.5 months (SD 4.4 months). ERG responses from pre- versus postplaque were unchanged or improved in more than half the eyes. Conclusions: Brachytherapy following OAC is effective, even in the presence of vitreous seeding; the majority of eyes maintained stable or improved retinal function following treatment, as assessed by ERG

  12. Comparison of corneal safety and intraocular pressure-lowering effect of tafluprost ophthalmic solution with other prostaglandin ophthalmic solutions.

    Kumagami, Takeshi; Wakiyama, Harumi; Kusano, Mao; Kajiyama, Ayano; Miura, Yoko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Yoneda, Ai; Kurihara, Junko; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Kitaoka, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The benzalkonium chloride (BAK) content of tafluprost ophthalmic solution (Tapros(®): tafluprost) has been reduced to balance corneal safety and preservative effectiveness (old formulation: 0.01%; new formulation: 0.001%). However, no reports have been published on its clinical effect. Therefore, we conducted a clinical research study to compare the safety of BAK-reduced tafluprost on the ocular surface with other prostaglandin ophthalmic solutions. This clinical study included 28 glaucoma patients (28 eyes) with a treatment history of latanoprost ophthalmic solution (Xalatan(®)) or travoprost ophthalmic solution (Travatan Z(®)), who presented with corneal epithelial disorders. The subjects were switched to BAK-reduced tafluprost, and its effect on the ocular surface was examined after 1 and 2 months of treatment [using fluorescein staining score, hyperemia, tear film breakup time, and intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering]. In all analyzed subjects (N=27), the fluorescein staining score was significantly improved after switching to BAK-reduced tafluprost (P<0.0001). Conversely, the IOP-lowering effect was not notably changed. The subjects switched from latanoprost (n=10) showed significant improvement in fluorescein staining score (P<0.05) as well as in IOP lowering (P<0.01). The subjects switched from travoprost (n=17) also showed significant improvement in fluorescein staining score (P<0.001), but without a significant change in IOP lowering. Tafluprost with reduced BAK has potential as a superior antiglaucoma drug, not only for its IOP-lowering effect, but also for its good corneal safety profile.

  13. Diquafosol ophthalmic solution 3 %: a review of its use in dry eye.

    Keating, Gillian M

    2015-05-01

    Diquafosol ophthalmic solution 3 % (Diquas(®)) is a P2Y2 receptor agonist that promotes tear fluid and mucin secretion and is currently approved in Japan and South Korea for the treatment of dry eye. In randomized, double-blind, multicentre trials in patients with dry eye, significantly greater improvements in fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores were seen with diquafosol ophthalmic solution 3 % than with placebo, and diquafosol ophthalmic solution 3 % was noninferior to sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution 0.1 % in terms of the improvement in the fluorescein staining score and more effective than sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution 0.1 % in terms of the improvement in the rose bengal staining score. The efficacy of diquafosol ophthalmic solution 3 % in the treatment of dry eye was maintained in the longer term, with improvements also seen in subjective dry eye symptoms, and was also shown in a real-world setting. Diquafosol ophthalmic solution 3 % also demonstrated efficacy in various specific dry eye disorders, including aqueous-deficient dry eye, short tear film break-up time dry eye, obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye following laser in situ keratomileusis surgery and dry eye following cataract surgery, as well as in contact lens wearers and visual display terminal users. Diquafosol ophthalmic solution 3 % was generally well tolerated in patients with dry eye, with eye irritation the most commonly reported adverse event. In conclusion, diquafosol ophthalmic solution 3 % is a useful option for the treatment of dry eye.

  14. The cellulose synthase companion proteins act non-redundantly with CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1/POM2 and CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 6

    Endler, Anne; Schneider, Rene; Kesten, Christopher; Lampugnani, Edwin R.; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is a cell wall constituent that is essential for plant growth and development, and an important raw material for a range of industrial applications. Cellulose is synthesized at the plasma membrane by massive cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes that track along cortical microtubules in elongating cells of Arabidopsis through the activity of the protein CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1 (CSI1). In a recent study we identified another family of proteins that also are associated with the ...

  15. Indications and postoperative treatment for Ex-PRESS® insertion in Japanese patients with glaucoma: comparison with standard trabeculectomy

    Kato N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Noriko Kato,1,2 Genichiro Takahashi,1,2 Koichi Kumegawa,1,2 Yoshiaki Kabata,1,2 Hiroshi Tsuneoka1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University, School of Medicine, 2Katsushika Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan Background: We investigated indications and early postoperative treatment for Ex-PRESS® insertion for glaucoma by comparing postoperative outcomes with those for standard trabeculectomy. Methods: Ex-PRESS insertion was performed in 21 eyes and standard trabeculectomy (TLE in 22 eyes. Mean intraocular pressure (IOP in the 6 months after surgery, success rate for postoperative IOP decline, postoperative complications, postoperative treatment, filtering blebs, and indications were then retrospectively investigated. Results: Mean postoperative IOP did not differ significantly between the groups at any observation time for 6 months after surgery. Further, it did not differ between either the groups of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and neovascular glaucoma (NTG, or the patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and NTG in the Ex-PRESS group. Comparison of success rates in reduction of postoperative IOP between the groups under the following four survival conditions showed no significant differences: postoperative IOP <30% of the preoperative IOP, complete success (no additional ophthalmic solution, and qualified success (ophthalmic solution required; 5 mmHg ≤ postoperative IOP ≤21 mmHg, complete success (no additional ophthalmic solution, and qualified success (ophthalmic solution required. With regard to postoperative complications and postoperative treatment, the incidence of hyphema was significantly lower in the Ex-PRESS group, but no other significant intergroup differences were seen. The height of the filtering bleb was lower in the Ex-PRESS group. Conclusion: Postoperative outcomes in the Ex-PRESS and TLE groups were comparable. The incidence of hyphema was significantly lower in the Ex-PRESS group. Ex-PRESS insertion

  16. Cellulose nanocrystal properties and their applications

    mahdi jonoobi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to provide an overview of recent research in the area of cellulose nonmaterials production from different sources. Due to their abundance, their renewability, high strength and stiffness, being eco-friendly, and low weight; numerous studies have been reported on the isolation of cellulose nanomaterials from different cellulosic sources and their use in high performance applications. This work covers an introduction into the nano cellulose definition as well as used methods for isolation of nanomaterials (nanocrystals from various sources. The rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNC can be isolated from sources like wood, plant fibers, agriculture and industrial bio residues, tunicates, and bacterial cellulose using acid hydrolysis process. Following this, the paper focused on characterization methods, materials properties and structure. The current review is a comprehensive literature regarding the nano cellulose isolation and demonstrates the potential of cellulose nanomaterials to be used in a wide range of high-tech applications.

  17. Cellulose multilayer Membranes manufacture with Ionic liquid

    Livazovic, Sara; Li, Z.; Behzad, Ali Reza; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2015-01-01

    and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions

  18. Cellulose nanocrystal submonolayers by spin coating

    Kontturi, E.J.; Johansson, L.S.; Kontturi, K.S.; Ahonen, P.; Thune, P.C.; Laine, J.

    2007-01-01

    Dilute concentrations of cellulose nanocrystal solutions were spin coated onto different substrates to investigate the effect of the substrate on the nanocrystal submonolayers. Three substrates were probed: silica, titania, and amorphous cellulose. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM) images,

  19. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    Samaneh Sadat Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4 D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family.

  20. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    Maleki, Samaneh Sadat; Mohammadi, Kourosh; Ji, Kong-shu

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4) D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family. PMID:27314060

  1. A Molecular Description of Cellulose Biosynthesis

    McNamara, Joshua T.; Morgan, Jacob L.W.; Zimmer, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, and certain organisms from bacteria to plants and animals synthesize cellulose as an extracellular polymer for various biological functions. Humans have used cellulose for millennia as a material and an energy source, and the advent of a lignocellulosic fuel industry will elevate it to the primary carbon source for the burgeoning renewable energy sector. Despite the biological and societal importance of cellulose, the molecular mechanism by which it is synthesized is now only beginning to emerge. On the basis of recent advances in structural and molecular biology on bacterial cellulose synthases, we review emerging concepts of how the enzymes polymerize glucose molecules, how the nascent polymer is transported across the plasma membrane, and how bacterial cellulose biosynthesis is regulated during biofilm formation. Additionally, we review evolutionary commonalities and differences between cellulose synthases that modulate the nature of the cellulose product formed. PMID:26034894

  2. Raman spectroscopy in the analysis of cellulose nanomaterials

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials (CNs) are new types of materials derived from celluloses and offer unique challenges and opportunities for Raman spectroscopic investigations. CNs can be classified into the categories of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs, also known as cellulose whisker) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs, also known as nanofibrillated cellulose or NFCs) which when...

  3. Radiation modification of cellulose pulps. Preparation of cellulose derivatives

    Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Stupinska, H.; Mikolajczyk, W; Starostka, P.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common methods of cellulose pulp modification (activation) applied in the production process of cellulose derivatives is the treatment of the pulp with NaOH solutions leading to the formation of alkalicellulose. The product then undergoes a prolonged process of maturation by its storage under specific conditions. The goal of the process is lowering of the molecular weight of cellulose down to the level resulting from various technological requirements. The process is time-consuming and costly; besides, it requires usage of large-capacity technological vessels and produces considerable amounts of liquid waste. Therefore, many attempts have been made to limit or altogether eliminate the highly disadvantageous stage of cellulose treatment with lye. One of the alternatives proposed so far is the radiation treatment of the cellulose pulp. In the pulp exposed to an electron beam, the bonds between molecules of D-antihydroglucopiranoses loosen and the local crystalline lattice becomes destroyed. This facilitates the access of chemical reagents to the inner structure of the cellulose and, in consequence, eliminates the need for the prolonged maturation of alkalicellulose, thus reducing the consumption of chemicals by the whole process. Research aimed at the application of radiation treatment of cellulose pulp for the production of cellulose derivatives has been conducted by a number of scientific institutions including the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibres, and Pulp and Paper Research Institute. For the investigations and assessment of the molecular, hypermolecular, morphologic properties and the chemical reactivity, cellulose pulps used for chemical processing, namely Alicell, Borregaard and Ketchikan, as well as paper pulps made from pine and birch wood were selected. The selected cellulose pulps were exposed to an electron beam with an energy of 10 MeV generated in a linear electron accelerator

  4. Functional analysis of the cellulose synthase-like genes CSLD1, CSLD2 and CSLD4 in tip-growing arabidopsis cells

    Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena; Yoo, Cheol-Min; Mutwil, Marek

    2008-01-01

    A reverse genetic approach was used to investigate the functions of three members of the cellulose synthase superfamily in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE D1 (CSLD1), CSLD2, and CSLD4. CSLD2 is required for normal root hair growth but has a different role from that pre......A reverse genetic approach was used to investigate the functions of three members of the cellulose synthase superfamily in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE D1 (CSLD1), CSLD2, and CSLD4. CSLD2 is required for normal root hair growth but has a different role from...... for insertions in these genes were partially rescued by reduced temperature growth. However, this was not the case for a double mutant homozygous for insertions in both CSLD2 and CSLD3, suggesting that there may be partial redundancy in the functions of these genes. Mutants in CSLD1 and CSLD4 had a defect...

  5. LOFT voltage insertion calibaration program

    Tillitt, D.N.; Miyasaki, F.S.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). Part of this facility is the Data Acquisition and Visual Display System (DAVDS) as defined by the LOFT System Design Document SDD 1.4.2C. The DAVDS has a 702 data channel recording capability of which 548 are recorded digitally. The DAVDS also contains a Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem used to inject precise and known voltage steps into the recording systems. The computer program that controls the Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem is presented. 7 references. (auth)

  6. Properties of microcrystalline cellulose obtained from coconut ...

    The study revealed that the cellulose material compares favourably with Avicel PH 101 as well as official requirement specified in the British Pharmacopoeia 1993 for microcrystalline cellulose. Keywords: Coconut fruit fibre, microcrystalline cellulose, powder properties. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol. 3 (1) 2006: ...

  7. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent

  8. Bioengineering cellulose-hemicellulose networks in plants

    Obembe, O.

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between cellulose and hemicellulose in the cell walls are important in the industrial application of the cellulose (natural) fibres. We strive to modify these interactions (i) by interfering with cellulose biosynthesis and (ii) by direct interference of the

  9. Regioselective Synthesis of Cellulose Ester Homopolymers

    Daiqiang Xu; Kristen Voiges; Thomas Elder; Petra Mischnick; Kevin J. Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Regioselective synthesis of cellulose esters is extremely difficult due to the small reactivity differences between cellulose hydroxyl groups, small differences in steric demand between acyl moieties of interest, and the difficulty of attaching and detaching many protecting groups in the presence of cellulose ester moieties without removing the ester groups. Yet the...

  10. 21 CFR 172.870 - Hydroxypropyl cellulose.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydroxypropyl cellulose. 172.870 Section 172.870... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.870 Hydroxypropyl cellulose. The food additive hydroxypropyl cellulose may be safely used in food, except standardized foods that do not provide for such use, in...

  11. Cellulose nanomaterials review: structure, properties and nanocomposites

    Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini; John Nairn; John Simonsen; Jeff Youngblood

    2011-01-01

    This critical review provides a processing-structure-property perspective on recent advances in cellulose nanoparticles and composites produced from them. It summarizes cellulose nanoparticles in terms of particle morphology, crystal structure, and properties. Also described are the self-assembly and rheological properties of cellulose nanoparticle suspensions. The...

  12. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Isik, Mehmet; Sardon, Haritz; Mecerreyes, David

    2014-01-01

    Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels. PMID:25000264

  13. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Mehmet Isik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of a new preservative for multiuse ophthalmic solutions.

    Ghelardi, Emilia; Celandroni, Francesco; Gueye, Sokhna A; Salvetti, Sara; Campa, Mario; Senesi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial activity and the preservative efficacy of a novel preservative solution containing sodium hydroxymethyl glycinate (SHMG) and edetate disodium (EDTA), which is used for preservation of some commercial ophthalmic formulations. In vitro susceptibility assays were performed against several gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus cereus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria representative of the microbial flora of epithelial surfaces or colonizing the conjunctiva, as well as against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Using different concentrations of SHMG alone or in combination with EDTA, the minimal inhibitory and microbicidal concentrations against these organisms were assessed. In addition, 8 brands of multidose eye drops containing 0.002% SHMG and 0.1% EDTA as preservative were tested for antimicrobial activity using the antimicrobial effectiveness test recommended by the international pharmacopoeias. The minimal inhibitory and bactericidal/fungicidal concentration values of SHMG ranged from 0.0025% to 0.0125% for bacteria and from 0.125% to 0.50% for mold and yeast. Susceptibility testing demonstrated that the addition of EDTA substantially increased the SHMG activity against all bacterial and fungal strains. The preservative effectiveness test was applied to commercial eye drops. All the drop solutions met the criteria reported by the U.S. Pharmacopeia for parenteral and ophthalmic preparations. All products also satisfied the major acceptance criteria of the European Pharmacopeia with respect to the antifungal activity. With regard to the antibacterial activity, the less-stringent criteria of the European Pharmacopeia were fulfilled. The present study demonstrates the efficacy of a novel preservative for ophthalmic solutions (SHMG/EDTA) and its activity in protecting selected commercial artificial tears against microbial

  15. [Tibolone's effect on retinal and ophthalmic arteries flowmetry].

    Souza, Marco Aurélio Martins de; Geber, Selmo

    2008-11-01

    to evaluate the effect of tibolone use on doppler-velocimetric parameters of ophthalmic and retinal arteries. clinical, prospective, longitudinal, randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blind study, in which among 100 menopausal women, 50 have used 2.5 mg of the active principle tibolone (Tib Group) and 50, placebo as a means to form the control-group (Plac Group). In the Tib Group, 44 of the 50 women returned after 84 days to finish the exams, and in the Plac Group, 47. The ophthalmic and retinal arteries were studied to determine the resistance index (RI), the pulsatility index (PI) and the systole/diastole ratio (S/D). Assessments have been done before and 84 days after medication. The t-Student test has been used for the comparison of means between the groups in independent samples, as well as for within-group comparisons in dependent samples. in both groups, the women's characteristics were similar in age, menopause duration, body mass index, arterial blood pressure, deliveries and cardiac rate. The Tib Group presented the following values in the ophthalmic artery: RI(pre)=0.71+/-0.05, RI(post)0.72+/-0.08 (p=0.43); PI(pre)=1.29+/-0.22, PI(post)=1.30+/-0.25 (p=0.4) and S/D(pre)=3.49+/-0.77, SD(post)=3.65+/-0.94 (p=0.32). In the retinal artery, the following values have been found: RI(pre)=0.67+/-0.09, RI(post)=0.69+/-0.10 (p=0.7); PI(pre)=1.20+/-0.29, PI(post)=1.22+/-0.3 (p=0.2) and SD(pre)=3.29+/-0.95, SD(post)=3.30+/-1.07 (p=0.3). Also, the tibolone and control groups did not show any significant difference in regard to the above indexes in the end of the study. the 2.5 mg dose of tibolone had no effect on the Doppler velocimetry indexes of the ophthalmic and retinal arteries.

  16. Physicotechnical, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric properties of powdered cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose derived from groundnut shells

    Chukwuemeka P. Azubuike

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available α-Cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders, derived from agricultural waste products, that have for the pharmaceutical industry, desirable physical (flow properties were investigated. α–Cellulose (GCN was extracted from groundnut shell (an agricultural waste product using a non-dissolving method based on inorganic reagents. Modification of this α -cellulose was carried out by partially hydrolysing it with 2N hydrochloric acid under reflux to obtain microcrystalline cellulose (MCGN. The physical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of the derived α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders were compared with Avicel® PH 101, a commercial brand of microcrystalline cellulose (MCCA, using standard methods. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the α-cellulose had lower crystallinity. This suggested that treatment with 2N hydrochloric acid led to an increase in the crystallinity index. Thermogravimetric analysis showed quite similar thermal behavior for all cellulose samples, although the α-cellulose had a somewhat lower stability. A comparison of the physical properties between the microcrystalline celluloses and the α-cellulose suggests that microcrystalline cellulose (MCGN and MCCA might have better flow properties. In almost all cases, MCGN and MCCA had similar characteristics. Since groundnut shells are agricultural waste products, its utilization as a source of microcrystalline cellulose might be a good low-cost alternative to the more expensive commercial brand.

  17. Development and Effects of FTY720 Ophthalmic Solution on Corneal Allograft Survival.

    Liu, Zhaochuan; Lin, Haotian; Huang, Chulong; Chen, Wan; Xiang, Wu; Geng, Yu; Chen, Weirong

    2015-11-12

    Fingolimod (FTY720), a novel class of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators, has received special interest among ophthalmologists, particularly given that oral administration of FTY720 has proven to effectively treat corneal graft rejection in animal models. However, no studies have examined the performance of FTY720 as an ophthalmic solution in reducing corneal rejection in high-risk corneal rejection models, and the stability and ocular irritation profile of FTY720 ophthalmic solution are also unknown. Thus, we developed 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% FTY720 ophthalmic solutions and evaluated their chemical stabilities under various storage conditions with high- performance liquid chromatography. To investigate the ocular irritancy of the FTY720 ophthalmic solution, New Zealand albino rabbits were subjected to the Draize test. Furthermore, classic, well-established rat allogenic penetrating keratoplasty models were used to investigate the anti-rejection efficacy of the tested FTY720 ophthalmic solutions. We found that the non-irritating 0.5% FTY720 ophthalmic solution could prolong corneal allograft survival in rats with significant efficacy for about one month. Furthermore, no significant concentration changes occurred in any of the types of FTY720 ophthalmic solutions within three months. These results revealed crucial profiles of FTY720 ophthalmic solutions and warrant further investigation and optimization of FTY720 in the anti-rejection therapy after keratoplasty.

  18. International Council of Ophthalmology: Refocusing Ophthalmic Education in the Asia-Pacific Region and Beyond.

    Golnik, Karl; Mayorga, Eduardo; Spivey, Bruce; Ritch, Robert; Gauthier, Tina-Marie

    2012-01-01

    The International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) is a global organization with a regional focus. Working in partnership with supranational and ICO member societies, the ICO is building a "World Alliance for Sight" to improve access to the highest-quality eye care worldwide. Designed to preserve and restore vision on an international scale, the ICO initiative, "Refocusing Ophthalmic Education," enhances ophthalmic education of residents, subspecialists, medical students, and allied eye care personnel by redefining the most effective ways to teach and in creating beneficial educational opportunities. The "Teaching the Teachers" program helps ophthalmic educators incorporate more effective methods of training and continuing professional development to meet societal needs, achieved in part through regional courses for residency program directors; symposia, and keynote talks presented by ICO's World Ophthalmology Educational Colloquium, Conferences for Ophthalmic Educators, and ophthalmic surgical competency rubrics. Recognizing that standardized curricula are essential for consistent ophthalmic education, the ICO has developed a curricular framework whereby goals, expectations, knowledge base, competencies, and technical training are delineated. The ICO is defining worldwide models of team training and compiling best practice, which will include training-program accreditation to ensure improvement in the education of ophthalmologists. International Council of Ophthalmology Web-based teaching courses, a Webinar Network, and a technology blog further support information and communication technologies for teaching and learning. At the ICO's Center for Ophthalmic Educators (educators.icoph.org), trainers will find valuable teaching resources in multiple languages as well as ways to share ideas and collaborate with peers and other ophthalmic educators.

  19. Neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumours in a ...

    Background: Anecdotally, increasing number of patients are seen at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) with brain tumour. Neuro-ophthalmic symptoms and signs may help in timely diagnosis and intervention. Objective: To evaluate the neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumour in patients presenting at a ...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1662 Section 524.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. ...

  1. Formulation and stability of an extemporaneous 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate ophthalmic solution

    Shu-Chiao Lin

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The acetate-buffered 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate ophthalmic solution stored in light-resistant high-density polyethylene eyedroppers demonstrated excellent stability at 2–25°C for 6 months after being sealed and for 1 month after opening. This finding will enable us to prepare 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate ophthalmic solutions based on a doctor's prescription.

  2. Summary of experimental insertions workshop

    Sandweiss, J.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    An ISABELLE workshop of the summer 1976 series, which was held at Brookhaven August 16--20, focused on the design and utilization of the experimental insertions. The goals of the workshop are outlined, and a few general remarks about the results are presented

  3. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-01-23

    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Advancing cellulose-based nanotechnology

    Theodore H. Wegner; Philip E. Jones

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology has applications across most economic sectors and allows the development of new enabling science with broad commercial potential. Cellulose and lignocellulose have great potential as nanomaterials because they are abundant, renewable, have a nanofibrillar structure, can be made multifunctional, and self-assemble into well-defined architectures. To...

  5. Ignition inhibitors for cellulosic materials

    Alvares, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    By exposing samples to various irradiance levels from a calibrated thermal radiation source, the ignition responses of blackened alpha-cellulose and cotton cloth with and without fire-retardant additives were compared. Samples treated with retardant compounds which showed the most promise were then isothermally pyrolyzed in air for comparisons between the pyrolysis rates. Alpha-cellulose samples containing a mixture of boric acid, borax, and ammonium di-hydrogen phosphate could not be ignited by irradiances up to 4.0 cal cm -2 s-1 (16.7 W/cm 2 ). At higher irradiances the specimens ignited, but flaming lasted only until the flammable gases were depleted. Cotton cloth containing a polymeric retardant with the designation THPC + MM was found to be ignition-resistant to all irradiances below 7.0 cal cm -2 s -1 (29.3 W/cm 2 ). Comparison of the pyrolysis rates of the retardant-treated alpha-cellulose and the retardant-treated cotton showed that the retardant mechanism is qualitatively the same. Similar ignition-response measurements were also made with specimens exposed to ionizing radiation. It was observed that gamma radiation results in ignition retardance of cellulose, while irradiation by neutrons does not

  6. Polyvinyl alcohol–cellulose composite

    We have made an attempt to prepare taste sensor material by using functionalized polymer without any lipid. PVA–cellulose composite has been modified to use as the sensor material. The research work covers polymer membrane preparation, morphology study and structural characterization of the membrane and study of ...

  7. 76 FR 71044 - Determination That TRAVATAN (Travoprost Ophthalmic Solution), 0.004%, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale...

    2011-11-16

    ...] Determination That TRAVATAN (Travoprost Ophthalmic Solution), 0.004%, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of... Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that TRAVATAN (travoprost ophthalmic solution), 0.004%, was... approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for travoprost ophthalmic solution, 0.004%, if all other...

  8. 78 FR 27971 - Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not...

    2013-05-13

    ...] Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale... ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, was not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This... ophthalmic solution, 0.5%, if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  9. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  10. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  11. Irradiation effects in wood and cellulose

    McLaren, K.G.

    1976-01-01

    For cellulosic materials the predominant effect of high energy radiation is depolymerisation and degradation by chain scission, although there is some evidence that crosslinking or cellulose stabilisation can occur under certain conditions. When the cellulose is in the form of a natural product such as wood, where it is intimately associated with other polysaccharides, lignins, resins and gums, the effects of radiation can be significantly modified. Examination of cellulose produced by chemical pulping treatment of wood which had been previously given small doses of radiation, showed significant differences in the extent of cellulose depolymerisation with different wood species. The relevance of this work to the paper pulp industry will also be discussed. (author)

  12. Structure and engineering of celluloses.

    Pérez, Serge; Samain, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This chapter collates the developments and conclusions of many of the extensive studies that have been conducted on cellulose, with particular emphasis on the structural and morphological features while not ignoring the most recent results derived from the elucidation of unique biosynthetic pathways. The presentation of structural and morphological data gathered together in this chapter follows the historical development of our knowledge of the different structural levels of cellulose and its various organizational levels. These levels concern features such as chain conformation, chain polarity, chain association, crystal polarity, and microfibril structure and organization. This chapter provides some historical landmarks related to the evolution of concepts in the field of biopolymer science, which parallel the developments of novel methods for characterization of complex macromolecular structures. The elucidation of the different structural levels of organization opens the way to relating structure to function and properties. The chemical and biochemical methods that have been developed to dissolve and further modify cellulose chains are briefly covered. Particular emphasis is given to the facets of topochemistry and topoenzymology where the morphological features play a key role in determining unique physicochemical properties. A final chapter addresses what might be considered tomorrow's goal in amplifying the economic importance of cellulose in the context of sustainable development. Selected examples illustrate the types of result that can be obtained when cellulose fibers are no longer viewed as inert substrates, and when the polyhydroxyl nature of their surfaces, as well as their entire structural complexity, are taken into account. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bilateral IgG4-related ophthalmic disease: a strong indication for systemic imaging.

    Wu, Albert; Andrew, Nicholas H; McNab, Alan A; Selva, Dinesh

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether bilateral or unilateral IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) is associated with extra-ophthalmic IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Twin-centre retrospective observational case series of biopsy-confirmed IgG4-ROD. Clinical and radiology data were reviewed for laterality of IgG4-ROD and presence of extra-ophthalmic disease. The literature was reviewed for case series of IgG4-ROD. 40 IgG4-ROD cases were identified, with median follow-up of 36 months. At diagnosis of IgG4-ROD, all cases were screened for extra-ophthalmic disease with physical examination and blood testing. Systemic imaging was performed in 20 (50%) cases due to clinical suspicion of extra-ophthalmic disease. Of the 21 unilateral IgG4-ROD cases, 3 (14%) had extra-ophthalmic involvement. Of the 19 bilateral cases, 15 (79%) had extra-ophthalmic involvement. Extra-ophthalmic involvement was strongly associated with bilateral IgG4-ROD (pIgG4-ROD is strongly associated with extra-ophthalmic IgG4-RD. We recommend that imaging of the neck, chest, abdomen and pelvis be performed for all bilateral cases. Systemic imaging should also be considered in unilateral cases as a significant proportion of these patients will also have extra-ophthalmic disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Subspecialization of the ophthalmic literature: a review of the publishing trends of the top general, clinical ophthalmic journals.

    Kumar, Anupma; Cheeseman, Robert; Durnian, Jonathan M

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the publishing trends of the top general clinical ophthalmic journals and to report: (1) the proportions of articles published in terms of ophthalmic subspecialty, (2) the study design used, (3) any changes in publishing trends, and (4) any differences in the quality of study design between the subspecialties. Retrospective, database review. All original articles published in the top general, clinical ophthalmology journals from 2005 through 2009. All general, clinical ophthalmic journals were selected from the top 20 journals based on 2008 impact factor. All abstracts from original articles were reviewed, and the subject matter was recorded as belonging to 1 of the 11 ophthalmic subspecialties. After the content of the article was assigned, then the study design was recorded as one of the following: nonanalytic study, case-control or cohort study, randomized control trial, meta-analysis, laboratory science article, or systemic review. Subspecialty of the article and the study design used. Seven journals were included, and 12 426 abstracts were reviewed. Articles relating to medical retina were the most prevalent (29.1%), and those relating to strabismus were the least prevalent (2.3%). Case-control or cohort studies comprised most study designs (40.1%), with meta-analyses comprising the least (0.3%). The mean number of articles per year was 2485 (standard deviation, 125.1), remaining stable over the study period. Medical retina articles were significantly more common in 2009 than in 2005 (chi-square, 11.2; P = 0.0008), whereas the proportion of oculoplastic articles was significantly reduced (chi-square, 16.9; P<0.0001). Cataract and refractive surgery had the highest proportions of articles using the higher forms of study design (7.8%), and oculoplastics had the highest proportion of nonanalytic studies (64.5%). There are great differences across the specialty of ophthalmology in the subject matter of published literature, probably driven by recent

  15. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  16. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  17. Polymorphy in native cellulose: recent developments

    Atalla, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    In a number of earlier studies, the authors developed a model of cellulose structure based on the existence of two stable, linearly ordered conformations of the cellulose chain that are dominant in celluloses I and II, respectively. The model rests on extensive Raman spectral observations together with conformational considerations and solid-state 13 C-NMR studies. More recently, they have proposed, on the basis of high resolution solid-state 13 C-NMR observations, that native celluloses are composites of two distinct crystalline forms that coexist in different proportions in all native celluloses. In the present work, they examine the Raman spectra of the native celluloses, and reconcile their view of conformational differences with the new level of crystalline polymorphy of native celluloses revealed in the solid-state 13 C-NMR investigations

  18. Ophthalmic manifestations of methylmalonic aciduria accompanied with homocystinuria

    Qiu-Jing Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Methylmalonicaciduia(MMAaccompanied with homocystinuria is a rare autosomal-recessive with congenital metabolic disorder of Vitamin B12. There are three subtypes, cblC, cblD, cblF, in which cblC is the most common one. The diagnostic tests are tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tests for activity of enzyme in fibroblasts from skin, complementary assay and genetic analysis can be used to make the subtype clear. Early-onset patients, defined by onset of symptoms before the age of 1 year, may have severe ocular involvement, including visual loss, nystagmus, strabismus, retinopathy, maculopathy, optic atrophy, abnormal electroretinography. Late-onset patients, defined by onset of symptoms after the age of 4 year, rarely have ocular manifestations. The pathogenesis of the ophthalmic symptoms may be related to the high level of homocystine, oxidative stress and the abnormal development of nervous systems. The treatment for MMA accompanied with homocystinuria is mostly symptomatic based. Ophthalmic treatment is limited. Early supplement of methionine,GSH or other antioxidants may be helpful for retinopathy. There is no standard ophthalmological examination for those patients in China. It is critical to set up inter-departmental cooperation and early stage examination for the treatments and outcomes of the patients.

  19. Association between Ophthalmic Timolol and Hospitalisation for Bradycardia

    Nicole L. Pratt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ophthalmic timolol, a topical nonselective beta-blocker, has the potential to be absorbed systemically which may cause adverse cardiovascular effects. This study was conducted to determine whether initiation of ophthalmic timolol was associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation for bradycardia. Materials and Methods. A self-controlled case-series study was undertaken in patients who were hospitalised for bradycardia and were exposed to timolol. Person-time after timolol initiation was partitioned into risk periods: 1–30 days, 31–180 days, and >180 days. A 30-day risk period prior to initiating timolol was also included. All remaining time was considered unexposed. Results. There were 6,373 patients with at least one hospitalisation for bradycardia during the study period; 267 were exposed to timolol. Risk of bradycardia was significantly increased in the 31–180 days after timolol initiation (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.93; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.00–1.87. No increased risk was observed in the first 30 days or beyond 180 days of continuous exposure (IRR = 1.40; 95% CI 0.87–2.26 and IRR = 1.21; 95% CI 0.64–2.31, resp.. Conclusion. Bradycardia is a potential adverse event following timolol initiation. Practitioners should consider patient history before choosing a glaucoma regime and closely monitor patients after treatment initiation with topical nonselective beta-blocker eye drops.

  20. CHECKPOINT INHIBITOR IMMUNE THERAPY: Systemic Indications and Ophthalmic Side Effects.

    Dalvin, Lauren A; Shields, Carol L; Orloff, Marlana; Sato, Takami; Shields, Jerry A

    2018-06-01

    To review immune checkpoint inhibitor indications and ophthalmic side effects. A literature review was performed using a PubMed search for publications between 1990 and 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are designed to treat system malignancies by targeting one of three ligands, leading to T-cell activation for attack against malignant cells. These ligands (and targeted drug) include cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4, ipilimumab), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1, pembrolizumab, nivolumab), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1, atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab). These medications upregulate the immune system and cause autoimmune-like side effects. Ophthalmic side effects most frequently manifest as uveitis (1%) and dry eye (1-24%). Other side effects include myasthenia gravis (n = 19 reports), inflammatory orbitopathy (n = 11), keratitis (n = 3), cranial nerve palsy (n = 3), optic neuropathy (n = 2), serous retinal detachment (n = 2), extraocular muscle myopathy (n = 1), atypical chorioretinal lesions (n = 1), immune retinopathy (n = 1), and neuroretinitis (n = 1). Most inflammatory side effects are managed with topical or periocular corticosteroids, but advanced cases require systemic corticosteroids and cessation of checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Checkpoint inhibitors enhance the immune system by releasing inhibition on T cells, with risk of autoimmune-like side effects. Ophthalmologists should include immune-related adverse events in their differential when examining cancer patients with new ocular symptoms.

  1. The first LHC insertion quadrupole

    2004-01-01

    An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.

  2. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  3. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

    Pham, Chi-Tuan; Blanc, Raphael; Pistocchi, Silvia; Bartolini, Bruno; Piotin, Michel [Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Livia [Institut Curie, Department of Ocular Oncology, Paris (France)

    2012-08-15

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  4. Ring insertions as light sources

    Green, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Bending magnets can be inserted in the long straight sections of electron storage rings to produce synchrotron radiation. If the design is carefully proportioned, the bending magnets create only a small perturbation of the properties of the ring. The resulting spectra have favorable optical properties as sources for spectroscopy and diffraction studies. The characteristics of the source are discussed, and the geometrical requirements of the magnets are presented

  5. Vacuum guidelines for ISA insertions

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Vacuum requirements place design restrictions on the ISA insertions. The vacuum tube diameter, given a distance L between pumps, is determined by the desorption of molecules from the wall under the impact of ions created by the beam, whereas the thickness of the tube must be sufficient to prevent collapse. In addition, the entire vacuum chamber must be able to be baked out at approximately 200 0 C

  6. Inserts for nuclear fuel elements

    Cragg, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    An insert for a nuclear fuel pin which comprises a strip. The strip carries notches, which enable a coding arrangement to be carried on the strip. The notches may be of differing sizes and the coding on the strip includes identification and identification checking data. Each notch on the strip may give rise to a signal pulse which is counted by a detector to avoid errors. (author)

  7. ATLAS insertable B-layer

    Marčišovský, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, č. 1 (2011), "S224"-"S225" ISSN 0168-9002. [International workshop on radiation imaging detectors /11./. Praha, 26.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * pixel detector * insertable B-layer Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  8. Cellulose Triacetate Synthesis from Cellulosic Wastes by Heterogeneous Reactions

    Sherif Shawki Z. Hindi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic fibers from cotton fibers (CF, recycled writing papers (RWP, recycled newspapers (RN, and macerated woody fibers of Leucaena leucocephala (MWFL were acetylated by heterogeneous reactions with glacial acetic acid, concentrated H2SO4, and acetic anhydride. The resultant cellulose triacetate (CTA was characterized for yield and solubility as well as by using 1H-NMR spectroscopy and SEM. The acetylated product (AP yields for CF, RWP, RN, and MWFL were 112, 94, 84, and 73%, respectively. After isolation of pure CTA from the AP, the CTA yields were 87, 80, 68, and 54%. The solubility test for the CTA’s showed a clear solubility in chloroform, as well as mixture of chloroform and methanol (9:1v/v and vice versa for acetone. The degree of substitution (DS values for the CTA’s produced were nearly identical and confirmed the presence of CTA. In addition, the pore diameter of the CTA skeleton ranged from 0.072 to 0.239 µm for RWP and RN, and within the dimension scale of the CTA pinholes confirm the synthesis of CTA. Accordingly, pouring of the AP liquor at 25 °C in distilled water at the end of the acetylation and filtration did not hydrolyze the CTA to cellulose diacetate.

  9. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb$_{3}$Sn m...

  10. Opportunity for profitable investments in cellulosic biofuels

    Babcock, Bruce A.; Marette, Stephan; Treguer, David

    2011-01-01

    Research efforts to allow large-scale conversion of cellulose into biofuels are being undertaken in the US and EU. These efforts are designed to increase logistic and conversion efficiencies, enhancing the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuels. However, not enough attention has been paid to the future market conditions for cellulosic biofuels, which will determine whether the necessary private investment will be available to allow a cellulosic biofuels industry to emerge. We examine the future market for cellulosic biofuels, differentiating between cellulosic ethanol and 'drop-in' cellulosic biofuels that can be transported with petroleum fuels and have equivalent energy values. We show that emergence of a cellulosic ethanol industry is unlikely without costly government subsidies, in part because of strong competition from conventional ethanol and limits on ethanol blending. If production costs of drop-in cellulosic biofuels fall enough to become competitive, then their expansion will not necessarily cause feedstock prices to rise. As long as local supplies of feedstocks that have no or low-valued alternative uses exist, then expansion will not cause prices to rise significantly. If cellulosic feedstocks come from dedicated biomass crops, then the supply curves will have a steeper slope because of competition for land. (author)

  11. CELLULOSE DEGRADATION BY OXIDATIVE ENZYMES

    Maria Dimarogona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass has attracted intensive research interest for the production of economically viable biofuels. Here we present an overview of the recent findings on biocatalysts implicated in the oxidative cleavage of cellulose, including polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs or LPMOs which stands for lytic PMOs, cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs and members of carbohydrate-binding module family 33 (CBM33. PMOs, a novel class of enzymes previously termed GH61s, boost the efficiency of common cellulases resulting in increased hydrolysis yields while lowering the protein loading needed. They act on the crystalline part of cellulose by generating oxidized and non-oxidized chain ends. An external electron donor is required for boosting the activity of PMOs. We discuss recent findings concerning their mechanism of action and identify issues and questions to be addressed in the future.

  12. γ radiolysis of cellulose acetate

    Ali, S.M.; Clay, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    The major degradative process in γ-irradiated cellulose acetate is chain scission. For the dry powder the G/sub s/ value (number of scissions per 100 eV of energy absorbed) was found to be 7.1. The water-swollen material was found to degrade at the higher rate of G/sub s/ = 9.45. Additions of ethanol and methanol to the water brought about reductions in G/sub s/, whereas dissolved nitrous oxide produced an increase in G/sub s/. The useful life of cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membranes exposed to γ radiation was estimated by observations of the water permeation rate during irradiation. Membrane breakdown occurred at 15 Mrad in pure water, but the dose to breakdown was extended to 83 Mrad in the presence of 4% methanol. 3 figures, 1 table

  13. Glycerine Treated Nanofibrillated Cellulose Composites

    Esra Erbas Kiziltas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycerine treated nanofibrillated cellulose (GNFC was prepared by mixing aqueous nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC suspensions with glycerine. Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA copolymer composites with different loadings of GNFC were prepared by melt compounding followed by injection molding. The incorporation of GNFC increased tensile and flexural modulus of elasticity of the composites. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that as GNFC loading increased, the thermal stability of the composites decreased marginally. The incorporation of GNFC into the SMA copolymer matrix resulted in higher elastic modulus (G′ and shear viscosities than the neat SMA copolymer, especially at low frequencies. The orientation of rigid GNFC particles in the composites induced a strong shear thinning behavior with an increase in GNFC loading. The decrease in the slope of elastic modulus with increasing GNFC loading suggested that the microstructural changes of the polymer matrix can be attributed to the incorporation of GNFC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images of fracture surfaces show areas of GNFC agglomerates in the SMA matrix.

  14. Polyimide Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Aerogels

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rowan, Stuart; Cudjoe, Elvis; Sandberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Polyimide (PI) aerogels are highly porous solids having low density, high porosity and low thermal conductivity with good mechanical properties. They are ideal for various applications including use in antenna and insulation such as inflatable decelerators used in entry, decent and landing operations. Recently, attention has been focused on stimuli responsive materials such as cellulose nano crystals (CNCs). CNCs are environmentally friendly, bio-renewable, commonly found in plants and the dermis of sea tunicates, and potentially low cost. This study is to examine the effects of CNC on the polyimide aerogels. The CNC used in this project are extracted from mantle of a sea creature called tunicates. A series of polyimide cellulose nanocrystal composite aerogels has been fabricated having 0-13 wt of CNC. Results will be discussed.

  15. Rate of bacterial eradication by ophthalmic solutions of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones.

    Callegan, Michelle C; Novosad, Billy D; Ramadan, Raniyah T; Wiskur, Brandt; Moyer, Andrea L

    2009-04-01

    Antibacterial activity of ophthalmic fourth-generation fluoroquinolones has traditionally been evaluated by comparing only their active ingredients, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin. However, ophthalmic formulations of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones differ in terms of the inclusion of preservatives. While gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.3% (Zymar; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) contains 0.005% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.5% (Vigamox; Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX, USA) is preservative-free. Recent studies have demonstrated that the presence of BAK dramatically affects the antibacterial activity of the ophthalmic formulation of gatifloxacin. This study was designed to compare the kill rates of ophthalmic solutions of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones against isolates of common ocular bacterial pathogens. Approximately 5.6 log(10) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of Haemophilus influenzae (n=1), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=1), Staphylococcus aureus (n=2), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (n=4), methicillinresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) (n=4), and fluoroquinolone-resistant S. epidermidis (n=1) were incubated with ophthalmic solutions of either gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin. Viable bacteria were quantified at specific time points up to 60 minutes. Gatifloxacin 0.3% completely eradicated H. influenzae and Strep. pneumoniae in 5 minutes, one of two S. aureus isolates in 15 minutes, and the other S. aureus isolate in 60 minutes. Gatifloxacin 0.3% completely killed all MRSA, MRSE, and fluoroquinolone-resistant S. epidermidis isolates in 15 minutes. Moxifloxacin 0.5% completely eradicated Strep. pneumoniae and one of four MRSA isolates in 60 minutes. All other isolates incubated with moxifloxacin 0.5% retained viable bacteria ranging from 1.8 to 4.4 log(10) CFU/mL. The ophthalmic solution of gatifloxacin 0.3% eradicated bacteria that frequently cause postoperative ocular infections

  16. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion.

    Kim, Yong-Kyu; Jung, Cheolkyu; Woo, Se Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2015-12-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed cerebral angiography of 7 patients (4 hyaluronic acid [HA] and 3 autologous fat-injected cases) showing ophthalmic artery and its branches occlusion after cosmetic facial filler injections, and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis. On selective ophthalmic artery angiograms, all fat-injected patients showed a large filling defect on the proximal ophthalmic artery, whereas the HA-injected patients showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ophthalmic artery. Three HA-injected patients revealed diminished distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries, which clinically corresponded with skin necrosis. However, all fat-injected patients and one HA-injected patient who were immediately treated with subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection showed preserved distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries and mild skin problems. The size difference between injected materials seems to be associated with different angiographic findings. Autologous fat is more prone to obstruct proximal part of ophthalmic artery, whereas HA obstructs distal branches. In addition, hydrophilic and volume-expansion property of HA might exacerbate blood flow on injected area, which is also related to skin necrosis. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has a limited role in reconstituting blood flow or regaining vision in cosmetic facial filler-associated ophthalmic artery occlusions.

  17. Process Intensification for Cellulosic Biorefineries.

    Sadula, Sunitha; Athaley, Abhay; Zheng, Weiqing; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Saha, Basudeb

    2017-06-22

    Utilization of renewable carbon source, especially non-food biomass is critical to address the climate change and future energy challenge. Current chemical and enzymatic processes for producing cellulosic sugars are multistep, and energy- and water-intensive. Techno-economic analysis (TEA) suggests that upstream lignocellulose processing is a major hurdle to the economic viability of the cellulosic biorefineries. Process intensification, which integrates processes and uses less water and energy, has the potential to overcome the aforementioned challenges. Here, we demonstrate a one-pot depolymerization and saccharification process of woody biomass, energy crops, and agricultural residues to produce soluble sugars with high yields. Lignin is separated as a solid for selective upgrading. Further integration of our upstream process with a reactive extraction step makes energy-efficient separation of sugars in the form of furans. TEA reveals that the process efficiency and integration enable, for the first time, economic production of feed streams that could profoundly improve process economics for downstream cellulosic bioproducts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Utilization of agricultural cellulose wastes

    Valkanas, G N; Economidis, D G; Koukios, E G; Valkanas, C G

    1977-05-05

    Wastes, example, straw, are prehydrolyzed to convert pentosanes, starches, and hemicelluloses to monosaccharides; the remaining pulp is 50% cellulose. Thus, dry wheat straw 0.8 kg was treated with 10 L of 0.3% aqueous HCl at 5-5.5 atm and 145/sup 0/ and a space velocity of 0.55 L/min, washed with dry steam, followed by water at 120 to 130/sup 0/, and more dry steam, and compressed at 25 kg/cm/sup 2/ to yield a product containing 45 to 50 wt % water. The sugar solution obtained (1394 L) contained 1.34 wt % reducing sugars, a straw hydrolysis of 23 wt %, and comprised xylose 74.3, mannose 5.2, arabinose 11.8, glucose 5.9, galactose 2.9%, and furfural 0.16 g/L. The cellulose residue had a dry weight of 0.545 kg. a yield of 68.2 wt % and contained cellulose 53.1, hemicelluloses 12.6%, lignin 22.1, ash and extractables 12.2%. The degree of polymerization was 805 glucose units.

  19. Biochemistry of cellulose degradation and cellulose utilization for feeds and for protein

    Sadara, J C; Lachke, A H; Shewale, J G

    1979-01-01

    A review discussing production of single-cell protein, fuel, and glucose from cellulose decomposition; surface or solid fermentations of single-cell protein; production of cellulases; and the biochemistry of cellulose degradation was presented.

  20. Cellulose-binding domains: tools for innovation in cellulosic fibre production and modification

    Quentin, M.G.E.; Valk, van der H.C.P.M.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Jong, de E.

    2003-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of cellulose, nature's most abundant macromolecule, and therefore represent a renewable resource of special technical importance. Cellulose degrading enzymes involved in plant cell wall loosening (expansins), or produced by plant pathogenic microorganisms (cellulases),

  1. High Dehumidification Performance of Amorphous Cellulose Composite Membranes prepared from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    Puspasari, Tiara; Akhtar, Faheem Hassan; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Alharbi, Ohoud; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2018-01-01

    Cellulose is widely regarded as an environmentally friendly, natural and low cost material which can significantly contribute the sustainable economic growth. In this study, cellulose composite membranes were prepared via regeneration

  2. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestation of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    Xiao-jun ZHANG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs include classic neuromyelitis optica (NMO, opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS, limited form of NMO and isolated optic neuritis or myelitis accompanied by either systemic autoimmune diseases or typical MRI findings of NMO. The common neuro-ophthalmic features of NMOSDs include simultaneous or consecutive bilateral optic neuritis, more commonly seen optic disk edema and surrounding exudate, poor visual recovery, steroid responsiveness and dependency. Combined with serum aquaporin 4 (AQP4 antibody and brain MRI examination, these clinical features can be helpful to the early differential diagnosis between NMOSDs and MS. Some types of eye movement abnormalities have been reported in patients with NMOSDs, but further investigation needs to be done before the specificity of these features are confirmed. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.003

  3. Ophthalmic nepafenac use in the Netherlands and Denmark

    Margulis, Andrea V.; Houben, Eline; Hallas, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To describe nepafenac use in the Netherlands and Denmark with reference to its approved indications. For context, we also describe the use of ketorolac and diclofenac. Methods: We identified users in the PHARMO Database Network (the Netherlands, 2008–2013) and the Danish national health...... registers (Denmark, 1994–2014). We described prevalence of cataract surgery and duration of use in patients with cataract surgery with and without diabetes. Results: In the Netherlands, 9530 nepafenac users (mean age, 71 years; 60% women) contributed 12 691 therapy episodes, of which 21% had a recently...... dispensed. Use patterns of nepafenac, ketorolac and diclofenac were roughly similar in the Netherlands, but not in Denmark. Conclusion: Less than half of therapy episodes were related to cataract surgery; around 90% of episodes with surgery were within the approved duration. Underrecording of ophthalmic...

  4. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed

  5. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  6. A Case of Hydranencephaly in Which Ophthalmic Examinations Were Performed

    Shohei Eda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We performed ophthalmic examinations, including optical coherence tomography (OCT, on a case diagnosed with hydranencephaly. Case Report: This case involved a female infant born at the gestational age of 35 weeks and 4 days, with the birth weight of 2,152 g, who was one of monochorionic diamniotic twins, and the identical twin died in utero at the gestational age of 24 weeks. After that, examination by fetal echo indicated that she had microcephaly and ventriculomegaly. Postnatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of her head indicated microcephaly and significant enlargement of the lateral ventricle on both sides, with no obvious signs of elevated intracranial pressure. The brain parenchyma of both sides of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and occipital lobe had marked thinning, yet that of the temporal lobe, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum had been maintained. Moreover, no obvious hematoma or neoplastic lesions were observed. Ophthalmic examinations indicated that both of her eyes had slight light reflex, attributed to optic nerve atrophy. Examination by use of a hand-held OCT system indicated a layered structure of the retina and thinning of the ganglion cell layer. Flicker electroretinogram (ERG examination by use of a hand-held ERG system indicated an almost normal wave. However, no clear visual reaction was observed when she was 10 months old. Conclusion: Our findings in this case of hydranencephaly revealed that even though the outer layer functions of the patient’s retina were maintained, extensive damage to her cerebral cortex resulted in poor visual function.

  7. Hydroxychloroquine screening practice patterns within a large multispecialty ophthalmic practice.

    Au, Adrian; Parikh, Vishal; Modi, Yasha S; Ehlers, Justis P; Schachat, Andrew P; Singh, Rishi P

    2015-09-01

    To determine provider compliance with hydroxychloroquine screening following the revised recommendations published in 2011 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Evaluation of adherence to a screening protocol. Subjects were identified with hydroxychloroquine as a medication by electronic query at a large multispecialty ophthalmic practice. Patients were excluded if patients: (1) were screened by an outside physician; (2) lacked recorded height, weight, start date, or dosing; or (3) took hydroxychloroquine for malaria prophylaxis. Screening tests were stratified by ophthalmic subspecialty. Guidelines define proper screening as 1 subjective test-Humphrey visual field (HVF), and 1 objective test-spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), or multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Adherence to guidelines was determined by categorizing practices as: (1) "appropriate"-consistent with guidelines; (2) "underscreened"-insufficient testing; or (3) "inappropriate"-no testing. The study comprised 756 patients with a mean age of 56 years undergoing 1294 screening visits. Twenty-one patients received initial screenings outside the institution. Most common screening tests employed included SD OCT (56.6%), 10-2 HVF (55.0%), and Amsler grid (40.0%). Of the 735 initial screenings, 341 (46.4%) were appropriately screened, 204 (27.8%) underscreened, and 190 (25.9%) inappropriately screened. Of those who presented solely for screening (560), 307 (54.8%) were appropriately screened, 144 (25.7%) underscreened, and 109 (19.5%) inappropriately screened. Of patients presenting for hydroxychloroquine screening, 54.8% of patients received appropriate evaluation, indicating lack of adherence to guidelines. Overall, SD OCT and 10-2 HVF were the preferred screening modalities, with FAF and mfERG less frequently ordered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Pediatric case series in an ophthalmic camp in Turkana (Kenya)].

    Noval, S; Cabrejas, L; Jarrín, E; Ruiz-Guerrero, M; Ciancas, E

    2013-12-01

    Turkana is the largest district in Kenya, situated in the Northwest of the country. It features a semi-nomadic population of 850,000. Around 60% of population lives below the poverty threshold. The ratio of doctors is 1:75,000 inhabitants. Five ophthalmologists took part in the last deployment in November. Local staff had previously selected the patients from the rural areas, as well as in Lodwar, the capital of the district. Of the 371 patients who attended the clinic, 128 required surgery. To describe the pediatric population attended to in the last «Turkana Eye Project» Camp. Description of the ophthalmic pathologies of the children seen in the clinic in this surgical camp, and the diagnostic and therapeutic options according to the limitations of the environment. Of the 371 patients, 54 were younger than 15 years old (14.5%). Four children had surgery (3.25% of the 128 patients). In 2 more cases surgery was the indicated but not performed. Therefore, of the total of 54 cases, 6 could be considered as surgical (11.1%), and 17 suffered ophthalmic problems other than refraction defects, or mild ocular surface pathologies: traumatic cataracts, neuropathies, impetigo, exophthalmos, retinal dystrophies, dermoid cysts, or nyctalopia. The etiology was traumatic in four of the 17 children (23.5%). Surgical camps are increasing in the developing countries. They are usually focused on particular pathologies, such as cataracts or trachoma. Our case series shows the importance of pediatric teams and the need to be prepared to face complex pediatric pathologies. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Alexa Fluor-labeled Fluorescent Cellulose Nanocrystals for Bioimaging Solid Cellulose in Spatially Structured Microenvironments

    Grate, Jay W.; Mo, Kai-For; Shin, Yongsoon; Vasdekis, Andreas; Warner, Marvin G.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Orr, Galya; Hu, Dehong; Dehoff, Karl J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2015-03-18

    Cellulose nanocrystal materials have been labeled with modern Alexa Fluor dyes in a process that first links the dye to a cyanuric chloride molecule. Subsequent reaction with cellulose nanocrystals provides dyed solid microcrystalline cellulose material that can be used for bioimaging and suitable for deposition in films and spatially structured microenvironments. It is demonstrated with single molecular fluorescence microscopy that these films are subject to hydrolysis by cellulose enzymes.

  10. Cellulose powder from Cladophora sp. algae.

    Ek, R; Gustafsson, C; Nutt, A; Iversen, T; Nyström, C

    1998-01-01

    The surface are and crystallinity was measured on a cellulose powder made from Cladophora sp. algae. The algae cellulose powder was found to have a very high surface area (63.4 m2/g, N2 gas adsorption) and build up of cellulose with a high crystallinity (approximately 100%, solid state NMR). The high surface area was confirmed by calculations from atomic force microscope imaging of microfibrils from Cladophora sp. algae.

  11. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1977-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artificial test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiography by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (Auth.)

  12. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1976-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artifical test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiographs by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (orig.) [de

  13. Degree and duration of corneal anesthesia after topical application of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in ophthalmically normal dogs.

    Douet, Jean-Yves; Michel, Julien; Regnier, Alain

    2013-10-01

    To assess the anesthetic efficacy and local tolerance of topically applied 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution to in dogs and compare its effects with those of 1% tetracaine solution. 34 ophthalmically normal Beagles. Dogs were assigned to 2 groups, and baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured bilaterally with a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. Dogs of group 1 (n = 22) received a single drop of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in one eye and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) in the contralateral eye. Dogs of group 2 (n = 12) received a single drop of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in one eye and 1% tetracaine ophthalmic solution in the contralateral eye. The CTT of each eye was measured 1 and 5 minutes after topical application and then at 5-minute intervals until 75 minutes after topical application. CTT changes over time differed significantly between oxybuprocaine-treated and control eyes. After instillation of oxybuprocaine, maximal corneal anesthesia (CTT = 0) was achieved within 1 minute, and CTT was significantly decreased from 1 to 45 minutes, compared with the baseline value. No significant difference in onset, depth, and duration of corneal anesthesia was found between oxybuprocaine-treated and tetracaine-treated eyes. Conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis were detected more frequently in tetracaine-treated eyes than in oxybuprocaine-treated eyes. Topical application of oxybuprocaine and tetracaine similarly reduced corneal sensitivity in dogs, but oxybuprocaine was less irritating to the conjunctiva than was tetracaine.

  14. Regional insertion: an emergent approach

    Serra, M.T.F.; Nascimento Teixeira, P. do

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electrical Sector incorporates new variables that expressing the extensive spectrum of environmental impacts in the take of decisions, referring to the viability of realizing a electrical undertaking, attends the several restrictions that are important by the sector and by the society in the environment area and promotes the adequate generation of liquid benefits, consequential of the electrical undertaking. Due to these factors, the Electrical Sector is improving the concept of regional insertion, with the sectorial expansion in long-dated and the created demand in the environmental and social area, focalizing the solution for these questions. (C.G.C.). 1 fig, 2 tabs

  15. Recent advances in insertion devices

    Gluskin, E.; Moog, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    Demand for more and better insertion devices (IDs) at new third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities has led to significant advances in ID technology at different laboratories around the world. In this overview of this progress, focus is on those results that apply to IDs in general rather than one specific ID or laboratory. The advances fall into two general categories: those that reduce the net effect that the ID has on the particle beam, and those that enhance the quality of the emitted light spectrum. The need for these advances, factors that are most important inaachieving them, and the current state of the art are discussed

  16. Summary of experimental insertions workshop

    Sandweiss, J.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    The last ISABELLE workshop of the summer 1976 series, which was held at Brookhaven, August 16-20, focused on the design and utilization of the experimental insertions. The goals of the workshop, which were somewhat more general than might be suggested by the title, are: (1) review the ISABELLE proposal from the point of view of experimental use; (2) contribute useful information on the ''open questions'' in the ISABELLE design; (3) develop data for experimental equipment and operating cost estimates; and (4) project a first approximation to ISABELLE operating modes

  17. Chemo-catalytic valorization of cellulose

    Palkovits, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie

    2012-07-01

    Cellulose can be utilized as carbon source for the production of novel platform molecules as well as fuel motifs. Promising transformation strategies cover the hydrolytic hydrogenation or hydrogenolysis of cellulose to sugar alcohols, the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose followed by dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural or levulinic acid and the further hydrogenation of levulinic acid to {gamma}-valerolactone. Main challenges result from the high degree of functionalization of cellulosic feedstocks. In line, processes are carried out in liquid phase utilizing rather polar solvents and aiming for a tailored defunctionalisation of these oxygen rich compounds. Consequently, such transformations require novel strategies concerning the development of suitable catalysts and appropriate process concepts. (orig.)

  18. Liquid crystalline solutions of cellulose in phosphoric acid for preparing cellulose yarns

    Boerstoel, H.

    2006-01-01

    The presen thesis describes a new process for manufacturing high tenacity and high modulus cellulose yarns. A new direct solvent for cellulose has been discovered, leading to liquid crystalline solutions. This new solvent, superphosphoric acid, rapidly dissolves cellulose. These liquid crystalline

  19. High Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    Ali, Ola

    2013-05-01

    Regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes are extensively used in medical and pharmaceutical separation processes due to their biocompatibility, low fouling tendency and solvent resistant properties. They typically possess ultrafiltration and microfiltration separation characteristics, but recently, there have been attempts to widen their pool of applications in nanofiltration processes. In this work, a novel method for preparing high performance composite RC membranes was developed. These membranes reveal molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO) of less than 250 daltons, which possibly put them ahead of all commercial RC membranes and in competition with high performance nanofiltration membranes. The membranes were prepared by acidic hydrolysis of dip-coated trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC) films. TMSC, with a degree of silylation (DS) of 2.8, was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose by reaction with hexamethyldisilazane under the homogeneous conditions of LiCl/DMAC solvent system. Effects of parameters, such as coating solution concentration and drying rates, were investigated. It was concluded that higher TMSC concentrations as well as higher solvent evaporation rates favor better MWCOs, mainly due to increase in the selective layer thickness. Successful cross-linking of prepared membranes with glyoxal solutions, in the presence of boric acid as a catalyst, resulted in MWCOs less than 250 daltons. The suitability of this crosslinking reaction for large scale productions was already proven in the manufacturing of durable-press fabrics. For us, the inexpensive raw materials as well as the low reaction times and temperatures were of interest. Moreover, the non-toxic nature of glyoxal is a key advantage in medical and pharmaceutical applications. The membranes prepared in this work are strong candidates for separation of small organic solutes from organic solvents streams in pharmaceutical industries. Their hydrophilicity, compared to typical nanofiltration membranes, offer

  20. Insertion and crossing region design

    Wienands, U.; Beloshitsky, P.

    2001-01-01

    This article is the summary of the 5-afternoon tutorial on insertions for circular machines. Roughly half the course (Part 1) was spent discussing interaction regions, We start by recapitulating basic beam optics including building blocks. This provides the tools to analyze the basic structure of interaction regions and explore the parameter space. This simple example is then successively refined and made more realistic. Examples of realized interaction regions for both hadron and electron machines are shown and their salient features and differences explained. A brief discussion of solenoid-decoupling brings Part 1 to a close. In Part 2 we discussed various utility sections. Dispersion suppressors are presented in detail discussing the principles as well as the practical implementation of flexible suppressors using LEP as an example. Injection schemes, both single-turn and multi-turn stacking, are presented in depth. The matching of wiggler and undulator insertions and a discussion of the impact of these devices on beam parameters closes out Part 2

  1. In vitro testing of thiolated poly(aspartic acid) from ophthalmic formulation aspects.

    Budai-Szű Cs, Mária; Horvát, Gabriella; Gyarmati, Benjámin; Szilágyi, Barnabás Áron; Szilágyi, András; Csihi, Tímea; Berkó, Szilvia; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Mori, Michela; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Caramella, Carla; Csányi, Erzsébet

    2016-08-01

    Ocular drug delivery formulations must meet anatomical, biopharmaceutical, patient-driven and regulatory requirements. Mucoadhesive polymers can serve as a better alternative to currently available ophthalmic formulations by providing improved bioavailability. If all requirements are addressed, a polymeric formulation resembling the tear film of the eye might be the best solution. The optimum formulation must not have high osmotic activity, should provide appropriate surface tension, pH and refractive index, must be non-toxic and should be transparent and mucoadhesive. We would like to highlight the importance of in vitro polymer testing from a pharmaceutical aspect. We, therefore, carried out physical-chemical investigations to verify the suitability of certain systems for ophthalmic formulations. In this work, in situ gelling, mucoadhesive thiolated poly(aspartic acid)s were tested from ophthalmic formulation aspects. The results of preformulation measurements indicate that these polymers can be used as potential carriers in ophthalmic drug delivery.

  2. 76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    2011-12-29

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution... solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is effective December 29, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... ANADA 200-318 for [[Page 81807

  3. Ophthalmic artery color Doppler ultrasonography in mild-to-moderate preeclampsia

    Ayaz, Tunahan; Akansel, Gur. E-mail: gakansel@superonline.com; Hayirlioglu, Alper; Arslan, Arzu; Suer, Necdet; Kuru, Ihsan

    2003-06-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hemodynamic changes in mild-moderate preeclampsia using ophthalmic artery Doppler ultrasonography technique. Methods: Ophthalmic artery pulsatility and resistivity indices were calculated in 30 mild-moderate preeclamptic women and 30 normotensive gravid women of matched gestational age. Student's t-test was performed to test the significance of difference. Results: Both indices of peripheral resistance were found to be significantly lower in the ophthalmic arteries of mild-moderately preeclamptic women than those measured in normotensive gravid women at similar stage of pregnancy. In a small number patients whose disease progressed to severe preeclampsia, both indices increased. Conclusion: In patients with mild-moderate preeclampsia, ophthalmic artery color Doppler ultrasonography detects hemodynamic changes that are not present in normotensive gravid women. Reversal of Doppler patterns in a small number of patients with progressive disease supports the hypotheses suggesting the presence of early vasodilation and late vasospasm in the etiology of preeclampsia.

  4. Ophthalmic artery color Doppler ultrasonography in mild-to-moderate preeclampsia

    Ayaz, Tunahan; Akansel, Gur.; Hayirlioglu, Alper; Arslan, Arzu; Suer, Necdet; Kuru, Ihsan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hemodynamic changes in mild-moderate preeclampsia using ophthalmic artery Doppler ultrasonography technique. Methods: Ophthalmic artery pulsatility and resistivity indices were calculated in 30 mild-moderate preeclamptic women and 30 normotensive gravid women of matched gestational age. Student's t-test was performed to test the significance of difference. Results: Both indices of peripheral resistance were found to be significantly lower in the ophthalmic arteries of mild-moderately preeclamptic women than those measured in normotensive gravid women at similar stage of pregnancy. In a small number patients whose disease progressed to severe preeclampsia, both indices increased. Conclusion: In patients with mild-moderate preeclampsia, ophthalmic artery color Doppler ultrasonography detects hemodynamic changes that are not present in normotensive gravid women. Reversal of Doppler patterns in a small number of patients with progressive disease supports the hypotheses suggesting the presence of early vasodilation and late vasospasm in the etiology of preeclampsia

  5. Cellulose-Hemicellulose Interactions at Elevated Temperatures Increase Cellulose Recalcitrance to Biological Conversion

    Mittal, Ashutosh [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kumar, Rajeev [University of California, Riverside; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; ; Smith, Micholas Dean [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; University of Tennessee; Petridis, Loukas [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; University of Tennessee; Ong, Rebecca G. [Michigan Technological University; Cai, Charles M. [University of California, Riverside; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Balan, Venkatesh [University of Houston; Dale, Bruce E. [Michigan State University; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; University of Tennessee; Smith, Jeremy C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; University of Tennessee; Wyman, Charles E. [University of California, Riverside; Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-01-23

    It has been previously shown that cellulose-lignin droplets' strong interactions, resulting from lignin coalescence and redisposition on cellulose surface during thermochemical pretreatments, increase cellulose recalcitrance to biological conversion, especially at commercially viable low enzyme loadings. However, information on the impact of cellulose-hemicellulose interactions on cellulose recalcitrance following relevant pretreatment conditions are scarce. Here, to investigate the effects of plausible hemicellulose precipitation and re-association with cellulose on cellulose conversion, different pretreatments were applied to pure Avicel(R) PH101 cellulose alone and Avicel mixed with model hemicellulose compounds followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of resulting solids at both low and high enzyme loadings. Solids produced by pretreatment of Avicel mixed with hemicelluloses (AMH) were found to contain about 2 to 14.6% of exogenous, precipitated hemicelluloses and showed a remarkably much lower digestibility (up to 60%) than their respective controls. However, the exogenous hemicellulosic residues that associated with Avicel following high temperature pretreatments resulted in greater losses in cellulose conversion than those formed at low temperatures, suggesting that temperature plays a strong role in the strength of cellulose-hemicellulose association. Molecular dynamics simulations of hemicellulosic xylan and cellulose were found to further support this temperature effect as the xylan-cellulose interactions were found to substantially increase at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, exogenous, precipitated hemicelluloses in pretreated AMH solids resulted in a larger drop in cellulose conversion than the delignified lignocellulosic biomass containing comparably much higher natural hemicellulose amounts. Increased cellulase loadings or supplementation of cellulase with xylanases enhanced cellulose conversion for most pretreated AMH solids; however, this approach

  6. The kinetics of porous insertion electrodes

    Atlung, S; West, K [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)

    1989-05-01

    The principles of porous electrodes are discussed as well as the discharge of the insertion compound, the working potential, transport in the electrolyte, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration, and modeling of the porous electrode. The simulation of a TiS2 porous electrode and the composite insertion electrode are considered as well. The influence of electrode thickness and porosity in a typical porous TiS2 electrode is revealed. It is shown that the use of insertion compounds as battery electrodes is limited by the requirement that the inserted ion must be distributed in the interior of the insertion compound particle. 15 refs.

  7. Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Solution for Treatment of Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Safety, Efficacy and Patient Perspective

    Clyde Schultz

    2012-01-01

    Gatifloxacin is a fourth generation fluroquinolone antibiotic that has been prescribed for systemic use. However, the drug which was developed by Kyorin (Japan) was linked to toxic reactions and death and was banned in the United States and Canada for use as an oral dosage form. It continues to be used as a topical application for ophthalmic conditions as the systemic toxicity seen when taking the drug orally has not been observed with ophthalmic use. The available data indicate that ocular u...

  8. Management of ocular inflammation and pain following cataract surgery: focus on bromfenac ophthalmic solution

    Cho, Hyung; Wolf, Kenneth J; Wolf, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    Hyung Cho1, Kenneth J Wolf1, Eric J Wolf21Department of Ophthalmology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute of Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Recently, several new ophthalmic NSAID products have been introduced for commercial use in the United States. The purpose of this review is to briefly overview the ophthalmic NSAIDs currently...

  9. Development and Effects of FTY720 Ophthalmic Solution on Corneal Allograft Survival

    Zhaochuan Liu; Haotian Lin; Chulong Huang; Wan Chen; Wu Xiang; Yu Geng; Weirong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720), a novel class of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators, has received special interest among ophthalmologists, particularly given that oral administration of FTY720 has proven to effectively treat corneal graft rejection in animal models. However, no studies have examined the performance of FTY720 as an ophthalmic solution in reducing corneal rejection in high-risk corneal rejection models, and the stability and ocular irritation profile of FTY720 ophthalmic solution...

  10. IN-SITU OPHTHALMIC GELS FOR THE TREATMENT OF EYE DISEASES

    M. Jothi, S.L. Harikumar* and Geeta Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Topical administration of a drug in the conjunctival cul-de-sac is the treatment of choice for diseases of the anterior segment of eye. Development of ophthalmic drug delivery systems has always been challenging because of the drawbacks with this route, like non-productive absorption, drainage, induced lacrimation, tear turn over, impermeability of drugs to cornea. New approaches have been investigated for delivery of drugs to the eye by means of polymeric delivery of ophthalmic drugs to the ...

  11. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  12. Comparison of systemic absorption between ofloxacin ophthalmic in situ gels and ofloxacin conventional ophthalmic solutions administration to rabbit eyes by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Li, Jiawei; Zhao, Hainan; Okeke, Chukwunweike Ikechukwu; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhidong; Yin, Zhongpeng; Zhuang, Pengwei; Sun, Jingtong; Wu, Tao; Wang, Meng; Li, Nan; Pi, Jiaxin; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Rui; Ma, Li; Pang, Xiaochen; Liu, Zhanbiao; Zhang, Li; Fan, Lili

    2013-06-25

    In recent years, many pharmaceutical scientists have focused on developing the in situ gel-forming systems to overcome the poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic solutions due to rapid pre-corneal elimination of the drug. The present work was to compare the systemic absorptions of ophthalmic ofloxacin in situ gel with the conventional ofloxacin eye drop after topical instillation to rabbit eyes by HPLC-MS/MS method and also determine the relative contribution of the nasal and the conjunctival mucosae to systemic ofloxacin absorption following topical instillation. The systemic AUC, Cmax, Tmax and Ke for ophthalmic in situ gel and ophthalmic solution after ocular instillation were 202.63±118.85 and 202.25±57.74 ng mL(-1) h, 54.22±28.31 and 48.4±25.97 ng mL(-1), 1.08±0.20 and 1.25±0.88 h, 0.0576±0.0207 and 0.0388±0.0248, respectively. And the values for the ratios of the AUC of anterior chamber of rabbit eye to blood plasma, AUCac/AUCpl, for ofloxacin conventional eye drop and in situ gel were 0.25 and 0.52, respectively. Statistic results showed that there was no significant difference in systemic absorption between the test groups and the reference groups (P>0.05) as both formulations have an AUCsa/AUCpl of 0.35. Therefore, the ophthalmic in situ gel may not decrease the drugs systemic absorption when administered in an equivalent dose as ophthalmic solutions into the rabbit eyes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Audiometry in the cellulose industry].

    Corrao, C R; Milano, L; Pedulla, P; Carlesi, G; Bacaloni, A; Monaco, E

    1993-01-01

    A noise level dosimetry and audiometric testing were conducted in a cellulose factory to determine the hazardous noise level and the prevalence of noise induced hearing loss among the exposed workers. The noise level was recorded up to 90 db (A) in several working areas. 18 workers, potentially exposed to noise injury, evidenced a significant hearing loss. While no evidence of noise injury was recorded in a control group of 100 subjects. This finding suggest a strict relationship between audiometric tests, the noise level recorded in the working place and the working seniority of exposed employers.

  14. An international strategic plan to preserve and restore vision: four curricula of ophthalmic education.

    Tso, Mark O M; Goldberg, Morton F; Lee, Andrew G; Selvarajah, Sivaguru; Parrish, Richard K; Zagorski, Zbigniew

    2007-05-01

    To highlight the four International Curricula of Ophthalmic Education developed by the Task Forces of the International Council of Ophthalmology, published in Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde in November 2006. A global perspective of developing educational curricula as tools to improve eye care. Review of the experience and conclusions of the four international panels. The Task Force on Resident and Specialist Education developed a curriculum consisting of 15 topics in basic, standard, and advanced levels to provide flexibility of educational programs of the ophthalmic specialist in different locations across the world. The curricula were designed to be an educational tool to stimulate multiple levels of training of the ophthalmic specialist. The Task Force on Ophthalmic Education of Medical Students designed a curriculum covering 11 topics and provides illustrative materials for teachers and students. The Task Force strongly advocates the ophthalmology curriculum to be part of the core program of general medical schools education. The Task Force on Para-ophthalmic Vision Specialist Education developed a curriculum to highlight the importance of a team approach to eye care, consisting of ophthalmic specialists and paraophthalmic personnel to produce maximum efficiency. The Task Force on Continuing Medical Education (CME) designed a curriculum exploring the principles, elements, categories, and administration of CME activities in a variety of topics. These curricula shifted the traditional apprentice system of education to a curriculum-based training program in which goals, expectations, competencies, and technical training are defined to improve eye care worldwide.

  15. The international council of ophthalmology: vision for ophthalmic education in an interdependent world.

    Lee, Andrew G; Golnik, Karl C; Tso, Mark O M; Spivey, Bruce; Miller, Kathleen; Gauthier, Tina-Marie

    2012-10-01

    To describe the emerging strategic global perspective of the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) efforts in ophthalmic education. A global perspective describing how the development of sophisticated educational tools in tandem with information technology can revolutionize ophthalmic education worldwide. Review of ICO educational tools, resources, and programs that are available to ophthalmic educators across the globe. With the explosive growth of the Internet, the ability to access medical information in the most isolated of locations is now possible. Through specific ICO initiatives, including the ICO curricula, the "Teaching the Teachers" program, and the launching of the new ICO Center for Ophthalmic Educators, the ICO is providing ophthalmic educators across the globe with access to standardized but customizable educational programs and tools to better train ophthalmologists and allied eye care professionals throughout the world. Access to educational tools and strengthening of global learning will help providers meet the goals of VISION 2020 and beyond in eliminating avoidable blindness. It is the intent of the ICO that its programs for ophthalmic educators, including conferences, courses, curricula, and online resources, result in better-trained ophthalmologists and eye care professionals worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1996-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  17. Water absorption and maintenance of nanofiber cellulose ...

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... Physiochemical properties of bacterial cellulose producing by Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus TL-2C was ... shape of the mold (Czaja et al., 2006). ... impurity, and then it was freeze-dried and ground to a fine ... Figure 1. Microstructure and chemical structure of bacterial cellulose producing G. rhaeticus TL-2C.

  18. Characterization of cellulose nanofibrillation by micro grinding

    Sandeep S. Nair; J.Y. Zhu; Yulin Deng; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the morphological development of cellulose fibers during fibrillation using micro grinder is very essential to develop effective strategies for process improvement and to reduce energy consumption. We demonstrated some simple measures for characterizing cellulose fibers fibrillated at different fibrillation times through the grinder. The...

  19. Cellulose Triacetate Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Cellulose triacetate investigated for use as dielectric material in high-energy-density capacitors for pulsed-electrical-power systems. Films of cellulose triacetate metalized on one or both sides for use as substrates for electrodes and/or as dielectrics between electrodes in capacitors. Used without metalization as simple dielectric films. Advantages include high breakdown strength and self-healing capability.

  20. Modelling the elastic properties of cellulose nanopaper

    Mao, Rui; Goutianos, Stergios; Tu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The elastic modulus of cellulose nanopaper was predicted using a two-dimensional (2D) micromechanical fibrous network model. The elastic modulus predicted by the network model was 12 GPa, which is well within the range of experimental data for cellulose nanopapers. The stress state in the network...

  1. Isolation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose obtained ...

    In this study, microcrystalline cellulose, coded MCC-PNF, was obtained from palm nut (Elaeis guineensis) fibres. MCC-PNF was examined for its physicochemical and powder properties. The powder properties of MCC-PNF were compared to those of the best commercial microcrystalline cellulose grade, Avicel PH 101.

  2. Some Physical Characteristics of Microcrystalline Cellulose ...

    Purpose: The microcrystalline cellulose is an important ingredient in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and other industries. This study aimed at evaluating the physical characteristics of microcrystalline cellulose (CP-MCC), obtained from the raw cotton of Cochlospermum planchonii. Methods: CP-MCC was obtained from the ...

  3. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    Dela Rosa, A. M.; Dela Mines, A. S.; Banzon, R. B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z. F.

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulosic material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism.

  4. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Dela Mines, A.S.; Banzon, R.B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z.F.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulose material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism. (author)

  5. Biofunctional Paper via Covalent Modification of Cellulose

    Yu, Arthur; Shang, Jing; Cheng, Fang; Paik, Bradford A.; Kaplan, Justin M.; Andrade, Rodrigo B.; Ratner, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Paper-based analytical devices are the subject of growing interest for the development of low-cost point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring technologies and research tools for limited-resource settings. However, there are limited chemistries available for the conjugation of biomolecules to cellulose for use in biomedical applications. Herein, divinyl sulfone (DVS) chemistry was demonstrated to covalently immobilize small molecules, proteins and DNA onto the hydroxyl groups of cellulose membranes through nucleophilic addition. Assays on modified cellulose using protein-carbohydrate and protein-glycoprotein interactions as well as oligonucleotide hybridization showed that the membrane’s bioactivity was specific, dose-dependent, and stable over a long period of time. Use of an inkjet printer to form patterns of biomolecules on DVS-activated cellulose illustrates the adaptability of the DVS functionalization technique to pattern sophisticated designs, with potential applications in cellulose-based lateral flow devices. PMID:22708701

  6. Development of composites of polycaprolactone with cellulose

    Aguiar, V.O.; Marques, M.F.V.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, alkaline followed by an acid treatment were performed in plant sources of curaua and jute fibers to remove the amorphous portion and to aid fibrillation. Using the technique of X-ray diffraction it was observed that the chemical treatments led to a better organization of cellulose microfibrils and, consequently, the increase in their crystallinity index. Using the thermogravimetric analysis it was noted a slight decrease in thermal stability of the chemically treated cellulose fibers, however it did not impairs its use as filler in the polymer matrix. Through the SEM micrographs it was observed that the chemical treatment reduced the dimensions of the fibers in natura. Polycaprolactone composite was prepared in a twin-screw extruder at different amounts for several cellulose sources (those obtained from vegetable fibers, curaua and jute, commercial cellulose and amorphous cellulose) at and maintaining the process time and temperature constant. (author)

  7. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  8. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  9. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12 h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43 N/mm"2 and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. - Highlights: • Cellulose hydrogel films with trace lignin were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. • Lignin content was found to be in the range of 1.62 − 0.68% by UV–Vis spectroscopy. • Higher lignin content strengthened mechanical properties of the hydrogel films. • Trace lignin affected the hydrogel morphology such as roughness and porosity. • High cell proliferation was observed in the hydrogel containing 1.68% lignin.

  10. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi, E-mail: takaomi@nagaoakut.ac.jp

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12 h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43 N/mm{sup 2} and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. - Highlights: • Cellulose hydrogel films with trace lignin were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. • Lignin content was found to be in the range of 1.62 − 0.68% by UV–Vis spectroscopy. • Higher lignin content strengthened mechanical properties of the hydrogel films. • Trace lignin affected the hydrogel morphology such as roughness and porosity. • High cell proliferation was observed in the hydrogel containing 1.68% lignin.

  11. Direct-puncture approach to the extraconal portion of the superior ophthalmic vein for carotid cavernous fistulae

    Kurata, A.; Suzuki, S.; Iwamoto, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Inukai, M.; Abe, K.; Niki, J.; Yamada, M.; Fujii, K.; Kan, S.

    2009-01-01

    The transvenous approach via the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) is an available approach for carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), especially in the event that there is no other suitable approach route to the fistula. Surgical exposure of the peripheral roots of the SOV is commonly used; however, often, the SOV is often not accessible because of anatomical problems and/or complications. In this paper, we present and discuss our original direct-puncture approach to the extraconal portion of the SOV. An attempt on three patients with traumatic CCF failed with the transarterial approach and the conventional venous approach via the inferior petrosal sinus; therefore, the patients were treated with the direct-puncture approach to the extraconal portion of the SOV using two-dimensional digital subtraction angiography with local anesthesia. All cases that had tortuous and partially stenotic division of the SOV were treated successfully with this approach and without complications. This approach will become an alternate approach, especially when the peripheral roots of the SOV are focally narrowed and tortuous, making it impossible to insert a catheter. (orig.)

  12. Hydrothermal degradation of cellulosic matter to sugars and their fermentative conversion to protein

    Bobleter, O.; Niesner, R.; Roehr, M.

    1976-01-01

    For the hydrothermal degradation of cellulosic matter, an apparatus was developed in which water is used as extraction medium. Samples, 0.15 g each, of pure cellulose (filter paper), natural straw, and 14 C-labeled straw were treated at temperatures of between 200 and 275 0 C. Of the inserted cellulose, 65.7 percent was recovered at the optimum temperature as sugars and hydroxymethylfurfural. It was possible to degrade the straw selectively: at lower temperatures, the hemicellulose part of the plant matter was converted to xylose and arabinose; and then at higher temperatures, the cellulose was converted to glucose and cellobiose. At the same time, a certain amount of the sugars was transformed to furfural compounds. The growth behavior of the yeast Candida utilis (strain Weissenbach) was analyzed, using cellobiose, xylose, and glucose (standard) as carbon sources. The growth curves applying cellobiose were nearly identical to those of glucose. Xylose showed lower productivity than the hexoses. The main products of the hydrothermal degradation can, therefore, be used favorably as nutritive substances for this protein-producing yeast

  13. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    Jones, Russel B

    2017-04-04

    A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.

  14. Absorbed doses to the main parts of eyeball due to use 90Sr + 90Y ophthalmic applicator

    Chen Lishu

    1993-05-01

    The ophthalmic radiotherapy dosimetry and some affecting factors are introduced. The distributions of absorbed doses to the main parts of a fresh eyeball such as the cornea, sclera, lens and anterior chamber, during the radiotherapy by using a 90 Sr + 90 Y ophthalmic applicator are presented. An tissue-equivalent extrapolation ionization chamber was used in the dose measurement. The reasonable doses during ophthalmic radiotherapy for different depths have been obtained. Therefore, the absorbed dose to the lens, the most sensitive organ, can be given. These data are useful for radiation protection in ophthalmic radiotherapy

  15. Cysteamine ophthalmic hydrogel for the treatment of ocular cystinosis

    Anxo Fernández-Ferreiro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocular cystinosis is a rare disease characterised by the deposit of cystine crystals on the corneal surface, which hinder patients’ eyesight. Oral cysteamine is given as cysteamine; however, it does not reach the cornea due to the lack of corneal vascularization making necessary its administration by the topical ocular route. The aim of the present study is to determine the stability of an ophthalmic hydrogel of cysteamine, which can be potentially prepared at hospital pharmacy departments, under different preservation conditions during a follow-up of 30 days. Different physical and chemical parameters were evaluated: osmolality, pH and cysteamine concentration, which has been measured by a method of ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS. Descriptive assays were also performed, such as transparency measurement and microbiological assays in order to verify its sterility. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the cysteamine hydrogel is stable during 30 days, being recommendable its preservation in refrigerated conditions.

  16. New developments in ophthalmic coatings on plastic lenses

    Eigenmann, H. P.; Lobsiger, W.; Suter, R.

    1998-02-01

    The origin of vision aids such as eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, telescopes and so forth lies in the distant past and cannot be dated with precision. However, such aids certainly came into use at different times in different cultures. Early portraits and other pictures prove to a certainty, however, that remarkable well-made spectacles were in use by the end of the Middle Ages. Glass was employed for optical lenses from the very beginning, and quality improved continuously with advances in glassmaking and polishing techniques. Starting around 1970, this continuing development received new impetus from the introduction of plastics as a new material for ophthalmic lenses. Rapid progress in plastics chemistry had epoch-making effects on lens technology, and today a wide variety of materials such as CR39, PMMA and polycarbonates, with refractive indices ranging from 1.52 to 1.65, are used for this purpose. Eyeglasses have long been important on other grounds than vision correction; people wear them as adornment, because they are fashionable, to express their personality, and for other reasons. This dramatic history shows no signs of coming to an end, and more innovations are definitely ahead.

  17. The Influence of Early Ophthalmic Hospitals on the Journal.

    Pathipati, Akhilesh S; Tsai, James C

    2018-05-09

    To consider the American Journal of Ophthalmology's (AJO's) role not only as a forum to describe clinical and scientific advances but also as a record of institutional histories. We used the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and the Wills Eye Hospital as case studies on the Journal's role in documenting the people and organizations that have moved ophthalmology forward. Perspective. Using the ScienceDirect database, we conducted a literature search to gather all mentions of the 3 eye hospitals in the Journal's archives from 1918 to 2018. We evaluated those search results to identify a few of the individuals and articles that highlight how the history of eye institutions are reflected in the AJO. Searches for the aforementioned 3 hospitals yielded over 3400 results in Journal archives. These included articles on their histories, proceedings from clinical case conferences, profiles of prominent surgeons, and information about educational offerings, among others. Many of those articles were written by physicians from those institutions who also served on the AJO's editorial board or had a long history of publishing in the Journal. The AJO has played a crucial role in the last 100 years as a register of ophthalmic history. The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and Wills Eye Hospital provide 3 examples of how that role manifests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and construction of ophthalmic simulators for clinical applications

    Sanchez, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a calculational methodology for dose determination in human eye structures, such as: sclera, choroid, retina, lens, vitreous body, optic nerve and disc, and cornea, as well as tumor due to treatment to the eye plaques. A human eye model was constructed taking into consideration its main structural and dimension characteristics. Beyond that a mathematical model for the Co-60 and 1-125 plaques with all geometric details were built employing the MCNP-4C code. This model is able to calculate the axial and radial doses in any point of the eye and for each of its structures. An acrylic eye simulator was also built with the aim to obtain experimental results for the both model validations. This simulator is made of an acrylic sphere split into foils of 1 mm thickness which allow the introduction of a radiographic film to measure the axial and radial doses. The experimental data were used to validate the MCNP-4C results. The data from the mathematical model will serve as the basis to build a data bank for all the eye structures allowing different position and sizes of tumor as well as the replacement of all ophthalmic plaques used in the treatment. This data bank will be the principal part for the construction of a national software for the dose calculation and can be of great help for a reliable treatment system planning in radiotherapy/brachytherapy. (author)

  19. Pterygium: prevalence and severity in an Amazonian ophthalmic setting, Brazil

    Sophie Joanna Coutts

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is a cross sectional ophthalmic clinic-based study to estimate the prevalence and severity of pterygium in a selected population in the Amazon Basin, Brazil. METHODS: The study included 225 subjects above 20 years age from three different places of residence of Manaus city (group 1, n=89, river based communities (group 2, n= 116 and indigenous rainforest inhabitants (group 3, n=20. Pterygia was graded 1-4 by torch examination and gender, age and occupation determined. RESULTS: were assessed to have pterygia (grades 2-4 117 people; 52% against 108 control subjects with bilateral disease in 43% of subjects. Prevalence of grades 2-4 increased from 36% in group 1 to 62.5 % in group 2 and 75% in group 3. Of these subjects the percentage with outdoor professions increased across the groups from 31.2% to 67.1 % and 70% respectively. Also subjects of group 2 who worked largely outdoors, showed increasing pterygia severity, from grades 2 at 57% (p=0.0002, grade 3 at 93.3% (p,0.0001 to grade 4 at 100% (p=0.0004 CONCLUSION: Amazonian communities have a high prevalence of pterygia, which correlates to greater outdoor occupation and sun exposure. This study agrees with previous worldwide reports and it is the first study to compare the prevalence of pterygium in rural and urban living in Amazonian in Brazil. This study highlights the public health significance and gross need for intervention studies.

  20. Optimization of sup 125 I ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy

    Astrahan, M.A.; Luxton, G.; Jozsef, G.; Liggett, P.E.; Petrovich, Z. (Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Episcleral plaques containing {sup 125}I sources are often used in the treatment of ocular melanoma. Within four years post-treatment, however, the majority of patients experience some visual loss due to radiation retinopathy. The high incidence of late complications suggests that careful treatment optimization may lead to improved outcome. The goal of optimization would be to reduce the magnitude of vision-limiting complications without compromising tumor control. We have developed a three-dimensional computer model for ophthalmic plaque therapy which permits us to explore the potential of various optimization strategies. One simple strategy which shows promise is to maximize the ratio of dose to the tumor apex (T) compared to dose to the macula (M). By modifying the parameters of source location, activity distribution, source orientation, and shielding we find that the calculated T:M ratio can be varied by a factor of 2 for a common plaque design and posterior tumor location. Margins and dose to the tumor volume remain essentially unchanged.

  1. [Cysteamine ophthalmic hydrogel for the treatment of ocular cystinosis].

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; Luaces-Rodríguez, Andrea; Díaz-Tomé, Victoria; Gil-Martínez, María; Rodríguez Ares, María Teresa; Touriño Peralba, Rosario; Blanco-Méndez, José; González-Barcia, Miguel; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier; Lamas, María Jesús

    2017-11-01

    Ocular cystinosis is a rare disease characterised by the deposit of cystine crystals on the corneal surface, which hinder patients' eyesight. Oral cysteamine is given as cysteamine; however, it does not reach the cornea due to the lack of corneal vascularization making necessary its  administration by the topical ocular route. The aim of the present study is to  determine the stability of an ophthalmic hydrogel of cysteamine, which can be  potentially prepared at hospital pharmacy departments, under different preservation conditions during a follow-up of 30 days. Different physical  and chemical parameters were evaluated: osmolality, pH and  cysteamine concentration, which has been measured by a method of ultra  performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS).  Descriptive assays were also performed, such as transparency measurement and  microbiological assays in order to verify its sterility. The obtained results  allow us to conclude that the cysteamine hydrogel is stable during 30 days,  being recommendable its preservation in refrigerated conditions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    Moog, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics

  3. Node insertion in Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function

    Prasad, Srijanani Anurag

    2013-01-01

    The Iterated Function System (IFS) used in the construction of Coalescence Hidden-variable Fractal Interpolation Function (CHFIF) depends on the interpolation data. The insertion of a new point in a given set of interpolation data is called the problem of node insertion. In this paper, the effect of insertion of new point on the related IFS and the Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function is studied. Smoothness and Fractal Dimension of a CHFIF obtained with a node are also discussed

  4. Development and Evaluation of Diclofenac Sodium Loaded-N-Trimethyl Chitosan Nanoparticles for Ophthalmic Use.

    Asasutjarit, Rathapon; Theerachayanan, Thitaree; Kewsuwan, Prartana; Veeranodha, Sukitaya; Fuongfuchat, Asira; Ritthidej, Garnpimol C

    2015-10-01

    The ophthalmic preparation of diclofenac sodium (DC) for relieving ocular inflammation is presently available in the market only as an eye drop solution. Due to its low occular bioavailability, it requires frequent application leading to low patients' compliance and quality of life. This study was conducted to develop formulations of DC loaded-N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (DC-TMCNs) for ophthalmic use to improve ocular biavailabiltiy of DC. DC-TMCNs varied in formulation compositions were prepared using ionic gelation technique and evaluated for their physicochemical properties, drug release, eye irritation potential, and ophthalmic absorption of diclofenac sodium. N-Trimethyl chitosan (TMC) with a 49.8% degree of quaternization was synthesized and used for DC-TMCNs production. The obtained DC-TMCNs had particle size in a range of 130-190 nm with zeta potential values of +4 to +9 mV and drug entrapment efficiencies of more than 70% depending on the content of TMC and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The optimized DC-TMCNs formulation contained TMC, DC, and TPP at a weight ratio of TMC/DC/TPP = 3:1:1. Their lyophilized product reconstituted with phosphate buffer solution pH 5.5 possessed a drug release pattern that fitted within the zero-order model. The eye irritation tests showed that DC-TMCNs were safe for ophthalmic use. The in vivo ophthalmic drug absorption study performed on rabbits indicated that DC-TMCNs could improve ophthalmic bioavailability of DC. Results of this study suggested that DC-TMCNs had potential for use as an alternative to conventional DC eye drops for ophthalmic inflammation treatment.

  5. Insertion material for controlling reactivity

    Baba, Iwao.

    1994-01-01

    Moderators and a group of suspended materials having substantially the same density as the moderator are sealed in a hollow rod vertically inserted to a fuel assembly. Specifically, the group of suspended materials is adapted to have a density changing stepwise from density of the moderator at the exit temperature of the reactor core to that at the inlet temperature of the reactor core. Reactivity is selectively controlled for a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity by utilizing the density of the moderator and the distribution of the density. That is, if the power distribution is flat, the density of the moderators changes at a constant rate over the vertical direction of the reactor core and the suspended materials stay at a portion of the same density, to form a uniform distribution. Further, upon reactor shutdown, since the liquid temperature of the moderators is lowered and the density is increased, all of beads are collected at the upper portion to remove water at the upper portion of the reactor core of low burnup degree thereby selectively controlling the reactivity at a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity. (N.H.)

  6. Cellulose-Based Nanomaterials for Energy Applications.

    Wang, Xudong; Yao, Chunhua; Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaodong

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant natural polymer on earth, providing a sustainable green resource that is renewable, degradable, biocompatible, and cost effective. Recently, nanocellulose-based mesoporous structures, flexible thin films, fibers, and networks are increasingly developed and used in photovoltaic devices, energy storage systems, mechanical energy harvesters, and catalysts components, showing tremendous materials science value and application potential in many energy-related fields. In this Review, the most recent advancements of processing, integration, and application of cellulose nanomaterials in the areas of solar energy harvesting, energy storage, and mechanical energy harvesting are reviewed. For solar energy harvesting, promising applications of cellulose-based nanostructures for both solar cells and photoelectrochemical electrodes development are reviewed, and their morphology-related merits are discussed. For energy storage, the discussion is primarily focused on the applications of cellulose-based nanomaterials in lithium-ion batteries, including electrodes (e.g., active materials, binders, and structural support), electrolytes, and separators. Applications of cellulose nanomaterials in supercapacitors are also reviewed briefly. For mechanical energy harvesting, the most recent technology evolution in cellulose-based triboelectric nanogenerators is reviewed, from fundamental property tuning to practical implementations. At last, the future research potential and opportunities of cellulose nanomaterials as a new energy material are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale. PMID:26402242

  8. Enzymatic Cellulose Palmitate Synthesis Using Immobilized Lipase

    Anna Roosdiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose can be modified by esterification using palmitic acid and Mucor miehei  lipase  as catalyst. The purpose of this research was to determine the optimum conditions of esterification reaction of cellulose and palmitic acid . The esterification reaction was carried out at the time variation  of  6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 hours and the mass ratio of cellulose: palmitic acid (1: 11: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4, 1: 5,1:6 at 50 °C. The   cellulose palmitate  was examined  its  physical and chemical properties by using FTIR spectrophotometer, XRD, bubble point test and saponification  apparatus. The results showed that the optimum reaction time of esterification reaction of cellulose and palmitic acid occurred within 24 hours and the mass ratio of cellulose: palmitic acid was 1: 3 resulting in DS of  0.376 with  swelling index of 187 %, crystallinity index of 61.95%,  and Φ porous of 2.40 μm. Identification of functional groups using FTIR spectrophotometer showed that C=O ester group  was observed at 1737.74 cm-1 and strengthened  by  the appearance of C-O ester peak at 1280 cm-1. The conclusion of this study is reaction time and reactant ratio influence significantly the DS of cellulose ester.

  9. Model films of cellulose. I. Method development and initial results

    Gunnars, S.; Wågberg, L.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new method for the preparation of thin cellulose films. NMMO (N- methylmorpholine- N-oxide) was used to dissolve cellulose and addition of DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) was used to control viscosity of the cellulose solution. A thin layer of the cellulose solution is spin- coated

  10. Overview of Cellulose Nanomaterials, Their Capabilities and Applications

    Robert J. Moon; Gregory T. Schueneman; John Simonsen

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials (CNs) are a new class of cellulose particles with properties and functionalities distinct from molecular cellulose and wood pulp, and as a result, they are being developed for applications that were once thought impossible for cellulosic materials. Momentum is growing in CN research and development, and commercialization in this field is...

  11. Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose produced from purun tikus (Eleocharis dulcis)

    Sunardi, Febriani, Nina Mutia; Junaidi, Ahmad Budi

    2017-08-01

    Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) is one of the important modified cellulose, a water-soluble cellulose, which is widely used in many application of food, pharmaceuticals, detergent, paper coating, dispersing agent, and others. The main raw material of modified cellulose is cellulose from wood and cotton. Recently, much attention has been attracted to the use of various agriculture product and by-product, grass, and residual biomass as cellulose and modified cellulose source for addressing an environmental and economic concern. Eleocharis dulcis, commonly known as purun tikus (in Indonesia), is a native aquatic plant of swamp area (wetland) in Kalimantan, which consists of 30-40% cellulose. It is significantly considered as one of the alternative resources for cellulose. The aims of present study were to isolate cellulose from E. dulcis and then to synthesise Na-CMC from isolated cellulose. Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose from E. dulcis was carried out by an alkalization and etherification process of isolated cellulose, using various concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and monochloroacetic acid (MCA). The results indicated that the optimum reaction of alkalization was reached at 20% NaOH and etherification at the mass fraction ratio of MCA to cellulose 1.0. The optimum reaction has the highest solubility and degree of substitution. The carboxymethylation process of cellulose was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In addition, changes in crystallinity of cellulose and Na-CMC were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  12. Cellulosic ethanol: status and innovation

    Lynd, Lee R.; Liang, Xiaoyu; Biddy, Mary J.; Allee, Andrew; Cai, Hao; Foust, Thomas; Himmel, Michael E.; Laser, Mark S.; Wang, Michael; Wyman, Charles E.

    2017-06-01

    Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today’s technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. As an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungal cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler).

  13. Characterization of ethyl cellulose polymer.

    Mahnaj, Tazin; Ahmed, Salah U; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) polymer was characterized for its property before considering the interactions with the plasicizer. Ethocel Std.10 FP Premium from Dow chemical company USA was tested for its solubility, morphology and thermal properties. Seven percentage of EC solution in ethanol was found to be the right viscosity used to prepare the film. The EC polymer and EC film without any plasticizers showed almost identical thermal behavior, but in X-ray diffraction showed different arrangements of crystallites and amorphous region. Dynamic mechanical analysis of film showed that without a plasticizer, EC film was not flexible and had very low elongation with high applied force. The aim of the work was to avoid using the commercially available EC dispersions Surelease® and Aquacoat®; both already have additives on it. Instead, Ethocel EC polymer (powder) was characterized in our laboratory in order to find out the properties of polymer before considering the interactions of the polymer with various plasticizers.

  14. Preparation of membranes from cellulose obtained of sugarcane bagasse

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique Fernandes; Cioffi, Maria Odila Hilario; Voorwald, Herman Jacobus Cornelis; Pinho, Maria Noberta de; Silva, Maria Lucia Caetano Pinto da

    2010-01-01

    In this work, cellulose obtained from sugarcane bagasse to produce both cellulose and acetylated cellulose to prepare asymmetric membranes. Membranes was procedure used a mixture of materials of DMAc/ LiCl systemic in different conditions. Cellulose and acetylated cellulose were characterized by thermogravimetric (TG), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Observed less stability thermal of acetylated cellulose when compared of cellulose. All membranes procedure were asymmetric, characterized by presence of a dense skin and porous support can be observed. SEM showed that the morphology of the superficial of membranes depends on the method preparation. (author)

  15. Bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B; Mandenius, C F; Mattiasson, B; Nilsson, B; Axelsson, J P; Hagander, P

    1985-06-20

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam pretreated sallow gives highest yields of soluble sugars when hemicellulose is degraded already in the pretreatment step. The steam pretreatment equipment is rebuilt so that 75 g (dry matter) material instead of 7 g can be treated each time. The cellulose production has been increased 123% by the utilization of aqueous two-phase systems as compared to regular growth medium. The cellulase activity per gram of cellulose has been increased from 42 FPU in regular growth medium to 156 FPU in aqueous two-phase systems. Crude dextran can be used for enzyme production. Enzyme recovery up to 75% has been achieved by combining aqueous two-phase technique with membrane technique. Using the enzyme glucose isomerase in combination with S. cerevisiae theoretical yields in pentose fermentations have been achieved, with a product concentration of 60 g/L and a productivity of 2 g/L x h. Yeast and enzyme can be recirculated using membrane technique. Computer simulation shows that the rate equation for enzymatic hydrolysis with respect to inhibiting sugar concentrations can be used to interpolate with respect to sugar concentrations. Computer simulations show that hydrolysis experiments should focus on high substrate concentrations (>10%) using fed-batch technique and enzyme concentrations in the range of 2-8% in relation to substrate dry matter. The combined 'flow injection analysis', FIA, and enzyme reactor probe has been adapted to enzymatic saccarifications of sodium hydroxide pretreated sallow. The gas membrane sensor for ethanol has been utilized in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated sallow. A literature study concerning pervaporation for ethanol up-grading has been made.(Author).

  16. Enzymic hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes to glucose

    Spano, L A; Medeiros, J; Mandels, M

    1976-01-01

    An enzymic process for the conversion of cellulose to glucose is based on the use of a specific enzyme derived from mutant strains of the fungus trichoderma viride which is capable of reacting with the crystalline fraction of the cellulose molecule. The production and mode of action of the cellulase complex produced during the growth of trichoderma viride is discussed as well as the application of such enzymes for the conversion of cellulosic wastes to crude glucose syrup for use in production of chemical feedstocks, single-cell proteins, fuels, solvents, etc.

  17. Degradation of cellulosic substances by Thermomonospora curvata

    Stutzenberger, F J

    1979-05-01

    Research is reported on the cellulolytic activity of Thermomonospora curvata, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete prevalent in municipal solid waste compost. Various cellulosic wastes were evaluated for their potential for the induction of cellulase synthesis by Th. curvata and the extent of cellulose degradation under optimal culture conditions. All the substrates tested showed significant degradation of their cellulose content with the exception of sawdust and barley straw. In contrast to Trichoderma viride, cotton fibers were the best substrates for both C/sub 1/ and C/sub x/ cellulase production. Further research is recommended. (JSR)

  18. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth.

  19. Strong and Optically Transparent Films Prepared Using Cellulosic Solid Residue Recovered from Cellulose Nanocrystals Production Waste Stream

    Qianqian Wang; J.Y. Zhu; John M. Considine

    2013-01-01

    We used a new cellulosic material, cellulosic solid residue (CSR), to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) for potential high value applications. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were produced from CSR recovered from the hydrolysates (waste stream) of acid hydrolysis of a bleached Eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEP) to produce nanocrystals (CNC). Acid hydrolysis greatly facilitated...

  20. Brittle Culm1, a COBRA-Like Protein, Functions in Cellulose Assembly through Binding Cellulose Microfibrils

    Zhang, Baocai; Liu, Xiangling; Yan, Meixian; Zhang, Lanjun; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Mu; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Zhou, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose represents the most abundant biopolymer in nature and has great economic importance. Cellulose chains pack laterally into crystalline forms, stacking into a complicated crystallographic structure. However, the mechanism of cellulose crystallization is poorly understood. Here, via functional characterization, we report that Brittle Culm1 (BC1), a COBRA-like protein in rice, modifies cellulose crystallinity. BC1 was demonstrated to be a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein and can be released into cell walls by removal of the GPI anchor. BC1 possesses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) at its N-terminus. In vitro binding assays showed that this CBM interacts specifically with crystalline cellulose, and several aromatic residues in this domain are essential for binding. It was further demonstrated that cell wall-localized BC1 via the CBM and GPI anchor is one functional form of BC1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) assays revealed that mutations in BC1 and knockdown of BC1 expression decrease the crystallite width of cellulose; overexpression of BC1 and the CBM-mutated BC1s caused varied crystallinity with results that were consistent with the in vitro binding assay. Moreover, interaction between the CBM and cellulose microfibrils was largely repressed when the cell wall residues were pre-stained with two cellulose dyes. Treating wild-type and bc1 seedlings with the dyes resulted in insensitive root growth responses in bc1 plants. Combined with the evidence that BC1 and three secondary wall cellulose synthases (CESAs) function in different steps of cellulose production as revealed by genetic analysis, we conclude that BC1 modulates cellulose assembly by interacting with cellulose and affecting microfibril crystallinity. PMID:23990797

  1. Brittle Culm1, a COBRA-like protein, functions in cellulose assembly through binding cellulose microfibrils.

    Lifeng Liu

    Full Text Available Cellulose represents the most abundant biopolymer in nature and has great economic importance. Cellulose chains pack laterally into crystalline forms, stacking into a complicated crystallographic structure. However, the mechanism of cellulose crystallization is poorly understood. Here, via functional characterization, we report that Brittle Culm1 (BC1, a COBRA-like protein in rice, modifies cellulose crystallinity. BC1 was demonstrated to be a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored protein and can be released into cell walls by removal of the GPI anchor. BC1 possesses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM at its N-terminus. In vitro binding assays showed that this CBM interacts specifically with crystalline cellulose, and several aromatic residues in this domain are essential for binding. It was further demonstrated that cell wall-localized BC1 via the CBM and GPI anchor is one functional form of BC1. X-ray diffraction (XRD assays revealed that mutations in BC1 and knockdown of BC1 expression decrease the crystallite width of cellulose; overexpression of BC1 and the CBM-mutated BC1s caused varied crystallinity with results that were consistent with the in vitro binding assay. Moreover, interaction between the CBM and cellulose microfibrils was largely repressed when the cell wall residues were pre-stained with two cellulose dyes. Treating wild-type and bc1 seedlings with the dyes resulted in insensitive root growth responses in bc1 plants. Combined with the evidence that BC1 and three secondary wall cellulose synthases (CESAs function in different steps of cellulose production as revealed by genetic analysis, we conclude that BC1 modulates cellulose assembly by interacting with cellulose and affecting microfibril crystallinity.

  2. Brittle Culm1, a COBRA-like protein, functions in cellulose assembly through binding cellulose microfibrils.

    Liu, Lifeng; Shang-Guan, Keke; Zhang, Baocai; Liu, Xiangling; Yan, Meixian; Zhang, Lanjun; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Mu; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Zhou, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose represents the most abundant biopolymer in nature and has great economic importance. Cellulose chains pack laterally into crystalline forms, stacking into a complicated crystallographic structure. However, the mechanism of cellulose crystallization is poorly understood. Here, via functional characterization, we report that Brittle Culm1 (BC1), a COBRA-like protein in rice, modifies cellulose crystallinity. BC1 was demonstrated to be a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein and can be released into cell walls by removal of the GPI anchor. BC1 possesses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) at its N-terminus. In vitro binding assays showed that this CBM interacts specifically with crystalline cellulose, and several aromatic residues in this domain are essential for binding. It was further demonstrated that cell wall-localized BC1 via the CBM and GPI anchor is one functional form of BC1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) assays revealed that mutations in BC1 and knockdown of BC1 expression decrease the crystallite width of cellulose; overexpression of BC1 and the CBM-mutated BC1s caused varied crystallinity with results that were consistent with the in vitro binding assay. Moreover, interaction between the CBM and cellulose microfibrils was largely repressed when the cell wall residues were pre-stained with two cellulose dyes. Treating wild-type and bc1 seedlings with the dyes resulted in insensitive root growth responses in bc1 plants. Combined with the evidence that BC1 and three secondary wall cellulose synthases (CESAs) function in different steps of cellulose production as revealed by genetic analysis, we conclude that BC1 modulates cellulose assembly by interacting with cellulose and affecting microfibril crystallinity.

  3. Comparison of the effects of ophthalmic solutions on human corneal epithelial cells using fluorescent dyes.

    Xu, Manlong; Sivak, Jacob G; McCanna, David J

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of differently preserved ophthalmic solutions on the viability and barrier function of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) using fluorescent dyes. HCEC monolayers were exposed to the ophthalmic solutions containing benzalkonium chloride (BAK), edetate disodium, polyquad, stabilized oxychloro complex (Purite), sodium perborate, or sorbic acid for 5 min, 15 min, and 1 h. At 24 h after exposure, the cultures were assessed for metabolic activity using alamarBlue. The enzyme activity, membrane integrity, and apoptosis were evaluated using confocal microscopy. Barrier function was assessed using sodium fluorescein. The metabolic assay showed that the BAK-preserved ophthalmic solutions significantly reduced cell viability after a 5-min exposure compared to the phosphate buffered saline treated control (POphthalmic solutions with new preservatives had varying time-dependent adverse effects on cell viability, and the preservative-free solution had the least effect on HCEC. Sodium fluorescein permeability showed that HCEC monolayers treated with BAK-preserved solutions were more permeable to sodium fluorescein than those treated by the other ophthalmic solutions (Psolutions had greater adverse effects on metabolic activity, enzyme activity, membrane integrity, cell viability, and barrier function than the solutions that were not preserved with BAK. Our study suggests that BAK-free especially, preservative-free ophthalmic solutions are safer alternatives to BAK-preserved ones.

  4. Effect of textured eye drop bottles on the photostability of pranoprofen 0.1% ophthalmic solution.

    Iwatsuka, Kinya; Inada, Katsuhiro; Ueoka, Hiroki; Otsuka, Tadashi; Maeda, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Masazumi; Yasueda, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmic solutions are usually filled in a plastic bottle due to its durability and disposability. In Japan, photostability is one of the concerns for the quality control because an eye drop bottle must be a transparent container. The present work studied the effect of textured eye drop bottles on its light blocking to improve the photostability of ophthalmic solutions. We investigated the photostability of Pranoprofen ophthalmic solution filled in a variety of textured eye drop bottles. Pranoprofen content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and surface structure of textured eye drop bottles was evaluated by transmittance, calculated average roughness (Ra) and haze intensity. We observed that eye drop bottle which had greater than Ra value of 1.0 µm and haze intensity 62% clearly showed photostability improvement. This report is the first one which shows that photostability of ophthalmic solution is improved by using textured eye drop bottle. Moreover, this approach is a simple and effective method to improve the photostability. This method is available for not only various ophthalmic applications but also other liquid pharmaceuticals or food products.

  5. Reaction mechanisms in cellulose pyrolysis: a literature review

    Molton, P.M.; Demmitt, T.F.

    1977-08-01

    A bibliographic review of 195 references is presented outlining the history of the research into the mechanisms of cellulose pyrolysis. Topics discussed are: initial product identification, mechanism of initial formation of levoglucosan, from cellulose and from related compounds, decomposition of cellulose to other compounds, formation of aromatics, pyrolysis of levoglucosan, crosslinking of cellulose, pyrolytic reactions of cellulose derivatives, and the effects of inorganic salts on the pyrolysis mechanism. (JSR)

  6. Kinetics of Cellulose Digestion by Fibrobacter succinogenes S85

    Maglione, G.; Russell, J. B.; Wilson, D. B.

    1997-01-01

    Growing cultures of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 digested cellulose at a rapid rate, but nongrowing cells and cell extracts did not have detectable crystalline cellulase activity. Cells that had been growing exponentially on cellobiose initiated cellulose digestion and succinate production immediately, and cellulose-dependent succinate production could be used as an index of enzyme activity against crystalline cellulose. Cells incubated with cellulose never produced detectable cellobiose, and...

  7. Fabrication of polyaniline/carboxymethyl cellulose/cellulose nanofibrous mats and their biosensing application

    Fu, Jiapeng; Pang, Zengyuan; Yang, Jie; Huang, Fenglin; Cai, Yibing; Wei, Qufu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI nanorods have been grown onto the surface of CMC/cellulose nanofibers for the fabrication of biosensor substrate material. • The proposed laccase biosensor exhibited a low detection limit and high sensitivity in the detection of catechol. • Hierarchical PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers are the promising material in the design of high-efficient biosensors. - Abstract: We report a facile approach to synthesizing and immobilizing polyaniline nanorods onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-modified cellulose nanofibers for their biosensing application. Firstly, the hierarchical PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers were fabricated by in situ polymerization of aniline on the CMC-modified cellulose nanofiber. Subsequently, the PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibrous mat modified with laccase (Lac) was used as biosensor substrate material for the detection of catechol. PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers with highly conductive and three dimensional nanostructure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimum conditions, the Lac/PANI/CMC/cellulose/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited a fast response time (within 8 s), a linear response range from 0.497 μM to 2.27 mM with a high sensitivity and low detection limit of 0.374 μM (3σ). The developed biosensor also displayed good repeatability, reproducibility as well as selectivity. The results indicated that the composite mat has potential application in enzyme biosensors

  8. Optimizing Extraction of Cellulose and Synthesizing Pharmaceutical Grade Carboxymethyl Sago Cellulose from Malaysian Sago Pulp

    Anand Kumar Veeramachineni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sago biomass is an agro-industrial waste produced in large quantities, mainly in the Asia-Pacific region and in particular South-East Asia. This work focuses on using sago biomass to obtain cellulose as the raw material, through chemical processing using acid hydrolysis, alkaline extraction, chlorination and bleaching, finally converting the material to pharmaceutical grade carboxymethyl sago cellulose (CMSC by carboxymethylation. The cellulose was evaluated using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Field Emission Scanning Electronic Microscopy (FESEM. The extracted cellulose was analyzed for cellulose composition, and subsequently modified to CMSC with a degree of substitution (DS 0.6 by typical carboxymethylation reactions. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the crystallinity of the sago cellulose was reduced after carboxymethylation. FTIR and NMR studies indicate that the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose fibers were etherified through carboxymethylation to produce CMSC. Further characterization of the cellulose and CMSC were performed using FESEM and DSC. The purity of CMSC was analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM International standards. In this case, acid and alkaline treatments coupled with high-pressure defibrillation were found to be effective in depolymerization and defibrillation of the cellulose fibers. The synthesized CMSC also shows no toxicity in the cell line studies and could be exploited as a pharmaceutical excipient.

  9. Fabrication of polyaniline/carboxymethyl cellulose/cellulose nanofibrous mats and their biosensing application

    Fu, Jiapeng, E-mail: firgexiao@sina.cn; Pang, Zengyuan, E-mail: pangzengyuan1212@163.com; Yang, Jie, E-mail: young1993@126.com; Huang, Fenglin, E-mail: flhuang@jiangnan.edu.cn; Cai, Yibing, E-mail: yibingcai@jiangnan.edu.cn; Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI nanorods have been grown onto the surface of CMC/cellulose nanofibers for the fabrication of biosensor substrate material. • The proposed laccase biosensor exhibited a low detection limit and high sensitivity in the detection of catechol. • Hierarchical PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers are the promising material in the design of high-efficient biosensors. - Abstract: We report a facile approach to synthesizing and immobilizing polyaniline nanorods onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-modified cellulose nanofibers for their biosensing application. Firstly, the hierarchical PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers were fabricated by in situ polymerization of aniline on the CMC-modified cellulose nanofiber. Subsequently, the PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibrous mat modified with laccase (Lac) was used as biosensor substrate material for the detection of catechol. PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers with highly conductive and three dimensional nanostructure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimum conditions, the Lac/PANI/CMC/cellulose/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited a fast response time (within 8 s), a linear response range from 0.497 μM to 2.27 mM with a high sensitivity and low detection limit of 0.374 μM (3σ). The developed biosensor also displayed good repeatability, reproducibility as well as selectivity. The results indicated that the composite mat has potential application in enzyme biosensors.

  10. A Comparative study of early postpartum IUCD insertion to interval IUCD insertion at Tertiary Care Centre

    Roopal, Dr.; Bisht, Vandana

    2018-01-01

    Background: A Comparative study of early postpartum IUCD insertion to interval IUCD insertion at Tertiary Care Centre.Methods: This prospective study was conducted among 100 women at tertiary care centre, Haldwani, Nainital. Patients were divided in to two groups. Group A (n=50)-post placental insertion within 10 minutes of delivery of placenta. Group B (n=50)-Interval insertion after 6 weeks of delivery. Both groups were compared in terms of pain abdomen, bleeding, missing thread, expulsion,...

  11. Investigation of the imaging diagnosis on the ophthalmic orbital diseases

    Yoshizawa, Toshikazu

    1991-01-01

    Ultrasonographic examination, X-ray computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed on orbital diseases. Ultrasonographic examination was a simple, rapid and harmless noninvasive precedure as a diagnostic tool for evaluation of soft tissues. Echography was not more precise than X-ray CT and MRI scan in orbital diagnosis of the localization, size and well-defined outline of the lesion, relating to the peri- and retroorbital organs, however, was useful for screening study of an orbital lesion. B-mode of orbital tumors was effective for the ultrasonic diagnosis and classification according to four types; solid, cystic, angiomatous and infiltrative patterns. B-scan study of intraorbital inflammatory pseudo tumor could provide a differential diagnosis between inflammatory edema and an inflammatory mass lesion. Echographic pictures of dural arterio-venous fistula disclosed the vascular dilatation of superior ophthalmic vein and those of Basedow's disease with thickening of extraocular muscles. X-ray CT revealed intraorbital and intraocular disease, the globes and its immediate surrounding tissue (optic nerve, extraocular muscle, etc.) and bony orbital walls as the same slice of film. X-ray CT pictures of a coronal section, the contrast enhancement, calcification and destruction of the bone were helpful for diagnosis. However, the displays of disorders near the bone were ill-defined because of an artifact induced by high X-ray absorptive power of the bone. MRI was an equipment for superior contrast resolution, with provided a tomography of any section, without artifacts of the bone, and was the superior technique for displaying a vascular lesion. MRI of orbital disease was effective for reconstructing the spatial correlations between the lesion and its surounding tissues. MRI, however, provided no information of the skeleton, being not available for subjects with a magnetic substance. (author)

  12. Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque

    Marwaha, Gaurav, E-mail: marwahg2@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Wilkinson, Allan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bena, James [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Macklis, Roger [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Singh, Arun D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to -1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, -20.16 to -15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

  13. A STUDY ON OPHTHALMIC MANIFESTATIONS IN PITUITARY GLAND TUMOURS

    Chitra Munusamy Rajendran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary adenoma is a benign tumour that originates from the adenohypophyseal cells of the anterior lobe of pituitary gland. It accounts for 12% to 15% of all intracranial tumours. A spectrum of ocular manifestations are seen with these tumours ranging from the absence of any visual symptoms to severe visual field defects and loss of vision. The aim of the study is to study the various ocular features and its effect on vision, visual fields and ocular motility in cases of pituitary adenoma diagnosed on CT or MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study for a period of 1 year and 8 months conducted in Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Madras Medical College. 25 patients aged between 25 to 65 years diagnosed as pituitary adenomas on radiological imaging who presented to squint clinic were evaluated after detailed history with visual acuity, pupillary reaction, colour vision, extraocular movements, slit lamp and fundus examination. Visual field examination was done with Octopus field analyser. RESULTS In our study, 25 patients of pituitary adenoma diagnosed on radio imaging were enrolled and evaluated. Most patients were above 50 years, 15 patients of the 25 were above 50 yrs. (60%. Females were predominantly affected (76%. Visual acquity of the patient was between 6/12-6/6 (62% on presentation. Headache was the commonest mode of presentation (80%. 76% showed field defects of which bitemporal hemianopia was the commonest in 52.9%. Pituitary macroadenoma 96% was the commonest type. Optic atrophy was seen only in 4 cases. Others had normal fundus. CONCLUSION Neuro-ophthalmic evaluation plays a major role not only in early detection, planning of treatment and further follow up, but also prevents visual loss if intervened early.

  14. Ophthalmic nepafenac use in the Netherlands and Denmark.

    Margulis, Andrea V; Houben, Eline; Hallas, Jesper; Overbeek, Jetty A; Pottegård, Anton; Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Arana, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    To describe nepafenac use in the Netherlands and Denmark with reference to its approved indications. For context, we also describe the use of ketorolac and diclofenac. We identified users in the PHARMO Database Network (the Netherlands, 2008-2013) and the Danish national health registers (Denmark, 1994-2014). We described prevalence of cataract surgery and duration of use in patients with cataract surgery with and without diabetes. In the Netherlands, 9530 nepafenac users (mean age, 71 years; 60% women) contributed 12 691 therapy episodes, of which 21% had a recently recorded cataract surgery. Of 2266 episodes in adult non-diabetic patients with cataract surgery, 60% had one bottle dispensed (treatment duration ≤21 days). Of 441 episodes in adult diabetic patients with cataract surgery, 90% had up to two bottles dispensed (≤60 days). Denmark had 60 403 nepafenac users (mean age, 72 years; 58% women) and 73 648 episodes (41% had recorded cataract surgery). Of 26 649 nepafenac episodes in adult non-diabetic patients with cataract surgery, 92% had one bottle dispensed. Of 3801 episodes in adult diabetic patients with cataract surgery, 99.8% had up to two bottles dispensed. Use patterns of nepafenac, ketorolac and diclofenac were roughly similar in the Netherlands, but not in Denmark. Less than half of therapy episodes were related to cataract surgery; around 90% of episodes with surgery were within the approved duration. Underrecording of ophthalmic conditions and procedures was a challenge in this study. © 2017 The Authors Acta Ophthalmologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  15. Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque

    Marwaha, Gaurav; Wilkinson, Allan; Bena, James; Macklis, Roger; Singh, Arun D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], −2.8 to −1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, −20.16 to −15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

  16. Out of hours ophthalmic surgery: a UK national survey.

    O'Colmain, U; Wright, M; Bennett, H; MacEwen, C J

    2013-03-01

    There have been significant changes in the management of out of hours services in ophthalmology recently. The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and economic measures have anecdotally reduced the availability of staff and facilities outside normal working hours, and there have been various responses to the provision of emergency surgical care. There are disparate attitudes to the optimum management of the emergency surgical case. We sought to establish a nationwide picture of the management of out of hours surgery. A questionnaire was distributed to every consultant ophthalmologist working in the NHS and registered with the Royal College of Ophthalmologists (n=947). Information was requested regarding departmental and personal policies, local facilities, and personal beliefs regarding emergency surgery. A total of 440 (46.5%) questionnaires were returned from 155 units; 18.7% of the units had no out of hours services or no operating facilities. Sixty-three percent of units reported a local policy regarding a time after which patients should not be taken to theatre. For 57%, this time began between 2100 hours and midnight. The most common reasons for not operating after a certain time were 'belief that delay does not significantly affect the outcome' (41.6%), 'delayed access to theatre due to competition with other surgical specialities' (40%), and 'no specialist ophthalmic-theatre nursing input' (32.7%). We report the first nationwide study on out of hours ophthalmological surgical working practices. This demonstrates variation in work patterns. It is significant to patients and ophthalmologists that there should be units in United Kingdom without full local facilities and staff.

  17. Electronic compliance monitoring of topical treatment after ophthalmic surgery.

    Hermann, Manuel Marcel; Ustündag, Can; Diestelhorst, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The success of many medical treatments is built on compliance. Electronic monitoring is the most accurate tool to quantify compliance by measuring adherence. In order to assess the efficiency of a recently introduced miniature monitoring device for eye drop application, we evaluated adherence in ophthalmic patients undergoing post-operative short-term topical treatment. This pilot study enrolled 30 outpatients (mean age 61.8 +/- 18.5 years) after cataract (n = 24) and glaucoma filtration surgery (n = 6) applying fixed-combination eye drops containing prednisolone and gentamicin five times daily for 2 weeks. Patients received eye drops in conventional bottles each equipped with a miniature monitoring device recording events of application. Two patients failed to bring back the monitoring device; therefore data collected from only 28 patients could be examined. Data showed highly variable results with a mean dose compliance of 50.2%. Dose compliance was below 25% in approximately one out of five patients. Four cataract patients, but no glaucoma patient, discontinued therapy prematurely. The observed mean dosage interval was calculated for each patient and ranged 4.6-19.7 h. Thirty percent of analysed dosage intervals exceeded 12.0 h. Different patterns of compliance behaviour-like early non-persistence, drug holiday and low treatment frequency could be identified and illustrated using electronic data. Age or gender did not significantly influence compliance rates. Our pilot study demonstrates successful electronic compliance monitoring using a technology capable of continuous data recording over weeks of treatment. The low compliance rate for a relevant part of the patients demonstrates the necessity to study and improve compliance in ophthalmology. In future, new application methods and electronic application devices may improve treatment response in eye care.

  18. Structural and morphological characterization of cellulose pulp

    Ocwelwang, A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the structure of cellulose is of utmost importance in order to enhance its accessibility and reactivity to chemical processing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasound pretreatment on the structure...

  19. diffusion of metronidazole released through cellulose membrane

    prof kokwaro

    was determined using dialyzing cellulose membrane in a dissolution tester. Glycerin, a permeation ... An attempt has been made in the present ... Materials. Metronidazole USP was donated by Cosmos. Pharmaceutical Ltd., Nairobi, Kenya.

  20. Cellulosic ethanol is ready to go

    Burke, M. [SunOpta BioProcess Group, Brampton, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A corporate overview of the SunOpta organization was presented. The organization includes three divisions, notably organic food, industrial minerals, and a bioprocess group. It is a Canadian organization that has experienced over 60 per cent growth per year since 1999. The presentation provided a history of the bioprocess group from 1973 to 2003. The presentation also illustrated the biomass process from wood, straw or corn stover to cellulosic ethanol and acetone and butanol. Several images were presented. The production of xylitol from oat hulls and birch and from ryegrass straw to linerboard was also illustrated. Last, the presentation illustrated the biomass production of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin extraction as well as the ammonia pretreatment of cellulosics. The presentation also listed several current and future developments such as an expansion plan and implementation of cellulosic ethanol. Economic success was defined as requiring proximity to market; high percentage concentration to distillation; and co-located within existing infrastructure. figs.

  1. Characterization of TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose

    Nascimento, Eligenes S.; Pereira, Andre L.S.; Lima, Helder L.; Barroso, Maria K. de A.; Barros, Matheus de O.; Morais, Joao P.S.; Borges, Maria de F.; Rosa, Morsyleide de F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose, as a preliminary research for further application in nanocomposites. Bacterial cellulose (BC) was selectively oxidized at C-6 carbon by TEMPO radical. Oxidized bacterial cellulose (BCOX) was characterized by TGA, FTIR, XRD, and zeta potential. BCOX suspension was stable at pH 7.0, presented a crystallinity index of 83%, in spite of 92% of BC, because of decrease in the free hydroxyl number. FTIR spectra showed characteristic BC bands and, in addition, band of carboxylic group, proving the oxidation. BCOX DTG showed, in addition to characteristic BC thermal events, a maximum degradation peak at 233 °C, related to sodium anhydro-glucuronate groups formed during the cellulose oxidation. Thus, BC can be TEMPO-oxidized without great loss in its structure and properties. (author)

  2. Radiation and enzyme degradation of cellulose materials

    Duchacek, V.

    1983-01-01

    The results are summed up of a study of the effect of gamma radiation on pure cellulose and on wheat straw. The irradiation of cellulose yields acid substances - formic acid and polyhydroxy acids, toxic malondialdehyde and the most substantial fraction - the saccharides xylose, arabinose, glucose and certain oligosaccharides. A ten-fold reduction of the level of cellulose polymerization can be caused by relatively small doses - (up to 250 kGy). A qualitative analysis was made of the straw before and after irradiation and it was shown that irradiation had no significant effect on the qualitative composition of the straw. A 48 hour enzyme hydrolysis of the cellulose and straw were made after irradiation and an economic evaluation of the process was made. Radiation pretreatment is technically and economically advantageous; the production of fodder using enzyme hydrolysis of irradiated straw is not economically feasible due to the high cost of the enzyme. (M.D.)

  3. Cellulose: To depolymerize… or not to?

    Coseri, Sergiu

    Oxidation of the primary OH groups in cellulose is a pivotal reaction both at lab and industrial scale, leading to the value-added products, i.e. oxidized cellulose which have tremendous applications in medicine, pharmacy and hi-tech industry. Moreover, the introduction of carboxyl moieties creates prerequisites for further cellulose functionalization through covalent attachment or electrostatic interactions, being an essential achievement designed to boost the area of cellulose-based nanomaterials fabrication. Various methods for the cellulose oxidation have been developed in the course of time, aiming the selective conversion of the OH groups. These methods use: nitrogen dioxide in chloroform, alkali metal nitrites and nitrates, strong acids alone or in combination with permanganates or sodium nitrite, ozone, and sodium periodate or lead (IV) tetraacetate. In the case of the last two reagents, cellulose dialdehydes derivatives are formed, which are further oxidized by sodium chlorite or hydrogen peroxide to form dicarboxyl groups. A major improvement in the cellulose oxidation was represented by the introduction of the stable nitroxyl radicals, such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO). However, a major impediment for the researchers working in this area is related with the severe depolymerisation occurred during the TEMPO-mediated conversion of CH 2 OH into COOH groups. On the other hand, the cellulose depolymerisation represent the key step, in the general effort of searching for alternative strategies to develop new renewable, carbon-neutral energy sources. In this connection, exploiting the biomass feed stocks to produce biofuel and other low molecular organic compounds, involves a high amount of research to improve the overall reaction conditions, limit the energy consumption, and to use benign reagents. This work is therefore focused on the parallelism between these two apparently antagonist processes involving cellulose, building a necessary

  4. Identification and Characterization of Non-Cellulose-Producing Mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii Generated by Tn5 Transposon Mutagenesis

    Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Xiao, Chaowen; Tien, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The acs operon of Gluconacetobacter is thought to encode AcsA, AcsB, AcsC, and AcsD proteins that constitute the cellulose synthase complex, required for the synthesis and secretion of crystalline cellulose microfibrils. A few other genes have been shown to be involved in this process, but their precise role is unclear. We report here the use of Tn5 transposon insertion mutagenesis to identify and characterize six non-cellulose-producing (Cel−) mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 23769. The genes disrupted were acsA, acsC, ccpAx (encoding cellulose-complementing protein [the subscript “Ax” indicates genes from organisms formerly classified as Acetobacter xylinum]), dgc1 (encoding guanylate dicyclase), and crp-fnr (encoding a cyclic AMP receptor protein/fumarate nitrate reductase transcriptional regulator). Protein blot analysis revealed that (i) AcsB and AcsC were absent in the acsA mutant, (ii) the levels of AcsB and AcsC were significantly reduced in the ccpAx mutant, and (iii) the level of AcsD was not affected in any of the Cel− mutants. Promoter analysis showed that the acs operon does not include acsD, unlike the organization of the acs operon of several strains of closely related Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Complementation experiments confirmed that the gene disrupted in each Cel− mutant was responsible for the phenotype. Quantitative real-time PCR and protein blotting results suggest that the transcription of bglAx (encoding β-glucosidase and located immediately downstream from acsD) was strongly dependent on Crp/Fnr. A bglAx knockout mutant, generated via homologous recombination, produced only ∼16% of the wild-type cellulose level. Since the crp-fnr mutant did not produce any cellulose, Crp/Fnr may regulate the expression of other gene(s) involved in cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:24013627

  5. Rapid hydrolysis of celluloses in homogeneous solution

    Garves, K

    1979-01-01

    Dissolution of cellulose (I), cotton, and cotton linters in a mixture of Ac0H, Ac/sub 2/O, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and DMF at 120 to 160 degrees resulted in rapid and complete hydrolysis of I with decomposition of the cellulose acetatesulfate formed by gradual addition of aqueous acid. Highly crystalline I is quickly decomposed to glucose with minimum byproduct formation. Carbohydrate products containing sugar units other than glucose are hydrolyzed with destruction of monosaccharides.

  6. Alcohol for cellulosic material using plural ferments

    Hoge, W H

    1977-02-22

    A process is described for producing ethanol (EtOH) from cellulosic materials by first hydrolyzing the material to sugars and then converting the sugars to alcohol by digestion and fermentation. Thus, fibrous cellulosic material obtained from municipal waste slurry was sterilized by autoclaving, followed by inoculation with Trichoderma viride cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From 100 g of raw material, 25 mL of 95% EtOH was produced by this method.

  7. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  8. Microsurgical treatment of carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm associated with multiple anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms

    Wang, Jiantao; Kan, Zhisheng; Wang, Shuo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The clipping of multiple intracranial aneurysms in 1 stage is uncommon. In this case, we report clipping of an ophthalmic aneurysm associated with multiple anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms via the Dolenc approach. Methods: The main symptoms of the patient are headache, along with nausea and vomiting. The patient's arteriogram revealed a wide-necked aneurysm of the right ophthalmic artery, an irregular aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, and a basilar artery aneurysm. The surgical intervention for these aneurysms is a challenge because of the complex anatomical relationship with the surrounding structures. The 3 aneurysms, which were not amenable to a single intervention, were successfully clipped in 1 incision. Results: After surgery, the patient reported feeling well. One year after surgery, the patient had no SAH recurrence. Conclusions: Occasionally, surgical treatment was used even for aneurysms of the carotid-ophthalmic artery with aneurysms of anterior communicating artery and basilar artery, which are contraindicated for interventional therapy. PMID:28422878

  9. Ophthalmic Start-Up Chief Executive Officers' Perceptions of Development Hurdles.

    Stewart, William C; Nelson, Lindsay A; Kruft, Bonnie; Stewart, Jeanette A

    2018-01-01

    To identify current challenges facing ophthalmic pharmaceutical start-ups in developing new products. Surveys were distributed to the chief executive officer (CEO) or president of ophthalmic start-ups. The survey attracted 24 responses from 78 surveys distributed (31%). The CEOs stated that a lack of financial capital (n = 18, 75%), FDA regulations (n = 6, 25%), and failure to meet clinical endpoints (n = 6, 25%) were their greatest development hurdles. Risk aversion to medicines in early development (n = 18, 75%), mergers and acquisitions reducing corporate choice for licensing agreements (n = 7, 29%), the emergence of large pharmaceutical-based venture capital funding groups (n = 12, 50%), and the failure of many large pharmaceutical companies to develop their own medicines (n = 10, 42%) were noted as recent prominent trends affecting fundraising. The study suggests that development funding, regulatory burden, and meeting clinical endpoints are the greatest development challenges faced by ophthalmic start-up CEOs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. [Biological availability of ophthalmic drugs. 1. Increasing drug permeability in the cornea].

    Masteiková, R; Chalupová, Z; Savickiene, N

    2004-03-01

    Most eye diseases are treated by topical administration of ophthalmic preparations. Low ophthalmic bioavailability is due to a number of physiological and physicochemical factors. The main obstacle to the penetration of active ingredients to the eye is the layered character of the cornea. Formulation of ophthalmic preparations enabling easier penetration of this biological barrier thus ranks among the most effective ways of improving bioavailability. Penetrability of the cornea can be increased by the following methods: a) adjustment of the actual acidity in such a way that pH of the preparation makes it possible to produce the optimal portion of non-ionized particles; b) incorporation of absorption enhancers (non-ionic tensides, salts of bile acids, some antimicrobial substances, EDTA, cyclodextrins, etc.) into the composition of the preparation, and c) production of prodrugs or ionic pairs.

  11. Comparison of the effectiveness of contemporary ophthalmic lenses against β radiation

    Dunlap, J.H.; Harvey, P.W.; Schwing, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    As part of a study intended to identify the lens material and type that provides maximum eye protection against beta radiation, the effectiveness of contemporary ophthalmic lenses has been evaluated. From the calculations and measurements presented it is evident that safety glasses with crown glass ophthalmic lenses afford the eye the greatest protection against beta radiation, whereas street glasses with plastic ophthalmic lenses afford the eye very little protection. It is to be noted that glass street lenses (approximately 2.2 mm thick) provide greater protection than plastic safety lenses (approximately 3.5 mm thick). A warning is given against the use of safety lenses containing a large percentage of thorium. (U.K.)

  12. Re-evaluation of Magnetic Resonance and Computerised Tomographic Imaging in Neuro-Ophthalmic Patients in an Academic Centre

    Koekoek, Clarence G. J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Pott, Jan Willem R.

    The aim of the study is to report the frequency of missed diagnoses on magnetic resonance and computerised tomographic imaging in neuro-ophthalmic patients who were referred to an academic ophthalmology department, with apparent normal imaging. The authors included all neuro-ophthalmic patients,

  13. Isolation of cellulose microfibrils - An enzymatic approach

    Sain, M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation methods and applications of cellulose microfibrils are expanding rapidly due to environmental benefits and specific strength properties, especially in bio-composite science. In this research, we have success-fully developed and explored a novel bio-pretreatment for wood fibre that can substantially improve the microfibril yield, in comparison to current techniques used to isolate cellulose microfibrils. Microfibrils currently are isolated in the laboratory through a combination of high shear refining and cryocrushing. A high energy requirement of these procedures is hampering momentum in the direction of microfibril isolation on a sufficiently large scale to suit potential applications. Any attempt to loosen up the microfibrils by either complete or partial destruction of the hydrogen bonds before the mechanical process would be a step forward in the quest for economical isolation of cellulose microfibrils. Bleached kraft pulp was treated with OS1, a fungus isolated from Dutch Elm trees infected with Dutch elm disease, under different treatment conditions. The percentage yield of cellulose microfibrils, based on their diameter, showed a significant shift towards a lower diameter range after the high shear refining, compared to the yield of cellulose microfibrils from untreated fibres. The overall yield of cellulose microfibrils from the treated fibres did not show any sizeable decrease.

  14. Biohydrogen, bioelectricity and bioalcohols from cellulosic materials

    Nissila, M.

    2013-03-01

    The demand for renewable energy is increasing due to increasing energy demand and global warming associated with increasing use of fossil fuels. Renewable energy can be derived from biological production of energy carriers from cellulosic biomass. These biochemical processes include biomass fermentation to hydrogen, methane and alcohols, and bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The objective of this study was to investigate the production of different energy carriers (hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol, bioelectricity) through biochemical processes. Hydrogen production potential of a hot spring enrichment culture from different sugars was determined, and hydrogen was produced continuously from xylose. Cellulolytic and hydrogenic cultures were enriched on cellulose, cellulosic pulp materials, and on silage at different process conditions. The enrichment cultures were further characterized. The effect of acid pretreatment on hydrogen production from pulp materials was studied and compared to direct pulp fermentation to hydrogen. Electricity and alcohol(s) were simultaneously produced from xylose in MFCs and the exoelectrogenic and alcohologenic enrichment cultures were characterized. In the end, the energy yields obtained from different biochemical processes were determined and compared. In this study, cultures carrying out simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and hydrogen fermentation were enriched from different sources at different operational conditions. These cultures were successfully utilized for cellulose to hydrogen fermentation in batch systems. Based on these results further research should be conducted on continuous hydrogen production from cellulosic materials.

  15. Current characterization methods for cellulose nanomaterials.

    Foster, E Johan; Moon, Robert J; Agarwal, Umesh P; Bortner, Michael J; Bras, Julien; Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Chan, Kathleen J; Clift, Martin J D; Cranston, Emily D; Eichhorn, Stephen J; Fox, Douglas M; Hamad, Wadood Y; Heux, Laurent; Jean, Bruno; Korey, Matthew; Nieh, World; Ong, Kimberly J; Reid, Michael S; Renneckar, Scott; Roberts, Rose; Shatkin, Jo Anne; Simonsen, John; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly; Wanasekara, Nandula; Youngblood, Jeff

    2018-04-23

    A new family of materials comprised of cellulose, cellulose nanomaterials (CNMs), having properties and functionalities distinct from molecular cellulose and wood pulp, is being developed for applications that were once thought impossible for cellulosic materials. Commercialization, paralleled by research in this field, is fueled by the unique combination of characteristics, such as high on-axis stiffness, sustainability, scalability, and mechanical reinforcement of a wide variety of materials, leading to their utility across a broad spectrum of high-performance material applications. However, with this exponential growth in interest/activity, the development of measurement protocols necessary for consistent, reliable and accurate materials characterization has been outpaced. These protocols, developed in the broader research community, are critical for the advancement in understanding, process optimization, and utilization of CNMs in materials development. This review establishes detailed best practices, methods and techniques for characterizing CNM particle morphology, surface chemistry, surface charge, purity, crystallinity, rheological properties, mechanical properties, and toxicity for two distinct forms of CNMs: cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibrils.

  16. Outpatients flow management and ophthalmic electronic medical records system in university hospital using Yahgee Document View.

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Gochi, Akira; Hirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Tadashi; Kohno, Yoshihisa

    2010-10-01

    General electronic medical records systems remain insufficient for ophthalmology outpatient clinics from the viewpoint of dealing with many ophthalmic examinations and images in a large number of patients. Filing systems for documents and images by Yahgee Document View (Yahgee, Inc.) were introduced on the platform of general electronic medical records system (Fujitsu, Inc.). Outpatients flow management system and electronic medical records system for ophthalmology were constructed. All images from ophthalmic appliances were transported to Yahgee Image by the MaxFile gateway system (P4 Medic, Inc.). The flow of outpatients going through examinations such as visual acuity testing were monitored by the list "Ophthalmology Outpatients List" by Yahgee Workflow in addition to the list "Patients Reception List" by Fujitsu. Patients' identification number was scanned with bar code readers attached to ophthalmic appliances. Dual monitors were placed in doctors' rooms to show Fujitsu Medical Records on the left-hand monitor and ophthalmic charts of Yahgee Document on the right-hand monitor. The data of manually-inputted visual acuity, automatically-exported autorefractometry and non-contact tonometry on a new template, MaxFile ED, were again automatically transported to designated boxes on ophthalmic charts of Yahgee Document. Images such as fundus photographs, fluorescein angiograms, optical coherence tomographic and ultrasound scans were viewed by Yahgee Image, and were copy-and-pasted to assigned boxes on the ophthalmic charts. Ordering such as appointments, drug prescription, fees and diagnoses input, central laboratory tests, surgical theater and ward room reservations were placed by functions of the Fujitsu electronic medical records system. The combination of the Fujitsu electronic medical records and Yahgee Document View systems enabled the University Hospital to examine the same number of outpatients as prior to the implementation of the computerized filing system.

  17. Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Solution for Treatment of Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Safety, Efficacy and Patient Perspective

    Clyde Schultz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gatifloxacin is a fourth generation fluroquinolone antibiotic that has been prescribed for systemic use. However, the drug which was developed by Kyorin (Japan was linked to toxic reactions and death and was banned in the United States and Canada for use as an oral dosage form. It continues to be used as a topical application for ophthalmic conditions as the systemic toxicity seen when taking the drug orally has not been observed with ophthalmic use. The available data indicate that ocular use of gatifloxacin is safe, and effective against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including intracellular bacteria and anaerobes.

  18. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of ophthalmic solutions containing benzalkonium chloride on corneal epithelium using an organotypic 3-D model.

    Khoh-Reiter, Su; Jessen, Bart A

    2009-07-28

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a common preservative used in ophthalmic solutions. The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects of BAC-containing ophthalmic solutions with a BAC-free ophthalmic solution using an organotypic 3-dimensional (3-D) corneal epithelial model and to determine the effects of latanoprost ophthalmic solution and its BAC-containing vehicle on corneal thickness in a monkey model. The cytotoxicity of commercially available BAC-containing ophthalmic formulations of latanoprost (0.02% BAC) and olopatadine (0.01% BAC) was compared to that of BAC-free travoprost and saline in a corneal organotypic 3-D model using incubation times of 10 and 25 minutes. To compare the extent of differentiation of 3-D corneal cultures to monolayer transformed human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cell cultures, expression levels (mRNA and protein) of the corneal markers epidermal growth factor receptor, transglutaminase 1 and involucrin were quantified. Finally, latanoprost ophthalmic solution or its vehicle was administered at suprapharmacologic doses (two 30 microL drops twice daily in 1 eye for 1 year) in monkey eyes, and corneal pachymetry was performed at baseline and at weeks 4, 13, 26 and 52. In the 3-D corneal epithelial culture assays, there were no significant differences in cytotoxicity between the BAC-containing latanoprost and olopatadine ophthalmic solutions and BAC-free travoprost ophthalmic solution at either the 10- or 25-minute time points. The 3-D cultures expressed higher levels of corneal epithelial markers than the HCE-T monolayers, indicating a greater degree of differentiation. There were no significant differences between the corneal thickness of monkey eyes treated with latanoprost ophthalmic solution or its vehicle (both containing 0.02% BAC) and untreated eyes. The lack of cytotoxicity demonstrated in 3-D corneal cultures and in monkey studies suggests that the levels of BAC contained in ophthalmic solutions are not likely to cause

  19. Insertion profiles of 4 headless compression screws.

    Hart, Adam; Harvey, Edward J; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Barthelat, Francois; Rabiei, Reza; Martineau, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    In practice, the surgeon must rely on screw position (insertion depth) and tactile feedback from the screwdriver (insertion torque) to gauge compression. In this study, we identified the relationship between interfragmentary compression and these 2 factors. The Acutrak Standard, Acutrak Mini, Synthes 3.0, and Herbert-Whipple implants were tested using a polyurethane foam scaphoid model. A specialized testing jig simultaneously measured compression force, insertion torque, and insertion depth at half-screw-turn intervals until failure occurred. The peak compression occurs at an insertion depth of -3.1 mm, -2.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.5 mm for the Acutrak Mini, Acutrak Standard, Herbert-Whipple, and Synthes screws respectively (insertion depth is positive when the screw is proud above the bone and negative when buried). The compression and insertion torque at a depth of -2 mm were found to be 113 ± 18 N and 0.348 ± 0.052 Nm for the Acutrak Standard, 104 ± 15 N and 0.175 ± 0.008 Nm for the Acutrak Mini, 78 ± 9 N and 0.245 ± 0.006 Nm for the Herbert-Whipple, and 67 ± 2N, 0.233 ± 0.010 Nm for the Synthes headless compression screws. All 4 screws generated a sizable amount of compression (> 60 N) over a wide range of insertion depths. The compression at the commonly recommended insertion depth of -2 mm was not significantly different between screws; thus, implant selection should not be based on compression profile alone. Conically shaped screws (Acutrak) generated their peak compression when they were fully buried in the foam whereas the shanked screws (Synthes and Herbert-Whipple) reached peak compression before they were fully inserted. Because insertion torque correlated poorly with compression, surgeons should avoid using tactile judgment of torque as a proxy for compression. Knowledge of the insertion profile may improve our understanding of the implants, provide a better basis for comparing screws, and enable the surgeon to optimize compression. Copyright

  20. Laparoscopic insertion of the Moss feeding tube.

    Albrink, M H; Hagan, K; Rosemurgy, A S

    1993-12-01

    Placement of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of a surgeon's skill base. Surgical insertion of feeding tubes has been performed safely for many years with very few modifications. With the recent surge in interest and applicability of other laparoscopic procedures, it is well within the skills of the average laparoscopic surgeon to insert feeding tubes. We describe herein a simple technique for the insertion of the Moss feeding tube. The procedure described has a minimum of invasion, along with simplicity, safety, and accuracy.

  1. All-cellulose composites of regenerated cellulose fibres by surface selective dissolution

    Soykeabkaew, N.; Nishino, T.; Peijs, Ton

    2009-01-01

    All-cellulose composites of Lyocell and high modulus/strength cellulose fibres were successfully prepared using a surface selective dissolution method. The effect of immersion time of the fibres in the solvent during composite's preparation and the effect of the starting fibre's structure on their

  2. Properties of cellulose derivatives produced from radiation-Modified cellulose pulps

    Iller, Edward; Stupinska, Halina; Starostka, Pawel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of project was elaboration of radiation methods for properties modification of cellulose pulps using for derivatives production. The selected cellulose pulps were exposed to an electron beam with energy 10 MeV in a linear accelerator. After irradiation pulps underwent the structural and physico-chemical investigations. The laboratory test for manufacturing carboxymethylocellulose (CMC), cellulose carbamate (CC) and cellulose acetate (CA) with cellulose pulps irradiated dose 10 and 15 kGy have been performed. Irradiation of the pulp influenced its depolimerisation degree and resulted in the drop of viscosity of CMC. However, the expected level of cellulose activation expressed as a rise of the substitution degree or increase of the active substance content in the CMC sodium salt was not observed. In the case of cellulose esters (CC, CA) formation, the action of ionising radiation on cellulose pulps with the dose 10 and 15 kGy enables obtaiment of the average values of polimerisation degree as required for CC soluble in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. The properties of derivatives prepared by means of radiation and classic methods were compared

  3. Effects of Crystal Orientation on Cellulose Nanocrystals−Cellulose Acetate Nanocomposite Fibers Prepared by Dry Spinning

    Si Chen; Greg Schueneman; R. Byron Pipes; Jeffrey Youngblood; Robert J. Moon

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the development of dry spun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers using cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as reinforcements. Increasing amounts of CNCs were dispersed into CA fibers in efforts to improve the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the fiber. A systematic characterization of dispersion of CNCs in the polymer fiber and their effect on the...

  4. Preparation of cellulose II and IIII films by allomorphic conversion of bacterial cellulose I pellicles

    Faria-Tischer, Paula C.S.; Tischer, Cesar A.; Heux, Laurent; Le Denmat, Simon; Picart, Catherine; Sierakowski, Maria-R.

    2015-01-01

    The structural changes resulting from the conversion of native cellulose I (Cel I) into allomorphs II (Cel II) and III I (Cel III I ) have usually been studied using powder samples from plant or algal cellulose. In this work, the conversion of Cel I into Cel II and Cel III I was performed on bacterial cellulose films without any mechanical disruption. The surface texture of the films was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the morphology of the constituting cellulose ribbons, by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structural changes were characterized using solid-state NMR spectroscopy as well as X-ray and electron diffraction. The allomorphic change into Cel II and Cel III I resulted in films with different crystallinity, roughness and hydrophobic/hydrophilicity surface and the films remained intact during all process of allomorphic conversion. - Highlights: • Description of a method to modify the allomorphic structure of bacterial cellulose films • Preparation of films with specific morphologies and hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface characters • First report on cellulose III films from bacterial cellulose under swelling conditions • Detailed characterization of cellulose II and III films with complementary techniques • Development of films with specific properties as potential support for cells, enzymes, and drugs

  5. Degradation of γ-irradiated cellulose by the accumulating culture of a cellulose bacterium

    Namsaraev, B.B.; Kuznetsova, E.A.; Termkhitarova, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    Possibility of degradation of γ-irradiated cellulose by the accumulating culture of an anaerobic cellulose bacterium has been investigated. Cellulose irradiation by γ-quanta (Co 60 ) has been carried out using the RKh-30 device with 35.9 Gy/min dose rate. Radiation monitoring has been carried out by the standard ferrosulfate method. Samples have been irradiated in dry state or when water presenting with MGy. It is detected that the accumulating culture with the growth on the irradiated cellulose has a lag-phase, which duration reduces when the cellulose cleaning by flushing with distillation water. The culture has higher growth and substrate consumption rate when growing by cellulose irradiated in comparison with non-irradiated one. The economical coefficient is the same in using both the irradiated and non-irradiated cellulose. The quantity of forming reducing saccharides, organic acids, methane and carbon dioxide is the same both when cultivating by irradiated cellulose and by non-irradiated. pH of the culture liquid is shifted to the acid nature in the process of growth

  6. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    Bae, Hyun Jong; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Su Bae; Shin, You Jung; Yi, Ju Hui [Chonnam National University, Bio-Energy Research Institute, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. Research scope includes 1) screening of various microorganisms from decayed biomass in order to search for more efficient lignocellulose degrading microorganism, 2) identification and verification of new cell wall degrading cellulase for application cellulose bioconversion process, and 3) identification and characterization of novel genes involved in cellulose degradation. To find good microorganism candidates for lignocellulose degrading, 75 decayed samples from different areas were assayed in triplicate and analyzed. For cloning new cell wall degrading enzymes, we selected microorganisms because it have very good lignocellulose degradation ability. From that microorganisms, we have apparently cloned a new cellulase genes (10 genes). We are applying the new cloned cellulase genes to characterize in lignocellulsoe degradation that are most important to cellulosic biofuels production

  7. Cellulose Anionic Hydrogels Based on Cellulose Nanofibers As Natural Stimulants for Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Minmin; Luan, Qian; Tang, Hu; Huang, Fenghong; Xiang, Xia; Yang, Chen; Bao, Yuping

    2017-05-17

    Cellulose anionic hydrogels were successfully prepared by dissolving TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers in NaOH/urea aqueous solution and being cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. The hydrogels exhibited microporous structure and high hydrophilicity, which contribute to the excellent water absorption property. The growth indexes, including the germination rate, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, and dry weight of the seedlings, were investigated. The results showed that cellulose anionic hydrogels with suitable carboxylate contents as plant growth regulators could be beneficial for seed germination and growth. Moreover, they presented preferable antifungal activity during the breeding and growth of the sesame seed breeding. Thus, the cellulose anionic hydrogels with suitable carboxylate contents could be applied as soilless culture mediums for plant growth. This research provided a simple and effective method for the fabrication of cellulose anionic hydrogel and evaluated its application in agriculture.

  8. Optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production

    Bae, Hyun Jong; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Su Bae; Shin, You Jung; Yi, Ju Hui

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this project is optimization of upstream and development of cellulose hydrolysis process for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. Research scope includes 1) screening of various microorganisms from decayed biomass in order to search for more efficient lignocellulose degrading microorganism, 2) identification and verification of new cell wall degrading cellulase for application cellulose bioconversion process, and 3) identification and characterization of novel genes involved in cellulose degradation. To find good microorganism candidates for lignocellulose degrading, 75 decayed samples from different areas were assayed in triplicate and analyzed. For cloning new cell wall degrading enzymes, we selected microorganisms because it have very good lignocellulose degradation ability. From that microorganisms, we have apparently cloned a new cellulase genes (10 genes). We are applying the new cloned cellulase genes to characterize in lignocellulsoe degradation that are most important to cellulosic biofuels production

  9. Laser cleaning of particulates from paper: Comparison between sized ground wood cellulose and pure cellulose

    Arif, S.; Kautek, W.

    2013-01-01

    Visible laser cleaning of charcoal particulates from yellow acid mechanical ground wood cellulose paper was compared with that from bleached sulphite softwood cellulose paper. About one order of magnitude of fluence range is available for a cleaning dynamics between the cleaning threshold and the destruction threshold for two laser pulses. Wood cellulose paper exhibited a higher destruction threshold of the original paper than that of the contaminated specimen because of heat transfer from the hot or evaporating charcoal particulates. In contrast, the contaminated bleached cellulose paper exhibited a higher destruction threshold due to shading by the particulates. The graphite particles are not only detached thermo-mechanically, but also by evaporation or combustion. A cleaning effect was found also outside the illuminated areas due to lateral blasting. Infrared measurements revealed dehydration/dehydrogenation reactions and cross-links by ether bonds together with structural changes of the cellulose chain arrangement and the degree of crystallinity.

  10. Production of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Wastes

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic polymers namely cellulose, di-and triacetate were produced from fourteen agricultural wastes; Branch and fiber after oil extraction from oil palm (Elais guineensis, raffia, piassava, bamboo pulp, bamboo bark from raphia palm (Raphia hookeri, stem and cob of maize plant (Zea mays, fruit fiber from coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera, sawdusts from cotton tree (Cossypium hirsutum, pear wood (Manilkara obovata, stem of Southern gamba green (Andropogon tectorus, sugarcane baggase (Saccharium officinarum and plantain stem (Musa paradisiaca. They were subjected to soda pulping and hypochlorite bleaching system. Results obtained show that pulp yield from these materials were: 70.00, 39.59, 55.40, 86.00, 84.60, 80.00, 40.84, 81.67, 35.70, 69.11, 4.54, 47.19, 31.70 and 52.44% respectively. The pulps were acetylated with acetic anhydride in ethanoic acid catalyzed by conc. H2SO4 to obtain cellulose derivatives (Cellulose diacetate and triacetate. The cellulose diacetate yields were 41.20, 17.85, 23.13, 20.80, 20.23, 20.00, 39.00, 44.00, 18.80, 20.75, 20.03, 41.20, 44.00, and 39.00% respectively while the results obtained as average of four determinations for cellulose triacetate yields were: 52.00, 51.00, 43.10, 46.60, 49.00, 35.00, 40.60, 54.00, 57.50, 62.52, 35.70. 52.00, 53.00 and 38.70% respectively for all the agricultural wastes utilized. The presence of these cellulose derivatives was confirmed by a solubility test in acetone and chloroform.

  11. Natural cellulose fiber as substrate for supercapacitor.

    Gui, Zhe; Zhu, Hongli; Gillette, Eleanor; Han, Xiaogang; Rubloff, Gary W; Hu, Liangbing; Lee, Sang Bok

    2013-07-23

    Cellulose fibers with porous structure and electrolyte absorption properties are considered to be a good potential substrate for the deposition of energy material for energy storage devices. Unlike traditional substrates, such as gold or stainless steel, paper prepared from cellulose fibers in this study not only functions as a substrate with large surface area but also acts as an interior electrolyte reservoir, where electrolyte can be absorbed much in the cellulose fibers and is ready to diffuse into an energy storage material. We demonstrated the value of this internal electrolyte reservoir by comparing a series of hierarchical hybrid supercapacitor electrodes based on homemade cellulose paper or polyester textile integrated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by simple solution dip and electrodeposited with MnO2. Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 onto the fiber surface was used to limit electrolyte absorption into the fibers for comparison. Configurations designed with different numbers of ion diffusion pathways were compared to show that cellulose fibers in paper can act as a good interior electrolyte reservoir and provide an effective pathway for ion transport facilitation. Further optimization using an additional CNT coating resulted in an electrode of paper/CNTs/MnO2/CNTs, which has dual ion diffusion and electron transfer pathways and demonstrated superior supercapacitive performance. This paper highlights the merits of the mesoporous cellulose fibers as substrates for supercapacitor electrodes, in which the water-swelling effect of the cellulose fibers can absorb electrolyte, and the mesoporous internal structure of the fibers can provide channels for ions to diffuse to the electrochemical energy storage materials.

  12. Effect of ionizing radiation on starch and cellulose

    Klenha, J.; Bockova, J.

    1973-09-01

    The investigation is reported of the effects of ionizing radiation both on macromolecular systems generally and on polysaccharides, starch and cellulose. Attention is focused on changes in the physical and physico-chemical properties of starch and cellulose, such as starch swelling, gelation, viscosity, solubility, reaction with iodine, UV, IR and ESR spectra, chemical changes resulting from radiolysis and from the effect of amylases on irradiated starch, changes in cellulose fibre strength, water absorption, stain affinity, and also the degradation of cellulose by radiation and the effect of cellulases on irradiated cellulose. Practical applications of the findings concerning cellulose degradation are discussed. (author)

  13. Experimental study on the liquefaction of cellulose in supercritical ethanol

    Peng, Jinxing; Liu, Xinyuan; Bao, Zhenbo

    2018-03-01

    Cellulose is the major composition of solid waste for producing biofuel; cellulose liquefaction is helpful for realizing biomass supercritical liquefaction process. This paper is taking supercritical ethanol as the medium, liquefied cellulose with the intermittence installation of high press cauldron. Experiments have studied technical condition and the technology parameter of cellulose liquefaction in supercritical ethanol, and the pyrolysis mechanism was analysed based on the pyrolysis product. Results show that cellulose can be liquefied, can get good effect through appropriate technology condition. Under not catalyst, highest liquefaction rate of cellulose can reach 73.5%. The composition of the pyrolysis product was determined by GC-MS.

  14. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  15. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  16. HB+ inserted into the CMS Solenoid

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2006-01-01

    The first half of the barrel hadron calorimeter (HB+) has been inserted into the superconducting solenoid of CMS, in preparation for the magnet test and cosmic challenge. The operation went smoothly, lasting a couple of days.

  17. Bulkhead insert for an internal combustion engine

    Maki, Clifford E.; Chottiner, Jeffrey Eliot; Williams, Rick L.; Thibault, Mark W.; Ervin, James Douglas; Boileau, James Maurice; McKeough, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    An engine includes a cylinder block defining at least one main bearing bulkhead adjacent to a cylinder, and a crankshaft rotatably housed within the block by a main bearing. A bulkhead insert has a cap portion, and an insert portion provided within the bulkhead. The insert portion has having first and second end regions connected by first and second straps. Each strap having a flanged beam cross section. The first and second ends of the insert portion are configured to connect a main bearing cap column to a cylinder head column. Each of the first and second end regions define at least one protrusion having a surface substantially normal to engine combustion and reactive loads. The cap portion is configured to mate with the first end region at the main bearing cap column and support the main bearing.

  18. Chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy: surgical outcomes

    Oshri, Yael; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Brin, Yaron Shagra; Karpf, Ronen; Massarwe, Sabri; Kish, Benny; Nyska, Meir

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a common condition among athletes and joggers. One fifth of the injuries involves the insertion of the tendon. The etiology is either due to mechanical overuse related to sports activity, or a systemic inflammatory disease. The clinical appearance includes pain and movement restriction. The primary treatment is conservative. The surgery referred to in this study (Calcaneal Osteotomy) is performed by decompression of the posterior ...

  19. Chick chorioallantoic membrane model for in ovo evaluation of timolol maleate-brimonidine tartrate ocular inserts.

    Ravindran, Vinod Kombath; Repala, Swathi; Subadhra, Sandhya; Appapurapu, Ashok Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The main aspire of this study was to develop ocular drug delivery system for dual drug glaucoma therapy by timolol maleate-brimonidine tartrate and endeavor the possibility of biocompatibility studies by in ova studies. Matrix type, both hydrophilic and lipophilic polymers, and reservoir-type ocular inserts of timolol maleate were prepared using hydrophilic polymers like polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose K4M and lipophilic polymers like ethylcellulose and eudragit S100 and were optimized. Based on the optimized formulation, triple-layered ocular inserts (reservoir type) of dual drug were prepared by solvent casting technique with an objective of reducing the frequency of administration, obtaining controlled release and greater therapeutic efficacy, preservative free dosage form for the treatment of glaucoma. FTIR spectral studies revealed no pharmaceutical incompatibility and no drug polymer interactions. Maximum drug release (99.18 ± 1.7) was achieved when PVP and HPMC K4M in 1:1 ratio with PEG 400 (0.3 ml) drug reservoir layer was sandwiched between ethyl cellulose as rate control membrane up to 32 h in a controlled fashion. Drug release was by non-Fickian diffusion mechanism for single drug formulation. But in dual drug insert, timolol maleate best fit into zero order and for brimonidine tartrate to Higuchi model and diffusion of drugs from this by non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. In ovo studies suggested that the optimized formulation was found to be sterile, biocompatible and physicochemically stable and support us to claim that the developed formulation was biocompatible.

  20. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  1. Natural cellulose ionogels for soft artificial muscles.

    Nevstrueva, Daria; Murashko, Kirill; Vunder, Veiko; Aabloo, Alvo; Pihlajamäki, Arto; Mänttäri, Mika; Pyrhönen, Juha; Koiranen, Tuomas; Torop, Janno

    2018-01-01

    Rapid development of soft micromanipulation techniques for human friendly electronics has raised the demand for the devices to be able to carry out mechanical work on a micro- and macroscale. The natural cellulose-based ionogels (CEL-iGEL) hold a great potential for soft artificial muscle application, due to its flexibility, low driving voltage and biocompatibility. The CEL-iGEL composites undergo reversible bending already at ±500mV step-voltage values. A fast response to the voltage applied and high ionic conductivity of membranous actuator is achieved by a complete dissolution of cellulose in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIm][OAc]. The CEL-iGEL supported cellulose actuator films were cast out of cellulose-[EMIm][OAc] solution via phase inversion in H 2 O. The facile preparation method ensured uniform morphology along the layers and stand for the high ionic-liquid loading in a porous cellulose scaffold. During the electromechanical characterization, the CEL-iGEL actuators showed exponential dependence to the voltage applied with the max strain difference values reaching up to 0.6% at 2 V. Electrochemical analysis confirmed the good stability of CEL-iGEL actuators and determined the safe working voltage value to be below 2.5V. To predict and estimate the deformation for various step input voltages, a mathematical model was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cellulose multilayer Membranes manufacture with Ionic liquid

    Livazovic, Sara

    2015-05-09

    Membrane processes are considered energy-efficient for water desalination and treatment. However most membranes are based on polymers prepared from fossil petrochemical sources. The development of multilayer membranes for nanofiltration and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions in tetrahydrofuran, followed by solvent evaporation and cellulose regeneration by acid treatment; (ii) casting from solution in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolum acetate ([C2mim]OAc), an ionic liquid, followed by phase inversion in water. By these methods porous supports could be easily coated with semi-crystalline cellulose. The membranes were hydrophilic with contact angles as low as 22.0°, molecular weight cut-off as low as 3000 g mol-1 with corresponding water permeance of 13.8 Lm−2 h−1 bar−1. Self-standing cellulose membranes were also manufactured without porous substrate, using only ionic liquid as green solvent. This membrane was insoluble in water, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, N,N-dimethylformamide, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and N,N-dimethylacetamide.

  3. Isotopic composition of cellulose from aquatic organisms

    DeNiro, M.J.; Epstein, S.

    1981-01-01

    The stable isotopic ratios of oxygen, carbon and the non-exchangeable carbon-bound hydrogen of cellulose from marine plants and animals collected in their natural habitats and from freshwater vascular plants grown in the laboratory under controlled conditions were determined. The delta 18 O values of cellulose from all the plants and animals were 27 +- 3 parts per thousand more positive than the delta 18 O values of the waters in which the organisms grew. Temperature had little or no influence on this relationship for three species of freshwater vascular plants that were analyzed. The deltaD values of the non-exchangeable hydrogen of cellulose from different organisms that grew in the same environment differed by large amounts. This difference ranged up to 200 parts per thousand for different species of algae collected at a single site; the corresponding difference for different species of tunicates and vascular plants was 60 and 20 parts per thousand respectively. The deltaD values of cellulose nitrate from different species of freshwater vascular plants grown in water of constant temperature and isotopic composition differed by as much as 60 parts per thousand. The relationship between the deltaD values of the carbon-bound hydrogen of cellulose and the water used in its synthesis displayed a significant temperature dependence for four species of freshwater vascular plants that were analyzed. (author)

  4. 75 FR 26647 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    2010-05-12

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution... are treated with a topical solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is effective May 12, 2010. FOR... ANADA 200-340 for PRIVERMECTIN (ivermectin), a topical solution used on cattle to control infestations...

  5. Efficacy of bromfenac sodium ophthalmic solution for treatment of dry eye disease.

    Fujishima, Hiroshi; Fuseya, Miki; Ogata, Masarou; Murat, Dogru

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of bromfenac sodium ophthalmic solution (BF) in patients with dry eye disease (DED) inadequately controlled by monotherapy with artificial tears (ATs). An investigator-oriented trial with a single-arm, nonrandomized, open-label design. Twenty-six patients, who showed no symptomatic improvement of DED after 1 month of AT treatment, were enrolled. Bromfenac sodium ophthalmic solution was administered adjunctively with AT for 1 month. The BF treatment was then discontinued, and AT treatment alone was continued for 3 months. The signs and symptoms were evaluated at the beginning of BF treatment (Pre), at the end of the combined BF and AT treatment (BF1M), and at 1 and 3 months after discontinuation of BF treatment (Po1M and Po3M, respectively). The dryness scores at BF1M were significantly improved compared with Pre (P ophthalmic solution has improved the dryness of the eye and signs of DED through its anti-inflammatory effects. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were suitable as anti-inflammatory ophthalmic solutions for patients with DED.

  6. 10 CFR 35.491 - Training for ophthalmic use of strontium-90.

    2010-01-01

    ... the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section and has achieved a level of competency sufficient to... require the authorized user of strontium-90 for ophthalmic radiotherapy to be a physician who— (a) Is an...; (iii) Mathematics pertaining to the use and measurement of radioactivity; and (iv) Radiation biology...

  7. Staff dose of hospitalization in the treatment of patients in ophthalmic brachytherapy with 125 I

    Terron Leon, J. A.; Gomez Palacios, M.; Moreno Reyes, J. C.; Perales Molina, A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work, therefore, has been the evaluation of the dose levels which nursing staff can receive in care for ophthalmic brachytherapy patients treated with 125 I from measurements made on the same, evaluating, in an experimental way, job security following the PR rules laid down for these treatments. (Author)

  8. Long-term results of treatment with diquafosol ophthalmic solution for aqueous-deficient dry eye.

    Koh, Shizuka; Ikeda, Chikako; Takai, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Maeda, Naoyuki; Nishida, Kohji

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the preliminary long-term efficacy of diquafosol ophthalmic solution for aqueous-deficient dry eye. Fifteen patients with mild-to-moderate aqueous-deficient dry eye were enrolled. After a washout period, the patients were treated with 3 % diquafosol ophthalmic solution for 6 months. We assessed 12 subjective dry eye symptoms, corneal and conjunctival staining with fluorescein, tear film break-up time (BUT), lower tear meniscus height measured with anterior-segment optical coherence tomography, Schirmer's testing, and adverse reactions at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after the start of treatment. Treatment with diquafosol ophthalmic solution significantly improved dry eye symptoms, corneal staining, BUT, and tear meniscus height at 1 month and maintained the effectiveness for 6 months. Conjunctival staining significantly improved 3 and 6 months after treatment. No significant adverse reactions developed. Prolonged use of diquafosol ophthalmic solution for 6 months produced significant improvement both subjectively (dry eye symptom score) and objectively (ocular staining score and tear function tests) for aqueous-deficient dry eye.

  9. 21 CFR 524.390d - Chloramphenicol-prednisolone ophthalmic ointment.

    2010-04-01

    .... 017030 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. Dogs and cats—(1) Amount. Apply 4 to 6...) Limitations. Therapy for cats should not exceed 7 days, prolonged use in cats may produce blood dyscrasia. As... institute appropriate therapy. All topical ophthalmic preparations containing corticosteroids, with or...

  10. Comparative studies of various hyaluronic acids produced by microbial fermentation for potential topical ophthalmic applications

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Furrer, Pascal; Felt-Baeyens, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study of various hyaluronic acids (HA) produced by fermentation of either Bacillus subtilis or Streptococcus towards the selection of an optimal molecular weight (MW) HA for the preparation of topical ophthalmic formulations. The influence of HA MW on water binding...

  11. Deep lateral wall orbital decompression following strabismus surgery in patients with Type II ophthalmic Graves' disease.

    Ellis, Michael P; Broxterman, Emily C; Hromas, Alan R; Whittaker, Thomas J; Sokol, Jason A

    2018-01-10

    Surgical management of ophthalmic Graves' disease traditionally involves, in order, orbital decompression, followed by strabismus surgery and eyelid surgery. Nunery et al. previously described two distinct sub-types of patients with ophthalmic Graves' disease; Type I patients exhibit no restrictive myopathy (no diplopia) as opposed to Type II patients who do exhibit restrictive myopathy (diplopia) and are far more likely to develop new-onset worsening diplopia following medial wall and floor decompression. Strabismus surgery involving extra-ocular muscle recession has, in turn, been shown to potentially worsen proptosis. Our experience with Type II patients who have already undergone medial wall and floor decompression and strabismus surgery found, when additional decompression is necessary, deep lateral wall decompression (DLWD) appears to have a low rate of post-operative primary-gaze diplopia. A case series of four Type II ophthalmic Graves' disease patients, all of whom had already undergone decompression and strabismus surgery, and went on to develop worsening proptosis or optic nerve compression necessitating further decompression thereafter. In all cases, patients were treated with DLWD. Institutional Review Board approval was granted by the University of Kansas. None of the four patients treated with this approach developed recurrent primary-gaze diplopia or required strabismus surgery following DLWD. While we still prefer to perform medial wall and floor decompression as the initial treatment for ophthalmic Graves' disease, for proptosis following consecutive strabismus surgery, DLWD appears to be effective with a low rate of recurrent primary-gaze diplopia.

  12. Postoperative pain in complex ophthalmic surgical procedures: comparing practice with guidelines.

    Lesin, Mladen; Sundov, Zeljka Duplancic; Jukic, Marko; Puljak, Livia

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the management of postoperative pain after complex ophthalmic surgery and to compare it to the guidelines. A retrospective study. University Hospital Split, Croatia. Patients (N = 447) who underwent complex ophthalmic surgical procedures from 2008 to 2012. The following data were extracted from patient medical records: age, gender, type and dosage of premedication, preoperative patient's physical status, type of procedure, duration of procedure-surgical and anesthesia time, type and dosage of anesthesia, the type and dosage of postoperative analgesia for each postoperative day. None of the patients had information about pain intensity in their records. There were 90% patients who did not receive any medication the night before surgery, 54% did not receive any premedication immediately before surgery, 19% did not receive any pain medication after the surgery in the operating room and 46% of patients did not receive any analgesics after being released to the ophthalmology department. Among those who received analgesia after surgery, 98% received only one dose of an analgesic, and 93% of patients received analgesia only on the day of the surgery. Furthermore, patients were returned to the department immediately after surgery, without intensive monitoring. During the analyzed five years there were no educational session organized by anesthesiologist to the ophthalmic surgeons. Postoperative pain management and perioperative care of patients undergoing major ophthalmic surgery indicates lack of attention towards pain intensity and postoperative analgesia. Appropriate interventions should be employed to improve postoperative pain management, to facilitate patient recovery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Superior ophthalmic vein enlargement and increased muscle index in dysthyroid optic neuropathy.

    Lima, Breno da Rocha; Perry, Julian D

    2013-01-01

    To compare superior ophthalmic vein diameter and extraocular muscle index in patients with thyroid eye disease with or without optic neuropathy. High-resolution CT scan images of 40 orbits of 20 patients with history of thyroid eye disease (with or without optic neuropathy), who underwent orbital decompression surgery from January 2007 to November 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. Superior ophthalmic vein diameter was measured in coronal and axial planes. Extraocular muscle index was calculated according to the method proposed by Barrett et al. The clinical diagnosis of optic neuropathy was based on characteristic signs that included afferent pupillary defect, decreased visual acuity, visual field defects, and dyschromatopsia. Orbits were divided in 2 groups based on presence or absence of optic neuropathy. Superior ophthalmic vein diameter was significantly higher in orbits with concomitant optic neuropathy (mean 2.4 ± 0.4mm, p optic neuropathy (mean 57.9% ± 5.7%, p = 0.0002). Muscle index greater than 50% was present in all patients with dysthyroid optic neuropathy. This study suggests that patients with thyroid eye disease with enlarged superior ophthalmic vein and increased extraocular muscle index are more likely to have concomitant optic neuropathy.

  14. Efficacy of Detergent and Water Versus Bleach for the Disinfection of Direct Contact Ophthalmic Lenses

    Abbey, Ashkan M.; Gregori, Ninel Z.; Surapaneni, Krishna; Miller, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While manufacturers recommend cleaning ophthalmic lenses with detergent and water and then a specific disinfectant, disinfectants are rarely used in ophthalmic practices. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of detergent and water versus bleach, a recommended disinfectant, to eliminate common ocular bacteria and viruses from ophthalmic lenses. Methods Three bacterial strains (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium straitum, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and two viral strains (adenovirus and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1) were individually inoculated to 20 gonioscopy and laser lenses. Lenses were washed with detergent and water and then disinfected with 10% bleach. All lenses were cultured after inoculation, after detergent and water, and after the bleach. Bacterial cultures in thioglycollate broth were observed for 3 weeks and viral cultures for 2 weeks. The presence of viruses was also detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results All 20 lenses inoculated with Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium straitum, adenovirus, and HSV-1 showed growth after inoculation, but no growth after detergent/water and after the bleach. All lenses showed positive HSV and adenovirus PCR after inoculation and negative PCR after detergent/water and after bleach. All MRSA contaminated lenses showed growth after inoculation and no growth after detergent and water. However, one lens showed positive growth after bleach. Conclusions Cleaning with detergent and water appeared to effectively eliminate bacteria and viruses from the surface of contaminated ophthalmic lenses. Further studies are warranted to design practical disinfection protocols that minimize lens damage. PMID:24747806

  15. 21 CFR 524.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662b Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the ointment contains oxytetracycline hydrochloride equivalent...

  16. Long-term ophthalmic health care in Usher syndrome type I from an ICF perspective.

    Möller, Kerstin; Eriksson, Kristina; Sadeghi, André M; Möller, Claes; Danermark, Berth

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to explore ophthalmic health care in female patients with Usher Syndrome type I (USH I) over 20 years and to evaluate the relationship between the ophthalmic health care and the health state of the patients from a health perspective. A retrospective study of records from ophthalmology departments (OD) and low vision clinics (LVC) from 1985 to 2004. Assessment of the reports was performed based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Findings were analysed by manifest content analysis with ICF as a framework and using four themes: health care system, procedure examinations, patient's functioning and disability and procedure actions. The records of nine female patients (aged 25-39 years, 1985) with USH I were selected from the national database of USH. A great number of notes were collected (OD 344 and LVC 566). Procedure examinations were exclusively oriented towards body structure and function. All patients showed aggravated visual impairment over and above the hearing and vestibular impairment. Procedure actions were oriented towards environmental factors. No correlation was found between procedures performed and patient's experience of disability. The high degree of resource allocation was not correlated to the patients' impairment. The study indicates that the ophthalmic health care was characterised by inefficiency. This conclusion is very serious because patients very likely face severe disability and emotional difficulties. ICF is ought to be incorporated in ophthalmic health care strategy to improve the health care.

  17. The international forum of ophthalmic simulation: developing a virtual reality training curriculum for ophthalmology.

    Saleh, George M; Lamparter, Julia; Sullivan, Paul M; O'Sullivan, Fiona; Hussain, Badrul; Athanasiadis, Ioannis; Litwin, Andre S; Gillan, Stewart N

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of a structured, supervised, cataract simulation programme on ophthalmic surgeons in their first year of training, and to evaluate the level of skill transfer. Trainees with minimal intraocular and simulator experience in their first year of ophthalmology undertook a structured, sequential, customised, virtual reality (VR) cataract training programme developed through the International Forum of Ophthalmic Simulation. A set of one-handed, bimanual, static and dynamic tasks were evaluated before and after the course and scores obtained. Statistical significance was evaluated with the Wilcoxon sign-rank test. The median precourse score of 101.50/400 (IQR 58.75-145.75) was significantly improved after completing the training programme ((postcourse score: 302/400, range: 266.25-343), p<0.001). While improvement was evident and found to be statistically significant in all parameters, greatest improvements were found for capsulorhexis and antitremor training ((Capsulorhexis: precourse score=0/100, range 0-4.5; postcourse score=81/100, range 13-87.75; p=0.002), (antitremor training: precourse score=0/100, range 0-0; postcourse score=80/100, range 60.25-91.50; p=0.001)). Structured and supervised VR training can offer a significant level of skills transfer to novice ophthalmic surgeons. VR training at the earliest stage of ophthalmic surgical training may, therefore, be of benefit.

  18. 78 FR 68714 - Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Scleral Plug

    2013-11-15

    ... amendments), as ``preamendments devices.'' FDA classifies these devices after the Agency takes the following.... FDA-2012-N-1238] Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Scleral Plug AGENCY: Food... scleral plugs in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. The...

  19. Design of Novel Ophthalmic Formulation Containing Drug Nanoparticles and Its Usefulness as Anti-glaucoma Drugs.

    Nagai, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    The ophthalmic application of drugs is the primary route of administration for the therapy of glaucoma; however, in traditional formulations, only small amounts of the administered drug penetrate the cornea to reach the desired intraocular tissue due to corneal barriers. Recently, nanoparticulate drug delivery is expected as a technology to overcome the difficulties in delivering drugs across biological barriers (improvement of bioavailability). In this study, we attempted to establish a new method for preparing solid drug nanoparticles by using a bead mill and various additives, and succeeded in preparing a high quality dispersion containing drug nanoparticles. For a more concrete example, a mean particle size of disulfiram (DSF) treated with bead mill is 183 nm. The corneal penetration and corneal residence time of DSF from the ophthalmic dispersion containing DSF nanoparticles were significantly higher than those from a 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin solution containing DSF (DSF solution). It is known that the administration of DSF has intraocular pressure (IOP)-reducing effects. The IOP-reducing effects of the ophthalmic dispersion containing DSF nanoparticles were significantly greater than those of the DSF solution in rabbits (the IOP was enhanced by placing the rabbits in a dark room for 5 h). In addition, the ophthalmic dispersion containing DSF nanoparticles is better tolerated by corneal epithelial cells than DSF solution. It is possible that dispersions containing DSF nanoparticles provide new possibilities for effectively treating glaucoma, and that ocular drug delivery systems using drug nanoparticles may expand their usage for therapy in the ophthalmologic field.

  20. Cytotoxicity of ophthalmic solutions with and without preservatives to human corneal endothelial cells, epithelial cells and conjunctival epithelial cells.

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Yaguchi, Shigeo; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Koide, Ryohei

    2008-08-01

    The cytotoxicity of a range of commercial ophthalmic solutions in the presence and absence of preservatives was assessed in human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), corneal epithelia and conjunctival epithelia using in vitro techniques. Cell survival was measured using the WST-1 assay for endothelial cells and the MTT assay for epithelial cells. Commercially available timolol, carteolol, cromoglicate, diclofenac, bromfenac and hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solutions were assessed for cytotoxicity in the presence and absence of preservatives. The preservatives benzalkonium, chlorobutanol and polysorbate were also tested. The survival of cells exposed to test ophthalmic solutions was expressed as a percentage of cell survival in the control solution (distilled water added to media) after 48 h exposure. HCEC survival was 20-30% in ophthalmic solutions diluted 10-fold. The survival of HCEC was significantly greater in all solutions in the absence of preservative than in the presence of preservative. The survival of corneal and conjunctival epithelia was consistent with that of HCECs for all test ophthalmic solutions. The preservatives polysorbate and benzalkonium were highly cytotoxic with cell survival decreasing to 20% at the concentration estimated in commercial ophthalmic solutions. By comparison, the survival of cells exposed to chlorobutanol was 80% or greater. The cytotoxicity of ophthalmic solutions to HCEC, corneal epithelia and conjunctival epithelia decreased in the absence of preservative.

  1. Investigation of size effect on film type haptic actuator made with cellulose acetate

    Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Ki-Baek

    2014-01-01

    The most important factor in haptic interaction with hand-held devices is to develop a thin film type actuator which can be easily inserted into the devices and create vibrotactile signals with wide frequency bandwidth. This paper reports a film type vibrotactile actuator which is tiny enough to be embedded into small hand-held devices. The vibration mechanism and experiment results for the suggested vibrotactile actuator are explained. The aim of the actuator is to convey a vibrotactile force greater than a human’s vibrotactile threshold with broad frequency bandwidth to users. To achieve the requirement, we fabricate a film type vibrotactile actuator with cellulose acetate. When an AC voltage is applied to the actuator, the cellulose acetate film gets charged and then generates vibration. The suggested vibrotactile actuator is fabricated in two sizes: 50 mm × 25 mm and 25 mm × 25 mm. For each size of actuator, three kinds of actuator are fabricated with different pillar materials to support the cellulose acetate films. An experiment for measuring vibrational amplitude is conducted over a wide frequency range of actuation voltage. It is known that the proposed film type actuator is feasible for haptic application in the small hand-held devices. (paper)

  2. High Dehumidification Performance of Amorphous Cellulose Composite Membranes prepared from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2018-04-11

    Cellulose is widely regarded as an environmentally friendly, natural and low cost material which can significantly contribute the sustainable economic growth. In this study, cellulose composite membranes were prepared via regeneration of trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC), an easily synthesized cellulose derivative. The amorphous hydrophilic feature of the regenerated cellulose enabled fast permeation of water vapour. The pore-free cellulose layer thickness was adjustable by the initial TMSC concentration and acted as an efficient gas barrier. As a result, a 5,000 GPU water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) at the highest ideal selectivity of 1.1 x 106 was achieved by the membranes spin coated from a 7% (w/w) TMSC solution. The membranes maintained a 4,000 GPU WVTR with selectivity of 1.1 x 104 in the mixed-gas experiments, surpassing the performances of the previously reported composite membranes. This study provides a simple way to not only produce high performance membranes but also to advance cellulose as a low-cost and sustainable membrane material for dehumidification applications.

  3. A co-production of sugars, lignosulfonates, cellulose, and cellulose nanocrystals from ball-milled woods.

    Du, Lanxing; Wang, Jinwu; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Wolcott, Michael P; Yu, Zhiming

    2017-08-01

    This study demonstrated the technical potential for the large-scale co-production of sugars, lignosulfonates, cellulose, and cellulose nanocrystals. Ball-milled woods with two particle sizes were prepared by ball milling for 80min or 120min (BMW 80 , BMW 120 ) and then enzymatically hydrolyzed. 78.3% cellulose conversion of BMW 120 was achieved, which was three times as high as the conversion of BMW 80 . The hydrolyzed residues (HRs) were neutrally sulfonated cooking. 57.72g/L and 88.16g/L lignosulfonate concentration, respectively, were harvested from HR 80 and HR 120 , and 42.6±0.5% lignin were removed. The subsequent solid residuals were purified to produce cellulose and then this material was acid-hydrolyzed to produce cellulose nanocrystals. The BMW 120 maintained smaller particle size and aspect ratio during each step of during the multiple processes, while the average aspect ratio of its cellulose nanocrystals was larger. The crystallinity of both materials increased with each step of wet processing, reaching to 74% for the cellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extraction and characterization of natural cellulose fibers from maize tassel

    Maepa, CE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the extraction and characterization of novel natural cellulose fibers obtained from the maize (tassel) plant. Cellulose was extracted from the agricultural residue (waste biomaterial) of maize tassel. The maize tassel fibers...

  5. Paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials.

    Kim, Jaehwan; Yun, Sungryul; Mahadeva, Suresha K; Yun, Kiju; Yang, Sang Yeol; Maniruzzaman, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Recently, cellulose has been re-discovered as a smart material that can be used as sensor and actuator materials, which is termed electro-active paper (EAPap). This paper reports recent advances in paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Two distinct actuator principles in EAPap actuators are demonstrated: piezoelectric effect and ion migration effect in cellulose. Piezoelectricity of cellulose EAPap is quite comparable with other piezoelectric polymers. But, it is biodegradable, biocompatible, mechanically strong and thermally stable. To enhance ion migration effect in the cellulose, polypyrrole conducting polymer and ionic liquids were nanocoated on the cellulose film. This hybrid cellulose EAPap nanocomposite exhibits durable bending actuation in an ambient humidity and temperature condition. Fabrication, characteristics and performance of the cellulose EAPap and its hybrid EAPap materials are illustrated. Also, its possibility for remotely microwave-driven paper actuator is demonstrated.

  6. Mechanical properties of cellulose nanomaterials studied by contact resonance atomic force microscopy

    Ryan Wagner; Robert J. Moon; Arvind Raman

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the mechanical properties of cellulose nanomaterials is key to the development of new cellulose nanomaterial based products. Using contact resonance atomic force microscopy we measured and mapped the transverse elastic modulus of three types of cellulosic nanoparticles: tunicate cellulose nanocrystals, wood cellulose nanocrystals, and wood cellulose...

  7. OPHTHALMIC MANIFESTATIONS OF TAKAYASU ARTERITIS IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Nandhini Arumugam

    2017-06-01

    and the mean duration of the disease after which the patient developed eye or eye related symptomatology was 2 years. The commonest ocular manifestation was type 3 Takayasu retinopathy. Other posterior segment manifestations included, Type 1 and Type 3 Takayasu retinopathy, ocular ischaemic syndrome, retinal vasculitis and Anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. The commonest anterior segment manifestation was posterior sub capsular cataract which was found in 33.3% of the patients. Fundus Fluorescein angiography was performed in 34 patients. CONCLUSION This study is to highlight the fact that Takayasu arteritis can present with multitudinous ocular manifestations which can be hypertensive or hypoperfusive and can lead to significant ocular morbidity if not for timely intervention. This study is to strongly emphasise routine and regular ophthalmic screening in patients with Takayasu arteritis at the time of diagnosis and also at adequate intervals to diagnose significant treatment related complications like steroid induced cataract at an early stage.

  8. Radiation-induced transformations of cellulose ethers

    Nud'ga, L.A.; Petropavlovskii, G.S.; Plisko, E.A.; Isakova, O.V.; Ershov, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the transformation which take place under the action of γ-radiation in a number of cellulose ethers containing both saturated (carboxymethyl, hydroxyethyl) and unsaturated (allyl, methacryloyl) groups. Irradiation was carried out on a 60 Co unit in air at 77 and 300 K; the dose rate was 37 and 50 kGy/h respectively. The EPR spectra of γ-irradiated hydroxyethyl- and allylhydroxyethylcelluloses are identical. Under the action of γ-radiation extensive changes took place in cellulose ethers which are exhibited in degradation or the formation of three-dimensional structures and are accompanied by a change in the functional composition. The efficiency in the formation of radicals and their localization are determined by the nature and number of substituents in the cellulose ethers

  9. African perspective on cellulosic ethanol production

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Kemausuor, Francis; Miezah, Kodwo

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge to commercial production of cellulosic ethanol pertains to the cost-effective breakdown of the complex and recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose into its components via pretreatment, the cost of enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation, and the conversion rate of C5 sugars...... to ethanol, among others. While the industrialized and some emerging countries are gradually breaking grounds in cellulosic ethanol, most African countries have made little effort in research and development even though the continent is rich in lignocellulosic biomass. The paper estimates residues from...... widely available crops and municipal waste and determines their respective theoretical ethanol potential (around 22 billion litres annually). It further reviews stages involved in the production of cellulosic ethanol, focussing on processing methods that can be adapted to current situation in most...

  10. ADSORPTION AND RELEASING PROPERTIES OF BEAD CELLULOSE

    A. Morales; E. Bordallo; V. Leon; J. Rieumont

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption of some dyes on samples of bead cellulose obtained in the Unit of Research-Production "Cuba 9"was studied. Methylene blue, alizarin red and congo red fitted the adsorption isotherm of Langmuir. Adsorption kinetics at pH = 6 was linear with the square root of time indicating the diffusion is the controlling step. At pH = 12 a non-Fickian trend was observed and adsorption was higher for the first two dyes. Experiments carried out to release the methylene blue occluded in the cellulose beads gave a kinetic behavior of zero order. The study of cytochrome C adsorption was included to test a proteinic material. Crosslinking of bead cellulose was performed with epichlorohydrin decreasing its adsorption capacity in acidic or alkaline solution.

  11. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  12. Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels: A novel ophthalmic drug delivery system

    Singh Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks capable of imbibing large amounts of water or biological fluids on stimulation, such as pH, temperature and ionic change. Aim: To develop hydrogels that are sensitive to stimuli, i.e. pH, in the cul-de-sac of the eye for providing a prolonged effect and increased bioavailability with reduction in frequency of administration. Materials and Methods: Hydrogels were formulated by using timolol maleate as the model drug, polyacrylic acid as the gelling agents, hydroxyl ethyl cellulose as the viscolizer and sodium chloride as the isotonic agent. Stirring of ingredients in pH 4 phosphate buffer at high speed was carried out. The dynamic dialysis technique was used for drug release studies. In vivo study for reduction in intraocular pressure was carried out by using albino rabbits. Statistical Analysis: Drug release studies data were used for statistical analysis in first-order plots, Higuchi plots and Peppas exponential plots. Student t-test was performed for in vivo study. Results: Viscosity of the hydrogel increases from 3.84 cps to 9.54 cps due to change in pH 4 to pH 7.4. The slope value of the Peppas equation was found to be 0.3081, 0.3743 and 0.2964. Up to 80% of drug was released in an 8 h drug release study. Sterile hydrogels with no ocular irritation were obtained. Conclusions: Hydrogels show increase in viscosity due to change in pH. Hydrogels were therapeutically effacious, stable, non-irritant and showed Fickian diffusion. In vivo results clearly show a prolonged reduction in intraocular pressure, which was helpful for reduction in the frequency of administration.

  13. Potassium fulvate-modified graft copolymer of acrylic acid onto cellulose as efficient chelating polymeric sorbent.

    Mohamed, Magdy F; Essawy, Hisham A; Ammar, Nabila S; Ibrahim, Hanan S

    2017-01-01

    Acrylic acid (AA) was graft copolymerized from cellulose (Cell) in presence of potassium fulvate (KF) in order to enhance the chemical activity of the resulting chelating polymer and the handling as well. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) proved that KF was efficiently inserted and became a permanent part of the network structure of the sorbent in parallel during the grafting copolymerization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed intact homogeneous structure with uniform surface. This indicates improvement of the handling, however, it was not the case for the graft copolymer of acrylic acid onto cellulose in absence of KF, which is known to be brittle and lacks mechanical integrity. Effective insertion of this co-interpenetrating agent provided more functional groups, such as OH and COOH, which improved the chelating power of the produced sorbent as found for the removal of Cu 2+ ions from its aqueous solutions (the removal efficiency reached ∼98.9%). Different models were used to express the experimental data. The results corroborated conformity of the pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model to the sorption process, which translates into dominance of the chemisorption. Regeneration of the chelating polymers under harsh conditions did not affect the efficiency of copper ions uptake up to three successive cycles. A thermodynamic investigation ensured exothermic nature of the adsorption process that became less favourable at higher temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Microfibrillated cellulose and new nanocomposite materials: a review

    Siró, Istvan; Plackett, David

    2010-01-01

    Due to their abundance, high strength and stiffness, low weight and biodegradability, nano-scale cellulose fiber materials (e.g., microfibrillated cellulose and bacterial cellulose) serve as promising candidates for bio-nanocomposite production. Such new high-value materials are the subject...... in order to address this hurdle. This review summarizes progress in nanocellulose preparation with a particular focus on microfibrillated cellulose and also discusses recent developments in bio-nanocomposite fabrication based on nanocellulose....

  15. Paper Actuators Made with Cellulose and Hybrid Materials

    Kim, Jaehwan; Yun, Sungryul; Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Yun, Kiju; Yang, Sang Yeol; Maniruzzaman, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Recently, cellulose has been re-discovered as a smart material that can be used as sensor and actuator materials, which is termed electro-active paper (EAPap). This paper reports recent advances in paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Two distinct actuator principles in EAPap actuators are demonstrated: piezoelectric effect and ion migration effect in cellulose. Piezoelectricity of cellulose EAPa...

  16. Effect of γ-radiation on the saccharification of cellulose

    De la Rosa, A.M.; Banzon, R.B.; Abad, L.V.; Nuguid, Z.F.; Bulos, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the acid and saccharification of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated. Radiation doses of 200 KGy and higher significantly increased the saccharification of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The observed radiation effects varied with the cellulosic material. Rice straw exhibited the greatest radiosensitivity while rice hull showed the least susceptibility to gamma radiation. Possible mechanisms for the radiation-induced degradation of cellulose and agricultural cellulosic wastes are discussed. (author)

  17. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the number...

  18. Electrospinning cellulose based nanofibers for sensor applications

    Nartker, Steven

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens have recently become a serious threat to the food and water supply. A biosensor based on an electrochemical immunoassay has been developed for detecting food borne pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. These sensors consist of several materials including, cellulose, cellulose nitrate, polyaniline and glass fibers. The current sensors have not been optimized in terms of microscale architecture and materials. The major problem associated with the current sensors is the limited concentration range of pathogens that provides a linear response on the concentration conductivity chart. Electrospinning is a process that can be used to create a patterned fiber mat design that will increase the linear range and lower the detection limit of these sensors by improving the microscale architecture. Using the electrospinning process to produce novel mats of cellulose nitrate will offer improved surface area, and the cellulose nitrate can be treated to further improve chemical interactions required for sensor activity. The macro and micro architecture of the sensor is critical to the performance of the sensors. Electrospinning technology can be used to create patterned architectures of nanofibers that will enhance sensor performance. To date electrospinning of cellulose nitrate has not been performed and optimization of the electrospinning process will provide novel materials suitable for applications such as filtration and sensing. The goal of this research is to identify and elucidate the primary materials and process factors necessary to produce cellulose nitrate nanofibers using the electrospinning process that will improve the performance of biosensors. Cellulose nitrate is readily dissolved in common organic solvents such as acetone, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N,N dimethylformamide (DMF). These solvents can be mixed with other latent solvents such as ethanol and other alcohols to provide a solvent system with good electrospinning behavior

  19. Accumulation of noncrystalline cellulose in Physarum microplasmodia

    Ogawa, Kyoko; Maki, Hisae; Sato, Mamiko; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Takako S.

    2013-01-01

    Physarum plasmodium lives as a slimy mass of protoplast in the dark fragments into small multinucleated microplasmodia (mPL) in a liquid medium. When mPL are exposed to several unfavorable environments, they transform into ?spherules? with a cell wall. Using a synchronous spherule-induction system for mPL, we examined the effect of 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile on the synthesis of cellulose in mPL, by observing mPL under a fluorescence microscope, and isolated cellulose from mPL to identify them m...

  20. New thermophilic anaerobes that decompose crystalline cellulose

    Taya, M; Hinoki, H; Suzuki, Y; Yagi, T; Yap, M G.S.; Kobayashi, T

    1985-01-01

    Two strains (designated as 25A and 3B) of cellulolytic, thermophilic, anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria were newly isolated from an alkaline hot spring through enrichment cultures at 60/sup 0/C. Though strain 25A was nearly identical to Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 as a reference strain, strain 3B had some characteristics different from the reference; no flagellation, alkalophilic growth property (optimum pH of 7.5-8) and orange-colored pigmentation of the cell mass. Strain 3B effectively decomposed micro-crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and raw cellulosics (rice straw, newspaper, and bagasse) without physical or chemical pretreatments. 20 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Test manufacture of the canister insert 135

    Raiko, H.

    2005-10-01

    This report describes the insert-manufacturing test of a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel that was made by Metso Foundries Jyvaeskylae Oy, in June 2004 on contract for Posiva Oy. The test manufacture was a part of the co-operation development programme of encapsulation technology between SKB AB and Posiva Oy. Insert casting was specified according to the current manufacturing specifications of SKB. The canister insert was of BWR-type with integral bottom. This was the second trial manufacture of this type of insert in Finland and, in total, the third test manufacture of insert by Metso Foundries Jyvaeskylae Oy. The result fulfilled all the requirements but the material mechanical properties of the cast material. The measured ultimate strength and elongation at rupture were lower than specified in the upper part of the cast. The reason for this was revealed in the metallurgical investigation of the cast material. The cast contained slag (dross). Avoiding the dross formation will be the most demanding challenge of the forthcoming development of the cast procedure. (orig.)

  2. Test manufacture of a canister insert

    Raiko, H.

    2004-11-01

    This report describes the insert-manufacturing test of a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel that was made by Metso Paper Oy, Jyvaeskylae Foundry, in 2003 on contract for Posiva Oy. The test manufacture was a part of the co-operation development programme of encapsulation technology between SKB AB and Posiva Oy. Insert casting was specified according to the current manufacturing specifications of SKB. The canister insert was of BWR-type with integral bottom. This was the first trial manufacture of this type of insert in Finland and, in total, the second test manufacture of insert by Metso Paper. The result fulfilled all the requirements but the material mechanical properties and metallurgical structure of the cast material. The measured tensile strength, ultimate strength and elongation at rupture were lower than specified. The reason for this was revealed in the metallurgical investigation of the cast material. The nodulizing of the graphite was not occurred during the casting process according to the requirements. (orig.)

  3. Cellulose nanocrystal: electronically conducting polymer nanocomposites for supercapacitors

    Liew, Soon Yee

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of cellulose nanocrystals for the fabrication of porous nanocomposites with electronic conducting polymers for electrochemical supercapacitor applications. The exceptional strength and negatively charged surface functionalities on cellulose nanocrystals are utilised in these nanocomposites. The negatively charged surface functionalities on cellulose nanocrystals allow their simultaneous incorporation into electropolymerised, positively charged conducting polymer ...

  4. Nanotechnology : emerging applications of cellulose-based green magnetic nanocomposites

    Tao Wang; Zhiyong Cai; Lei Liu; Ilker S. Bayer; Abhijit Biswas

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a new type of nanocomposite – cellulose based hybrid nanocomposites, which adopts cellulose nanofibers as matrices, has been intensively developed. Among these materials, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of cellulosic fibers and magnetic nanoparticles have recently attracted much attention due to their potential novel applications in biomedicine,...

  5. Cyanobacterial cellulose synthesis in the light of the photanol concept

    Schuurmans, R.M.; Matthijs, H.C.P.; Stal, L.J.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Sharma, N.K.; Rai, A.K.; Stal, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The detailed knowledge already available about cellulose synthases and their regulation, plus emerging insights into the process of cellulose secretion in cyanobacteria make cellulose an attractive polymer for the application of the photanol concept in an economically viable production process. By

  6. Structural differences of xylans affect their interaction with cellulose

    Kabel, M.A.; Borne, van den H.; Vincken, J.P.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The affinity of xylan to cellulose is an important aspect of many industrial processes, e.g. production of cellulose, paper making and bio-ethanol production. However, little is known about the adsorption of structurally different xylans to cellulose. Therefore, the adsorption of various xylans to

  7. Tritium transfer studies in cellulose-HTO system

    Jayaraman, A.P.; Misra, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes some aspects of studies on transfer of tritium to cellulose from tritiated water at six different specific activities and discusses the generalized tritiation pattern. Cellulose was irradiated in steps to 10 M Rads and the tritium transfer was determined at each stage. Experimental results signify substantial increase of tritiation in cellulose at higher dose of irradiation. (author). 8 refs

  8. Surface chemistry of cellulose : from natural fibres to model surfaces

    Kontturi, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    The theme of the thesis was to link together the research aspects of cellulose occurring in nature (in natural wood fibres) and model surfaces of cellulose. Fundamental changes in cellulose (or fibre) during recycling of paper was a pragmatic aspect which was retained throughout the thesis with

  9. Formation of Irreversible H-bonds in Cellulose Materials

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Rick S. Reiner; Nicole M. Stark

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of formation of irreversible Hbonds in cellulose is important in a number of fields. For example, fields as diverse as pulp and paper and enzymatic saccharification of cellulose are affected. In the present investigation, the phenomenon of formation of irreversible H-bonds is studied in a variety of celluloses and under two different drying conditions....

  10. RADIOCHEMICAL YIELDS OF GRAFT POLYMERIZATION REACTIONS OF CELLULOSE

    Arthur, Jr, J C; Blouin, F A

    1963-12-15

    The preparation of radioinduced graft polymers of cotton cellulose, while retaining the fibrous nature and high molecular weight of the cellulose, depended primarily on the radiochemical yields of cellulose reactions and of graft polymerization reactions. Yields of the initial major molecular changes in cellulosic polymer indicated that, in the case of scission of the molecule and carboxyl group formation, chain reactions were not initiated by radiation; however, in the case of carbonyl group formation chain reactions were initiated but quickly terminated. Generally, experimental procedures, used in graft polymerization reactions, were: simultaneous irradiation reactions, that is, application of monomers or solutions of monomers to cellulose or chemically modified celluloses, then irradiation; and post-irradiation reactions, that is, irradiation of cellulose or chemically modified celluloses, then after removal from the field of radiation, contacting the irradiated cellulose with monomer. Some of the most important factors influencing the radiochemical yields of graft polymerization reactions, of styrene and acrylonitrile onto cellulose were: concentration of monomer in treating solution; solvent; ratio of monomer solution to cellulose; prior chemical modification of cellulose; and absence of oxygen, particularly in post-irradiation reactions. Experimental data are presented, and the direct and indirect effects of Co/sup 60/ gamma radiation on these reactions are discussed. (auth)

  11. Characterising the cellulose synthase complexes of cell walls

    Mansoori Zangir, N.

    2012-01-01

    One of the characteristics of the plant kingdom is the presence of a structural cell wall. Cellulose is a major component in both the primary and secondary cell walls of plants. In higher plants cellulose is synthesized by so called rosette protein complexes with cellulose synthases (CESAs) as

  12. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  13. Cellulose ionics: switching ionic diode responses by surface charge in reconstituted cellulose films.

    Aaronson, Barak D B; Wigmore, David; Johns, Marcus A; Scott, Janet L; Polikarpov, Igor; Marken, Frank

    2017-09-25

    Cellulose films as well as chitosan-modified cellulose films of approximately 5 μm thickness, reconstituted from ionic liquid media onto a poly(ethylene-terephthalate) (PET, 6 μm thickness) film with a 5, 10, 20, or 40 μm diameter laser-drilled microhole, show significant current rectification in aqueous NaCl. Reconstituted α-cellulose films provide "cationic diodes" (due to predominant cation conductivity) whereas chitosan-doped cellulose shows "anionic diode" effects (due to predominant anion conductivity). The current rectification, or "ionic diode" behaviour, is investigated as a function of NaCl concentration, pH, microhole diameter, and molecular weight of the chitosan dopant. Future applications are envisaged exploiting the surface charge induced switching of diode currents for signal amplification in sensing.

  14. Cellulose Nanocrystals vs. Cellulose Nanofibrils: A Comparative study on Their Microstructures and Effects as Polymer Reinforcing Agents

    Xuezhu Xu; Fei Liu; Long Jiang; J.Y. Zhu; Darrin Haagenson; Dennis P. Wiesenborn

    2013-01-01

    Both cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are nanoscale cellulose fibers that have shown reinforcing effects in polymer nanocomposites. CNCs and CNFs are different in shape, size and composition. This study systematically compared their morphologies, crystalline structure, dispersion properties in polyethylene oxide (PEO) matrix, interactions...

  15. Chapter 2.1 Integrated Production of Cellulose Nanofibrils and Cellulosic Biofuel by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of wood Fibers

    Ronald Sabo; J.Y. Zhu

    2013-01-01

    One key barrier to converting woody biomass to biofuel through the sugar platform is the low efficiency of enzymatic cellulose saccharification due to the strong recalcitrance of the crystalline cellulose. Significant past research efforts in cellulosic biofuels have focused on overcoming the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses to enhance the saccharification of...

  16. The productive cellulase binding capacity of cellulosic substrates.

    Karuna, Nardrapee; Jeoh, Tina

    2017-03-01

    Cellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock for renewable biofuel production; however, the mechanisms of the heterogeneous cellulose saccharification reaction are still unsolved. As cellulases need to bind isolated molecules of cellulose at the surface of insoluble cellulose fibrils or larger aggregated cellulose structures in order to hydrolyze glycosidic bonds, the "accessibility of cellulose to cellulases" is considered to be a reaction limiting property of cellulose. We have defined the accessibility of cellulose to cellulases as the productive binding capacity of cellulose, that is, the concentration of productive binding sites on cellulose that are accessible for binding and hydrolysis by cellulases. Productive cellulase binding to cellulose results in hydrolysis and can be quantified by measuring hydrolysis rates. In this study, we measured the productive Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TrCel7A) binding capacity of five cellulosic substrates from different sources and processing histories. Swollen filter paper and bacterial cellulose had higher productive binding capacities of ∼6 µmol/g while filter paper, microcrystalline cellulose, and algal cellulose had lower productive binding capacities of ∼3 µmol/g. Swelling and regenerating filter paper using phosphoric acid increased the initial accessibility of the reducing ends to TrCel7A from 4 to 6 µmol/g. Moreover, this increase in initial productive binding capacity accounted in large part for the difference in the overall digestibility between filter paper and swollen filter paper. We further demonstrated that an understanding of how the productive binding capacity declines over the course of the hydrolysis reaction has the potential to predict overall saccharification time courses. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 533-542. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. RERTR-12 Insertion 1 Irradiation Summary Report

    Perez, D.M.; Lillo, M.A.; Chang, G.S.; Woolstenhulme, N.E.; Roth, G.A.; Wachs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications. RERTR-12 insertion 1 includes the capsules irradiated during the first two irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, X1, X2 and X3 capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  18. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    Perez, D.M.; Chang, G.S.; Wachs, D.M.; Roth, G.A.; Woolstenhulme, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  19. Installation of the LHC experimental insertions

    Bartolome-Jimenez, S

    2004-01-01

    The installation of the LHC experimental insertions, and particularly the installation of the low-beta quadrupoles, raises many technical challenges due to the stringent alignment specifications and to the difficulty of access in very confined areas. The compact layout with many lattice elements, vacuum components, beam control instrumentation and the presence of shielding does not allow for any improvisation in the installation procedure. This paper reviews all the constraints that need to be taken into account when installing the experimental insertions. It describes the chronological sequence of installation and discusses the technical solutions that have been adopted.

  20. INSTALLATION OF THE LHC EXPERIMENTAL INSERTIONS

    Bartolome-Jimenez, S

    2004-01-01

    The installation of the LHC experimental insertions, and particularly the installation of the Low-Beta quadrupoles, raises many technical challenges due to the stringent alignment specifications and to the difficulty of access in very confined areas. The compact layout with many lattice elements, vacuum components, beam control instrumentation and the presence of shielding does not allow for any improvisation in the installation procedure. This paper reviews all the constraints that need to be taken into account when installing the experimental insertions. It describes the chronological sequence of installation and discusses the technical solutions that have been adopted.

  1. Compact insert design for cryogenic pressure vessels

    Aceves, Salvador M.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias Rigoberto; Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Petitpas, Guillaume; Switzer, Vernon A.

    2017-06-14

    A pressure vessel apparatus for cryogenic capable storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure includes an insert with a parallel inlet duct, a perpendicular inlet duct connected to the parallel inlet. The perpendicular inlet duct and the parallel inlet duct connect the interior cavity with the external components. The insert also includes a parallel outlet duct and a perpendicular outlet duct connected to the parallel outlet duct. The perpendicular outlet duct and the parallel outlet duct connect the interior cavity with the external components.

  2. ALS insertion device block measurement and inspection

    Marks, S.; Carrieri, J.; Cook, C.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Hoyer, E.; Plate, D.

    1991-05-01

    The performance specifications for ALS insertion devices require detailed knowledge and strict control of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet blocks incorporated in these devices. This paper describes the measurement and inspection apparatus and the procedures designed to qualify and characterize these blocks. A detailed description of a new, automated Helmholtz coil facility for measurement of the three components of magnetic moment is included. Physical block inspection and magnetic moment measurement procedures are described. Together they provide a basis for qualifying blocks and for specifying placement of blocks within an insertion devices' magnetic structures. 1 ref., 4 figs

  3. Versatile High-Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes Prepared using Trimethylsilyl Cellulose as a Precursor

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2018-05-01

    Cellulose has emerged as an indispensable membrane material due to its abundant availability, low cost, fascinating physiochemical properties and environment benignancy. However, it is believed that the potential of this polymer is not fully explored yet due to its insolubility in the common organic solvents, encouraging the use of derivatization-regeneration method as a viable alternative to the direct dissolution in exotic or reactive solvents. In this work, we use trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC), a highly soluble cellulose derivative, as a precursor for the fabrication of cellulose thin film composite membranes. TMSC is an attractive precursor to assemble thin cellulose films with good deposition behavior and film morphology; cumbersome solvents used in the one step cellulose processing are avoided. This derivative is prepared from cellulose by the known silylation reaction. The complete transformation of TMSC back into cellulose after the membrane formation is carried out by vapor-phase acid treatment, which is simple, scalable and reproducible. This process along with the initial TMSC concentration determines the membrane sieving characteristics. Unlike the typical regenerated cellulose membranes with meso- or macropores, membranes regenerated from TMSC display micropores suitable for the selective separation of nanomolecules in aqueous and organic solvent nanofiltration. The membranes introduced in this thesis represent the first polymeric membranes ever reported for highly selective separation of similarly sized small organic molecules based on charge and size differences with outstanding fluxes. Owing to its strong hydrophilic and amorphous character, the membranes also demonstrate excellent air-dehumidification performance as compared to previously reported thin film composite membranes. Moreover, the use of TMSC enables the creation of the previously unfeasible cellulose–polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and cellulose–polyethyleneimine (PEI) blend membranes

  4. Adsorption of cationic amylopectin on microcrystalline cellulose.

    Steeg, van de H.G.M.; Keizer, de A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Bijsterbosch, B.H.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of electrolyte concentration and pH on the adsorption of cationic amylopectin on microcrystalline cellulose were investigated. The adsorbed amount in the pseudo-plateau of the isotherm showed a maximum as a function of the electrolyte concentration. We compared the data with a recent

  5. Rapid saccharification for production of cellulosic biofuels.

    Lee, Dae-Seok; Wi, Seung Gon; Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Yoon-Gyo; Kim, Yeong-Suk; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2014-04-01

    The economical production of biofuels is hindered by the recalcitrance of lignocellulose to processing, causing high consumption of processing enzymes and impeding hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. We determined the major rate-limiting factor in the hydrolysis of popping pre-treated rice straw (PPRS) by examining cellulase adsorption to lignin and cellulose, amorphogenesis of PPRS, and re-hydrolysis. Based on the results, equivalence between enzyme loading and the open structural area of cellulose was required to significantly increase productive adsorption of cellulase and to accelerate enzymatic saccharification of PPRS. Amorphogenesis of PPRS by phosphoric acid treatment to expand open structural area of the cellulose fibers resulted in twofold higher cellulase adsorption and increased the yield of the first re-hydrolysis step from 13% to 46%. The total yield from PPRS was increased to 84% after 3h. These results provide evidence that cellulose structure is one of major effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Methacrylate hydrogels reinforced with bacterial cellulose

    Hobzová, Radka; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Michálek, Jiří; Karpushkin, Evgeny; Gatenholm, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 7 (2012), s. 1193-1201 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400500902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : bacterial cellulose * methacrylate hydrogel * composite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.125, year: 2012

  7. Chemistry, Technology and Aplications of Oxidized Celluloses

    Havelka, P.; Sopuch, T.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Suchý, P.; Masteikova, R.; Bajerová, M.; Gajdziok, J.; Milichovský, M.; Švorčík, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, C (2010), s. 205-245. ISBN 978-1-608-76-388-7 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : oxidation * cellulose * in-vitro Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php? products _id=14049

  8. Degradation of cellulose by basidiomycetous fungi

    Baldrian, Petr; Valášková, Vendula

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2008), s. 501-521 ISSN 0168-6445 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MZe QH72216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cellobiohydrolase * cellulose dehydrogenase * basidiomycetes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.963, year: 2008

  9. Atomic force microscopy characterization of cellulose nanocrystals

    Roya R. Lahiji; Xin Xu; Ronald Reifenberger; Arvind Raman; Alan Rudie; Robert J. Moon

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are gaining interest as a “green” nanomaterial with superior mechanical and chemical properties for high-performance nanocomposite materials; however, there is a lack of accurate material property characterization of individual CNCs. Here, a detailed study of the topography, elastic and adhesive properties of individual wood-derived CNCs...

  10. Dynamics of water bound to crystalline cellulose

    O’Neill, Hugh; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Petridis, Loukas; He, Junhong; Mamontov, Eugene; Hong, Liang; Urban, Volker; Evans, Barbara; Langan, Paul; Smith, Jeremy C.; Davison, Brian H.

    2017-09-19

    Interactions of water with cellulose are of both fundamental and technological importance. Here, we characterize the properties of water associated with cellulose using deuterium labeling, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering provided quantitative details about the dynamical relaxation processes that occur and was supported by structural characterization using small-angle neutron scattering and X-ray diffraction. We can unambiguously detect two populations of water associated with cellulose. The first is “non-freezing bound” water that gradually becomes mobile with increasing temperature and can be related to surface water. The second population is consistent with confined water that abruptly becomes mobile at ~260 K, and can be attributed to water that accumulates in the narrow spaces between the microfibrils. Quantitative analysis of the QENS data showed that, at 250 K, the water diffusion coefficient was 0.85 ± 0.04 × 10-10 m2sec-1 and increased to 1.77 ± 0.09 × 10-10 m2sec-1 at 265 K. MD simulations are in excellent agreement with the experiments and support the interpretation that water associated with cellulose exists in two dynamical populations. Our results provide clarity to previous work investigating the states of bound water and provide a new approach for probing water interactions with lignocellulose materials.

  11. Biodegradation behaviors of cellulose nanocrystals -PVA nanocomposites

    Mahdi Rohani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, biodegradation behaviors of cellulose nanocrystals-poly vinyl alcohol nanocomposites were investigated. Nanocomposite films with different filler loading levels (3, 6, 9 and 12% by wt were developed by solvent casting method. The effect of cellulose nanocrystals on the biodegradation behaviors of nanocomposite films was studied. Water absorption and water solubility tests were performed by immersing specimens into distilled water. The characteristic parameter of diffusion coefficient and maximum moisture content were determined from the obtained water absorption curves. The water absorption behavior of the nanocomposites was found to follow a Fickian behavior. The maximum water absorption and diffusion coefficients were decreased by increasing the cellulose nanocrystals contents, however the water solubility decrease. The biodegradability of the films was investigated by immersing specimens into cellulase enzymatic solution as well as by burial in soil. The results showed that adding cellulose nanocrystals increase the weight loss of specimens in enzymatic solution but decrease it in soil media. The limited biodegradability of specimens in soil media attributed to development of strong interactions with solid substrates that inhibit the accessibility of functional groups. Specimens with the low degree of hydrolysis underwent extensive biodegradation in both enzymatic and soil media, whilst specimens with the high degree of hydrolysis showed recalcitrance to biodegradation under those conditions.

  12. Saccharification of cellulosics by Microbispora bispora

    Waldron, Jr, C R; Eveleigh, D E

    1986-09-01

    The saccharification efficiency of cellulase from the thermophilic actinomycete Microbispora bispora was evaluated using commercially available feedstocks. The enzyme preparation was effective against refuse derived cellulose with 30% being converted to glucose in a 24 hour period. Pretreatment of the refuse with cadoxen resulted in an increase in saccharification efficiency to 70%.

  13. Nanomanufacturing metrology for cellulosic nanomaterials: an update

    Postek, Michael T.

    2014-08-01

    The development of the metrology and standards for advanced manufacturing of cellulosic nanomaterials (or basically, wood-based nanotechnology) is imperative to the success of this rising economic sector. Wood-based nanotechnology is a revolutionary technology that will create new jobs and strengthen America's forest-based economy through industrial development and expansion. It allows this, previously perceived, low-tech industry to leap-frog directly into high-tech products and processes and thus improves its current economic slump. Recent global investments in nanotechnology programs have led to a deeper appreciation of the high performance nature of cellulose nanomaterials. Cellulose, manufactured to the smallest possible-size ( 2 nm x 100 nm), is a high-value material that enables products to be lighter and stronger; have less embodied energy; utilize no catalysts in the manufacturing, are biologically compatible and, come from a readily renewable resource. In addition to the potential for a dramatic impact on the national economy - estimated to be as much as $250 billion worldwide by 2020 - cellulose-based nanotechnology creates a pathway for expanded and new markets utilizing these renewable materials. The installed capacity associated with the US pulp and paper industry represents an opportunity, with investment, to rapidly move to large scale production of nano-based materials. However, effective imaging, characterization and fundamental measurement science for process control and characterization are lacking at the present time. This talk will discuss some of these needed measurements and potential solutions.

  14. [Insights into engineering of cellulosic ethanol].

    Yue, Guojun; Wu, Guoqing; Lin, Xin

    2014-06-01

    For energy security, air pollution concerns, coupled with the desire to sustain the agricultural sector and revitalize the rural economy, many countries have applied ethanol as oxygenate or fuel to supplement or replace gasoline in transportation sector. Because of abundant feedstock resources and effective reduction of green-house-gas emissions, the cellulosic ethanol has attracted great attention. With a couple of pioneers beginning to produce this biofuel from biomass in commercial quantities around the world, it is necessary to solve engineering problems and complete the economic assessment in 2015-2016, gradually enter the commercialization stage. To avoid "competing for food with humans and competing for land with food", the 1st generation fuel ethanol will gradually transit to the 2nd generation cellulosic ethanol. Based on the overview of cellulosic ethanol industrialization from domestic and abroad in recent years, the main engineering application problems encountered in pretreatment, enzymes and enzymatic hydrolysis, pentose/hexose co-fermentation strains and processes, equipment were discussed from chemical engineering and biotechnology perspective. The development direction of cellulosic ethanol technology in China was addressed.

  15. Isolation and characterization of cellulose hydrolysing ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... A ruminant is any animal that digests its food in two steps, first by eating the raw ... within which the digestion of cellulose and other plant polysaccharides ... and adheres loosely to the plant cells wall, while. Pseudomonas and ...

  16. Characterization of cellulose nanowhiskers; Caracterizacao do nanowhiskers de celulose

    Nascimento, Nayra R.; Pinheiro, Ivanei F.; Morales, Ana R.; Ravagnani, Sergio P.; Mei, Lucia, E-mail: 25nareis@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer earth. The cellulose nanowhiskers can be extracted from the cellulose. These have attracted attention for its use in nanostructured materials for various applications, such as nanocomposites, because they have peculiar characteristics, among them, high aspect ratio, biodegradability and excellent mechanical properties. This work aims to characterize cellulose nanowhiskers from microcrystalline cellulose. Therefore, these materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to assess the degree of crystallinity, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to the morphology of nanowhiskers and thermal stability was evaluated by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). (author)

  17. Method of forming an electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Ashtead, GB

    2011-11-22

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  18. Neutron absorber inserts for 55-gal drums

    Wilson, R.E.; Kim, Y.S.; Toffer, H.

    2000-01-01

    Transport and temporary storage of more than 200 g of fissile material in 55-gal drums at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have received significant attention during the cleanup mission. This paper discusses successful applications and results of extensive computer studies. Interim storage and movement of fissile material in excess of standard drum limits (200 g) in a safe configuration have been accomplished using special drum inserts. Such inserts have constrained the contents of a drum to two 4-ell bottles. The content of the bottles was limited to 600 g Pu or U in solution or a total of 1200 g for the entire drum. The inserts were a simple design constructed of stainless steel, forming a vertical cylindrical pipe into which two bottles, one on top of the other, could be centered in the drum. The remaining drum volume was configured to preclude any additional bottle placement external to the vertical cylinder. Such inserts in drums were successfully used in moving high-concentration solution from one building to another for chemical processing. Concern about the knowledge of fissile material concentration in bottles prompted another study for drum inserts. The past practice had been to load up to fourteen 4-ell bottles into 55-gal drums, provided the fissile material concentration was < 6 g fissile/ell, and the total drum contents of 200 g fissile was not exceeded. Only one determination of the solution concentration was needed. An extensive safety analysis concluded that a single measurement of bottle content could not ensure compliance with double-contingency-criterion requirements. A second determination of the bottle contents was required before bottles could be placed in a 55-gal drum. Al alternative to a dual-measurement protocol, which is for bolstering administrative control, was to develop an engineered safety feature that would eliminate expensive tests and administrative decisions. A drum insert design was evaluated that would

  19. Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of and risk factors for ophthalmic disease in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) at a veterinary teaching hospital: 52 cases (1985-2013).

    Wiggans, K Tomo; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Reilly, Christopher M; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Kass, Philip H; Hollingsworth, Steven R

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of and risk factors for ophthalmic disease in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 112 of 144 (78%) leopard geckos that were evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital in January 1985 through October 2013 and for which sufficient medical record information was available. PROCEDURES Information from medical records was used to identify leopard geckos with ophthalmic disease, characterize cases, and determine risk factors for the presence of ophthalmic disease. RESULTS Of the 112 leopard geckos, 52 (46%) had ophthalmic disease (mainly corneal or conjunctival disease). Female geckos were less likely to have ophthalmic disease, and there was a positive association between increasing age and ophthalmic disease. Use of a paper towel substrate, absence of any heat source, and lack of vitamin A supplementation were positively associated with a diagnosis of ophthalmic disease. Head dysecdysis was the only concurrent disorder significantly associated with ophthalmic disease. At necropsy, 5 affected leopard geckos had squamous metaplasia of the conjunctivae. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that ophthalmic disease is a common finding in leopard geckos. The cause of ocular surface disease in leopard geckos may be multifactorial, and hypovitaminosis A may be an important risk factor. Although animals receiving supplemental vitamin A were less likely to have ophthalmic disease, further understanding is required regarding the metabolism of and nutritional requirements for vitamin A in leopard geckos.

  20. Extraction of cellulose from pistachio shell and physical and mechanical characterisation of cellulose-based nanocomposites

    Movva, Mounika; Kommineni, Ravindra

    2017-04-01

    Cellulose is an important nanoentity that have been used for the preparation of composites. The present work focuses on the extraction of cellulose from pistachio shell and preparing a partially degradable nanocomposite with extracted cellulose. Physical and microstructural characteristics of nanocellulose extracted from pistachio shell powder (PSP) through various stages of chemical treatment are identified from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Later, characterized nanocellulose is reinforced in a polyester matrix to fabricate nanocellulose-based composites according to the ASTM standard. The resulting nanocellulose composite performance is evaluated in the mechanical perspective through tensile and flexural loading. SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that the process for extraction is efficient in obtaining 95% crystalline cellulose. Cellulose also showed good thermal stability with a peak thermal degradation temperature of 361 °C. Such cellulose when reinforced in a matrix material showed a noteworthy rise in tensile and flexural strengths of 43 MPa and 127 MPa, at a definite weight percent of 5%.

  1. Pretreatment assisted synthesis and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibers from absorbent cotton.

    Abu-Danso, Emmanuel; Srivastava, Varsha; Sillanpää, Mika; Bhatnagar, Amit

    2017-09-01

    In this work, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized from absorbent cotton. Two pretreatments viz. dewaxing and bleaching with mild alkali were applied to the precursor (cotton). Acid hydrolysis was conducted with H 2 SO 4 and dissolution of cotton was achieved with a mixture of NaOH-thiourea-urea-H 2 O at -3°C. Synthesized cellulose samples were characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM, BET, and zeta potential. It seems that synthesis conditions contributed to negative surface charge on cellulose samples and CNCs had the higher negative surface charge compared to CNFs. Furthermore, BET surface area, pore volume and pore diameter of CNCs were found to be higher as compared to CNFs. The dewaxed cellulose nanofibers (CNF D) had a slightly higher BET surface area (0.47m 2 /g) and bigger pore diameter (59.87Å) from attenuated contraction compared to waxed cellulose nanofibers (CNFW) (0.38m 2 /g and 44.89Å). The XRD of CNCs revealed a semi-crystalline structure and the dissolution agents influenced the crystallinity of CNFs. SEM images showed the porous nature of CNFs, the flaky nature and the nano-sized width of CNCs. Synthesized CNF D showed a better potential as an adsorbent with an average lead removal efficiency of 91.49% from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bromfenac ophthalmic solution for the treatment of postoperative ocular pain and inflammation: safety, efficacy, and patient adherence

    Rajpal, Rajesh K; Ross, Bryan; Rajpal, Sachin D; Hoang, Khoa

    2014-01-01

    Rajesh K Rajpal, Bryan Ross, Sachin D Rajpal, Khoa HoangSee Clearly Vision Group, McLean, VA, USAAbstract: Ophthalmic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used by clinicians to manage ocular inflammation and pain following cataract surgery. Over the past decade, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved multiple topical NSAIDs for these purposes, including several reformulated products. One of these medications, bromfenac ophthalmic solution, has a long and extens...

  3. The Synthesis of a Novel Cellulose Physical Gel

    Jiufang Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose possessing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD was used as a host molecule and cellulose possessing ferrocene (Fc as a guest polymer. Infrared spectra, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV, and contact angle analysis were used to characterise the material structure and the inclusion behaviour. The results showed that the β-CD-cellulose and the Fc-cellulose can form inclusion complexes. Moreover, ferrocene oxidation, and reduction of state can be adjusted by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO as an oxidant and glutathione (GSH as a reductant. In this study, a physical gel based on β-CD-cellulose/Fc-cellulose was formed under mild conditions in which autonomous healing between cut surfaces occurred after 24 hours. The physical gel can be controlled in the sol-gel transition. The compressive strength of the Fc-cellulose/β-CD-cellulose gel increased with increased cellulose concentration. The host-guest interaction between the side chains of cellulose could strengthen the gel. The cellulose physical gel may eventually be used as a stimulus-responsive, healing material in biomedical applications.

  4. Assessing nano cellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    Milanez, Douglas Henrique; Amaral, Roniberto Morato do; Faria, Leandro Innocentini Lopes de; Gregolin, Jose Angelo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nano cellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nano cellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nano materials. Scientific and technological future developments in nano cellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nano cellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nano cellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nano cellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nano cellulose S and T advances in the coming years. (author)

  5. Assessing nano cellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    Milanez, Douglas Henrique; Amaral, Roniberto Morato do; Faria, Leandro Innocentini Lopes de; Gregolin, Jose Angelo Rodrigues, E-mail: douglasmilanez@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Informacao Tecnologica em Materiais. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nano cellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nano cellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nano materials. Scientific and technological future developments in nano cellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nano cellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nano cellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nano cellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nano cellulose S and T advances in the coming years. (author)

  6. Direct random insertion mutagenesis of Helicobacter pylori.

    Jonge, de R.; Bakker, D.; Vliet, van AH; Kuipers, E.J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Kusters, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Random insertion mutagenesis is a widely used technique for the identification of bacterial virulence genes. Most strategies for random mutagenesis involve cloning in Escherichia coli for passage of plasmids or for phenotypic selection. This can result in biased selection due to restriction or

  7. Direct random insertion mutagenesis of Helicobacter pylori

    de Jonge, Ramon; Bakker, Dennis; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Kusters, Johannes G.

    2003-01-01

    Random insertion mutagenesis is a widely used technique for the identification of bacterial virulence genes. Most strategies for random mutagenesis involve cloning in Escherichia coli for passage of plasmids or for phenotypic selection. This can result in biased selection due to restriction or

  8. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene ...

    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene Polymorphism: An Observational Study among Diabetic Hypertensive Subjects in Malaysia. ... Methods: The pharmacological effect of ACE inhibition on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were observed among a total of 62 subjects for ...

  9. Insertion Loss of Personal Protective Clothing

    Shull, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of personal protective clothing that covers the head is a common practice in many industries. Such personal protective clothing will impact the sound pressure level and the frequency content of sounds to which the wearer will be exposed. The use of such clothing, then, may impact speech and alarm audibility. A measure of the impact of such clothing is its insertion loss. Insertion loss measurements were performed on four types of personal protective clothing in use by Westinghouse Savannah River Company personnel which utilize cloth and plastic hood configurations to protect the head. All clothing configurations tested at least partially cover the ears. The measurements revealed that insertion loss of the items tested was notable at frequencies above 1000 Hz only and was a function of material stiffness and acoustic flanking paths to the ear. Further, an estimate of the clothing's noise reduction rating reveals poor performance in that regard, even though the insertion loss of the test articles was significant at frequencies at and above 1000 Hz.'

  10. Aspects of insertion in random trees

    Bagchi, Arunabha; Reingold, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method formulated by Yao and used by Brown has yielded bounds on the fraction of nodes with specified properties in trees bult by a sequence of random internal nodes in a random tree built by binary search and insertion, and show that in such a tree about bounds better than those now known. We

  11. Patients Comprehension of Pharmaceutical Package Inserts ...

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research December 2015; 14 (12): ... Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... patients/consumers about PPI. ... the perception of outpatients of Karachi about ... Do you store the medication at the temperature specified in the package insert ... drugs available in local market of Pakistan was.

  12. Oxidative-stress detoxification and signalling in cyanobacteria: the crucial glutathione synthesis pathway supports the production of ergothioneine and ophthalmate.

    Narainsamy, Kinsley; Farci, Sandrine; Braun, Emilie; Junot, Christophe; Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Chauvat, Franck

    2016-04-01

    Using genetics and metabolomics we investigated the synthesis (gshA and gshB genes) and catabolism (ggt) of the conserved antioxidant glutathione in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. These three genes are crucial to Synechocystis, in agreement with the proposed invention of glutathione by ancient cyanobacteria to protect themselves against the toxicity of oxygen they produced through photosynthesis. Consistent with their indispensability, gshA and gshB also operate in the production of another antioxidant, ergothioneine, as well as of the glutathione analogues ophthalmate and norophthalmate. Furthermore, we show that glutathione, ophthalmate and norophthalmate are accumulated in cells stressed by glucose, and that the two glutathione-dependent glyoxalase enzymes operate in the protection against glucose and its catabolite methylglyoxal. These findings are interesting because ophthalmate and norophthalmate were observed only in mammals so far, where ophthalmate is regarded as a biomarker of glutathione depletion. Instead, our data suggest that ophthalmate and norophthalmate are stress-induced markers of cysteine depletion triggered by its accelerated incorporation into glutathione, to face its increased demand for detoxification purposes. Hence, Synechocystis is an attractive model for the analysis of the role of glutathione, ergothioneine, ophthalmate and norophthalmate, in signalling and detoxification of oxidants and metabolic by-products. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Morphology and physical-chemical properties of celluloses obtained by different methods

    Anpilova, A. Yu.; Mastalygina, E. E.; Mikhaylov, I. A.; Popov, A. A.; Kartasheva, Z. S.

    2017-12-01

    The morphology and structural characteristics of celluloses obtained by different methods were studied. The objects of the investigation are cellulose from pulp source, commercial celluloses produced by sodium and acid hydrolysis, laboratory produced cellulose from bleached birch kraft pulp, and cellulose obtained by thermooxidative catalytic treatment of maple leaves by peroxide. According to a complex analysis of cellulose characteristics, several types of celluloses were offered as modifying additives for polymers.

  14. [Sinus pericranii associated to spontaneous thrombosis of the ophthalmic vein: neuroimaging studies].

    Murias, E; Villota, E; Saiz, A; Gil, A; Calleja, S

    2009-01-01

    Sinus pericranii is an abnormal venous communication between the intracranial dural sinuses and epicranial venous dilatations. The periorbital location is uncommon; spontaneous partial thromboses of the subcutaneous varices have been reported in association with local signs and symptoms; however, to our knowledge there are no reports of sinus pericranii associated to thrombosis in the ophthalmic vein. Sinus pericranii is related to arteriovenous and lymphatic-venous malformations. We present the case of a patient with a generalized and diffuse disorder of venous drainage that affected the right cerebral hemisphere who presented at the emergency department with ophthalmologic signs and symptoms after thrombosis of the superior ophthalmic vein and who had three sinus pericranii located in the frontal, parietal, and occipital areas.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EARLY POSTPARTUM IUCD INSERTION TO INTERVAL IUCD INSERTION

    Shibani Devi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION According to National Family Health Survey-3, Indian women have 13% unmet need for contraception and according to District Level Household & Facility Survey-3, it is 21.3% in the postpartum period. Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device insertion - both immediately post-placental delivery and somewhat later, but within 48 hours after delivery are options which merit consideration as the woman is likely to have a high motivation for accepting contraception and the healthcare centre provides a convenient setting for insertion of IUCD. AIM Comparison of efficacy and complications of IUCD insertions in post-placental with interval period: 6-month followup. METHOD This perspective study was conducted among 100 women: - 50 women had IUCD inserted within 10 minutes of placental delivery and 50 had insertion more than 6 weeks after delivery. They were followed till 6 months post insertion and were compared regarding early and late complications, continuation rates and expulsion rates. RESULT At the end of six months, we found higher occurrence of lower abdominal pain, heavy menstrual bleeding in case of interval insertion as compared to post-placental insertion which was statistically significant (p value-0.04 & 0.007 respectively. However, the expulsion rates of post-placental IUCD were somewhat elevated (14% compared to interval insertions (2%. Continuation rates at the end of 6 months in both the groups were 82% and 86% respectively which is comparable. CONCLUSION Post-placental IUCD is thus found to be an ideal method to meet the unmet need of postpartum women as it is easily accessible and convenient for both women and their health care providers, is associated with less discomfort and fewer side effects and allow women to obtain safe, long acting, highly effective contraception while still in the health care system.

  16. Posidonia oceanica as a Renewable Lignocellulosic Biomass for the Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate and Glycidyl Methacrylate Grafted Cellulose

    Elena Vismara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High-grade cellulose (97% α-cellulose content of 48% crystallinity index was extracted from the renewable marine biomass waste Posidonia oceanica using H2O2 and organic peracids following an environmentally friendly and chlorine-free process. This cellulose appeared as a new high-grade cellulose of waste origin quite similar to the high-grade cellulose extracted from more noble starting materials like wood and cotton linters. The benefits of α-cellulose recovery from P. oceanica were enhanced by its transformation into cellulose acetate CA and cellulose derivative GMA-C. Fully acetylated CA was prepared by conventional acetylation method and easily transformed into a transparent film. GMA-C with a molar substitution (MS of 0.72 was produced by quenching Fenton’s reagent (H2O2/FeSO4 generated cellulose radicals with GMA. GMA grafting endowed high-grade cellulose from Posidonia with adsorption capability. GMA-C removes β-naphthol from water with an efficiency of 47%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. After hydrolysis of the glycidyl group to glycerol group, the modified GMA-C was able to remove p-nitrophenol from water with an efficiency of 92%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. α-cellulose and GMA-Cs from Posidonia waste can be considered as new materials of potential industrial and environmental interest.

  17. IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31

    This project addressed four major areas of investigation: i) characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; ii) characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; iii) characterization of Thermobifida fusca biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; and iii) description of the architecture of mature C. uda, C. phytofermentans, and T. fusca biofilms. This research is aimed at advancing understanding of biofilm formation and other complex processes involved in the degradation of the abundant cellulosic biomass, and the biology of the microbes involved. Information obtained from these studies is invaluable in the development of practical applications, such as the single-step bioconversion of cellulose-containing residues to fuels and other bioproducts. Our results have clearly shown that cellulose-decomposing microbes rapidly colonize cellulose and form complex structures typical of biofilms. Furthermore, our observations suggest that, as cells multiply on nutritive surfaces during biofilms formation, dramatic cell morphological changes occur. We speculated that morphological changes, which involve a transition from rod-shaped cells to more rounded forms, might be more apparent in a filamentous microbe. In order to test this hypothesis, we included in our research a study of biofilm formation by T. fusca, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete commonly found in compost. The cellulase system of T. fusca has been extensively detailed through the work of David Wilson and colleagues at Cornell, and also, genome sequence of a T. fusca strain has been determine by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. Thus, T. fusca is an excellent subject for studies of biofilm development and its potential impacts on cellulose degradation. We also completed a study of the chitinase system of C. uda. This work provided essential background information for understanding how C. uda

  18. Efficacy and safety of fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol ophthalmic solution

    Moon, Suk Bae; Han, Sang Beom

    2017-01-01

    Suk Bae Moon,1 Sang Beom Han21Department of Surgery, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuncheon, KoreaWe read, with interest, the article by Sun et al1 entitled “Patient satisfaction with fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol ophthalmic solution: a survey study in patients with gla...

  19. Facilitation of tear fluid secretion by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in normal human eyes.

    Yokoi, Norihiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the increase in tear fluid volume induced by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in normal human eyes. Prospective, randomized, double-masked, comparative study. Twenty healthy adults (17 males and 3 females; mean age, 38.8 years) underwent topical instillation of 2 ophthalmic solutions, artificial tears in 1 eye and 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in the fellow eye, in a masked manner. The radius of curvature of the central lower tear meniscus was measured at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after instillation by use of reflective meniscometry, and subjects' self-evaluated symptoms of wetness and stinging using a visual analog scale. Changes after instillation in the radius of curvature from baseline (artificial tear group vs diquafosol group; mean ± standard error of the mean) were as follows: at 5 minutes, -0.008 ± 0.012 vs 0.045 ± 0.013; at 10 minutes, 0.001 ± 0.014 vs 0.057 ± 0.016; at 15 minutes, -0.012 ± 0.014 vs 0.037 ± 0.019; at 30 minutes, -0.010 ± 0.016 vs 0.030 ± 0.025; and at 60 minutes, -0.029 ± 0.012 vs -0.020 ± 0.012. The diquafosol group showed significantly greater values from 5 to 30 minutes after instillation. Of the 40 eyes, 13 showed abnormal tear film breakup time (≤5 seconds). The diquafosol group had significantly more wetness at 15 minutes after instillation than did the artificial tear group. Topical instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution increases tear fluid on the ocular surface for up to 30 minutes in normal human eyes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Health claims database study of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion treatment patterns in dry eye patients

    Stonecipher, Karl G; Chia, Jenny; Onyenwenyi, Ahunna; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2013-01-01

    Karl G Stonecipher,1 Jenny Chia,2 Ahunna Onyenwenyi,2 Linda Villanueva,2 David A Hollander2 1TLC Laser Eye Centers, Greensboro, NC, 2Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA Background: Dry eye is a multifactorial, symptomatic disease associated with ocular surface inflammation and tear film hyperosmolarity. This study was designed to assess patterns of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis®) use in dry eye patients and determine if there were any differences in use based o...

  1. The superior ophthalmic vein approach for the treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas: our first experience

    Chiriac A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF are still a technical challenge to neurovascular team. The most commonly performed treatment consists in endovascular embolization of the lesion through an arterial or venous approach. Not always these conventional routes are feasible, requiring alternative routes. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with a complex indirect (Barrow D carotid cavernous sinus fistula treated by two interventional sessions that imposing a retrograde direct transvenous approach via the superior ophthalmic vein.

  2. Efficacy of detergent and water versus bleach for disinfection of direct contact ophthalmic lenses.

    Abbey, Ashkan M; Gregori, Ninel Z; Surapaneni, Krishna; Miller, Darlene

    2014-06-01

    Although manufacturers recommend cleaning ophthalmic lenses with detergent and water and then with a specific disinfectant, disinfectants are rarely used in ophthalmic practices. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of detergent and water versus that of bleach, a recommended disinfectant, to eliminate common ocular bacteria and viruses from ophthalmic lenses. Three bacterial strains (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium straitum, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 2 viral strains (adenovirus and herpes simplex virus [HSV] type-1) were individually inoculated onto 20 gonioscopy and laser lenses. The lenses were washed with detergent and water and then disinfected with 10% bleach. All the lenses were cultured after inoculation, after washing with detergent and water, and after disinfecting with the bleach. Bacterial cultures in thioglycollate broth were observed for 3 weeks, and viral cultures were observed for 2 weeks. The presence of viruses was also detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All 20 lenses inoculated with S. epidermidis, C. straitum, adenovirus, and HSV-1 showed growth after inoculation but no growth after washing with detergent/water and after disinfecting with the bleach. All lenses showed positive HSV and adenovirus PCR results after inoculation and negative PCR results after washing with detergent/water and after disinfecting with bleach. All methicillin-resistant S. aureus-contaminated lenses showed growth after inoculation and no growth after washing with detergent and water. However, 1 lens showed positive growth after disinfecting with bleach. Cleaning with detergent and water seemed to effectively eliminate bacteria and viruses from the surface of contaminated ophthalmic lenses. Further studies are warranted to design practical disinfection protocols that minimize lens damage.

  3. Regulation of vascular tone in rabbit ophthalmic artery: cross talk of endogenous and exogenous gas mediators.

    Salomone, Salvatore; Foresti, Roberta; Villari, Ambra; Giurdanella, Giovanni; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio

    2014-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) modulate vascular tone. In view of their therapeutic potential for ocular diseases, we examined the effect of exogenous CO and H2S on tone of isolated rabbit ophthalmic artery and their interaction with endogenous and exogenous NO. Ophthalmic artery segments mounted on a wire myograph were challenged with cumulative concentrations of phenylephrine (PE) in the presence or absence of NG-nitro-L-arginine (LNNA) to inhibit production of NO, the CO-releasing molecules CORMs or the H2S-donor GYY4137. The maximal vasoconstriction elicited by PE reached 20-30% of that induced by KCl but was dramatically increased by incubation with LNNA. GYY4137 significantly raised PE-mediated vasoconstriction, but it did not change the response to PE in the presence of LNNA or the relaxation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). CORMs concentration-dependently inhibited PE-induced constriction, an effect that was synergistic with endogenous NO (reduced by LNNA), but insensitive to blockade of guanylyl cyclase by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-α]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). In vascular tissues cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels seemed reduced by GYY4137 (not significantly), but were not changed by CORM. These data indicate that CO is able per se to relax isolated ophthalmic artery and to synergize with NO, while H2S counteracts the effect of endogenous NO. CO does not stimulate cGMP production in our system, while H2S may reduce cGMP production stimulated by endogenous NO. These findings provide new insights into the complexities of gas interactions in the control of ophthalmic vascular tone, highlighting potential pharmacological targets for ocular diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of permeability coefficients of ophthalmic drugs through different layers of porcine, rabbit and bovine eyes.

    Loch, Christian; Zakelj, Simon; Kristl, Albin; Nagel, Stefan; Guthoff, Rudolf; Weitschies, Werner; Seidlitz, Anne

    2012-08-30

    To treat ophthalmic diseases like glaucoma or inflammatory disorders topically applied ophthalmic formulations such as eye drops are usually used. In addition, novel ophthalmic implants releasing drug substances locally into different parts of the eye are available today. In the work presented here, the permeability coefficients of selected drugs (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride, timolol maleate) for ophthalmic tissues were determined using side-by-side diffusion chambers (so-called Ussing chambers). Sclera, conjunctiva, cornea, choroidea-retina-complex and a complex of conjunctiva-sclera-choroidea-retina were excised from fresh porcine, rabbit and bovine eyes. In the porcine eye tissues the highest P(app) values were obtained for conjunctiva with the exception of lidocaine. Therefore, it can be estimated that a certain amount of drug diffuses or is transported through conjunctiva after application. The P(app) values for sclera were also higher than those for cornea and even more, the surface area of sclera which is available for drug absorption is much larger than that of cornea when applying an implant. The obtained permeability coefficients for sclera and conjunctiva indicate that the administration of periocular implants can be an alternative to topically applied formulations. The complexes of the tissues were a significantly (p<0.01) stronger barrier to the investigated substances than the separated tissues. Distinct differences in permeability coefficients between the investigated animal tissues were observed. Overall the highest P(app) values for all mounted tissues were obtained with the rabbit, followed by porcine and bovine eyes. Because of these distinct interspecies differences one must be very careful when selecting the proper animal model for the permeability experiments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical utility of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eyes

    Koh, Shizuka

    2015-01-01

    Diquafosol is a drug used for dry eye treatment with a novel mechanism of action. It stimulates the secretion of tear fluid and mucin on the ocular surface, thus enabling us to selectively treat the tear film layer, playing an important role in the establishment of the concept of “Tear Film Oriented Therapy (TFOT)”, an effective therapeutic approach to dry eye in Japan. The 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution has been widely used for the treatment of dry eye in clinical practice, and it is currently available in Japan and South Korea. This review provides an overview of the clinical utility of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution, focusing on the results of clinical studies on various types of dry eye, including aqueous-deficient dry eye, short tear film breakup time-type dry eye, and post dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis. It also introduces the additive effect of diquafosol on sodium hyaluronate monotherapy for dry eye, and the effect of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution for dry eye-related conditions. Additionally, it summarizes the ocular effects of diquafosol in healthy human eyes. Lastly, the importance of improving tear film stability in dry eye treatment, as well as general advances in dry eye treatments, are described. PMID:26028958

  6. Ophthalmic Artery Embolization as Pretreatment of Orbital Exenteration for Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Ohara, Nobuya; Namba, Yuzaburo; Koshima, Isao; Ida, Kentaro; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the effect of transarterial embolization from the ophthalmic artery as a pretreatment for orbital exenteration. A 75-year-old Chinese man with a 7-year history of gradual increase of the left eye swelling showed a massive conjunctival tumor growing outwardly from the interpalpebral fissure and had no light perception in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed orbital invasion of the tumor around the left eyeglobe. The initial surgery for the planned orbital exenteration was discontinued after skin incision around the orbital margin due to massive hemorrhage. The patient underwent transarterial embolization with gelatin sponge (Spongel) of the feeding arteries from the left ophthalmic artery and, the next day, had orbital exenteration with well-controllable bleeding and reconstruction with free vascularized anterolateral thigh cutaneous flap transfer. Pathologically, well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma proliferated in exophytic, papillary, and nested fashions, arising from the bulbar conjunctiva. Tumor cells were also found in the conjunctival stroma around the vessels. The sclera at the equator had a perforated site with tumor cell invasion, but no intraocular invasion was found. Hematoxylin-positive gelatin sponges were found inside the orbital vessels and large choroidal vessels. In conclusion, transarterial embolization of feeding arteries arising from the ophthalmic artery is a useful pretreatment to control bleeding at orbital exenteration for malignancy.

  7. Financial return-on-investment of ophthalmic interventions: a new paradigm.

    Brown, Melissa M; Brown, Gary C; Lieske, Heidi B; Lieske, P Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Although the patient value gain (improvement in quality-of-life and/or length-of-life) has been highlighted in Value-based Medicine cost-utility analyses, the financial value gain associated with healthcare interventions has received less emphasis. It is important for professional healthcare providers to realize their interventions often confer a large financial return-on-investment (ROI) to society. The societal costs associated with vitreoretinal and other ophthalmic interventions include: direct ophthalmic medical costs expended (hospital, physician, drug, diagnostic testing and so forth), direct medical costs saved (decreased costs for depression, injury, skilled nursing facility, nursing home and others), direct nonmedical costs saved (decreased costs for caregivers, transportation, residence costs, moving costs, and others), and indirect medical costs saved (improving employment incidence and wages). The financial ROI for direct ophthalmic medical costs expended for ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration is 450%, whereas that for cataract surgery is 4500% and for medical open-angle glaucoma therapy is 4000%. Many costs gained add to the Gross Domestic Product and increase the wealth of the nation. Many vitreoretinal and other ophthalmologic interventions confer considerable patient value, but also result in a large financial ROI to society. This financial ROI increases the wealth of the nation.

  8. Clinical utility of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eyes

    Koh S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shizuka Koh Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Diquafosol is a drug used for dry eye treatment with a novel mechanism of action. It stimulates the secretion of tear fluid and mucin on the ocular surface, thus enabling us to selectively treat the tear film layer, playing an important role in the establishment of the concept of “Tear Film Oriented Therapy (TFOT”, an effective therapeutic approach to dry eye in Japan. The 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution has been widely used for the treatment of dry eye in clinical practice, and it is currently available in Japan and South Korea. This review provides an overview of the clinical utility of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution, focusing on the results of clinical studies on various types of dry eye, including aqueous-deficient dry eye, short tear film breakup time-type dry eye, and post dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis. It also introduces the additive effect of diquafosol on sodium hyaluronate monotherapy for dry eye, and the effect of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution for dry eye-related conditions. Additionally, it summarizes the ocular effects of diquafosol in healthy human eyes. Lastly, the importance of improving tear film stability in dry eye treatment, as well as general advances in dry eye treatments, are described. Keywords: diquafosol, dry eye, mucin secretion, fluid secretion, ocular surface, vision

  9. Clinical utility of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eyes.

    Koh, Shizuka

    2015-01-01

    Diquafosol is a drug used for dry eye treatment with a novel mechanism of action. It stimulates the secretion of tear fluid and mucin on the ocular surface, thus enabling us to selectively treat the tear film layer, playing an important role in the establishment of the concept of "Tear Film Oriented Therapy (TFOT)", an effective therapeutic approach to dry eye in Japan. The 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution has been widely used for the treatment of dry eye in clinical practice, and it is currently available in Japan and South Korea. This review provides an overview of the clinical utility of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution, focusing on the results of clinical studies on various types of dry eye, including aqueous-deficient dry eye, short tear film breakup time-type dry eye, and post dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis. It also introduces the additive effect of diquafosol on sodium hyaluronate monotherapy for dry eye, and the effect of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution for dry eye-related conditions. Additionally, it summarizes the ocular effects of diquafosol in healthy human eyes. Lastly, the importance of improving tear film stability in dry eye treatment, as well as general advances in dry eye treatments, are described.

  10. The Use of Flow Diverting Stents to Treat Para-Ophthalmic Aneurysms

    Pervinder Bhogal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeFew publications have dealt exclusively with the use of flow diverter stents for the treatment of para-ophthalmic aneurysms. We sought to determine the efficacy of flow diverting stents (FDSs to treat aneurysms in this specific location.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed our database of prospectively collected information for all patients treated with flow diversion for an unruptured saccular para-ophthalmic aneurysm between September 2009 and January 2016. The aneurysm fundus size, neck size, number and type of FDS, complications, and follow-up data were recorded.ResultsWe identified 74 patients that matched our inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 18 patients were male (24.3%. The average fundus size was 4.8 mm, 11 aneurysms had previous coil occlusions and 63 were treated solely with flow diversion. At an initial angiographic follow-up (mean avg. 3.2 months, 71.8% of the aneurysms were occluded, and at the last follow-up (mean avg. 31.8 months, 88.9% of aneurysms were occluded. One patient suffered permanent morbidity (1.36% secondary to interruption of the antiplatelet medication and another died (1.36% secondary to in-stent thrombosis that was also due to an interruption in the antiplatelet medication.ConclusionTreatment of saccular para-ophthalmic aneurysms with FDS is feasible and carries a high degree of technical success with low complication rates and excellent rates of aneurysm exclusion.

  11. [A case of ophthalmic artery occlusion following injection of hyaluronic acid into the glabellar area].

    Nonomura, Sakiko; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Miura, Gen; Chiba, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of unilateral blindness due to ophthalmic artery occlusion following injection of hyaluronic acid into the glabellar area for facial soft-tissue augmentation. A 20-year old woman underwent injection of hyaluronic acid into the glabellar area at an aesthetic plastic clinic. Immediately after injection, she suffered nausea, pain, paralysis of limbs and visual loss in her right eye. Hyaluronidase was instanly injected into the same place, but these symptoms did not improve. She was transferred to our hospital's emergency department. At the first examination, she had no light perception in the right eye and her right pupil was dilated. The fundus examination revealed right central artery occlusion. No significant findings were detected in her head. Eye ball massage, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and drip infusion of urokinase were conducted, but no improvement resulted. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography showed no filling of the right retinal and choroidal arteries. Electroretinogram was completely disappeared. Magnetic resonance angiography could not reveal the obstruction point of the ophthalmic artery. Ophthalmic artery occlusion was believed to have occured after injection of hyaluronic acid into the glabellar area.

  12. Doppler sonographic evaluation of ophthalmic arterial flow pattern in hypertensive patients

    Ryu, Dae Sik; Kim, Young Goo

    1994-01-01

    To compare the Doppler velocity waveform pattern of ophthalmic artery of hypertensive patients with that of normotensive subjects. Doppler velocity waveform was obtained from ophthalmic artery in 45 hypertensive patients and 60 normotensive subjects. Both hypertensives and normotensive subjects were classified according to age into those younger than and those older than 45 years. Doppler indices(pulsatility index(PI), resistance index(RI), the first systolic peak/the second systolic peak(S1/S2), the first systolic peak/diastolic peak(S1/D)) measured in hypertensive patients were compared with normotensive subjects. Among the various doppler indices, only S1/S2 showed significant difference(P < 0.05) between the hypertensive patients and normotensive subjects younger than 45 years. Doppler velocity waveform of hypertensive patients older than 45 years showed no significant difference from that of normotensive subjects with corresponding age. Doppler velocity waveform of ophthalmic artery in hypertensive patients younger than 45 years shows pattern with S2 higher than that of normotensive subjects. High S2 component(reflective-wave) may represent increased vascular impedance due to vasococonstriction of retinal arterioles in hypertensive patients

  13. Optimization and evaluation of thermoresponsive diclofenac sodium ophthalmic in situ gels.

    Asasutjarit, Rathapon; Thanasanchokpibull, Suthira; Fuongfuchat, Asira; Veeranondha, Sukitaya

    2011-06-15

    This work was conducted to optimize and evaluate Pluronic F127-based thermoresponsive diclofenac sodium ophthalmic in situ gels (DS in situ gel). They were prepared by cold method and investigated their physicochemical properties i.e., pH, flow ability, sol-gel transition temperature, gelling capacity and rheological properties. An optimized formulation was selected and investigated its physicochemical properties before and after autoclaving, eye irritation potency in SIRC cells and rabbits. In vivo ophthalmic absorption was performed in rabbits. It was found that physicochemical properties of DS in situ gels were affected by formulation compositions. Increment of Pluronic F127 content decreased sol-gel transition temperature of the products while increase in Pluronic F68 concentration tended to increase sol-gel transition temperature. In this study, Carbopol 940 did not affect sol-gel transition temperature but it affected transparency, pH, and gelling capacity of the products. The optimized formulation exhibited sol-gel transition at 32.6 ± 1.1 °C with pseudoplastic flow behavior. It was lost diclofenac sodium content during autoclaving. However, it was accepted as safe for ophthalmic use and could increase diclofenac sodium bioavailability in aqueous humor significantly. In conclusion, the optimized DS in situ gel had potential for using as an alternative to the conventional diclofenac sodium eye drop. However, autoclaving was not a suitable sterilization method for this product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Longitudinal ophthalmic findings in a child with Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome

    Michael J. Gale

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present the first detailed ophthalmic description of a child with Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome (HVDAS, including longitudinal follow-up and analysis. Observations: After extensive workup, a young child with poor visual behavior, hypotonic cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and global developmental delay was found to have a heterozygous de novo mutation in the ADNP gene and diagnosed with HVDAS. Ophthalmic findings were remarkable for progressive nystagmus, macular pigment mottling, mild foveal hypoplasia with abnormal macular laminations, persistent rod dysfunction with electronegative waveform, and progressive cone degeneration. Conclusions and importance: Patients with HVDAS are known to have abnormal visual behavior due to refractive or cortical impairment. However, we present the first description, to our knowledge, of an association with retinal mal-development and degeneration. Thus, patients with HVDAS should be referred for ophthalmic genetics evaluation, and HVDAS should be on the differential diagnosis for young children with global developmental delay who present with nystagmus, rod and cone dysfunction with electronegative waveform, and relative lack of severe structural degeneration on optical coherence tomography. Keywords: Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome, HVDAS, Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein, ADNP, Nystagmus, Retinal degeneration, Electronegative waveform, Optical coherence tomography

  15. Gasserian Ganglion and Retrobulbar Nerve Block in the Treatment of Ophthalmic Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Case Report.

    Huang, Jie; Ni, Zhongge; Finch, Philip

    2017-09-01

    Varicella zoster virus reactivation can cause permanent histological changes in the central and peripheral nervous system. Neural inflammatory changes or damage to the dorsal root ganglia sensory nerve fibers during reactivation can lead to postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). For PHN of the first division of the fifth cranial nerve (ophthalmic division of the trigeminal ganglion), there is evidence of inflammatory change in the ganglion and adjacent ocular neural structures. First division trigeminal nerve PHN can prove to be difficult and sometimes even impossible to manage despite the use of a wide range of conservative measures, including anticonvulsant and antidepressant medication. Steroids have been shown to play an important role by suppressing neural inflammatory processes. We therefore chose the trigeminal ganglion as an interventional target for an 88-year-old woman with severe ophthalmic division PHN after she failed to respond to conservative treatment. Under fluoroscopic guidance, a trigeminal ganglion nerve block was performed with lidocaine combined with dexamethasone. A retrobulbar block with lidocaine and triamcinolone settled residual oculodynia. At 1-year follow-up, the patient remained pain free and did not require analgesic medication. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ophthalmic division PHN successfully treated with a combination of trigeminal ganglion and retrobulbar nerve block using a local anesthetic agent and steroid for central and peripheral neural inflammatory processes. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  16. Formulation and process factors influencing product quality and in vitro performance of ophthalmic ointments.

    Xu, Xiaoming; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Yerlikaya, Firat; Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Hunt, Robert L; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-09-30

    Owing to its unique anatomical and physiological functions, ocular surface presents special challenges for both design and performance evaluation of the ophthalmic ointment drug products formulated with a variety of bases. The current investigation was carried out to understand and identify the appropriate in vitro methods suitable for quality and performance evaluation of ophthalmic ointment, and to study the effect of formulation and process variables on its critical quality attributes (CQA). The evaluated critical formulation variables include API initial size, drug percentage, and mineral oil percentage while the critical process parameters include mixing rate, temperature, time and cooling rate. The investigated quality and performance attributes include drug assay, content uniformity, API particle size in ointment, rheological characteristics, in vitro drug release and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation. Using design of experiments (DoE) as well as a novel principle component analysis approach, five of the quality and performance attributes (API particle size, storage modulus of ointment, high shear viscosity of ointment, in vitro drug release constant and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation rate constant) were found to be highly influenced by the formulation, in particular the strength of API, and to a lesser degree by processing variables. Correlating the ocular physiology with the physicochemical characteristics of acyclovir ophthalmic ointment suggested that in vitro quality metrics could be a valuable predictor of its in vivo performance. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Comparison of surgical time and IOP spikes with two ophthalmic viscosurgical devices following Visian STAAR (ICL, V4c model insertion in the immediate postoperative period

    Ganesh S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sri Ganesh, Sheetal BrarDepartment of Phaco and Refractive Surgeries, Nethradhama Superspeciality Eye Hospital, Bangalore, IndiaPurpose: To compare the effect of two ocular viscosurgical devices (OVDs on intraocular pressure (IOP and surgical time in immediate postoperative period after bilateral implantable collamer lens (using the V4c model implantation.Methods: A total of 20 eligible patients were randomized to receive 2% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC in one eye and 1% hyaluronic acid in fellow eye. Time taken for complete removal of OVD and total surgical time were recorded. At the end of surgery, IOP was adjusted between 15 and 20 mmHg in both the eyes.Results: Mean time for complete OVD evacuation and total surgical time were significantly higher in the HPMC group (P=0.00. Four eyes in the HPMC group had IOP spike, requiring treatment. IOP values with noncontact tonometry at 1, 2, 4, 24, and 48 hours were not statistically significant (P>0.05 for both the groups.Conclusion: The study concluded that 1% hyaluronic acid significantly reduces total surgical time, and incidence of acute spikes may be lower compared to 2% HPMC when used for implantable collamer lens (V4c model.Keywords: OVD, hyaluronic acid, ICL, V4c, IOP spikes

  18. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of ophthalmic solutions containing benzalkonium chloride on corneal epithelium using an organotypic 3-D model

    Jessen Bart A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a common preservative used in ophthalmic solutions. The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects of BAC-containing ophthalmic solutions with a BAC-free ophthalmic solution using an organotypic 3-dimensional (3-D corneal epithelial model and to determine the effects of latanoprost ophthalmic solution and its BAC-containing vehicle on corneal thickness in a monkey model. Methods The cytotoxicity of commercially available BAC-containing ophthalmic formulations of latanoprost (0.02% BAC and olopatadine (0.01% BAC was compared to that of BAC-free travoprost and saline in a corneal organotypic 3-D model using incubation times of 10 and 25 minutes. To compare the extent of differentiation of 3-D corneal cultures to monolayer transformed human corneal epithelial (HCE-T cell cultures, expression levels (mRNA and protein of the corneal markers epidermal growth factor receptor, transglutaminase 1 and involucrin were quantified. Finally, latanoprost ophthalmic solution or its vehicle was administered at suprapharmacologic doses (two 30 μL drops twice daily in 1 eye for 1 year in monkey eyes, and corneal pachymetry was performed at baseline and at weeks 4, 13, 26 and 52. Results In the 3-D corneal epithelial culture assays, there were no significant differences in cytotoxicity between the BAC-containing latanoprost and olopatadine ophthalmic solutions and BAC-free travoprost ophthalmic solution at either the 10- or 25-minute time points. The 3-D cultures expressed higher levels of corneal epithelial markers than the HCE-T monolayers, indicating a greater degree of differentiation. There were no significant differences between the corneal thickness of monkey eyes treated with latanoprost ophthalmic solution or its vehicle (both containing 0.02% BAC and untreated eyes. Conclusion The lack of cytotoxicity demonstrated in 3-D corneal cultures and in monkey studies suggests that the levels of BAC

  19. Comparison of conventional Injection Mould Inserts to Additively Manufactured Inserts using Life Cycle Assessment

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Additive Manufacturing can be used to produce soft tooling inserts for injection moulding. Compared to conventional tooling, the energy and time consumption during production are significantly lower. As the life time of such inserts is significantly shorter than the life time of traditional...... of their potential environmental impact and yield throughout the development and pilot phase. Insert geometry is particularly advantageous for pilot production and small production sizes. In this research, Life Cycle Assessment is used to compare the environmental impact of soft tooling by Additive Manufacturing...... (using Digital Light Processing) and three traditional methods for the manufacture of inserts (milling of brass, steel, and aluminium) for injection moulds during the pre-production phase....

  20. Isolation of cellulose fibers from kenaf using electron beam

    Shin, Hye Kyoung; Pyo Jeun, Joon; Bin Kim, Hyun; Hyun Kang, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose fibers were isolated from a kenaf bast fiber using a electron beam irradiation (EBI) treatment. The methods of isolation were based on a hot water treatment after EBI and two-step bleaching processes. FT-IR spectroscopy demonstrated that the content of lignin and hemicellulose in the bleached cellulose fibers treated with various EBI doses decreased with increasing doses of EBI. Specifically, the lignin in the bleached cellulose fibers treated at 300 kGy, was almost completely removed. Moreover, XRD analyses showed that the bleached cellulose fibers treated at 300 kGy presented the highest crystallinity of all the samples treated with EBI. Finally, the morphology of the bleached fiber was characterized by SEM imagery, and the studies showed that the separated degree of bleached cellulose fibers treated with various EBI doses increased with an increase of EBI dose, and the bleached cellulose fibers obtained by EBI treatment at 300 kGy was separated more uniformly than the bleached cellulose fiber obtained by alkali cooking with non-irradiated kenaf fiber. - Highlights: ► This study was to provide a progressive and convenient cellulose isolation process. ► Using an electron beam irradiation, we can obtain cellulose fibers using only water without chemicals during cooking process. ► We think that this cellulose isolation method will have an effect on enormous environmental and economic benefits.