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Sample records for cellulolytic complex produced

  1. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reese QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars productions, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of O. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (author). 10 figs.; 10 refs

  2. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by Trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars production, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of 0. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (Author) 10 refs

  3. EXTRACELLULAR CELLULOLYTIC COMPLEXES PRODUCTION BY MICROSCOPIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Syrchin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to screen and to study the effect of inducers on the synthesis of the cellulolytic enzyme complexes by microscopic fungi. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities were determined by reducing sugar with DNS reagent, and β-glucosidase activity by pNPG hydrolysis. The enzyme preparations were obtained by ammonium sulphate precipitation. Among 32 studied strains of microscopic fungi 14 produced cellulo- and xylanolytic enzyme complexes. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 demonstrated the highest levels of all studied enzyme activities. Enzyme preparations with high endo-, exoglucanase, xylanase and β-glucosidase activities were obtained from these strains. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 were active producers of cellulase enzyme complexes during growth on natural substrates. It was shown that inductors of cellulolytic enzymes in Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 differed from the ones in Trichoderma reesei.

  4. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by Trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; Actividad enzimatica del complejo celulolitico producido por Trichoderma reesei. Hidrolisis enzimatica de la celulosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsel, M.; Negro, M. J.; Saez, R.; Martin, C.

    1986-07-01

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars production, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of 0. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (Author) 10 refs.

  5. Screening genus Penicillium for producers of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian Bertel Rømer; Mørkeberg, Astrid; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2004-01-01

    For enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material, cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei are most commenly used, but, there is a need for more efficient enzyme cocktails. In this study, the production of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes was investigated in 12 filamentous fungi from...

  6. Screening genus Penicillium for producers of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian Bertel Rømer; Mørkeberg, Astrid; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    For enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material, cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei are most commenly used, but, there is a need for more efficient enzyme cocktails. In this study, the production of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes was investigated in 12 filamentous fungi from...... genus Penicillium and compared with that of T. reesei. Either Solka-Floc cellulose or oat spelt xylan was used as carbon source in shake flask cultivations. All the fungi investigated showed coinduction of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes during growth on cellulose as well as on xylan. The highest...

  7. [Construction of Producers of Cellulolytic and Pectinolytic Enzymes Based on the Fungus Penicillium verruculosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushina, E V; Rubtsova, E A; Rozhkova, A M; Sinitsyna, O A; Koshelev, A V; Matys, V Yu; Nemashkalov, V A; Sinitsyn, A P

    2015-01-01

    Based on the fungus Penicillium verruculosum, we created strains with a complex of extracellular enzymes that contains both cellulolytic enzymes of the fungus and heterologous pectin lyase A from P. canescens and endo- 1,4-α-polygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger. The endopolygalacturonase and pectin lyase activities of enzyme preparations obtained from culture media of the producer strains reached 46-53 U/mg of protein and 1.3-2.3 U/mg of protein, respectively. The optimal temperature and pH values for recombinant pectin lyase and endopolygalacturonase corresponded to those described in the literature for these enzymes. The content of heterologous endopolygalacturonase and pectin lyase in the studied enzyme preparations was 4-5% and 23% of the total protein content, respectively. The yield of reducing sugars upon the hydrolysis of sugar beet and apple processing wastes with the most efficient preparation was 41 and 71 g/L, respectively, which corresponded to a polysaccharide conversion of 49% and 65%. Glucose was the main product of the hydrolysis of sugar beet and apple processing wastes. PMID:26353405

  8. A novel promising Trichoderma harzianum strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex using sugarcane bagasse in natura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Bruno; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is a major producer of agro-industrial residues, such as sugarcane bagasse, which could be used as raw material for microbial production of cellulases as an important strategy for the development of sustainable processes of second generation ethanol production. For this purpose, this work aimed at screening for glycosyl hydrolase activities of fungal strains isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado. Among 13 isolates, a Trichoderma harzianum strain (L04) was identified as a promising candidate for cellulase production when cultured on in natura sugarcane bagasse. Strain L04 revealed a well-balanced cellulolytic complex, presenting fast kinetic production of endoglucanases, exoglucanases and β-glucosidases, achieving 4,022, U.L(-1) (72 h), 1,228 U.L(-1) (120 h) and 1,968 U.L(-1) (48 h) as the highest activities, respectively. About 60% glucose yields were obtained from sugarcane bagasse after 18 hours hydrolysis. This new strain represents a potential candidate for on-site enzyme production using sugarcane bagasse as carbon source. PMID:24349958

  9. Genomic analysis of the hydrocarbon-producing, cellulolytic, endophytic fungus Ascocoryne sarcoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara A Gianoulis

    Full Text Available The microbial conversion of solid cellulosic biomass to liquid biofuels may provide a renewable energy source for transportation fuels. Endophytes represent a promising group of organisms, as they are a mostly untapped reservoir of metabolic diversity. They are often able to degrade cellulose, and they can produce an extraordinary diversity of metabolites. The filamentous fungal endophyte Ascocoryne sarcoides was shown to produce potential-biofuel metabolites when grown on a cellulose-based medium; however, the genetic pathways needed for this production are unknown and the lack of genetic tools makes traditional reverse genetics difficult. We present the genomic characterization of A. sarcoides and use transcriptomic and metabolomic data to describe the genes involved in cellulose degradation and to provide hypotheses for the biofuel production pathways. In total, almost 80 biosynthetic clusters were identified, including several previously found only in plants. Additionally, many transcriptionally active regions outside of genes showed condition-specific expression, offering more evidence for the role of long non-coding RNA in gene regulation. This is one of the highest quality fungal genomes and, to our knowledge, the only thoroughly annotated and transcriptionally profiled fungal endophyte genome currently available. The analyses and datasets contribute to the study of cellulose degradation and biofuel production and provide the genomic foundation for the study of a model endophyte system.

  10. Polypeptide from a cellulolytic fungus having cellulolytic enhancing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2008-04-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  11. Cellulolytic ability of Penicillium strains isolated from soil of the Brazilian Atlantic forest

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, R.; Lima, J. S.; Fonseca, J. C.; Ferreira, M. J. S.; Moreira, K. A.; Santos, C; de Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria

    2012-01-01

    Penicillium spp. are capable of degrading plant wastes by producing large amounts of enzymes such as cellulases. These form a complex capable of acting on cellulosic materials and producing sugars with industrial interest (e.g., ethanol production). Cellulases are also used for (a) pulp and paper industry (b) in the textile industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellulolytic capability of 17 strains of Penicillium isolated from soil of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest...

  12. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan; Henriksen, Svend Hostgaard Bang

    2016-05-17

    The present invention provides isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also provides nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  13. A novel promising Trichoderma harzianum strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex using sugarcane bagasse in natura

    OpenAIRE

    Benoliel, Bruno; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is a major producer of agro-industrial residues, such as sugarcane bagasse, which could be used as raw material for microbial production of cellulases as an important strategy for the development of sustainable processes of second generation ethanol production. For this purpose, this work aimed at screening for glycosyl hydrolase activities of fungal strains isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado. Among 13 isolates, a Trichoderma harzianum strain (L04) was identified as a promising candid...

  14. Isolation of Cellulolytic Actinomycetes from Marine Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Manuel; Esparis, Azucena; Fabregas, Jaime

    1983-01-01

    The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity.

  15. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2016-04-05

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  16. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan; Wu, Wenping

    2016-06-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  17. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  18. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Determination of the cellulolytic activities of microorganisms isolated from poultry litter for sawdust degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Akpomie O.OF; Ubogun M.

    2013-01-01

    Cellulolytic activities of bacterial and fungal isolates obtained from poultry droppings were determined using the ability of each isolate to produce clear zones on Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose Agar plates. The bacterial isolates were Klebsiella, Streptococcus, Celulomonas, Escherichia coli and Micrococus species. The cellulolytic counts ranged from 5.02 x 104 + 3.42 to 7.20 x 109 + 6.12 cfu/g. The cellulolytic activities of the bacterial isolates ranged from 0.04 to 0.26 iu/m with Cellulomonas...

  20. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E.; Bennett, Charlee J. C.; Moon, Ji -Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Blue, Craig A.; Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Ott, Ronald D.; Parish, Chad M.; Walker, Steven

    2015-11-24

    A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor particles on a substrate until at least a portion of the melted particles are planarized and merged to produce the film. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a photovoltaic film, the method comprising depositing particles having a photovoltaic or other property onto a substrate, and affixing the particles to the substrate, wherein the particles may or may not be subsequently melted. Also described herein are films produced by these methods, methods for producing a patterned film on a substrate, and methods for producing a multilayer structure.

  1. An Efficient and Improved Methodology for the Screening of Industrially Valuable Xylano-Pectino-Cellulolytic Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylano-pectino-cellulolytic enzymes are valuable enzymes of the industrial sector. In our earlier study, we have reported a novel and cost effective methodology for the qualitative screening of cellulase-free xylano-pectinolytic microorganisms by replacing the commercial, highly expensive substrates with agricultural residues, but the microorganisms with xylanolytic, pectinolytic, cellulolytic, xylano-pectinolytic, xylano-cellulolytic, pectino-cellulolytic, and xylano-pectino-cellulolytic potential were obtained. The probability of getting the desired combination was low, so efforts were made to further improve this cost effective methodology for obtaining the high yield of the microbes capable of producing desired combination of enzymes. By inclusion of multiple enrichment steps in sequence, using only practically low cost substrates and without any nutrient media till primary screening stage, this improved novel protocol for screening gave only the desired microorganisms with xylano-pectino-cellulolytic activity. Using this rapid, efficient, cost effective, and improved methodology, microbes with required combination of enzymes can be obtained and the probability of getting the desired microorganisms is cent percent. This is the first report presenting the methodology for the isolation of xylano-pectino-cellulolytic positive microorganisms at low cost and consuming less time.

  2. An efficient and improved methodology for the screening of industrially valuable xylano-pectino-cellulolytic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avtar; Kaur, Amanjot; Dua, Anita; Mahajan, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Xylano-pectino-cellulolytic enzymes are valuable enzymes of the industrial sector. In our earlier study, we have reported a novel and cost effective methodology for the qualitative screening of cellulase-free xylano-pectinolytic microorganisms by replacing the commercial, highly expensive substrates with agricultural residues, but the microorganisms with xylanolytic, pectinolytic, cellulolytic, xylano-pectinolytic, xylano-cellulolytic, pectino-cellulolytic, and xylano-pectino-cellulolytic potential were obtained. The probability of getting the desired combination was low, so efforts were made to further improve this cost effective methodology for obtaining the high yield of the microbes capable of producing desired combination of enzymes. By inclusion of multiple enrichment steps in sequence, using only practically low cost substrates and without any nutrient media till primary screening stage, this improved novel protocol for screening gave only the desired microorganisms with xylano-pectino-cellulolytic activity. Using this rapid, efficient, cost effective, and improved methodology, microbes with required combination of enzymes can be obtained and the probability of getting the desired microorganisms is cent percent. This is the first report presenting the methodology for the isolation of xylano-pectino-cellulolytic positive microorganisms at low cost and consuming less time. PMID:25692034

  3. Cellulolytic Enzymes Production by Solid State Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Medina-Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Great interest in the use of lignocellulosic biomass is increasing in order to diminish the accumulation of residues, such as pecan nut shells. One of the alternatives is the fungal degradation of these residues. Approach: The capacity of Trichoderma (coded as T1, T2 and T3 strains to produce cellulase and xylonite was evaluated. Results: Pecan nut shell fibers were used as sole carbon source. The fiber characterization study showed that cellulose levels were of 0.1% while hemicellulose was up to 25 %. Three Trichoderma strains were used on solid fungal cultures using the fibers as sole carbon and inductor source for the production of cellulolytic enzymes. The behavior of the sugars liberated by the fungi showed that the strain T2 is able to accumulate more monomeric reducing sugars than the other two strains, this could be attributed at this strain has a higher sugar liberation rate and slower sugar consumption rate. This strain also expressed more cellulase and xylanase activity. The low quantity of cellulose registered in the fibers can still be used to induce cellulase activity. Conclusion: The T2 strain had the highest level of enzymatic activity both cellulase and xylanase.

  4. SACCHARIFICATION OF CORNCOB USING CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

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    TITI CANDRA SUNARTI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulose degrading enzyme (cellulases for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material is a part of bioethanol production process. In this experiment, delignified corncob, its cellulose fraction and alpha cellulose were used as substrates to produce fermentable sugar by using three local isolates of celluloytic bacteria (C5-1, C4-4, C11-1 and Cmix ; mixed cultures of three isolates, and Saccharomyces cereviseae to produce ethanol. The results showed that all isolates of cellulolytic bacteria can grow on cellulose fraction better than on delignified corncob, and alpha cellulose. The highest hydrolytic activity produced from cellulose fraction was by isolate C4-4, which liberated 3.50 g/l of total sugar. Ethanol can be produced by mixed culture of bacteria and yeast, but because of competitive growth, the fermentation only produced 0.39-0.47 g/l of ethanol.

  5. Comparison of Cellulolytic Activities in Clostridium thermocellum and Three Thermophilic, Cellulolytic Anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, P H; Sissons, C H; Daniel, R M; Morgan, H W

    1986-01-01

    Avicelase, carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), and beta-glucosidase activities have been compared between Clostridium thermocellum and three extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic anaerobes, isolates TP8, TP11, and KT8. The three isolates were all small, gram-negative staining, oval-ended rods which occurred singly and, at exponential phase, in long chains. They were nonflagellated and no spores were visible. The KT8 and TP11 isolates caused clumping of the cellulose during growth. In all four organisms the CMCase activity paralleled cell growth; however, in C. thermocellum and TP8 the avicelase activity did not increase until early stationary phase. Total CMCase activity in C. thermocellum was significantly higher than in the three isolates; however, avicelase activities were much more comparable among the four organisms. C. thermocellum produced higher levels of ethanol, and all four organisms produced similar concentrations of acetate. The amounts of free and bound CMCase and avicelase activities were investigated. In C. thermocellum and TP8 most of the CMCase and avicelase activities were bound to the cellulose in the medium. In contrast, most of the CMCase activity in TP11 and KT8 was free in the culture supernatant; a significant percentage of avicelase activity was also free. The TP8 isolate was also grown on a defined medium with urea as sole nitrogen source and cellulose serving as the carbon source. Under these conditions the pattern of enzyme production was the same as that in the enriched medium, although the level of that production was considerably reduced. PMID:16346961

  6. Brassica juncea Produces a Phytochelatin-Cadmium-Sulfide Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiser, D M; Abrahamson, S L; Banuelos, G; Ow, D W

    1992-07-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are enzymically synthesized peptides produced in higher plants and some fungi upon exposure to heavy metals. We have examined PC production in the Se-tolerant wild mustard Brassica juncea and found that it produces two types of PC-Cd complexes with the same characteristics as those from fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, including a high molecular weight PC-Cd-sulfide form. PMID:16669006

  7. Brassica juncea Produces a Phytochelatin-Cadmium-Sulfide Complex 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiser, David M.; Abrahamson, Susan L.; Banuelos, Gary; Ow, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are enzymically synthesized peptides produced in higher plants and some fungi upon exposure to heavy metals. We have examined PC production in the Se-tolerant wild mustard Brassica juncea and found that it produces two types of PC-Cd complexes with the same characteristics as those from fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, including a high molecular weight PC-Cd-sulfide form. PMID:16669006

  8. Determination of the cellulolytic activities of microorganisms isolated from poultry litter for sawdust degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpomie O.OF

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulolytic activities of bacterial and fungal isolates obtained from poultry droppings were determined using the ability of each isolate to produce clear zones on Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose Agar plates. The bacterial isolates were Klebsiella, Streptococcus, Celulomonas, Escherichia coli and Micrococus species. The cellulolytic counts ranged from 5.02 x 104 + 3.42 to 7.20 x 109 + 6.12 cfu/g. The cellulolytic activities of the bacterial isolates ranged from 0.04 to 0.26 iu/m with Cellulomonas having the highest cellulose activity. The fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Trichoderma sp. and Penicllium chrysogenum with cellulose activities of 0.24 + 0.021 0.19 + 0.031, 0.23 + 0.05 and 0.23 + 0.028iu/ml respectively. All the isolates were able to degrade the sawdust to varying extent. The percentage degradation was highest with Micrococcus sp. (78.20% and least with Trichoderma sp. (65.83%. The study shows that is a potential source of cellulolytic microorganisms which could be employed in the degradation of sawdust.

  9. Cellulolytic and proteolytic ability of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract and composting of a hippopotamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Ramos, Geomárcia Feitosa; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Vieira Silveira, Marghuel A; Okamoto, Débora Noma; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Zezzo, Larissa Vieira; Marem, Alyne; Santos Rocha, Rafael Costa; da Cruz, João Batista; Juliano, Luiz; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto

    2016-03-01

    The bioprospection for cellulase and protease producers is a promise strategy for the discovery of potential biocatalysts for use in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials as well as proteic residues. These enzymes can increment and turn viable the production of second generation ethanol from different and alternative sources. In this context, the goal of this study was the investigation of cellulolytic and proteolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a hippopotamus as well as from its composting process. It is important to highlight that hippopotamus gastrointestinal samples were a non-typical sources of efficient hydrolytic bacteria with potential for application in biotechnological industries, like biofuel production. Looking for this, a total of 159 bacteria were isolated, which were submitted to qualitative and quantitative enzymatic assays. Proteolytic analyzes were conducted through the evaluation of fluorescent probes. Qualitative assays for cellulolytic abilities revealed 70 positive hits. After quantitative analyzes, 44 % of these positive hits were selected, but five (5) strains showed cellulolytic activity up to 11,8 FPU/mL. Regarding to proteolytic activities, six (6) strains showed activity above 10 %, which overpassed results described in the literature. Molecular analyzes based on the identification of 16S rDNA, revealed that all the selected bacterial isolates were affiliated to Bacillus genus. In summary, these results strongly indicate that the isolated bacteria from a hippopotamus can be a potential source of interesting biocatalysts with cellulolytic and proteolytic activities, with relevance for industrial applications. PMID:26931430

  10. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms behind cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei, the hyper-cellulolytic filamentous fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Yosuke; Furukawa, Takanori; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a potent cellulase producer and the best-studied cellulolytic fungus. A lot of investigations not only on glycoside hydrolases produced by T. reesei, but also on the machinery controlling gene expression of these enzyme have made this fungus a model organism for cellulolytic fungi. We have investigated the T. reesei strain including mutants developed in Japan in detail to understand the molecular mechanisms that control the cellulase gene expression, the biochemical and morphological aspects that could favor this phenotype, and have attempted to generate novel strains that may be appropriate for industrial use. Subsequently, we developed recombinant strains by combination of these insights and the heterologous-efficient saccharifing enzymes. Resulting enzyme preparations were highly effective for saccharification of various biomass. In this review, we present some of the salient findings from the recent biochemical, morphological, and molecular analyses of this remarkable cellulase hyper-producing fungus. PMID:27075508

  11. Cloning, expression and characterization of glycoside hydrolases from the thermophilic cellulolytic anaerobic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii

    OpenAIRE

    Skalman, Lars Nygård

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has great potential as a substrate for ethanol production as it is a renewable and rather abundant energy source. However, the rigid and complex structure of lignocellulose is a major bottleneck preventing the development of cost-effective production methods. By the use of thermostable cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of cellulose and fermentation of glucose to ethanol could be performed at high temperatures and this would lower the production cost of ethanol significa...

  12. Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus Strain B-6 Xylanolytic-Cellulolytic Enzyme System That Degrades Insoluble Polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Pason, Patthra; Kyu, Khin Lay; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok

    2006-01-01

    A facultatively anaerobic bacterium, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6, isolated from an anaerobic digester produces an extracellular xylanolytic-cellulolytic enzyme system containing xylanase, β-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, acetyl esterase, mannanase, carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), avicelase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, amylase, and chitinase when grown on xylan under aerobic conditions. During growth on xylan, the bacterial cells were found to adhere to xylan from the early exp...

  13. Cellulolytic and proteolytic ability of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract and composting of a hippopotamus

    OpenAIRE

    da Cruz Ramos, Geomárcia Feitosa; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Vieira Silveira, Marghuel A.; Okamoto, Débora Noma; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Zezzo, Larissa Vieira; Marem, Alyne; Santos Rocha, Rafael Costa; da Cruz, João Batista; Juliano, Luiz; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto

    2016-01-01

    The bioprospection for cellulase and protease producers is a promise strategy for the discovery of potential biocatalysts for use in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials as well as proteic residues. These enzymes can increment and turn viable the production of second generation ethanol from different and alternative sources. In this context, the goal of this study was the investigation of cellulolytic and proteolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a hippo...

  14. Evaluation in Cellulolytic Activity of Stenotrophomonas sp. in Cellulose Nitrogen Free Mineral Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three bacterial strains were isolated from rice rhizospheric soil and their nitrogen fixing activity was determined in nitrogen free mineral medium and broth with glucose and cellulose as carbon sources and they produced ammonium concentration (above 3ppm) in G-NFFMM and (2-3ppm) in C-NFMM. Moreover, their cellulolytic activity was determined by DNS mothod and strain H3 having the cellulolytic activity was selected. Then, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, baggasse, pea haulm, corn stem, rice straw were used as substrates and determined its reducing sugar concentration. After detection of the cellulolytic activity, the bacteria produced the highest concentration of reducing sugar on cellulose substrate at 12 day incubation period with the reducing sugar amount of 0.12mg/ml and 0.298mg/ml on CMC substrates. In the study of argicultral wastes as substrates, the selected strain, H3, produced in the reducing sugar concentration with 0.12, 0.116,0.103 and 0.098mg/ml respectively. The selected strain was identified by biochemical characterists and 16s ribosomal DNA analysis and it was Stenotrophomonas sp.

  15. Evaluation of cellulolytic activity in insect digestive fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L-J; Zhang, H-F; Yin, X-M; Chen, M; Wang, F-Q; Xie, H; Zhang, G-Z; Song, A-D

    2013-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost cellulolytic enzymes are urgently needed to degrade recalcitrant plant biomass during the industrial production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Here, the cellulolytic activities in the gut fluids of 54 insect species that belong to 7 different taxonomic orders were determined using 2 different substrates, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (approximating endo-β-1,4-glucanase) and filter paper (FP) (total cellulolytic activities). The use of CMC as the substrate in the zymogram analysis resulted in the detection of distinct cellulolytic protein bands. The cellulolytic activities in the digestive system of all the collected samples were detected using cellulolytic activity analysis. The highest CMC gut fluid activities were found in Coleoptera and Orthoptera, while FP analysis indicated that higher gut fluid activities were found in several species of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. In most cases, gut fluid activities were higher with CMC than with FP substrate, except for individual Lepidoptera species. Our data indicate that the origin of cellulolytic enzymes probably reflects the phylogenetic relationship and feeding strategies of different insects. PMID:23315870

  16. An Efficient and Improved Methodology for the Screening of Industrially Valuable Xylano-Pectino-Cellulolytic Microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Avtar Singh; Amanjot Kaur; Anita Dua; Ritu Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Xylano-pectino-cellulolytic enzymes are valuable enzymes of the industrial sector. In our earlier study, we have reported a novel and cost effective methodology for the qualitative screening of cellulase-free xylano-pectinolytic microorganisms by replacing the commercial, highly expensive substrates with agricultural residues, but the microorganisms with xylanolytic, pectinolytic, cellulolytic, xylano-pectinolytic, xylano-cellulolytic, pectino-cellulolytic, and xylano-pectino-cellulolytic pot...

  17. Integrated lithography to produce complex structures for spectral engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Csete, Maria; Szalai, Aniko; Szabo, Gabor

    2011-01-01

    An integrated interference and colloid sphere lithography (IICL) method is presented capable of producing complex plasmonic structures consisting of wavelength-scaled periodic arrays of nano-objects with arbitrary array symmetry and controllable nano-scaled sub-structures. The IICL method is based on illumination of colloid sphere monolayers by interference patterns synchronized with sphere arrays along arbitrary crystallographic directions. This nano-kaleidoscope method enables to tune four structure parameters independently: the symmetry and characteristic periodicity of the interference pattern might be varied by the wavelength, number and angle of incidence of the interfering beams; the colloid-spheres' diameter-scaled distance between the nano-objects is controllable by the relative orientation of the interference pattern with respect to the hexagonal lattice of colloid spheres; the size of the individual nano-objects is determined by the colloid-spheres diameter and by the illumination light wavelength ...

  18. Production of cellulolytic enzymes from ascomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gustav Hammerich; Lübeck, Mette; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing production of cellulose degrading enzymes is of great interest in order to increase the feasibility of constructing biorefinery facilities for a sustainable supply of energy and chemical products. The ascomycete phylum has a large potential for the production of cellulolytic enzymes....... Although numerous enzymatic profiles have already been unraveled, the research has been covering only a limited number of species and genera, thus leaving many ascomycetes to be analyzed. Such analysis requires choosing appropriate media and cultivation methods that ensure enzyme profiles with high...... specificities and activities. However, the choice of media, cultivation methods and enzyme assays highly affect the enzyme activity profile observed. This review provides an overview of enzymatic profiles for several ascomycetes covering phylogenetically distinct genera and species. The profiles of cellulose...

  19. Hydrophobic nature and effects of culture conditions on biofilm formation by the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaris N. Alonso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermobifida fusca produces a firmly attached biofilm on nutritive and non-nutritive surfaces, such as cellulose, glass, plastic, metal and Teflon®. The ability to bind to surfaces has been suggested as a competitive advantage for microbes in soil environments. Results of previous investigations indicated that a Gram-positive cellulolytic soil bacteria, Cellulomonas uda, a facultative aerobe, specifically adhered to nutritive surfaces forming biofilms, but cells did not colonize non-nutritive surfaces. Cell surface hydrophobicity has been implicated in the interactions between bacteria and the adhesion to surfaces. It was recently described that the cellulolytic actinomycete T. fusca cells hydrophobicity was measured and compared to the cellulolytic soil bacteria C. uda. Also, T. fusca biofilm formation on non-nutritive surface, such as polyvinyl chloride, was examined by testing various culture ingredients to determine a possible trigger mechanism for biofilm formation. Experimental results showed that partitioning of bacterial cells to various hydrocarbons was higher in T. fusca cells than in C. uda. The results of this study suggest that the attachment to multiple surfaces by T. fusca could depend on nutrient availability, pH, salt concentrations, and the higher hydrophobic nature of bacterial cells. Possibly, these characteristics may confer T. fusca a selective advantage to compete and survive among the many environments it thrives.

  20. Vertical zonation and seed germination indices of chromium resistant cellulolytic and nitrogen fixing bacteria from a chronically metal exposed land area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty eight cellulolytic and 25 nitrogen fixing bacteria were isolated from 20, 40 and 60 cm depths of the chromium contaminated land area. The cellulolytic as well as nitrogen fixing microbial communities in soil profiles were dominated by genus Bacillus. More diverse nitrogen fixing bacterial isolates belonging to different genera Paenibacillus, Corynebacterium and Pseudomonas were observed as compared to cellulolytic bacterial community. Majority of the cellulolytic bacteria were found inhabitants of 20 cm soil layer while 40 cm depth was the preferred zone for the nitrogen fixing bacteria. Screening of the bacterial isolates for chromium resistance showed that isolates designated as ASK15 and ASK16 were able to resist up to 1800 mg/l of chromium while the nitrogen fixing isolates which offered a maximum resistant level up to 1650 mg/l of chromium were ASNt10 and ASNS13. Nitrogen fixing isolates enhanced seed germination by 33% and expressed efficient nitrogenase activity up to 0.80 (C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ nmol/ml/hr). Growth promoting assay proved ASNt10 a potential isolate which produced 90 meu g/ml of indoleacetic acid (IAA). Though cellulolytic isolates did not affect seed germination, a significant influence on root length similar to that of ASNt10 and ASNS13 with nearly 5-fold increase in comparison with uninoculated control was observed. The isolates ASK15, ASK16 were identified as Bacillus cereus while ASNt10 and ASNS13 as Paenibacillus barcinonensis and Bacillus megaterium, respectively. (author)

  1. Complex Teacher Evaluation Systems Can Produce Negative Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine teacher perceptions of the impact on instructional practice when using a complex, standards-based performance evaluation system. The study used expectancy theory to investigate teacher expectancy (did they believe they could enhance their practice to the identified program standards?), instrumentality…

  2. Producing, Preventing, and Explaining Persistent Complex Subliminal Stimulation Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Birgegård, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Strong recent focus on unconscious processes has increased interest in subliminal stimulation and similar experimental technologies. Assumptions about the persistence of effects of unconscious stimulation are generally conservative, referring to seconds or minutes (Silverman, 1977; Velmans, 1991). In Study I, five experiments (N = 365) showed complex effects of unconscious stimulation ten days after subliminal exposure, implying that persistence estimates need reevaluation. Experimental stimu...

  3. Temporal variations in microbial biomass C and cellulolytic enzyme activity in arable soils: effects of organic matter input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debosz, K.; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pedersen, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    Temporal variations in soil microbial biomass C concentration and in activity of extracellular enzymes of the cellulolytic complex were investigated in a field experiment after eight years of cultivation with either low organic matter input (low-OM) or high organic matter input (high-OM). The...... biomass C concentration and activity of extracellular enzymes of the cellulolytic complex were observed. The temporal pattern was generally similar in the low-OM and high-OM cultivation systems. Temporal variations may have been driven by environmental factors (e.g., temperature and moisture) and crop...... growth, i.e. by factors common to both systems but not differences in organic matter input. Pronounced and constant increases in beta-glucosidase activity (40%) and endocellulase activity (30%) in high-OM were detected across all sampling periods. The increases in microbial biomass C concentration and...

  4. Temporal variations in microbial biomass C and cellulolytic enzyme activity in arable soils: effects of organic matter input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debosz, K.; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pedersen, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    Temporal variations in soil microbial biomass C concentration and in activity of extracellular enzymes of the cellulolytic complex were investigated in a field experiment after eight years of cultivation with either low organic matter input (low-OM) or high organic matter input (high-OM). The...... cultivation systems differed in whether their source of fertiliser was mainly mineral or organic, in whether a winter cover crop was grown, and whether straw was mulched or removed. Sampling occurred at approximately monthly intervals, over a period of two years. Distinct temporal variations in microbial...... biomass C concentration and activity of extracellular enzymes of the cellulolytic complex were observed. The temporal pattern was generally similar in the low-OM and high-OM cultivation systems. Temporal variations may have been driven by environmental factors (e.g., temperature and moisture) and crop...

  5. Unstable states produced in collisions among complex nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theory about resonant elastic dispersion is formulated and the wave function of unstable states associated with the resonances observed in the differential and total sections is studied. The object of this theory is to extend to the elastic collisions among complex nuclei interesting case, the methods and formalism of the dispersion of particles without structure by an external potential, following an idea originally formulated by H. Feshbach. (author)

  6. Studies on cellulolytic bacteria isolated from a steer and a buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method using medium enriched with Whatman No. 1 filter paper as the sole selective substrate proved to be very effective in the isolation of cellulolytic bacteria from the rumen of a steer and a buffalo. Both animals were fed a high fibre ration. Most of the cellulolytic bacteria isolated were identified as Bacteriodes succinogenes; Ruminococcus flaveflaciens was detected less frequently. However, no R. albus was isolated. The colonies were contaminated with Butyrivibrio sp. but not with Borrelia sp. The method described is effective, requires less time than the conventional cellulose agar method of isolation and is superior to the latter because pure colonies of B. succinogenes, which usually escape detection because of their failure to produce clear zones, can be detected. In clear zone experiments with cellulose (Whatman No. 1 filter paper) agar (1.3% wt/vol.) roll tubes, B. succinogenes and Butyrivibrio sp. were unable to produce clear zones, whereas mixed cultures were. However, R. flaveflaciens in its pure form was able to produce clearings which had centre colonies. (author)

  7. Biodegradation of Palm Kernel Cake by Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Bacterial Cultures through Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Idris Alshelmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures were purchased from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. Two experiments were conducted; the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF of palm kernel cake (PKC, whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. In the first experiment, the SSF was lasted for 12 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w on different PKC to moisture ratios. In the second experiment, fifteen combinations were created among the four microbes with one untreated PKC as a control. The SSF lasted for 9 days, and the samples were autoclaved, dried, and analyzed for proximate analysis. Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. Findings in the second experiment showed that hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly P<0.05 decreased, whereas the amount of reducing sugars were significantly P<0.05 increased in the fermented PKC (FPKC compared with untreated PKC.

  8. Flow cytometry community fingerprinting and amplicon sequencing for the assessment of landfill leachate cellulolytic bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinet, R; Dzaomuho, P; Baert, J; Taminiau, B; Daube, G; Nezer, C; Brostaux, Y; Nguyen, F; Dumont, G; Thonart, P; Delvigne, F

    2016-08-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a high throughput single cell technology that is actually becoming widely used for studying phenotypic and genotypic diversity among microbial communities. This technology is considered in this work for the assessment of a bioaugmentation treatment in order to enhance cellulolytic potential of landfill leachate. The experimental results reveal the relevant increase of leachate cellulolytic potential due to bioaugmentation. Cytometric monitoring of microbial dynamics along these assays is then realized. The flow FP package is used to establish microbial samples fingerprint from initial 2D cytometry histograms. This procedure allows highlighting microbial communities' variation along the assays. Cytometric and 16S rRNA gene sequencing fingerprinting methods are then compared. The two approaches give same evidence about microbial dynamics throughout digestion assay. There are however a lack of significant correlation between cytometric and amplicon sequencing fingerprint at genus or species level. Same phenotypical profiles of microbiota during assays matched to several 16S rRNA gene sequencing ones. Flow cytometry fingerprinting can thus be considered as a promising routine on-site method suitable for the detection of stability/variation/disturbance of complex microbial communities involved in bioprocesses. PMID:27160955

  9. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bradon R.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Fox, Brian G.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology. PMID:27276034

  10. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Adam J; Lewin, Gina R; McDonald, Bradon R; Takasuka, Taichi E; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T; Suh, Steven; Raffa, Kenneth F; Fox, Brian G; Currie, Cameron R

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology. PMID:27276034

  11. In Vitro Inhibition of Cellulolytic Enzymes of Fusarium Oxysporum by Trichoderma spp and Pseudomonas Fluorescens on Arachis Hypogaea L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rajeswari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop biocontrol system for management of Fusarium wilt in groundnut, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum,and Pseudomonas fluorescens were evaluated for their antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. .Fusarium wilt diseasescaused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum lead to significant yield losses of crops. Experiments were conducted on the effect of culture filtratesof T.viride (1%, T. harzianum (1.5%, and P. fluorescens (2% on the in vitro inhibition of cellulolytic enzymes of Fusarium oxysporum. Theactivity of 1,4 endoglucanases, 1,4exoglucanase Cellobiase produced by Fusariumoxysporum was higher, when compared to control.Maximum inhibition of above Cellulolytic enzymes (1, 4 endoglucanases, 1,4exoglucanase, Cellobiase was shown by T. viride treatment wasfollowed by T. harzianum and P. fluorescens. Of all the treatments, T. viride treatment showed higher rate of inhibition of Cellulolytic enzymesof Fusarium oxysporum followed by that of T. harzianum and P. fluorescens.This present study indicates that culture filtrate of T.viride(1%is the best biocontrol agent in the inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum causing Fusarium wilt of Arachis hypogaea .L

  12. Selection and molecular characterization of cellulolytic-xylanolytic fungi from surface soil-biomass mixtures from Black Belt sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Benedict C; Hall, Rosine W; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda; Thomson, M Sue; Deravi, Yasaman; Sawyer, Leah; Prescott, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Plant biomass is an abundant renewable natural resource that can be transformed into chemical feedstocks. Enzymes used in saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass are a major part of biofuel production costs. A cocktail of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes are required for optimal saccharification of biomass. Accordingly, thirty-two fungal pure cultures were obtained from surface soil-biomass mixtures collected from Black Belt sites in Alabama by culturing on lignocellulosic biomass medium. The fungal strains were screened for the coproduction of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes. Strains that displayed promising levels of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes were characterized by molecular analysis of DNA sequences from the large subunit and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of their ribosomal RNA gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that two most promising isolates FS22A and FS5A were most similar to Penicillium janthinellum and Trichoderma virens. Production dynamics of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from these two strains were explored in submerged fermentation. Volumetric productivity after 120 h incubation was 121.08 units/L/h and 348 units/L/h for the filter paper cellulase and xylanase of strain FS22A, and 90.83 units/L/h and 359 units/L/h, respectively for strain FS5A. Assays with 10 times dilution of enzymes revealed that the activities were much higher than that observed in the crude culture supernatant. Additionally, both FS22A and FS5A also produced amylase in lignocellulose medium. The enzyme profiles of these strains and their activities suggest potential applications in cost effective biomass conversion and biodegradation. PMID:25817459

  13. Microbiota Dynamics Associated with Environmental Conditions and Potential Roles of Cellulolytic Communities in Traditional Chinese Cereal Starter Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Liang, Hebin; Lin, Wei-Tie; Feng, Feng; Luo, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    Traditional Chinese solid-state fermented cereal starters contain highly complex microbial communities and enzymes. Very little is known, however, about the microbial dynamics related to environmental conditions, and cellulolytic communities have never been proposed to exist during cereal starter fermentation. In this study, we performed Illumina MiSeq sequencing combined with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to investigate microbiota, coupled with clone library construction to trace cellulolytic communities in both fermentation stages. A succession of microbial assemblages was observed during the fermentation of starters. Lactobacillales and Saccharomycetales dominated the initial stages, with a continuous decline in relative abundance. However, thermotolerant and drought-resistant Bacillales, Eurotiales, and Mucorales were considerably accelerated during the heating stages, and these organisms dominated until the end of fermentation. Enterobacteriales were consistently ubiquitous throughout the process. For the cellulolytic communities, only the genera Sanguibacter, Beutenbergia, Agrobacterium, and Erwinia dominated the initial fermentation stages. In contrast, stages at high incubation temperature induced the appearance and dominance of Bacillus, Aspergillus, and Mucor. The enzymatic dynamics of amylase and glucoamylase also showed a similar trend, with the activities clearly increased in the first 7 days and subsequently decreased until the end of fermentation. Furthermore, β-glucosidase activity continuously and significantly increased during the fermentation process. Evidently, cellulolytic potential can adapt to environmental conditions by changes in the community structure during the fermentation of starters. PMID:26002897

  14. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF TRICHODERMA-BASED FEED ADDITIVE WITH CELLULOLYTIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshchayev A. G.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the work, we have presented the information of elaboration of a manufacturing process of Mycocel feed additive with the cellulolytic activity for poul-try industry. Manufacturing process includes follow-ing steps: stock culture maintenance and storage of Trichoderma lignorum 81-17, growing fluid culture of microscopic fungus in sucrose yeast extract me-dium, feed additive with cellulolytic properties out-put and quality control, packaging, storage and disposal of waste. We have shown that the Mycocel is non-toxic feed additive for protozoa and warm-blooded animals (laboratory mice and quails. This study demonstrated total population livability in the experimental group with feed additive. Quail body-weight of experimental group was higher by 6% as compared to the control and feed consumption per 1 kg of live weight of bird was 3,58 kg, 7,5% lower than the control

  15. Fermentation of cellodextrins by cellulolytic and noncellulolytic rumen bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, J B

    1985-01-01

    Water-soluble cellodextrins were prepared from microcrystalline cellulose by using fuming hydrochloric acid and acetone precipitation. This cellodextrin preparation contained only trace amounts of glucose and cellobiose and was primarily composed of cellotetraose and cellopentaose. When various species of cellulolytic and noncellulolytic bacteria were cultured with cellodextrins, their growth rates and maximal optical densities were in most cases similar to those observed with cellobiose. Tim...

  16. Isolation and characterization of Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic, anaerobic bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Mathrani, Indra M.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    An anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain 6A, was isolated from an alkaline hot spring in Hverageroi, Iceland. The bacterium was non-motile, rod-shaped (1.5-3.5 x 0.7 mu m) and occurred singly, in pairs or in chains and stained gram-negative. The growth...... temperature was between 50 and 78 degrees C with a temperature optimum near 68 degrees C. Growth occurred between pH 5.8 and 8.2 with an optimum mum near 7.0. The bacterium fermented microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) and produced lactate, acetate and H-2 as the major fermentation products, and CO2...... and ethanol occurred as minor fermentation products. Only a restricted number of carbon sources (cellulose, xylan, starch, pectin, cellobiose, xylose, maltose and lactose) were used as substrates. During growth on Avicel, the bacterium produced free cellulases with carboxymethylcellulase and avicelase...

  17. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP, Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.

  18. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Matthew; Xu, Feng; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-07-19

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  19. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-08-02

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  20. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  1. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  2. Isolation of microbial native Stumps with cellulolytic activity of a compost process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isolation, selection adaptation and handling of native microorganisms coming from organic waste are an alternative to avoid the accumulation and the lack of the proper use of these undesirable materials. This organic waste is a source for obtaining microbial strains, which are potentially producers of Industrial enzymes and, at the same time, it works as substrate so that these organisms can transform it into compost or organic manure. In this work, 39 native strains of microorganisms with potential cellulolytic activity coming from the organic waste of the urban and rural sector, from the Compost Plant of Marinilla Antioquia) municipality, were isolated, evaluated and purified. The waste was previously selected and then submitted to an aerobic degradation or compost. The microbial strains were isolated in a selective medium with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), of the phases mesophile, termophile, cooling and maturation of the compost process. Eighty-two percent (82%)of the obtained colonies were identified, in principle as Bacillus, because of their morphology and their reaction to the Gram coloration. The fungi population was seen only during the cooling phase. Then, the potential cellulolytic activity was evaluated qualitatively in a solid medium with the Congo Red coloration, with which the Beta-endoglucanase activity was evaluated through the formation of clarified zones. Such staining was applied in two mediums with CMC with and without glucose It was observed that 33.3% of the isolated organisms produced the enzyme In both mediums; however, 25.6% of microorganisms did not show the production of this enzyme, and only 15.8% did not require the inducers to produce it

  3. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant β- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good β-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  4. Engineering of a novel cellulose-adherent cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae for cellulosic biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Sasaki, Kengo; den Haan, Riaan; Inokuma, Kentaro; Ogino, Chiaki; van Zyl, Willem H; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Cellulosic biofuel is the subject of increasing attention. The main obstacle toward its economic feasibility is the recalcitrance of lignocellulose requiring large amount of enzyme to break. Several engineered yeast strains have been developed with cellulolytic activities to reduce the need for enzyme addition, but exhibiting limited effect. Here, we report the successful engineering of a cellulose-adherent Saccharomyces cerevisiae displaying four different synergistic cellulases on the cell surface. The cellulase-displaying yeast strain exhibited clear cell-to-cellulose adhesion and a "tearing" cellulose degradation pattern; the adhesion ability correlated with enhanced surface area and roughness of the target cellulose fibers, resulting in higher hydrolysis efficiency. The engineered yeast directly produced ethanol from rice straw despite a more than 40% decrease in the required enzyme dosage for high-density fermentation. Thus, improved cell-to-cellulose interactions provided a novel strategy for increasing cellulose hydrolysis, suggesting a mechanism for promoting the feasibility of cellulosic biofuel production. PMID:27079382

  5. Quantifying Synergy, Thermostability, and Targeting of Cellulolytic Enzymes and Cellulosomes with Polymerization-Based Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Klara H; Rind, Thomas; Verdorfer, Tobias; Gaub, Hermann E; Nash, Michael A

    2015-07-21

    We present a polymerization-based assay for determining the potency of cellulolytic enzyme formulations on pretreated biomass substrates. Our system relies on monitoring the autofluorescence of cellulose and measuring the attenuation of this fluorescent signal as a hydrogel consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymerizes on top of the cellulose in response to glucose produced during saccharification. The one-pot method we present is label-free, rapid, highly sensitive, and requires only a single pipetting step. Using model enzyme formulations derived from Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Talaromyces emersonii and recombinant bacterial minicellulosomes from Clostridium thermocellum, we demonstrate the ability to differentiate enzyme performance based on differences in thermostability, cellulose-binding domain targeting, and endo/exoglucanase synergy. On the basis of its ease of use, we expect this cellulase assay platform to be applicable to enzyme screening for improved bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:26114625

  6. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The...

  7. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The...

  8. Structure/function relationships in cellulolytic enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc Claeyssens

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cellulose and hemicellulose (mostly xylan), together with lignin, are the major polymeric constituents of plant cell walls and from the largest reservoir of fixed carbon in nature. The enzymatic hydrolysis of polymeric substances by extracellular enzymes, such as cellulases, hemicellulases and laccases, is preferred to chemical depolymerisation to avoid the production of toxic by-products and waste that are expensive to treat. The monosaccharides released through enzymatic hydrolysis can subsequently be microbially converted to commercial commodities, such as bio-ethanol (fuel extender) or microbial protein as feed supplements. The individual depolymerisering enzymes used, such as cellulases,xylanases and laccases, also have industrial application in (i) biobleaching in the paper and pulp industry, (ii) improvement of animal feed (poultry and ruminants) digestibility in feed industries, and (iii) dough rheology and bread volume in the baking process, and beer viscosity and filtration velocity during brewing. The cloning of the genes, coding for several xylan degrading enzymes, and their expression in Baker' s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and filamentous fungi (Aspergillus species)opened the possibility to study the pure enzymes, without contaminating activity.Trichoderma reesei produces several of these enzymes and detailed information on their specificity,synergies and structure/activity relationships is known. An overview will be presented.

  9. Compositions for enhancing hydroysis of cellulosic material by cellulolytic enzyme compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and an organic compound comprising a carboxylic acid moiety, a lactone moiety, a phenolic moiety, a flavonoid moiety, or a combination thereof, wherein the combination of the GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and the organic compound enhances hydrolysis of a cellulosic material by a cellulolytic enzyme compared to the GH61 polypeptide alone or the organic compound alone. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  10. Stable nano-sized emulsions produced from soy protein and soy polysaccharide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoru; Deng, Wei; Xu, Keke; Huang, Luwen; Yao, Ping

    2012-08-15

    In this research, a simple, green and effective strategy was developed to produce long-term stable oil in water emulsion from soy protein and soy polysaccharide. Soy protein and soy polysaccharide formed dispersible complexes at pH around 3.25 aqueous solution through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. A high pressure homogenization produced the protein/polysaccharide complex emulsion having a droplet size about 250 nm. A heat treatment of the emulsion resulted in the protein denaturation, forming irreversible oil-water interfacial films composed of soy protein/soy polysaccharide complexes. The droplets of the emulsion were characterized by dynamic light scattering, ζ-potential, transmission electron microscopy, polysaccharide digestion via pectinase, and confocal laser scanning microscopy observation via dual fluorescence probes. As a result of the polysaccharide being fixed on the droplet surface, the emulsions exhibited long-term stability in the media containing pH values of 2-8 and 0.2 mol/L NaCl. The stable soy protein/soy polysaccharide complex emulsion is a suitable food-grade delivery system in which lipophilic bioactive compounds can be encapsulated. PMID:22682324

  11. Studying Simple and Complex Traits Using Pedigrees Produced From a Large Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryld L. Emmons

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Students in genetics classes become familiar with interpreting pedigrees for modes of inheritance of single-gene traits. Non-majors’ genetics courses often have students produce pedigrees of their own families. This exercise provides students with an extensive database, including over 50 families, from which they are asked to produce pedigrees as evidence in support of or refuting suggested models of inheritance for simple traits. Students are also asked to propose modes of inheritance for complex human traits based on pedigrees that they produce from the database. The people in the database are real and include their own families. This makes the exercise more real and personal for the students.

  12. NREL Explains the Higher Cellulolytic Activity of a Vital Microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of a new mode of action by C. thermocellum to convert biomass to biofuels is significant because the bacterium is already recognized as one of the most effective in the biosphere. Researchers found that, in addition to using common cellulase degradation mechanisms attached to cells, C. thermocellum also uses a new category of cell-free scaffolded enzymes. The new discovery will influence the strategies used to improve the cellulolytic activity of biomass degrading microbes going forward. Better understanding of this bacterium could lead to cheaper production of ethanol and drop-in fuels. Also, this discovery demonstrates that nature's biomass conversion behaviors are not fully understood and remain as opportunities for future microbial/enzyme engineering efforts.

  13. Cellulosic Ethanol Production by Recombinant Cellulolytic Bacteria Harbouring pdc and adh II Genes of Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sobana Piriya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol fermenting genes such as pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adh II were cloned from Zymomonas mobilis and transformed into three different cellulolytic bacteria, namely Enterobacter cloacae JV, Proteus mirabilis JV and Erwinia chrysanthemi and their cellulosic ethanol production capability was studied. Recombinant E. cloacae JV was found to produce 4.5% and 3.5% (v/v ethanol, respectively, when CMC and 4% NaOH pretreated bagasse were used as substrates, whereas recombinant P. mirabilis and E. chrysanthemi with the same substrates could only produce 4%, 3.5%, 1%, and 1.5 % of ethanol, respectively. The recombinant E. cloacae strain produced twofold higher percentage of ethanol than the wild type. The recombinant E. cloacae strain could be improved further by increasing its ethanol tolerance capability through media optimization and also by combining multigene cellulase expression for enhancing ethanol production from various types of lignocellulosic biomass so that it can be used for industrial level ethanol production.

  14. Characterization of cellulolytic activities of environmental bacterial consortia from an Argentinian native forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nelson; Gioffré, Andrea; Sede, Silvana M; Campos, Eleonora; Cataldi, Angel; Talia, Paola

    2013-08-01

    Cellulolytic activities of three bacterial consortia derived from a forest soil sample from Chaco region, Argentina, were characterized. The phylogenetic analysis of consortia revealed two main highly supported groups including Achromobacter and Pseudomonas genera. All three consortia presented cellulolytic activity. The carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and total cellulase activities were studied both quantitatively and qualitatively and optimal enzymatic conditions were characterized and compared among the three consortia. Thermal and pH stability were analyzed. Based on its cellulolytic activity, one consortium was selected for further characterization by zymography. We detected a specific protein of 55 kDa with CMCase activity. In this study, we have shown that these consortia encode for cellulolytic enzymes. These enzymes could be useful for lignocellulosic biomass degradation into simple components and for different industrial applications. PMID:23471693

  15. The producer service complex of Edmonton: the role and organization of producer services firms in a peripheral city

    OpenAIRE

    W Z Michalak; K J Fairbairn

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine the subcontracting behaviour of producer service firms in a peripheral metropolitan city. The objective of this empirical investigation is to uncover spatial and organizational linkages of producer services that have developed in response to changes in the industrial organization of a modern capitalist production system. The focus is on three types of linkages, namely subcontracting, inputs of producer services, and inputs of goods and final services. The dat...

  16. Insight into Dominant Cellulolytic Bacteria from Two Biogas Digesters and Their Glycoside Hydrolase Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjun Wei; Haokui Zhou; Jun Zhang; Lei Zhang; Alei Geng; Fanghua Liu; Guoping Zhao; Shengyue Wang; Zhihua Zhou; Xing Yan

    2015-01-01

    Diverse cellulolytic bacteria are essential for maintaining high lignocellulose degradation ability in biogas digesters. However, little was known about functional genes and gene clusters of dominant cellulolytic bacteria in biogas digesters. This is the foundation to understand lignocellulose degradation mechanisms of biogas digesters and apply these gene resource for optimizing biofuel production. A combination of metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene clone library methods was used to investigate t...

  17. Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyu Zhang; Ping Sheng; Shengwei Huang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 207 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from the gut of Holotrichia parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates were assigned to 21 genotypes by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and standard biochemical and physiological tests were used for the assignment of the 21 representative isolates. Our results show that the cellulolytic bacterial community is dominated by the Proteoba...

  18. Cellulolytic Bacteria Associated with the Gut of Dendroctonus armandi Larvae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Hu; Jiamin Yu; Chunyan Wang; Hui Chen

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the cellulolytic bacterial community in the intestine of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi) larvae. A total of 91 cellulolytic bacteria were isolated and assigned to 11 genotypes using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and morphological tests were used to assign the 11 representative isolates. The results showed that the isolates belonged to α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria a...

  19. Copper-complexing ligands produced by an intact estuarine microbial community in response to copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, J.; Dryden, C.; Gordon, A.

    2002-12-01

    Copper is both an important nutrient and a pollutant in the marine environment. By studying the interactions between microorganisms and copper in the Elizabeth River (VA), home to a major Naval Base, we field tested the hypothesis that picoplankton and/or bacterioplankton produce strong, copper-complexing ligands in response to elevated copper concentrations. A simple light/ dark test was used to distinguish between heterotrophic and phototrophic ligand production. Samples were bottled and moored, submerged one meter, for a week. Direct counts using DAPI stain and epiflourescence were conducted to find concentrations of picoplankton and bacterioplankton. Using cathodic stripping voltammetry, we found the total copper concentrations, and then from a titration of the ligands by copper, the ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants were obtained. The Elizabeth River naturally had between 10-20 nM total dissolved copper concentrations. However when copper complexation was considered we found that the levels of bio-available Cu(II) ions were much lower. In fact in the natural samples the levels were not high enough to affect the relative reproductive rates of several microorganisms. Naturally there was a 50 nM "buffer zone" of ligand to total dissolved copper concentration. Furthermore, when stressed with excess copper, healthy picoplankton produced enough ligand to alleviate toxicity, and rebuild the buffer zone. However bacterioplankton only produced enough ligand so that they were no longer affected. Therefore, intact estuarine communities regulate copper bioavailability and toxicity with ligand production.

  20. Effect of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources on the Production of Reducing Sugars, Extra-cellular Protein and Cellulolytic Enzymes by Two Cellulolytic Bacterial Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Kashem, M. A.; M.A. Manchur; M.S. Rahman; M.N. Anwar

    2004-01-01

    Two thermophilic cellulolytic bacterial isolates were tested to determine the effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of extra-cellular proteins, reducing sugars and cellulolytic enzymes. Lactose was found to be the most potential carbon source for Avicelase (342.52 U mL-1) and ß-glucosidase (256.89 U mL-1) activity where as NH4Cl was found to be the potential nitrogen source for CMCase (144.68 U mL-1) activity.

  1. Characterization of toxin complex produced by a unique strain of Clostridium botulinum serotype D 4947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kimiko; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Sato, Hiroaki; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Mutoh, Shingo; Suzuki, Tomonori; Yamano, Akihito; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Takeshi, Kouichi; Kamaguchi, Arihide; Fujinaga, Yukako; Oguma, Keiji; Ohyama, Tohru

    2004-08-01

    A unique strain of Clostridium botulinum, serotype D 4947 (D-4947), produces a considerable amount of a 650 kDa toxin complex (L-TC) and a small amount of a 280 kDa M-TC, a 540 kDa TC, and a 610 kDa TC. The complexes are composed of only un-nicked components, including neurotoxin (NT), nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) and hemagglutinin subcomponents (HA-70, HA-33 and HA-17). Unlike other NTs from all serotype strains, separation of D-4947 NT from L-TC, except for M-TC, during chromatography required highly alkaline conditions around pH 8.8. The separated NT and NTNHA/HAs complex can be reconstituted to L-TC that is indistinguishable from the parent L-TC with respect to toxicity, hemagglutination activity and gel filtration profile. The isoelectric points of NT and NTNHA/HAs were close together depending on the number of HA-33/17 molecules. We have established a new method to separate the unique D-4947 NT from the complex, which will yield valuable information on structure of botulinum toxin. PMID:15517984

  2. Streptomyces araujoniae Produces a Multiantibiotic Complex with Ionophoric Properties to Control Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo José; Crevelin, Eduardo José; Souza, Wallace Rafael; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues

    2014-12-01

    A recently described actinomycete species (Streptomyces araujoniae ASBV-1(T)) is effective against many phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of this species to inhibit Botrytis cinerea development in strawberry pseudofruit, and we identified the chemical structures of its bioactive compounds. An ethyl acetate crude extract (0.1 mg ml(-1)) of ASBV-1(T) fermentation broth completely inhibited fungus growth in strawberry pseudofruit under storage conditions. The crude extract was fractionated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; the active fraction was further evaluated by tandem mass spectrometry. ASBV-1(T) produced a multiantibiotic complex with ionophoric properties. This complex contained members of the macrotetralides class (including monactin, dinactin, trinactin, and tetranactin) and the cyclodepsipeptide valinomycin, all of which were active against B. cinerea. Furthermore, the addition of 2 mM MgSO4 and 1 mM ZnSO4 enhanced macrotetralide and valinomycin production, respectively, in the culture broth. These compounds are considered to be the main active molecules that S. araujoniae produces to control B. cinerea. Their low to moderate toxicity to humans and the environment justifies the application of ASBV-1(T) in biological control programs that aim to mitigate the damage caused by this phytopathogen. PMID:24983843

  3. Nitric oxide interacts with mitochondrial complex III producing antimycin-like effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Darío E; Bombicino, Silvina S; Valdez, Laura B; Boveris, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    The effect of NO between cytochromes b and c of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were studied using submitochondrial particles (SMP) from bovine heart and GSNO and SPER-NO as NO sources. Succinate-cytochrome c reductase (complex II-III) activity (222 ± 4 nmol/min. mg protein) was inhibited by 51% in the presence of 500 μM GSNO and by 48% in the presence of 30 μM SPER-NO, in both cases at ~1.25 μM NO. Neither GSNO nor SPER-NO were able to inhibit succinate-Q reductase activity (complex II; 220 ± 9 nmol/min. mg protein), showing that NO affects complex III. Complex II-III activity was decreased (36%) when SMP were incubated with l-arginine and mtNOS cofactors, indicating that this effect is also produced by endogenous NO. GSNO (500 μM) reduced cytochrome b562 by 71%, in an [O2] independent manner. Hyperbolic increases in O2(•-) (up to 1.3 ± 0.1 nmol/min. mg protein) and H2O2 (up to 0.64 ± 0.05 nmol/min. mg protein) productions were observed with a maximal effect at 500 μM GSNO. The O2(•-)/H2O2 ratio was 1.98 in accordance with the stoichiometry of the O2(•-) disproportionation. Moreover, H2O2 production was increased by 72-74% when heart coupled mitochondria were exposed to 500 μM GSNO or 30 μM SPER-NO. SMP incubated in the presence of succinate showed an EPR signal (g=1.99) compatible with a stable semiquinone. This EPR signal was increased not only by antimycin but also by GSNO and SPER-NO. These signals were not modified under N2 atmosphere, indicating that they are not a consequence to the effect of NOx species on complex III area. These results show that NO interacts with ubiquinone-cytochrome b area producing antimycin-like effects. This behaviour comprises the inhibition of electron transfer, the interruption of the oxidation of cytochromes b, and the enhancement of [UQH(•)]ss which, in turn, leads to an increase in O2(•-) and H2O2 mitochondrial production rates. PMID:26456055

  4. Proteomic response of β-lactamases-producing Enterobacter cloacae complex strain to cefotaxime-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravić, Ana; Cvjetan, Svjetlana; Konta, Marina; Ladouce, Romain; Martín, Fernando A

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria of the Enterobacter cloacae complex are among the ten most common pathogens causing nosocomial infections in the USA. Consequently, increased resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, particularly expanded-spectrum cephalosporins like cefotaxime (CTX), poses a serious threat. Differential In-Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE), followed by LC-MS/MS analysis and bioinformatics tools, was employed to investigate the survival mechanisms of a multidrug-resistant E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii 51 carrying several β-lactamase-encoding genes, including the 'pandemic' blaCTX-M-15 After exposing the strain with sub-minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CTX, a total of 1072 spots from the whole-cell proteome were detected, out of which 35 were differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05, fold change ≥1.5). Almost 50% of these proteins were involved in cell metabolism and energy production, and then cell wall organization/virulence, stress response and transport. This is the first study investigating the whole-cell proteomic response related to the survival of β-lactamases-producing strain, belonging to the E. cloacae complex when exposed to β-lactam antibiotic. Our data support the theory of a multifactorial synergistic effect of diverse proteomic changes occurring in bacterial cells during antibiotic exposure, depicting the complexity of β-lactam resistance and giving us an insight in the key pathways mediating the antibiotic resistance in this emerging opportunistic pathogen. PMID:27162211

  5. Insight into Dominant Cellulolytic Bacteria from Two Biogas Digesters and Their Glycoside Hydrolase Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Wei

    Full Text Available Diverse cellulolytic bacteria are essential for maintaining high lignocellulose degradation ability in biogas digesters. However, little was known about functional genes and gene clusters of dominant cellulolytic bacteria in biogas digesters. This is the foundation to understand lignocellulose degradation mechanisms of biogas digesters and apply these gene resource for optimizing biofuel production. A combination of metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene clone library methods was used to investigate the dominant cellulolytic bacteria and their glycoside hydrolase (GH genes in two biogas digesters. The 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the dominant cellulolytic bacteria were strains closely related to Clostridium straminisolvens and an uncultured cellulolytic bacterium designated BG-1. To recover GH genes from cellulolytic bacteria in general, and BG-1 in particular, a refined assembly approach developed in this study was used to assemble GH genes from metagenomic reads; 163 GH-containing contigs ≥ 1 kb in length were obtained. Six recovered GH5 genes that were expressed in E. coli demonstrated multiple lignocellulase activities and one had high mannanase activity (1255 U/mg. Eleven fosmid clones harboring the recovered GH-containing contigs were sequenced and assembled into 10 fosmid contigs. The composition of GH genes in the 163 assembled metagenomic contigs and 10 fosmid contigs indicated that diverse GHs and lignocellulose degradation mechanisms were present in the biogas digesters. In particular, a small portion of BG-1 genome information was recovered by PhyloPythiaS analysis. The lignocellulase gene clusters in BG-1 suggested that it might use a possible novel lignocellulose degradation mechanism to efficiently degrade lignocellulose. Dominant cellulolytic bacteria of biogas digester possess diverse GH genes, not only in sequences but also in their functions, which may be applied for production of biofuel in the future.

  6. Engineering of a novel cellulose-adherent cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae for cellulosic biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Sasaki, Kengo; den Haan, Riaan; Inokuma, Kentaro; Ogino, Chiaki; van Zyl, Willem H.; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Cellulosic biofuel is the subject of increasing attention. The main obstacle toward its economic feasibility is the recalcitrance of lignocellulose requiring large amount of enzyme to break. Several engineered yeast strains have been developed with cellulolytic activities to reduce the need for enzyme addition, but exhibiting limited effect. Here, we report the successful engineering of a cellulose-adherent Saccharomyces cerevisiae displaying four different synergistic cellulases on the cell surface. The cellulase-displaying yeast strain exhibited clear cell-to-cellulose adhesion and a “tearing” cellulose degradation pattern; the adhesion ability correlated with enhanced surface area and roughness of the target cellulose fibers, resulting in higher hydrolysis efficiency. The engineered yeast directly produced ethanol from rice straw despite a more than 40% decrease in the required enzyme dosage for high-density fermentation. Thus, improved cell-to-cellulose interactions provided a novel strategy for increasing cellulose hydrolysis, suggesting a mechanism for promoting the feasibility of cellulosic biofuel production. PMID:27079382

  7. Mycobiota variation in stored rice straw and its cellulolytic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Metwally, Mohammad Magdy; Ghoneem, Khalid Mohammad; Saber, Wesam El-Din Ismail Ali

    2014-09-01

    Rice Straw (RS) one of most important agrowaste worldwide. Variation in mycobiota inhabiting long stored RS and its cellulolytic profile were studied. The highest number of fungi (23 species) was recovered from 1st storage period (1-3 year). Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium incarnatum, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium sp., Stemphylium lycopersici and Ulocladium atrum are the most frequent genera. Among 21 fungal species recovered in the 2nd period (3-5 year), Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium incarnatum, Stemphylium lycopersici and Ulocladium atrum recorded 100% frequency, whereas Ulocladium atrum, Veticillium lecanii, Stemphylium lycopersici and Penicillium sp., were the most frequent species in the 3rd period (> 5 years). Regarding the pathogenic fungal isolates, Nigrospora oryzae was the most frequent with high intensity in all samples of the three storage periods, whereas Alternaria padwikii reached the highest frequency and intensity in the 1st period and absent the 2nd and 3rd ones. The isolated fungal species showed a high production of cellulases comparing to previous studies with positive and significant correlation between FPase from one side and CMCase (r = 0.634, p ≤ 0.05) and β-glucosidase (r = 0.775, p ≤ 0.05) from the other side. PMID:26031023

  8. Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 207 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from the gut of Holotrichia parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates were assigned to 21 genotypes by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. A partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and standard biochemical and physiological tests were used for the assignment of the 21 representative isolates. Our results show that the cellulolytic bacterial community is dominated by the Proteobacteria (70.05%, followed by the Actinobacteria (24.15%, the Firmicutes (4.35%, and the Bacteroidetes (1.45%. At the genus level, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, Rhizobium, Cellulosimicrobium, and Microbacterium were the predominant groups, but members of Bacillus, Dyadobacter, Siphonobacter, Paracoccus, Kaistia, Devosia, Labrys, Ensifer, Variovorax, Shinella, Citrobacter, and Stenotrophomonas were also found. Furthermore, our results suggest that a significant amount of bacterial diversity exists among the cellulolytic bacteria, and that Siphonobacter aquaeclarae, Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Paracoccus sulfuroxidans, Ochrobactrum cytisi, Ochrobactrum haematophilum, Kaistia adipata, Devosia riboflavina, Labrys neptuniae, Ensifer adhaerens, Shinella zoogloeoides, Citrobacter freundii, and Pseudomonas nitroreducens are reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Our results indicate that the scarab gut is an attractive source for the study of novel cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes useful for cellulose degradation.

  9. Cellulolytic Bacteria Associated with the Gut of Dendroctonus armandi Larvae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to investigate the cellulolytic bacterial community in the intestine of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi larvae. A total of 91 cellulolytic bacteria were isolated and assigned to 11 genotypes using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. Partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and morphological tests were used to assign the 11 representative isolates. The results showed that the isolates belonged to α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Members of γ-Proteobacteria were the most frequently represented species and accounted for 73.6% of all the cellulolytic bacteria. The majority of cellulolytic bacteria in D. armandi larva gut were identified as Serratia and accounted for 49.5%, followed by Pseudomonas, which accounted for 22%. In addition, members of Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Paenibacillus, Pseudoxanthomonas, Methylobacterium and Sphingomonas were found in the D. armandi larva gut. Brevundimonas kwangchunensis, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Methylobacterium populi and Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana were reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Information generated from the present study might contribute towards understanding the relationship between bark beetle and its gut flora.

  10. Producing morphologically complex words: An ERP study with children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Jane Budd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A widely studied morphological phenomenon in psycholinguistic research is the plurals-inside-compounds effect in English, which is the avoidance of regular plural modifiers within compounds (e.g., *rats hunter. The current study employs event-related brain potentials (ERPs to investigate the production of plurals-inside-compounds in children and adults. We specifically examined the ERP correlates of producing morphologically complex words in 8-year-olds, 12-year-olds and adults, by recording ERPs during the silent production of compounds with plural or singular modifiers. Results for both children and adults revealed a negativity in response to compounds produced from regular plural forms when compared to compounds formed from irregular plurals, indicating a highly specific brain response to a subtle linguistic contrast. Although children performed behaviourally with an adult-like pattern in the task, we found a broader distribution and a considerably later latency in children's brain potentials than in adults’, indicating that even in late childhood the brain networks involved in language processing are subject to subtle developmental changes.

  11. The biofilm produced by Burkholderia cepacia complex: molecular aspects and relationship with exopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Corich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In cystic fibrosis patients, Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc can cause serious pulmonary chronic infections thanks in part to the ability to form biofilm, matrix rich in exopolysaccharides. In Bcc grown in the planktonic state, the main exopolysaccharide is cepacian while in biofilm its presence is controversial. Methods and Results. Two clinical isolates, named BTS7 and BTS2, were studied. BTS7 produces abundant cepacian but not much biofilm (quantified by colorimetric method.At least two of the genes involved in cepacian biosynthesis are not necessary for biofilm production as two BTS7 derivatives, bceB and bceQ knocked out by transposon mutagenesis, produce biofilm levels comparable to the wild-type. BTS2 sinthesyzes cepacian only if cultured on a specific medium. It has been colonizing a patient for almost ten years, showing a significant reduction of biofilm production during this period. This reduction did not appear together with the lack of factors required for the initial adhesion to the surface, or to differences in some of the Bcc genes involved in biofilm formation. Moreover, sequencing of its bce locus revealed a bceX gene, absent in BTS7, coding for a trascriptional regulator. Its product may negatively regulate the production of cepacian but not the one of other polysaccharides, promoting the formation of biofilm. Conclusions. Cepacian seems to be marginal in the production of biofilm.The reduced ability to produce biofilm of BTS2 suggests possible gene mutations occurred over time. Using custom arrays we will compare the gene expression of the BTS2 isolates, to identify the genes responsible for the observed phenotypic changes.

  12. Fermentative Conversion of Cellulose to Acetic Acid and Cellulolytic Enzyme Production by a Bacterial Mixed Culture Obtained from Sewage Sludge †

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, A. W.; Wall, Duncan; L. Van Den Berg

    1981-01-01

    A simple procedure that uses a cellulose-enriched culture started from sewage sludge was developed for producing cellulolytic enzymes and converting cellulose to acetic acid rather than CH4 and CO2. In this procedure, the culture which converts cellulose to CH4 and CO2 was mixed with a synthetic medium and cellulose and heated to 80°C for 15 min before incubation. The end products formed were acetic acid, propionic acid, CO2, and traces of ethanol and H2. Supernatants from 6- to 10-day-old cu...

  13. Cellulolytic Actinomycetes isolated from soil in Bukit Duabelas National Park, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATIT KANTI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study was to investigate the enzymatic activities of cellulolytic Actinomycetes. The soil sample was collected from Bukit Duabelas National Park, Jambi. Actinomycetes was isolated by Casein Agar Medium, and its cellulolytic capacity was determined by measuring the activity of CMC-ase. Two isolates of cellulolytic Actinomycetes belonged to genus Streptomyces were isolated. The CMC-ase activity was 7.7 unit and 13.4 unit for isolate I and isolate II respectively. The Km of isolate I and isolate II were 1.356x 10-3 and 1.595x 10-3 (% b/v respectively. Vmaks of isolate I and II was 1.658 x10-4 and 6.166x 10-4 µg glukosa/mL enzyme /minute, respectively.

  14. Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Knudsen, I.; Elmholt, S.;

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the relationship between soil suppression of seedling blight of barley caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Sacc. and the soil cellulolytic activity of beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase and endocellulase. Disease suppression was investigated in bioassays with...... test soils mixed with sand, and barley seeds inoculated with F. culmorum. After 19 days, disease severity was evaluated on the barley seedlings. Soil cellulolytic activities were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl-labelled fluorogenic substrates, and were expressed as V-max values obtained by using...... content of total C and N. From the preliminary results obtained, it is proposed that the cellulolytic activity can be used as an enzymatic approach to study the microbial turnover of organic matter in soils and as indicator of seedling blight of barley caused by F. culmorum. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B...

  15. Technique for preparation of anaerobic microbes: Rodshaped cellulolytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius Thalib

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of anaerobic-rod cellulolytic bacteria with coating technique has been conducted. Steps of the processes involved were cultivation, coating, evaporation, and drying. Coating agent used was Gum Arabic, and drying techniquesconducted were freeze drying and sun drying. pH of culture media was firstly optimized to obtain the maximal population ofbacteria. Both coated and uncoated preparates were subjected to drying. Morphological and Gram type identifications showed that uncoated preparate dried with freeze drying is not contaminated (ie. all bacteria are rod shape with Gram-negative type while the one dried with sun drying is not morphologically pure (ie. containing of both rod and coccus shapes with Gram negative and positive. The coated preparates dried by both freeze and sun drying, were not contaminated (ie. all are rods with Gram-negative. The coating and drying processes decreased viability of preparates significantly. However, the decreasing of viability of coated preparate are lower than uncoated preparate (ie. 89 vs. 97%. Total count of bacteria in sun-drying coated preparate are higher (P<0.05 than the uncoated preparate (ie. 3.38 x 1010 vs. 1.97 x 1010 colony/g DM. Activity of sun-drying coated preparate to digest elephant grass and rice straw was higher (P<0.01 than the sun-drying uncoated preparate with the in vitro DMD values were 42.7 vs. 35.5% for elephant grass substrate and 29.3 vs. 24.6% for rice straw substrate. Therefore, it is concluded that coating technique has a positive effects on the preparation of rumen bacteria.

  16. PGASO: A synthetic biology tool for engineering a cellulolytic yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jui-Jen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To achieve an economical cellulosic ethanol production, a host that can do both cellulosic saccharification and ethanol fermentation is desirable. However, to engineer a non-cellulolytic yeast to be such a host requires synthetic biology techniques to transform multiple enzyme genes into its genome. Results A technique, named Promoter-based Gene Assembly and Simultaneous Overexpression (PGASO, that employs overlapping oligonucleotides for recombinatorial assembly of gene cassettes with individual promoters, was developed. PGASO was applied to engineer Kluyveromycesmarxianus KY3, which is a thermo- and toxin-tolerant yeast. We obtained a recombinant strain, called KR5, that is capable of simultaneously expressing exoglucanase and endoglucanase (both of Trichodermareesei, a beta-glucosidase (from a cow rumen fungus, a neomycin phosphotransferase, and a green fluorescent protein. High transformation efficiency and accuracy were achieved as ~63% of the transformants was confirmed to be correct. KR5 can utilize beta-glycan, cellobiose or CMC as the sole carbon source for growth and can directly convert cellobiose and beta-glycan to ethanol. Conclusions This study provides the first example of multi-gene assembly in a single step in a yeast species other than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We successfully engineered a yeast host with a five-gene cassette assembly and the new host is capable of co-expressing three types of cellulase genes. Our study shows that PGASO is an efficient tool for simultaneous expression of multiple enzymes in the kefir yeast KY3 and that KY3 can serve as a host for developing synthetic biology tools.

  17. ON THE DIVERSITY AND COMPLEXITY OF ABSORPTION LINE PROFILES PRODUCED BY OUTFLOWS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the origin of active galactic nucleus (AGN) absorption line profiles and their diversity could help to explain the physical structure of the accretion flow, and also to assess the impact of accretion on the evolution of the AGN host galaxies. Here, we present our first attempt to systematically address the issue of the origin of the complexities observed in absorption profiles. Using a simple method, we compute absorption line profiles against a continuum point source for several simulations of accretion disk winds. We investigate the geometrical, ionization, and dynamical effects on the absorption line shapes. We find that significant complexity and diversity of the absorption line profile shapes can be produced by the non-monotonic distribution of the wind velocity, density, and ionization state. Non-monotonic distributions of such quantities are present even in steady-state, smooth disk winds, and naturally lead to the formation of multiple and detached absorption troughs. These results demonstrate that the part of a wind where an absorption line is formed is not representative of the entire wind. Thus, the information contained in the absorption line is incomplete if not even insufficient to well estimate gross properties of the wind such as the total mass and energy fluxes. In addition, the highly dynamical nature of certain portions of disk winds can have important effects on the estimates of the wind properties. For example, the mass outflow rates can be off by up to two orders of magnitude with respect to estimates based on a spherically symmetric, homogeneous, constant velocity wind.

  18. Structural insights into cellulolytic and chitinolytic enzymes revealing crucial residues of insect β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Liu

    Full Text Available The chemical similarity of cellulose and chitin supports the idea that their corresponding hydrolytic enzymes would bind β-1,4-linked glucose residues in a similar manner. A structural and mutational analysis was performed for the plant cellulolytic enzyme BGlu1 from Oryza sativa and the insect chitinolytic enzyme OfHex1 from Ostrinia furnacalis. Although BGlu1 shows little amino-acid sequence or topological similarity with OfHex1, three residues (Trp(490, Glu(328, Val(327 in OfHex1, and Trp(358, Tyr(131 and Ile(179 in BGlu1 were identified as being conserved in the +1 sugar binding site. OfHex1 Glu(328 together with Trp(490 was confirmed to be necessary for substrate binding. The mutant E328A exhibited a 8-fold increment in K(m for (GlcNAc(2 and a 42-fold increment in K(i for TMG-chitotriomycin. A crystal structure of E328A in complex with TMG-chitotriomycin was resolved at 2.5 Å, revealing the obvious conformational changes of the catalytic residues (Glu(368 and Asp(367 and the absence of the hydrogen bond between E328A and the C3-OH of the +1 sugar. V327G exhibited the same activity as the wild-type, but acquired the ability to efficiently hydrolyse β-1,2-linked GlcNAc in contrast to the wild-type. Thus, Glu(328 and Val(327 were identified as important for substrate-binding and as glycosidic-bond determinants. A structure-based sequence alignment confirmed the spatial conservation of these three residues in most plant cellulolytic, insect and bacterial chitinolytic enzymes.

  19. Production and assay of cellulolytic enzyme activity of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya abbatoir, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Lokapirnasari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to produce and assay cellulolytic enzyme activity (endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-Dglucanase, and β-glucosidase, at optimum temperature and optimum pH of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya Abbatoir, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: To produce enzyme from a single colony of E. cloacae WPL 214, 98 × 1010 CFU/ml of isolates was put into 20 ml of liquid medium and incubated in a shaker incubator for 16 h at 35°C in accordance with growth time and optimum temperature of E. cloacae WPL 214. Further on, culture was centrifuged at 6000 rpm at 4°C for 15 min. Pellet was discarded while supernatant containing cellulose enzyme activity was withdrawn to assay endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, and β-glucosidase. Results: Cellulase enzyme of E. cloacae WPL 214 isolates had endoglucanase activity of 0.09 U/ml, exoglucanase of 0.13 U/ml, and cellobiase of 0.10 U/ml at optimum temperature 35°C and optimum pH 5. Conclusion: E. cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste produced cellulose enzyme with activity as cellulolytic enzyme of endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase and β-glucosidase.

  20. The complete genome sequence of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 reveals a cellulolytic and metabolic specialist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garret Suen

    Full Text Available Fibrobacter succinogenes is an important member of the rumen microbial community that converts plant biomass into nutrients usable by its host. This bacterium, which is also one of only two cultivated species in its phylum, is an efficient and prolific degrader of cellulose. Specifically, it has a particularly high activity against crystalline cellulose that requires close physical contact with this substrate. However, unlike other known cellulolytic microbes, it does not degrade cellulose using a cellulosome or by producing high extracellular titers of cellulase enzymes. To better understand the biology of F. succinogenes, we sequenced the genome of the type strain S85 to completion. A total of 3,085 open reading frames were predicted from its 3.84 Mbp genome. Analysis of sequences predicted to encode for carbohydrate-degrading enzymes revealed an unusually high number of genes that were classified into 49 different families of glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs, carbohydrate esterases, and polysaccharide lyases. Of the 31 identified cellulases, none contain CBMs in families 1, 2, and 3, typically associated with crystalline cellulose degradation. Polysaccharide hydrolysis and utilization assays showed that F. succinogenes was able to hydrolyze a number of polysaccharides, but could only utilize the hydrolytic products of cellulose. This suggests that F. succinogenes uses its array of hemicellulose-degrading enzymes to remove hemicelluloses to gain access to cellulose. This is reflected in its genome, as F. succinogenes lacks many of the genes necessary to transport and metabolize the hydrolytic products of non-cellulose polysaccharides. The F. succinogenes genome reveals a bacterium that specializes in cellulose as its sole energy source, and provides insight into a novel strategy for cellulose degradation.

  1. Evolution of Acetoclastic Methanogenesis in Methanosarcina via Horizontal Gene Transfer from Cellulolytic Clostridia▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Fournier, Gregory P.; Gogarten, J. Peter

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that two genes required for acetoclastic methanogenesis, ackA and pta, were horizontally transferred to the ancestor of Methanosarcina from a derived cellulolytic organism in the class Clostridia. This event likely occurred within the last 475 million years, causing profound changes in planetary methane biogeochemistry.

  2. Sample handling factors affecting the enumeration of lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to compare media types and evaluate the effects of fecal storage time and temperature on the enumeration of cellulolytic bacteria and lactobacilli from horses. Fecal samples were collected from horses (n = 3) and transported to the lab (CO2, 37 ºC, 0.5 h). The samples were assign...

  3. The occurrence and distribution of cellulolytic fungi and Fusarium in seven Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Korniłłowicz-Kowalska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 45 species of cellulolytic fungi and ten Fusarium species were identified. Three genera (Chaetomium, Trichoderma, Fusarium represented 80% of the frequency of cellulolytic fungi. Of them, Chaetomium globosum, Trichoderma viride and T. koningii were some of the most frequent species. A high differentiation of the richness and frequency of species of cellulolytic fungi depending on the nest and its individual layers was observed. Reasons for the differences in the frequency and species composition of the fungi were discussed.

  4. Linking hydrolysis performance to Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic enzyme profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Linda; Rønnest, Nanna P; Jørgensen, Christian I; Olsson, Lisbeth; Stocks, Stuart M; Jørgensen, Henrik S; Hobley, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma reesei expresses a large number of enzymes involved in lignocellulose hydrolysis and the mechanism of how these enzymes work together is too complex to study by traditional methods, for example, by spiking with single enzymes and monitoring hydrolysis performance. In this study, a multivariate approach, partial least squares regression, was used to see whether it could help explain the correlation between enzyme profile and hydrolysis performance. Diverse enzyme mixtures were produced by T. reesei Rut-C30 by exploiting various fermentation conditions and used for hydrolysis of washed pretreated corn stover as a measure of enzyme performance. In addition, the enzyme mixtures were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify and quantify the different proteins. A multivariate model was applied for the prediction of enzyme performance based on the combination of different proteins present in an enzyme mixture. The multivariate model was used for identification of candidate proteins that are correlated to enzyme performance on pretreated corn stover. A very large variation in hydrolysis performance was observed and this was clearly caused by the difference in fermentation conditions. Besides β-glucosidase, the multivariate model identified several xylanases, Cip1 and Cip2, as relevant proteins to study further. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1001-1010. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26524197

  5. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a nitrogen-containing compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-05-31

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a nitrogen-containing compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  6. Reactions of Radiation-Produced Free Radicals With Bis-Complexes in Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    gamma-radiation on aqueous solution of CuII in the presence of excess and different ligand concentrations namely L=2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), and 1,1-bipyridyl (b py) was studied.It was found that CuII,was reduced to CuI-complex by CO22 ,1-and 2-hydroxyalkyl radicals from methanol, ethanol, and propane -2-ol. In the former case Cu(L)2+ was a major product. Results suggest that the value of molar absorption coefficient epsilon for the mono-complex [Cu(L)+] is about half that of the bis-complex [Cu(L)2+

  7. Analyses of volatiles produced by the African fruit fly species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břízová, Radka; Vaníčková, Lucie; Faťarová, M.; Ekesi, S.; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 385-404. ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ceratitis FAR complex * chemotaxonomy * male and female-borne volatiles * GCxGC-TOFMS * GC-EAD Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2014 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6223

  8. ISOLATION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LIGNO-CELLULOLYTIC ENZYMES OF PLEUROTUS PULMONARIUS IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalendu Das

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus pulmonarius, a member of oyster mushroom can produced lignocellulosic enzymes laccase, peroxidise and cellulase in liquid potato-dextrose medium in submerged stationary condition. The lignocellulolytic activities were assayed using the extracellular culture filtrate which was partially purified using 0- 80% ammonium sulphate saturation. Different physico-chemical studies were performed using the partially purified culture filtrate. The fungus produced more laccase and peroxidase than the cellulase. The optimum laccase production was found on 17th day whereas cellulase & peroxidase productions were found on 9th& 10th day, respectively. Km of laccase is 4.1mM against guaiacol and 1.25 mM against o-dianisidine whereas Km of peroxidase was 0.72mM and cellulase was 0.06 mM. Optimum pH of laccase was 6.0 but for peroxidase and cellulase it was 7.0. The temperature optima of cellulase (50?C was more than laccase (40?C and peroxidase (30?C. All the lignocellulosic enzymes showed a wide range of temperature and pH stabilities. Laccase and peroxidase were fully inhibited by NaCl but it was not so effective against cellulase. P. pulmonarius showed higher ligninolytic (Laccase and peroxidase activity than cellulolytic (cellulase activity. The lignocellulosic enzymes isolated from submerged fermentation of P. pulmonarius might be industrially significant as they showed a wide range of temperature and pH stabilities.

  9. Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Allman, Steve L [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, designated OB47T, was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA. The isolate was a non-motile, non-spore forming, Gram-positive rod approximately 2 m long by 0.2 m wide and grew at temperatures between 55-85oC with the optimum at 78oC. The pH range for growth was 6.0-8.0 with values of near 7.0 being optimal. Growth on cellobiose produced the fastest specific growth rates at 0.75 hr-1. The organism also displayed fermentative growth on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, starch, lactose, mannose, sucrose, galactose, xylose, arabinogalactan, Avicel, xylan, filter paper, processed cardboard, pectin, dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass and Populus. OB47T was unable to grow on mannitol, fucose, lignin, Gelrite, acetate, glycerol, ribose, sorbital, carboxymethylcellulose and casein. Yeast extract stimulated growth and thiosulfate, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfur were not reduced. Fermentation end products were mainly acetate, H2, and CO2 although lactate and ethanol were produced in 5 l batch fermentations. The G+C content of the DNA was 35 mol% and sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene placed OB47T within the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed to be designated Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov. and OB47T is the type stain (ATCC = ____, JCM = ____).

  10. Sustaining entrepreneurial business: a complexity perspective on processes that produce emergent practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Ted; Warren, Lorraine; Argyle, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the management practices in an entrepreneurial small firm which sustain the business. Using a longitudinal qualitative case study, four general processes are identified (experimentation, reflexivity, organising and sensing), that together provide a mechanism to sustain the enterprise. The analysis draws on concepts from entrepreneurship and complexity science. We suggest that an entrepreneur’s awareness of the role of these parallel processes will facilitate their approa...

  11. Complexity Management to design and produce customerspecific hydraulic controls for mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Krüßmann, Martin; Tischler, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Complexity management is the key to success for mobile machinery where the variety of customers and applications requires individual solutions. This paper presents the way Bosch Rexroth supports each OEM with hydraulic controls – from specification and conception towards application and production. It gives examples how platforms and processes are optimized according to the customer needs. The demand for flexible, short-term deliveries is met by an agile production with the technologies of In...

  12. A fast and efficient procedure to produce scFvs specific for large macromolecular complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Si; Ke, Ailong; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    We have expanded the application of antibody phage display to a new type of antigen: ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. We describe a simple and efficient method for screening antibodies specific for large intact RNPs and individual components. We also describe a fast and easy method to overcome the abundance of amber stop codons in the positive phage clones. The resulting antibodies have been used in ELISA and Western blot analysis.

  13. Biodiversity characterization of cellulolytic bacteria present on native Chaco soil by comparison of ribosomal RNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talia, Paola; Sede, Silvana M; Campos, Eleonora; Rorig, Marcela; Principi, Dario; Tosto, Daniela; Hopp, H Esteban; Grasso, Daniel; Cataldi, Angel

    2012-04-01

    Sequence analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was used to study bacterial diversity of a pristine forest soil and of two cultures of the same soil enriched with cellulolytic bacteria. Our analysis revealed high bacterial diversity in the native soil sample, evidencing at least 10 phyla, in which Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria accounted for more than 76% of all sequences. In both enriched samples, members of Proteobacteria were the most frequently represented. The majority of bacterial genera in both enriched samples were identified as Brevundimonas and Caulobacter, but members of Devosia, Sphingomonas, Variovorax, Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter and Delftia were also found. In addition, it was possible to identify cellulolytic taxa such as Acidothermus, Micromonospora, Streptomyces, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas, which indicates that this ecosystem could be an attractive source for study of novel enzymes for cellulose degradation. PMID:22202170

  14. Leaf-cutting ant fungi produce cell wall degrading pectinase complexes reminiscent of phytopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomsma Jacobus J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leaf-cutting (attine ants use their own fecal material to manure fungus gardens, which consist of leaf material overgrown by hyphal threads of the basidiomycete fungus Leucocoprinus gongylophorus that lives in symbiosis with the ants. Previous studies have suggested that the fecal droplets contain proteins that are produced by the fungal symbiont to pass unharmed through the digestive system of the ants, so they can enhance new fungus garden growth. Results We tested this hypothesis by using proteomics methods to determine the gene sequences of fecal proteins in Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants. Seven (21% of the 33 identified proteins were pectinolytic enzymes that originated from the fungal symbiont and which were still active in the fecal droplets produced by the ants. We show that these enzymes are found in the fecal material only when the ants had access to fungus garden food, and we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to show that the expression of six of these enzyme genes was substantially upregulated in the fungal gongylidia. These unique structures serve as food for the ants and are produced only by the evolutionarily advanced garden symbionts of higher attine ants, but not by the fungi reared by the basal lineages of this ant clade. Conclusions Pectinolytic enzymes produced in the gongylidia of the fungal symbiont are ingested but not digested by Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants so that they end up in the fecal fluid and become mixed with new garden substrate. Substantial quantities of pectinolytic enzymes are typically found in pathogenic fungi that attack live plant tissue, where they are known to breach the cell walls to allow the fungal mycelium access to the cell contents. As the leaf-cutting ant symbionts are derived from fungal clades that decompose dead plant material, our results suggest that their pectinolytic enzymes represent secondarily evolved adaptations that are convergent to

  15. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF GLYCEROL ON HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION OF MEADOW GRASS BY CELLULOLYTIC ACTINOMYCETES

    OpenAIRE

    Sultanova, L.; Zorin, V.; Petukhova, N.; Sharaeva, A.; Mikhailova, T.; Fedorova, V.

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that pre-treatment of meadow grass with saline water solutions containing 220 % of glycerol (temperature 120 oC, pressure 98 kPa, time 1 hour) and further washing of lignocelluloses substrate by water lead to significant increase of microorganisms growth, yield of reducing substances and KMC-cellulase activity of extracellular enzymes during the period of cellulolytic actinomycetes cultivation.

  16. Enrichment and characterization of an anaerobic cellulolytic microbial consortium SQD-1.1 from mangrove soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhao-Ming; Xu, Xun; Ruan, Ling-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Enrichment of microbial consortia provides an approach to simulate and investigate microbial communities in natural environments. In this study, a cellulolytic microbial consortium SQD-1.1 was enriched from mangrove soil of Qinglan port (Hainan, China) by 27 times continuous subcultivation under anaerobic static conditions. The consortium could completely degrade 0.2% (w/v) filter paper within 3 days and utilized it as the sole carbon source. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed a stable microbial community structure in the incubation process of 10 days and in the procedure of subcultivation. Twenty-four operational taxonomic units belonging to seven phyla were obtained from the full-length 16S rRNA gene library. Five clones, closest related to the genera Alkaliflexus, Clostridium, Alistipes, Spirochaeta, and Trichococcus, were the predominant ones. Among them, M117, phylogeneticly showing high similarity (16S rRNA gene identity, 95.3%) with the cellulolytic anaerobic bacterium Clostridium straminisolvens CSK1(T), was the potential key cellulolytic bacterium. Using the plate cultivation method, 12 strains, including one potential new species and four potential new species of new genera, were isolated. The strain P2, corresponding to the most frequently detected clone (M05) in the 16S rRNA gene library, showed both CMCase and xylanase activity and may be another important cellulolytic bacterium. The findings of cellulase activity in cell pellet and cohesion and dockerin domains in metagenome data further suggested the potential of utilization of cellulosomes by the consortium to degrade cellulose. Consortium SQD-1.1 provides a candidate for investigating the mechanism of cellulose degradation under anoxic conditions in natural environments. PMID:23529681

  17. Studies of the Extracellular Glycocalyx of the Anaerobic Cellulolytic Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7▿

    OpenAIRE

    Weimer, Paul J.; Price, Neil P. J.; Kroukamp, Otini; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Wolfaardt, Gideon M.; Van Zyl, Willem H

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, including production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As the compositions and structures of these glycocalyces have not been elucidated, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) and chemical analysis were used to characterize the glycocalyx of the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus strain 7. VP-SEM revealed that growth of this strain was accompanied b...

  18. Cellulolytic enzymes on lignocellulosic substrates in solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, M. Subhosh; Viswanath, Buddolla; Reddy, B. Rajasekhar

    2007-01-01

    The production of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus niger on lignocellulosic substrates groundnut fodder, wheat bran, rice bran and sawdust in solid state fermentation in a laboratory scale was compared. Czapek Dox liquid broth amended with cellulose (0.5%) was used to moisten lignocellulosic solid supports for cultivation of Aspergillus niger. The production of filter paperase, carboxymethyl cellulase and -glucosidase were monitored at daily intervals for 5 days. The peak production of the...

  19. Activity of Cellulolytic Enzymes Immobilized on Some Organic and Inorganic Matter of Soil

    OpenAIRE

    H. Shariatmadari; G. Emtiazi; A. A. Safari Sinejani

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic matter and clay minerals adsorb and immobilize extracellular enzymes of microorganisms and increase soil enzymes stability. This study aims to clarify the relative importance of soil organic matter and clay minerals on the cellulolytic activities of soils. Fluca prepared cellulase was immobilized on some agricultural residues and clay minerals, avicel and a sample of soil. Immobilized exoglucanase and endoglucanase were assayed at different times. Activities of the immobilized en...

  20. Engineering of a novel cellulose-adherent cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae for cellulosic biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo Liu; Shih-Hsin Ho; Kengo Sasaki; Riaan den Haan; Kentaro Inokuma; Chiaki Ogino; van Zyl, Willem H; Tomohisa Hasunuma; Akihiko Kondo

    2016-01-01

    Cellulosic biofuel is the subject of increasing attention. The main obstacle toward its economic feasibility is the recalcitrance of lignocellulose requiring large amount of enzyme to break. Several engineered yeast strains have been developed with cellulolytic activities to reduce the need for enzyme addition, but exhibiting limited effect. Here, we report the successful engineering of a cellulose-adherent Saccharomyces cerevisiae displaying four different synergistic cellulases on the cell ...

  1. Laboratory Investigations of the Complex Refractory Organic Material Produced from Irradiation of Pluto Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materese, Christopher K.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sanford, Scott A.; Imanaka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Much of Pluto's surface consists of N2 ice with smaller amounts of CH4 and CO ices. Despite the low temperature (approximately 45K), chemistry can be driven in the surface ices by radiation processing such as cosmic ray bombardment. When cosmic rays strike the surface, much of their energy is dispersed in the form of secondary electrons, which in turn drive much of the resulting chemical reactions. Laboratory experiments designed to simulate the conditions on these icy bodies may provide insight into this chemistry. Significant progress has been made in the laboratory toward understanding the smaller, simple compounds produced in the solid phase by radiation processing of (N2, CH4, CO) ices (Bohn et al. 1994; Moore & Hudson 2003; Hodyss et al. 2011; Kim and Kaiser 2012). Recently Materese et al. (2014) used a variety of techniques to better characterize the refractory materials produced from the UV photo-irradiation of N2:CH4:CO ices. However, because Pluto's atmosphere is optically thick to Lyman-alpha UV radiation it is important to re-examine the results using an alternate radiation source. Our latest work has consisted of the analysis of refractory materials produced from the electron bombardment of low temperature N2(-), CH4(-), and CO(-)containing ices (100:1:1). The ice mixture was chosen to be analogous to the known surface ices on Pluto and the radiation source was chosen to mimic the secondary electrons produced by cosmic rays bombardment. The residues were studied using multiple chemical techniques including, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic residues produced in these experiments can be seen as an analog for the refractory component of the surface of Pluto, and are compared with the residues previously obtained from UV photo-irradiation. UV and near- IR spectroscopy of the surfaces of Pluto and Charon during the encounter with

  2. Photocytotoxic activity of a nitrosyl phthalocyanine ruthenium complex--a system capable of producing nitric oxide and singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Zumira Aparecida; de Moraes, Juliana Cristina Biazzotto; Rodrigues, Fernando Postalli; de Lima, Renata Galvão; Curti, Carlos; da Rocha, Zênis Novaes; Paulo, Michele; Bendhack, Lusiane Maria; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio; Formiga, André Luiz Barboza; da Silva, Roberto Santana

    2011-08-01

    The synthesis, structural aspects, pharmacological assays, and in vitro photoinduced cytotoxic properties of [Ru(NO)(ONO)(pc)] (pc=phthalocyanine) are described. Its biological effect on the B16F10 cell line was studied in the presence and absence of visible light irradiation. At comparable irradiation levels, [Ru(NO)(ONO)(pc)] was more effective than [Ru(pc)] at inhibiting cell growth, suggesting that occurrence of nitric oxide release following singlet oxygen production upon light irradiation may be an important mechanism by which the nitrosyl ruthenium complex exhibits enhanced biological activity in cells. Following visible light activation, the [Ru(NO)(ONO)(pc)] complex displayed increased potency in B16F10 cells upon modifications to the photoinduced dose; indeed, enhanced potency was detected when the nitrosyl ruthenium complex was encapsulated in a drug delivery system. The liposome containing the [Ru(NO)(ONO)(pc)] complex was over 25% more active than the corresponding ruthenium complex in phosphate buffer solution. The activity of the complex was directly proportional to the ruthenium amount present inside the cell, as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the photocytotoxic activity was mainly due to apoptosis. Furthermore, the vasorelaxation induced by [Ru(NO)(ONO)(pc)], proposed as NO carrier, was studied in rat isolated aorta. The observed vasodilation was concentration-dependent. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate that the [Ru(NO)(ONO)(pc)] complex induces vascular relaxation and could be a potent anti-tumor agent. Nitric oxide release following singlet oxygen production upon visible light irradiation on a nitrosyl ruthenium complex produces two radicals and may elicit phototoxic responses that may find useful applications in photodynamic therapy. PMID:21726765

  3. Biological effects of clustered DNA damage produced by heavy ion beams with its complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion beams produce denser ionized region around their track, and generate cluster of damage accumulated in certain region of target DNA molecule. The damage aggregate is termed as clustered DNA damage (CDD), that is thought to be one of major drivers causes specific radiation effect for any organisms. Among any ionizing radiations generating CDD with respective degree, heavy ion beams more effectively produce CDD than low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiations such as gamma-rays and X-rays. In the present study, we evaluated how CDD is involved in the degree of radiobiological effect. Our present study had two parts; one was to analyze the structure of CDD induced by heavy ion beams used with oligodeoxyribonucleotide targets. In this part, we studied analysis procedure of number and species of respective damage in the cluster. Another part was for estimating total DNA damage in the cells irradiated with heavy ion beams, because we had no investigation for whole damage in our previous report. (author)

  4. Biological effects of clustered DNA damage produced by heavy ion beams with its complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion beams produce denser ionized region around their track, and cause accumulated damage cluster in the target DNA molecule, termed ''clustered DNA damage.'' Although any ionizing radiations can generate clustered DNA damage with respective degree, heavy ion beam might very effectively produce clustered DNA damage for a reason as mentioned thereinbefore. However, we have less knowledge about molecular mechanism how clustered DNA damage is involved in the degree of biological consequence, and relationship between the species of ionizing radiation and the result. Our previous in vitro study showed that the yields of clustered DNA damage in the target DNA was in inverse proportion to the linear energy transfer (LET) of irradiated radiation (J. Radiat. Res., 49; 133-146, 2008). This result suggests that the yield is not simply responsible to the biological consequence. Therefore, we focused on the structure of clustered DNA damage induced by heavy ion beams in this study. We evaluated the number of damaged site in the designed target oligonucleotides irradiated by gamma-rays, carbon ions and iron ions beams. Also, we estimated the intracellular yields of clustered DNA damage consisted of oxidative base lesions (clustered base damage), because we investigated only DSB not clustered base damage in the previous study. (author)

  5. A new way to produce and isolate the OH-(H2O) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zins, Emilie-Laure; Joshi, Prasad Ramesh; Krim, Lahouari

    2012-11-01

    In interstellar media, in which water is present as a major species, OH radicals can form following irradiation by energetic cosmic rays. Laboratory experiments have proved that when water ices are irradiated with energetic particles, OH-(H2O) are formed. Additionally, ground-state OH radicals may exist in the interstellar media, especially in dense interstellar clouds whose outer regions stop energetic particles. To this extent, the understanding of the reactivity of OH radicals in their ground state is of primary importance in the astrochemical context. We experimentally show that the co-injection of an OH radical beam with dilute water molecules leads to the formation of OH-(H2O) complexes on copper rhodiated mirrors maintained at 3.5 K, under a pressure of 10-5 mbar.

  6. iCTNet: A Cytoscape plugin to produce and analyze integrative complex traits networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranzini Sergio E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The speed at which biological datasets are being accumulated stands in contrast to our ability to integrate them meaningfully. Large-scale biological databases containing datasets of genes, proteins, cells, organs, and diseases are being created but they are not connected. Integration of these vast but heterogeneous sources of information will allow the systematic and comprehensive analysis of molecular and clinical datasets, spanning hundreds of dimensions and thousands of individuals. This integration is essential to capitalize on the value of current and future molecular- and cellular-level data on humans to gain novel insights about health and disease. Results We describe a new open-source Cytoscape plugin named iCTNet (integrated Complex Traits Networks. iCTNet integrates several data sources to allow automated and systematic creation of networks with up to five layers of omics information: phenotype-SNP association, protein-protein interaction, disease-tissue, tissue-gene, and drug-gene relationships. It facilitates the generation of general or specific network views with diverse options for more than 200 diseases. Built-in tools are provided to prioritize candidate genes and create modules of specific phenotypes. Conclusions iCTNet provides a user-friendly interface to search, integrate, visualize, and analyze genome-scale biological networks for human complex traits. We argue this tool is a key instrument that facilitates systematic integration of disparate large-scale data through network visualization, ultimately allowing the identification of disease similarities and the design of novel therapeutic approaches. The online database and Cytoscape plugin are freely available for academic use at: http://www.cs.queensu.ca/ictnet

  7. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  8. OPTIMAL PARAMETERS FOR THE FERMENTATION OF COMPLEX SUBSTRATES WHEN PRODUCING BIOGAS AT THE MAXIMAL METHANE CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulyash Meiramkulova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Kazakhstan oil will last for 47.4 years, while gas production - 65.6 years. Given the Kashagan reserves, something else for a longer period, that is a very short periods of time with respect to the development of state and they can be extended only by the development of a technological breakthrough. Along with the question of the ever-growing needs of the population for energy resources, there is a question about the availability of annual waste generation as the impact of the rapid growth of the urban population, which is about 4% per year ("Population" encyclopedia of Astana, 2008. To cope with both problems simultaneously, the waste may be used as energy sources by fermentation technology. Among the urban wastes the organic waste is dominated, such as vegetables, fallen leaves, etc., that have the potential to produce biogas. The use of unsuitable materials as a natural catalyst of fermentation and the time spent on fermentation, are some of the existing barriers to the development of energy resources in urban areas. For this purpose a study was conducted to optimize the ratio of urban waste, animal waste and water in combination with the time of fermentation. The study used an experimental method with the random nature of the two-factor model. The first factor is the ratio of waste, manure, and the second quantity of water - during fermentation, which is fixed to each of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18th day of the fermentation substrate. The study showed that the optimum proportion to obtain the maximum amount of biogas is a ratio of 500: 200: 300 waste, manure, and water, respectively. Furthermore, on the second day of fermentation the maximum amount of biogas produced.

  9. Cellulolytic potential of a novel strain of Paenibacillus sp. isolated from the armored catfish Parotocinclus maculicauda gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. M. de Castro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A cellulolytic bacterial strain, designated P118, isolated from the gut of the tropical fish Parotocinclus maculicauda was identified as belonging to the genus Paenibacillus based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and the 16S rRNA gene sequence. The novel strain was Gram-positive, spore-forming and rod-shaped. Catalase but not oxidase was produced. Carboxymethylcellulose was hydrolyzed but starch or gelatin was not. Acetoin production was negative whereas nitrate reduction and urease production were positive. Many carbohydrates served as carbon sources for growth. MK-7 was the predominant isoprenoid quinone. Anteiso-C15:0 (38.73% and C16:0 (20.85% were the dominant cellular fatty acids. Strain P118 was closely related to Paenibacillus amylolyticus NRRL NRS-290, P. pabuli HSCC 492, P. tundrae Ab10b, P. xylanexedens B22a, and P. tylopili MK2 with 98.3-98.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The results presented here suggest that strain P118 represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus and it is a potential strain for further studies concerning its role in the production of industrially important products from cellulosic biomass.

  10. Tribological coatings for complex mechanical elements produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition of metal dichalcogenide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerene-like MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of fluid and solid lubricants. Metal dichalcogenide films have a very low friction coefficient in vacuum, therefore they have mostly been used as solid lubricants in space and vacuum applications. Unfortunately, their use is significantly hampered by the fact that in the presence of humidity, oxygen and moisture, the low-friction properties of these materials rapidly degrade due to oxidation. The use of closed-cage MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles may eliminate this problem, although the fabrication of lubricant thin films starting from dichalcogenide nanoparticles is, to date, a difficult task. Here we demonstrate the use of supersonic cluster beam deposition for the coating of complex mechanical elements (angular contact ball bearings) with nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 thin films. We report structural and tribological characterization of the coatings in view of the optimization of tribological performances for aerospace applications. (paper)

  11. Tribological coatings for complex mechanical elements produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition of metal dichalcogenide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzoni, C.; Buttery, M.; Hampson, M. R.; Roberts, E. W.; Ducati, C.; Lenardi, C.; Cavaliere, F.; Piseri, P.; Milani, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fullerene-like MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of fluid and solid lubricants. Metal dichalcogenide films have a very low friction coefficient in vacuum, therefore they have mostly been used as solid lubricants in space and vacuum applications. Unfortunately, their use is significantly hampered by the fact that in the presence of humidity, oxygen and moisture, the low-friction properties of these materials rapidly degrade due to oxidation. The use of closed-cage MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles may eliminate this problem, although the fabrication of lubricant thin films starting from dichalcogenide nanoparticles is, to date, a difficult task. Here we demonstrate the use of supersonic cluster beam deposition for the coating of complex mechanical elements (angular contact ball bearings) with nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 thin films. We report structural and tribological characterization of the coatings in view of the optimization of tribological performances for aerospace applications.

  12. Morphology, Stability, and Application of Lycopene Microcapsules Produced by Complex Coacervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia A. Rocha-Selmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in lycopene has increased in recent years due to studies that associate it with the reduction in risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, due to its high degree of unsaturation, this carotenoid is inclined to isomerize and oxidize during processing and storage, making it difficult to use in the food industry. Microencapsulation can improve this situation, increasing its stability and making incorporation into food formulations possible. Thus, the aim of this study was to microencapsulate lycopene by complex coacervation using gelatin and gum Arabic as the encapsulating agents. The microcapsules were evaluated based on the encapsulation efficiency and their morphology and then submitted to a stability test and applied in cake making. Most of the systems studied presented spherical microcapsules with defined walls. The encapsulation efficiency values were above 90%, and the average diameter of the capsules ranged from 61 to 144 μm. The stability test showed that microencapsulation offered greater protection to the lycopene as compared to its free form. The application of nonfreeze dried coacervated microcapsules in cake making was satisfactory, but the color transference was low when freezedried coacervated microcapsules were used.

  13. Development of Detection Methods for Cellulolytic Activity of Auricularia auricula-judae

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Bae, Soon-Hwa; Choi, Seung-Yong; Park, So-Deuk; Yoo, Young-Bok; Park, Seung-Chun

    2010-01-01

    To obtain basic information on the detection of cellulolytic activity in Auricularia auricula-judae, the influences of dye reagent, pH, and temperature were assessed. Chromogenic dye (congo red, phenol red, remazol brilliant blue, and trypan blue) was individually incorporated into a medium containing either carboxymethyl-cellulose, Avicel, or D-cellobiose as a polysaccharide carbon substrate. The other assessments utilized pHs ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 and temperatures from 15~35℃. Overall, wh...

  14. Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Knudsen, I.; Elmholt, S.; Jensen, D. F.

    2002-01-01

    the Hanes-Wolf transformation of the Michaelis-Menten equation. Soil samples from 6 to 13 cm depth were collected in the early spring as undisturbed blocks from 10 arable soils with different physico-chemical properties and cultivation history. Significant correlations were found between soil...... content of total C and N. From the preliminary results obtained, it is proposed that the cellulolytic activity can be used as an enzymatic approach to study the microbial turnover of organic matter in soils and as indicator of seedling blight of barley caused by F. culmorum. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B...

  15. Characterization of a chitinase from the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Yasser; Mekasha, Sophanit; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-09-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a well-known cellulose-degrading actinomycete, which produces various glycoside hydrolases for this purpose. However, despite the presence of putative chitinase genes in its genome, T. fusca has not been reported to grow on chitin as sole carbon source. In this study, a gene encoding a putative membrane-anchored GH18 chitinase (Tfu0868) from T. fusca has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was produced as SUMO fusion protein and, upon removal of the SUMO domain, soluble pure TfChi18A was obtained with yields typically amounting to 150mg per litre of culture. The enzyme was found to be relatively thermostable (apparent Tm=57.5°C) but not particularly thermoactive, the optimum temperature being 40-45°C. TfChi18A bound to α- and β-chitin and degraded both these substrates. Interestingly, activity towards colloidal chitin was minimal and in this case, substrate inhibition was observed. TfChi18A also cleaved soluble chito-oligosaccharides and showed a clear preference for substrates having five sugars or more. While these results show that TfChi18A is a catalytically competent GH18 chitinase, the observed catalytic rates were low compared to those of well-studied GH18 chitinases. This suggests that TfChi18A is not a true chitinase and not likely to endow T. fusca with the ability to grow on chitin. PMID:27108953

  16. [Role of intramolecular bonds in stability of certain enzymes of the cellulolytic complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirdova, T M; Tsiperovikh, O S

    1976-01-01

    Stability of C1- and C2-cellulases, CX-exo- and CX-endoglucanases and beta-glucosidase of Aspergillus awamori was studied as affected by monoatomic aliphatic alcohols --methanol, ethanol, propanol and isopropanol; bi- and triatomic alcohols - ethylene glycol and glycerol, urea as well as detergents of dodecyl sulphate and sodium nonilate. The mentioned enzymes are established to manifest the highest activity in 40-60% glycerol. It is also shown that their stability is changed differently under the effect of other alcohols, urea and detergents. The latter testifies to the fact that the studied enzymes are nonidentical, in particular, they differ between themselves by a ratio of intramolecular forces which stabilize their macrostructure. PMID:1258159

  17. Identification of Potential Plants Producing Tannin-protein Complex for a-amylase as Botanical Pesticide

    OpenAIRE

    Asriyah Firdausi; Tri Agus Siswoyo; Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2013-01-01

    Research  on  the  development  of  botanical  pesticides  should  be developed  through  new  methods,  such  as  by  inhibiting the  activity  of  digestive enzymes  by  secondary  metabolites.  The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  identify some  of  potential  plants  as  a  source  of  tannin-protein  complexes  to  inhibitthe  activity  of  - amylase.  The  study  of  identification  of  potential  plants producing  the  active  ingredient  tannin-protein  complex  was  divided  into  th...

  18. In vitro Cellulose Rich Organic Material Degradation by Cellulolytic Streptomyces albospinus (MTCC 8768

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky Prasad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Cellulosic biomass is the only foreseeable sustainable source of fuels and is also one of the dominating waste materials in nature resulting from human activities. Keeping in view the environmental problems like disposal of large volumes of cellulosic wastes and shortage of fossil fuel in the world, the main aim of the present investigation was to characterize and study the cellulolytic activity of Streptomyces albospinus (MTCC 8768, isolated from municipal wastes, on natural cellulosic substrates viz. straw powder, wood powder and finely grated vegetable peels.Methodology and Result: Stanier’s Basal broth with 100 mg of each of the substrates was inoculated separately with S. albospinus (MTCC No. 8768 and incubated at 37 °C for 8 days. The cellulosic substrates were re-weighed at an interval of 2 days and the difference between the initial weight and the final weight gave the amount of substratesdegraded by the isolate. It was observed that maximum degradation was observed in the grated vegetable peels (64 mg followed by straw powder (38 mg and wood powder (28 mg over a period of 8 days.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: By the selection of efficient cellulolytic microorganisms and cost-effective operational techniques, the production of useful end products from the biodegradation of the low cost enormous stock of cellulose in nature can be very beneficial.

  19. Cellulolytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin A.; Zhao, Lishan; Cayouette, Michelle H.

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, a endoglucanase, a cellobiohydrolase, a beta-glucosidase, a xylanase, a mannanse, a .beta.-xylosidase, an arabinofuranosidase, and/or an oligomerase activity, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, and methods of making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides polypeptides having an oligomerase activity, e.g., enzymes that convert recalcitrant soluble oligomers to fermentable sugars in the saccharification of biomass. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  20. Identification of Potential Plants Producing Tannin-protein Complex for a-amylase as Botanical Pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriyah Firdausi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research  on  the  development  of  botanical  pesticides  should  be developed  through  new  methods,  such  as  by  inhibiting the  activity  of  digestive enzymes  by  secondary  metabolites.  The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  identify some  of  potential  plants  as  a  source  of  tannin-protein  complexes  to  inhibitthe  activity  of  - amylase.  The  study  of  identification  of  potential  plants producing  the  active  ingredient  tannin-protein  complex  was  divided  into  three stages,  1  identification  of  potential  plants  producing  tannin,  2  isolation  of tannin-protein  complexes,  and  3  in  vitro  test  of  tannin-protein  complexes effect  of  the  -amylase activity.  Some  of  the observed  plants  were  sidaguri  leaf (Sida rhombifolia, melinjo leaf (Gnetum gnemon, gamal leaf (Gliricidia sepium,lamtoro  leaf  (Leucaena  leucocephala ,  betel  nut  (Areca  catechu ,  and  crude gambier  (Uncaria  gambir a s  a  source of  tannins  and  melinjo  seed was  used  asprotein  source.  Betel  nut  and  melinjo  seed  were  the  best  source  of  tannin-protein  complex,  tannin  content  1.77  mg  TAE/mL  with  antioxidant  activity  of  90%,the  ability  to  inhibit  the  activity  of  -amylase by  95%  with  IC 50  values  of 10 mg/mL.Key words: Tannin, protein, -amylase, botanical pesticides,Areca catechu, Gnetum gnemon.

  1. Multiple horizontally acquired genes from fungal and prokaryotic donors encode cellulolytic enzymes in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta ricciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydlowski, L; Boschetti, C; Crisp, A; Barbosa, E G G; Tunnacliffe, A

    2015-07-25

    The bdelloid rotifer, Adineta ricciae, an anhydrobiotic microinvertebrate, exhibits a high rate of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), with as much as 10% of its transcriptome being of foreign origin. Approximately 80% of these foreign transcripts are involved in metabolic processes, and therefore bdelloids represent a useful model for assessing the contribution of HGT to biochemical diversity. To validate this concept, we focused on cellulose digestion, an unusual activity in animals, which is represented by at least 16 genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes in A. ricciae. These genes have been acquired from a variety of different donor organisms among the bacteria and fungi, demonstrating that bdelloids use diverse genetic resources to construct a novel biochemical pathway. A variable complement of the cellulolytic gene set was found in five other bdelloid species, indicating a dynamic process of gene acquisition, duplication and loss during bdelloid evolution. For example, in A. ricciae, gene duplications have led to the formation of three copies of a gene encoding a GH45 family glycoside hydrolase, at least one of which encodes a functional enzyme; all three of these gene copies are present in a close relative, Adineta vaga, but only one copy was found in each of four Rotaria species. Furthermore, analysis of expression levels of the cellulolytic genes suggests that a bacterial-origin cellobiase is upregulated upon desiccation. In summary, bdelloid rotifers have apparently developed cellulolytic functions by the acquisition and domestication of multiple foreign genes. PMID:25863176

  2. Screening of physiologically active strain of the filamentous fungi - a producer of a complex of lytic enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filamentous Aspergillus fungi were studied to obtain a producer of a complex of the enzymes specific to biodegradation of polymers of cellular walls of vegetable and microbic biomass. Strains were selected by the increased biosynthetic ability in relation to the beta-glucanase (BG), chitinase (CT), mannanase (MN), proteases and pectinases. It was estimated during deep cultivation in the environment containing wheat bran. The fullest complex of hydrolytic enzymes (glucanase, MN, CT, protease and a polygalacturonase (PG)), and also the level of enzymatic activities was in the culture liquid obtained as a result of biosynthesis of Aspergillus foetidus 37-4 (S 37-4) strain. For its cultivation the medium containing salts like potassium dihydrogen phosphate, magnesium sulfate and ammonium sulfate in optimum concentration, and also dioses (maltose, sucrose) and polysaccharides (starch, chitin, pectin) was chosen. The greatest zones of hydrolysis are traced during planting S 37-4 in agar medium containing maltose and low methoxyl citrus pectin. As the synthesis inductor of hemicellulase, MN and CT malt sprouts were used, and of PG - not clarified beet bin fibers. Cultivation was carried out on a thermostatically controlled shaker at 30 deg. C for 120 h. Increase of activity of synthesizable enzymes when using low methoxyl citrus pectin as a media part equaled for BG 5-19%, for PG - 25%, when using a maltose for CT - 100%, MN - 29%. To increase biosynthetic ability of S 37-4 as a mutagen 3-staged ultra-violet radiation (wavelength is 265 nanometers) was applied. The obtained 379-K-5 strain surpassed in activity level a parental strain BG - by 84.8%, CT - by 45.0%, MN - by 62.9%, PG - by 89.0%. The following (4th) stage of radiation led to death of the strain. In comparison with a parental S 37-4 the colony of a mutant strain possessed the bigger size and plentiful formation of an air mycelium, ability to sporogenesis was less expressed

  3. Trophoblast Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Expression Is Associated with Immune-Mediated Rejection of Bovine Fetuses Produced by Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Thomas, Aaron J; Wilhelm, Amanda; Sessions, Benjamin R; Hicks, Brady A; Schlafer, Donald H; White, Kenneth L; Davies, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Trophoblast cells from bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) conceptuses express major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins early in gestation, and this may be one cause of the significant first-trimester embryonic mortality observed in these pregnancies. MHC-I homozygous-compatible (n = 9), homozygous-incompatible (n = 8), and heterozygous-incompatible (n = 5) SCNT pregnancies were established. The control group consisted of eight pregnancies produced by artificial insemination. Uterine and placental samples were collected on Day 35 ± 1 of pregnancy, and expression of MHC-I, leukocyte markers, and cytokines were examined by immunohistochemistry. Trophoblast cells from all SCNT pregnancies expressed MHC-I, while trophoblast cells from age-matched control pregnancies were negative for MHC-I expression. Expression of MHC-I antigens by trophoblast cells from SCNT pregnancies was associated with lymphocytic infiltration in the endometrium. Furthermore, MHC-I-incompatible conceptuses, particularly the heterozygous-incompatible ones, induced a more pronounced lymphocytic infiltration than MHC-I-compatible conceptuses. Cells expressing cluster of differentiation (CD) 3, gamma/deltaTCR, and MHC-II were increased in the endometrium of SCNT pregnancies compared to the control group. CD4(+) lymphocytes were increased in MHC-I-incompatible pregnancies compared to MHC-I-compatible and control pregnancies. CD8(+), FOXP3(+), and natural killer cells were increased in MHC-I heterozygous-incompatible SCNT pregnancies compared to homozygous SCNT and control pregnancies. PMID:27385783

  4. Production of cellulolytic enzymes by Pleurotus species on lignocellulosic wastes using novel pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M P; Pandey, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Srivastava, A K; Pandey, V K; Singh, V K

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation three species of Pleurotus i.e. P. sajor—caju (P1), P. florida (P2) and P. flabellatus (P3) along with two lignocellulosic substrates namely paddy straw and wheat straw were selected for evaluation of production of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes. During the cultivation of three species of Pleurotus under in vivo condition, the two lignocellulosic substrates were treated with plants extracts (aqueous extracts of ashoka leaves (A) and neem oil (B)), hot water (H) and chemicals (C).Among all treatments, neem oil treated substrates supported better enzyme production followed by aqueous extract of ashoka leaves, hot water and chemical treatment. Between the two substrates paddy straw supported better enzyme production than wheat straw. P. flabellatus showed maximum activity of exoglucanase, endoglucanase and β—glucosidase followed by P. florida and P. sajor—caju. PMID:25535714

  5. Biological pre-treatment: Enhancing biogas production using the highly cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschlechner, Mira; Illmer, Paul; Wagner, Andreas Otto

    2015-09-01

    With regard to renewable sources of energy, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass has long been recognized as a desirable endeavor. However, the highly heterogeneous structure of lignocellulose restricts the exploitation of its promising potential in biogas plants. Hence, effective pre-treatment methods are decisive prerequisites to overcome these challenges in order to improve the utilization ratio of (ligno) cellulosic substrates during fermentation. In the present study, the application of Trichoderma viride in an aerobic upstream process prior to anaerobic digestion led up to a threefold increase in the yield of methane and total gas in a lab-scale investigation. Due to its highly efficient cellulolytic activities, T. viride seemed to be responsible for an improved nutrient availability that positively influenced the anaerobic microbiocenosis. Aerobic pre-treatment of organic matter with T. viride is therefore a promising solution to achieve higher methane yields and degradation performances without any additional energy demand, nor undesired by-product inhibition. PMID:26013693

  6. Metabolic responses of novel cellulolytic and saccharolytic agricultural soil Bacteria to oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Stefanie; Kolb, Steffen; Drake, Harold L

    2010-04-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer in terrestrial ecosystems and is degraded by microbial communities in soils. However, relatively little is known about the diversity and function of soil prokaryotes that might participate in the overall degradation of this biopolymer. The active cellulolytic and saccharolytic Bacteria in an agricultural soil were evaluated by 16S rRNA (13)C-based stable isotope probing. Cellulose, cellobiose and glucose were mineralized under oxic conditions in soil slurries to carbon dioxide. Under anoxic conditions, these substrates were converted primarily to acetate, butyrate, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and traces of propionate and iso-butyrate; the production of these fermentation end-products was concomitant with the apparent reduction of iron(III). [(13)C]-cellulose was mainly degraded under oxic conditions by novel family-level taxa of the Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi, and a known family-level taxon of Planctomycetes, whereas degradation under anoxic conditions was facilitated by the Kineosporiaceae (Actinobacteria) and cluster III Clostridiaceae and novel clusters within Bacteroidetes. Active aerobic sub-communities in oxic [(13)C]-cellobiose and [(13)C]-glucose treatments were dominated by Intrasporangiaceae and Micrococcaceae (Actinobacteria) whereas active cluster I Clostridiaceae (Firmicutes) were prevalent in anoxic treatments. A very large number (i.e. 28) of the detected taxa did not closely affiliate with known families, and active Archaea were not detected in any of the treatments. These collective findings suggest that: (i) a large uncultured diversity of soil Bacteria was involved in the utilization of cellulose and products of its hydrolysis, (ii) the active saccharolytic community differed phylogenetically from the active cellulolytic community, (iii) oxygen availability impacted differentially on the activity of taxa and (iv) different redox guilds (e.g. fermenters and iron reducers) compete or interact during

  7. Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity (MCHCA for enhanced biogas production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof ePoszytek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate in agricultural biogas plants is very popular and yields good results. However, the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, and thus biogas production, is not always satisfactory due to the slow or incomplete degradation (hydrolysis of plant matter. To enhance the solubilization of the lignocellulosic biomass various physical, chemical and biological pretreatment methods are used.The aim of this study was to select and characterize cellulose-degrading bacteria, and to construct a microbial consortium, dedicated for degradation of maize silage and enhancing biogas production from this substrate.Over one hundred strains of cellulose-degrading bacteria were isolated from: sewage sludge, hydrolyzer from an agricultural biogas plant, cattle slurry and manure. After physiological characterization of the isolates, sixteen strains (representatives of Bacillus, Providencia and Ochrobactrum genera were chosen for the construction of a Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity, called MCHCA. The selected strains had a high endoglucanase activity (exceeding 0.21 IU/mL CMCase activity and a wide range of tolerance to various physical and chemical conditions. Lab-scale simulation of biogas production using the selected strains for degradation of maize silage was carried out in a two-bioreactor system, similar to those used in agricultural biogas plants.The obtained results showed that the constructed MCHCA consortium is capable of efficient hydrolysis of maize silage, and increases biogas production by even 38%, depending on the inoculum used for methane fermentation. The results in this work indicate that the mesophilic Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity has a great potential for application on industrial scale in agricultural biogas plants.

  8. Effect of micromineral and phenylpropionic acid on performances of coccus and rod-shaped cellulolytic bacteria degrading fibre of forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius Thalib

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Performances of coccus and rod-shaped cellulolytic bacteria as inoculum for fermentation of fibrous substrate treated with growth or stimulator factors have been conducted by in vitro. The bacteria were firstly separated and purified based on their morphological shape and followed by identification of their gram type. The treatments as follow : control, Cu (1,0 ppm, Zn (6,0 ppm, Se (0,02 ppm, Fe (16 ppm, Co (0,02 ppm, Mn (4,0 ppm, Mo (0,002 ppm, and phenylpropionic acid (PPA (30 ppm. These factors were added into fermentation media individually (F.P/S and as mixture (Mix F.P/S. Substrates used were cellulose and rice straw. Measurements were bacterial digestion of drymatter (DMD, bacterial count, volatile fatty acids (VFA and NH3-N contents. Gram test showed that inoculum cellulolytic cocci and rods are gram-positive and gram-negative consecutively. The results of treatments showed that Cu, Zn, Co, Mo and PPA improve digestibility of cellulose and rice straw substrates by cellulolytic cocci significantly (p<0.05, and beside Mn, these factors increased the total count of cellulolytic cocci in fermentation medium significantly (p<0.05. The growth or stimulator factors increasing digestibility values of the substrates by cellulolytic rods significantly (p<0.05 were Cu, Zn, Se, Fe, Co, Mn and Mo (except Mn for rice straw substrate. Only 4 elements of the growth and stimulator factors increasing the total count of cellulolytic rods during fermentation of cellulose and rice straw substrates significantly (p<0.05 that is Zn, Co, Mn and Mo. Digestibility of cellulose by cocci is higher than by rods (34.65% vs 29.87%, however, the digestibility of rice straw by both bacteria did not show difference. Digestibility of both cellulose and rice straw substrates was improved by cocci and rods combination and improved further when treated with Mix F.P/S. Parameters of fermentation media ecosystem measured (i.e. total count of bacteria, VFA and NH3-N were

  9. Temperature-dependent dissociation of homologous in-vivo produced complexes of 125I-des-AB fibrin monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des-AB fibrin monomers are prepared by incubation of fibrinogen with thrombin in the presence of aprotinin and EDTA. Plasma samples of rabbits taken at fixed time intervals show an exponential decrease of radioactivity after incorporation of fibrin monomers prepared by means of 125-I-labelled fibrinogen. The fibrin monomer complexes have been separated from the dimers or the fibrinogen by agarose gel filtration for the determination of radioactivity decrease in the various fractions. The results show a specific curve of degradation of the des-AB fibrin monomer complexes with an interpolated half-time of 13.5 hours. The experiments furthermore showed that these soluble fibrin monomer complexes will dissociate into equal parts of complexes of lower molecular weight and monomeric fibrin subsequent to a temperature increase from 200C to 370C. It can be assumed that this dissociation process favourably affects the capability of intravascular fibrin to act as a solubility promoting agent. (orig.)

  10. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  11. Isolation, Screening, and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from Natural Reserves in the Subtropical Region of China and Optimization of Cellulase Production by Paenibacillus terrae ME27-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From different natural reserves in the subtropical region of China, a total of 245 aerobic bacterial strains were isolated on agar plates containing sugarcane bagasse pulp as the sole carbon source. Of the 245 strains, 22 showed hydrolyzing zones on agar plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose after Congo-red staining. Molecular identification showed that the 22 strains belonged to 10 different genera, with the Burkholderia genus exhibiting the highest strain diversity and accounting for 36.36% of all the 22 strains. Three isolates among the 22 strains showed higher carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase activity, and isolate ME27-1 exhibited the highest CMCase activity in liquid culture. The strain ME27-1 was identified as Paenibacillus terrae on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as well as physiological and biochemical properties. The optimum pH and temperature for CMCase activity produced by the strain ME27-1 were 5.5 and 50°C, respectively, and the enzyme was stable at a wide pH range of 5.0–9.5. A 12-fold improvement in the CMCase activity (2.08 U/mL of ME27-1 was obtained under optimal conditions for CMCase production. Thus, this study provided further information about the diversity of cellulose-degrading bacteria in the subtropical region of China and found P. terrae ME27-1 to be highly cellulolytic.

  12. Streptomyces abietis sp. nov., a cellulolytic bacterium isolated from soil of a pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Satomi, Masataka; Fukui, Youhei; Matsunobu, Shun; Morifuku, Youji; Enokida, Yuya

    2013-12-01

    Cellulolytic bacteria A191(T), A192 and A193 isolated from the soil of Sakhalin fir forest in Hokkaido, Japan were studied phenotypically, genotypically and phylogenetically. Analysis of their 16S rRNA gene and gyrB sequences and DNA base composition suggested that these isolates were conspecific and members of the genus Streptomyces. However, levels of 16S rRNA gene and gyrB sequence similarity between the isolates and the type strains of their closest relatives in the genus Streptomyces were no higher than 97.9 and 95.0 %, respectively, implying that these isolates were distinctive. Moreover, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and physiological characterization clearly differentiated these isolates from their closest neighbours. It is therefore concluded that these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces abietis is proposed. The type strain is A191(T) ( = NBRC 109094(T) = DSM 42080(T)). PMID:23990653

  13. [Morphological and Physiological Properties of the Micromycete Arthrobotrys longa, a Producer of Longolytin, a Proteolytic Complex with a Thrombolytic Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkova, T S; Kornienko, E I; Osmolovskiy, A A; Kreier, V G; Baranova, N A; Egorov, N S

    2016-01-01

    Production of proteinases with plasmin-like and plasminogen-activating activities by a micromycete Arthrobotrys longa 1 was studied. Polycyclic growth of the producer in submerged cultures was observed, with an endogenous rhythm of the periods of intense microconidia formation alternating with the phases of drastic increase in the content of producing mycelium. The highest plasminogen-like and plasminogen-activating activities (up to 1000 and 500 cond. U/mL, respectively) were found to correlate with the polycyclic growth of the producer, coinciding with the stage of microconidia germination. Enhanced secretion of proteinases with plasminogen-like and plasminogen-activating activity was found to be associated with increased specific growth rate of A. longa l. PMID:27476205

  14. Proteomics based compositional analysis of complex cellulase-hemicellulase mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chundawat, Shishir P.; Lipton, Mary S.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Gao, Dahai; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E.

    2011-10-07

    Efficient deconstruction of cellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars for fuel and chemical production is accomplished by a complex mixture of cellulases, hemicellulases and accessory enzymes (e.g., >50 extracellular proteins). Cellulolytic enzyme mixtures, produced industrially mostly using fungi like Trichoderma reesei, are poorly characterized in terms of their protein composition and its correlation to hydrolytic activity on cellulosic biomass. The secretomes of commercial glycosyl hydrolase producing microbes was explored using a proteomics approach with high-throughput quantification using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Here, we show that proteomics based spectral counting approach is a reasonably accurate and rapid analytical technique that can be used to determine protein composition of complex glycosyl hydrolase mixtures that also correlates with the specific activity of individual enzymes present within the mixture. For example, a strong linear correlation was seen between Avicelase activity and total cellobiohydrolase content. Reliable, quantitative and cheaper analytical methods that provide insight into the cellulosic biomass degrading fungal and bacterial secretomes would lead to further improvements towards commercialization of plant biomass derived fuels and chemicals.

  15. Preparation and surface functionalization of MWCNTs: study of the composite materials produced by the interaction with an iron phthalocyanine complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotubes [CNTs] were synthesized by the catalytic vapor decomposition method. Thereafter, they were functionalized in order to incorporate the oxygen groups (OCNT and subsequently the amine groups (ACNT. All three CNTs (the as-synthesized and functionalized underwent reaction with an iron organometallic complex (FePcS, iron(III phthalocyanine-4,4",4",4""-tetrasulfonic acid, in order to study the nature of the interaction between this complex and the CNTs and the potential formation of nanocomposite materials. Transmission electronic microscopy, N2 adsorption at 77 K, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed desorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were the characterization techniques employed to confirm the successful functionalization of CNTs as well as the type of interaction existing with the FePcS. All results obtained led to the same conclusion: There were no specific chemical interactions between CNTs and the fixed FePcS.

  16. Synergistic Effect of Simple Sugars and Carboxymethyl Cellulose on the Production of a Cellulolytic Cocktail from Bacillus sp. AR03 and Enzyme Activity Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Adriana P; Pisa, José H; Valdeón, Daniel H; Perotti, Nora I; Martínez, María A

    2016-04-01

    A cellulase-producing bacterium isolated from pulp and paper feedstock, Bacillus sp. AR03, was evaluated by means of a factorial design showing that peptone and carbohydrates were the main variables affecting enzyme production. Simple sugars, individually and combined with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), were further examined for their influence on cellulase production by strain AR03. Most of the mono and disaccharides assayed presented a synergistic effect with CMC. As a result, a peptone-based broth supplemented with 10 g/L sucrose and 10 g/L CMC maximized enzyme production after 96 h of cultivation. This medium was used to produce endoglucanases in a 1-L stirred tank reactor in batch mode at 30 °C, which reduced the fermentation period to 48 h and reaching 3.12 ± 0.02 IU/mL of enzyme activity. Bacillus sp. AR03 endoglucanases showed an optimum temperature of 60 °C and a pH of 6.0 with a wide range of pH stability. Furthermore, presence of 10 mM Mn(2+) and 5 mM Co(2+) produced an increase of enzyme activity (246.7 and 183.7 %, respectively), and remarkable tolerance to NaCl, Tween 80, and EDTA was also observed. According to our results, the properties of the cellulolytic cocktail from Bacillus sp. AR03 offer promising features in view of potential biorefinery applications. PMID:26797928

  17. Occurrence of ST23 Complex Phylogroup A Escherichia coli Isolates Producing Extended-Spectrum AmpC β-Lactamase in a French Hospital▿

    OpenAIRE

    Crémet, Lise; Caroff, Nathalie; Giraudeau, Cécile; Dauvergne, Sandie; Lepelletier, Didier; Alain REYNAUD; Corvec, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Extended-spectrum AmpC β-lactamase (ESAC) Escherichia coli producers were investigated over a 5-year period. Eleven isolates presenting a strong ampC promoter and different strategic AmpC mutations, including two newly described modifications (A292V and an L-A-A insertion at 295), were characterized. All the isolates belonged to phylogenetic group A and to the ST23 complex.

  18. Comparative 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-Deficient, l-Valine-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Bartek, Tobias; Blombach, Bastian; Lang, Siegmund; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    l-Valine can be formed successfully using C. glutamicum strains missing an active pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC). Wild-type C. glutamicum and four PDHC-deficient strains were compared by 13C metabolic flux analysis, especially focusing on the split ratio between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Compared to the wild type, showing a carbon flux of 69% ± 14% through the PPP, a strong increase in the PPP flux was observed in PDHC-deficient strains with a maximum o...

  19. Exploring dynamical complexity in diffusion driven predator-prey systems: Effect of toxin producing phytoplankton and spatial heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, dynamical complexities in two reaction-diffusion (RD) model systems are explored. A spatial heterogeneity in the form of linear spatial gradient in the reproductive growth rate of the phytoplankton is incorporated in both the model systems. Extra mortality of the zooplankton due to toxin production by the phytoplankton is included in the second reaction diffusion model system. Effect of toxin production and spatial heterogeneity in the model systems are studied. Toxin production does not seem to have an appreciable effect on the asymptotic dynamics of the model systems. On the other hand, spatial heterogeneity does influence the dynamics. In particular, it increases the frequency of occurrence of chaos as evident from two dimensional parameter scans. Both these model systems display short term recurrent chaos [Rai V. Chaos in natural populations: edge or wedge? Ecol Complex 2004;1: 127-38] as they reside on 'edges of chaos' (EOC) [Rai V, Upadhyay RK. Evolving to the edge of chaos: chance or necessity? Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;30:1074-87]. This suggests that the ecological systems have a tendency to evolve to EOC. The study corroborates the inferences drawn from an earlier study by Rai and Upadhyay [Rai V, Upadhyay RK. Evolving to the edge of chaos: chance or necessity? Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;30:1074-87]. The system's dynamics is largely unpredictable and admits bursts of short-term predictability.

  20. Mechanism of Formation and Stabilization of Nanoparticles Produced by Heating Electrostatic Complexes of WPI-Dextran Conjugate and Chondroitin Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xiuling; Yu, Jingyang; Karangwa, Eric; Xia, Shuqin; Zhang, Xiaoming; Jia, Chengsheng

    2016-07-13

    Protein conformational changes were demonstrated in biopolymer nanoparticles, and molecular forces were studied to elucidate the formation and stabilization mechanism of biopolymer nanoparticles. The biopolymer nanoparticles were prepared by heating electrostatic complexes of whey protein isolate (WPI)-dextran conjugate (WD) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS) above the denaturation temperature and near the isoelectric point of WPI. The internal characteristics of biopolymer nanoparticles were analyzed by several spectroscopic techniques. Results showed that grafted dextran significantly (p protein conformational changes in WD and ChS (WDC) during heat treatment. In addition, hydrophobic bonds were the major molecular force for the formation and stabilization of biopolymer nanoparticles. However, hydrogen bonds slightly influenced their formation and stabilization. Ionic bonds only promoted the formation of biopolymer nanoparticles, while disulfide bonds partly contributed to their stability. This work will be beneficial to understand protein conformational changes and molecular forces in biopolymer nanoparticles, and to prepare the stable biopolymer nanoparticles from heating electrostatic complexes of native or glycosylated protein and polysaccharide. PMID:27329490

  1. Optimization of productions of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus niger using residue of mango a substrate Otimização da produção de enzimas celulolíticas obtidas de Aspergillus niger utilizando o resíduo da manga como substrato

    OpenAIRE

    Tamires Carvalho dos Santos; Ingrid Souza Cavalcanti; Renata Cristina Ferreira Bonomo; Nivio Batista Santana; Marcelo Franco

    2011-01-01

    The present paper analyses the effects of water activity (0.88, 0.94 and 0.97) and of fermentation time (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours) on the kinetic activity of enzymes cellulolytic, produced during the solid state fermentation of waste from the improvement of mango, with the aid of fungus species Aspergillus niger. Solid state fermentation was carried out at 35°C inside a bacteriological incubator. The statistical results indicated that the best activity for enzyme CMCase was 7.26U g-1 ...

  2. Comparisons and Contrasts Between Mediterranean Flood-Producing Orographic Storms and Tropical Cyclones Modified by Complex Orography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Tripoli, Gregory J.; Lee, Chun-Woo; Mehta, Amita; Mugnai, Alberto; Panegrossi, Giulia; Sohn, Byung-Ju

    2003-01-01

    Often, late-year, flood-producing storms in the Mediterranean Alps region arise from baroclinic disturbances developing on westerly longwaves, with the incipient storm circulations appearing well west of the flood zone. Regardless of the genesis locations and before the storms begin their flow interactions with the orography of the Mediterranean Alps, a process which can produce intense long-lived rainfall over the mountainous terrain of Italy and France, most of their moisture is drawn from warm Mediterranean waters while important elements of their thermodynamic structure are derived from airmass properties originating in north Africa and the Mediterranean basin itself. In fact, because of strong thermodynamic contrasts between the baroclinic zone producing the incipient disturbance and high potential temperature air from the south advecting into and wrapping around the storm center, a Mediterranean storm whose origins are from an evolving shortwave baroclinic perturbation, can become a quasi-warm core hybrid in term of its energetics composition, a process somewhat akin to the development of polar lows. This process begs the question of whether there are similarities between the autumn-winter season flood producing storms of the Mediterranean Alps and warm core tropical cyclones which become altered dynamically and thermodynamically by landfall over steep orographic terrain. This study investigates, from a comparison and contrast perspective, how the similarities and differences between the two types of storms manifest themselves over their respective life cycles. Before the orographically-induced precipitation-release stage in which both types of storm have evolved to the same hydrometeorlogical conclusion, the two storm categories are transforming from entirely distinctive origins, i.e., the classic eastward traveling, baroclinic mid-latitude cyclone forming in western Europe, and the classic eastward-traveling, warm core tropical cyclone developing in the

  3. Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity (MCHCA) for Enhanced Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poszytek, Krzysztof; Ciezkowska, Martyna; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate in agricultural biogas plants is very popular and yields good results. However, the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, and thus biogas production, is not always satisfactory due to the slow or incomplete degradation (hydrolysis) of plant matter. To enhance the solubilization of the lignocellulosic biomass various physical, chemical and biological pretreatment methods are used. The aim of this study was to select and characterize cellulose-degrading bacteria, and to construct a microbial consortium, dedicated for degradation of maize silage and enhancing biogas production from this substrate. Over 100 strains of cellulose-degrading bacteria were isolated from: sewage sludge, hydrolyzer from an agricultural biogas plant, cattle slurry and manure. After physiological characterization of the isolates, 16 strains (representatives of Bacillus, Providencia, and Ochrobactrum genera) were chosen for the construction of a Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity, called MCHCA. The selected strains had a high endoglucanase activity (exceeding 0.21 IU/mL CMCase activity) and a wide range of tolerance to various physical and chemical conditions. Lab-scale simulation of biogas production using the selected strains for degradation of maize silage was carried out in a two-bioreactor system, similar to those used in agricultural biogas plants. The obtained results showed that the constructed MCHCA consortium is capable of efficient hydrolysis of maize silage, and increases biogas production by even 38%, depending on the inoculum used for methane fermentation. The results in this work indicate that the mesophilic MCHCA has a great potential for application on industrial scale in agricultural biogas plants. PMID:27014244

  4. Studies of the extracellular glycocalyx of the anaerobic cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Paul J; Price, Neil P J; Kroukamp, Otini; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Van Zyl, Willem H

    2006-12-01

    Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, including production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As the compositions and structures of these glycocalyces have not been elucidated, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) and chemical analysis were used to characterize the glycocalyx of the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus strain 7. VP-SEM revealed that growth of this strain was accompanied by the formation of thin cellular extensions that allowed the bacterium to adhere to cellulose, followed by formation of a ramifying network that interconnected individual cells to one another and to the unraveling cellulose microfibrils. Extraction of 48-h-old whole-culture pellets (bacterial cells plus glycocalyx [G] plus residual cellulose [C]) with 0.1 N NaOH released carbohydrate and protein in a ratio of 1:5. Boiling of the cellulose fermentation residue in a neutral detergent solution removed almost all of the adherent cells and protein while retaining a residual network of adhering noncellular material. Trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis of this residue (G plus C) released primarily glucose, along with substantial amounts of xylose and mannose, but only traces of galactose, the most abundant sugar in most characterized bacterial exopolysaccharides. Linkage analysis and characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that most of the glucosyl units were not present as partially degraded cellulose. Calculations suggested that the energy demand for synthesis of the nonprotein fraction of EPS by this organism represents only a small fraction (<4%) of the anabolic ATP expenditure of the bacterium. PMID:17028224

  5. Producing Zirconium Diboride Components with Complex, Near-Net Shape Geometries by Aqueous Room-Temperature Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Youngblood, Jeffrey; Trice, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature injection molding is proposed as a novel, low-cost and more energy efficient manufacturing process capable of forming complex-shaped zirconium diboride (ZrB2) parts. This innovative processing method utilized aqueous suspensions with high powder loading and a minimal amount (5 vol.) of water-soluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was used as a viscosity modifier. Rheological characterization was performed to evaluate the room-temperature flow properties of ZrB2-PVP suspensions. ZrB2 specimens were fabricated with high green body strength and were machinable prior to binder removal despite their low polymer content. After binder burnout and pressureless sintering, the bulk density and microstructure of specimens were characterized using Archimedes technique and scanning electron microscopy. X-Ray Diffraction was used to determine the phase compositions present in sintered specimens. Ultimate strength of sintered specimens will be determined using ASTM C1323-10 compressive C-ring test.

  6. Unsteady separated flows produced by complex harmonic motions: Investigation of wing-flow interactions elicited by a mechanical model simulating dragonfly wing kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasman, Daniel

    1989-12-01

    Attention was drawn to the flying skill of dragonflies by many aerodynamicists. While some have tried to explain this exceptional flight capability using known steady aerodynamics, there was growing realization by others that the dragonfly uses principles of unsteady separated flow to sustain flight. The moving wings generate shear flows that accumulate vorticity and form vortices. In an effort to describe the phenomenon and possibly derive some of the underlying unsteady principles, a mechanical model of the dragonfly was built simulating all aspects of wing kinematics of the dragonfly. Flow visualization tests revealed complex yet highly organized flow during changes in parameters of the model wing kinematics. Each wing kinematic element produces a distinct vortex structure. Parameters such as reduced frequency, pitching/plunging frequency ratio, wing phase relations and non-pitched angle of attack control the wing-flow interactions. Changes in the parameters result in changes in the interactons that were cataloged into wing-vortex and vortex-vortex interactons. In the narrow range of parameter combinations that is used by the dragonfly, vortices fuse with each other to form much larger and more cohesive vortex structures. A complex starting vortex mechanism was identified. Since each of the kinematic elements possesses a starting motion, a vortex is initiated when each motion starts. Upon motion termination, the vortex sheds. In harmonic motion this vortex production and shedding occurs with every new cycle. Eight kinematic elements per cycle produce eight vortex structures that interact harmonically to generate instantaneous aerodynamic force. Thus, complex harmonic wing motion produces complex harmonic circulation using mechanisms very similar to the interference phenomena of waves. Tuning of parameter values controls this interference.

  7. Cyclodextrin-Complexed Ocimum basilicum Leaves Essential Oil Increases Fos Protein Expression in the Central Nervous System and Produce an Antihyperalgesic Effect in Animal Models for Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone S. Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O. basilicum leaves produce essential oils (LEO rich in monoterpenes. The short half-life and water insolubility are limitations for LEO medical uses. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD has been employed to improve the pharmacological properties of LEO. We assessed the antihyperalgesic profile of LEO, isolated or complexed in β-CD (LEO/β-CD, on an animal model for fibromyalgia. Behavioral tests: mice were treated every day with either LEO/β-CD (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o., LEO (25 mg/kg, p.o., tramadol (TRM 4 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle (saline, and 60 min after treatment behavioral parameters were assessed. Therefore, mice were evaluated for mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey, motor coordination (Rota-rod and muscle strength (Grip Strength Metter in a mice fibromyalgia model. After 27 days, we evaluated the central nervous system (CNS pathways involved in the effect induced by experimental drugs through immunofluorescence protocol to Fos protein. The differential scanning analysis (DSC, thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG and infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR curves indicated that the products prepared were able to incorporate the LEO efficiently. Oral treatment with LEO or LEO-βCD, at all doses tested, produced a significant reduction of mechanical hyperalgesia and we were able to significantly increase Fos protein expression. Together, our results provide evidence that LEO, isolated or complexed with β-CD, produces analgesic effects on chronic non-inflammatory pain as fibromyalgia.

  8. Exploration of the key functional proteins from an efficient cellulolytic microbial consortium using dilution-to-extinction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Hanguang; Zhu, Xiangdong; Lai, Fenju; Zhai, Zhijun; Wang, Yuanxiu

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, the cellulose binding proteins (CBPs) secreted by a putative cellulolytic microbial consortium were isolated and purified by affinity digestion. The purified CBPs were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Using mass spectrometric analyses, eight CBPs were identified and annotated to be similar to known proteins secreted by Clostridium clariflavum DSM 19732 and Paenibacillus sp. W-61. In addition, in combination with dilution-to-extinction approach and zymogram analysis technique, CBPs 6 (97kDa) and 12 (52kDa) were confirmed to be the key functional proteins that influence cellulolytic activities. Moreover, structural domain analyses and enzymatic activity detection indicated that CBPs 6 and 12 contained glycoside hydrolase families (GH) 9 and 48 catalytic modules, which both revealed endoglucandase and xylanase activities. It was suggested that the coexistence of GH9 and GH48 catalytic domains present in these two proteins could synergistically promote the efficient degradation of cellulose. PMID:27155425

  9. Kinetic transcriptome analysis reveals an essentially intact induction system in a cellulase hyper-producer Trichoderma reesei strain

    OpenAIRE

    Poggi-Parodi, Dante; Bidard, Frédérique; Pirayre, Aurélie; Portnoy, Thomas; Blugeon, Corinne; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P.; Le Crom, Stéphane; Margeot, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is the main industrial cellulolytic enzyme producer. Several strains have been developed in the past using random mutagenesis, and despite impressive performance enhancements, the pressure for low-cost cellulases has stimulated continuous research in the field. In this context, comparative study of the lower and higher producer strains obtained through random mutagenesis using systems biology tools (genome and transcriptome sequencing) can ...

  10. RICHNESS, CELLULOLYTIC ACTIVITY, AND FUNGICIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF FUNGI FROM A BIRD BIOLOGICAL COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Arenas-Castro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBiological collections in natural history museums serve important purposes to the scientific community and the general public, however, their value and utility might be diminished by biodeterioration. We studied a biological collection that represents more than sixty years of avifauna sampling of Colombia, the country with the highest bird diversity. An initial inspection of the collection showed that the general appearance of some specimens was compromised by mold-like growth on their surfaces. We aimed at (i identifying the taxonomic affiliation of these fungi, (ii evaluating their cellulolytic activity, and (iii probing chemical agents that could be utilized to control their growth. The most common fungi genera were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Chaetomium, and Trichophyton, most of which can degrade cellulose. Zinc chloride and salicylic acid showed to be effective fungicides. Based on this, we propose some actions to control the fungi-pest in this biological collection of birds.RESUMENLas colecciones biológicas en los museos de historia natural juegan un papel importante tanto para la comunidad científica como para el público en general. Sin embargo, su valor y utilidad pueden verse afectados por la biodeterioración de sus ejemplares. Se estudio una colección biológica de aves que representa más de sesenta años de esfuerzo de muestreo de la avifauna del país más rico en aves. Una inspección inicial mostró que la apariencia general de algunos de los especímenes de la colección se encontraba afectada por hongos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron (i identificar la afiliación taxonómica de los hongos, (ii determinar la actividad celulolítica y (iii probar agentes químicos que puedan ser utilizados para controlar su desarrollo. Los géneros de hongos más comunes fueron Aspergillus, Penicillium, Chaetomium y Trichophyton, de los cuales la mayoría presentan la capacidad de degradar celulosa. Adicionalmente, el cloruro de

  11. Utilization of mixed cellulolytic microbes from termite extract, elephant faecal solution and buffalo ruminal fluid to increase in vitro digestibility of King Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Prabowo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is a compound of plant cell walls which is difficult to be degraded because it composed of glucose monomers linked by β-(1.4-bound. It will be hydrolysed by cellulase enzyme secreted by cellulolytic microbes. The effective digestion of cellulose needs high activity of cellulase enzyme. This research aims to increase in vitro king grass digestibility utilizing mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid. Twelve syringes contained gas test media were randomly divided into four treatments based on sources of microbe (SM, namely: S (SM: cattle ruminal fluid [S], RGK (SM: mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid [RGK], with composition 1 : 1 : 1, S-RGK (SM: S + RGK, with composition 1:1, and TM (without given treatment microbe. Digestibility was measured using gas test method. Average of gas production treatment of S-RGK (70.2 + 0.6 ml was higher and significantly different (P<0.01 compared to treatment of S (60.3 + 0.8 ml, RGK (40.8 + 2.3 ml, and TM (13.3 + 2.0 ml. Utilization of mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid (RGK that combined with microbes of cattle ruminal fluid (S could increase in vitro digestibility of king grass.

  12. Composition and microstructure alteration of triticale grain surface after processing by enzymes of cellulase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the pericarp tissue of grain have considerable strength and stiffness, that has an adverse effect on quality of whole-grain bread. Thereby, there exists the need for preliminary chemical and biochemical processing of durable cell walls before industrial use. Increasingly used in the production of bread finds an artificial hybrid of the traditional grain crops of wheat and rye - triticale, grain which has high nutritional value. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the influence of cellulose complex (Penicillium canescens enzymes on composition and microstructure alteration of triticale grain surface, for grain used in baking. Triticale grain was processed by cellulolytic enzyme preparations with different composition (producer is Penicillium canescens. During experiment it is found that triticale grain processing by enzymes of cellulase complex leads to an increase in the content of water-soluble pentosans by 36.3 - 39.2%. The total amount of low molecular sugars increased by 3.8 - 10.5 %. Studies show that under the influence of enzymes the microstructure of the triticale grain surface is changing. Microphotographs characterizing grain surface structure alteration in dynamic (every 2 hours during 10 hours of substrate hydrolysis are shown. It is found that the depth and direction of destruction process for non-starch polysaccharides of grain integument are determined by the composition of the enzyme complex preparation and duration of exposure. It is found, that xylanase involved in the modification of hemicelluloses fiber having both longitudinal and radial orientation. Hydrolysis of non-starch polysaccharides from grain shells led to increase of antioxidant activity. Ferulic acid was identified in alcoholic extract of triticale grain after enzymatic hydrolysis under the influence of complex preparation containing cellulase, xylanase and β-glucanase. Grain processing by independent enzymes containing in complex

  13. Intrathecally administered D-cycloserine produces nociceptive behavior through the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ion-channel complex acting on the glycine recognition site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan-No, Koichi; Esashi, Akihisa; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Niijima, Fukie; Furuta, Seiichi; Sato, Takumi; Satoh, Susumu; Yasuhara, Hajime; Tadano, Takeshi

    2007-05-01

    Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of D-cycloserine (100 and 300 fmol), a partial agonist of the glycine recognition site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor ion-channel complex, produced a behavioral response mainly consisting of biting and/or licking of the hindpaw and the tail along with slight hindlimb scratching directed toward the flank in mice, which peaked at 5 - 10 min and almost disappeared at 15 min after the injection. The behavior induced by D-cycloserine (300 fmol) was dose-dependently inhibited by an intraperitoneal injection of morphine (0.5-2 mg/kg), suggesting that the behavioral response is related to nociception. The nociceptive behavior was also dose-dependently inhibited by i.t. co-administration of 7-chlorokynurenic acid (0.25-4 nmol), a competitive antagonist of the glycine recognition site on the NMDA receptor ion-channel complex; D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (62.5-500 pmol), a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist; MK-801 (62.5-500 pmol), an NMDA ion-channel blocker; ifenprodil (0.5-8 nmol); arcaine (31-125 pmol); and agmatine (0.1-10 pmol), all being antagonists of the polyamine recognition site on the NMDA receptor ion-channel complex. However, [D-Phe7,D-His9]-substance P(6-11), a specific antagonist for substance P (NK1) receptors, and MEN-10,376, a tachykinin NK2-receptor antagonist, had no effect on D-cycloserine-induced nociceptive behavior. These results in the mouse spinal cord suggest that D-cycloserine-induced nociceptive behavior is mediated through the activation of the NMDA receptor ion-channel complex by acting on the glycine recognition site and that it does not involve the tachykinin receptor mechanism. PMID:17452810

  14. Structure of the nucleotide-binding subunit B of the energy producer A1A0 ATP synthase in complex with adenosine diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Manimekalai, Malathy Sony Subramanian; Grüber, Gerhard

    2008-11-01

    A1A0 ATP synthases are the major energy producers in archaea. Like the related prokaryotic and eukaryotic F1F0 ATP synthases, they are responsible for most of the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate. The catalytic events of A1A0 ATP synthases take place inside the A3B3 hexamer of the A1 domain. Recently, the crystallographic structure of the nucleotide-free subunit B of Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 A1A0 ATP synthase has been determined at 1.5 A resolution. To understand more about the nucleotide-binding mechanism, a protocol has been developed to crystallize the subunit B-ADP complex. The crystallographic structure of this complex has been solved at 2.7 A resolution. The ADP occupies a position between the essential phosphate-binding loop and amino-acid residue Phe149, which are involved in the binding of the antibiotic efrapeptin in the related F1F0 ATP synthases. This trapped ADP location is about 13 A distant from its final binding site and is therefore called the transition ADP-binding position. In the trapped ADP position the structure of subunit B adopts a different conformation, mainly in its C-terminal domain and also in the final nucleotide-binding site of the central alphabeta-domain. This atomic model provides insight into how the substrate enters into the nucleotide-binding protein and thereby into the catalytic A3B3 domain. PMID:19020348

  15. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α inhibition produced anti-allodynia effect and suppressed inflammatory cytokine production in early stage of mouse complex regional pain syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hung-Tsung; Lin, Ya-Chi; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Tsai, Yu-Chuan; Liu, Yen-Chin

    2016-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is related to microcirculation impairment associated with tissue hypoxia and peripheral cytokine overproduction in the affected limb. Previous studies suggest that the pathogenesis involves hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and exaggerated regional inflammatory response. 1-methylpropyl 2-imidazolyl disulfide (PX-12) acts as the thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) inhibitor and decreases the level of HIF-1α, and can rapidly be metabolized for Trx-1 redox inactivation. This study hypothesized that PX-12 can decrease the cytokine production for nociceptive sensitization in the hypoxia-induced pain model. CD1 mice weighing around 30 g were used. The animal CRPS model was developed via the chronic post-ischaemic pain (CPIP) model. The model was induced by using O-rings on the ankles of the mice hind limbs to produce 3-h ischaemia-reperfusion injury on the paw. PX-12 (25 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg) was given through tail vein injection immediately after ischaemia. Animal behaviour was tested using the von Frey method for 7 days. Local paw skin tissue was harvest from three groups (control, 5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg) 2 h after injection of PX-12. The protein expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and HIF-1α was analysed with the Western blotting method. Mice significantly present an anti-allodynia effect in a dose-related manner after the PX-12 administration. Furthermore, PX-12 not only decreased the expression of HIF-1α but also decreased the expression of IL-1β over the injured palm. This study, therefore, shows the first evidence of the anti-allodynia effect of PX-12 in a CPIP animal model for pain behaviour. The study concluded that inhibition of HIF-1α may produce an analgesic effect and the associated suppression of inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in a CPIP model. PMID:26711019

  16. Effect of Feeding Palm Oil By-Products Based Diets on Total Bacteria, Cellulolytic Bacteria and Methanogenic Archaea in the Rumen of Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: cont...

  17. The industrial applicability of purified cellulase complex indigenously produced by Trichoderma viride through solid-state bio-processing of agro-industrial and municipal paper wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irshad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An indigenous strain of Trichoderma viride produced high titers of cellulase complex in solid-state bio-processing of agro-industrial orange peel waste, which was used as the growth-supporting substrate. When the conditions of the SSF medium containing 15 g orange peel (50% w/w moisture inoculated with 5 mL of inoculum were optimal, the maximum productions of endoglucanase (655 ± 5.5 U/mL, exoglucanase (412 ± 4.3 U/mL, and β-glucosidase (515 ± 3.7 U/mL were recorded after 4 days of incubation at pH 5 and 35 °C. The enzyme with maximum activity (endoglucanase was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and Sephadex G-100 column gel filtration chromatographic technique. Endoglucanase was 5.5-fold purified with specific activity of 498 U/mg in comparison to the crude enzyme. The enzyme was shown to have a molecular weight of 58 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The shelf life profile revealed that the enzyme could be stored at room temperature (30 °C for up to 45 days without losing much of its activity.

  18. Exploring thermophilic cellulolytic enzyme production potential of Aspergillus fumigatus by the solid-state fermentation of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehboob, Nazia; Asad, M Javaid; Asgher, M; Gulfraz, M; Mukhtar, Tariq; Mahmood, Raja Tahir

    2014-04-01

    Cellulases can be used for biofuel production to decrease the fuel crises in the world. Microorganisms cultured on lignocellulosic wastes can be used for the production of cellulolytic enzymes at large scale. In the current study, cellulolytic enzyme production potential of Aspergillus fumigatus was explored and optimized by employing various cultural and nutritional parameters. Maximum endoglucanase production was observed after 72 h at 55 °C, pH 5.5, and 70 % moisture level. Addition of 0.3 % of fructose, peptone, and Tween-80 further enhanced the production of endoglucanase. Maximum purification was achieved with 40 % ammonium sulfate, and it was purified 2.63-fold by gel filtration chromatography. Endoglucanase has 55 °C optimum temperature, 4.8 optimum pH, 3.97 mM K m, and 8.53 μM/mL/min V max. Maximum exoglucanase production was observed at 55 °C after 72 h, at pH 5.5, and 70 % moisture level. Further addition of 0.3 % of each of fructose, peptone, and Tween-80 enhances the secretion of endoglucanase. It was purified 3.30-fold in the presence of 40 % ammonium sulfate followed by gel filtration chromatography. Its optimum temperature was 55 °C, optimum pH was 4.8, 4.34 mM K m, and 7.29 μM/mL/min V max. In the case of β-glucosidase, maximum activity was observed after 72 h at 55 °C, pH 5.5, and 70 % moisture level. The presence of 0.3 % of fructose, peptone, and Tween-80 in media has beneficial impact on β-glucosidase production. A 4.36-fold purification was achieved by 40 % ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. Optimum temperature of β-glucosidase was 55 °C, optimum pH was 4.8, K m was 4.92 mM, and V max 6.75 μM/mL/min. It was also observed that fructose is better than glucose, and peptone is better than urea for the growth of A. fumigatus. The K m and V max values indicated that endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase have good affinity for their substrates. PMID:24562980

  19. Contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into the Loch Katrine Wetland Complex, Park County, Wyoming and their bioconcentration in the aquatic bird food chain

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. However, the complex is sustained primarily by...

  20. Dominant ectosymbiotic bacteria of cellulolytic protists in the termite gut also have the potential to digest lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Masahiro; Kuwahara, Hirokazu; Shintani, Masaki; Izawa, Kazuki; Sato, Tomoyuki; Starns, David; Hongoh, Yuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2015-12-01

    Wood-feeding lower termites harbour symbiotic gut protists that support the termite nutritionally by degrading recalcitrant lignocellulose. These protists themselves host specific endo- and ectosymbiotic bacteria, functions of which remain largely unknown. Here, we present draft genomes of a dominant, uncultured ectosymbiont belonging to the order Bacteroidales, 'Candidatus Symbiothrix dinenymphae', which colonizes the cell surface of the cellulolytic gut protists Dinenympha spp. We analysed four single-cell genomes of Ca. S. dinenymphae, the highest genome completeness was estimated to be 81.6-82.3% with a predicted genome size of 4.28-4.31 Mb. The genome retains genes encoding large parts of the amino acid, cofactor and nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In addition, the genome contains genes encoding various glycoside hydrolases such as endoglucanases and hemicellulases. The genome indicates that Ca. S. dinenymphae ferments lignocellulose-derived monosaccharides to acetate, a major carbon and energy source of the host termite. We suggest that the ectosymbiont digests lignocellulose and provides nutrients to the host termites, and hypothesize that the hydrolytic activity might also function as a pretreatment for the host protist to effectively decompose the crystalline cellulose components. PMID:26079531

  1. Development of a real-time PCR assay for monitoring anaerobic fungal and cellulolytic bacterial populations within the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Stuart E; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2006-12-01

    Traditional methods for enumerating and identifying microbial populations within the rumen can be time consuming and cumbersome. Methods that involve culturing and microscopy can also be inconclusive, particularly when studying anaerobic rumen fungi. A real-time PCR SYBR Green assay, using PCR primers to target total rumen fungi and the cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes, is described, including design and validation. The DNA and crude protein contents with respect to the fungal biomass of both polycentric and monocentric fungal isolates were investigated across the fungal growth stages to aid in standard curve generation. The primer sets used were found to be target specific with no detectable cross-reactivity. Subsequently, the real-time PCR assay was employed in a study to detect these populations within cattle rumen. The anaerobic fungal target was observed to increase 3.6-fold from 0 to 12 h after feeding. The results also indicated a 5.4-fold increase in F. succinogenes target between 0 and 12 h after feeding, whereas R. flavefaciens was observed to maintain more or less consistent levels. This is the first report of a real-time PCR assay to estimate the rumen anaerobic fungal population. PMID:17117998

  2. Incorporation of Fungal Cellulases in Bacterial Minicellulosomes Yields Viable, Synergistically Acting Cellulolytic Complexes▿

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Artificial designer minicellulosomes comprise a chimeric scaffoldin that displays an optional cellulose-binding module (CBM) and bacterial cohesins from divergent species which bind strongly to enzymes engineered to bear complementary dockerins. Incorporation of cellulosomal cellulases from Clostridium cellulolyticum into minicellulosomes leads to artificial complexes with enhanced activity on crystalline cellulose, due to enzyme proximity and substrate targeting induced by the scaffoldin-bor...

  3. Linking Hydrolysis Performance to Trichoderma reesei Cellulolytic Enzyme Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Petersen, Nanna; I. Jørgensen, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei expresses a large number of enzymes involved in lignocellulose hydrolysis and the mechanism of how these enzymes work together is too complex to study by traditional methods, e.g. by spiking with single enzymes and monitoring hydrolysis performance. In this study a multivariate...

  4. Metal nanostructures with complex surface morphology: The case of supported lumpy Pd and Pt nanoparticles produced by laser processing of metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, F.; Maugeri, P.; Cacciato, G.; Zimbone, M.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we report on the formation of lumpy Pd and Pt nanoparticles on fluorine-doped tin oxide/glass (FTO/glass) substrate by a laser-based approach. In general, complex-surface morphology metal nanoparticles can be used in several technological applications exploiting the peculiarities of their physical properties as modulated by nanoscale morphology. For example plasmonic metal nanoparticles presenting a lumpy morphology (i.e. larger particles coated on the surface by smaller particles) can be used in plasmonic solar cell devices providing broadband scattering enhancement over the smooth nanoparticles leading, so, to the increase of the device efficiency. However, the use of plasmonic lumpy nanoparticles remains largely unexplored due to the lack of simply, versatile, low-cost and high-throughput methods for the controllable production of such nanostructures. Starting from these considerations, we report on the observation that nanoscale-thick Pd and Pt films (17.6 and 27.9 nm, 12.1 and 19.5 nm, respectively) deposited on FTO/glass surface irradiated by nanosecond pulsed laser at fluences E in the 0.5-1.5 J/cm2 range, produce Pd and Pt lumpy nanoparticles on the FTO surface. In addition, using scanning electron microscopy analyses, we report on the observation that starting from each metal film of fixed thickness h, the fraction F of lumpy nanoparticles increases with the laser fluence E and saturates at the higher fluences. For each fixed fluence, F was found higher starting from the Pt films (at each starting film thickness h) with respect to the Pd films. For each fixed metal and fluence, F was found to be higher decreasing the starting thickness of the deposited film. To explain the formation of the lumpy Pd and Pt nanoparticles and the behavior of F as a function of E and h both for Pd and Pt, the thermodynamic behavior of the Pd and Pt films and nanoparticles due to the interaction with the nanosecond laser is discussed. In particular, the

  5. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacome, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barabote, Ravi D [UC DAVIS; Leu, David [UC DAVIS; Normand, Philippe [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Necsula, Anamaria [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Daubin, Vincent [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Medigue, Claudine [CNRS/GENOSCOPE; Adney, William S [NREL; Xu, Xin C [UC DAVIS; Lapidus, Alla [DOE JOINT GENOME INST.; Pujic, Pierre [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Richardson, Paul [DOE JOINT GENOME INST; Berry, Alison M [UC DAVIS

    2008-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus lIB, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudogenes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  6. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Necsulea, Anamaria [UNIV LYON; Daubin, Vincent [UNIV LYON; Medigue, Claudine [GENOSCOPE; Adney, William S [NREL; Xu, Xin C [UC DAVIS; Lapidus, Alla [JGI; Pujic, Pierre [UNIV LYON; Berry, Alison M [UC DAVIS; Barabote, Ravi D [UC DAVIS; Leu, David [UC DAVIS; Normand, Phillipe [UNIV LYON

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudo genes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  7. Variation in nucleotide sequence of TRI1 in 13 trichothecene-producing species of Fusarium: evidence for a complex evolutionary history of a mycotoxin biosynthetic locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes are mycotoxins produced by several genera of fungi, including some agriculturally important Fusarium species. In the two species, Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides, that have been examined most thoroughly, trichothecene biosynthetic enzymes are encoded at three loci: (1) ...

  8. Diversity of Cellulolytic Microbes and the Biodegradation of Municipal Solid Waste by a Potential Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste contains high amounts of cellulose, which is an ideal organic waste for the growth of most of microorganism as well as composting by potential microbes. In the present study, Congo red test was performed for screening of microorganism, and, after selecting a potential strains, it was further used for biodegradation of organic municipal solid waste. Forty nine out of the 250 different microbes tested (165 belong to fungi and 85 to bacteria produced cellulase enzyme and among these Trichoderma viride was found to be a potential strain in the secondary screening. During the biodegradation of organic waste, after 60 days, the average weight losses were 20.10% in the plates and 33.35% in the piles. There was an increase in pH until 20 days. pH however, stabilized after 30 days in the piles. Temperature also stabilized as the composting process progressed in the piles. The high temperature continued until 30 days of decomposition, after which the temperature dropped to 40°C and below during the maturation. Good quality compost was obtained in 60 days.

  9. Ultraviolet and visible complex refractive indices of secondary organic material produced by photooxidation of the aromatic compounds toluene and m-Xylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic material (SOM produced by the oxidation of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds is light-absorbing (i.e., brown carbon. Spectral data of the optical properties, however, are scarce. The present study obtained the continuous spectra of the real and imaginary refractive indices (m = n − i k in the ultraviolet (UV-visible region using spectroscopic ellipsometry for n and UV-visible spectrometry for k. Several different types of SOM were produced in an oxidation flow reactor by photooxidation of toluene and m-xylene for variable concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx. The results show that the k values of the anthropogenically derived material were at least ten times greater than those of biogenically derived material. The presence of NOx produced organonitrogen compounds, such as nitro-aromatics and organonitrates, which enhanced light absorption. Compared with the SOM derived from m-xylene, the toluene-derived SOM had larger k values, as well as greater NOx induced enhancement, suggesting different brown-carbon-forming potentials of different aromatic precursor compounds. The results imply that anthropogenic SOM produced around urban environments can have an important influence in affecting ultraviolet irradiance, which might consequently influence photochemical cycles of urban pollution.

  10. A semi-continuous culture system for production of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes by the anaerobic fungus Piromyces sp. strain E2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teunissen, M.J.; Baerends, R.J.S.; Knelissen, R.A.G.; Camp, H.J.M. op den; Vogels, G.D. (Katholieke Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Microbiology)

    1992-10-01

    A system was developed for the semi-continous cultivation of an anaerobic fungus, Piromyces sp. strain E2 (isolated from an Indian elephant), on Avicel (microcrystalline cellulose). The fungus was grown in a semi-continuous culture system: Solids and fungal biomass was retained by means of a simple filter construction whereas the culture fluid was removed continuously. The production of fermentation products (acetate, ethanol, formate, lactate, hydrogen or methane), cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes, and protein by the fungus in monoculture or co-culture with Methanobacterium formicicum during growth on Avicel was monitored up to 45 days. These productions stabilized after an adaptation period of 24 and 30 days in the semi-continuous co-culture and monoculture, respectively. After this period the average ([+-]SD) avicelase, [beta]-glucosidase, endoglucanase, and xylanase production in the semicontinuous monoculture were 27[+-]6, 140[+-]16, 1057[+-]120 and 5012[+-]583 IUxl[sup -1]xday[sup -1], respectively. Co-culture with the methanogen caused a shift in fermentation products to more acetate, and less ethanol and lactate. Furthermore, the production of all cellulolytic enzymes increased (40%) and xylanolytic enzyme production decreased (35%). (orig.).

  11. Effects of Exercise and Environmental Complexity on Deficits in Trace and Contextual Fear Conditioning Produced by Neonatal Alcohol Exposure in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, W.B.; St. Cyr, S.A.; Jablonski, S A; Hunt, P S; Klintsova, A.Y.; Stanton, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, voluntary exercise and environmental complexity increases hippocampal neurogenesis and reverses spatial learning and long-term potentiation deficits in animals prenatally exposed to alcohol. The present experiment extended these findings to neonatal alcohol exposure and to delay, trace, and contextual fear conditioning. Rats were administered either 5.25 g/kg/day alcohol via gastric intubation or received sham-intubations (SI) between Postnatal Day (PD) 4 and 9 followed by either ...

  12. Investigation on the influence of metal ion impurities on the complexation behavior of generator produced {sup 90}Y with different bifunctional chelators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Chakravarty, Rubel; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Dash, Ashutosh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radiopharmaceuticals Div.

    2014-07-01

    While the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator is the exclusive source of obtaining 'no carrier added' {sup 90}Y for targeted therapy, the presence of trace metals in the radiolabeling solutions poses a serious challenge owing to their ability to diminish the {sup 90}Y complexation yields with bifunctional chelators (BFCs). p-SCN-Bn-PCTA is a novel ligand having faster complexation kinetics with a number of radiometals. In this work, a systematic investigation was performed to evaluate the chelating ability of p-SCN-Bn-PCTA for {sup 90}Y and the influence of trace metal ions on it's complexation with {sup 90}Y in comparison to p-SCN-Bn-DTPA and p-SCN-Bn-DOTA using {sup 90}YCl{sub 3} obtained from an electrochemical generator. Results from our study indicate that while p-SCN-Bn-PCTA gave very good radiolabeling yields with {sup 90}Y when the reaction was carried out by heating for few minutes, it was most sensitive to the presence of trace metals, especially Fe(III). An independent and useful observation is that p-SCN-Bn-PCTA could be considered as the ligand of choice for assessing the chemical purity of generator derived {sup 90}Y.

  13. A stability comparison of redox-active layers produced by chemical coupling of an osmium redox complex to pre-functionalized gold and carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of stable redox active layers on electrode surfaces is a key factor for the development of practical electronic and electrochemical devices. Here, we report on a comparison of the stability of redox layers formed by covalently coupling an osmium redox complex to pre-functionalized gold and graphite electrode surfaces. Pre-treatment of gold and graphite electrodes to provide surface carboxylic acid groups is achieved via classical thiolate self-assembled monolayer formation on gold surfaces and the electro-reduction of an in situ generated aryldiazonium salt from 4-aminobenzoic acid on gold, glassy carbon and graphite surfaces. These surfaces have been characterized by AFM and electrochemical blocking studies. The surface carboxylate is then used to tether an osmium complex, [Os(2,2'-bipyridyl)2(4-aminomethylpyridine)Cl]PF6, to provide a covalently bound redox active layer, E0'' of 0.29 V (vs. Ag/AgCl in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4), on the pre-treated electrodes. The aryldiazonium salt-treated carbon-based surfaces showed the greatest stability, represented by a decrease of <5% in the peak current for the Os(II/III) redox transition of the immobilized complex over a 3-day period, compared to a decrease of 19% and 14% for the aryldiazonium salt treated and thiolate treated gold surfaces, respectively, over the same period

  14. A stability comparison of redox-active layers produced by chemical coupling of an osmium redox complex to pre-functionalized gold and carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boland, Susan; Foster, Kevin [School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Leech, Donal [School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: donal.leech@nuigalway.ie

    2009-02-28

    The production of stable redox active layers on electrode surfaces is a key factor for the development of practical electronic and electrochemical devices. Here, we report on a comparison of the stability of redox layers formed by covalently coupling an osmium redox complex to pre-functionalized gold and graphite electrode surfaces. Pre-treatment of gold and graphite electrodes to provide surface carboxylic acid groups is achieved via classical thiolate self-assembled monolayer formation on gold surfaces and the electro-reduction of an in situ generated aryldiazonium salt from 4-aminobenzoic acid on gold, glassy carbon and graphite surfaces. These surfaces have been characterized by AFM and electrochemical blocking studies. The surface carboxylate is then used to tether an osmium complex, [Os(2,2'-bipyridyl){sub 2}(4-aminomethylpyridine)Cl]PF{sub 6}, to provide a covalently bound redox active layer, E{sup 0}'' of 0.29 V (vs. Ag/AgCl in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4), on the pre-treated electrodes. The aryldiazonium salt-treated carbon-based surfaces showed the greatest stability, represented by a decrease of <5% in the peak current for the Os(II/III) redox transition of the immobilized complex over a 3-day period, compared to a decrease of 19% and 14% for the aryldiazonium salt treated and thiolate treated gold surfaces, respectively, over the same period.

  15. The genome sequences of Cellulomonas fimi and "Cellvibrio gilvus" reveal the cellulolytic strategies of two facultative anaerobes, transfer of "Cellvibrio gilvus" to the genus Cellulomonas, and proposal of Cellulomonas gilvus sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R Christopherson

    Full Text Available Actinobacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are the only known and reported cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. To better understand the cellulolytic strategy employed by these bacteria, we sequenced the genome of the Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484(T. For comparative purposes, we also sequenced the genome of the aerobic cellulolytic "Cellvibrio gilvus" ATCC 13127(T. An initial analysis of these genomes using phylogenetic and whole-genome comparison revealed that "Cellvibrio gilvus" belongs to the genus Cellulomonas. We thus propose to assign "Cellvibrio gilvus" to the genus Cellulomonas. A comparative genomics analysis between these two Cellulomonas genome sequences and the recently completed genome for Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482(T showed that these cellulomonads do not encode cellulosomes but appear to degrade cellulose by secreting multi-domain glycoside hydrolases. Despite the minimal number of carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these genomes, as compared to other known cellulolytic organisms, these bacteria were found to be proficient at degrading and utilizing a diverse set of carbohydrates, including crystalline cellulose. Moreover, they also encode for proteins required for the fermentation of hexose and xylose sugars into products such as ethanol. Finally, we found relatively few significant differences between the predicted carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these Cellulomonas genomes, in contrast to previous studies reporting differences in physiological approaches for carbohydrate degradation. Our sequencing and analysis of these genomes sheds light onto the mechanism through which these facultative anaerobes degrade cellulose, suggesting that the sequenced cellulomonads use secreted, multidomain enzymes to degrade cellulose in a way that is distinct from known anaerobic cellulolytic strategies.

  16. Mechanism of thermal ring closure of M(CO) sub 5 L (L = bidentate ligand) produced during photolysis of group 6 hexacarbonyl complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K.B.; van Eldik, R. (Univ. of Witten/Herdecke (West Germany))

    1990-05-01

    The kinetics of the thermal ring-closure reactions of M(CO){sub 5}L, produced during the photolysis of M(CO){sub 6}/L for L = ethylenediamine (en) and 1,4-diisopropyl-1,4-diazabutadiene (dab), were studied as a function of (L), temperature, and pressure. The values of {Delta}S{double dagger} and {Delta}V{double dagger} are significantly negative, {minus}40 to {minus}170 J K{sup {minus}1} mol{sup {minus}1} and {minus}5.4 to {minus}13.7 cm{sup 3} mol{sup {minus}1}, respectively, for M = Cr (L = en) and M = Mo, W (L = en, dab) and support an associative ring-closure mechanism. The results demonstrate the crucial role played by the size of the metal center and the steric hindrance on L.

  17. Structure-Function Relationships in Miscoding by Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase Dpo4: GUANINE N2,N2-DIMETHYL SUBSTITUTION PRODUCES INACTIVE AND MISCODING POLYMERASE COMPLEXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huidong; Eoff, Robert L.; Kozekov, Ivan D.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Egli, Martin; Guengerich, F. Peter; (Vanderbilt)

    2009-08-13

    Previous work has shown that Y-family DNA polymerases tolerate large DNA adducts, but a substantial decrease in catalytic efficiency and fidelity occurs during bypass of N{sup 2},N{sup 2}-dimethyl (Me{sub 2})-substituted guanine (N{sup 2},N{sup 2}-Me{sub 2}G), in contrast to a single methyl substitution. Therefore, it is unclear why the addition of two methyl groups is so disruptive. The presence of N{sup 2},N{sup 2}-Me{sub 2}G lowered the catalytic efficiency of the model enzyme Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4 16,000-fold. Dpo4 inserted dNTPs almost at random during bypass of N{sup 2},N{sup 2}-Me{sub 2}G, and much of the enzyme was kinetically trapped by an inactive ternary complex when N{sup 2},N{sup 2}-Me{sub 2}G was present, as judged by a reduced burst amplitude (5% of total enzyme) and kinetic modeling. One crystal structure of Dpo4 with a primer having a 3{prime}-terminal dideoxycytosine (Cdd) opposite template N{sup 2},N{sup 2}-Me{sub 2}G in a post-insertion position showed Cdd folded back into the minor groove, as a catalytically incompetent complex. A second crystal had two unique orientations for the primer terminal Cdd as follows: (i) flipped into the minor groove and (ii) a long pairing with N{sup 2},N{sup 2}-Me{sub 2}G in which one hydrogen bond exists between the O-2 atom of Cdd and the N-1 atom of N{sup 2},N{sup 2}-Me{sub 2}G, with a second water-mediated hydrogen bond between the N-3 atom of C{sub dd} and the O-6 atom of N{sup 2},N{sup 2}-Me{sub 2}G. A crystal structure of Dpo4 with dTTP opposite template N{sup 2},N{sup 2}-Me{sub 2}G revealed a wobble orientation. Collectively, these results explain, in a detailed manner, the basis for the reduced efficiency and fidelity of Dpo4-catalyzed bypass of N{sup 2},N{sup 2}-Me{sub 2}G compared with mono-substituted N{sup 2}-alkyl G adducts.

  18. The genetic architecture of a complex trait: Resistance to multiple toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in the dengue and yellow fever vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Aurélie; Paris, Margot; Frérot, Hélène; Bianco, Erica; Tetreau, Guillaume; Després, Laurence

    2015-10-01

    The bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is an increasingly popular alternative to chemical insecticides for controlling mosquito populations. Because Bti toxicity relies on the action of four main toxins, resistance to Bti is very likely a complex phenotype involving several genes simultaneously. Dissecting the underlying genetic basis thus requires associating a quantitative measure of resistance to genetic variation at many loci in a segregating population. Here, we undertake this task using the dengue and yellow fever vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, as a study model. We conducted QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) and admixture mapping analyses on two controlled crosses and on an artificial admixed population, respectively, all obtained from resistant and susceptible lab strains. We detected 16 QTL regions, among which four QTLs were revealed by different analysis methods. These four robust QTLs explained altogether 29.2% and 62.2% of the total phenotypic variance in the two QTL crosses, respectively. They also all showed a dominant mode of action. In addition, we found six loci showing statistical association with Bti resistance in the admixed population. Five of the supercontigs highlighted in this study contained candidate genes as suggested by their function, or by prior evidence from expression and/or outlier analyses. These genomic regions are thus good starting points for fine mapping of resistance to Bti or functional analyses aiming at identifying the underlying genes and mutations. Moreover, for the purpose of this work, we built the first Ae. aegypti genetic map based on markers associated with genes expressed in larvae. This genetic map harbors 229 SNP markers mapped across the three chromosomes for a total length of 311.9cM. It brought to light several assembly discrepancies with the reference genome, suggesting a high level of genome plasticity in Ae. aegypti. PMID:26238211

  19. Scattering of light by colloidal aluminosilicate particles produces the unusual sky-blue color of Rio Celeste (Tenorio volcano complex, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Castellón

    Full Text Available Río Celeste (Sky-Blue River in Tenorio National Park (Costa Rica, a river that derives from the confluence and mixing of two colorless streams--Río Buenavista (Buenavista River and Quebrada Agria (Sour Creek--is renowned in Costa Rica because it presents an atypical intense sky-blue color. Although various explanations have been proposed for this unusual hue of Río Celeste, no exhaustive tests have been undertaken; the reasons hence remain unclear. To understand this color phenomenon, we examined the physico-chemical properties of Río Celeste and of the two streams from which it is derived. Chemical analysis of those streams with ion-exchange chromatography (IC and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES made us discard the hypothesis that the origin of the hue is due to colored chemical species. Our tests revealed that the origin of this coloration phenomenon is physical, due to suspended aluminosilicate particles (with diameters distributed around 566 nm according to a lognormal distribution that produce Mie scattering. The color originates after mixing of two colorless streams because of the enlargement (by aggregation of suspended aluminosilicate particles in the Río Buenavista stream due to a decrease of pH on mixing with the acidic Quebrada Agria. We postulate a chemical mechanism for this process, supported by experimental evidence of dynamic light scattering (DLS, zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy-dispersive spectra (EDS. Theoretical modeling of the Mie scattering yielded a strong coincidence between the observed color and the simulated one.

  20. Constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into the Loch Katrine wetland complex, Park County, Wyoming, and their bioconcentration in the aquatic bird food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota from the Loch Katrine wetlands at Park County, WY in 1992. This study was designed to determine if produced waters pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. The radium-226 concentration recorded at the Sidney Battery Discharge in July, 93.7 pCi/l, exceeded WY DEQ's 60 pCi/l standard for the protection of aquatic life. Water quality acute criteria were exceeded for arsenic, Custer Lake, July, and for zinc, Sidney Battery discharge, April. Radium-226 concentrations in sediments from Custer Lake and Sidney Battery Discharge exceeded the 3 pCi/g background for Oregon Basin soils. The radium-226 concentration in aquatic vegetation, Custer Lake, 29.5 pCi/g, greatly exceeded the 2.9 pCi/g average concentration found in plants growing in uranium mill tailings in South Dakota. Radium-226 in aquatic vegetation may be available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations, Sidney Battery Discharge, exceeded the 10 mg/l standard of WY DEQ. Sediment hydrocarbon concentrations were highest at Sidney Battery Discharge, 6.376 μg/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 μg/g. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in gadwalls from Loch Katrine but was detected in northern shovelers from Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in shovelers is indicative of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

  1. Investigations on potato pulp as a dietary fiber source. The influence of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes. Untersuchungen an Kartoffelpuelpe als Ballaststoffquelle. Zum Einfluss von pektolytischen und cellulolytischen Enzymen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongowski, G. (Deutsches Inst. fuer Ernaehrungsforschung Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany))

    1993-05-01

    The influence of treatment with pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme preparations was investigated with reference to the separation of water and the composition of potato pulp. In contrast to pectinesterase, pectate lyase or cellulase it was found an intensive action on the pulp after incubation with Pectinex Ultra SP-L or pectinase/cellulase combinations. The content of pectin, starch and protein as well as the water binding capacity are varied in dependence of the used enzyme preparations. The occurring changes in the supermolecular structure of the potato pulp tissue are investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The grown biological structure is partly or extensive destroyed especially after action of pectinases and cellulases. The content of starch in the potato pulp preparations remains relatively high even after intensive treatment with cell wall degrading enzymes. (orig.)

  2. Effects of Neutral Detergent Soluble Fiber and Sucrose Supplementation on Ruminal Fermentation, Microbial Synthesis, and Populations of Ruminal Cellulolytic Bacteria Using the Rumen Simulation Technique (RUSITEC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiang-hui; LIU Chan-juan; LI Chao-yun; YAO Jun-hu

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of neutral detergent soluble fiber (NDSF) and sucrose supplementation on ruminal fermentation, microbial synthesis, and populations of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). The experiment had a 2×2 factorial design with two dosages of sucrose, low (ca. 0.26 g d-1, low-sucrose) and high (ca. 1.01 g d-1, high-sucrose), and two dosages of supplied NDSF, low (1.95 g d-1, low-NDSF) and high (2.70 g d-1, high-NDSF). Interactions between NDSF and sucrose were detected for xylanase activity from solid fraction and apparent disappearance of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and hemicellulose, with the lowest values observed for high-NDSF and high-sucrose treatment. Supplemental NDSF appeared to increase the molar proportion of acetate and reduce that of butyrate;however, the effects of supplemental sucrose on VFA profiles depended upon NDSF amount. There was a NDSF×sucrose interaction for the production of methane. High-NDSF fermenters had lower ammonia-N production, greater daily N flow of solid-associated microbial pellets and total microorganisms, and greater microbial synthesis efficiency compared with low-NDSF fermenters. Supplementation with NDSF resulted in an increase in 16S rDNA copies of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and a reduction in copies of Ruminococcus albus. Supplementation with sucrose tended to increase the 16S rDNA copies of R. albus from liquid fraction, but did not affect daily total microbial N flow and cellulolytic bacterium populations from solid fraction. These data indicate that the effects of the interaction between NDSF and sugars on ruminal fermentation and fiber digestion should be taken into account in diet formulation. Ruminal fermentation and metabolism of sugars warrant further investigation.

  3. Kallotenue papyrolyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., a cellulolytic and filamentous thermophile that represents a novel lineage (Kallotenuales ord. nov., Kallotenuaceae fam. nov.) within the class Chloroflexia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Jesse; Gieler, Brandon; Heisler, Devon; Palisoc, Maryknoll; Williams, Amanda; Dohnalkova, Alice; Ming, Hong; Yu, Tian T.; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Li, Wen J.; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2013-08-15

    Several closely-related, thermophilic, and cellulolytic bacterial strains, designated JKG1T, JKG2, JKG3, JKG4, and JKG5, were isolated from a cellulolytic enrichment (corn stover) incubated in the water column of Great Boiling Spring, NV. Strain JKG1T had cells of a diameter of 0.7 - 0.9 μm and length of ~2.0 μm that formed non-branched multicellular filaments reaching >300 μm. Spores were not formed and dense liquid cultures were red. The temperature range for growth was 45-65 °C, with an optimum of 55 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.6-9.0, with an optimum of 7.5. JKG1T grew as an aerobic heterotroph, utilizing glucose, sucrose, xylose, arabinose, cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose, filter paper, microcrystalline cellulose, xylan, starch, casamino acids, tryptone, peptone, yeast extract, acetate, citrate, lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol as sole carbon sources, and was not observed to photosynthesize. The cells stained Gram-negative. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the new isolates in the class Chloroflexia, but distant from other cultivated members, with the highest sequence identity of 82.5% to Roseiflexus castenholzii. The major quinone was menaquinone-9; no ubiquinones were detected. The major cellular fatty acids (>5%) were C18:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C18:0, and iso-C17:0. C16:0, iso-C16:0, and C17:0. The peptidoglycan amino acids were alanine, ornithine, glutamic acid, serine, and asparagine. Whole-cell sugars included mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose, ribose, arabinose, and xylose. Morphological, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic results suggest that JKG1T is representative of a new lineage within the class Chloroflexia, which we propose to designate Kallotenue papyrolyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., Kallotenuaceae fam. nov., Kallotenuales ord. nov.

  4. Activity-based protein profiling of secreted cellulolytic enzyme activity dynamics in Trichoderma reesei QM6a, NG14, and RUT-C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lindsey N.; Culley, David E.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Zink, Erika M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Magnuson, Jon M.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-12-01

    Development of alternative, non-petroleum based sources of bioenergy that can be applied in the short-term find great promise in the use of highly abundant and renewable lignocellulosic plant biomass.1 This material obtained from different feedstocks, such as forest litter or agricultural residues, can yield liquid fuels and other chemical products through biorefinery processes.2 Biofuels are obtained from lignocellulosic materials by chemical pretreatment of the biomass, followed by enzymatic decomposition of cellulosic and hemicellulosic compounds into soluble sugars that are converted to desired chemical products via microbial metabolism and fermentation.3, 4 To release soluble sugars from polymeric cellulose multiple enzymes are required, including endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase.5, 6 However, the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose into soluble sugars remains a significant limiting factor to the efficient and economically viable utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for transport fuels.7, 8 The primary industrial source of cellulose and hemicellulases is the mesophilic soft-rot fungus Trichoderma reesei,9 having widespread applications in food, feed, textile, pulp, and paper industries.10 The genome encodes 200 glycoside hydrolases, including 10 cellulolytic and 16 hemicellulolytic enzymes.11 The hypercellulolytic catabolite derepressed strain RUT-C30 was obtained through a three-step UV and chemical mutagenesis of the original T. reesei strain QM6a,12, 13 in which strains M7 and NG14 were intermediate, having higher cellulolytic activity than the parent strain but less activity and higher catabolite repression than RUT-C30.14 Numerous methods have been employed to optimize the secreted enzyme cocktail of T. reesei including cultivation conditions, operational parameters, and mutagenesis.3 However, creating an optimal and economical enzyme mixture for production-scale biofuels synthesis may take thousands of experiments to identify.

  5. Behavior and supportive evidence of a large xylanase-containing multienzyme complex of Tepidimicrobium xylanilyticum BT14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripok Phitsuwan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellular behaviors and a xylanolytic-cellulolytic enzyme system of Tepidimicrobium xylanilyticum BT14 towards xylan-rich plant biomass degradation were characterized. During the exponential growth phase, the bacterial cells were bound tightly to the growth substrate where the degradation zones appeared mostly around the cells, indicating that the xylanolytic-cellulolytic enzyme system was linked to the cell surfaces. Interestingly, several cells appeared to secrete extracellular matrix to connect to their neighbors, and the matrix disappeared when cells passed to the stationary growth phase. Cationized-ferritin staining resulted in a dense assembly of bulbs, protuberance-like structures on the growing bacterial cell surfaces. The cell-associated proteins derived by sonication contained predominated xylanase with relatively low carboxymethyl-cellulase (CMCase activities, suggesting that the xylanolytic-cellulolytic enzyme system occurred as a cell-associated enzyme. By means of gel-filtration chromatography, a high molecular mass protein with the estimated size of 2000 kDa was retrieved from the cell-associated enzymes, and it appeared as a single protein band on non-denaturing gel. However, more bands were obtained after the protein was boiled with sodium dodecyl sulfate and β-mercaptoethanol – which contained 4 xylanases and one CMCase – suggesting that these proteins were organized as a multienzyme complex (MEC in natural form. Additionally, the predominated xylanolytic MEC preferred binding to cellulose rather than xylan.

  6. A NOVEL STRAIN OF Aspergillus niger PRODUCING A COCKTAIL OF HYDROLYTIC DEPOLYMERISING ENZYMES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SECOND GENERATION BIOFUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Bansal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The screening and isolation of fungi producing a cocktail of hydrolytic enzymes was studied. Among the various isolates obtained from different soil samples, a strain NS-2 was selected. The phylogenetic analysis of this strain showed highest homology (99% with Aspergillus niger. It was capable of producing cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, amylolytic, and pectinolytic enzymes in appreciable titers on wheat bran based liquid and solid state media. The mixture of enzymes produced by this organism could effectively hydrolyze various domestic waste residues, revealing conversion efficiencies of 89 to 92% and produced high reducing sugar yields of 0.48 to 0.66 g/g of dry residue. This enzyme cocktail could potentially find a significant application in the conversion of agricultural and other waste residues having cellulose, hemicellulose, starch, and pectin as carbohydrates to produce simpler sugars which can be fermented for the production of second generation biofuels.

  7. Engineering yeast consortia for surface-display of complex cellulosome structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wilfred [University of Delaware

    2014-03-31

    As our society marches toward a more technologically advanced future, energy and environmental sustainability are some of the most challenging problems we face today. Biomass is one of the most abundant renewable-feedstock for sustainable production of biofuels. However, the main technological obstacle to more widespread uses of this resource is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome the recalcitrant nature of the cellulosic structure, especially the hydrolysis step on highly ordered celluloses. In this proposal, we successfully engineered several efficient and inexpensive whole-cell biocatalysts in an effort to produce economically compatible and sustainable biofuels, namely cellulosic ethanol. Our approach was to display of a highly efficient cellulolytic enzyme complex, named cellulosome, on the surface of a historical ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the simultaneous and synergistic saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to ethanol. We first demonstrated the feasibility of assembling a mini-cellulosome by incubating E. coli lysates expressing three different cellulases. Resting cells displaying mini-cellulosomes produced 4-fold more ethanol from phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC) than cultures with only added enzymes. The flexibility to assemble the mini-cellulosome structure was further demonstrated using a synthetic yeast consortium through intracellular complementation. Direct ethanol production from PASC was demonstrated with resting cell cultures. To create a microorganism suitable for a more cost-effective process, called consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), a synthetic consortium capable of displaying mini-cellulosomes on the cell surface via intercellular complementation was created. To further improve the efficiency, a new adaptive strategy of employing anchoring and adaptor scaffoldins to amplify the number of enzymatic subunits was developed, resulting in the creation of an artificial tetravalent cellulosome on the

  8. Production and characterization of an enzyme complex from a new strain of Clostridium thermocellum with emphasis on its xylanase activity Produção e caracterização de um complexo enzimático de uma nova linhagem de Clostridium thermocellum com enfase em sua atividade de xilanase

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Bessa Vieira; Leonora Rios de Souza Moreira; Amadeu Monteiro Neto; Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira Filho

    2007-01-01

    A new bacterial strain (ISO II) was isolated from manure cow and identified as phylogenetically close to the thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum. The new strain produced extracellular xylanase, pectinase, mannanase and cellulase activities when grown in liquid culture medium containing banana stem as carbon source. The enzyme production profile after growth on banana stem showed that xylanase and cellulase activities were detected in different incubation periods. An e...

  9. Genomic, proteomic, and biochemical analyses of oleaginous Mucor circinelloides: evaluating its capability in utilizing cellulolytic substrates for lipid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wei

    Full Text Available Lipid production by oleaginous microorganisms is a promising route to produce raw material for the production of biodiesel. However, most of these organisms must be grown on sugars and agro-industrial wastes because they cannot directly utilize lignocellulosic substrates. We report the first comprehensive investigation of Mucor circinelloides, one of a few oleaginous fungi for which genome sequences are available, for its potential to assimilate cellulose and produce lipids. Our genomic analysis revealed the existence of genes encoding 13 endoglucanases (7 of them secretory, 3 β-D-glucosidases (2 of them secretory and 243 other glycoside hydrolase (GH proteins, but not genes for exoglucanases such as cellobiohydrolases (CBH that are required for breakdown of cellulose to cellobiose. Analysis of the major PAGE gel bands of secretome proteins confirmed expression of two secretory endoglucanases and one β-D-glucosidase, along with a set of accessory cell wall-degrading enzymes and 11 proteins of unknown function. We found that M. circinelloides can grow on CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose and cellobiose, confirming the enzymatic activities of endoglucanases and β-D-glucosidases, respectively. The data suggested that M. circinelloides could be made usable as a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP strain by introducing a CBH (e.g. CBHI into the microorganism. This proposal was validated by our demonstration that M. circinelloides growing on Avicel supplemented with CBHI produced about 33% of the lipid that was generated in glucose medium. Furthermore, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis showed that when growing on pre-saccharified Avicel substrates, it produced a higher proportion of C14 fatty acids, which has an interesting implication in that shorter fatty acid chains have characteristics that are ideal for use in jet fuel. This substrate-specific shift in FAME profile warrants further investigation.

  10. Cellulolytic potential of probiotic Bacillus Subtilis AMS6 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi): An in-vitro study with regards to application as an animal feed additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhar, Ajay K; Bashir, Yasir; Saikia, Devabrata; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Konwar, Bolin K; Kumar, Rahul; Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the probiotic attributes of Bacillus subtilis AMS6 isolated from fermented soybean (Churpi). This isolate exhibited tolerance to low pH (pH 2.0) and bile salt (0.3%), capability to autoaggregate and coaggregate. AMS6 also showed highest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic indicator strain Salmonella enterica typhimurium (MTCC 1252) and susceptibility towards different antibiotics tested. The isolate was effective in inhibiting the adherence of food borne pathogens to Caco-2 epithelial cell lines, and was also found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthen the candidature of the isolate as a potential probiotic. Further studies revealed B. subtilis AMS6 showed cellulolytic activity (0.54±0.05 filter paper units mL(-1)) at 37°C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and maize (Zea mays) straw. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96h of incubation. A full length cellulase gene of AMS6 was amplified using degenerate primers consisting of 1499 nucleotides. The ORF encoded for a protein of 499 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular mass of 55.04kDa. The amino acids sequence consisted of a glycosyl hydrolase family 5 domain at N-terminal; Glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core and a CBM-3 cellulose binding domain at its C terminal. The study suggests potential probiotic B. subtilis AMS6 as a promising candidate envisaging its application as an animal feed additive for enhanced fiber digestion and gut health of animal. PMID:27242144

  11. Endophytic fungi found in association with Bacopa monnieri as potential producers of industrial enzymes and antimicrobial bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Katoch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to screen the endophytic fungal species of ethano-medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri (L. Pennell for their ability to produce antimicrobial substances against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Endophytes were also screened for their ability to produce amylase, cellulase, protease and lipase to evaluate their ecological role within the host plant. Twenty-six endophytes were isolated and seventeen were identified. All the isolated endophytes exhibited amylolytic activity. Lipolytic, cellulolytic, proteolytic activity was shown by 98, 28 and 31% isolates, respectively. Similarly, all the endophytes (100% exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against K. pneumonia, while seventeen endophytes (89.5% were active against S. aureus. Fourteen endophytes (78.9% showed significant antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis and C. albicans. Eleven (57.8%, nine (50%, four (21% endophytes were active against S. typhimurium, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively.

  12. Adenoviral Producer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Kovesdi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus (Ad vectors, in particular those of the serotype 5, are highly attractive for a wide range of gene therapy, vaccine and virotherapy applications (as discussed in further detail in this issue. Wild type Ad5 virus can replicate in numerous tissue types but to use Ad vectors for therapeutic purposes the viral genome requires modification. In particular, if the viral genome is modified in such a way that the viral life cycle is interfered with, a specific producer cell line is required to provide trans-complementation to overcome the modification and allow viral production. This can occur in two ways; use of a producer cell line that contains specific adenoviral sequences incorporated into the cell genome to trans-complement, or use of a producer cell line that naturally complements for the modified Ad vector genome. This review concentrates on producer cell lines that complement non-replicating adenoviral vectors, starting with the historical HEK293 cell line developed in 1977 for first generation Ad vectors. In addition the problem of replication-competent adenovirus (RCA contamination in viral preparations from HEK293 cells is addressed leading to the development of alternate cell lines. Furthermore novel cell lines for more complex Ad vectors and alternate serotype Ad vectors are discussed.

  13. Treatment for methyl salicylate producing waste water with resin complexing-adsorbing process%树脂络合-吸附工艺处理水杨酸甲酯生产废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华文; 朱文祥

    2011-01-01

    The treating method for methyl salicylate producing waste water was studied. The resin complexing-adsorbing process was selected to remove the high concentrated salicylic acid and methyl salicylate. Dynamic adsorption through resin column was investigated. The quantity of effluent became worse as treating volume increasing. Considering the treating effect and the investigation of the project, the adsorption rate of 1.5 BV/h was selected and the treating volume of 10 BV was better when HW as the first-stage resin. However the second-stage resin of HW99 showed a less removal ratio, which was near 55% for COD and was up to 87% for salicylic acid. The removal ratio of COD was only 25% and less than 44% for salicylic acid. Through the treating process, the removal ratio for COD and salicylic acid were more than 90% and 92% , respectively.%水杨酸甲脂生产废水采用HW络合吸附树脂进行一级吸附处理时,COD和有机物的去除率随着处理量的 增大迅速降低,综合考虑,选用1.5 BV/h为最佳吸附流速,处理量为10 BV.二级HW99吸附树脂的处理效果较差,COD去除率小于55%,水杨酸的去除率大于87%.经过本工艺处理后,COD以及水杨酸的去除率分别达到90%和92%.

  14. The effect of gamma radiation on the cellulolytic, pectinolytic and amylolytic enzyme activity of some ''garri'' fermenting microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, three fungi and a bacterium involved in the fermentation of ''garri'' were investigated for their cellulase, pectinase amylase activity when exposed to different doses of gamma radiation. The fungi are Trichoderma viride, Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus niger and the bacterium is Lactobecillus, plantarum. Enzyme activity, growth and acidity were monitored after five days of incubation. T. viride and R. Oryzae showed best cellulase activity at a dose of 100 krads and A. niger showed best cellulase activity at 50 krads. All the three fungi showed their best pectinase activity at 50 krads dose. The amylolytic potential of all three fungi was increased at doses 50 krads. Dosages of 50 krads also increased the three enzyme activities of the L. plantarum but increases were not as marked as those of the fungi. Gamma irradiation increased the acide producing potential of A. niger. The growth potential of T. viride was also increased by irradiation. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  15. Redistribution of mineral elements in wheat grain when applying the complex enzyme preparations based on phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic minerals play an important role in the whole human nutrition, but they are included in the grain of the phytates that reduces their bioavailability. Whole wheat bread is generally considered a healthy food, but the presence of mineral elements in it is insignificant, because of weak phytate degradation. From all sources of exogenous phytase the most productive are microscopic fungi. To accelerate the process of transition hard mineral elements are mobilized to implement integrated cellulolytic enzyme preparation based on the actions of phytase (producer is Penicillium canescens. Phytase activity was assessed indirectly by the rate of release of phosphate from the substrate. It has been established that the release rate of the phosphoric acid substrate is dependent on the composition of the drug and the enzyme complex is determined by the presence of xylanase. The presented experimental data shows that a cellulase treatment of the grain in conjunction with the β-glucanase or xylanase leading to an increase in phytase activity could be 1.4 - 2.3 times as compared with the individual enzymes. As a result of concerted action of enzymes complex preparation varies topography grain, increase the pore sizes in seed and fruit shells that facilitate the penetration of the enzyme phytase in the aleurone layer to the site of phytin hydrolysis and leads to an increase in phytase activity. In terms of rational parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis, the distribution of mineral elements in the anatomical parts of the grain after processing complex enzyme preparation with the help of X-ray detector EMF miniCup system in a scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM 6390 were investigated. When processing enzyme preparation wheat trend in the distribution of mineral elements, characteristic of grain - the proportion of these elements in the aleurone layer decreases, and in the endosperm increases. Because dietary fiber and phytate found together in the

  16. Suberin Regulates the Production of Cellulolytic Enzymes in Streptomyces scabiei, the Causal Agent of Potato Common Scab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Reynaud, Rebeca; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Lerat, Sylvain; Bernards, Mark A; Beaulieu, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Suberin, a major constituent of the potato periderm, is known to promote the production of thaxtomins, the key virulence factors of the common scab-causing agent Streptomyces scabiei. In the present study, we speculated that suberin affected the production of glycosyl hydrolases, such as cellulases, by S. scabiei, and demonstrated that suberin promoted glycosyl hydrolase activity when added to cellulose-, xylan-, or lichenin-containing media. Furthermore, secretome analyses revealed that the addition of suberin to a cellulose-containing medium increased the production of glycosyl hydrolases. For example, the production of 13 out of the 14 cellulases produced by S. scabiei in cellulose-containing medium was stimulated by the presence of suberin. In most cases, the transcription of the corresponding cellulase-encoding genes was also markedly increased when the bacterium was grown in the presence of suberin and cellulose. The level of a subtilase-like protease inhibitor was markedly decreased by the presence of suberin. We proposed a model for the onset of S. scabiei virulence mechanisms by both cellulose and suberin, the main degradation product of cellulose that acts as an inducer of thaxtomin biosynthetic genes, and suberin promoting the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites including thaxtomins. PMID:26330095

  17. Characterization of a cellulose-binding, cellulase-containing complex in Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamed, R; Setter, E; Bayer, E A

    1983-11-01

    The isolation and biochemical characterization of the extracellular form of a cellulose-binding factor (CBF) from Clostridium thermocellum is described. The CBF was isolated from the culture supernatant by a two-step procedure which included affinity chromatography on cellulose and gel filtration on Sepharose 4B. The isolated CBF was homogeneous as determined by immunoelectrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and analytical ultracentrifugation analysis. The CBF was found to form a complex which exhibited a molecular weight estimated at 2.1 million. Electron microscopic analysis of negatively stained preparations of the isolated CBF revealed a particulate, multisubunit entity of complicated quaternary structure. The molecule appeared to be about 18 nm in size. Although urea failed to break the complex into its component parts, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate resolved the CBF complex into 14 polypeptide bands. Immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that these polypeptides indeed formed part of the same complex. Interestingly, by using the whole-cell immunization procedure described in the accompanying article (Bayer et al., J. Bacteriol., 156:818-827, 1983) only one CBF subunit (Mr = 210,000) was found to be antigenically active. By using a gel-overlay assay technique, at least eight of the remaining CBF-associated polypeptide components were shown to exhibit cellulolytic activity. The results are consistent with the contention that the CBF comprises a discrete, multisubunit complex or group of closely related complexes which exhibit separate antigenic and multiple cellulase activities in addition to the property of cellulose binding. It appears that the CBF is not only responsible for the adherence of the cells to cellulose but also constitutes a major part of the cellulolytic apparatus of this organism. PMID:6195146

  18. Studies on coordination chemistry and bioactivity of metal complexes of a bidentate NN schiff base, (2-pyridyl-methylene)(phenyl) hydrazine, produced from the condensation of pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde with phenylhydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bidentate Schiff base, (2-pyridyl-methylene)(phenyl) hydrazine, with NN donor sequence, was isolated from the condensation of pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde with phenylhydrazine in ethanol. Metal complexes of this ligand with Ni(II), Zn(It), and Cu(n) ions were synthesized and characterized by a variety of physico-chemical techniques. The structure of the Schiff base was solved by X-ray diffraction studies, which indicated that it was monoclinic with a space group of C2/c. The complexes were all four coordinated. The compounds were tested against four pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The nickel complex, [Ni(NN)2Cl2], in particular, was found to be active against all the fungi tested. The complexes were however inactive against leukemic cell lines (CEM-SS). (author)

  19. Biodegradation of remazol brilliant blue R by ligninolytic enzymatic complex produced by Pleurotus ostreatus Biodegradação do azul brilhante de remazol R pelo complexo enzimático ligninolítico produzido por Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Gomes Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus ostreatus ("shimeji" is produced in Brazil on a commercial scale using various lignocellulosic residues. Efforts have been made to reuse the culture residue to obtain products of greater aggregate value such as enzymes or in processes of bioremediation. We evaluated the Remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR degradation potential of extracts from solid substrate colonized by P. ostreatus and extracts from residue of the "shimeji" mushroom yield. Colonized substrates and residue were provided by Toyobo do Brasil Ltda. Extraction was performed with sodium acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 4.6. RBBR decolorization was monitored at 592 nm and peroxidase and laccase activities were measured by monitoring the oxidation of ABTS. Horseradish peroxidase was used as reference. The time of growth of P. ostreatus influenced RBBR degradation and peroxidase and laccase activities. Concentration of 1 mM H2O2 and pH 4.0 were the best for RBBR decolorization. Complete RBBR decolorization was obtained with the addition of only one aliquot of 50 µL of 1 mM H2O2. The stability of the extracts was higher when they were kept under refrigeration than when stored frozen. The potential application of the ligninolytic complex derived from P. ostreatus and mushroom residue for xenobiotic degradation was demonstrated.Pleurotus ostreatus ("shimeji" é produzido no Brasil em escala comercial empregando-se vários resíduos lignocelulósicos. Esforços têm sido feitos para reaproveitamento do resíduo do cultivo em produtos de maior valor agregado, como enzimas ou sua aplicação em processos de biorremediação. Foi feita avaliação do potencial de degradação do azul brilhante de remazol (RBBR por extratos obtidos de substratos sólidos colonizados por P. ostreatus e por extratos do resíduo da produção do cogumelo "shimeji". Substratos colonizados e o resíduo foram fornecidos pela Toyobo do Brasil Ltda. Extração foi feita com tampão acetato de sódio (50 mM, pH 4

  20. Tropical Soil Fungi Producing Cellulase and Related Enzymes in Biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wattanachai Pathomsiriwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to screen, identify and characterize of cellulolytic fungi from various soil management fields; organic, young organic, semi-chemical and chemical soil from Surin rice fields, Thailand. Fungi from various type of soils were isolated by dilution plating technique on Reese minimal medium supplemented with cellulose powder and rice straw then incubated at 25°C for 3-7 days. The isolated fungi were screened and identified using slide culture technique. The enzymatic activities were assessed by qualitative method for cellulase, xylanase, peroxidase and laccase activities. Two-hundred and fifty-eight fungi isolates found in Surin rice fields belonging to the genus Penicillium (5 species, Paecilomyces (4 species, Aspergillus (3 species, Acremonium (2 species, Chaetomium (2 species, Alternaria (1 species, Bipolaris (1 species, Curvularia (1 species, Fusarium (1 species, Humicola (1 species, Mucor (1 species, Nigrospora (1 species, Phoma (1 species, Pyrenochaeta (1 species, Pythium (1 species, Rhizopus (1 species, Sporotrichum (1 species and Trichoderma (1 species. Out of 29 fungal species clearly showed different in enzymatic activities. Most tropical soil fungi had ability to produce cellulase, xylanase, laccase and peroxidase, respectively. The highest capacity was found only in cellulase. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sp., Chaetomium murorum and Trichoderma sp. showed the highest potential to produce cellulase. Eleven species of soil fungi showed high capacity in xylanase activity. For laccase and peroxidase activity, there were found in 2 species. The results also revealed that only ten showed highest carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, peroxidase and laccase activities by qualitative screening method for enzymatic assay. They were identified as Aspergillus niger, Acremonium sp., Aspergillus sp., Chaetomium murorum, Humicola grisea, Mucor sp., Paecilomyces victoriae, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium lanosum and

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF PRODUCER SIZE IN GLOBALIZED MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, H

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of producer size in a globalized market is a complex market phenomena, which is affected by the market behavior of consumers such as the loyalty of consumers to producers and the purchasing power of consumers, as well as the trade barriers among countries. In the present paper, in order to study the distribution of producer size in the globalized market, we construct a bipartite network that consists of consumers and producers with community structure. We find that the distributi...

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the development of technologies for utilizing biological resources such as complex biosystems. Development of technologies for producing substitute fuel for petroleum by utilizing organisms; 1997 nendo fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Technologies of producing useful substances using the substance decomposing/producing functions of complex biosystems and methods of their handling are developed. In the utilization of microbes in the digestive tracts of termites and longicorns, it is made clear that several kinds of termites cleave the {beta}-O-4 ether linkage. In relation to technologies for wood decomposing complex microbial system construction and complex vector system development, a screening system is constructed in which strains that exhibit complex actions are combined. Concerning the advanced utilization of tropical oil plants, conditions are determined for inducing callus out of oil palm tissues. Out of oil palm sarcocarp tissues, mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) is isolated for the construction of a cDNA (complementary deoxyribonucleic acid) library. For the purpose of isolating a powerful promoter, a partial base sequence is determined for ubiquitin that frequently expresses itself in cells. A pathogenic bacterium ailing the oil palm is sampled for identification, and it is inferred that the bacterium is a kind of Ganoderma boninense. (NEDO)

  3. Characterization of a thermostable endoglucanase produced by Isoptericola variabilis sp. IDAH9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Maryam; Hemmat, Jafar; Seifati, Seyed Morteza; Torktaz, Ibrahim; Karimi, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and evaluate the cellulase activity of cellulolytic bacteria in hot springs of Dehloran, Ilam province, Iran. Water and sludge samples were collected from the hot springs and the bacterial enrichment was performed in a medium containing rice barn and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The cultures were incubated at 50 °C in aerobic conditions. The bacteria were isolated on CMC agar (1%) medium. Cellulase assay of the isolates was measured by the evaluation of endoglucanase enzyme activity, which is also called as carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase). The isolated thermotolerant bacteria were then identified and optimized for the production of CMCase. Moreover, stabilizing elements of the enzyme were identified with in silico approach. The chosen isolate was identified as Isoptericola variabilis sp. IDAH9. The identified strain produced the most thermostable CMCase at a concentration of 5.6 g/L of ammonium sulfate, 9 g/L CMCase or 12 g/L rice bran, 0/6% Tween-80, and 0.2% sucrose. The produced enzyme showed 80% of the residual activity after 1 h of incubation at 65 °C. In silico data indicated that the remaining residual activity was due to the redundant stabilizing elements in the protein structure. Consequently, I. variabilis can be isolated from the extreme environment and has a thermostable endoglucanase which may be used for various applications after studying them. PMID:26691485

  4. Complex Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschet, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...

  5. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  6. Expression of endo-1, 4-beta-xylanase from Trichoderma reesei in Pichia pastoris and functional characterization of the produced enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, xylanases have attracted considerable research interest because of their potential in various industrial applications. The yeast Pichia pastoris can neither utilize nor degrade xylan, but it possesses many attributes that render it an attractive host for the expression and production of industrial enzymes. Results The Xyn2 gene, which encodes the main Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 endo-β-1, 4-xylanase was cloned into the pPICZαA vector and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The selected P. pastoris strains produced as 4,350 nkat/ml β-xylanase under the control of the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1 promoter. The secreted recombinant Xyn2 was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 21 kDa. The activity of the recombinant Xyn2 was highest at 60°C and it was active over a broad range of pH (3.0–8.0 with maximal activity at pH 6.0. The enzyme was quite stable at 50°C and retained more than 94% of its activity after 30 mins incubation at this temperature. Using Birchwood xylan, the determined apparent Km and kcat values were 2.1 mg/ml and 219.2 S-1, respectively. The enzyme was highly specific towards xylan and analysis of xylan hydrolysis products confirmed as expected that the enzyme functions as endo-xylanase with xylotriose as the main hydrolysis products. The produced xylanase was practically free of cellulolytic activity. Conclusion The P. pastoris expression system allows a high level expression of xylanases. Xylanase was the main protein species in the culture supernatant, and the functional tests indicated that even the non-purified enzyme shows highly specific xylanase activity that is free of cellulolytic side acitivities. Therefore, P pastoris is a very useful expression system when the goal is highly specific and large scale production of glycosyl hydrolases.

  7. Complex chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-15

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  8. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  9. Boosting Farm Produce Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of escalating inflation,securing farm produce supply and stablizing grain prices could help to alleviate economic pressure The Chinese Government has pledged to secure a stable supply of farm produce.According to a document released after the annual Central Rural Work Conference held on December 22-23 in Beijing,preventing short supplies of farm produce and avoiding"ex-

  10. 纤维素分解酶处理玉米秸秆对肉牛生产性能和经济效益的影响%Effects of corn stover fermented by cellulolytic enzyme on production performance and economic benefit in beef cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高月平; 张贵花; 王聪; 刘强; 白元生; 师周戈; 刘晓妮

    2013-01-01

    研究玉米秸秆经纤维素分解酶(纤维素酶和木聚糖酶)处理后的化学成分变化以及对肉牛生产性能和经济效益的影响.选用12月龄左右的西门塔尔牛36头,对照组饲喂基础日粮(混合精料十玉米秸秆,精粗比45∶55),试验组分别以0.5%、1.0%和1.5%的纤维素分解酶处理玉米秸秆替代基础饲粮中的玉米秸秆进行为期70 d的试验.结果表明:采用纤维素分解酶处理玉米秸秆后化学成分发生变化,粗蛋白质含量增加显著,中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维降低显著,1.5%的纤维素分解酶处理组中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维显著低于1.0%的纤维素分解酶处理组.1.0%、1.5%的纤维素分解酶处理组西门塔尔牛干物质采食量、平均日增重和经济效益提高显著(P<0.05).适宜的纤维素分解酶添加水平为1.0%.%The objective was to evaluate the effects of corn stover fermented by cellulolytic enzyme on nutrition of corn stover,production performance of beef cattles and economic benefit.Thirty-six Simmenta beef cattles (12-month-old) were randomly divided into 4 groups.The control group was fed the basal diet (mixed concentrate and corn stover,concentrate to roughage as 45 to 55).Treatments lasted for 70 days were fed corn stover fermented by cellulolytic enzyme at 0.5%,1.0% and 1.5 %,respectively.The results showed that chemical composition of corn stover changed with the addition of cellulolytic enzymes.The crude protein content increased significantly,neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased significantly.neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber of 1.5 % cellulolytic enzyme treatment were significantly lower than that of 1% cellulolytic enzyme treatment.The dry matter intake,average daily gain and economic benefit of 1.0%,1.5% cellulolytic enzyme treatment increased significantly (P<0.05).The cellulolytic enzyme addition level as 1% was good.

  11. Not so Complex: Iteration in the Complex Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2014-01-01

    The simple process of iteration can produce complex and beautiful figures. In this article, Robin O'Dell presents a set of tasks requiring students to use the geometric interpretation of complex number multiplication to construct linear iteration rules. When the outputs are plotted in the complex plane, the graphs trace pleasing designs…

  12. Use of remazol blue dyed avicel for the determination of cellulolytic activity in basidiomycetes Uso de Avicel colorida com Remazol Blue para determinação da atividade celulolítica em Basidiomycetos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José Correia

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A modified method for direct determination of cellulolytic activity using Avicel colored with Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR in Agar test tubes is discussed. Refinements were introduced in a simple method for quantitation of cellulase activity, based on the release of dye from Avicel-RBBR medium by the enzymatic hydrolysis. Modifications in Avicel-dye preparation were enhanced and a spectrophotometer for direct OD measurement in agar test tubes used. The use of a spectrophotometer improved the precision of the collected data, since absorbance measurements could be done at the maximum wavelenght for RBBR (595 nm.Neste trabalho, é discutido um método modificado para determinação da atividade celulolítica em fungos utilizando Avicel colorida com Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR, diretamente em tubos com ágar, a partir de refinamentos introduzidos em uma metodologia simples e baseada na liberação deste corante pela ação hidrolítica em Avicel colorida com o RBBR. Foram feitas modificações no preparo da Avicel colorida, bem como um espectrofotômetro para medição direta da absorbância nos tubos com ágar foi usado. O uso de espectrofotômetro aumentou a precisão dos dados coletados, pois permitiu leituras de absorbância no comprimento de onda máximo para RBBR (595 nm.

  13. Complex silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study presents the results of investigations carried out on silumins with additions of Mg, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo and W. The silumins containing Mg, Cu and Ni are well-known and commonly used in construction of machines and equipment.Design/methodology/approach: Additions of Cr, Mo and W have not been thoroughly investigated yet. They are considered a new family of innovative cast aluminium alloys.Findings: In Al-Si systems they form silicides, like Cr3Si, Mo3Si, W3Si and intermetallic phases of Al13Cr4Si4, Al12Mo, Al12W and AlWSi. The silicides crystallise in cubic lattice of parameters similar to aluminium and silicon.Research limitations/implications: Therefore they can act as crystallisation substrates and occur as separate phases. The examinations under the microscope and X-ray microanalysis of the linear and point distribution of elements confirmed the presence of the above mentioned phases. A combination of two elements, e.g. Cr and Mo, or Cr and W, was observed to cause the formation of complex silicide layers of Mo3Si and (Cr, Mo3Si, or Cr3Si as well as (W, Cr3Si.Originality/value: The presence of the silicides has been indicated as a possible source of the refinement of α(Al and β(Si phases. The precipitations of these phases and of the intermetallic phases favour a high degree of the silumins hardening. A characteristic feature is the fact that nucleation and crystallisation of the successive phases takes place at the phase boundaries formed between the previously precipitated phase and solid solution α. The studies carried out so far have indicated that in complex silumins at high temperatures crystallise the silicides and peritectic phases of Al12W, AlWSi, Al12Mo and Al13Cr4Si4. Phases α or β are the next ones to crystallise, followed by complex eutectic α + β +Al(Si, Cr, Mo, W, Fe. Further crystallise the phases of Mg2Si, Al3Ni and Al2Cu. The silumins presented here are characterised by high mechanical properties: Rp0

  14. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are stabil

  15. Bucolic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Brešar, Bostjan; Chepoi, Victor; Gologranc, Tanja; Osajda, Damian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we introduce and investigate bucolic complexes, a common generalization of systolic complexes and of CAT(0) cubical complexes. This class of complexes is closed under Cartesian products and amalgamations over some convex subcomplexes. We study various approaches to bucolic complexes: from graph-theoretic and topological viewpoints, as well as from the point of view of geometric group theory. Bucolic complexes can be defined as locally-finite simply connected prism complexes satisfying some local combinatorial conditions. We show that bucolic complexes are contractible, and satisfy some nonpositive-curvature-like properties. In particular, we prove a version of the Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the fixed point theorem for finite group actions, and establish some results on groups acting geometrically on such complexes. We also characterize the 1-skeletons (which we call bucolic graphs) and the 2-skeletons of bucolic complexes. In particular, we prove that bucolic graphs are precisely retracts of Ca...

  16. Plants producing biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2009-08-15

    Biofuels are currently produced primarily from five plants, namely corn, canola, sugar cane, palm oil, jatropha. However, research and development efforts are underway around the world produce biofuels from other sources, particularly from algae. This paper described the characteristics of the top 5 plants and their role in the production of biofuels. Countries where these plants are cultivated were also summarized. The article indicated that producing ethanol from corn, is not very efficient since growing corn requires more fertilizer and pesticides than most other crops, plus the corn kernels have to undergo energy-intensive distillation and chemical extraction processes. China is the world's largest producer of rapeseed oil, with an annual production of 12 million tons. The countries of the European Union collectively produce another 16 million tons, of which nearly 4 million tons were used in 2006 to produce biodiesel. Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugar cane, and accounts for about 45 per cent of global ethanol production. Malaysia and Indonesia are the key players in the palm oil market, accounting for 85 per cent of global production. India has identified more than 11 million hectares that would be suitable for growing jatropha, whose seeds contain up to 40 per cent oil that can be burned in a conventional diesel engine after extraction. 1 tab.

  17. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-01-14

    This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)

  18. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  19. Tropical complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    We introduce tropical complexes, which are Delta-complexes together with additional numerical data. On a tropical complex, we define divisors and linear equivalence between divisors, analogous to the notions for algebraic varieties, and generalizing previous work for graphs. We prove a comparison theorem showing that divisor-curve intersection numbers agree under certain conditions.

  20. Medical Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of the Medical Complex. This project covers the construction of a new Hong Kong University Medical Complex on Sassoon Road, Pokfulam. The complex will comprise two buildings, one will house laboratories and a car park, while the other will contain lecture halls

  1. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  2. Quantitative Tools for Dissection of Hydrogen-Producing Metabolic Networks-Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Dismukes, G.Charles.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2012-10-19

    During this project we have pioneered the development of integrated experimental-computational technologies for the quantitative dissection of metabolism in hydrogen and biofuel producing microorganisms (i.e. C. acetobutylicum and various cyanobacteria species). The application of these new methodologies resulted in many significant advances in the understanding of the metabolic networks and metabolism of these organisms, and has provided new strategies to enhance their hydrogen or biofuel producing capabilities. As an example, using mass spectrometry, isotope tracers, and quantitative flux-modeling we mapped the metabolic network structure in C. acetobutylicum. This resulted in a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of central carbon metabolism that could not have been obtained using genomic data alone. We discovered that biofuel production in this bacterium, which only occurs during stationary phase, requires a global remodeling of central metabolism (involving large changes in metabolite concentrations and fluxes) that has the effect of redirecting resources (carbon and reducing power) from biomass production into solvent production. This new holistic, quantitative understanding of metabolism is now being used as the basis for metabolic engineering strategies to improve solvent production in this bacterium. In another example, making use of newly developed technologies for monitoring hydrogen and NAD(P)H levels in vivo, we dissected the metabolic pathways for photobiological hydrogen production by cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp. This investigation led to the identification of multiple targets for improving hydrogen production. Importantly, the quantitative tools and approaches that we have developed are broadly applicable and we are now using them to investigate other important biofuel producers, such as cellulolytic bacteria.

  3. Producing CD-ROMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue presents 11 articles that address issues relating to the production of CD-ROMs. Highlights include current uses of CD-ROM; standards; steps involved in producing CD-ROMs, including data capture, conversion, and tagging, product design, and indexing; authoring; selecting indexing and retrieval software; costs; multimedia CD-ROMs; and…

  4. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  5. Top Hispanic Degree Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy students at the Indiana University Bloomington. For the year 2012, the listings focus on Hispanic students. Data for…

  6. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or producer... laying hens is in some other party to the contract. In the event the party to an oral contract...

  7. A reappraisal of fungi producing aflatoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Aflatoxins are decaketide-derived secondary metabolites which are produced by a complex biosynthetic pathway. Aflatoxins are among the economically most important mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 exhibits hepatocarcinogenic and hepatotoxic properties, and is frequently referred to as the most potent natu...

  8. Industrial system for producing iodine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An industrial system to produce iodine-123 required a complex set of steps involving new approaches by the Food and Drug Administration, difficult distribution procedures, and evidence from potential users that either very pure iodine-123 or inexpensive iodine-123 is needed. Industry has shown its willingness to invest in new radionuclides but needs strong evidence as to product potential to justify those investments

  9. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Engaging complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gys M. Loubser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.

  11. Effect of cellulase producing fungi on plant residues degradation used as organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Soil microbiology Unit and Farm of soil and Water research department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Laboratory experiments revealed that between nine fungal strain, A. niger was the most potent cellulolytic fungus able to degrade many cellulosic sources (CP, CMC, and FP). Study the effect of cellulolytic fungi on degradation of plant residues used as organic fertilizer in addition to nitrogen fixing bacteria (symbiotically) on lupine growth, yield and nutrients uptake (Field experiment) had been carried out. This objective aims to recycling different plant residues in soil which is consistent with (sustainable development) and utilization of these organic residues as a single carbon source for cellulolytic fungi.Application of 15N- tracer technique gave us the chance and opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to lupine plant under the effect of cellulolytic fungi on different plant residues.The obtained results could be summarized as following:I.Laboratory Technique Selection of the most potent cellulolytic fungi 1-Nine fungal strains of Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus flavus; Alterrnaria sp.; Trichderma harzianum ; Rhizopus sp. and Syncephalastrum sp. obtained from different sources and tested for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Aspergillus niger and Pencillium oxalicum exhibited the highest cellulase productivity followed by Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus.3- fungal mixtures of the most potent four genera Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus found to have a lower cellulolytic activities for all substrates compared with single inoculation with A. niger.4-Highest FPase activities were exhibited by A. niger when filter paper (FP) used as a carbon source.5-A. niger is

  12. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Carney complex are Cushing’s syndrome and multiple thyroid nodules (tumors). Cushing’s syndrome features a combination of weight gain, ... with Carney complex include adrenocortical carcinoma , pituitary gland tumors , thyroid , colorectal , liver and pancreatic cancers . Ovarian cancer in ...

  13. Simplifying complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemput, van de I.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior

  14. Hamiltonian complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years we have seen the birth of a new field known as Hamiltonian complexity lying at the crossroads between computer science and theoretical physics. Hamiltonian complexity is directly concerned with the question: how hard is it to simulate a physical system? Here I review the foundational results, guiding problems, and future directions of this emergent field.

  15. Producer, customer and supplier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, B. [PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    PanCanadian`s strategy for electricity use was discussed. PanCanadian is one of Canada`s largest oil producers. The company is growth oriented, has a strong asset base and is financially sound. With its growing power consumption and increased competition, the company needs to control costs, particularly in the changing regulatory climate. Reduction in emissions is also one of the challenges facing the company. Under these circumstances the company has the opportunity to play more than one role: as a proactive consumer actively managing its own consumption, as a generator of its own electric power, and as a supplier of electricity to the grid. 2 figs.

  16. Characterization of the cellulolytic secretome of Trichoderma harzianum during growth on sugarcane bagasse and analysis of the activity boosting effects of swollenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A L Rocha, Vanessa; N Maeda, Roberto; Pereira, Nei; F Kern, Marcelo; Elias, Luisa; Simister, Rachael; Steele-King, Clare; Gómez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2016-03-01

    This study demonstrates the production of an active enzyme cocktail produced by growing Trichoderma harzianum on sugarcane bagasse. The component enzymes were identified by LCMS-MS. Glycosyl hydrolases were the most abundant class of proteins, representing 67% of total secreted protein. Other carbohydrate active enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction included lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (AA9), carbohydrate-binding modules, carbohydrate esterases and swollenin, all present at levels of 1%. In total, proteases and lipases represented 5 and 1% of the total secretome, respectively, with the rest of the secretome being made up of proteins of unknown or putative function. This enzyme cocktail was efficient in catalysing the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse cellulolignin to fermentable sugars for potential use in ethanol production. Apart from mapping the secretome of T. harzianum, which is a very important tool to understand the catalytic performance of enzyme cocktails, the gene coding for T. harzianum swollenin was expressed in Aspergillus niger. This novel aspect in this work, allowed increasing the swollenin concentration by 95 fold. This is the first report about the heterologous expression of swollenin from T. harzianum, and the findings are of interest in enriching enzyme cocktail with this important accessory protein which takes part in the cellulose amorphogenesis. Despite lacking detectable glycoside activity, the addition of swollenin of T. harzianum increased by two-fold the hydrolysis efficiency of a commercial cellulase cocktail. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:327-336, 2016. PMID:26697775

  17. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia;

    2013-01-01

    and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing.......This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  18. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  19. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H. , Franz; James A. , Alnajjar; Mikhail S. , Neuenschwander; Gary G. , Alderson; Eric V. , Orth; Rick J. , Abbas; Charles A. , Beery; Kyle E. , Rammelsberg; Anne M. , Kim; Catherine J.

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  20. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  1. Process for producing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, K.; Komatsu, A.; Moroe, M.; Moroe, T.

    1980-07-22

    A process is described for producing a hydrocarbon product consisting essentially of hydrocarbons having about 10 to 50 carbon atoms with 60% or more of said product consisting of hydrocarbons containing 25 to 32 carbon atoms which comprises subjecting a synthetic polyisoprene rubber having 92 to 97% cis-type double bods to a thermally destructive distillation at about 300 to 400/sup 0/ C for about 30 minutes under a reduced pressure of about 0.1 to 5 mm. Hg to obtain said hydrocarbon product consisting essentially of hydrocarbons having about 10 to 50 carbon atoms with 60% or more of said product consisting of hydrocarbons containing 25 to 35 carbon atoms, said hydrocarbon product not having a bad odor and containing scarcely any resinous material.

  2. Simplifying complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Leemput, van de, J.C.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior leads to the emergence of properties that would not be expected from behavior or properties of the individual parts of the system. Although the full behavior of the systems I address will probably...

  3. Some thoughts on social versus cultural complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastko Cvekić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Socially complex hunter-gatherers are characterised by (1 inherited, permanent leadership and (2 sustained control over non-kin labour. Archaeologists have tended to infer social complexity through evidence of cultural complexity (i.e., artistic elaboration, composite tool technology, religion, etc. Complexity theory, however, indicates that patterns suggestive of social complexity can be produced through simple behavioural rules that do not necessitate social hierarchies. Therefore,evidence of cultural complexity cannot be used to infer social complexity in archaeological societies, nor should social complexity be emphasized in discussions of hunter-gatherer achievement or evolution of food production.

  4. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  5. Complex networks: Patterns of complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.

  6. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dashtban, Heidi Schraft, Wensheng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

  7. Fungal bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues; opportunities & perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and beta-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  8. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  9. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopička, K.; Fišer, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanč, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides/compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed.

  10. Management of complex fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Andersen, Peder; Hoff, Ayoe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how fisheries economics management issues or problems can be analyzed by using a complex model based on conventional bioeconomic theory. Complex simulation models contain a number of details that make them suitable for practical management advice......, including taking into account the response of the fishermen to implemented management measures. To demonstrate the use of complex management models this paper assesses a number of second best management schemes against a first rank optimum (FRO), an ideal individual transferable quotas (ITQ) system....... This is defined as the management scheme which produces the highest net present value over a 25 year period. The assessed management schemes (scenarios) are composed by several measures as used in the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union for the cod fishery in the Baltic Sea. The scenarios are total...

  11. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  12. Complexity science and leadership in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J P

    2001-10-01

    The emerging field of complexity science offers an alternative leadership strategy for the chaotic, complex healthcare environment. A survey revealed that healthcare leaders intuitively support principles of complexity science. Leadership that uses complexity principles offers opportunities in the chaotic healthcare environment to focus less on prediction and control and more on fostering relationships and creating conditions in which complex adaptive systems can evolve to produce creative outcomes. PMID:11676217

  13. Radiation produced biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    radiation technique. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as modification of material surfaces to improve their biocompatibility and ability to bond antigens and antibodies have been the main subject of their investigations. The rising interest in the field of application of radiation to bioengineering was also recognized by the International Atoimc Energy Agency, which has initiated the international programs relating to those studies. In these lectures some directions of investigations on the formation of hydrogels and their applications for biomedical purposes have been specified. Also, some examples of commercialized products being produced by means of radiation technique have been presented

  14. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  15. User community vs. producer innovation development efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hienerth, Christoph; von Hippel, Eric; Jensen, Morten Berg

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report upon a first empirical exploration of the relative efficiency of innovation development by product users vs. product producers. In a study of over 50 years of product innovation in the whitewater kayaking field, we find users in aggregate were approximately 3× more efficient...... at developing important kayaking product innovations than were producers in aggregate. We speculate that this result is driven by what we term “efficiencies of scope” in problem-solving. These can favor an aggregation of many user innovators, each spending a little, over fewer producer innovators...... benefitting from higher economies of scale in product development. We also note that the present study explores only one initial point on what is likely to be a complex efficiency landscape....

  16. Producing Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  17. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  18. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  19. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  20. Stable generalized complex structures

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalcanti, Gil R

    2015-01-01

    A stable generalized complex structure is one that is generically symplectic but degenerates along a real codimension two submanifold, where it defines a generalized Calabi-Yau structure. We introduce a Lie algebroid which allows us to view such structures as symplectic forms. This allows us to construct new examples of stable structures, and also to define period maps for their deformations in which the background three-form flux is either fixed or not, proving the unobstructedness of both deformation problems. We then use the same tools to establish local normal forms for the degeneracy locus and for Lagrangian branes. Applying our normal forms to the four-dimensional case, we prove that any compact stable generalized complex 4-manifold has a symplectic completion, in the sense that it can be modified near its degeneracy locus to produce a compact symplectic 4-manifold.

  1. Transfer of In Vitro Produced Sheep Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    BİRLER, Sema; PABUÇÇUOĞLU, Serhat; ATALLA, Hatem; ALKAN, Serhat; ÖZDAŞ, Özen Banu

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to transfer sheep embryos produced in vitro to recipient ewes. Ovaries were taken from slaughtered Kıvırcık ewes and transferred to the laboratory in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 30-35 ºC. The cumulus-oocyte complexes were obtained by slicing and washing 1-6 mm diameter follicles and matured for 24 h in medium 199 supplemented with sodium pyruvate, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) at 38.5 º...

  2. A method of producing hydroxymethyfurfural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose.......The present invention relates to a method of producing 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by dehydration of fructose and/or glucose and/or mannose....

  3. Heterogeneity in Producer's Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tong; Brorsen, B. Wade

    2006-01-01

    Producers can make their market timing decisions either based on fundamental or technical analysis to reach specific financial target. A generalized mixture model is used to discriminate producers into more than one segment according to their marketing strategies. The heterogeneous selling response is the same within each segment.

  4. Use of a Mixture of Thermophilic Enzymes Produced by the Fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus to Enhance the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of the Sugarcane Bagasse Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Monte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The production of hydrolytic enzymes by T. aurantiacus has been performed under solid-state fermentations using lignocellulosic materials. The influences of the inoculum size and of the fermentation medium on the production of hemicellulases and cellulases were studied. Filtrates from the cultures were used to hydrolyze a pulp of sugarcane bagasse and the produced enzymes were shown to be candidates for use as co-adjuvants in plant saccharification. Aproach: The present study focuses on the effect of different culture conditions on production of cellulases and hemicellulases by T. aurantiacus. It is also provides a possible application of T. aurantiacus enzymes in the degradation of sugarcane bagasse pulp, considering that this thermophilic fungus is a potential source of thermostable enzymes. Results: T. aurantiacus was cultivated on four different agricultural residues: sugarcane bagasse, sugarcane straw, wheat straw and corn cob. Xylanase was produced with much more expressive activity than cellulases. The highest titre of xylanase was obtained on sugarcane straw at 9 days (1679.8 IU g−1; the same was observed for β- glucosidase (29.9 IU g−1 at 6 days. With an inoculum load of 108 spores g−1, the amount of exoglucanase produced by the fungus considerably exceeds that produced with 104 spores g−1. Xylanases and cellulases purified from filtrates of the cultures were investigated to hydrolyze a bagasse pulp prepared with alkaline peroxide. Xylanase or sulphuric acid were used as pretreatments for xylan removal, increasing the cellulase performance on pulp bagasse. However, results revealed that the removal of hemicellulose is not the only main factor limiting the cellulose hydrolysis. Conclusion: Results indicate that the xylanase action on alkaline-pretreated sugar cane bagasse enhances the cellulolytic effect promoted by a commercial cellulase. This study thus presents an evaluation of the

  5. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  6. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  7. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  8. User producer interaction in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.; Moors, E.H.M.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    User producer interaction (UPI) increases chances for successful innovations. It is not always clear, however, what type of interaction is necessary in a particular context. This article identifies seven different types of UPI: constructing linkages, broadening, characterizing users, upstream involv

  9. The dispersion of produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to estimate the dispersion of produced water which is a major component of the effluent water discharged into the North Sea as a result of oil production. The study involved the application of a dispersion model developed for the northwest European continental shelf seas to Shell/Esso production operations in the northern and central North SEa. The produced water discharged from these operations represents around 22% of the total discharge in the UK sector. In this paper the background to the model used in the calculations is outlined and the validation data are discussed. The results show that the produced water is diluted by factors around one million before the prevailing currents take it out of the North Sea off the Norwegian coast. This dilution and the natural decay effects reduce the concentrations of the environmentally sensitive components in the produced water to less than 1 ppb

  10. Anaerobic, solvent-producing bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Castaño, Dolly

    2005-01-01

    This work’s main goal was to study strategies for the molecular and enzymatic characterisation of new solvent-producing mesophylic Clostridium isolates from Colombia and ascertain their solvent producing biotechnological potential by using a cheap agro-industrial waste as carbon source. Molecular characterisation of the native strains using 16S rRNA, PFGE and DNA- DNA hybridisation shown that the native strains are closely related to each other and not belong to Clostridium butyricum and sugg...

  11. DEMAND OVERVIEW FOR ORGANIC PRODUCE

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jon C.; Peterson, H. Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The market for organic food has been growing 20% per year for the past nine years. Fruits and vegetables are a large part of the organic market, accounting for more than $670 million in retail sales annually. This presents an opportunity for entry of new agricultural producers, and the expansion of existing organic growers. Similarly to other businesses, organic producers will succeed by providing customer value. The best opportunity for organic growers to achieve this is to focus on increasi...

  12. Complexity and the Arrow of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Charles H.; Davies, Paul C. W.; Ruse, Michael

    2013-08-01

    1. What is complexity? Is it increasing? Charles H. Lineweaver, Paul C. W. Davies and Michael Ruse; 2. Directionality principles from cancer to cosmology Paul C. W. Davies; 3. A simple treatment of complexity: cosmological entropic boundary conditions on increasing complexity Charles H. Lineweaver; 4. Using complexity science to search for unity in the natural sciences Eric J. Chaisson; 5. On the spontaneous generation of complexity in the universe Seth Lloyd; 6. Emergent spatiotemporal complexity in field theory Marcelo Gleiser; 7. Life: the final frontier for complexity? Simon Conway Morris; 8. Evolution beyond Newton, Darwin, and entailing law: the origin of complexity in the evolving biosphere Stuart A. Kauffman; 9. Emergent order in processes: the interplay of complexity, robustness, correlation, and hierarchy in the biosphere D. Eric Smith; 10. The inferential evolution of biological complexity: forgetting nature by learning to nurture David C. Krakauer; 11. Information width: a way for the second law to increase complexity David Wolpert; 12. Wrestling with biological complexity: from Darwin to Dawkins Michael Ruse; 13. The role of generative entrenchment and robustness in the evolution of complexity William C. Wimsatt; 14. On the plurality of complexity-producing mechanisms Philip Clayton; Index.

  13. Produced water - composition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Produced water can be defined as ''High volume waste-water separated from oil and gas that is produced from subsurface formations''. The water contains aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, particulate matter and soluble salts as well as elements originating from formations and from sea water injections. Residues of chemicals may also be present. The accepted North Sea discharge limit is 40 ppm. In this presentation the focus will be on the chemical composition of produced water and on the challenges involved in developing and implementing analytical methods. The focus will also be on the development of a new oil-in-water analytical method as a replacement for the Freon method. 7 refs., 1 tab

  14. Quantum motion in complex space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is dedicated to the development of a general theory unifying classical and quantum mechanics in complex space, and to the conveyance of the philosophy that what have been considered as probabilistic quantum events have a common origin from the particle's deterministic motion in complex space. We postulate that the actual scenario of dynamic motion happens in complex space and what we customarily consider as physical reality is merely the projection of the actual scenario into the real space. The proposed theory employs complex-extended classical mechanics to describe and model quantum systems in such a way that all the particle-like properties can be reserved due to its classical nature and in the meanwhile, all the wave-like properties are manifested naturally via the multi-path behavior of complex trajectories. The proposed framework of complex mechanics makes use of classical concepts and tools to deal with particle's quantum behavior by the introduction of a complex Hamiltonian from which complex Hamilton equations describing particle's quantum motion are derived in a form of Newton's second law defined in complex space. Complex mechanics is then connected with quantum mechanics by showing the equivalence between the complex Hamilton-Jacobi equation and Schroedinger equation. The solutions of the complex Hamilton equations give us the complex trajectories traced by a particle, which are found to be non-unique. It is this non-uniqueness of the complex trajectories projected into real space that produces the multi-path phenomenon and the observed wave behavior of a material particle in the real space. This conclusion seems to be consistent with that of Elnaschie ε (∞) space-time [Elnaschie MS. The Feynman path intergal and E-infinity from the two-slit Geclanken experiment. Int J Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul 2005;6(4):335-42; Elnaschie MS. A review of the E-infinity theory and the mass spectrum of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and

  15. What Does it Take to Produce Interpretation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren; Joslyn, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a critical analysis of code-semiotics, which we see as the latest attempt to create paradigmatic foundation for solving the question of the emergence of life and consciousness. We view code semiotics as a an attempt to revise the empirical scientific Darwinian paradigm, and to...... go beyond the complex systems, emergence, self-organization, and informational paradigms, and also the selfish gene theory of Dawkins and the Peircean pragmaticist semiotic theory built on the simultaneous types of evolution. As such it is a new and bold attempt to use semiotics to solve the problems...... created by the evolutionary paradigm’s commitment to produce a theory of how to connect the two sides of the Cartesian dualistic view of physical reality and consciousness in a consistent way....

  16. The Top STEM Degree Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority…

  17. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach...

  18. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first time, it has…

  19. A new producer of mevastatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu; Yiwen; Yang; Xi

    1999-01-01

    Mevastatin (compactin)was isolated form culture broth of a fungal strain SIIA-F3933,The strain SIIA-F3933 was isolated from a soil sample collected in Putuo mountain,Zhejiang Province,P,R.China,It was identified as Penicillium janczewskii Zaleski based on its cultural and morphological characteristics and was regarded as a new producer of mevastatin,。

  20. Student-Produced Videos for Exam Review in Mathematics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsizer, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Videos have been used in classrooms for decades, but student-produced video has recently become a viable, economical option to enhance learning. Students were asked to create videos to be used for their exam review in two different undergraduate mathematics courses: Differential Equation and Complex Analysis. Students were then surveyed about…

  1. Measuring Tax Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    David Ulph

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines a number of issues relating to the measurement of tax complexity. It starts with an analysis of the concept of tax complexity, distinguishing tax design complexity and operational complexity. It considers the consequences/costs of complexity, and then examines the rationale for measuring complexity. Finally it applies the analysis to an examination of an index of complexity developed by the UK Office of Tax Simplification (OTS). Postprint

  2. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  3. Applications of Oilfield Produced Formation Water for Fracturing Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde S. Bankole

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilfield produced formation water containing complex mixture of Dissolved Solid Compounds (DSC, including sodium, boron, chloride, magnesium, potassium, calcium, barium, iron and other salts is used in this research with the objective to develop stable and degradable cross linked fracturing fluid useful in both oil and gas producing reservoirs. As a result of recent increasing interest in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations, large volume of produced and/or flow back water containing complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds is generated in the oilfield during the oil and gas recovery operations. Independently owned to larger oil and gas producing operators manage the generated oilfield produced water by one or more of the strategies, which include disposal, re-use and recycling of the produced water. However, large water consumption and strict environmental disposal issues associated with hydraulic fracturing treatment, combined with industry growth, are generating a crucial need for developing a good viscosity and reliably stable cross linked fracturing fluid systems, useful for transporting propping agents into the fracturing zones at moderate to high temperature range using the generated oilfield produced water. Presented in this study are the results of rheology and residue analysis of fracturing fluid systems prepared with oilfield produced formation water from a broad spectrum of geologic basins. The rheology studies were conducted to measure viscosity under a nitrogen pressure of >400 Psi and temperature window of 210-260F. The guar residue analysis test was performed with series of gel breakers at 185°F. The fluid systems presented provide proof of concept of the ability to crosslink and degrade cross linked fluids to below 100 cP at shear rate of 100/sec under the considered treating down hole conditions. Data presented provide guidance for the potential use of generated oilfield produced water as source

  4. Hydrolysis inhibition of complex biowaste

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos Fernandes, T.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand of renewable energy sources and reuse of wastes, challenges our society for better technological solutions for energy production. Co-digestion of agricultural biowaste, such as animal manure and plant residues, offers an interesting contribution to the renewable energy strategies. The biogas plants, where the complex substrates, such as agricultural biowaste, get converted into biogas, are then able to produce electricity and heat, which can be used in the farm and deliv...

  5. Very Big Accelerators as Energy Producers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, R R

    2010-01-01

    One consequence of the application of superconductivity to accelerator construction is that the power consumption of accelerators will become much smaller. This raises the old possibility of using high energy protons to make neutrons which are then absorbed by fertile uranium or thorium to make a fissionable material like plutonium that can be burned in a nuclear reactor. The Energy Doubler/Saver being constructed at Fermilab is to be a superconducting accelerator that will produce 1000 GeV protons. The expected intensity of about $10^{12}$ protons per second corresponds to a beam power of about 0.2 MW. The total power requirements of the Doubler will be about 20 MW of which the injector complex will use approximately 13 MW, and the refrigeration of the superconducting magnets will use about 7 MW. Thus the beam power as projected is only a few orders of magnitude less than the accelerator power. But each 1000 GeV proton will produce about 60,000 neutrons in each nuclear cascade shower that is releaseq in a bl...

  6. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM HALIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, E.V.

    1957-10-29

    A process amd associated apparatus for producing UF/sub 4/ from U/sub 3/ O/sub 8/ by a fluidized'' technique are reported. The U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is first reduced to UO/sub 2/ by reaction with hydrogen, and the lower oxide of uranium is then reacted with gaseous HF to produce UF/sub 4/. In each case the reactant gas is used, alone or in combination with inert gases, to fluidize'' the finely divided reactant solid. The complete setup of the plant equipment including bins, reactor and the associated piping and valving, is described. An auxiliary fluorination reactor allows for the direct production of UF/sub 6/ from UF/sub 4/ and fluorine gas, or if desired, UF/sub 4/ may be collected as the product.

  7. Pricing complexity options

    OpenAIRE

    Malihe Alikhani; Bj{\\o}rn Kjos-Hanssen; Amirarsalan Pakravan; Babak Saadat

    2015-01-01

    We consider options that pay the complexity deficiency of a sequence of up and down ticks of a stock upon exercise. We study the price of European and American versions of this option numerically for automatic complexity, and theoretically for Kolmogorov complexity. We also consider run complexity, which is a restricted form of automatic complexity.

  8. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, P. V.; Caleb, O. J.; Z. Singh; Watkins, C. B.; M. Geyer

    2014-01-01

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodbo...

  9. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Coronado, Paul R.

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  10. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Robilotti, Elizabeth; Deresinski, Stan

    2014-01-01

    The continuing emergence of infections due to multidrug resistant bacteria is a serious public health problem. Klebsiella pneumoniae, which commonly acquires resistance encoded on mobile genetic elements, including ones that encode carbapenemases, is a prime example. K. pneumoniae carrying such genetic material, including both blaKPC and genes encoding metallo-β-lactamases, have spread globally. Many carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae are resistant to multiple antibiotic classes beyond β-l...

  11. Selection of phytotoxin producing rhizobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Daniel D. C.; Denilson F Oliveira; Vicente P. Campos; Moacir Pasqual

    2011-01-01

    In order to select phytotoxin producing rhizobacteria to control weed plants, twenty five bacterial strains previously isolated from the rhizospheres of various plants were grown in a liquid medium and, after cell removal by centrifugation, the liquid phases were freeze-dried and the products were extracted with ethyl acetate/methanol. The extracts were concentrated to dryness under vacuum and dissolved in water and sucrose solution to be submitted to in vitro assays of lettuce (Lactuca sativ...

  12. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Chee So

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air. Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2 without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper. Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation.

  13. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  14. Epidemic processes in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Van Mieghem, Piet; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the research community has accumulated overwhelming evidence for the emergence of complex and heterogeneous connectivity patterns in a wide range of biological and socio-technical systems. The complex properties of real world networks have a profound impact on the behavior of equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena occurring in various systems, and the study of epidemic spreading is central to our understanding of the unfolding of dynamical processes in complex networks. The theoretical analysis of epidemic spreading in heterogeneous networks requires the development of novel analytical frameworks, and it has produced results of conceptual and practical relevance. Here we present a coherent and comprehensive review of the vast research activity concerning epidemic processes, detailing the successful theoretical approaches as well as making their limits and assumptions clear. Physicists, epidemiologists, computer and social scientists share a common interest in studying epidemic spreading and...

  15. Producing Electricity in Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Khabrana, Ahmed; Ageeli, Jaber

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This Bachelor thesis has been written at the Blekinge Institute of Technology. The thesis describes electricity production in Shoaiba Steam Power plant in Saudi Arabia. Shoaiba Power Plant is located 100 km South of Jeddah city in Saudi Arabia. Total power production ability reaches 4400 MW. Shoaiba Power Plant has two stages and is constructed with 11 units, each unit produces 400 MW at line voltage 24 kV and line current 16 kA. Main pieces of equipment and their function in the sta...

  16. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  17. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  18. Electromagnetic pulses produced by expanding laser-produced Au plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Marco, Massimo; Cikhardt, J.; Krása, Josef; Velyhan, Andriy; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Krouský, Eduard; Klír, D.; Řezáč, K.; Limpouch, J.; Margarone, Daniele; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 239-243. ISSN 0029-5922 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279; GA ČR GAP205/12/0454; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk LM2010014 Grant ostatní: LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * electromagnetic pulse (EMP) * return target current * Moebius loop antenna * inductive target probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (UFP-V) Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2014

  19. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 μg/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 μg/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake's closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

  20. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the event some of the milk of any producer is determined not to be producer milk pursuant to this... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  1. Producer flexibility answers market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum industry was revolutionized in the 1980s when oil became a commodity and rising prices no longer ensured profits. Alliancing, partnering, integration and operator cooperation became economic responses to the 1990s market reality. The industry has long been a bastion of free-marketeering; competition among producers and service providers continues to control prices. But new, more efficient ways of doing business control costs in an industry buffeted by stagnant prices, a prolonged period of downsizing and increasingly difficult and remote operating environments. How long the new business atmosphere will last depends on industry needs and how well things work out. But based on the successes of the immediate past and the foreseeable future, the new cross-company business practices seem destined only to multiply

  2. Aerosols Produced by Cosmic Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    our investigation at the smallest scales, namely the role of cosmic ray produced ions on atmospheric aerosol nucleation and growth processes. Aerosol theory suggests that this is one of the most promising areas to search for an effect. However, guided by the nature of our initial results, it will be...... mechanism linking cosmic rays to clouds and climate is currently speculative, there have been various suggestions of the role atmospheric ions may play; these involve any one of a number of processes from the nucleation of aerosols up to the collection processes of cloud droplets. We have chosen to start...... applied to control the number of ions present. This will enable experiments to be performed both with and without the presence of ions, thus providing information as to the potential role of ions in aerosol processes....

  3. Well fracturing with produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well fracturing with produced water was discussed with particular reference to fracturing basics such as formation rock, notably sandstone, carbonate, coal, and shale; accumulation of oil and gas; and surface operations. Several illustrations were provided. Issues regarding horizontal wells were also discussed with reference to the reasons behind drilling horizontal wells and the reasons for longitudinal and transverse fracs. Issues regarding the volume of frac water were also outlined. Fluid selection criteria were outlined in terms of formation rock compatibility; cleanup; pumping pressures; safety requirements; proppant transport; viscosity; and economics. Water is considered to be the best fluid choice for most fracture treatments because it is cheap, safe, environmentally friendly, widely available and very compatible with surface facilities. Water issues were also discussed. It was concluded that water conservation targets have been met, with higher profits. tabs., figs.

  4. CVD-produced boron filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawner, F. E.; Debolt, H. E.; Suplinskas, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for producing boron filaments with an average tensile strength of 6.89 GPa has been developed which involves longitudinal splitting of the filament and core (substrate) removal by etching. Splitting is accomplished by a pinch wheel device which continuously splits filaments in lengths of 3.0 m by applying a force to the side of the filament to create a crack which is then propagated along the axis by a gentle sliding action. To facilitate the splitting, a single 10 mil tungsten substrate is used instead of the usual 0.5 mil substrate. A solution of hot 30% hydrogen peroxide is used to remove the core without attacking the boron. An alternative technique is to alter the residual stress by heavily etching the filament. Average strengths in the 4.83-5.52 GPa range have been obtained by etching an 8 mil filament to 4 mil.

  5. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia;

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments are...... been demonstrated in several studies, but the atmospheric impact of soybean cultivation has not been tested in situ. Some of the models for climate impact (N2O emissions etc) are based on in vitro studies, while field data are scarce. The situation, which is outside the control of the EU, has not been...... environmental sustainability. This is exemplified by soy, whose cultivation undermines the climate benefit claimed for soy-based biodiesel. This paper concludes that to certify soy monocultures as sustainable would exacerbate existing climatic and environmental problems....

  6. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Mausner, L. F.; Garland, M. A.

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology, and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by β- emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for the production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  7. Extractive-scintillating resin produced by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of a resin material is presented, which contains selective complexing and scintillating molecules in chemically bound form. The resin material is produced via radiation polymerization of the solution of 2-(4-allyloxy-phenyl)-5-phenyl oxazole, 5-(allyloxy-phenyl)-2-[4-(5-phenyl-oxazole-2-il)-phenyl] oxazole, diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DEGMA), styrene and the allyl derivative of a 18C6 crown ether-dicarbolic acid complexing agent. The product is a macroporous polymer matrix, which shows both excellent scintillation properties and ion binding capacity for radioanalytical purposes

  8. Second Quantized Kolmogorov Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Caroline; Vedral, Vlatko; Nagarajan, Rajagopal

    2008-01-01

    The Kolmogorov complexity of a string is the length of its shortest description. We define a second quantised Kolmogorov complexity where the length of a description is defined to be the average length of its superposition. We discuss this complexity's basic properties. We define the corresponding prefix complexity and show that the inequalities obeyed by this prefix complexity are also obeyed by von Neumann entropy.

  9. Complex Multiplicative Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Bashirov, Agamirza; Riza, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we extend the concepts of multiplicative de- rivative and integral to complex-valued functions of complex variable. Some drawbacks, arising with these concepts in the real case, are explained satis- factorily. Properties of complex multiplicative derivatives and integrals are studied. In particular, the fundamental theorem of complex multiplicative calculus, relating these concepts, is proved. It is shown that complex multi- plicative calculus is not just another realizat...

  10. Method of synthesis of anhydrous thorium(IV) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Cantat, Thibault

    2013-04-30

    Method of producing anhydrous thorium(IV) tetrahalide complexes, utilizing Th(NO.sub.3).sub.4(H.sub.2O).sub.x, where x is at least 4, as a reagent; method of producing thorium-containing complexes utilizing ThCl.sub.4(DME).sub.2 as a precursor; method of producing purified ThCl.sub.4(ligand).sub.x compounds, where x is from 2 to 9; and novel compounds having the structures: ##STR00001##

  11. Complex networks analysis of language complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/58002

    2013-01-01

    Methods from statistical physics, such as those involving complex networks, have been increasingly used in quantitative analysis of linguistic phenomena. In this paper, we represented pieces of text with different levels of simplification in co-occurrence networks and found that topological regularity correlated negatively with textual complexity. Furthermore, in less complex texts the distance between concepts, represented as nodes, tended to decrease. The complex networks metrics were treated with multivariate pattern recognition techniques, which allowed us to distinguish between original texts and their simplified versions. For each original text, two simplified versions were generated manually with increasing number of simplification operations. As expected, distinction was easier for the strongly simplified versions, where the most relevant metrics were node strength, shortest paths and diversity. Also, the discrimination of complex texts was improved with higher hierarchical network metrics, thus point...

  12. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    numerous new developments that have taken place since then. Hence in this manual it was decided to focus only on reactor produced radioisotopes. This manual contains procedures for 48 important reactor-produced isotopes. These were contributed by major radioisotope producers from different parts of the world and are based on their practical experience. In case of widely used radioisotopes such as 131 I, 32P and 99Mo, information from more than one centre is included so that the users can compare the procedures. As in the earlier two versions, a general introductory write-up is included covering basic information on related aspects such as target irradiation, handling facilities, radiation protection and transportation, but in less detail. Relevant IAEA publications on such matters, particularly related to radiation protection and transportation, should be referred to for guidelines. Similarly, the nuclear data contained in the manual are only indicative and the relevant databases should be referred to for more authentic values. It is hoped that the manual will be a useful source of information for those working in radioisotope production laboratories as well as those intending to initiate such activities

  13. Selection of phytotoxin producing rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D.C. Carvalho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to select phytotoxin producing rhizobacteria to control weed plants, twenty five bacterial strains previously isolated from the rhizospheres of various plants were grown in a liquid medium and, after cell removal by centrifugation, the liquid phases were freeze-dried and the products were extracted with ethyl acetate/methanol. The extracts were concentrated to dryness under vacuum and dissolved in water and sucrose solution to be submitted to in vitro assays of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seed germination and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. coleoptile growth. Although most samples affected coleoptile growth, only those from four strains reduced lettuce seed germination. Two strains of Bacillus cereus, one strain of B. pumilus and one of Stenotrophoonas altophilia were the most promising microorganisms for producing phytotoxin and, consequently, for the development of new weed control products.Com o objetivo de selecionar rizobactérias produtoras de fitotoxinas para uso no controle de plantas daninhas, vinte e cinco isolados bacterianos previamente obtidos das rizosferas de diferentes plantas foram cultivados em meio líquido e, após remoção das células por centrifugação, as fases líquidas foram liofilizadas e os resíduos obtidos foram submetidos à extração com acetato de etila/metanol. Os extratos foram concentrados sob vácuo até secura e dissolvidos em água e solução de sacarose para serem submetidos a testes in vitro de germinação de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e de crescimento de coleóptilos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.. Embora a maior parte das amostras tenha desfavorecido o crescimento dos coleóptilos de trigo, somente as provenientes de quatro isolados reduziram a germinação das sementes de alface. Dois isolados de Bacillus cereus, um isolado de B. pumilus e um de Stenotrophomonas maltophilia foram os microrganismos mais promissores para a produção de fitotoxinas, com possibilidade de uso no

  14. Yeast: A new oil producer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beopoulos Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  15. Collision-produced atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last 10-15 years have witnessed the development of a new, powerful class of experimental techniques for atomic collision studies, allowing partial or complete determination of the state of the atoms after a collision event, i.e. the full set of quantum-mechanical scattering amplitudes or - more generally - the density matrix describing the system. Evidently, such studies, involving determination of alignment and orientation parameters, provide much more severe tests of state-of-the-art scattering theories than do total or differential cross section measurements which depend on diagonal elements of the density matrix. The off-diagonal elements give us detailed information about the shape and dynamics of the atomic states. Therefore, close studies of collision-produced atomic states are currently leading to deeper insights into the fundamental physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of atomic collision events. The first part of the lectures deals with the language used to describe atomic states, while the second part presents a selection of recent results for model systems which display fundamental aspects of the collision physics in particularly instructive ways. I shall here restrict myself to atom-atom collisions. The discussion will be focused on states decaying by photon emission though most of the ideas can be easily modified to include electron emission as well. (orig./AH)

  16. Possible arrhythmiogenic mechanism produced by ibuprofen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-fang YANG; Hong-wei WANG; Yan-qian ZHENG; Yin ZHANG; Yuan-mou LIU; Ci-zhen LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim:The aim of the present study was to investigate the electrophysiological effect of ibuprofen on the cardiac action potentials (AP) and electrocardiograms (ECG), and to identify its arrhythmiogenic mechanism. Methods:The intracellular microelectrode recording technique was employed to record the fast- and slow-response AP in guinea pig papillary muscles. The cardiac responses of ibuprofen were monitored by ECG, both in in vivo and in vitro studies. Results:The ECG recording revealed that ibuprofen could induce arrhythmias, both in vitro and in vivo. Fatal ventricular fibrillations are readily produced in in vitro experiments by ibuprofen. Our results show that ibuprofen could dose dependently shorten the duration of AP and the effective refractory period (ERP), and it could also de-crease the maximum depolarization velocity of phase 0 (Vmax) in both the fast- and slow-response AP. The duration of the QRS complex wave (QRS duration) in ECG was prolonged. Although the heart rate was depressed by ibuprofen, the corrected QT interval duration (QTc) decreased. Conclusion:lbuprofen could inhibit cardiac Na+ and Ca2+ channels as it slows Vmax in both fast- and slow-response AE Furthermore, ibuprofen shortens the ERP and decreases the exci-tation propagation within the heart, which might provide a substrate for an arrhythmiogenic re-entry circuit. Taken together, we conclude that ihuprofen, when used improperly, may impose a potential hazard in inducing cardiac arrhythmias in patients with existing heart diseases.

  17. Oil producers facing a common challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO2. Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

  18. Optimisation of Cellulase Production by Penicillium funiculosum in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor Using Multivariate Response Surface Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelle Lins de Albuquerque de Carvalho; Daniele Fernandes Carvalho; Edelvio de Barros Gomes; Roberto Nobuyuki Maeda; Lidia Maria Melo Santa Anna; Aline Machado de Castro; Nei Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest in the production of second-generation ethanol necessitates the low-cost production of enzymes from the cellulolytic complex (endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases), which act synergistically in cellulose breakdown. The present work aimed to optimise a bioprocess to produce these biocatalysts from the fungus Penicillium funiculosum ATCC11797. A statistical full factorial design (FFD) was employed to determine the optimal conditions for cellulase production. The...

  19. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Machado de Castro; Marcela Costa Ferreira; Juliana Cunha da Cruz; Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues Pedro; Daniele Fernandes Carvalho; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite; Nei Pereira

    2010-01-01

    The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase a...

  20. 单宁和聚乙二醇对绵羊和山羊瘤胃纤维降解菌数量的影响%Effects of Tannin and Polyethylene Glycol on Ruminal Cellulolytic Bacteria Quantity in Sheep and Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大彪; 张梅梅; 于永强; 李红磊; 塔娜; 邢媛媛; 王卫云

    2015-01-01

    本文旨在研究饲粮中添加不同水平的单宁和高单宁饲粮条件下添加聚乙二醇( PEG )对绵羊和山羊瘤胃纤维降解菌数量的影响。试验选用1.5岁、体重约45 kg、安装永久性瘤胃瘘管的绵羊和绒山羊各4只,采用自身对照试验设计,分4期进行。第1期饲喂基础饲粮(Ⅰ组),第2期在基础饲粮中添加2%的单宁(Ⅱ组),第3期在基础饲粮中添加6%的单宁(Ⅲ组),第4期在基础饲粮中添加6%单宁+12% PEG(Ⅳ组)。每期试验30 d,其中预试期12 d,正试期18 d。每个正试期第1天,采集绵羊和山羊瘤胃内容物,测定瘤胃液pH、氨态氮( NH3-N)和菌体蛋白( MCP)浓度;运用实时定量PCR技术对固相、液相及全食糜中所附着的白色瘤胃球菌、黄色瘤胃球菌、产琥珀酸拟杆菌进行定量检测。结果表明:1)与Ⅰ组相比,添加6%单宁显著降低了山羊瘤胃液NH3-N浓度和绵羊瘤胃液MCP浓度( P<0.05)。添加6%单宁+12% PEG后,这2个指标恢复至与Ⅰ组相当的水平。2)与Ⅰ组相比,添加6%单宁显著降低了绵羊和山羊瘤胃固相、绵羊瘤胃液相白色瘤胃球菌数量( P<0.05);添加2%和6%单宁显著降低了绵羊和山羊固相黄色瘤胃球菌数量( P<0.05),添加6%单宁显著降低了绵羊和山羊瘤胃液相黄色瘤胃球菌数量( P<0.05);添加6%单宁显著降低了绵羊和山羊瘤胃固相、绵羊全食糜产琥珀酸拟杆菌数量( P<0.05)。添加6%单宁+12% PEG后,绵羊和山羊瘤胃这3株纤维降解菌数量恢复至Ⅰ组水平或高于Ⅰ组。由此可见,饲粮单宁添加量达到6%时降低了瘤胃液NH3-N的浓度,影响MCP的合成,抑制瘤胃固相纤维降解菌的增殖;添加PEG可以削弱单宁对瘤胃纤维降解菌生长的负面影响,促进瘤胃发酵。%This paper studied the effects of different dietary tannin levels and high tannin diets supplemented with polyethylene glycol ( PEG) on ruminal cellulolytic bacteria quantity in sheep and

  1. Method for Producing Launch/Landing Pads and Structures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Current plans for deep space exploration include building landing-launch pads capable of withstanding the rocket blast of much larger spacecraft that that of the Apollo days. The proposed concept will develop lightweight launch and landing pad materials from in-situ materials, utilizing regolith to produce controllable porous cast metallic foam brickstiles shapes. These shapes can be utilized to lay a landing launch platform, as a construction material or as more complex parts of mechanical assemblies.

  2. Logistic Information and Communication Systems (LICS) are Producing Organization Meanings

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbe-Costes, Nathalie

    1993-01-01

    Logistics is a management function in charge of physical flows inside and among companies. To succeed in its mission, it has to build information and communication systems that help to design networks, track freight and maintain organizations' efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to show that those logistics information and communication systems (LICS) are contributing towards producing organization meanings in companies. To ensure this contribution LICS must be considered as complex syst...

  3. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  4. DNA/chitosan electrostatic complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Anaya, Lourdes Mónica; Soltero, J F Armando; Rinaudo, Marguerite

    2016-07-01

    Up to now, chitosan and DNA have been investigated for gene delivery due to chitosan advantages. It is recognized that chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable non-viral vector that does not produce immunological reactions, contrary to viral vectors. Chitosan has also been used and studied for its ability to protect DNA against nuclease degradation and to transfect DNA into several kinds of cells. In this work, high molecular weight DNA is compacted with chitosan. DNA-chitosan complex stoichiometry, net charge, dimensions, conformation and thermal stability are determined and discussed. The influence of external salt and chitosan molecular weight on the stoichiometry is also discussed. The isoelectric point of the complexes was found to be directly related to the protonation degree of chitosan. It is clearly demonstrated that the net charge of DNA-chitosan complex can be expressed in terms of the ratio [NH3(+)]/[P(-)], showing that the electrostatic interactions between DNA and chitosan are the main phenomena taking place in the solution. Compaction of DNA long chain complexed with low molar mass chitosan gives nanoparticles with an average radius around 150nm. Stable nanoparticles are obtained for a partial neutralization of phosphate ionic sites (i.e.: [NH3(+)]/[P(-)] fraction between 0.35 and 0.80). PMID:27050113

  5. HEALTHCARE: A COMPLEX SERVICE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James M. TIEN; Pascal J. GOLDSCHMIDT-CLERMONT

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare is indeed a complex service system, one requiring the technobiology approach of systems engineering to underpin its development as an integrated and adaptive system. In general, healthcare services are carried out with knowledge-intensive agents or components which work together as providers and consumers to create or co-produce value. Indeed, the engineering design of a healthcare system must recognize the fact that it is actually a complex integration of human-centered activities that is increasingly dependent on information technology and knowledge. Like any service system, healthcare can be considered to be a combination or recombination of three essential components-people (characterized by behaviors, values, knowledge, etc.), processes (characterized by collaboration, customization, etc.) and products (characterized by software, hardware, infrastructures, etc.). Thus, a healthcare system is an integrated and adaptive set of people, processes and products. It is, in essence, a system of systems which objectives are to enhance its efficiency (leading to greater interdependency) and effectiveness (leading to improved health). Integration occurs over the physical, temporal, organizational and functional dimensions, while adaptation occurs over the monitoring, feedback, cybernetic and learning dimensions. In sum, such service systems as healthcare are indeed complex, especially due to the uncertainties associated with the human-centered aspects of these systems. Moreover, the system complexities can only be dealt with methods that enhance system integration and adaptation.

  6. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plant shall be producer milk. In the event some of the milk of any producer is determined not to be... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  7. Mass-producing B mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of the upsilon resonances in 1977 the physics of the fifth quark - beauty - has played a vital role in establishing and consolidating today's Standard Model of particle physics. In recent years, a wealth of data on B particle (containing the beauty quark) has emerged from the detectors ARGUS (at the DORIS ring, DESY, Hamburg) and CLEO (at the Cornell CESR ring) as well as from CERN's LEP electron-positron collider and the proton-antiproton colliders at CERN and Fermilab. But the most challenging goal of this physics is to explore the mystery of CP violation, so far only seen in neutral kaon decays. This subtle mechanism - a disregard for the combined symmetry of particle antiparticle switching and left-right reflection - possibly moulded the evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang, providing a world dominated by matter, rather than one where matter and antimatter play comparable roles. To fully explore CP violation in the laboratory needs a dedicated machine - a particle 'factory' - to mass produce B mesons. Only when this full picture of CP violation has been revealed will physicists finally be able to solve its mysteries. As well as major proposals in the US and Japan, several ideas have been launched in Europe. Over the years, many working groups have accumulated an impressive amount of data and knowledge on the physics as well as on the machine and detectors. The spearheads of experimental B physics are the ARGUS and CLEO collaborations. Highlights include the determination of the parameters of the (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa, CKM) quark mixing matrix, testing the consistency of the Standard Model with six quarks and three leptons, and giving the first indirect hint that the as yet unseen sixth ('top') quark is very heavy, together with initial indications of how it should decay. Valuable complementary information has come from proton-antiproton collider data and particularly from the LEP experiments at the

  8. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type ... at least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications ...

  9. Curve complexes are rigid

    OpenAIRE

    Rafi, Kasra; Schleimer, Saul

    2007-01-01

    Any quasi-isometry of the complex of curves is bounded distance from a simplicial automorphism. As a consequence, the quasi-isometry type of the curve complex determines the homeomorphism type of the surface.

  10. Complexity An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Parwani, R R

    2002-01-01

    This article summarises a Web-book on "Complexity" that was developed to introduce undergraduate students to interesting complex systems in the biological, physical and social sciences, and the common tools, principles and concepts used for their study.

  11. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  12. Quantum Communication Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Klauck, Hartmut

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys the field of quantum communication complexity. Some interesting recent results are collected concerning relations to classical communication, lower bound methods, one-way communication, and applications of quantum communication complexity.

  13. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of ... after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications called ...

  14. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer of the ... two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called vinca ...

  15. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  16. Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 514 Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) WHAT IS MAC? HOW DO I KNOW ... THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS MAC? Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is a serious illness caused by common ...

  17. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytarabine lipid complex is used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of the spinal cord and brain). Cytarabine lipid complex is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. ...

  18. Evolution of biological complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Collier, Travis C.

    2000-01-01

    In order to make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexit...

  19. Complexity Near Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the concept of complexity near horizons to all nondegenerate black holes. For Schwarzschild black holes, we show that Rindler observers see a complexity change of $S$ during proper time $1/\\kappa$ which corresponds to the creation of a causal patch with proper length $1/\\kappa$ inside the horizon. We attempt to describe complexity in the horizon CFT and the Euclidean picture.

  20. Watermarking for Multimedia Security Using Complex Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Ian Thompson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of complex wavelet transforms to the field of digital data hiding. Complex wavelets offer improved directional selectivity and shift invariance over their discretely sampled counterparts allowing for better adaptation of watermark distortions to the host media. Two methods of deriving visual models for the watermarking system are adapted to the complex wavelet transforms and their performances are compared. To produce improved capacity a spread transform embedding algorithm is devised, this combines the robustness of spread spectrum methods with the high capacity of quantization based methods. Using established information theoretic methods, limits of watermark capacity are derived that demonstrate the superiority of complex wavelets over discretely sampled wavelets. Finally results for the algorithm against commonly used attacks demonstrate its robustness and the improved performance offered by complex wavelet transforms.

  1. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  2. SYSTEMS WITH COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenghong; ZHANG Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Science of Complexity is a newly emerging branch of natural scienceAlthoughwe still haven't a precise definition, there are some principles for justifying whether a systemis a complex systemThe purpose of this article is to reveal some of such principlesOnthe basis of them, the concept of a system with complexity is proposedThey may helpus to distinguish a real complex system from complicated objects in common senseThenwe propose some fundamental problems faced by the study of systems with complexity.

  3. Randomness, Information, and Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Grassberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We review possible measures of complexity which might in particular be applicable to situations where the complexity seems to arise spontaneously. We point out that not all of them correspond to the intuitive (or "naive") notion, and that one should not expect a unique observable of complexity. One of the main problems is to distinguish complex from disordered systems. This and the fact that complexity is closely related to information requires that we also give a review of information measures. We finally concentrate on quantities which measure in some way or other the difficulty of classifying and forecasting sequences of discrete symbols, and study them in simple examples.

  4. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhtar Hussain; Akhil R Chakravarty

    2012-11-01

    Lanthanide complexes have recently received considerable attention in the field of therapeutic and diagnostic medicines. Among many applications of lanthanides, gadolinium complexes are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical radiology and luminescent lanthanides for bioanalysis, imaging and sensing. The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing photoactivated DNA cleavage activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Macrocyclic texaphyrin-lanthanide complexes are known to show photocytotoxicity with the PDT effect in near-IR light. Very recently, non-macrocyclic lanthanide complexes are reported to show photocytotoxicity in cancer cells. Attempts have been made in this perspective article to review and highlight the photocytotoxic behaviour of various lanthanide complexes for their potential photochemotherapeutic applications.

  5. MARKETING MIX IN OLTENIA ENERGY COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păunescu Alberto Nicolae

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity generation in Romania it’s realized in percentage 30 % in OLTENIA ENERGY COMPLEX. This is the biggest producer of energy, end coal in the country. Therefore Marketing mix is very important to ensure that the company grows. The final objective is that the volume of sales, market share and growth.

  6. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

    2010-01-01

    The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L(-1)) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant β-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L(-1), resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21048871

  7. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Machado de Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin, by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L−1 after 72 hours of process, and further relevant β-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L−1, resp.. The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50∘C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials.

  8. Recurrence of adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Romero, J. M.; Ramos-Salado, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    Conn's syndrome (adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are the most common causes of primary aldosteronism. The treatment of choice for patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma is unilateral total adrenalectomy. Recurrence after adequate surgery is exceptional. We present a patient with recurrence of an aldosterone-producing adenoma in the right adrenal gland 9 years after adenomectomy of a aldosterone-producing adenoma in the same adrenal gland. We concl...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  10. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  11. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  12. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  13. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  14. 7 CFR 1218.16 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.16 Producer... is engaged in the business of producing, or causing to be produced for any market, blueberries...

  15. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  16. Produced Water Reinjection--the Way Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Huilan

    1997-01-01

    @@ It is the best way to make comprehensive utilization of produced water, save water and protect environment by treating oily produced water so as to make it meet the quality criteria for the water reinjected into the reservoir. So far, more than 46 produced water treatment stations and 148 reinjection stations have been built at Shengli oilfields.

  17. Local and/or Organic: A balancing of values for producers and consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Padel, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    The poster explores the meaning of organic and local food and how closely they are related in the mind of consumers and producers of organic food, drawing on focus group discussions and laddering interviews with 181 consumers and 33 producers. The results show that both groups associate organic food with local trade and see this as an important value. It is concluded that in the complex organic food networks both producers and consumer have to balance localness with other values and constrain...

  18. Epidemic processes in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio; Van Mieghem, Piet; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the research community has accumulated overwhelming evidence for the emergence of complex and heterogeneous connectivity patterns in a wide range of biological and sociotechnical systems. The complex properties of real-world networks have a profound impact on the behavior of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in various systems, and the study of epidemic spreading is central to our understanding of the unfolding of dynamical processes in complex networks. The theoretical analysis of epidemic spreading in heterogeneous networks requires the development of novel analytical frameworks, and it has produced results of conceptual and practical relevance. A coherent and comprehensive review of the vast research activity concerning epidemic processes is presented, detailing the successful theoretical approaches as well as making their limits and assumptions clear. Physicists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, computer, and social scientists share a common interest in studying epidemic spreading and rely on similar models for the description of the diffusion of pathogens, knowledge, and innovation. For this reason, while focusing on the main results and the paradigmatic models in infectious disease modeling, the major results concerning generalized social contagion processes are also presented. Finally, the research activity at the forefront in the study of epidemic spreading in coevolving, coupled, and time-varying networks is reported.

  19. Detergent zeolite complex "Alusil", Zvornik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed the basis technological and machine projects for a detergent zeolite complex, on the basis of which a pilot plant with an initial capacity of 5,000 t/y was constructed in 1983 within Birač-Zvornik production complex. Additional projects were done afterwards and the starting capacity increased to 200,000 t/y in 1988. This plant became the biggest producer of detergent zeolite in the world. These projects were manufactured on the basis of specific technology developed in the laboratories of the IGPC.Several goals were realized by designing a detergent zeolite production complex. This technology was an innovation, because a new approach in detergent zeolite production was developed. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The detergent production process is fully automatized and the product has uniform quality. There is no waste material in detergent zeolite production, because all products with unsatisfactory quality are returned to the process. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during stanrt-up, and repairs.

  20. Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

  1. Methane-producing microorganisms: Component of Mars biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. V.; Lein, A. Yu.

    1992-05-01

    Researchers have turned the focus of the search for life on Mars to autotrophs that do not need organic carbon. Because the poor ecological conditions on Mars make the possibility of finding photoautotrophs highly unlikely, researchers are now looking for chemolytoautotrophs. Fundamental to the proposed strategy for searching for life on Mars is concentration of efforts on searching for specific ecosystems suited to the functioning of specialized groups of microorganisms such as anaerobes, psychrophiles, and oligotrophs. The most perspective of these are chemolytoautotrophs, methane-producing bacteria which inhabit ecosystems with temperatures of 0-100 C and which can develop in a pH range of 6.0-9.0. It has been found that methane-producing bacteria can fractionate the stable isotopes C-12 and C-13. The results showed that the methane-producing bacteria label the products of their metabolism, methane and biomass, with an increased concentration of C-12. The authors conclude that the data they have cited on the fractionation of carbon isotopes in the chemolytoautotrophic assimilation of CO2 by methane-producing bacteria satisfactorily explain the isotopic composition of SNC meteorites. Finally, a complex of sulfate and isotope-heavy carbonate minerals in association with an isotope-light organic substance forms during a secondary change in the basalt-dunite rock of Mars under conditions of their surface change on the mother planet when solutions containing hydrogen are discharged with active involvement of methane-producing bacteria.

  2. Complex networks and computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuigeng ZHOU; Zhongzhi ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nowadays complex networks are pervasive in various areas of science and technology. Popular examples of complex networks include the Internet, social networks of collaboration, citations and co-authoring, as well as biological networks such as gene and protein interactions and others. Complex networks research spans across mathematics, computer science, engineering, biology and the social sciences. Even in computer science area, increasing problems are either found to be related to complex networks or studied from the perspective of complex networks, such as searching on Web and P2P networks, routing in sensor networks, language processing, software engineering etc. The interaction and mergence of complex networks and computing is inspiring new chances and challenges in computer science.

  3. Two giant stellar complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Efremov, E. Yu.

    Common star complexes are huge (0.3-1 kpc in diameter) groups of relatively young stars, associations and clusters. The complexes usually form regular chains along spiral arms of grand design galaxies, being evidently formed and supported by magneto- gravitational instability developing along an arm. Special attention is given to a few large complexes which have signatures of gravitational boundness, such as round shape and high central density. Concentrations of stars and clusters in such a complex in M51 galaxy were found in this paper; we concluded it is possible to suggest that the complex is gravitationally bound. It is also stressed that some properties of the giant complex in NGC 6946 (such as its semicircular and sharp Western edge) are still enigmatic.

  4. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  5. 1: Redox chemistry of bimetallic fulvalene complexes; 2: Oligocyclopentadienyl complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    1993-11-01

    The electrochemistry of the heterobimetallic complexes (fulvalene)WFe(CO){sub 5} (30) and (fulvalene)WRu(CO){sub 5} (31) has been investigated. Compound 30 is reduced in two one-electron processes, and this behavior was exploited synthetically to prepare a tetranuclear dimer by selective metal reduction. Complex 31 displayed a distinction between the metals upon reoxidation of the dianion, allowing the formation of a dimer by selective metal anion oxidation. The redox behavior of 30 led to an investigation of the use of electrocatalysis to effect metal-specific ligand substitution. It was found that reduction of 30 with a catalytic amount of CpFe(C{sub 6}Me{sub 6}) (97) in the presence of excess P(OMe){sub 3} or PMe{sub 3} led to the formation of the zwitterions (fulvalene)[W(CO){sub 3}{sup {minus}}][Fe(CO)PR{sub 3}{sup +}] (107, R = P(OMe){sub 3}; 108, R = PMe{sub 3}). Compound 31 also displayed unique behavior with different reducing agents, as the monosubstituted zwitterion (fulvalene)[W(CO){sub 3}{sup {minus}}][Ru(CO){sub 2}(PMe{sub 3}){sup +}] was obtained when 97 was used while the disubstituted complex (fulvalene) [W(CO){sub 3}{sup {minus}}] [Ru(CO)(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +}] was produced when Cp*Fe(C{sub 6}Me{sub 6}) was the catalyst. Potential synthetic routes to quatercyclopentadienyl complexes were also explored. Various attempts to couple heterobimetallic fulvalene compounds proved to be unsuccessful. 138 refs.

  6. How evolution guides complexity

    OpenAIRE

    LARRY S. YAEGER

    2009-01-01

    Long-standing debates about the role of natural selection in the growth of biological complexity over geological time scales are difficult to resolve from the paleobiological record. Using an evolutionary model—a computational ecosystem subjected to natural selection—we investigate evolutionary trends in an information-theoretic measure of the complexity of the neural dynamics of artificial agents inhabiting the model. Our results suggest that evolution always guides complexity change, just n...

  7. Quantum Computational Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Watrous, John

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys quantum computational complexity, with a focus on three fundamental notions: polynomial-time quantum computations, the efficient verification of quantum proofs, and quantum interactive proof systems. Properties of quantum complexity classes based on these notions, such as BQP, QMA, and QIP, are presented. Other topics in quantum complexity, including quantum advice, space-bounded quantum computation, and bounded-depth quantum circuits, are also discussed.

  8. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  9. Engineering Complex Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Mikos, Antonios G.; Herring, Susan W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; Elisseeff, Jennifer; Lu, Helen H.; Kandel, Rita; Schoen, Frederick J.; Toner, Mehmet; Mooney, David; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; Kaplan, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and ...

  10. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the spectral complex index of refraction of biofuel producing photosynthetic microalgae between 400 and 750 nm. They were retrieved from their experimentally measured average absorption and scattering cross-sections. The microalgae were treated as homogeneous polydisperse spheres with equivalent diameter such that their surface area was identical to that of their actual spheroidal shape. An inverse method was developed combining Lorentz-Mie theory as the forward method and genetic algorithm. The unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC125 and its truncated chlorophyll antenna transformants tla1, tlaX, and tla1-CW+ as well as Botryococcus braunii, Chlorella sp., and Chlorococcum littorale were investigated. These species were selected for their ability to produce either hydrogen gas or lipids for liquid fuel production. Their retrieved real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction were continuous functions of wavelength with absorption peaks corresponding to those of in vivo Chlorophylls a and b. The T-matrix method was also found to accurately predict the experimental measurements by treating the microalgae as axisymmetric spheroids with the experimentally measured major and minor diameter distributions and the retrieved spectral complex index of refraction. Finally, pigment mass fractions were also estimated from the retrieved absorption index. The method and/or the reported optical properties can be used in various applications from ocean remote sensing, carbon cycle study, as well as photobiological carbon dioxide mitigation and biofuel production.

  11. Berger Engineering Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...

  12. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.; Clemenson, P. I.; Carneiro, K.; Yueqiuan, S.; Mortensen, Kell

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  13. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.;

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  14. MULTISCALE COMPLEXITY/ENTROPY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. BAR-YAM

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the role of scale dependence of entropy/complexity and its relationship to component interdependence. The complexity as a function of scale of observation is expressed in terms of subsystem entropies for a system having a description in terms of variables that have the same a priori scale. The sum of the complexity over all scales is the same for any system with the same number of underlying degrees of freedom (variables), even though the complexity at specific scales differs due t...

  15. Phospholyl-uranium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having reported a bibliographical study on penta-methylcyclopentadienyl uranium complexes, and a description of the synthesis and radioactivity of uranium (III) and (IV) boron hydrides compounds, this research thesis reports the study of mono and bis-tetramethyl-phospholyl uranium complexes comprising chloride, boron hydride, alkyl and alkoxide ligands. The third part reports the comparison of structures, stabilities and reactions of homologue complexes in penta-methylcyclopentadienyl and tetramethyl-phospholyl series. The last part addresses the synthesis of tris-phospholyl uranium (III) and (IV) complexes.

  16. The rich complexity of 21-cm fluctuations produced by the first stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fialkov, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    We explore the complete history of the 21-cm signal in the redshift range z = 7-40. This redshift range includes various epochs of cosmic evolution related to primordial star formation, and should be accessible to existing or planned low-frequency radio telescopes. We use semi-numerical computational methods to explore the fluctuation signal over wavenumbers between 0.03 and 1 Mpc$^{-1}$, accounting for the inhomogeneous backgrounds of Ly-$\\alpha$, X-ray, Lyman-Werner and ionizing radiation. We focus on the recently noted expectation of heating dominated by a hard X-ray spectrum from high-mass X-ray binaries. We study the resulting delayed cosmic heating and suppression of gas temperature fluctuations, allowing for large variations in the minimum halo mass that contributes to star formation. We show that the wavenumbers at which the heating peak is detected in observations should tell us about the characteristic mean free path and spectrum of the emitted photons, thus giving key clues as to the character of t...

  17. Defying, producing, and overlooking stereotypes? The complexities of mobilizing "grandmotherhood" as political strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazan, May; Kittmer, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the Canadian Grandmothers to Grandmothers Campaign, a mobilization of older women responding to the effects of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Based on interviews, participant observation, and archival work, this article looks at how and to what effect "grandmotherhood," as discourse, was mobilized and deployed, in fluid and fractured ways, in order to increase members' credibility as global social justice actors and build their solidarity with African women. These mobilizations functioned to uphold essentialist notions of what being a grandmother means, while also challenging stereotypes of older women as frail and disengaged. PMID:27030342

  18. Leaf-cutting ant fungi produce cell wall degrading pectinase complexes reminiscent of phytopathogenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Roepstorff, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Leaf-cutting (attine) ants use their own fecal material to manure fungus gardens, which consist of leaf material overgrown by hyphal threads of the basidiomycete fungus Leucocoprinus gongylophorus that lives in symbiosis with the ants. Previous studies have suggested that the fecal droplets conta...

  19. OPTIMAL PARAMETERS FOR THE FERMENTATION OF COMPLEX SUBSTRATES WHEN PRODUCING BIOGAS AT THE MAXIMAL METHANE CONCENTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kulyash Meiramkulova; Azamat Bayanov

    2014-01-01

    Republic of Kazakhstan oil will last for 47.4 years, while gas production - 65.6 years. Given the Kashagan reserves, something else for a longer period, that is a very short periods of time with respect to the development of state and they can be extended only by the development of a technological breakthrough. Along with the question of the ever-growing needs of the population for energy resources, there is a question about the availability of annual waste generation as the impact of the rap...

  20. Caffeine/sleep-deprivation interaction in mice produces complex memory effects

    OpenAIRE

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y; Akanmu, Moses A; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation negatively impacts memory, causing deficits in memory processes. Of interest is any agent that can offset such deficits. Mice were given varying doses of caffeine for 14 days and then deprived of sleep for 6 hours by the ‘gentle handling’ method. Memory was assessed using the Novel Object Recognition Test and Y maze alternation. Purpose The study was designed to ascertain the impact of varying doses of caffeine combined with total sleep-deprivation on spatial and ...

  1. Introductory complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Richard A

    1984-01-01

    A shorter version of A. I. Markushevich's masterly three-volume Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, this edition is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in complex analysis. Numerous worked-out examples and more than 300 problems, some with hints and answers, make it suitable for independent study. 1967 edition.

  2. Complexity dimensions and learnability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-H. Nienhuys-Cheng (Shan-Hwei); M. Polman

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA stochastic model of learning from examples has been introduced by Valiant [1984]. This PAC-learning model (PAC = probably approximately correct) reflects differences in complexity of concept classes, i.e. very complex classes are not efficiently PAC-learnable. Blumer et al. [1989] foun

  3. The complexity of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. (Hennie Lótter

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article an alternative philosophy of science based on ideas drawn from the study of complex adaptive systems is presented. As a result of the enormous expansion in scientific disciplines, and the number of scientists and scientific institutions in the twentieth century, I believe science can be characterised as a complex system. I want to interpret the processes of science through which scientists themselves determine what is regarded as good science. This characterisation of science as a complex system can supply an answer to the question why the sciences have been so successful in solving growing numbers of problems and correcting their own mistakes. I utilise components of complexity theory to explain and interpret science as a complex system. I first explain the concept of complexity in ordinary language. The explanation of science as a complex system starts with a definition of the basic rules guiding the behaviour of science as a complex system. Next, I indicate how various sciences have resulted through the implementation of these rules in the study of a specific aspect of reality. The explanation of the growth of science through evolutionary adaptation and learning forms the core o f the article.

  4. Complexity in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  5. Freestanding Complex Optical Scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, David A.

    A complex freestanding optical mark recognition (OMR) scanner is one which is not on-line to an external processor; it has intelligence stemming from an internal processor located within the unit or system. The advantages and disadvantages of a complex OMR can best be assessed after identifying the scanning needs and constraints of the potential…

  6. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  7. Urban geography and complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Pumain

    2004-01-01

    The contemporary approach of complex systems raises common questions that could be handled by a transdisciplinary theory. We demonstrate how the main concepts of urban geography could be integrated in such a theory ofcomplexity. We illustrate the complexity approach by a short presentationof the SIMPOP model that uses a multi-agents formalism for the simulationof the evolutionary properties of systems of cities.

  8. Gold trifluoromethyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Rubio, Juan; Vicente, José

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the synthesis, reactivity and applications of gold trifluoromethyl complexes, which are the only isolated perfluoroalkyl complexes of gold. The most reported examples are neutral Au(i) complexes of the type [Au(CF3)L], whereas only two Au(ii) trifluoromethyl complexes have been reported, both being diamagnetic and containing a strong Au-Au bond. A number of Au(iii) trifluoromethyl complexes have been prepared by oxidative addition of halogens or iodotrifluoromethane to Au(i) complexes or, in a few cases, by transmetallation reactions. Owing to the limitations of the available synthetic methods, a lower number of examples is known, particularly for the oxidation states (ii) and (iii). Gold trifluoromethyl complexes present singular characteristics, such as thermal stability, strong Au-C bonds and, in some cases, reactive α-C-F bonds. Some of the Au(iii) complexes reported, show unusually easy reductive elimination reactions of trifluoromethylated products which could be applied in the development of gold-catalyzed processes for the trifluoromethylation of organic compounds. PMID:26169553

  9. The remarkable efficacy of complex methods in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a number of examples of the use of complex numbers or complex analytic functions in the theory of relativity. Many of these applications, though apparently disparate, do have a common element, namely the analytic continuation of a real analytic manifold (the space-time) into the complex, producing a complex space-time. We discuss how many, if not most, of these complex usages fit into this scheme. Finally we raise the question whether this is simply a mathematical observation, void of physical content, or whether this observation is telling us something about our physical world. (author)

  10. [Complexity: an introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Carlos Alberto Palacio; Jaramillo, Francisco Luis Ochoa

    2011-01-01

    Complexity appears in the twentieth century as a way to understand many phenomena that are perceived as chaotic and complex from classical thought, which still persist in our way of explaining the world. Its purpose is to study the complex and adaptive systems that are sensitive to initial conditions. Some of the characteristics of complex thought are systemic perspective, autopoiesis, self-organization, emergent properties, unpredictability of the systems, analogic thought, and the complementarity of the phenomena, among others. Living systems respond to a complex logic, and in that sense, our vision of human populations and patients, and how we try to solve problems and human diseases, should be open to the possibilities that arise from this form of understand the world. PMID:21503430

  11. ENHANCEMENT OF THE CREDIT GRANTING SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Evgenievna Klishina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The credit granting system of agricultural enterprises which developed now doesn’t promote development of agricultural production in spite of the facts that are accepted and are financed by the state of the development program of agrarian and industrial complex in various directions. Financial credit relations in the sphere of agrarian and industrial complex are in a stage of formation and have no system nature, in them features of agricultural production are insufficiently considered.In article the directions of development of credit support of agricultural industry, participation of the state in system of agricultural crediting are considered, offers on forming of a three-level credit granting system of agricultural industry which is urged to provide availability of credit resources to all categories of agricultural producers are made.

  12. Phthalocyaninato complexes of thorium, protactinium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the preparation of Bis(phthalocyaninato)-actinoid(IV) complexes, AnPc2, a new optimizing synthesis procedure was developed, with which it was possible to prepare spectrally pure, that is, H2Pc-free, ThPc2, UPc2 and the isostructurally similar 231PaPc2.PaPc2. This was verified with the help of electron spectra, which were compared to preparations which were synthesized in another manner. The corresponding perfluorinated compounds were also produced for thorium and uranium by use of tetrafluorophthalic acid nitrile instead of phthalic acid nitrile as initial product. Electron and infrared spectra show the typical bands of the non-substituted complexes. By the attempt to produce a mono(phthalocyaninato)-thorium complex with the use of ThI4 as initial material a pyridine-extracted pure ThPcI2(py)2 was obtained with a typical mono(phthalocyaninato) complex electron spectrum, an extremely moisture sensitive compound which in water or acids decomposes and produces H2Pc. (orig./RB)

  13. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  14. ALE method for simulations of laser-produced plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liska, R.; Kuchařík, M.; Limpouch, J.; Renner, Oldřich; Váchal, P.; Bednárik, L.; Velechovský, J.

    Berlin: Springer, 2011 - (Fořt, J.; Fürst, J.; Halama, J.; Herbin, R.; Hubert, F.), s. 57-72. (Springer Proceedings in Mathematics 4). ISBN 978-3-642-20670-2. ISSN 2190-5614. [Finite Volumes for Complex Applications /6./. Prague (CZ), 06.06.2011-10.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA ČR GAP205/10/0814 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : Lagrangian coordinates * ALE method * laser-produced plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-20671-9_87

  15. Imported PER-1 producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PER-1 producing Acinetobacter baumanii and VIM-2-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Károly

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii are important nosocomial pathogens with wide intrinsic resistance. However, due to the dissemination of the acquired resistance mechanisms, such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL and metallo beta-lactamase (MBL production, multidrug resistant strains have been isolated more often. Case presentation We report a case of a Hungarian tourist, who was initially hospitalized in Egypt and later transferred to Hungary. On the day of admission PER-1-producing P. aeruginosa, PER-1 producing A. baumannii, SHV-5-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and VIM-2-producing P. aeruginosa isolates were subcultured from the patient's samples in Hungary. Comparing the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE patterns of the P. aeruginosa strains from the patient to the P. aeruginosa strains occurring in this hospital, we can state that the PER-1-producing P. aeruginosa and VIM-2-producing P. aeruginosa had external origin. Conclusion This is the first report of PER-1-producing P. aeruginosa,and PER-1-producing A. baumanii strains in Hungary. This case highlights the importance of spreading of the beta-lactamase-mediated resistance mechanisms between countries and continents, showing the importance of careful screening and the isolation of patients arriving from a different country.

  16. Reset Complexity of Ideal Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Maslennikova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    We present a new characteristic of a regular ideal language called reset complexity. We find some bounds on the reset complexity in terms of the state complexity of a given language. We also compare the reset complexity and the state complexity for languages related to slowly synchronizing automata and study uniqueness question for automata yielding the minimum of reset complexity.

  17. Stable Spirocyclic Meisenheimer Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Guirado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Meisenheimer complexes are important intermediates in Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions (SNAr. They are formed by the addition of electron rich species to polynitro aromatic compounds or aromatic compounds with strong electron withdrawing groups. It is possible to distinguish two types of Meisenheimer or σ-complexes, the σHcomplex or σX-complex (also named ipso, depending on the aromatic ring position attacked by the nucleophile (a non-substituted or substituted one, respectively. Special examples of σX- or ipso-complexes are formed through intermediate spiro adducts, via intramolecular SNAr. Some of these spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes, a type of σXcomplex, are exceptionally stable in solution and/or as solids. They can be isolated and characterized using X-ray, and various spectroscopic techniques such as NMR, UV-Vis, IR, and fluorescence. A few of these stable spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes are zwitterionic and exhibit interesting photophysical and redox properties. We will review recent advances, synthesis and potential applications of these stable spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes.

  18. Analysis of organosulfur compounds in produced waters using mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Produced water is a complex waste effluent generated during offshore oil production. The recent efforts are aimed at providing information that can be used to assess the effects of produced water discharges into the coastal environment near Gaviota, California. Analysis of dichloromethane extracts of produced water samples revealed that a series of polar organosulfur compounds of intermediate polarity are abundant constituents. A suite of mass spectrometric techniques including electron ionization, chemical ionization, high resolution mass spectrometry, and MS/MS are being used for chemical characterization. These chemicals are present in far greater concentrations than petroleum hydrocarbons in the same waste stream, but the environmental importance and the origins of these compounds remain unclear. Studies are underway using model compounds to test the hypothesis that they arise from reactions of abundant sulfides with other organic compounds. Assessment of the distribution of produced water constituents near the discharge outfall is being performed by sampling seawater, mussels, and sediment at two depths at three sites in the vicinity of the outfall. The authors have developed analytical protocols for determination of organosulfur constituents in each of these matrices. Simultaneous analysis of lipid profiles from the mussels can be carried out without modification of the analytical procedures

  19. Quality evaluation of different honey samples produced in Peshawar valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairaj, Ghazal; Akhtar, Saeed; Khan, Arbab Riaz; Ullah, Zakir; Bibi, Saiqa; Ali, Sajid

    2008-03-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate different honey samples obtained from local market for their quality parameters for assessment of their feasibility for foreign export by comparing it with international standards. The study was conducted at PCSIR laboratories complex, Peshawar, during 2006. The tested samples were evaluated for moisture content, Ash percentage, acid content, HMF and reducing sugars percentage. The moisture content of locally produced honey was in the range of 14.5 to 18.23%. The ash content of locally produced honey samples ranged between 0.047-0.35 which is within the standard limits. The acid content of the honey samples ranged between 19.5 and 38.0 meq kg(-1). The HMF contents of locally produced honeys ranged from 5.3 to 23.20 mg kg(-1). The content of reducing sugar of the tested samples ranged between 43.14 and 81.40% for the tested samples of locally produced honey. All of the samples were found to be in acceptable range of international standards for all of the tested parameters except for only one sample with lower reducing sugars. These samples were marked to be according to the international standards and are healthy for human consumption. PMID:18819581

  20. Complex intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkouri, Abdulazeez (Moh'd. Jumah) S.; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a new concept of complex intuitionistic fuzzy set (CIFS) which is generalized from the innovative concept of a complex fuzzy set (CFS) by adding the non-membership term to the definition of CFS. The novelty of CIFS lies in its ability for membership and non-membership functions to achieve more range of values. The ranges of values are extended to the unit circle in complex plane for both membership and non-membership functions instead of [0, 1] as in the conventional intuitionistic fuzzy functions. We define basic operations namely complement, union, and intersection on CIFSs. Properties of these operations are derived.

  1. Query complexity in expectation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaniewski, J.; Lee, Troy; Wolf,

    2014-01-01

    We study the query complexity of computing a function f:{0,1}^n-->R_+ in expectation. This requires the algorithm on input x to output a nonnegative random variable whose expectation equals f(x), using as few queries to the input x as possible. We exactly characterize both the randomized and the quantum query complexity by two polynomial degrees, the nonnegative literal degree and the sum-of-squares degree, respectively. We observe that the quantum complexity can be unboundedly smaller than t...

  2. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  3. Multisoliton complexes in fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, D. A.; Gumenyuk, R.; Zolotovskii, I. O.; Okhotnikov, O. G.

    2014-12-01

    The formation of stationary and non-stationary pulse groups is regularly observed in multiple pulse soliton fiber lasers. The environment developed in this study for the flexible investigation of this phenomenon is based on the cavity comprising a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) with complex dynamics of absorption recovery and all-fiber dispersion management. The detailed experimental and theoretical considerations show that multiple pulsing in fiber systems offers numerous embodiments ranging from stationary bound states to chaotic bunches. The pulse interaction through the dispersive waves was found to produce a principal impact on the bound state formation. The stability and transformation of stationary bound states and bunch propagation have been also addressed.

  4. Stable, fertile, high polyhydroxyalkanoate producing plants and methods of producing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Peoples, Oliver P.; Snell, Kristi D.

    2015-08-04

    Transgenic plants that produce high levels of polyhydroxybutyrate and methods of producing them are provided. In a preferred embodiment the transgenic plants are produced using plastid transformation technologies and utilize genes which are codon optimized. Stably transformed plants able to produce greater than 10% dwt PHS in tissues are also provided.

  5. The floating desalination complex GEYSER-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conventional floating desalination complex, GEYSER-1, is presented which is capable of producing 40,000 cubic meters per day (m3/d) of fresh water from brackish water or seawater. The complex includes a water intake system, a preliminary water preparation system, a high-pressure pump house and a power installation based on diesel or a gas turbines with service equipment. GEYSER-1 can be transported to the place of operation either by a heavy lift ship or by towing. (author)

  6. Segmenting the Milk Market into bST-Produced and Non-bST-Produced Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Tauer, Loren W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the value to milk producers and consumers of segmenting the milk market into bST-produced milk and non-bST-produced milk markets, versus losing milk consumption from consumers who will not consume bST-produced milk. Results indicate that both bST-using producers and non-bST-using producers benefit from a segmented market when compared to losing milk markets. Even if market loss does not occur, segmenting the market benefits producers not able to effectively use b~T and ma...

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses: Identification of novel cellulase genes from filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolasa, Marta; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen;

    2010-01-01

    bonds. Cellulose can be degraded to simple sugar components by means of enzymatic hydrolysis. However, due to its complex, crystalline structure it is difficult to break it down and the cooperative action of a variety of cellulolytic enzymes is necessary. Fungi are known to have potential in production...... of a variety of cellulolytic enzymes. The aim of this work is to discover new thermostable and robust cellulolytic enzymes for improved enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. For this purpose two screening methods are applied in different fungal strains with high cellulolytic activities: an expression...

  8. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocelluloses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolasa, Marta; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen;

    2010-01-01

    bonds. Cellulose can be degraded to simple sugar components by means of enzymatic hydrolysis. However, due to its complex, crystalline structure it is difficult to break it down and the cooperative action of a variety of cellulolytic enzymes is necessary. Fungi are known to have potential in production...... of a variety of cellulolytic enzymes. The aim of this work is to discover new thermostable and robust cellulolytic enzymes for improved enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. For this purpose two screening methods are applied in different fungal strains with high cellulolytic activities: an expression...

  9. Cluster algorithms and computational complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuenan

    Cluster algorithms for the 2D Ising model with a staggered field have been studied and a new cluster algorithm for path sampling has been worked out. The complexity properties of Bak-Seppen model and the Growing network model have been studied by using the Computational Complexity Theory. The dynamic critical behavior of the two-replica cluster algorithm is studied. Several versions of the algorithm are applied to the two-dimensional, square lattice Ising model with a staggered field. The dynamic exponent for the full algorithm is found to be less than 0.5. It is found that odd translations of one replica with respect to the other together with global flips are essential for obtaining a small value of the dynamic exponent. The path sampling problem for the 1D Ising model is studied using both a local algorithm and a novel cluster algorithm. The local algorithm is extremely inefficient at low temperature, where the integrated autocorrelation time is found to be proportional to the fourth power of correlation length. The dynamic exponent of the cluster algorithm is found to be zero and therefore proved to be much more efficient than the local algorithm. The parallel computational complexity of the Bak-Sneppen evolution model is studied. It is shown that Bak-Sneppen histories can be generated by a massively parallel computer in a time that is polylog in the length of the history, which means that the logical depth of producing a Bak-Sneppen history is exponentially less than the length of the history. The parallel dynamics for generating Bak-Sneppen histories is contrasted to standard Bak-Sneppen dynamics. The parallel computational complexity of the Growing Network model is studied. The growth of the network with linear kernels is shown to be not complex and an algorithm with polylog parallel running time is found. The growth of the network with gamma ≥ 2 super-linear kernels can be realized by a randomized parallel algorithm with polylog expected running time.

  10. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  11. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  12. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.16 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.16 Producer. Producer means any person who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos in the United States and who owns,...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.8 - Foreign producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.8 Foreign producer. Foreign producer means any person: (1) Who is engaged in the production and sale of mangos outside of the...

  15. Music Teacher as Writer and Producer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, Clint

    2012-01-01

    In this article I attempt to redefine the role of a music teacher as being more than a director, the more traditional term ascribed to this position. I do this by using descriptions of the role of "writer" and "producer" of student lives borrowed from music education philosophy, screenwriting, and professional music producers. This vision is…

  16. Taxomyces andreanae : A Presumed Paclitaxel Producer Demystified?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, Agata; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The 1990s brought an abundance of reports on paclitaxel-producing endophytes, initially heralded as a discovery having tremendous implications for cancer therapy. As the vision of large-scale fermentation tanks producing vast quantities of relatively inexpensive paclitaxel and novel taxanes has fade

  17. Inactivation of Microbial Contaminants in Fresh Produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the microbial safety of fresh produce of increasing concern, conventional sanitizing treatments need to be supplemented with effective new interventions to inactivate human pathogens. The Produce Safety research project at the US Dept. Agriculture’s Eastern Regional Research Center develops and...

  18. Complexity for Artificial Substrates (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss) o

  19. Complex tunneling dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.-D. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: cdyang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2007-04-15

    Tunneling dynamics and tunneling trajectories are modeled exactly by complex-extended Hamilton-Jacobi formulation in this paper. It is found that the wave-like properties of tunneling particles, such as reflection, refraction, and transmission resonance, can be identified and explained in terms of particle's motion in complex space with the tunneling time defined as the usual sense of classical time. Following the complex trajectories determined by the complex Hamilton equations of motion, we can connect classical trajectories smoothly with tunneling trajectories using position and velocity continuity at the interface of the media, locate the particle's position at any instant, and find the time spent by a particle within the potential. A microscopic tunneling model is also developed to explain the probabilistic nature why a particle with the same incident conditions sometimes transmits the potential and sometimes is reflected from the potential.

  20. Management recommendations: Tewaukon Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Tewaukon Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...

  1. Physical Sciences Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  2. Complex coacervate core micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Ilja K; de Keizer, Arie; Cohen Stuart, Martien A

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of the literature on the co-assembly of neutral-ionic block, graft, and random copolymers with oppositely charged species in aqueous solution. Oppositely charged species include synthetic (co)polymers of various architectures, biopolymers - such as proteins, enzymes and DNA - multivalent ions, metallic nanoparticles, low molecular weight surfactants, polyelectrolyte block copolymer micelles, metallo-supramolecular polymers, equilibrium polymers, etcetera. The resultant structures are termed complex coacervate core/polyion complex/block ionomer complex/interpolyelectrolyte complex micelles (or vesicles); i.e., in short C3Ms (or C3Vs) and PIC, BIC or IPEC micelles (and vesicles). Formation, structure, dynamics, properties, and function will be discussed. We focus on experimental work; theory and modelling will not be discussed. Recent developments in applications and micelles with heterogeneous coronas are emphasized. PMID:19038373

  3. A complex legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  4. On scattered subword complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Kása, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.

  5. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  6. Stretched arc discharge in produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y I; Wright, K C; Kim, H S; Cho, D J; Rabinovich, A; Fridman, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost. PMID:25638080

  7. Algorithmic Problem Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    People solve different problems and know that some of them are simple, some are complex and some insoluble. The main goal of this work is to develop a mathematical theory of algorithmic complexity for problems. This theory is aimed at determination of computer abilities in solving different problems and estimation of resources that computers need to do this. Here we build the part of this theory related to static measures of algorithms. At first, we consider problems for finite words and stud...

  8. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, W; Tomasiello, A; Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    We construct a class of symplectic non--Kaehler and complex non--Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten--dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)--structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  9. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds

  10. Statistical complexity and disequilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the concept of disequilibrium as an essential ingredient of a family of statistical complexity measures. We find that Wootters' objections to the use of Euclidean distances for probability spaces become quite relevant to this endeavor. Replacing the Euclidean distance by the Wootters' one noticeably improves the behavior of the associated statistical complexity measure, as evidenced by its application to the dynamics of the logistic map

  11. Urban geography and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary approach of complex systems raises common questions that could be handled by a transdisciplinary theory. We demonstrate how the main concepts of urban geography could be integrated in such a theory ofcomplexity. We illustrate the complexity approach by a short presentationof the SIMPOP model that uses a multi-agents formalism for the simulationof the evolutionary properties of systems of cities.

  12. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  13. NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX BIOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Rout, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are the sole mediators of transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. NPCs have a life cycle: they assemble, disassemble, turn over and age. The molecular mechanisms governing these different vital steps are beginning to emerge, suggesting key roles for the core structural scaffold of the NPC and auxiliary factors in the assembly of this large macromolecular complex, and connections between NPC maintenance, NPC turnover, and ageing of the cell.

  14. Tuberous sclerosis complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable affection of the central nervous system (CNS) and many other organ systems. Radiological features include various lesions of the brain as well as lesions of the lungs, kidneys and the heart. Imaging is important for the early detection of complications. This article provides an overview of the clinical features and therapy as well as the specific imaging of tuberous sclerosis complex. (orig.)

  15. Complex Chemistry on Interstellar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.; Kelley, Matthew J.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    Early interstellar chemical models considered complex molecule formation on grains [Allen & Robinson (1977)], but current models assume that simple molecules form on grains and subsequent gas phase ion-molecule reactions produce the more complex species [Ruffle & Herbst (2001), Charnley (2001)]. It has been shown, however, that gas phase ion-molecule reactions are insufficient for the production of such complex organic species as ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and methyl formate (CH3OCHO) [Horn et al. (2004)]. Organics such as acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), ethanol, methyl formate, acetic acid (CH3COOH), and glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO) have also been detected in high abundance in regions of grain mantle disruption or evaporation, indicating that these species are formed on grain surfaces [see Chengalur & Kanekar (2003), Bottinelli et al. (2004), Hollis et al. (2001)]. The mechanisms for complex molecule production on grains are clearly much more important, and much more complex, than has been recognized. Recent observational studies of these types of species have offered insight into the mechanisms for their possible grain surface synthesis. The relative hot core abundances of the 2C structural isomers methyl formate, acetic acid, and glycolaldehyde (52:2:1, respectively [Hollis et al. (2001)]) indicate that if they form on grains it is not from kinetically-controlled single-atom addition reactions. Likewise, the 3C aldose sugar, glyceraldehyde (CH2OHCHOHCHO), was not detected in Sgr B2(N-LMH) [Hollis et al. (2004)] while the 3C ketose sugar, dihydroxyacetone (CO(CH2OH)2) was detected in this source [Widicus Weaver & Blake (2005)]. Chemical pathways favoring the more stable carbonates over acids and aldehydes are required to explain these results. Interestingly, all of these species can be formed from reactions involving the abundant grain mantle constituents CO, HCOOH, and CH3OH and their radical precursors. A model has been developed to investigate this type of chemical network, and

  16. Uranium extraction by complexation with siderophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde Castro, Cristina

    One of the major concerns of energy production is the environmental impact associated with the extraction of natural resources. Nuclear energy fuel is obtained from uranium, an abundant and naturally occurring element in the environment, but the currently used techniques for uranium extraction leave either a significant fingerprint (open pit mines) or a chemical residue that alters the pH of the environment (acid or alkali leaching). It is therefore clear that a new and greener approach to uranium extraction is needed. Bioleaching is one potential alternative. In bioleaching, complexants naturally produced from fungi or bacteria may be used to extract the uranium. In the following research, the siderophore enterobactin, which is naturally produced by bacteria to extract and solubilize iron from the environment, is evaluated to determine its potential for complexing with uranium. To determine whether enterobactin could be used for uranium extraction, its acid dissociation and its binding strength with the metal of interest must be determined. Due to the complexity of working with radioactive materials, lanthanides were used as analogs for uranium. In addition, polyprotic acids were used as structural and chemical analogs for the siderophore during method development. To evaluate the acid dissociation of enterobactin and the subsequent binding constants with lanthanides, three different analytical techniques were studied including: potentiometric titration, UltraViolet Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). After evaluation of three techniques, a combination of ITC and potentiometric titrations was deemed to be the most viable way for studying the siderophore of interest. The results obtained from these studies corroborate the ideal pH range for enterobactin complexation to the lanthanide of interest and pave the way for determining the strength of complexation relative to other naturally occurring metals. Ultimately, this

  17. Hydrogen storage via polyhydride complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.M.; Zidan, R.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The reversible dehydrogenation of NaAlH{sub 4} is catalyzed in toluene slurries of the NaAlH{sub 4} containing the pincer complex, IrH{sub 4} {l_brace}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-2,6-(CH{sub 2}PBu{sup t}{sub 2}){sub 2}{r_brace}. The rates of the pincer complex catalyzed dehydrogenation are about five times greater those previously found for NaAlH{sub 4} that was doped with titanium through a wet chemistry method. Homogenization of NaAlH{sub 4} with 2 mole % Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} under an atmosphere of argon produces a novel titanium containing material. TPD measurements show that the dehydrogenation of this material occurs about 30 C lower than that previously found for wet titanium doped NaAlH{sub 4}. In further contrast to wet doped NaAlH{sub 4}, the dehydrogenation kinetics and hydrogen capacity of the novel material are undiminished over several dehydriding/hydriding cycles. Rehydrogenation of the titanium doped material occurs readily at 170 C under 150 atm of hydrogen. TPD measurements show that about 80% of the original hydrogen content (4.2 wt%) can be restored under these conditions.

  18. Nanoparticle complex fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svaasand, Eldrid

    2008-04-15

    The work presented in this thesis concerns the study of complex nano fluids. The interaction of particles in dispersions under the influence of electric and magnetic fields has been studied. The main focus has been the investigation of the behavior of carbon particle dispersions. A novel type of carbon material, namely carbon cone (CC) material, has been characterized using atomic force microscope, scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope. The CC material is a mixed powder consisting of carbon particles with the shape of disks and cones and a small amount of amorphous carbon particles. The length or diameter of the particles vary between 0.5-5 mum with thickness varying between 10-50 nm. The results confirm the cone angles as predicted by theory. The various microscopy images show that the surfaces of the particles seem corrugated. It should be noted that it is the mixed particle powder which it is referred to when it is written 'carbon cone particles' or 'CC particles'. The dispersion of CC particles in silicon oil was studied under the influence of an electric field. The particles were found to align in an ac electric field and structure formation was observed at very low electric fields. The growth rate was found to vary exponentially with the electric field. The structure formations were permanent (under zero shear rate), not dissolving when the electric field was turned off. This was attributed to the strong Van der Waals forces associated with carbon particles. Electrorheological measurements were carried out for dispersions with varying CC particle concentrations. All samples showed a Bingham fluid behavior with a finite yield stress. The yield stress was found to depend only weakly on the electric field. The results showed that the ER efficiency as measured by the relative increase in viscosity compared to the zero field viscosity, increases with decreasing concentration with a maximum factor of approx10 for the

  19. Modelling Complexity in Musical Rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    Liou, Cheng-Yuan; Wu, Tai-Hei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2007-01-01

    This paper constructs a tree structure for the music rhythm using the L-system. It models the structure as an automata and derives its complexity. It also solves the complexity for the L-system. This complexity can resolve the similarity between trees. This complexity serves as a measure of psychological complexity for rhythms. It resolves the music complexity of various compositions including the Mozart effect K488. Keyword: music perception, psychological complexity, rhythm, L-system, autom...

  20. Nitrosyl rhenium complexes: thiocyanato derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion of K2[Re(NO)Cl5] with KSCN produces the ion [Re(NO)(SCN)5]2- which has been isolated as free acid and K+, Na+, NMe4+, Pb2+, phenH+ and dipyH+ salts. A salt of composition Hg2[Re(NO)(SCN)7] has also been prepared. The species [Re(NO)Cl(SCN)4]2- has been obtained from the reaction of H2[Re(NO)(SCN)5] with HCl in aqueous medium and its NMe4+ salt has been isolated. Hydrated Re(NO)Cl3 reacts with KSCN in aqueous medium to produce the ion [Re(NO)Cl2(SCN)3]2- which has been isolated as its phenH+ and dipyH+ salts. The complexes have been characterized through elemental analyses, spectral (u.v., vis., i.r.) properties, magnetic and conductance data. The structures of all those compounds have been proposed. (author)

  1. Co-produced autoethnography in leadership research

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnography per se offers insights into complex social processes and its potential has relevance for the increasingly difficult notion of 'leadership'. Understanding complex leadership situations from the perspective of serial narratives has the potential to reveal the ‘dark matter’ of leadership practice. Thin descriptions of ‘real time’ practice are more pervasive and plausible than the thick descriptions of observation and behaviourism. Auto-ethnography invites the practitioner to reveal h...

  2. Chlorinated organic compounds produced by Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntushelo, Khayalethu

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum, a pathogen of wheat and maize, not only reduces grain yield and degrades quality but also produces mycotoxins in the infected grain. Focus has been on mycotoxins because of the human and animal health hazards associated with them. In addition to work done on mycotoxins, chemical profiling of F. graminearum to identify other compounds produced by this fungus remains critical. With chemical profiling of F. graminearum the entire chemistry of this fungus can be understood. The focus of this work was to identify chlorinated compounds produced by F. graminearum. Various chlorinated compounds were detected and their role in F. graminearum is yet to be understood. PMID:27165533

  3. Stochastic Physics, Complex Systems and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In complex systems, the interplay between nonlinear and stochastic dynamics, e.g., J. Monod's necessity and chance, gives rise to an evolutionary process in Darwinian sense, in terms of discrete jumps among attractors, with punctuated equilibrium, spontaneous random "mutations" and "adaptations". On an evlutionary time scale it produces sustainable diversity among individuals in a homogeneous population rather than convergence as usually predicted by a deterministic dynamics. The emergent dis...

  4. CA Investment Casting Process of Complex Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    CA (Computer aided) investment casting technique used in superalloy castings of aerospace engine parts was presented. CA investment casting integrated computer application, RP (Rapid Prototyping) process, solidification simulation and investment casting process. It broke the bottle neck of making metal die. Solid model of complex parts were produced by UGII or other software, then translated into STL(Stereolithography) file, after RP process of SLS(Selective Laser Sintering), wax pattern used in investment ...

  5. Trichothecenes: From Simple to Complex Mycotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Nancy J.; Stover, Nicholas A; Stanley, April M.; McCormick, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    As the world’s population grows, access to a safe food supply will continue to be a global priority. In recent years, the world has experienced an increase in mycotoxin contamination of grains due to climatic and agronomic changes that encourage fungal growth during cultivation. A number of the molds that are plant pathogens produce trichothecene mycotoxins, which are known to cause serious human and animal toxicoses. This review covers the types of trichothecenes, their complexity, and propo...

  6. The transnational regime complex for climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth W Abbott

    2012-01-01

    In climate change, as in other areas, recent years have produced a ‘Cambrian explosion’ of transnational institutions, standards, financing arrangements, and programs. As a result, climate governance has become complex, fragmented, and decentralized, operating without central coordination. Most studies of climate governance focus on inter­state institutions. In contrast, I map a different realm of climate change governance: the diverse array of transnational schemes. I analyze this emerging s...

  7. Sorption studies of caesium by complex hexacyanoferrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive literature review was carried out on the preparation of complex hexacyanoferrates in a granular form suitable for use in a packed column. The preparation of sodium nickel hexacyanoferrate using a freeze-thaw method was studied in detail and a method developed to produce a consistent and reproducible granular product. The equilibrium and sorption kinetics were studied using batch and column tests, and the process modelled to predict performance under various conditions. (author)

  8. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the spectral complex index of refraction of biofuel producing photosynthetic microalgae between 400 and 750 nm. They were retrieved from their experimentally measured average absorption and scattering cross-sections. The microalgae were treated as homogeneous polydisperse spheres with equivalent diameter such that their surface area was identical to that of their actual spheroidal shape. An inverse method was developed combining Lorentz–Mie theory as the forward method and genetic algorithm. The unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC125 and its truncated chlorophyll antenna transformants tla1, tlaX, and tla1-CW+ as well as Botryococcus braunii, Chlorella sp., and Chlorococcum littorale were investigated. These species were selected for their ability to produce either hydrogen gas or lipids for liquid fuel production. Their retrieved real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction were continuous functions of wavelength with absorption peaks corresponding to those of in vivo Chlorophylls a and b. The T-matrix method was also found to accurately predict the experimental measurements by treating the microalgae as axisymmetric spheroids with the experimentally measured major and minor diameter distributions and the retrieved spectral complex index of refraction. Finally, pigment mass fractions were also estimated from the retrieved absorption index. The method and/or the reported optical properties can be used in various applications from ocean remote sensing, carbon cycle study, as well as photobiological carbon dioxide mitigation and biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Retrieval of optical properties from average absorption and scattering cross-sections. ► Inverse method based on Lorentz–Mie theory and genetic algorithm. ► Refraction and absorption indices of selected microalgae between 400 and 750 nm. ► Determination of pigment concentrations from absorption index. ► Good agreement between T

  9. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes (64Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  10. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearling, J.L

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ({sup 64}Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective {sup 64}Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective {sup 64}Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential

  11. The Orion complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with some of the most typical complexes of interstellar matter and presents a holistic view of the well studied complexes in Orion, built on information derived from various branches of modern astrophysics. A wealth of published data is presented in the form of photographs, contour maps, diagrams and numerous heavily annotated tables. Chapter 1, which is concerned with the large scale view of the Orion region, outlines the morphology of the area and examines in particular the nature of Barnard's Loop and the associated filamentary structure in addition to the origin of the I Orion OB association. Chapter 2 focuses on the Great Orion Nebula (M42 or NGC 1976) and the small H II region to the north (M43 or NGC 1982). Chapter 3 examines the Orion Complex as a whole, i.e. the H II regions M42 and M43, the associated molecular clouds OMC 1 and OMC 2 and their interrelations. Chapter 4 contains a discussion of the empirical models introduced to attempt to explain certain aspects of this very complex region, and chapter 5 investigates the second prominent H II region and molecular cloud complex, NGC 2024 (Orion B, W12). (Auth.)

  12. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  13. Complexity of Economical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study new theoretical concepts are described concerning the interpretation of economical complex dynamics. In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24]. In general, Economy is a vast and complicated set of arrangements and actions wherein agents—consumers, firms, banks, investors, government agencies—buy and sell, speculate, trade, oversee, bring products into being, offer services, invest in companies, strategize, explore, forecast, compete, learn, innovate, and adapt. As a result the economic and financial variables such as foreign exchange rates, gross domestic product, interest rates, production, stock market prices and unemployment exhibit large-amplitude and aperiodic fluctuations evident in complex systems. Thus, the Economics can be considered as spatially distributed non-equilibrium complex system, for which new theoretical concepts, such as Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics and strange dynamics, percolation, nonGaussian, multifractal and multiscale dynamics related to fractional Langevin equations can be used for modeling and understanding of the economical complexity locally or globally.

  14. Complexity: The bigger picture

    CERN Document Server

    Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    If a concept is not well defined, there are grounds for its abuse. This is particularly true of complexity, an inherently interdisciplinary concept that has penetrated very different fields of intellectual activity from physics to linguistics, but with no underlying, unified theory. Complexity has become a popular buzzword used in the hope of gaining attention or funding -- institutes and research networks associated with complex systems grow like mushrooms. Why and how did it happen that this vague notion has become a central motif in modern science? Is it only a fashion, a kind of sociological phenomenon, or is it a sign of a changing paradigm of our perception of the laws of nature and of the approaches required to understand them? Because virtually every real system is inherently extremely complicated, to say that a system is complex is almost an empty statement - couldn't an Institute of Complex Systems just as well be called an Institute for Almost Everything? Despite these valid concerns, the world is ...

  15. Screening and characterization of indigenous cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety-six bacterial isolates were isolated from the soil samples collected from MADA Rice Experimental Plot, Kedah. Many of the isolates were Gram-positive bacteria suggesting this type of bacteria makes up the majority of the culturable populations residing in the plots investigated. These isolates were studied for their abilities to hydrolyse carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and xylan. Ability to hydrolyse CMC was observed in 61.5% of the isolates. Whilst 62.5% of the isolates exhibiting the ability to hydrolyse xylan. Active isolates were further confirmed by the presence of the respective gene(s) via molecular approaches. These isolates were later screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing of representative 16S rDNAs. Majority of identified isolates were members of common soil microbe such as members of the genera Bacillus. (Author)

  16. Isolation of Cellulolytic Bacteria and Characterization of the Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Rachmania

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Four of cellulolitic bacteria isolates had beencharacterized. The determination of cellulase activity was conducted at the highest production time, using crudeenzymes with the modification of Miller methods (1959 on pure cellulose substrates such as CMC (Carboxymethylcellulose, Avicel and Filter paper Whatman No. 1 as well as agriculture waste such as rice straw, corn cob and bananapeel. Cellulase from C4-4, C5-1, C5-3 and C11-1 showed optimum activity at pH 5, 70°C, pH 3.5, 90°C, pH 5, 80°Cand pH 8, 70°C, respectively. Avicel is a appropriate substrate for C4-4 cellulase whereas CMC for the other three.C11-1 cellulase has the highest cellulase enzyme activity on rice straw substrate whereas C4-4 cellulase on banana peelsubstrates. C5-1 and C5-3 cellulase have relatively low cellulase activities in degrading substrates of agriculture waste.However, isolates of C5-1 and C5-3 have high cellulase activities on banana peel substrates.

  17. Isolation of Cellulolytic Bacteria and Characterization of the Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Nisa Rachmania; Titi Candra Sunarti; Besty Maranatha; Wahyu Widosari; Anja Meryandini; Hasrul Satria

    2009-01-01

    Four of cellulolitic bacteria isolates had beencharacterized. The determination of cellulase activity was conducted at the highest production time, using crudeenzymes with the modification of Miller methods (1959) on pure cellulose substrates such as CMC (Carboxymethylcellulose), Avicel and Filter paper Whatman No. 1 as well as agriculture waste such as rice straw, corn cob and bananapeel. Cellulase from C4-4, C5-1, C5-3 and C11-1 showed optimum activity at pH 5, 70°C, pH 3.5, 90°C, pH 5, 80°...

  18. Utilization of individual cellodextrins by three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Y; Weimer, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Growth of the ruminal bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1, and R. albus 7 followed Monod kinetics with respect to concentrations of individual pure cellodextrins (cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and cellohexaose). Under the conditions tested, R. flavefaciens FD-1 possesses the greatest capacity to compete for low concentrations of these cellodextrins.

  19. FERROFLUIDS INFLUENCE ON DEHYDROGENASES ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS CHAETOMIUM GLOBOSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Manoliu

    2003-08-01

    Different results were noticed for different ferrofluids concentrations: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μl/L. Inhibitory or stimulatory ferrofluids effect was obtained depending on the nature of the investigated enzyme.

  20. FERROFLUIDS INFLUENCE ON DEHYDROGENASES ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS CHAETOMIUM GLOBOSUM

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Manoliu; Lacramioara Oprica; Zenovia Olteanu; Dorina Creanga

    2003-01-01

    he activity of dehy drogenases was studied after ferrofluids supply ing in the culture medium of Chaetomium globosum. Spectral measurements were carried out after 7 and, respectively , 11 day s of growth. Different results were noticed for different ferrofluids concentrations: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μl/L. Inhibitory or stimulatory ferrofluids effect was obtained depending on the nature of the investigated enzyme.

  1. Cellulolytic bacteria in human gut and irritable bowel syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopečný, Jan; Šimůnek, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2002), s. 421-427. ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5020115; GA ČR GA525/02/0402; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : anaerobic bacteria * colon * fibrolytic Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.370, year: 2002

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING ACTIVITY OF CELLULOLYTIC MICROBES IN THE RUMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruminant diets that contain high levels of readily fermentable carbohydrates often display reduced fiber digestibility. However, separating direct from indirect effects has proven difficult. Laboratory culture studies have revealed that the most widely studied ruminal fibrolytic bacteria cannot use...

  3. Mass-producible micro-holographic tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweatt, W.C.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Stulen, R.H.; Tichenor, D.A.; Krenz, K.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Descour, M.R. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center; Underwood, J.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Microtags are microscopic computer-generated holograms with 130-nm features and are mass-producible with EUVL. This fabrication method renders microtags difficult to counterfeit. Applications includ tagging and tracking of microprocessors, memory chips, currencey, and credit cards.

  4. Quest II produce quality research overview

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Harkema, H.; Otma, E.C.; Paillart, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Quest II control algorithm (patent pending), developed by Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research together with Maersk Line and Carrier Transicold, reduces the energy consumption of reefer containers by approx. 65% without impairing produce quality.

  5. Complex Molecule Formation in Grain Mantles

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, P

    2010-01-01

    Context: Complex molecules such as ethanol and dimethyl ether have been observed in a number of hot molecular cores and hot corinos. Attempts to model the molecular formation process using gas phase only models have so far been unsuccessful. Aims : To demonstrate that grain surface processing is a viable mechanism for complex molecule formation in these environments. Methods: A variable environment parameter computer model has been constructed which includes both gas and surface chemistry. This is used to investigate a variety of cloud collapse scenarios. Results: Comparison between model results and observation shows that by combining grain surface processing with gas phase chemistry complex molecules can be produced in observed abundances in a number of core and corino scenarios. Differences in abundances are due to the initial atomic and molecular composition of the core/corino and varying collapse timescales. Conclusions: Grain surface processing, combined with variation of physical conditions, can be reg...

  6. Intelligent freeform manufacturing of complex organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong

    2012-11-01

    Different from the existing tissue engineering strategies, rapid prototyping (RP) techniques aim to automatically produce complex organs directly from computer-aided design freeform models with high resolution and sophistication. Analogous to building a nuclear power plant, cell biology (especially, renewable stem cells), implantable biomaterials, tissue engineering, and single/double/four nozzle RP techniques currently enable researchers in the field to realize a part of the task of complex organ manufacturing. To achieve this multifaceted undertaking, a multi-nozzle rapid prototyping system which can simultaneously integrate an anti-suture vascular system, multiple cell types, and a cocktail of growth factors in a construct should be developed. This article reviews the pros and cons of the existing cell-laden RP techniques for complex organ manufacturing. It is hoped that with the comprehensive multidisciplinary efforts, the implants can virtually replace the functions of a solid internal organ, such as the liver, heart, and kidney. PMID:22888830

  7. Costs and Benefits of Producer Board Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Geoff Sinclair

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers evidence on whether deregulation of single-buyer Producer Boards is likely to yield net benefits to producers, relevant industries and the New Zealand economy. It assumes some familiarity with industry structures and the ongoing debate. The discussion focuses on the static and dynamic effects of the statutory single buyer powers of the Dairy, Apple & Pear and Kiwifruit Boards, and concludes that on balance, the benefits of deregulation are expected to significantly outwei...

  8. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  9. Potential of Lactic Streptococci to Produce Bacteriocin

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, Arnold; Singh, Jasjit; Teuber, Michael

    1983-01-01

    A survey was made on the bacteriocin-producing potential of lactic streptococci. Bacteriocin-like activities were isolated and partially purified from about 5% of the 280 strains investigated. The frequency of production varied from about 1% in Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis to 9 and 7.5% in S. lactis and Streptococcus cremoris, respectively. Eight strains of S. cremoris produced bacteriocins which, on the basis of heat stability at different pH values and inhibitory spectrum, coul...

  10. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm

  11. Biologically produced sulfur particles and polysulfide ions

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinjan, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effects of particles of biologically produced sulfur (or 'biosulfur') on a biotechnological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. Particular emphasis is given to the role of polysulfide ions in such a process. These polysulfide ions are formed from reaction of sulfide with biologically produced sulfur. The basic concepts of this H 2 S removal process were developed at the department of Environmental Technology of Wageningen University and the...

  12. Bacteriocin-producing Enterococci from Rabbit Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Szabóová, R.; Lauková, A.; Simonová, M.P,; Strompfová, V.; Chrastinová, L.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria belonging to the division Firmicutes. They occur in different ecosystems, rabbits including. Enterococci can possess probiotic properties and produce antimicrobial substances-bacteriocins. Rabbit meat as nutritionally healthy food offers novel source to study bacteriocin-producing and/or probiotic enterococci. Methodology and results: Enterococci were detected from rabbit meat samples (42). Most of the isolates were allotted to the species Enterococ...

  13. PPPs: Purchasing Power or Producing Power Parities?

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Ryan; Baldwin, John R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the different types of deflators that are used to compare volume estimates of national income and production across countries. It argues that these deflators need to be tailored to the specific income concept used for study. If the potential to spend concept is employed, a purchasing power deflator is needed. If a production based concept is used, a producing power deflator is necessary. The paper argues that present practice produces a hybrid deflator that fails both purp...

  14. Extracellular acid proteases produced by Saccharomycopsis lipolytica.

    OpenAIRE

    T. Yamada; Ogrydziak, D M

    1983-01-01

    Saccharomycopsis lipolytica CX161-1B produced at least three extracellular acid proteases during exponential growth in medium containing glycerol, Difco Proteose Peptone, and mineral salts at pH 3.4 (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.). Little extracellular acid protease activity was produced with glutamic acid as the sole nitrogen source, somewhat higher levels were obtained with peptone, and much higher levels were obtained with Difco Proteose Peptone. The relative amounts of the three prot...

  15. Market Potential for Locally Produced Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Leigh J.; Burdine, Kenneth H.; Meyer, A. Lee

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research was to guide livestock producers in marketing, product design and pricing decisions. Tools included a focus group, a consumer taste-testing and willingness-to-pay survey, and a restaurant survey. Experience attributes of locally produced ground beef were especially competitive, and demand for credence attributes packaged under the "local" label appears consistent with a niche market that could justify verification programs. Restaurants are a potentially receptive out...

  16. Strategic Marketing Decisions for Organic Agricultural Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jon C.; Peterson, H. Christopher

    2007-01-01

    A group of organic agricultural producers facing a strategic decision is featured. If they decide to form an organization to market their produce jointly, they will have to select a distribution channel. This case presents the demand conditions, requirements, advantages, and disadvantages of different distribution channels for organic vegetables, both on a general level and as they relate to this particular group. The following channels are addressed: roadside stands, farmers' markets, distri...

  17. Channel-forming proteins in the cell wall of amino acid-producing Corynebacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hünten, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is together with C. callunae and C. efficiens a member of the diverse group of mycolic-acid containing actinomycetes, the mycolata. These bacteria are potent producer of glutamate, lysine and other amino acids on industrial scale. The cell walls of most actinomycetes contain besides an arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex large amounts of mycolic acids. This three-layer envelope is called MAP (mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan) complex and it represents a secon...

  18. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  19. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  20. Thiosemicarbazone complexes of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One aproach to the design of new sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals consists in the preparation of bifunctional radio-pharmaceuticals [1]. In this approach, a bifunctional molecule is synthesized which possesses a chelating functional group (capable of forming a stable complex with sup(99m)Tc) attached to a second functional group which is expected to have a useful biological distribution. Thiosemicarbazones are compounds that possess great chelating capacity [2] and are easily obtainable by condensation of the theosemicarbazide (H2N-NH-CS-NH2) or substituted thiosemicarbazide with the carbonyl groups of aldehydes or ketones. Consequently transformation of molecules of biological interest that the carbonyl group possess in thiosemicarbazones is simple and these modified molecules could act a bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals. For this reason a series of thiosemicarbazone complexes of 99Tc was prepared. This is the first report on technetium complexes with thiosemicarbazones. (orig.)