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Sample records for cellulolytic activity

  1. Polypeptide from a cellulolytic fungus having cellulolytic enhancing activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly (Elk Grove, CA); Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Zaretsky, Elizabeth (Reno, NV); Re, Edward (Davis, CA); Vlasenko, Elena (Davis, CA); McFarland, Keith (Davis, CA); Lopez de Leon, Alfredo (Davis, CA)

    2008-04-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  2. Cellulolytic Activity of Clostridium acetobutylicum

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Song F.; Forsberg, Cecil W.; Gibbins, L N

    1985-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum NRRL B527 and ATCC 824 exhibited extracellular and cell-bound endoglucanase and cellobiase activities during growth in a chemically defined medium with cellobiose as the sole source of carbohydrate. For both strains, the endoglucanase was found to be mainly extracellular (70 to 90%) during growth in continuous or batch cultures with the pH maintained at 5.2, whereas the cellobiase was mainly cell associated (60 to 90%). During continuous cultivation of strain B527 w...

  3. Cellulolytic Activity of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S F; Forsberg, C W; Gibbins, L N

    1985-08-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum NRRL B527 and ATCC 824 exhibited extracellular and cell-bound endoglucanase and cellobiase activities during growth in a chemically defined medium with cellobiose as the sole source of carbohydrate. For both strains, the endoglucanase was found to be mainly extracellular (70 to 90%) during growth in continuous or batch cultures with the pH maintained at 5.2, whereas the cellobiase was mainly cell associated (60 to 90%). During continuous cultivation of strain B527 with cellobiose as the limiting nutrient, maximum production of the endoglucanase and cellobiase occurred at pH values of 5.2 and 4.8, respectively. In the carbon-limited continuous cultures, strain 824 produced similar levels of endoglucanase, cellobiosidase, and cellobiase activities regardless of the carbon source used. However, in ammonium- or phosphate-limited cultures, with an excess of glucose, only 1/10 of the endoglucanase was produced, and neither cellobiosidase nor cellobiase activities were detectable. A crude extracellular enzyme preparation from strain B527 hydrolyzed carboxymethylcellulose and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose readily and microcrystalline cellulose (A vicel) to a lesser extent. Glucose accounted for more than 90% of the reducing sugar produced by the hydrolysis of acid-swollen cellulose and Avicel. Strain B527 did not grow in medium with acid-swollen cellulose as the sole source of carbohydrate, although it grew readily on the products obtained by hydrolyzing the cellulose in vitro with a preparation of extracellular cellulase derived from the same organism.

  4. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan; Henriksen, Svend Hostgaard Bang

    2016-05-17

    The present invention provides isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also provides nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  5. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities of common indoor fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Poulsen, Rehab; Hansen, Gustav Hammerich

    2016-01-01

    or no cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities using AZCL-assays. On the other hand, both Cladosporium sphaerospermum and Penicillium chrysogenum showed the highest cellulase, β-glucosidase, mannase, β-galactanase and arabinanase activities and would be good candidates for over-producers of enzymes needed...

  6. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  7. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan; Wu, Wenping

    2016-06-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  8. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  9. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  10. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-08-02

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  11. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  12. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-10-04

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  13. NREL Explains the Higher Cellulolytic Activity of a Vital Microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of a new mode of action by C. thermocellum to convert biomass to biofuels is significant because the bacterium is already recognized as one of the most effective in the biosphere. Researchers found that, in addition to using common cellulase degradation mechanisms attached to cells, C. thermocellum also uses a new category of cell-free scaffolded enzymes. The new discovery will influence the strategies used to improve the cellulolytic activity of biomass degrading microbes going forward. Better understanding of this bacterium could lead to cheaper production of ethanol and drop-in fuels. Also, this discovery demonstrates that nature's biomass conversion behaviors are not fully understood and remain as opportunities for future microbial/enzyme engineering efforts.

  14. Characterization of cellulolytic activity from digestive fluids of Dissosteira carolina (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jonathan D; Klingeman, William E; Oppert, Cris; Oppert, Brenda; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan L

    2010-11-01

    Previous screening of head-derived and gut fluid extracts of Carolina grasshoppers, Dissosteira carolina (L.) revealed relatively high activity against cellulase substrates when compared to other insect groups. In this work we report on the characterization and identification of enzymes involved in cellulolytic activity in digestive fluids of D. carolina. In zymograms using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as substrate, we detected four distinct cellulolytic protein bands in D. carolina gut fluids, common to all developmental stages. These cellulolytic enzymes were localized to foregut and midgut regions of the D. carolina digestive tract. Cellulases were purified from D. carolina head and gut fluid extracts by liquid chromatography to obtain N-terminal amino acid sequence tags. Database searches with sequence tags from head fluids indicated high similarity with invertebrate, bacterial and plant beta1,4-endoglucanases, while no homologues were identified for the gut-derived protein. Our data demonstrate the presence of cellulolytic activity in the digestive system of D. carolina and suggest that cellulases of endogenous origin are present in this organism. Considering that this grasshopper species is a pest of grasses, including switchgrass that has been suggested bioethanol feedstock, characterization of insect cellulolytic systems may aid in developing applications for plant biomass biodegradation for biofuel production.

  15. Determination of the cellulolytic activities of microorganisms isolated from poultry litter for sawdust degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpomie O.OF

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulolytic activities of bacterial and fungal isolates obtained from poultry droppings were determined using the ability of each isolate to produce clear zones on Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose Agar plates. The bacterial isolates were Klebsiella, Streptococcus, Celulomonas, Escherichia coli and Micrococus species. The cellulolytic counts ranged from 5.02 x 104 + 3.42 to 7.20 x 109 + 6.12 cfu/g. The cellulolytic activities of the bacterial isolates ranged from 0.04 to 0.26 iu/m with Cellulomonas having the highest cellulose activity. The fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Trichoderma sp. and Penicllium chrysogenum with cellulose activities of 0.24 + 0.021 0.19 + 0.031, 0.23 + 0.05 and 0.23 + 0.028iu/ml respectively. All the isolates were able to degrade the sawdust to varying extent. The percentage degradation was highest with Micrococcus sp. (78.20% and least with Trichoderma sp. (65.83%. The study shows that is a potential source of cellulolytic microorganisms which could be employed in the degradation of sawdust.

  16. Recombinant host cells and nucleic acid constructs encoding polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2017-03-28

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  17. Endowing non-cellulolytic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity aiming for consolidated bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    With the exhaustion of fossil fuels and with the environmental issues they pose, utilization of abundant lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuels and bio-based chemicals has recently become an attractive option. Lignocellulosic biomass is primarily composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and has a very rigid and complex structure. It is accordingly much more expensive to process than starchy grains because of the need for extensive pretreatment and relatively large amounts of cellulases for efficient hydrolysis. Efficient and cost-effective methods for the production of biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulose are required. A consolidated bioprocess (CBP), which integrates all biological steps consisting of enzyme production, saccharification, and fermentation, is considered a promising strategy for reducing production costs. Establishing an efficient CBP using lignocellulosic biomass requires both lignocellulose degradation into glucose and efficient production of biofuels or chemicals from glucose. With this aim, many researchers are attempting to endow selected microorganisms with lignocellulose-assimilating ability. In this review, we focus on studies aimed at conferring lignocellulose-assimilating ability not only to yeast strains but also to bacterial strains by recombinant technology. Recent developments in improvement of enzyme productivity by microorganisms and in improvement of the specific activity of cellulase are emphasized.

  18. Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Knudsen, I.; Elmholt, S.;

    2002-01-01

    the Hanes-Wolf transformation of the Michaelis-Menten equation. Soil samples from 6 to 13 cm depth were collected in the early spring as undisturbed blocks from 10 arable soils with different physico-chemical properties and cultivation history. Significant correlations were found between soil suppresiveness....... From the preliminary results obtained, it is proposed that the cellulolytic activity can be used as an enzymatic approach to study the microbial turnover of organic matter in soils and as indicator of seedling blight of barley caused by F. culmorum. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Enhancing the cellulose-degrading activity of cellulolytic bacteria CTL-6 (Clostridium thermocellum) by co-culture with non-cellulolytic bacteria W2-10 (Geobacillus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yucai; Li, Ning; Yuan, Xufeng; Hua, Binbin; Wang, Jungang; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo; Cui, Zongjun

    2013-12-01

    The effect of a non-cellulolytic bacterium W2-10 (Geobacillus sp.) on the cellulose-degrading activity of a cellulolytic bacterium CTL-6 (Clostridium thermocellum) was determined using cellulose materials (paper and straw) in peptone cellulose solution (PCS) medium under aerobic conditions. The results indicated that in the co-culture, addition of W2-10 resulted in a balanced medium pH, and may provide the required anaerobic environment for CTL-6. Overall, addition of W2-10 was beneficial to CTL-6 growth in the adverse environment of the PCS medium. In co-culture with W2-10, the CTL-6 cellulose degradation efficiency of filter paper and alkaline-treated wheat straw significantly increased up to 72.45 and 37.79 %, respectively. The CMCase activity and biomass of CTL-6 also increased from 0.23 U ml(-1) and 45.1 μg ml(-1) (DNA content) up to 0.47 U ml(-1) and 112.2 μg ml(-1), respectively. In addition, co-culture resulted in accumulation of acetate and propionate up to 4.26 and 2.76 mg ml(-1). This was a respective increase of 2.58 and 4.45 times, in comparison to the monoculture with CTL-6.

  20. Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity (MCHCA for enhanced biogas production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof ePoszytek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate in agricultural biogas plants is very popular and yields good results. However, the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, and thus biogas production, is not always satisfactory due to the slow or incomplete degradation (hydrolysis of plant matter. To enhance the solubilization of the lignocellulosic biomass various physical, chemical and biological pretreatment methods are used.The aim of this study was to select and characterize cellulose-degrading bacteria, and to construct a microbial consortium, dedicated for degradation of maize silage and enhancing biogas production from this substrate.Over one hundred strains of cellulose-degrading bacteria were isolated from: sewage sludge, hydrolyzer from an agricultural biogas plant, cattle slurry and manure. After physiological characterization of the isolates, sixteen strains (representatives of Bacillus, Providencia and Ochrobactrum genera were chosen for the construction of a Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity, called MCHCA. The selected strains had a high endoglucanase activity (exceeding 0.21 IU/mL CMCase activity and a wide range of tolerance to various physical and chemical conditions. Lab-scale simulation of biogas production using the selected strains for degradation of maize silage was carried out in a two-bioreactor system, similar to those used in agricultural biogas plants.The obtained results showed that the constructed MCHCA consortium is capable of efficient hydrolysis of maize silage, and increases biogas production by even 38%, depending on the inoculum used for methane fermentation. The results in this work indicate that the mesophilic Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity has a great potential for application on industrial scale in agricultural biogas plants.

  1. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression.

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    Adam J Book

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology.

  2. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Adam J; Lewin, Gina R; McDonald, Bradon R; Takasuka, Taichi E; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T; Suh, Steven; Raffa, Kenneth F; Fox, Brian G; Currie, Cameron R

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology.

  3. Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity (MCHCA) for Enhanced Biogas Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poszytek, Krzysztof; Ciezkowska, Martyna; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate in agricultural biogas plants is very popular and yields good results. However, the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, and thus biogas production, is not always satisfactory due to the slow or incomplete degradation (hydrolysis) of plant matter. To enhance the solubilization of the lignocellulosic biomass various physical, chemical and biological pretreatment methods are used. The aim of this study was to select and characterize cellulose-degrading bacteria, and to construct a microbial consortium, dedicated for degradation of maize silage and enhancing biogas production from this substrate. Over 100 strains of cellulose-degrading bacteria were isolated from: sewage sludge, hydrolyzer from an agricultural biogas plant, cattle slurry and manure. After physiological characterization of the isolates, 16 strains (representatives of Bacillus, Providencia, and Ochrobactrum genera) were chosen for the construction of a Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity, called MCHCA. The selected strains had a high endoglucanase activity (exceeding 0.21 IU/mL CMCase activity) and a wide range of tolerance to various physical and chemical conditions. Lab-scale simulation of biogas production using the selected strains for degradation of maize silage was carried out in a two-bioreactor system, similar to those used in agricultural biogas plants. The obtained results showed that the constructed MCHCA consortium is capable of efficient hydrolysis of maize silage, and increases biogas production by even 38%, depending on the inoculum used for methane fermentation. The results in this work indicate that the mesophilic MCHCA has a great potential for application on industrial scale in agricultural biogas plants.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF KAPOK (Ceiba pentandra SEED OIL SUPPLEMENTATION ON CELLULOLYTIC ENZYME AND RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION ACTIVITY OF LOCAL SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Widiyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation oncellulolytic enzyme and microbial fermentation activity. Sheep rumen fluid was used as enzyme sourceand inoculant, whereas carboxymethylcellulose (CMC was used as the substrate. There were 4 levels ofKSO supplementation as treatment, i.e. : 0% (T0, 5% (T1, 10% (T2, and 15% (T3. Two measuredvariables were reduced sugar production rate and gas fermentation production. The data were analyzedby analysis of variance in completely randomized design. The result showed that reduced sugarproduction rate in T0, T1, T2 and T3 treatment groups were 2.58; 2.93; 2.08 and 1.58 mg/gCMC/minute, respectively, whereas gas production were : 15.97; 13.26; 10.54 and 7.57 mg/g CMC,respectively. Kapok seed oil supplementation up to 5% DM of cellulose substrate (CMC did notinfluence the ruminal cellulolytic enzyme activity. The KSO supplementation level 10% - 15%decreased the ruminal cellulolytic enzyme activity.

  5. Retraction: Characterization of cellulolytic activities of newly isolated Thelephora sowerbyi from North-Western Himalayas on different lignocellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepika; Goel, Gunjan; Bansal, Saurabh; Mahajan, Rishi; Sharma, B M; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of cellulolytic activities of newly isolated Thelephora sowerbyi from North-Western Himalayas on different lignocellulosic substrate J. Basic Microbiol. 2015, 55, 1-11 - DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201500107 The above article from the Journal of Basic Microbiology, published online on 08 June 2015 in Wiley Online Library as Early View (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jobm.201500107/pdf), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Editor-in-Chief and Wiley-VCH GmbH & Co. KGaA. The retraction has been agreed because the microorganism studied in the described experiments has been identified as the fungus Cotylidia pannosa (Gene Accession No. KT008117) instead of Thelephora sowerbyi. The culture has been identified on the basis of the sequence of the amplified ITS region of the microorganism which was submitted by the authors to the NCBI database.

  6. Cellulolytic Microorganisms from Thermal Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Raman, Babu [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Thermal, anaerobic environments rich in decaying plant material are a potential source of novel cellulolytic bacteria. Samples collected from geothermal aquifers in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were used to select for cellulolytic thermophiles. Laboratory enrichments on dilute-acid pretreated plant biomass (switchgrass, Populus), and crystalline cellulose (Avicel) resulted in the isolation of 247 environmental clones. The majority of individual clones were affiliated with the cellulolytic bacteria of phylum Firmicutes, followed by xylanolytic and saccharolytic members of the phylum Dictyoglomi. Among the Firmicutes, the clones were affiliated with the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (54.4%), Caloramator (11.5%), Thermoanaerobacter (8.8%), Thermovenabulum (4.1%), and Clostridium (2.0%). From established anaerobic thermophilic enrichments a total of 81 single strains of the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (57%) and Thermoanaerobacter (43%) were isolated. With continuous flow enrichment on Avicel, increases in the relative abundance of Caloramator sp. was observed over clones detected from the Caldicellulosiruptor. Complex communities of interacting microorganisms bring about cellulose decomposition in nature, therefore using up-to-date approaches may yield novel cellulolytic microorganisms with high activity and a rapid rate of biomass conversion to biofuels.

  7. EXTRACELLULAR CELLULOLYTIC COMPLEXES PRODUCTION BY MICROSCOPIC FUNGI

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    S. O. Syrchin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to screen and to study the effect of inducers on the synthesis of the cellulolytic enzyme complexes by microscopic fungi. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities were determined by reducing sugar with DNS reagent, and β-glucosidase activity by pNPG hydrolysis. The enzyme preparations were obtained by ammonium sulphate precipitation. Among 32 studied strains of microscopic fungi 14 produced cellulo- and xylanolytic enzyme complexes. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 demonstrated the highest levels of all studied enzyme activities. Enzyme preparations with high endo-, exoglucanase, xylanase and β-glucosidase activities were obtained from these strains. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 were active producers of cellulase enzyme complexes during growth on natural substrates. It was shown that inductors of cellulolytic enzymes in Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 differed from the ones in Trichoderma reesei.

  8. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by Trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; Actividad enzimatica del complejo celulolitico producido por Trichoderma reesei. Hidrolisis enzimatica de la celulosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsel, M.; Negro, M. J.; Saez, R.; Martin, C.

    1986-07-01

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars production, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of 0. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (Author) 10 refs.

  9. Activity-based protein profiling of secreted cellulolytic enzyme activity dynamics in Trichoderma reesei QM6a, NG14, and RUT-C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lindsey N.; Culley, David E.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Zink, Erika M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Magnuson, Jon M.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-12-01

    Development of alternative, non-petroleum based sources of bioenergy that can be applied in the short-term find great promise in the use of highly abundant and renewable lignocellulosic plant biomass.1 This material obtained from different feedstocks, such as forest litter or agricultural residues, can yield liquid fuels and other chemical products through biorefinery processes.2 Biofuels are obtained from lignocellulosic materials by chemical pretreatment of the biomass, followed by enzymatic decomposition of cellulosic and hemicellulosic compounds into soluble sugars that are converted to desired chemical products via microbial metabolism and fermentation.3, 4 To release soluble sugars from polymeric cellulose multiple enzymes are required, including endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase.5, 6 However, the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose into soluble sugars remains a significant limiting factor to the efficient and economically viable utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for transport fuels.7, 8 The primary industrial source of cellulose and hemicellulases is the mesophilic soft-rot fungus Trichoderma reesei,9 having widespread applications in food, feed, textile, pulp, and paper industries.10 The genome encodes 200 glycoside hydrolases, including 10 cellulolytic and 16 hemicellulolytic enzymes.11 The hypercellulolytic catabolite derepressed strain RUT-C30 was obtained through a three-step UV and chemical mutagenesis of the original T. reesei strain QM6a,12, 13 in which strains M7 and NG14 were intermediate, having higher cellulolytic activity than the parent strain but less activity and higher catabolite repression than RUT-C30.14 Numerous methods have been employed to optimize the secreted enzyme cocktail of T. reesei including cultivation conditions, operational parameters, and mutagenesis.3 However, creating an optimal and economical enzyme mixture for production-scale biofuels synthesis may take thousands of experiments to identify.

  10. Production and assay of cellulolytic enzyme activity of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya abbatoir, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Lokapirnasari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to produce and assay cellulolytic enzyme activity (endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-Dglucanase, and β-glucosidase, at optimum temperature and optimum pH of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya Abbatoir, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: To produce enzyme from a single colony of E. cloacae WPL 214, 98 × 1010 CFU/ml of isolates was put into 20 ml of liquid medium and incubated in a shaker incubator for 16 h at 35°C in accordance with growth time and optimum temperature of E. cloacae WPL 214. Further on, culture was centrifuged at 6000 rpm at 4°C for 15 min. Pellet was discarded while supernatant containing cellulose enzyme activity was withdrawn to assay endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, and β-glucosidase. Results: Cellulase enzyme of E. cloacae WPL 214 isolates had endoglucanase activity of 0.09 U/ml, exoglucanase of 0.13 U/ml, and cellobiase of 0.10 U/ml at optimum temperature 35°C and optimum pH 5. Conclusion: E. cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste produced cellulose enzyme with activity as cellulolytic enzyme of endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase and β-glucosidase.

  11. Cellulolytic activity of some cellulose-decomposing fungi in salinized soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Badran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximum evolution of CO2 was marked in control soil inoculated by tested fungi but its rate decreased with the increasing salinity. The period of 10 days was most suitable for cellulose degradation by A. niger and P. chrysoecnum and 15 days by A. flavus and C. globosum in control soil. High salinity levels affected greatly the cellulolylic activities of tesled fungi. Carbon content of saline soils increased white the nitrogen content decreased.

  12. Cellulolytic Activity of Thermophilic Bacilli Isolated from Tattapani Hot Spring Sediment in North West Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Indu; Dhar, M K; Bajaj, B K; Koul, Sanjana; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2016-06-01

    Eight thermophilic bacterial strains were isolated from Tattapani Hot spring and screened for various hydrolytic enzymes including cellulases. The isolated bacterial strains were identified as Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IP_WH1(KP842609), Bacillus licheniformis IP_WH2(KP842610), B. aerius IP_WH3(KP842611), B. licheniformis IP_WH4(KP842612), B. licheniformis IP_60Y(KP842613), G. thermodenitrificans IP_60A1(KP842614), Geobacillus sp. IP_60A2(KP842615) and Geobacillus sp. IP_80TP(KP842616) after 16S ribotying. Out of the eight isolates Geobacillus sp. IP_80TP grew best at 80 °C whereas rest of the isolates showed optimal growth at 60 °C. G. thermodenitrificans IP_WH1 produced a thermotolerant cellulase with maximum activity at 60 °C.

  13. [Special effects of a complex probiotic containing cellulolytic bacteria Cellulomonas on actively growing rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, N A; Laktionov, K S; Kozlova, A A; Ratnikova, I A; Gavrilova, N N

    2013-01-01

    It was shown that the association of probiotic bacteria of the genuses Bacillus and Cellulomonas form biolayers on the surface of beet marc particles. The positive effect of a fodder additive that contained the biolayer on the basis of a phytomatrix on the growth and development of young rabbits was shown. Feeding of animals with a mixed fodder that contained 0.1% preparation resulted in stimulation of digestion of all components of the food. Among other components of the mixed fodder, cellulose was digested most effectively. An increase in the biomass of symbiotic bacteria and enzymatic activity in the blindgut chymus was also observed. The positive nitrogen balance demonstrated an increase in the nitrogen content in animals and a decrease of its losses with excretion. The mechanism of response of the rabbit's organism to introduction of the complex probiotic preparation into the digestive tract is discussed.

  14. Use of remazol blue dyed avicel for the determination of cellulolytic activity in basidiomycetes Uso de Avicel colorida com Remazol Blue para determinação da atividade celulolítica em Basidiomycetos

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos José Correia; José Antônio de Sousa Pereira Junior; Jefferson Cunha dos Santos; Maria Auxiliadora de Queiroz Cavalcanti

    1998-01-01

    A modified method for direct determination of cellulolytic activity using Avicel colored with Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) in Agar test tubes is discussed. Refinements were introduced in a simple method for quantitation of cellulase activity, based on the release of dye from Avicel-RBBR medium by the enzymatic hydrolysis. Modifications in Avicel-dye preparation were enhanced and a spectrophotometer for direct OD measurement in agar test tubes used. The use of a spectrophotometer improved t...

  15. Synergistic Effect of Simple Sugars and Carboxymethyl Cellulose on the Production of a Cellulolytic Cocktail from Bacillus sp. AR03 and Enzyme Activity Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Adriana P; Pisa, José H; Valdeón, Daniel H; Perotti, Nora I; Martínez, María A

    2016-04-01

    A cellulase-producing bacterium isolated from pulp and paper feedstock, Bacillus sp. AR03, was evaluated by means of a factorial design showing that peptone and carbohydrates were the main variables affecting enzyme production. Simple sugars, individually and combined with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), were further examined for their influence on cellulase production by strain AR03. Most of the mono and disaccharides assayed presented a synergistic effect with CMC. As a result, a peptone-based broth supplemented with 10 g/L sucrose and 10 g/L CMC maximized enzyme production after 96 h of cultivation. This medium was used to produce endoglucanases in a 1-L stirred tank reactor in batch mode at 30 °C, which reduced the fermentation period to 48 h and reaching 3.12 ± 0.02 IU/mL of enzyme activity. Bacillus sp. AR03 endoglucanases showed an optimum temperature of 60 °C and a pH of 6.0 with a wide range of pH stability. Furthermore, presence of 10 mM Mn(2+) and 5 mM Co(2+) produced an increase of enzyme activity (246.7 and 183.7 %, respectively), and remarkable tolerance to NaCl, Tween 80, and EDTA was also observed. According to our results, the properties of the cellulolytic cocktail from Bacillus sp. AR03 offer promising features in view of potential biorefinery applications.

  16. Compositions for enhancing hydroysis of cellulosic material by cellulolytic enzyme compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and an organic compound comprising a carboxylic acid moiety, a lactone moiety, a phenolic moiety, a flavonoid moiety, or a combination thereof, wherein the combination of the GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and the organic compound enhances hydrolysis of a cellulosic material by a cellulolytic enzyme compared to the GH61 polypeptide alone or the organic compound alone. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  17. Identification of novel glycosyl hydrolases with cellulolytic activity against crystalline cellulose from metagenomic libraries constructed from bacterial enrichment cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Toshio; Kamei, Ichiro; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2014-01-01

    To obtain cellulases that are capable of degrading crystalline cellulose and cedar wood, metagenomic libraries were constructed from raw soil sample which was covered to pile of cedar wood sawdust or from its enrichment cultures. The efficiency of screening of metagenomic library was improved more than 3 times by repeating enrichment cultivation using crystalline cellulose as a carbon source, compared with the library constructed from raw soil. Four cellulase genes were obtained from the metagenomic libraries that were constructed from the total genome extracted from an enrichment culture that used crystalline cellulose as a carbon source. A cellulase gene and a xylanase gene were obtained from the enrichment culture that used unbleached kraft pulp as a carbon source. The culture supernatants of Escherichia coli expressing three clones that were derived from the enrichment culture that used crystalline cellulose showed activity against crystalline cellulose. In addition, these three enzyme solutions generated a reducing sugar from cedar wood powder. From these results, the construction of a metagenomic library from cultures that were repetition enriched using crystalline cellulose demonstrated that this technique is a powerful tool for obtaining cellulases that have activity toward crystalline cellulose.

  18. An efficient and improved methodology for the screening of industrially valuable xylano-pectino-cellulolytic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avtar; Kaur, Amanjot; Dua, Anita; Mahajan, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Xylano-pectino-cellulolytic enzymes are valuable enzymes of the industrial sector. In our earlier study, we have reported a novel and cost effective methodology for the qualitative screening of cellulase-free xylano-pectinolytic microorganisms by replacing the commercial, highly expensive substrates with agricultural residues, but the microorganisms with xylanolytic, pectinolytic, cellulolytic, xylano-pectinolytic, xylano-cellulolytic, pectino-cellulolytic, and xylano-pectino-cellulolytic potential were obtained. The probability of getting the desired combination was low, so efforts were made to further improve this cost effective methodology for obtaining the high yield of the microbes capable of producing desired combination of enzymes. By inclusion of multiple enrichment steps in sequence, using only practically low cost substrates and without any nutrient media till primary screening stage, this improved novel protocol for screening gave only the desired microorganisms with xylano-pectino-cellulolytic activity. Using this rapid, efficient, cost effective, and improved methodology, microbes with required combination of enzymes can be obtained and the probability of getting the desired microorganisms is cent percent. This is the first report presenting the methodology for the isolation of xylano-pectino-cellulolytic positive microorganisms at low cost and consuming less time.

  19. Production of cellulolytic enzymes from ascomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gustav Hammerich; Lübeck, Mette; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing production of cellulose degrading enzymes is of great interest in order to increase the feasibility of constructing biorefinery facilities for a sustainable supply of energy and chemical products. The ascomycete phylum has a large potential for the production of cellulolytic enzymes....... Although numerous enzymatic profiles have already been unraveled, the research has been covering only a limited number of species and genera, thus leaving many ascomycetes to be analyzed. Such analysis requires choosing appropriate media and cultivation methods that ensure enzyme profiles with high...... specificities and activities. However, the choice of media, cultivation methods and enzyme assays highly affect the enzyme activity profile observed. This review provides an overview of enzymatic profiles for several ascomycetes covering phylogenetically distinct genera and species. The profiles of cellulose...

  20. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP, Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.

  1. Cellulolytic potential of thermophilic species from four fungal orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of fungal biomass degradation is important for understanding the turnover of biological materials in nature and has important implications for industrial biomass conversion. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in elucidating the biological role of thermophilic fungi...... and in characterization of their industrially useful enzymes. In the present study we investigated the cellulolytic potential of 16 thermophilic fungi from the three ascomycete orders Sordariales, Eurotiales and Onygenales and from the zygomycete order Mucorales thus covering all fungal orders that include thermophiles....... Thermophilic fungi are the only described eukaryotes that can grow at temperatures above 45 ºC. All 16 fungi were able to grow on crystalline cellulose but their secreted enzymes showed widely different cellulolytic activities, pH optima and thermostabilities. Interestingly, in contrast to previous reports, we...

  2. Insight into Dominant Cellulolytic Bacteria from Two Biogas Digesters and Their Glycoside Hydrolase Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongjun; Zhou, Haokui; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Geng, Alei; Liu, Fanghua; Zhao, Guoping; Wang, Shengyue; Zhou, Zhihua; Yan, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Diverse cellulolytic bacteria are essential for maintaining high lignocellulose degradation ability in biogas digesters. However, little was known about functional genes and gene clusters of dominant cellulolytic bacteria in biogas digesters. This is the foundation to understand lignocellulose degradation mechanisms of biogas digesters and apply these gene resource for optimizing biofuel production. A combination of metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene clone library methods was used to investigate the dominant cellulolytic bacteria and their glycoside hydrolase (GH) genes in two biogas digesters. The 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the dominant cellulolytic bacteria were strains closely related to Clostridium straminisolvens and an uncultured cellulolytic bacterium designated BG-1. To recover GH genes from cellulolytic bacteria in general, and BG-1 in particular, a refined assembly approach developed in this study was used to assemble GH genes from metagenomic reads; 163 GH-containing contigs ≥ 1 kb in length were obtained. Six recovered GH5 genes that were expressed in E. coli demonstrated multiple lignocellulase activities and one had high mannanase activity (1255 U/mg). Eleven fosmid clones harboring the recovered GH-containing contigs were sequenced and assembled into 10 fosmid contigs. The composition of GH genes in the 163 assembled metagenomic contigs and 10 fosmid contigs indicated that diverse GHs and lignocellulose degradation mechanisms were present in the biogas digesters. In particular, a small portion of BG-1 genome information was recovered by PhyloPythiaS analysis. The lignocellulase gene clusters in BG-1 suggested that it might use a possible novel lignocellulose degradation mechanism to efficiently degrade lignocellulose. Dominant cellulolytic bacteria of biogas digester possess diverse GH genes, not only in sequences but also in their functions, which may be applied for production of biofuel in the future.

  3. Isolation and characterization of cellulolytic bacteria from the Stain house Lake, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Itamar S; Zucchi, Tiago D; Silva, Rafael E; Vilela, Elke S D; Sáber, Mirian Lobo; Rosa, Luiz H; Pellizari, Vivian H

    2014-07-01

    The main aim was to evaluate the occurrence of cellulolytic bacteria from the Stain house Lake, located at Admiralty Bay, Antarctica. Thick cotton string served as a cellulose bait for the isolation of bacteria. A total of 52 bacterial isolates were recovered and tested for their cellulase activity, and two of them, isolates CMAA 1184 and CMAA 1185, showed significant cellulolytic activity on carboxymethylcellulose agar plates. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolates into the Bacillus 16S ribosomal RNA gene subclade. Both isolates produced a cold-active cellulase which may play a crucial role in this extreme environment.

  4. Use of remazol blue dyed avicel for the determination of cellulolytic activity in basidiomycetes Uso de Avicel colorida com Remazol Blue para determinação da atividade celulolítica em Basidiomycetos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José Correia

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A modified method for direct determination of cellulolytic activity using Avicel colored with Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR in Agar test tubes is discussed. Refinements were introduced in a simple method for quantitation of cellulase activity, based on the release of dye from Avicel-RBBR medium by the enzymatic hydrolysis. Modifications in Avicel-dye preparation were enhanced and a spectrophotometer for direct OD measurement in agar test tubes used. The use of a spectrophotometer improved the precision of the collected data, since absorbance measurements could be done at the maximum wavelenght for RBBR (595 nm.Neste trabalho, é discutido um método modificado para determinação da atividade celulolítica em fungos utilizando Avicel colorida com Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR, diretamente em tubos com ágar, a partir de refinamentos introduzidos em uma metodologia simples e baseada na liberação deste corante pela ação hidrolítica em Avicel colorida com o RBBR. Foram feitas modificações no preparo da Avicel colorida, bem como um espectrofotômetro para medição direta da absorbância nos tubos com ágar foi usado. O uso de espectrofotômetro aumentou a precisão dos dados coletados, pois permitiu leituras de absorbância no comprimento de onda máximo para RBBR (595 nm.

  5. Activity-based protein profiling of secreted cellulolytic enzyme activity dynamics in Trichoderma reesei QM6a, NG14, and RUT-C30†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lindsey N.; Culley, David E.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Chauvigné-Hines, Lacie M.; Zink, Erika M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Magnuson, Jon M.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has great promise as a highly abundant and renewable source for the production of biofuels. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulose toward hydrolysis into soluble sugars remains a significant challenge to harnessing the potential of this source of bioenergy. A primary method for deconstructing lignocellulose is via chemical treatments, high temperatures, and hydrolytic enzyme cocktails, many of which are derived from the fungus Trichoderma reesei. Herein, we use an activity-based probe for glycoside hydrolases to rapidly identify optimal conditions for maximum enzymatic lignocellulose deconstruction. We also demonstrate that subtle changes to enzyme composition and activity in various strains of T. reesei can be readily characterized by our probe approach. The approach also permits multimodal measurements, including fluorescent gel-based analysis of activity in response to varied conditions and treatments, and mass spectrometry-based quantitative identification of labelled proteins. We demonstrate the promise this probe approach holds to facilitate rapid production of enzyme cocktails for high-efficiency lignocellulose deconstruction to accommodate high-yield biofuel production. PMID:24121482

  6. Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Three Phytophagus Insect Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kumar Shil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cellulolytic bacteria from the gut of three different phytophagous insects were studied to isolate novel cellulolytic organism for biofuel industry. Among the threse, gut of P. quatuordecimpunctata larvae contained both highest no of total bacterial count (6.8x107CFU/gut and cellulolytic bacteria (5.42x103CFU/gut. Fifteen different isolates were obtained from the gut of O. velox, A. miliarisand P. quatuordecimpunctata. All the isolates produced clear zone in CMC medium staining with Congo red. The isolates included Gram positive Enterococcus, Microbacterium and Gram negative Aeromonas, Erwinia, Serretia, Flavobacterium, Acenitobacter, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Xenorhabdus, Psedomonas and Photorhabdus. Out of the fifteen isolated and identified bacterial species, twelve bacterial species were novel being reported for first time as having cellulase activity.

  7. Cellulolytic and proteolytic ability of bacteria isolated from gastrointestinal tract and composting of a hippopotamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Ramos, Geomárcia Feitosa; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Passarini, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano; Vieira Silveira, Marghuel A; Okamoto, Débora Noma; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Zezzo, Larissa Vieira; Marem, Alyne; Santos Rocha, Rafael Costa; da Cruz, João Batista; Juliano, Luiz; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto

    2016-03-01

    The bioprospection for cellulase and protease producers is a promise strategy for the discovery of potential biocatalysts for use in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials as well as proteic residues. These enzymes can increment and turn viable the production of second generation ethanol from different and alternative sources. In this context, the goal of this study was the investigation of cellulolytic and proteolytic abilities of bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a hippopotamus as well as from its composting process. It is important to highlight that hippopotamus gastrointestinal samples were a non-typical sources of efficient hydrolytic bacteria with potential for application in biotechnological industries, like biofuel production. Looking for this, a total of 159 bacteria were isolated, which were submitted to qualitative and quantitative enzymatic assays. Proteolytic analyzes were conducted through the evaluation of fluorescent probes. Qualitative assays for cellulolytic abilities revealed 70 positive hits. After quantitative analyzes, 44 % of these positive hits were selected, but five (5) strains showed cellulolytic activity up to 11,8 FPU/mL. Regarding to proteolytic activities, six (6) strains showed activity above 10 %, which overpassed results described in the literature. Molecular analyzes based on the identification of 16S rDNA, revealed that all the selected bacterial isolates were affiliated to Bacillus genus. In summary, these results strongly indicate that the isolated bacteria from a hippopotamus can be a potential source of interesting biocatalysts with cellulolytic and proteolytic activities, with relevance for industrial applications.

  8. [Biosynthesis of cellulolytic enzymes and xylanase during submerged cultivation of the fungus Aspergillus terreus 17P].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, L G; Guzhova, E P; Ismanlova, D Iu; Burdenko, L G

    1978-01-01

    The fungus Aspergillus terreus 17P--producer of cellulolytic enzymes--was cultivated in the Biotec 10 l fermenter on the medium containing minced and heated (at 200 degrees) wheat straw aerated with a different rate. At the mixing rate of 350 rpm and aeration rate of 0.7 r/rpm on the fourth day the culture liquid was obtained whose filtrate contained an active complex of cellulolytic enzymes and xylanase: CI--3.4; APB--1.1, Cx--35.7, cellobiase--0.23, xylanase--73.8 units/ml. The fractionation of the culture liquid filtrate with ammonium sulphate showed that the fraction precipitated at an interval of saturation of 0.3--0.7 contained the largest portion of cellulolytic enzymes and xylanase. The isolated enzymic preparations had a cellulolytic and xylanase activity and contained lipase, pectinase, laminarinase. They also contained low quantities of amylase, protease, beta-1,4- and beta-1,6-glucanase. Enzymic hylrolysis by the Asp. terreus 17P preparation of straw yielded glucose and xylose, of cotton, Na-KMC, cellobiose--glucose, Xylane hydrolyzate contained xylose and arabinose.

  9. Construction and Characterization of a Cellulolytic Consortium Enriched from the Hindgut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of rice straw by cooperative microbial activities is at present the most attractive alternative to fuels and provides a basis for biomass conversion. The use of microbial consortia in the biodegradation of lignocelluloses could reduce problems such as incomplete synergistic enzymes, end-product inhibition, and so on. In this study, a cellulolytic microbial consortium was enriched from the hindgut of Holotrichia parallela larvae via continuous subcultivation (20 subcultures in total under static conditions. The degradation ratio for rice straw was about 83.1% after three days of cultivation, indicating its strong cellulolytic activity. The diversity analysis results showed that the bacterial diversity and richness decreased during the consortium enrichment process, and the consortium enrichment process could lead to a significant enrichment of phyla Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes, classes Clostridia, Epsilonproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria, and genera Arcobacter, Treponema, Comamonas, and Clostridium. Some of these are well known as typical cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic microorganisms. Our results revealed that the microbial consortium identified herein is a potential candidate for use in the degradation of waste lignocellulosic biomass and further highlights the hindgut of the larvae as a reservoir of extensive and specific cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic microbes.

  10. Construction and Characterization of a Cellulolytic Consortium Enriched from the Hindgut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ping; Huang, Jiangli; Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Dongsheng; Tian, Xiaojuan; Ding, Jiannan

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of rice straw by cooperative microbial activities is at present the most attractive alternative to fuels and provides a basis for biomass conversion. The use of microbial consortia in the biodegradation of lignocelluloses could reduce problems such as incomplete synergistic enzymes, end-product inhibition, and so on. In this study, a cellulolytic microbial consortium was enriched from the hindgut of Holotrichia parallela larvae via continuous subcultivation (20 subcultures in total) under static conditions. The degradation ratio for rice straw was about 83.1% after three days of cultivation, indicating its strong cellulolytic activity. The diversity analysis results showed that the bacterial diversity and richness decreased during the consortium enrichment process, and the consortium enrichment process could lead to a significant enrichment of phyla Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes, classes Clostridia, Epsilonproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria, and genera Arcobacter, Treponema, Comamonas, and Clostridium. Some of these are well known as typical cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic microorganisms. Our results revealed that the microbial consortium identified herein is a potential candidate for use in the degradation of waste lignocellulosic biomass and further highlights the hindgut of the larvae as a reservoir of extensive and specific cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic microbes. PMID:27706065

  11. COMPARED ANALYSIS OF CATALASE AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS TRICHODERMA REESEI GROWN ON MEDIUM WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF GRINDED WHEAT AND BARLEY STRAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cristica

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of catalase and peroxidase activity in Trichoderma reesei grown on medium containing grinded wheat and barley straws. Carbon source of cultivation medium - glucose was replaced by various concentrations of grinded wheat and barley straws, finally resulting three experimental variants as follows: V1 = 20 g/l, V2 = 30 g/l, V3 = 40 g/l. ĂŽn addition to these variants a control sample was added in which composition remainded unchanged. The catalase activity was determined by spectrophotometric Sinha method (Artenie et al., 2008 while peroxidase activity was assesed using the o-dianisidine method (Cojocaru, 2009. Enzymatic determinations were carried out at 7 and 14 days from inoculation, in both fungus mycelium and culture liquid. The enzymatic assay showed significant differences between determinations intervals and work variants. Enzyme activity is influenced by the age of fungus and by the different nature of the substrate used.

  12. Screening genus Penicillium for producers of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian Bertel Rømer; Mørkeberg, Astrid; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2004-01-01

    For enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material, cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei are most commenly used, but, there is a need for more efficient enzyme cocktails. In this study, the production of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes was investigated in 12 filamentous fungi from...

  13. SACCHARIFICATION OF CORNCOB USING CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TITI CANDRA SUNARTI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulose degrading enzyme (cellulases for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material is a part of bioethanol production process. In this experiment, delignified corncob, its cellulose fraction and alpha cellulose were used as substrates to produce fermentable sugar by using three local isolates of celluloytic bacteria (C5-1, C4-4, C11-1 and Cmix ; mixed cultures of three isolates, and Saccharomyces cereviseae to produce ethanol. The results showed that all isolates of cellulolytic bacteria can grow on cellulose fraction better than on delignified corncob, and alpha cellulose. The highest hydrolytic activity produced from cellulose fraction was by isolate C4-4, which liberated 3.50 g/l of total sugar. Ethanol can be produced by mixed culture of bacteria and yeast, but because of competitive growth, the fermentation only produced 0.39-0.47 g/l of ethanol.

  14. An Efficient and Improved Methodology for the Screening of Industrially Valuable Xylano-Pectino-Cellulolytic Microbes

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Xylano-pectino-cellulolytic enzymes are valuable enzymes of the industrial sector. In our earlier study, we have reported a novel and cost effective methodology for the qualitative screening of cellulase-free xylano-pectinolytic microorganisms by replacing the commercial, highly expensive substrates with agricultural residues, but the microorganisms with xylanolytic, pectinolytic, cellulolytic, xylano-pectinolytic, xylano-cellulolytic, pectino-cellulolytic, and xylano-pectino-cellulolytic pot...

  15. Cloning and recombinant expression of a cellulase from the cellulolytic strain Streptomyces sp. G12 isolated from compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amore Antonella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of lignocellulosic materials for second generation ethanol production would give several advantages such as minimizing the conflict between land use for food and fuel production, providing less expensive raw materials than conventional agricultural feedstock, allowing lower greenhouse gas emissions than those of first generation ethanol. However, cellulosic biofuels are not produced at a competitive level yet, mainly because of the high production costs of the cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, this study was aimed at discovering new cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes. Results Different bacteria isolated from raw composting materials obtained from vegetable processing industry wastes were screened for their cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. Four strains belonging to the actinomycetes group were selected on the basis of their phenotypic traits and cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. The strain showing the highest cellulolytic activity was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Streptomyces genus and it was designated as Streptomyces sp. strain G12. Investigating the enzymes responsible for cellulase activity produced by Streptomyces G12 by proteomic analyses, two endoglucanases were identified. Gene coding for one of these enzymes, named CelStrep, was cloned and sequenced. Molecular analysis showed that the celstrep gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 379 amino acid residues, including a signal peptide of 37 amino acid residues. Comparison of deduced aminoacidic sequence to the other cellulases indicated that the enzyme CelStrep can be classified as a family 12 glycoside hydrolase. Heterologous recombinant expression of CelStrep was carried out in Escherichia coli, and the active recombinant enzyme was purified from culture supernatant and characterized. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose

  16. Anaerobic gut fungi: Advances in isolation, culture, and cellulolytic enzyme discovery for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitjema, Charles H; Solomon, Kevin V; Henske, John K; Theodorou, Michael K; O'Malley, Michelle A

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobic gut fungi are an early branching family of fungi that are commonly found in the digestive tract of ruminants and monogastric herbivores. It is becoming increasingly clear that they are the primary colonizers of ingested plant biomass, and that they significantly contribute to the decomposition of plant biomass into fermentable sugars. As such, anaerobic fungi harbor a rich reservoir of undiscovered cellulolytic enzymes and enzyme complexes that can potentially transform the conversion of lignocellulose into bioenergy products. Despite their unique evolutionary history and cellulolytic activity, few species have been isolated and studied in great detail. As a result, their life cycle, cellular physiology, genetics, and cellulolytic metabolism remain poorly understood compared to aerobic fungi. To help address this limitation, this review briefly summarizes the current body of knowledge pertaining to anaerobic fungal biology, and describes progress made in the isolation, cultivation, molecular characterization, and long-term preservation of these microbes. We also discuss recent cellulase- and cellulosome-discovery efforts from gut fungi, and how these interesting, non-model microbes could be further adapted for biotechnology applications.

  17. Cellulolytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin A [San Diego, CA; Zhao, Lishan [Emeryville, CA; Cayouette, Michelle H [San Diego, CA

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, a endoglucanase, a cellobiohydrolase, a beta-glucosidase, a xylanase, a mannanse, a .beta.-xylosidase, an arabinofuranosidase, and/or an oligomerase activity, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, and methods of making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides polypeptides having an oligomerase activity, e.g., enzymes that convert recalcitrant soluble oligomers to fermentable sugars in the saccharification of biomass. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  18. Industrial waste based compost as a source of novel cellulolytic strains and enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Antonella; Pepe, Olimpia; Ventorino, Valeria; Birolo, Leila; Giangrande, Chiara; Faraco, Vincenza

    2013-02-01

    Ninety bacteria isolated from raw composting materials were screened for their cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. The bacteria producing the highest cellulolytic activity levels were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Bacillus licheniformis strain 1, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain B7B, Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii strain 6, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain B31C. Cellulase activity production by the most productive strain B. amyloliquefaciens B31C was optimized in liquid culture varying the carbon source. Comparison of growth curves of B. amyloliquefaciens B31C at temperatures from 28 to 47 °C indicated its thermotolerant nature. Moreover, analysis of time courses of cellulase activity production in this thermal range showed that increase of temperature from 28 to 37 °C causes an increase of cellulase activity levels. Investigating the enzymes responsible for cellulase activity produced by B. amyloliquefaciens B31C by proteomic analyses, an endoglucanase was identified. It was shown that the purified enzyme catalyzes carboxymethylcellulose's hydrolysis following Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a K(M) of 9.95 mg ml(-1) and a v(max) of 284 μM min(-1) . It shows a retention of 90% of its activity for at least 144 h of incubation at 40 °C and exhibits a range of optimum temperatures from 50 to 70 °C.

  19. Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tokura, Mitsunori; Shirai, Yoshihito

    2013-11-01

    The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90 days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40 days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified.

  20. Parameter estimation for models of ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzyme kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gangsheng [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; Frerichs, Joshua T [ORNL; Jagadamma, Sindhu [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    While soil enzymes have been explicitly included in the soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition models, there is a serious lack of suitable data for model parameterization. This study provides well-documented enzymatic parameters for application in enzyme-driven SOC decomposition models from a compilation and analysis of published measurements. In particular, we developed appropriate kinetic parameters for five typical ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzymes ( -glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, endo-glucanase, peroxidase, and phenol oxidase). The kinetic parameters included the maximum specific enzyme activity (Vmax) and half-saturation constant (Km) in the Michaelis-Menten equation. The activation energy (Ea) and the pH optimum and sensitivity (pHopt and pHsen) were also analyzed. pHsen was estimated by fitting an exponential-quadratic function. The Vmax values, often presented in different units under various measurement conditions, were converted into the same units at a reference temperature (20 C) and pHopt. Major conclusions are: (i) Both Vmax and Km were log-normal distributed, with no significant difference in Vmax exhibited between enzymes originating from bacteria or fungi. (ii) No significant difference in Vmax was found between cellulases and ligninases; however, there was significant difference in Km between them. (iii) Ligninases had higher Ea values and lower pHopt than cellulases; average ratio of pHsen to pHopt ranged 0.3 0.4 for the five enzymes, which means that an increase or decrease of 1.1 1.7 pH units from pHopt would reduce Vmax by 50%. (iv) Our analysis indicated that the Vmax values from lab measurements with purified enzymes were 1 2 orders of magnitude higher than those for use in SOC decomposition models under field conditions.

  1. Technique for preparation of anaerobic microbes: Rodshaped cellulolytic bacteria

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    Amlius Thalib

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of anaerobic-rod cellulolytic bacteria with coating technique has been conducted. Steps of the processes involved were cultivation, coating, evaporation, and drying. Coating agent used was Gum Arabic, and drying techniquesconducted were freeze drying and sun drying. pH of culture media was firstly optimized to obtain the maximal population ofbacteria. Both coated and uncoated preparates were subjected to drying. Morphological and Gram type identifications showed that uncoated preparate dried with freeze drying is not contaminated (ie. all bacteria are rod shape with Gram-negative type while the one dried with sun drying is not morphologically pure (ie. containing of both rod and coccus shapes with Gram negative and positive. The coated preparates dried by both freeze and sun drying, were not contaminated (ie. all are rods with Gram-negative. The coating and drying processes decreased viability of preparates significantly. However, the decreasing of viability of coated preparate are lower than uncoated preparate (ie. 89 vs. 97%. Total count of bacteria in sun-drying coated preparate are higher (P<0.05 than the uncoated preparate (ie. 3.38 x 1010 vs. 1.97 x 1010 colony/g DM. Activity of sun-drying coated preparate to digest elephant grass and rice straw was higher (P<0.01 than the sun-drying uncoated preparate with the in vitro DMD values were 42.7 vs. 35.5% for elephant grass substrate and 29.3 vs. 24.6% for rice straw substrate. Therefore, it is concluded that coating technique has a positive effects on the preparation of rumen bacteria.

  2. Interactions between Cellulolytic Enzymes with Native, Autohydrolysis, and Technical Lignins and the Effect of a Polysorbate Amphiphile in Reducing Nonproductive Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Consuelo; Ferrer, Ana; Salas, Carlos; Jameel, Hasan; Rojas, Orlando J

    2015-12-14

    Understanding enzyme-substrate interactions is critical in designing strategies for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study we monitored molecular events, in situ and in real time, including the adsorption and desorption of cellulolytic enzymes on lignins and cellulose, by using quartz crystal microgravimetry and surface plasmon resonance. The effect of a nonionic surface active molecule was also elucidated. Three lignin substrates relevant to the sugar platform in biorefinery efforts were considered, namely, hardwood autohydrolysis cellulolytic (HWAH), hardwood native cellulolytic (MPCEL), and nonwood native cellulolytic (WSCEL) lignin. In addition, Kraft lignins derived from softwoods (SWK) and hardwoods (HWK) were used as references. The results indicated a high affinity between the lignins with both, monocomponent and multicomponent enzymes. More importantly, the addition of nonionic surfactants at concentrations above their critical micelle concentration reduced remarkably (by over 90%) the nonproductive interactions between the cellulolytic enzymes and the lignins. This effect was hypothesized to be a consequence of the balance of hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions. Moreover, the reduction of surface roughness and increased wettability of lignin surfaces upon surfactant treatment contributed to a lower affinity with the enzymes. Conformational changes of cellulases were observed upon their adsorption on lignin carrying preadsorbed surfactant. Weak electrostatic interactions were determined in aqueous media at pH between 4.8 and 5.5 for the native cellulolytic lignins (MPCEL and WSCEL), whereby a ∼20% reduction in the enzyme affinity was observed. This was mainly explained by electrostatic interactions (osmotic pressure effects) between charged lignins and cellulases. Noteworthy, adsorption of nonionic surfactants onto cellulose, in the form cellulose nanofibrils, did not affect its hydrolytic conversion. Overall, our results

  3. Prospection and Evaluation of (Hemi) Cellulolytic Enzymes Using Untreated and Pretreated Biomasses in Two Argentinean Native Termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Arneodo, Joel; Bombarda Campanha, Raquel; Abrão de Oliveira, Patrícia; Veneziano Labate, Mônica T.; Regiani Cataldi, Thaís; Campos, Eleonora; Cataldi, Angel; Labate, Carlos A.; Martins Rodrigues, Clenilson; Talia, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Saccharum officinarum bagasse (common name: sugarcane bagasse) and Pennisetum purpureum (also known as Napier grass) are among the most promising feedstocks for bioethanol production in Argentina and Brazil. In this study, both biomasses were assessed before and after acid pretreatment and following hydrolysis with Nasutitermes aquilinus and Cortaritermes fulviceps termite gut digestome. The chemical composition analysis of the biomasses after diluted acid pretreatment showed that the hemicellulose fraction was partially removed. The (hemi) cellulolytic activities were evaluated in bacterial culture supernatants of termite gut homogenates grown in treated and untreated biomasses. In all cases, we detected significantly higher endoglucanase and xylanase activities using pretreated biomasses compared to untreated biomasses, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan. Several protein bands with (hemi) cellulolytic activity were detected in zymograms and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins of these bands or spots were identified as xylanolytic peptides by mass spectrometry. Finally, the diversity of cultured cellulolytic bacterial endosymbionts associated to both Argentinean native termite species was analyzed. This study describes, for the first time, bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous (hemi) cellulases of two Argentinean native termites as well as their potential application in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production. PMID:26313257

  4. Prospection and Evaluation of (Hemi Cellulolytic Enzymes Using Untreated and Pretreated Biomasses in Two Argentinean Native Termites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Ben Guerrero

    Full Text Available Saccharum officinarum bagasse (common name: sugarcane bagasse and Pennisetum purpureum (also known as Napier grass are among the most promising feedstocks for bioethanol production in Argentina and Brazil. In this study, both biomasses were assessed before and after acid pretreatment and following hydrolysis with Nasutitermes aquilinus and Cortaritermes fulviceps termite gut digestome. The chemical composition analysis of the biomasses after diluted acid pretreatment showed that the hemicellulose fraction was partially removed. The (hemi cellulolytic activities were evaluated in bacterial culture supernatants of termite gut homogenates grown in treated and untreated biomasses. In all cases, we detected significantly higher endoglucanase and xylanase activities using pretreated biomasses compared to untreated biomasses, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan. Several protein bands with (hemi cellulolytic activity were detected in zymograms and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins of these bands or spots were identified as xylanolytic peptides by mass spectrometry. Finally, the diversity of cultured cellulolytic bacterial endosymbionts associated to both Argentinean native termite species was analyzed. This study describes, for the first time, bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous (hemi cellulases of two Argentinean native termites as well as their potential application in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production.

  5. In vitro Cellulose Rich Organic Material Degradation by Cellulolytic Streptomyces albospinus (MTCC 8768

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    Pinky Prasad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Cellulosic biomass is the only foreseeable sustainable source of fuels and is also one of the dominating waste materials in nature resulting from human activities. Keeping in view the environmental problems like disposal of large volumes of cellulosic wastes and shortage of fossil fuel in the world, the main aim of the present investigation was to characterize and study the cellulolytic activity of Streptomyces albospinus (MTCC 8768, isolated from municipal wastes, on natural cellulosic substrates viz. straw powder, wood powder and finely grated vegetable peels.Methodology and Result: Stanier’s Basal broth with 100 mg of each of the substrates was inoculated separately with S. albospinus (MTCC No. 8768 and incubated at 37 °C for 8 days. The cellulosic substrates were re-weighed at an interval of 2 days and the difference between the initial weight and the final weight gave the amount of substratesdegraded by the isolate. It was observed that maximum degradation was observed in the grated vegetable peels (64 mg followed by straw powder (38 mg and wood powder (28 mg over a period of 8 days.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: By the selection of efficient cellulolytic microorganisms and cost-effective operational techniques, the production of useful end products from the biodegradation of the low cost enormous stock of cellulose in nature can be very beneficial.

  6. Utilization of mixed cellulolytic microbes from termite extract, elephant faecal solution and buffalo ruminal fluid to increase in vitro digestibility of King Grass

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    Agung Prabowo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is a compound of plant cell walls which is difficult to be degraded because it composed of glucose monomers linked by β-(1.4-bound. It will be hydrolysed by cellulase enzyme secreted by cellulolytic microbes. The effective digestion of cellulose needs high activity of cellulase enzyme. This research aims to increase in vitro king grass digestibility utilizing mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid. Twelve syringes contained gas test media were randomly divided into four treatments based on sources of microbe (SM, namely: S (SM: cattle ruminal fluid [S], RGK (SM: mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid [RGK], with composition 1 : 1 : 1, S-RGK (SM: S + RGK, with composition 1:1, and TM (without given treatment microbe. Digestibility was measured using gas test method. Average of gas production treatment of S-RGK (70.2 + 0.6 ml was higher and significantly different (P<0.01 compared to treatment of S (60.3 + 0.8 ml, RGK (40.8 + 2.3 ml, and TM (13.3 + 2.0 ml. Utilization of mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid (RGK that combined with microbes of cattle ruminal fluid (S could increase in vitro digestibility of king grass.

  7. Production of cellulolytic enzymes by Pleurotus species on lignocellulosic wastes using novel pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M P; Pandey, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Srivastava, A K; Pandey, V K; Singh, V K

    2014-12-24

    In the present investigation three species of Pleurotus i.e. P. sajor—caju (P1), P. florida (P2) and P. flabellatus (P3) along with two lignocellulosic substrates namely paddy straw and wheat straw were selected for evaluation of production of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes. During the cultivation of three species of Pleurotus under in vivo condition, the two lignocellulosic substrates were treated with plants extracts (aqueous extracts of ashoka leaves (A) and neem oil (B)), hot water (H) and chemicals (C).Among all treatments, neem oil treated substrates supported better enzyme production followed by aqueous extract of ashoka leaves, hot water and chemical treatment. Between the two substrates paddy straw supported better enzyme production than wheat straw. P. flabellatus showed maximum activity of exoglucanase, endoglucanase and β—glucosidase followed by P. florida and P. sajor—caju.

  8. Genes regulated by AoXlnR, the xylanolytic and cellulolytic transcriptional regulator, in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Yuji; Sano, Motoaki; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Ko, Taro; Takeuchi, Michio; Kato, Masashi; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2009-11-01

    XlnR is a Zn(II)2Cys6 transcriptional activator of xylanolytic and cellulolytic genes in Aspergillus. Overexpression of the aoxlnR gene in Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae xlnR gene) resulted in elevated xylanolytic and cellulolytic activities in the culture supernatant, in which nearly 40 secreted proteins were detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis. DNA microarray analysis to identify the transcriptional targets of AoXlnR led to the identification of 75 genes that showed more than fivefold increase in their expression in the AoXlnR overproducer than in the disruptant. Of these, 32 genes were predicted to encode a glycoside hydrolase, highlighting the biotechnological importance of AoXlnR in biomass degradation. The 75 genes included the genes previously identified as AoXlnR targets (xynF1, xynF3, xynG2, xylA, celA, celB, celC, and celD). Thirty-six genes were predicted to be extracellular, which was consistent with the number of proteins secreted, and 61 genes possessed putative XlnR-binding sites (5'-GGCTAA-3', 5'-GGCTAG-3', and 5'-GGCTGA-3') in their promoter regions. Functional annotation of the genes revealed that AoXlnR regulated the expression of hydrolytic genes for degradation of beta-1,4-xylan, arabinoxylan, cellulose, and xyloglucan and of catabolic genes for the conversion of D-xylose to xylulose-5-phosphate. In addition, genes encoding glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase and L-arabinitol-4- dehydrogenase involved in D-glucose and L-arabinose catabolism also appeared to be targets of AoXlnR.

  9. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic potential of high β-glucosidase-producing Trichoderma from decaying biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Benedict C

    2014-10-01

    Availability, cost, and efficiency of microbial enzymes for lignocellulose bioconversion are central to sustainable biomass ethanol technology. Fungi enriched from decaying biomass and surface soil mixture displayed an array of strong cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Strains SG2 and SG4 produced a promising array of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes including β-glucosidase, usually low in cultures of Trichoderma species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rRNA gene revealed that strains SG2 and SG4 are closely related to Trichoderma inhamatum, Trichoderma piluliferum, and Trichoderma aureoviride. Trichoderma sp. SG2 crude culture supernatant correspondingly displayed as much as 9.84 ± 1.12, 48.02 ± 2.53, and 30.10 ± 1.11 units mL(-1) of cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase in 30 min assay. Ten times dilution of culture supernatant of strain SG2 revealed that total activities were about 5.34, 8.45, and 2.05 orders of magnitude higher than observed in crude culture filtrate for cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase, respectively, indicating that more enzymes are present to contact with substrates in biomass saccharification. In parallel experiments, Trichoderma species SG2 and SG4 produced more β-glucosidase than the industrial strain Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. Results indicate that strains SG2 and SG4 have potential for low cost in-house production of primary lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes for production of biomass saccharides and biofuel in the field.

  10. Structure/function relationships in cellulolytic enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc Claeyssens

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cellulose and hemicellulose (mostly xylan), together with lignin, are the major polymeric constituents of plant cell walls and from the largest reservoir of fixed carbon in nature. The enzymatic hydrolysis of polymeric substances by extracellular enzymes, such as cellulases, hemicellulases and laccases, is preferred to chemical depolymerisation to avoid the production of toxic by-products and waste that are expensive to treat. The monosaccharides released through enzymatic hydrolysis can subsequently be microbially converted to commercial commodities, such as bio-ethanol (fuel extender) or microbial protein as feed supplements. The individual depolymerisering enzymes used, such as cellulases,xylanases and laccases, also have industrial application in (i) biobleaching in the paper and pulp industry, (ii) improvement of animal feed (poultry and ruminants) digestibility in feed industries, and (iii) dough rheology and bread volume in the baking process, and beer viscosity and filtration velocity during brewing. The cloning of the genes, coding for several xylan degrading enzymes, and their expression in Baker' s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and filamentous fungi (Aspergillus species)opened the possibility to study the pure enzymes, without contaminating activity.Trichoderma reesei produces several of these enzymes and detailed information on their specificity,synergies and structure/activity relationships is known. An overview will be presented.

  11. Cellulosomes - promising supramolecular machines of anaerobic cellulolytic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodovnik, Maša; Marinšek-Logar, Romana

    2010-12-01

    Cellulose is the main structural component of plant cell wall and thus the most abundant carbohydrate in nature. However, extracting the energy from this abundant source is limited by its recalcitrant nature. The hydrolysis of plant cell wall requires synergystic action of different enzymes, including multiple cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, etc. Meanwhile aerobic cellulolytic microorganisms release large quantities of synergistically acting free enzymes in their environment, most anaerobic microorganisms evolved more efficient strategies to optimize the process of plant cell wall degradation, for example production of extracellular multi-enzyme complexes (cellulosomes). Cellulosomes consist of at least one core structural protein, named scaffoldin, which firmly binds numerous enzymatic subunits, and usually also plays a major role in substrate binding. Although the general structure of cellulosomes seems universal, differences in number and identity of complex components do exist among microorganisms. The article surveys the current knowledge about cellulosomes, focusing on three best investigated cellulolytic clostridia, one representative of ruminal bacteria and novel findings concerning anaerobic fungi. Efforts in construction of artificially engineered cellulosomal systems (designer cellulosomes) as well as their biotechnological potential are also discussed.

  12. The significance of cellulolytic enzymes produced by Trichoderma in opportunistic lifestyle of this fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowska, Judyta; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Chełkowski, Jerzy

    2014-07-01

    The degradation of native cellulose to glucose monomers is a complex process, which requires the synergistic action of the extracellular enzymes produced by cellulolytic microorganisms. Among fungi, the enzymatic systems that can degrade native cellulose have been extensively studied for species belonging to the genera of Trichoderma. The majority of the cellulolytic enzymes described so far have been examples of Trichoderma reesei, extremely specialized in the efficient degradation of plant cell wall cellulose. Other Trichoderma species, such as T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. longibrachiatum, and T. viride, known for their capacity to produce cellulolytic enzymes, have been isolated from various ecological niches, where they have proved successful in various heterotrophic interactions. As saprotrophs, these species are considered to make a contribution to the degradation of lignocellulosic plant material. Their cellulolytic potential is also used in interactions with plants, especially in plant root colonization. However, the role of cellulolytic enzymes in species forming endophytic associations with plants or in those existing in the substratum for mushroom cultivation remains unknown. The present review discusses the current state of knowledge about cellulolytic enzymes production by Trichoderma species and the encoding genes, as well as the involvement of these proteins in the lifestyle of Trichoderma.

  13. FERROFLUIDS INFLUENCE ON DEHYDROGENASES ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS CHAETOMIUM GLOBOSUM

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    Alexandru Manoliu

    2003-08-01

    Different results were noticed for different ferrofluids concentrations: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μl/L. Inhibitory or stimulatory ferrofluids effect was obtained depending on the nature of the investigated enzyme.

  14. Characterization of cellulolytic enzymes and bioH2 production from anaerobic thermophilic Clostridium sp. TCW1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Huang, Chi-Yu; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Lin, Chiu-Yue; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    A thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Clostridium sp. TCW1 was isolated from dairy cow dung and was used to produce hydrogen from cellulosic feedstock. Extracellular cellulolytic enzymes produced from TCW1 strain were identified as endoglucanases (45, 53 and 70 kDa), exoglucanase (70 kDa), xylanases (53 and 60 kDa), and β-glucosidase (45 kDa). The endoglucanase and xylanase were more abundant. The optimal conditions for H2 production and enzyme production of the TCW1 strain were the same (60 °C, initial pH 7, agitation rate of 200 rpm). Ten cellulosic feedstock, including pure or natural cellulosic materials, were used as feedstock for hydrogen production by Clostridium strain TCW1 under optimal culture conditions. Using filter paper at 5.0 g/L resulted in the most effective hydrogen production performance, achieving a H2 production rate and yield of 57.7 ml/h/L and 2.03 mol H2/mol hexose, respectively. Production of cellulolytic enzyme activities was positively correlated with the efficiency of dark-H2 fermentation.

  15. Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials at high temperature using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus displaying cellulolytic enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanase, Shuhei; Yamada, Ryosuke; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Organization of Advanced Science and Technology

    2010-09-15

    To exploit cellulosic materials for fuel ethanol production, a microorganism capable of high temperature and simultaneous saccharification-fermentation has been required. However, a major drawback is the optimum temperature for the saccharification and fermentation. Most ethanol-fermenting microbes have an optimum temperature for ethanol fermentation ranging between 28 C and 37 C, while the activity of cellulolytic enzymes is highest at around 50 C and significantly decreases with a decrease in temperature. Therefore, in the present study, a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus, which has high growth and fermentation at elevated temperatures, was used as a producer of ethanol from cellulose. The strain was genetically engineered to display Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase and Aspergillus aculeatus {beta}-glucosidase on the cell surface, which successfully converts a cellulosic {beta}-glucan to ethanol directly at 48 C with a yield of 4.24 g/l from 10 g/l within 12 h. The yield (in grams of ethanol produced per gram of {beta}-glucan consumed) was 0.47 g/g, which corresponds to 92.2% of the theoretical yield. This indicates that high-temperature cellulose fermentation to ethanol can be efficiently accomplished using a recombinant K. marxianus strain displaying thermostable cellulolytic enzymes on the cell surface. (orig.)

  16. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Guilherme L.; Correa, Raquel F.; Cunha, Raquel S.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Chaia, Catia; Clementino, Maysa M.; Garcia, Eloi S.; de Souza, Wanderley; Frasés, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic aerobic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (MUG), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside (MUC), and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (MUX). Our results indicate that the snail A. fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes. PMID:26347735

  17. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme L. Pinheiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, p-nitrophenyl-b-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG, p-nitrophenyl-b-D-cellobioside (pNPC, 4-methylumbelliferyl-b-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, 4-methylumbelliferyl-b-D-cellobioside (MUC and 4-methylumbelliferyl-b-D-xylopyranoside (MUX. Our results indicate that the snail Achatina fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes.

  18. Comparative genotyping of Clostridium thermocellum strains isolated from biogas plants: genetic markers and characterization of cellulolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, Daniela E; Zverlov, Vladimir V; Liebl, Wolfgang; Schwarz, Wolfgang H

    2014-07-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is among the most prevalent of known anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria. In this study, genetic and phenotypic variations among C. thermocellum strains isolated from different biogas plants were determined and different genotyping methods were evaluated on these isolates. At least two C. thermocellum strains were isolated independently from each of nine different biogas plants via enrichment on cellulose. Various DNA-based genotyping methods such as ribotyping, RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) were applied to these isolates. One novel approach - the amplification of unknown target sequences between copies of a previously discovered Random Inserted Mobile Element (RIME) - was also tested. The genotyping method with the highest discriminatory power was found to be the amplification of the sequences between the insertion elements, where isolates from each biogas plant yielded a different band pattern. Cellulolytic potentials, optimal growth conditions and substrate spectra of all isolates were characterized to help identify phenotypic variations. Irrespective of the genotyping method used, the isolates from each individual biogas plant always exhibited identical patterns. This is suggestive of a single C. thermocellum strain exhibiting dominance in each biogas plant. The genotypic groups reflect the results of the physiological characterization of the isolates like substrate diversity and cellulase activity. Conversely, strains isolated across a range of biogas plants differed in their genotyping results and physiological properties. Both strains isolated from one biogas plant had the best specific cellulose-degrading properties and might therefore achieve superior substrate utilization yields in biogas fermenters.

  19. Cellulolytic Bacteria Associated with the Gut of Dendroctonus armandi Larvae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae

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    Xia Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to investigate the cellulolytic bacterial community in the intestine of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi larvae. A total of 91 cellulolytic bacteria were isolated and assigned to 11 genotypes using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. Partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and morphological tests were used to assign the 11 representative isolates. The results showed that the isolates belonged to α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Members of γ-Proteobacteria were the most frequently represented species and accounted for 73.6% of all the cellulolytic bacteria. The majority of cellulolytic bacteria in D. armandi larva gut were identified as Serratia and accounted for 49.5%, followed by Pseudomonas, which accounted for 22%. In addition, members of Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Paenibacillus, Pseudoxanthomonas, Methylobacterium and Sphingomonas were found in the D. armandi larva gut. Brevundimonas kwangchunensis, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Methylobacterium populi and Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana were reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Information generated from the present study might contribute towards understanding the relationship between bark beetle and its gut flora.

  20. The genome sequences of Cellulomonas fimi and "Cellvibrio gilvus" reveal the cellulolytic strategies of two facultative anaerobes, transfer of "Cellvibrio gilvus" to the genus Cellulomonas, and proposal of Cellulomonas gilvus sp. nov.

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    Melissa R Christopherson

    Full Text Available Actinobacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are the only known and reported cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. To better understand the cellulolytic strategy employed by these bacteria, we sequenced the genome of the Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484(T. For comparative purposes, we also sequenced the genome of the aerobic cellulolytic "Cellvibrio gilvus" ATCC 13127(T. An initial analysis of these genomes using phylogenetic and whole-genome comparison revealed that "Cellvibrio gilvus" belongs to the genus Cellulomonas. We thus propose to assign "Cellvibrio gilvus" to the genus Cellulomonas. A comparative genomics analysis between these two Cellulomonas genome sequences and the recently completed genome for Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482(T showed that these cellulomonads do not encode cellulosomes but appear to degrade cellulose by secreting multi-domain glycoside hydrolases. Despite the minimal number of carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these genomes, as compared to other known cellulolytic organisms, these bacteria were found to be proficient at degrading and utilizing a diverse set of carbohydrates, including crystalline cellulose. Moreover, they also encode for proteins required for the fermentation of hexose and xylose sugars into products such as ethanol. Finally, we found relatively few significant differences between the predicted carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these Cellulomonas genomes, in contrast to previous studies reporting differences in physiological approaches for carbohydrate degradation. Our sequencing and analysis of these genomes sheds light onto the mechanism through which these facultative anaerobes degrade cellulose, suggesting that the sequenced cellulomonads use secreted, multidomain enzymes to degrade cellulose in a way that is distinct from known anaerobic cellulolytic strategies.

  1. [Construction of Producers of Cellulolytic and Pectinolytic Enzymes Based on the Fungus Penicillium verruculosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushina, E V; Rubtsova, E A; Rozhkova, A M; Sinitsyna, O A; Koshelev, A V; Matys, V Yu; Nemashkalov, V A; Sinitsyn, A P

    2015-01-01

    Based on the fungus Penicillium verruculosum, we created strains with a complex of extracellular enzymes that contains both cellulolytic enzymes of the fungus and heterologous pectin lyase A from P. canescens and endo- 1,4-α-polygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger. The endopolygalacturonase and pectin lyase activities of enzyme preparations obtained from culture media of the producer strains reached 46-53 U/mg of protein and 1.3-2.3 U/mg of protein, respectively. The optimal temperature and pH values for recombinant pectin lyase and endopolygalacturonase corresponded to those described in the literature for these enzymes. The content of heterologous endopolygalacturonase and pectin lyase in the studied enzyme preparations was 4-5% and 23% of the total protein content, respectively. The yield of reducing sugars upon the hydrolysis of sugar beet and apple processing wastes with the most efficient preparation was 41 and 71 g/L, respectively, which corresponded to a polysaccharide conversion of 49% and 65%. Glucose was the main product of the hydrolysis of sugar beet and apple processing wastes.

  2. Three multidomain esterases from the cellulolytic rumen anaerobe Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 that carry divergent dockerin sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurilia, V; Martin, J C; McCrae, S I; Scott, K P; Rincon, M T; Flint, H J

    2000-06-01

    Three enzymes carrying esterase domains have been identified in the rumen cellulolytic anaerobe Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17. The newly characterized CesA gene product (768 amino acids) includes an N-terminal acetylesterase domain and an unidentified C-terminal domain, while the previously characterized XynB enzyme (781 amino acids) includes an internal acetylesterase domain in addition to its N-terminal xylanase catalytic domain. A third gene, xynE, is predicted to encode a multidomain enzyme of 792 amino acids including a family 11 xylanase domain and a C-terminal esterase domain. The esterase domains from CesA and XynB share significant sequence identity (44%) and belong to carbohydrate esterase family 3; both domains are shown here to be capable of deacetylating acetylated xylans, but no evidence was found for ferulic acid esterase activity. The esterase domain of XynE, however, shares 42% amino acid identity with a family 1 phenolic acid esterase domain identified from Clostridum thermocellum XynZ. XynB, XynE and CesA all contain dockerin-like regions in addition to their catalytic domains, suggesting that these enzymes form part of a cellulosome-like multienzyme complex. The dockerin sequences of CesA and XynE differ significantly from those previously described in R. flavefaciens polysaccharidases, including XynB, suggesting that they might represent distinct dockerin specificities.

  3. Paenibacillus pinihumi sp. nov., a cellulolytic bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Chun; Lee, Kang Hyun; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Eun-Mi; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Kwon, O-Yu; Shin, Kee-Sun

    2009-10-01

    A novel cellulolytic bacterium, strain S23(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere of the pine trees in Daejeon, Republic of Korea. This isolate was Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, catalase-negative, oxidase-positive, motile by means of peritrichous flagella, and tested positive for alkaline phosphatase, esterase lipase, leucine arylamidase, alpha-galactosidase, and beta-galactosidase activities. The DNA G+C content was 49.5 mol%. The main cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) (51.9%), iso-C(16:0) (14.7%), and iso-C(15:0) (13.2%). The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). Diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall pepti-doglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that this strain clustered with Paenibacillus species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between S23(T) and other Paenibacillus species were between 89.9% and 95.9%, and S23(T) was most closely related to Paenibacillus tarimensis SA-7-6(T). On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic properties of strain S23(T), the isolate is considered as a novel species belonging to the genus Paenibacillus. Therefore, the name, Paenibacillus pinihumi sp. nov., is proposed for the rhizosphere isolate; the type strain is S23(T) (=KCTC 13695(T) =KACC 14199(T) =JCM 16419(T)).

  4. PGASO: A synthetic biology tool for engineering a cellulolytic yeast

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    Chang Jui-Jen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To achieve an economical cellulosic ethanol production, a host that can do both cellulosic saccharification and ethanol fermentation is desirable. However, to engineer a non-cellulolytic yeast to be such a host requires synthetic biology techniques to transform multiple enzyme genes into its genome. Results A technique, named Promoter-based Gene Assembly and Simultaneous Overexpression (PGASO, that employs overlapping oligonucleotides for recombinatorial assembly of gene cassettes with individual promoters, was developed. PGASO was applied to engineer Kluyveromycesmarxianus KY3, which is a thermo- and toxin-tolerant yeast. We obtained a recombinant strain, called KR5, that is capable of simultaneously expressing exoglucanase and endoglucanase (both of Trichodermareesei, a beta-glucosidase (from a cow rumen fungus, a neomycin phosphotransferase, and a green fluorescent protein. High transformation efficiency and accuracy were achieved as ~63% of the transformants was confirmed to be correct. KR5 can utilize beta-glycan, cellobiose or CMC as the sole carbon source for growth and can directly convert cellobiose and beta-glycan to ethanol. Conclusions This study provides the first example of multi-gene assembly in a single step in a yeast species other than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We successfully engineered a yeast host with a five-gene cassette assembly and the new host is capable of co-expressing three types of cellulase genes. Our study shows that PGASO is an efficient tool for simultaneous expression of multiple enzymes in the kefir yeast KY3 and that KY3 can serve as a host for developing synthetic biology tools.

  5. Sample handling factors affecting the enumeration of lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to compare media types and evaluate the effects of fecal storage time and temperature on the enumeration of cellulolytic bacteria and lactobacilli from horses. Fecal samples were collected from horses (n = 3) and transported to the lab (CO2, 37 ºC, 0.5 h). The samples were assign...

  6. The complete genome sequence of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 reveals a cellulolytic and metabolic specialist.

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    Garret Suen

    Full Text Available Fibrobacter succinogenes is an important member of the rumen microbial community that converts plant biomass into nutrients usable by its host. This bacterium, which is also one of only two cultivated species in its phylum, is an efficient and prolific degrader of cellulose. Specifically, it has a particularly high activity against crystalline cellulose that requires close physical contact with this substrate. However, unlike other known cellulolytic microbes, it does not degrade cellulose using a cellulosome or by producing high extracellular titers of cellulase enzymes. To better understand the biology of F. succinogenes, we sequenced the genome of the type strain S85 to completion. A total of 3,085 open reading frames were predicted from its 3.84 Mbp genome. Analysis of sequences predicted to encode for carbohydrate-degrading enzymes revealed an unusually high number of genes that were classified into 49 different families of glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs, carbohydrate esterases, and polysaccharide lyases. Of the 31 identified cellulases, none contain CBMs in families 1, 2, and 3, typically associated with crystalline cellulose degradation. Polysaccharide hydrolysis and utilization assays showed that F. succinogenes was able to hydrolyze a number of polysaccharides, but could only utilize the hydrolytic products of cellulose. This suggests that F. succinogenes uses its array of hemicellulose-degrading enzymes to remove hemicelluloses to gain access to cellulose. This is reflected in its genome, as F. succinogenes lacks many of the genes necessary to transport and metabolize the hydrolytic products of non-cellulose polysaccharides. The F. succinogenes genome reveals a bacterium that specializes in cellulose as its sole energy source, and provides insight into a novel strategy for cellulose degradation.

  7. Influence of an aerobic fungus grown on solid culture on ruminal degradability and on a mixture culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, R; Pimentel-González, D J; Figueira, A C; Viniegra-González, G; Campos-Montiel, R G

    2010-06-01

    In this work, the effect of a solid fungal culture of Aspergillus niger (An) grown on coffee pulp on the in situ ruminal degradability (RD) of corn stover was evaluated. In addition, the effect of its extracts on the in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and on a mixed culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria (MCACB) was also investigated. The solid ferment was a crude culture of An, grown on coffee pulp. Regarding in situ RD, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between treatment with 200 g/day of the solid culture and control (no solid culture added) on dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre on RD. All the water extracts (pH 4, 7 and 10) enhanced IVDMD and stimulated the cellulolytic activity on a MCACB. Ultrafiltration results showed that active compounds with a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa were responsible for the effect on MCACB. Such results suggest that the effects of the solid An culture in RD are related to the presence of water soluble compounds having a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa.

  8. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOLYTIC ENZYMES BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND RHIZOPUS SP . BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF PRICKLY PEAR

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    TAMIRES CARVALHO DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prickly palm cactus husk was used as a solid - state fermentation support substrate for the production of cellulolytic enzymes using Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus sp. A Box - Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of water activity, fermentation time and temperature on endoglucanase and total cellulase production. Response Surface Methodology showed that optimum conditions for endoglucanase production were achieved at after 70.35 h of fermentation at 29.56°C and a water activity of 0.875 for Aspergillus niger and after 68.12 h at 30.41°C for Rhizopus sp. Optimum conditions for total cellulase production were achieved after 74.27 h of fermentation at 31.22°C for Aspergillus niger and after 72.48 h and 27.86°C for Rhizopus sp . Water activity had a significant effect on Aspergillus niger endoglucanase production only. In industrial applications, enzymatic characterization is important for optimizing variables such as temperature and pH. In this study we showed that endoglucanase and total cellulase had a high level of thermostability and pH stability in all the enzymatic extracts. Enzymatic deactivation kinetic experiments indicated that the enzymes remained active after the freezing of the crude extract. Based on the results, bioconversion of cactus is an excellent alternative for the production of thermostable enzymes.

  9. Hydrophobic nature and effects of culture conditions on biofilm formation by the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca

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    Almaris N. Alonso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermobifida fusca produces a firmly attached biofilm on nutritive and non-nutritive surfaces, such as cellulose, glass, plastic, metal and Teflon®. The ability to bind to surfaces has been suggested as a competitive advantage for microbes in soil environments. Results of previous investigations indicated that a Gram-positive cellulolytic soil bacteria, Cellulomonas uda, a facultative aerobe, specifically adhered to nutritive surfaces forming biofilms, but cells did not colonize non-nutritive surfaces. Cell surface hydrophobicity has been implicated in the interactions between bacteria and the adhesion to surfaces. It was recently described that the cellulolytic actinomycete T. fusca cells hydrophobicity was measured and compared to the cellulolytic soil bacteria C. uda. Also, T. fusca biofilm formation on non-nutritive surface, such as polyvinyl chloride, was examined by testing various culture ingredients to determine a possible trigger mechanism for biofilm formation. Experimental results showed that partitioning of bacterial cells to various hydrocarbons was higher in T. fusca cells than in C. uda. The results of this study suggest that the attachment to multiple surfaces by T. fusca could depend on nutrient availability, pH, salt concentrations, and the higher hydrophobic nature of bacterial cells. Possibly, these characteristics may confer T. fusca a selective advantage to compete and survive among the many environments it thrives.

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Cellulolytic Bacillus licheniformis Strains Isolated from Imperial Geyser, Amphitheater Springs, and Whiterock Springs inside Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Hair, Joshua A.; Li, Hui; Thapa, Santosh; Scholz, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Novel cellulolytic microorganisms are becoming more important for rapidly growing biofuel industries. This paper reports the draft genome sequences of Bacillus licheniformis strains YNP2-TSU, YNP3-TSU, and YNP5-TSU. These cellulolytic isolates were collected from several hydrothermal features inside Yellowstone National Park. PMID:28360181

  11. Isolation of Cellulolytic Bacteria and Characterization of the Enzyme

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    Nisa Rachmania

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Four of cellulolitic bacteria isolates had beencharacterized. The determination of cellulase activity was conducted at the highest production time, using crudeenzymes with the modification of Miller methods (1959 on pure cellulose substrates such as CMC (Carboxymethylcellulose, Avicel and Filter paper Whatman No. 1 as well as agriculture waste such as rice straw, corn cob and bananapeel. Cellulase from C4-4, C5-1, C5-3 and C11-1 showed optimum activity at pH 5, 70°C, pH 3.5, 90°C, pH 5, 80°Cand pH 8, 70°C, respectively. Avicel is a appropriate substrate for C4-4 cellulase whereas CMC for the other three.C11-1 cellulase has the highest cellulase enzyme activity on rice straw substrate whereas C4-4 cellulase on banana peelsubstrates. C5-1 and C5-3 cellulase have relatively low cellulase activities in degrading substrates of agriculture waste.However, isolates of C5-1 and C5-3 have high cellulase activities on banana peel substrates.

  12. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta...

  13. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta...

  14. A potential source for cellulolytic enzyme discovery and environmental aspects revealed through metagenomics of Brazilian mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; Beys-da-Silva, Walter Orlando; Santi, Lucélia; Berger, Markus; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Guima Rães, Jorge Almeida; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    The mangroves are among the most productive and biologically important environments. The possible presence of cellulolytic enzymes and microorganisms useful for biomass degradation as well as taxonomic and functional aspects of two Brazilian mangroves were evaluated using cultivation and metagenomic approaches. From a total of 296 microorganisms with visual differences in colony morphology and growth (including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungus), 179 (60.5%) and 117 (39.5%) were isolated from the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Bahia (BA) samples, respectively. RJ metagenome showed the higher number of microbial isolates, which is consistent with its most conserved state and higher diversity. The metagenomic sequencing data showed similar predominant bacterial phyla in the BA and RJ mangroves with an abundance of Proteobacteria (57.8% and 44.6%), Firmicutes (11% and 12.3%) and Actinobacteria (8.4% and 7.5%). A higher number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds were found in the BA mangrove. Specific sequences involved in the cellulolytic degradation, belonging to cellulases, hemicellulases, carbohydrate binding domains, dockerins and cohesins were identified, and it was possible to isolate cultivable fungi and bacteria related to biomass decomposition and with potential applications for the production of biofuels. These results showed that the mangroves possess all fundamental molecular tools required for building the cellulosome, which is required for the efficient degradation of cellulose material and sugar release.

  15. Diarrhea-associated pathogens, lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces: responses to antibiotic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Brittany E; Lawrence, Laurie M; Flythe, Michael D

    2013-09-27

    Antibiotics are important to equine medicine, but antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) can lead to poor performance and even mortality. AAD is attributed to disruption of the hindgut microbiota, which permits proliferation of pathogenic microbes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of common antibiotics on cellulolytic bacteria, lactobacilli, and AAD-associated pathogens in the feces of healthy horses. Fifteen horses were assigned to three treatment groups (blocked by age and sex): control (no antibiotics), trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (PO), or ceftiofur (IM). Fecal samples (n=8 per horse) were taken during dietary adaptation (3 weeks), antibiotic challenge (1 week), and withdrawal (1 week). Bacteria were enumerated by serial dilution and viable count. Cellulolytic bacteria decreased by >99% during administration of either antibiotic (Pantibiotic challenge period (PAntibiotic challenged horses also shed more salmonella than control horses (PAntibiotics had no effect on the number of Clostridium perfringens isolates. There was no detectable Clostridium difficile during adaptation or in any control horse. C. difficile increased (Pantibiotics, and were still detectable 1 week after withdrawal. These results indicate that antibiotics can disrupt the normal gastrointestinal microbiota and allow proliferation of Salmonella spp. and C. difficile.

  16. Effects of Neutral Detergent Soluble Fiber and Sucrose Supplementation on Ruminal Fermentation, Microbial Synthesis, and Populations of Ruminal Cellulolytic Bacteria Using the Rumen Simulation Technique (RUSITEC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiang-hui; LIU Chan-juan; LI Chao-yun; YAO Jun-hu

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of neutral detergent soluble fiber (NDSF) and sucrose supplementation on ruminal fermentation, microbial synthesis, and populations of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). The experiment had a 2×2 factorial design with two dosages of sucrose, low (ca. 0.26 g d-1, low-sucrose) and high (ca. 1.01 g d-1, high-sucrose), and two dosages of supplied NDSF, low (1.95 g d-1, low-NDSF) and high (2.70 g d-1, high-NDSF). Interactions between NDSF and sucrose were detected for xylanase activity from solid fraction and apparent disappearance of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and hemicellulose, with the lowest values observed for high-NDSF and high-sucrose treatment. Supplemental NDSF appeared to increase the molar proportion of acetate and reduce that of butyrate;however, the effects of supplemental sucrose on VFA profiles depended upon NDSF amount. There was a NDSF×sucrose interaction for the production of methane. High-NDSF fermenters had lower ammonia-N production, greater daily N flow of solid-associated microbial pellets and total microorganisms, and greater microbial synthesis efficiency compared with low-NDSF fermenters. Supplementation with NDSF resulted in an increase in 16S rDNA copies of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and a reduction in copies of Ruminococcus albus. Supplementation with sucrose tended to increase the 16S rDNA copies of R. albus from liquid fraction, but did not affect daily total microbial N flow and cellulolytic bacterium populations from solid fraction. These data indicate that the effects of the interaction between NDSF and sugars on ruminal fermentation and fiber digestion should be taken into account in diet formulation. Ruminal fermentation and metabolism of sugars warrant further investigation.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Desulfurococcus fermentans, a hyperthermophilic cellulolytic crenarchaeon isolated from a freshwater hot spring in Kamchatka, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, Dwi; Johnson, Eric F; Rodriguez, Jason R; Anderson, Iain; Perevalova, Anna A; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Peters, Lin; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren; Gopalan, Venkat; Chan, Patricia P; Lowe, Todd M; Atomi, Haruyuki; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Woyke, Tanja; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2012-10-01

    Desulfurococcus fermentans is the first known cellulolytic archaeon. This hyperthermophilic and strictly anaerobic crenarchaeon produces hydrogen from fermentation of various carbohydrates and peptides without inhibition by accumulating hydrogen. The complete genome sequence reported here suggested that D. fermentans employs membrane-bound hydrogenases and novel glycohydrolases for hydrogen production from cellulose.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Desulfurococcus fermentans, a Hyperthermophilic Cellulolytic Crenarchaeon Isolated from a Freshwater Hot Spring in Kamchatka, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susanti, Dwi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Johnson, Eric F [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Rodriquez, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Anderson, Iain [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Perevalova, Anna [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Gopapan, Venkay [Ohio State University; Chan, Patricia [University of California, Santa Cruz; Atomi, Haruyuki [Kyoto University, Japan; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

    2012-01-01

    Desulfurococcus fermentans is the first known cellulolytic archaeon. This hyperthermophilic and strictly anaerobic crenarchaeon produces hydrogen from fermentation of various carbohydrates and peptides without inhibition by accumulating hydrogen. The complete genome sequence reported here suggested that D. fermentans employs membrane-bound hydrogenases and novel glycohydrolases for hydrogen production from cellulose.

  19. Study of cellulolytic soil fungi and two nova species and new medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHALID Mahmood; YANG Wei-jun; KISHWAR Nazir; RAJPUT Zahid Iqbal; ARIJO Abdullah G.

    2006-01-01

    This study is aimed at identifying and determining the percentage of occurrence frequency of cellulose decomposing soil fungi. The soil samples were inoculated into culture plates prepared in Sabouraud medium under sterilized conditions and incubated at 30 ℃ for 4 to 7 d. The identified fungal species were incubated in self-designed cellulose medium for testing their cellulolytic ability. Forty-two species, including 2 nova species, representing sixteen genera showed growth and sporulation in the cellulose medium. Most of the isolated species were from genus Aspergillus and Penicillium. Aspergillus niger and Mucor hiemalis showed highest occurrence frequency (45% and 36% respectively), as these species were collected from about 80% of soil samples. Being agar free and cheaper, the new fungal medium designed showed results equivalent to Sabouraud medium.

  20. Identification and characterization of an anaerobic ethanol-producing cellulolytic bacterial consortium from Great Basin hot springs with agricultural residues and energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Deng, Yunjin; Wang, Xingna; Li, Qiuzhe; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In order to obtain the cellulolytic bacterial consortia, sediments from Great Basin hot springs (Nevada, USA) were sampled and enriched with cellulosic biomass as the sole carbon source. The bacterial composition of the resulting anaerobic ethanol-producing celluloytic bacterial consortium, named SV79, was analyzed. With methods of the full-length 16S rRNA librarybased analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 21 bacteria belonging to eight genera were detected from this consortium. Clones with closest relation to the genera Acetivibrio, Clostridium, Cellulosilyticum, Ruminococcus, and Sporomusa were predominant. The cellulase activities and ethanol productions of consortium SV79 using different agricultural residues (sugarcane bagasse and spent mushroom substrate) and energy crops (Spartina anglica, Miscanthus floridulus, and Pennisetum sinese Roxb) were studied. During cultivation, consortium SV79 produced the maximum filter paper activity (FPase, 9.41 U/ml), carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 6.35 U/ml), and xylanase activity (4.28 U/ml) with sugarcane bagasse, spent mushroom substrate, and S. anglica, respectively. The ethanol production using M. floridulus as substrate was up to 2.63 mM ethanol/g using gas chromatography analysis. It has high potential to be a new candidate for producing ethanol with cellulosic biomass under anoxic conditions in natural environments.

  1. Pyrosequencing reveals high-temperature cellulolytic microbial consortia in Great Boiling Spring after in situ lignocellulose enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Peacock

    Full Text Available To characterize high-temperature cellulolytic microbial communities, two lignocellulosic substrates, ammonia fiber-explosion-treated corn stover and aspen shavings, were incubated at average temperatures of 77 and 85°C in the sediment and water column of Great Boiling Spring, Nevada. Comparison of 109,941 quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences (pyrotags from eight enrichments to 37,057 quality-filtered pyrotags from corresponding natural samples revealed distinct enriched communities dominated by phylotypes related to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic Thermotoga and Dictyoglomus, cellulolytic and sugar-fermenting Desulfurococcales, and sugar-fermenting and hydrogenotrophic Archaeoglobales. Minor enriched populations included close relatives of hydrogenotrophic Thermodesulfobacteria, the candidate bacterial phylum OP9, and candidate archaeal groups C2 and DHVE3. Enrichment temperature was the major factor influencing community composition, with a negative correlation between temperature and richness, followed by lignocellulosic substrate composition. This study establishes the importance of these groups in the natural degradation of lignocellulose at high temperatures and suggests that a substantial portion of the diversity of thermophiles contributing to consortial cellulolysis may be contained within lineages that have representatives in pure culture.

  2. Cellulosic Ethanol Production by Recombinant Cellulolytic Bacteria Harbouring pdc and adh II Genes of Zymomonas mobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriya, P Sobana; Vasan, P Thirumalai; Padma, V S; Vidhyadevi, U; Archana, K; Vennison, S John

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol fermenting genes such as pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adh II) were cloned from Zymomonas mobilis and transformed into three different cellulolytic bacteria, namely Enterobacter cloacae JV, Proteus mirabilis JV and Erwinia chrysanthemi and their cellulosic ethanol production capability was studied. Recombinant E. cloacae JV was found to produce 4.5% and 3.5% (v/v) ethanol, respectively, when CMC and 4% NaOH pretreated bagasse were used as substrates, whereas recombinant P. mirabilis and E. chrysanthemi with the same substrates could only produce 4%, 3.5%, 1%, and 1.5 % of ethanol, respectively. The recombinant E. cloacae strain produced twofold higher percentage of ethanol than the wild type. The recombinant E. cloacae strain could be improved further by increasing its ethanol tolerance capability through media optimization and also by combining multigene cellulase expression for enhancing ethanol production from various types of lignocellulosic biomass so that it can be used for industrial level ethanol production.

  3. Multifunctional Cellulolytic Enzymes Outperform Processive Fungal Cellulases for Coproduction of Nanocellulose and Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, John M.; Zhang, Ruoran; Mittal, Ashutosh; Vander Wall, Todd; Bomble, Yannick J.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Ciesielski, Peter N.

    2017-03-07

    Producing fuels, chemicals, and materials from renewable resources to meet societal demands remains an important step in the transition to a sustainable, clean energy economy. The use of cellulolytic enzymes for the production of nanocellulose enables the coproduction of sugars for biofuels production in a format that is largely compatible with the process design employed by modern lignocellulosic (second generation) biorefineries. However, yields of enzymatically produced nanocellulose are typically much lower than those achieved by mineral acid production methods. In this study, we compare the capacity for coproduction of nanocellulose and fermentable sugars using two vastly different cellulase systems: the classical 'free enzyme' system of the saprophytic fungus, Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei) and the complexed, multifunctional enzymes produced by the hot springs resident, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii (C. bescii). We demonstrate by comparative digestions that the C. bescii system outperforms the fungal enzyme system in terms of total cellulose conversion, sugar production, and nanocellulose production. In addition, we show by multimodal imaging and dynamic light scattering that the nanocellulose produced by the C. bescii cellulase system is substantially more uniform than that produced by the T. reesei system. These disparities in the yields and characteristics of the nanocellulose produced by these disparate systems can be attributed to the dramatic differences in the mechanisms of action of the dominant enzymes in each system.

  4. Cellulosic Ethanol Production by Recombinant Cellulolytic Bacteria Harbouring pdc and adh II Genes of Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sobana Piriya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol fermenting genes such as pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adh II were cloned from Zymomonas mobilis and transformed into three different cellulolytic bacteria, namely Enterobacter cloacae JV, Proteus mirabilis JV and Erwinia chrysanthemi and their cellulosic ethanol production capability was studied. Recombinant E. cloacae JV was found to produce 4.5% and 3.5% (v/v ethanol, respectively, when CMC and 4% NaOH pretreated bagasse were used as substrates, whereas recombinant P. mirabilis and E. chrysanthemi with the same substrates could only produce 4%, 3.5%, 1%, and 1.5 % of ethanol, respectively. The recombinant E. cloacae strain produced twofold higher percentage of ethanol than the wild type. The recombinant E. cloacae strain could be improved further by increasing its ethanol tolerance capability through media optimization and also by combining multigene cellulase expression for enhancing ethanol production from various types of lignocellulosic biomass so that it can be used for industrial level ethanol production.

  5. Cloning of novel cellulases from cellulolytic fungi: heterologous expression of a family 5 glycoside hydrolase from Trametes versicolor in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Alejandro; Vega, Marcela; Lienqueo, María Elena; Garcia, Alejandro; Carmona, Rene; Salazar, Oriana

    2011-12-10

    Total cDNA isolated from cellulolytic fungi cultured in cellulose was examined for the presence of sequences encoding for endoglucanases. Novel sequences encoding for glycoside hydrolases (GHs) were identified in Fusarium oxysporum, Ganoderma applanatum and Trametes versicolor. The cDNA encoding for partial sequences of GH family 61 cellulases from F. oxysporum and G. applanatum shares 58 and 68% identity with endoglucanases from Glomerella graminicola and Laccaria bicolor, respectively. A new GH family 5 endoglucanase from T. versicolor was also identified. The cDNA encoding for the mature protein was completely sequenced. This enzyme shares 96% identity with Trametes hirsuta endoglucanase and 22% with Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II (EGII). The enzyme, named TvEG, has N-terminal family 1 carbohydrate binding module (CBM1). The full length cDNA was cloned into the pPICZαB vector and expressed as an active, extracellular enzyme in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Preliminary studies suggest that T. versicolor could be useful for lignocellulose degradation.

  6. Identification and molecular modeling of a family 5 endocellulase from Thermus caldophilus GK24, a cellulolytic strain of Thermus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Sil Lee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The genome of T. caldophilus GK24 was recently sequenced and annotated as 14contigs, equivalent to 2.3 mega basepairs (Mbp of DNA. In the current study, we identifieda unique 13.7 kbp DNA sequence, which included the endocellulase gene of T. caldophilusGK24, which did not appear to be present in the complete genomic sequence of the closelyrelated species T. thermophilus HB27 and HB8. Congo-red staining revealed a uniquephenotype of cellulose degradation by strain GK24 that was distinct from other closelyrelated Thermus strains. The results showed that strain GK24 is an aerobic, thermophilic,cellulolytic eubacterium which belongs to the group T. thermophilus. In order to understandthe mechanism of production of cellobiose in T. caldophilus GK24, a three-dimensionalmodel of the endocellulase, TcCel5A, was generated based on known crystal structures.Using this model, we carried out a flexible cellotetraose docking study.

  7. Synergy between cellulolytic enzymes during the biodegradation of cellulose microfibrils measured using angle-scanning surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raegen, Adam; Dion, Alexander; Reiter, Kyle; Clarke, Anthony; Lipkowski, Jacek; Dutcher, John

    2014-03-01

    The use of cellulosic ethanol, a promising emerging energy source, is limited by the energy intensive and costly step of first converting the cellulose fibers into their constituent glucose monomers. Industrial processes mimic those that occur in nature, using mixtures or ``cocktails'' of different classes of cellulolytic enzymes derived from fungi. Despite several decades of investigation, the molecular mechanisms for enzyme synergy remain poorly understood. To gain additional insight, we have used a custom angle-scanning surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging apparatus to obtain a sensitive measure of enzymatic degradation. By implementing a novel SPR data analysis procedure, we have been able to track the thickness and roughness of laterally heterogeneous cellulose microfibril-coated substrates as enzymatic degradation proceeds. This has allowed us to measure the synergistic actions of the different enzymes, providing data that are directly relevant to the cellulosic ethanol industry.

  8. Effect of Feeding Palm Oil By-Products Based Diets on Total Bacteria, Cellulolytic Bacteria and Methanogenic Archaea in the Rumen of Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrahim Abubakr; Abdul Razak Alimon; Halimatun Yaakub; Norhani Abdullah; Michael Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: cont...

  9. Cellulolytic potential of a novel strain of Paenibacillus sp. isolated from the armored catfish Parotocinclus maculicauda gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. M. de Castro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A cellulolytic bacterial strain, designated P118, isolated from the gut of the tropical fish Parotocinclus maculicauda was identified as belonging to the genus Paenibacillus based on phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and the 16S rRNA gene sequence. The novel strain was Gram-positive, spore-forming and rod-shaped. Catalase but not oxidase was produced. Carboxymethylcellulose was hydrolyzed but starch or gelatin was not. Acetoin production was negative whereas nitrate reduction and urease production were positive. Many carbohydrates served as carbon sources for growth. MK-7 was the predominant isoprenoid quinone. Anteiso-C15:0 (38.73% and C16:0 (20.85% were the dominant cellular fatty acids. Strain P118 was closely related to Paenibacillus amylolyticus NRRL NRS-290, P. pabuli HSCC 492, P. tundrae Ab10b, P. xylanexedens B22a, and P. tylopili MK2 with 98.3-98.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The results presented here suggest that strain P118 represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus and it is a potential strain for further studies concerning its role in the production of industrially important products from cellulosic biomass.

  10. Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Allman, Steve L [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, designated OB47T, was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA. The isolate was a non-motile, non-spore forming, Gram-positive rod approximately 2 m long by 0.2 m wide and grew at temperatures between 55-85oC with the optimum at 78oC. The pH range for growth was 6.0-8.0 with values of near 7.0 being optimal. Growth on cellobiose produced the fastest specific growth rates at 0.75 hr-1. The organism also displayed fermentative growth on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, starch, lactose, mannose, sucrose, galactose, xylose, arabinogalactan, Avicel, xylan, filter paper, processed cardboard, pectin, dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass and Populus. OB47T was unable to grow on mannitol, fucose, lignin, Gelrite, acetate, glycerol, ribose, sorbital, carboxymethylcellulose and casein. Yeast extract stimulated growth and thiosulfate, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfur were not reduced. Fermentation end products were mainly acetate, H2, and CO2 although lactate and ethanol were produced in 5 l batch fermentations. The G+C content of the DNA was 35 mol% and sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene placed OB47T within the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed to be designated Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov. and OB47T is the type stain (ATCC = ____, JCM = ____).

  11. Assessment of multi-enzyme operon engineering of tobacco chloroplast genome for high-level simultaneous expression of cellulolytic enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotilin, I. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON (Canada); Pereira, E.O.; Menassa, R. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The use of biofuels as an environmentally-sound substitute for depleting fossil fuels was discussed. Commercially produced biofuels are generated primarily from starch or sugar and supply only a small fraction of global fuel requirements. Although cellulosic biomass can serve as an abundant and renewable source of fermentable sugars, the cost of converting biomass to fuel is too high. Plant genetic engineering techniques are more economical for producing recombinant proteins because of the low-cost of the growing bioreactors. The transformation of the tobacco chloroplast genome has proven to be very prolific in terms of recombinant protein yield, which typically reaches 10 to 20 per cent of total soluble protein. In addition, plastid transcription-translation machinery allows for the simultaneous expression of several genes from artificial operons, providing the potential to engineer several proteins in one transformation step. The purpose of this study was to produce transplastomic tobacco plants bearing single genes as well as operons of cell wall-degrading enzymes for high-level expression. An attempt was made to reproduce an engineering approach in tobacco chloroplasts to generate a potent mini-cellulosome. The resulting enzymes were evaluated for their ability to degrade biomass. The study also examined the feasibility of using crude extracts of highly-expressing plants as an additive in the biomass fermentation process. The productivity of transplastomic plants was compared with plants transiently expressing cellulolytic enzymes directed to other cellular compartments.

  12. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Necsulea, Anamaria [UNIV LYON; Daubin, Vincent [UNIV LYON; Medigue, Claudine [GENOSCOPE; Adney, William S [NREL; Xu, Xin C [UC DAVIS; Lapidus, Alla [JGI; Pujic, Pierre [UNIV LYON; Berry, Alison M [UC DAVIS; Barabote, Ravi D [UC DAVIS; Leu, David [UC DAVIS; Normand, Phillipe [UNIV LYON

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudo genes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  13. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacome, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barabote, Ravi D [UC DAVIS; Leu, David [UC DAVIS; Normand, Philippe [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Necsula, Anamaria [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Daubin, Vincent [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Medigue, Claudine [CNRS/GENOSCOPE; Adney, William S [NREL; Xu, Xin C [UC DAVIS; Lapidus, Alla [DOE JOINT GENOME INST.; Pujic, Pierre [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Richardson, Paul [DOE JOINT GENOME INST; Berry, Alison M [UC DAVIS

    2008-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus lIB, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudogenes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  14. Ultrastructural studies of the termite (Odontotermes obesus) gut microflora and its cellulolytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J; Saxena, S; Varma, A

    1993-01-01

    The major gut microflora colonizing the hind gut of a higher termite,Odontotermes obesus, included morphologically diverse bacteria, both coccoid and rod-shaped, along with spirochaetes, pseudomonads and actinomycetes. Flagellated protozoa were totally absent. When the gut extract was inoculated on plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose or cellobiose, higher numbers of bacteria grew than on plates without cellulosic sources. The gut homogenate exhibited strong hydrolytic activity when carboxymethyl cellulose,p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucoside or xylan were used as substrate, indicating the role of gut microbiota in the process of cellulose and hemicellulose digestion. Activities were highest in the hind gut, and the paunch was probably the major site of polysaccharide digestion in this higher termite.In vitro cultivation of some of the isolates revealed both cellulase and xylanase activities. To our knowledge, this is the first report on ultrastructural studies of the higher termiteOdontotermes obesus.

  15. Direct fermentation of cellulose to ethanol by a cellulolytic filamentous fungus, monilia sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, C.S.; Maun, C.M.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    Monilia, isolated from bagasse compost, utilized many polysaccharides (including cellulose) and displayed cellulase and hemicellulase activities. Monilia also fermented glucose, xylose, and cellulosic materials to ethanol. Over 60% of the solid cellulose substrate added to Monilia cultures was converted to ethanol as the major fermentation product. Thus, Monilia is a potential organism for the direct conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol.

  16. Droplet-based microfluidics platform for ultra-high-throughput bioprospecting of cellulolytic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najah, Majdi; Calbrix, Raphaël; Mahendra-Wijaya, I Putu; Beneyton, Thomas; Griffiths, Andrew D; Drevelle, Antoine

    2014-12-18

    Discovery of microorganisms producing enzymes that can efficiently hydrolyze cellulosic biomass is of great importance for biofuel production. To date, however, only a miniscule fraction of natural biodiversity has been tested because of the relatively low throughput of screening systems and their limitation to screening only culturable microorganisms. Here, we describe an ultra-high-throughput droplet-based microfluidic system that allowed the screening of over 100,000 cells in less than 20 min. Uncultured bacteria from a wheat stubble field were screened directly by compartmentalization of single bacteria in 20 pl droplets containing a fluorogenic cellobiohydrolase substrate. Sorting of droplets based on cellobiohydrolase activity resulted in a bacterial population with 17- and 7-fold higher cellobiohydrolase and endogluconase activity, respectively, and very different taxonomic diversity than when selected for growth on medium containing starch and carboxymethylcellulose as carbon source.

  17. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of a Cellulolytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain SS35 from Rhinoceros Dung

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose hydrolyzing bacteria were isolated from rhinoceros dung and tested for clear zone formation around the colonies on the agar plates containing the medium amended with carboxymethylcellulose as a sole carbon source. Isolates were further screened on the basis of carboxymethylcellulase production in liquid medium. Out of 36 isolates, isolate no. 35 exhibited maximum enzyme activity of 0.079 U/mL and was selected for further identification by using conventional biochemical tests and phy...

  18. Improved cellulolytic efficacy in Penicilium decumbens via heterologous expression of Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yuqi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase II (Hjegl2 was heterologously expressed in Penicillium decumbens (yielding strain Pd::Hjegl2. After induction in cellulose containing media, strain Pd::Hjeg2 displayed increased carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 5.77 IU/ml, representing a 21% increase and cellulose degradation determined with a filter paper assay (FPA, 0.40 IU/ml, 67% increase, as compared to the parent strain. In media supplemented with glucose (2%, Pd::Hjegl2, displayed 51.2-fold and 3-fold higher CMCase and FPA activities, respectively, as compared to the parent strain. No changes in the expression levels of the four main native cellulase genes of P. decumbens (Pdegl1, Pdegl2, Pdcbh1, and Pdcbh2 were noted between the transformant and wild-type strains. These data support the idea that Hjegl2 cleaves both internal and terminal glycosidic residues, in a relatively random and processive manner. In situ polyacrylamide gelactivity staining of extracts derived from wild-type and Pd::Hjegl2 revealed two additional active fractions in the latter strain; one with a molecular mass ~50-65 KDa and another ~80-116 kDa.

  19. Functional diversity of family 3 β-glucosidases from thermophilic cellulolytic fungus Humicola insolens Y1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Bai, Yingguo; Cui, Ying; Xu, Xinxin; Qian, Lichun; Shi, Pengjun; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Huiying; Zhan, Xiuan; Yao, Bin

    2016-06-08

    The fungus Humicola insolens is one of the most powerful decomposers of crystalline cellulose. However, studies on the β-glucosidases from this fungus remain insufficient, especially on glycosyl hydrolase family 3 enzymes. In the present study, we analyzed the functional diversity of three distant family 3 β-glucosidases from Humicola insolens strain Y1, which belonged to different evolutionary clades, by heterogeneous expression in Pichia pastoris strain GS115. The recombinant enzymes shared similar enzymatic properties including thermophilic and neutral optima (50-60 °C and pH 5.5-6.0) and high glucose tolerance, but differed in substrate specificities and kinetics. HiBgl3B was solely active towards aryl β-glucosides while HiBgl3A and HiBgl3C showed broad substrate specificities including both disaccharides and aryl β-glucosides. Of the three enzymes, HiBgl3C exhibited the highest specific activity (158.8 U/mg on pNPG and 56.4 U/mg on cellobiose) and catalytic efficiency and had the capacity to promote cellulose degradation. Substitutions of three key residues Ile48, Ile278 and Thr484 of HiBgl3B to the corresponding residues of HiBgl3A conferred the enzyme activity towards sophorose, and vice versa. This study reveals the functional diversity of GH3 β-glucosidases as well as the key residues in recognizing +1 subsite of different substrates.

  20. Temporal variations in microbial biomass C and cellulolytic enzyme activity in arable soils: effects of organic matter input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debosz, K.; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pedersen, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    -OM). The cultivation systems differed in whether their source of fertiliser was mainly mineral or organic, in whether a winter cover crop was grown, and whether straw was mulched or removed. Sampling occurred at approximately monthly intervals, over a period of two years. Distinct temporal variations in microbial...

  1. Isolation and characterization of Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic, anaerobic bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Mathrani, Indra M.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    activity. The G + C content of the cellular DNA of strain 6A was 35.2 +/- 0.8 mol%. Complete 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that strain 6A was phylogenetically related to Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus. It is proposed that the isolated bacterium be named Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus sp. nov....... and ethanol occurred as minor fermentation products. Only a restricted number of carbon sources (cellulose, xylan, starch, pectin, cellobiose, xylose, maltose and lactose) were used as substrates. During growth on Avicel, the bacterium produced free cellulases with carboxymethylcellulase and avicelase...

  2. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahim Abubakr

    Full Text Available Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO, decanter cake (DC or palm kernel cake (PKC on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD, decanter cake diet (DCD, palm kernel cake diet (PKCD and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0 and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05 DNA copy number of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefeciens, and Ruminococcus albus. Rumen methanogenic archaea was significantly lower (P<0.05 in goats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  3. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) DNA copy number of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefeciens, and Ruminococcus albus. Rumen methanogenic archaea was significantly lower (P<0.05) in goats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  4. Genomic analysis of the hydrocarbon-producing, cellulolytic, endophytic fungus Ascocoryne sarcoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara A Gianoulis

    Full Text Available The microbial conversion of solid cellulosic biomass to liquid biofuels may provide a renewable energy source for transportation fuels. Endophytes represent a promising group of organisms, as they are a mostly untapped reservoir of metabolic diversity. They are often able to degrade cellulose, and they can produce an extraordinary diversity of metabolites. The filamentous fungal endophyte Ascocoryne sarcoides was shown to produce potential-biofuel metabolites when grown on a cellulose-based medium; however, the genetic pathways needed for this production are unknown and the lack of genetic tools makes traditional reverse genetics difficult. We present the genomic characterization of A. sarcoides and use transcriptomic and metabolomic data to describe the genes involved in cellulose degradation and to provide hypotheses for the biofuel production pathways. In total, almost 80 biosynthetic clusters were identified, including several previously found only in plants. Additionally, many transcriptionally active regions outside of genes showed condition-specific expression, offering more evidence for the role of long non-coding RNA in gene regulation. This is one of the highest quality fungal genomes and, to our knowledge, the only thoroughly annotated and transcriptionally profiled fungal endophyte genome currently available. The analyses and datasets contribute to the study of cellulose degradation and biofuel production and provide the genomic foundation for the study of a model endophyte system.

  5. Anaerobic cellulolytic rumen fungal populations in goats fed with and without Leucaena leucocephala hybrid, as determined by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ching Mun; Sieo, Chin Chin; Tan, Hui Yin; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Liang, Juan Boo; Ho, Yin Wan

    2013-10-01

    The effect of Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Bahru (LLB), which contains a high concentration of condensed tannins, on cellulolytic rumen fungal population in goats was investigated using real-time PCR. The fungal population in goats fed LLB was inhibited during the first 10 days of feeding, but after 15 days of feeding, there was a tremendous increase of fungal population (157.0 μg/ml), which was about fourfold more than that in control goats (39.7 μg/ml). However, after this period, the fungal population decreased continuously, and at 30 days of feeding, the fungal population (50.6 μg/ml) was not significantly different from that in control goats (55.4 μg/ml).

  6. Investigations on potato pulp as a dietary fiber source. The influence of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes. Untersuchungen an Kartoffelpuelpe als Ballaststoffquelle. Zum Einfluss von pektolytischen und cellulolytischen Enzymen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongowski, G. (Deutsches Inst. fuer Ernaehrungsforschung Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany))

    1993-05-01

    The influence of treatment with pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme preparations was investigated with reference to the separation of water and the composition of potato pulp. In contrast to pectinesterase, pectate lyase or cellulase it was found an intensive action on the pulp after incubation with Pectinex Ultra SP-L or pectinase/cellulase combinations. The content of pectin, starch and protein as well as the water binding capacity are varied in dependence of the used enzyme preparations. The occurring changes in the supermolecular structure of the potato pulp tissue are investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The grown biological structure is partly or extensive destroyed especially after action of pectinases and cellulases. The content of starch in the potato pulp preparations remains relatively high even after intensive treatment with cell wall degrading enzymes. (orig.)

  7. Kallotenue papyrolyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., a cellulolytic and filamentous thermophile that represents a novel lineage (Kallotenuales ord. nov., Kallotenuaceae fam. nov.) within the class Chloroflexia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Jesse; Gieler, Brandon; Heisler, Devon; Palisoc, Maryknoll; Williams, Amanda; Dohnalkova, Alice; Ming, Hong; Yu, Tian T.; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Li, Wen J.; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2013-08-15

    Several closely-related, thermophilic, and cellulolytic bacterial strains, designated JKG1T, JKG2, JKG3, JKG4, and JKG5, were isolated from a cellulolytic enrichment (corn stover) incubated in the water column of Great Boiling Spring, NV. Strain JKG1T had cells of a diameter of 0.7 - 0.9 μm and length of ~2.0 μm that formed non-branched multicellular filaments reaching >300 μm. Spores were not formed and dense liquid cultures were red. The temperature range for growth was 45-65 °C, with an optimum of 55 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.6-9.0, with an optimum of 7.5. JKG1T grew as an aerobic heterotroph, utilizing glucose, sucrose, xylose, arabinose, cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose, filter paper, microcrystalline cellulose, xylan, starch, casamino acids, tryptone, peptone, yeast extract, acetate, citrate, lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol as sole carbon sources, and was not observed to photosynthesize. The cells stained Gram-negative. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the new isolates in the class Chloroflexia, but distant from other cultivated members, with the highest sequence identity of 82.5% to Roseiflexus castenholzii. The major quinone was menaquinone-9; no ubiquinones were detected. The major cellular fatty acids (>5%) were C18:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C18:0, and iso-C17:0. C16:0, iso-C16:0, and C17:0. The peptidoglycan amino acids were alanine, ornithine, glutamic acid, serine, and asparagine. Whole-cell sugars included mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose, ribose, arabinose, and xylose. Morphological, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic results suggest that JKG1T is representative of a new lineage within the class Chloroflexia, which we propose to designate Kallotenue papyrolyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., Kallotenuaceae fam. nov., Kallotenuales ord. nov.

  8. Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the cellulolytic system in digestive fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient glucose release from sea lettuce by synergistic action of 45 kDa endoglucanase and 210 kDa ß-glucosidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Tsuji

    Full Text Available Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds. In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa. Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU-ß-glucoside, 4MU-ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K

  9. The effects of ethanol on hydrolysis of cellulose and pretreated barley straw by some commercial cellulolytic enzyme products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of ethanol at levels ranging from 2.5% v/v to 15% v/v on the activities of two recently developed commercial cellulosic biomass hydrolytic enzyme products, Accellerase® 1500 and Accellerase® XY, was investigated. The substrates used for study of the effect of ethanol on Accellerase® 1500 ...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Cellulomonas sp. Strain B6 Isolated from Subtropical Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinni, Florencia; Murua, Yanina; Ghio, Silvina; Talia, Paola; Rivarola, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    Cellulomonas sp. strain B6 was isolated from a subtropical forest soil sample and presented (hemi)cellulose-degrading activity. We report here its draft genome sequence, with an estimated genome size of 4 Mb, a G+C content of 75.1%, and 3,443 predicted protein-coding sequences, 92 of which are glycosyl hydrolases involved in polysaccharide degradation. PMID:27563050

  11. Extracellular cellulolytic enzyme system of Aspergillus japonicus: Pt. 2. Purification and characterization of an inducible extracellular. beta. -glucosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Arunik; Kundu, R.K.; Dube, S.; Dube, D.K.

    1988-02-01

    A high molecular weight ..beta..-glucosidase (mol. wt. > 240 000 daltons) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus japonicus and was finally purified to 86-fold by alcohol precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography on Whatman DE-52. An apparently homogeneous form of the enzyme appeared in the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It is capable of utilizing cellobiose, salicin, o-nitrophenyl-..beta..-D-glucoside (ONPG), methyl-..beta..-D-glucoside and amygdalin effectively as substrates but not arbutin, esculin hydrate and phloridzin. No metal ion is required for its catalytic activity. Hg/sup ++/ and p-chloromercuricbenzoate (PCMB) are strong inhibitors for the enzyme. Nojirimycin and glucono-delta-lactone are two competitive inhibitors of the same enzyme, and nojirimycin is the more potent of the two.

  12. Improvement of methane generation capacity by aerobic pre-treatment of organic waste with a cellulolytic Trichoderma viride culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Schwarzenauer, Thomas; Illmer, Paul

    2013-11-15

    Trichoderma viride is known as a potent cellulose decomposer and was successfully used to improve and accelerate the decomposition process of aerobic composting. In contrast, the role of fungi as pre-treatment organisms for anaerobic digestion is not clear, since the fast aerobic decomposition is thought to be responsible for a rapid depletion of easily available nutrients, leading to a lack of these for the anaerobic community. In the present study carried out in lab-scale, the application of T. viride for the aerobic pre-incubation of organic matter derived from the inlet port of a 750,000 L anaerobic digester led to an increase in total gas and methane production in a subsequent anaerobic digestion step. A high cellulase activity caused by the addition of T. viride seemed to be responsible for a better nutrient availability for anaerobic microorganisms. Therefore, aerobic pre-incubation of organic residues with T. viride for subsequent anaerobic digestion is a promising approach in order to increase methane yields.

  13. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.

  14. Genomic, proteomic, and biochemical analyses of oleaginous Mucor circinelloides: evaluating its capability in utilizing cellulolytic substrates for lipid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wei

    Full Text Available Lipid production by oleaginous microorganisms is a promising route to produce raw material for the production of biodiesel. However, most of these organisms must be grown on sugars and agro-industrial wastes because they cannot directly utilize lignocellulosic substrates. We report the first comprehensive investigation of Mucor circinelloides, one of a few oleaginous fungi for which genome sequences are available, for its potential to assimilate cellulose and produce lipids. Our genomic analysis revealed the existence of genes encoding 13 endoglucanases (7 of them secretory, 3 β-D-glucosidases (2 of them secretory and 243 other glycoside hydrolase (GH proteins, but not genes for exoglucanases such as cellobiohydrolases (CBH that are required for breakdown of cellulose to cellobiose. Analysis of the major PAGE gel bands of secretome proteins confirmed expression of two secretory endoglucanases and one β-D-glucosidase, along with a set of accessory cell wall-degrading enzymes and 11 proteins of unknown function. We found that M. circinelloides can grow on CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose and cellobiose, confirming the enzymatic activities of endoglucanases and β-D-glucosidases, respectively. The data suggested that M. circinelloides could be made usable as a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP strain by introducing a CBH (e.g. CBHI into the microorganism. This proposal was validated by our demonstration that M. circinelloides growing on Avicel supplemented with CBHI produced about 33% of the lipid that was generated in glucose medium. Furthermore, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis showed that when growing on pre-saccharified Avicel substrates, it produced a higher proportion of C14 fatty acids, which has an interesting implication in that shorter fatty acid chains have characteristics that are ideal for use in jet fuel. This substrate-specific shift in FAME profile warrants further investigation.

  15. Isolation,Identification and Optimization of Enzyme Production of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Goose Gut%鹅肠道纤维素分解菌的分离鉴定及其产酶条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云航; 张喜宏; 刘佳丽; 战利; 李长亮

    2011-01-01

    A strain of highly cellulolytic bacteria was obtained from goose gut, and the conditions in enzyme production have been studied in this study. The strain of highly cellulolytic bacterial E2 has been isolated by the Congo red ( primary screening) and shaking flask method ( secondary screening) . The 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain E2 was Bacillus pumilus sp. On the basis of single factor experiment, the optimal carbon source, nitrogen source, initial pH, fermentation temperature and fermentation time of strain E2 for enzyme production were maizena, beef extract and peptone mixture, 6.0, 42℃ , and 48 h, respectively. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition ,2011 ,23 ( 3) : 466-472 ]%本研究拟在鹅肠道筛选1株高效降解纤维素的菌株,并对该菌株的产酶条件进行研究.通过对鹅肠道菌群进行富集培养、分离纯化,利用刚果红法(初筛)和摇瓶法(复筛)得到1株产酶活较高的纤维素分解菌E2.经16S rDNA核苷酸序列比对分析表明,该菌株为芽孢杆菌属的短小芽孢杆菌.单因素试验得出菌株E2的产酶最适碳源为玉米粉,最适氮源为牛肉膏和蛋白胨混合物,最适初始pH为6.0,最适发酵温度为42 ℃,最适发酵时间为48 h.

  16. Endo-and exoglucanase activities in bacteria from mangrove sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lino Soares Júnior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove ecosystem is an unexplored source for biotechnological applications. In this unique environment, endemic bacteria have the ability to thrive in the harsh environmental conditions (salinity and anaerobiosis, and act in the degradation of organic matter, promoting nutrient cycles. Thus, this study aimed to assess the cellulolytic activities of bacterial groups present in the sediment from a mangrove located in Ilha do Cardoso (SP, Brazil. To optimize the isolation of cellulolytic bacteria, enrichments in two types of culture media (tryptone broth and minimum salt medium, both supplemented with 5% NaCl and 1% of cellulose, were performed. Tests conducted with the obtained colonies showed a higher occurrence of endoglycolytic activity (33 isolates than exoglycolytic (19 isolates, and the degradation activity was shown to be modulated by the presence of NaCl. The isolated bacteria were clustered by BOX-PCR and further classified on the basis of partial 16S rRNA sequences as Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of studies focusing on the endemic species found in mangroves to exploit them as novel biotechnological tools for the degradation of cellulose.

  17. Endo- and exoglucanase activities in bacteria from mangrove sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, Fábio Lino Soares; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; de Souza Lima, André Oliveira; Melo, Itamar Soares; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is an unexplored source for biotechnological applications. In this unique environment, endemic bacteria have the ability to thrive in the harsh environmental conditions (salinity and anaerobiosis), and act in the degradation of organic matter, promoting nutrient cycles. Thus, this study aimed to assess the cellulolytic activities of bacterial groups present in the sediment from a mangrove located in Ilha do Cardoso (SP, Brazil). To optimize the isolation of cellulolytic bacteria, enrichments in two types of culture media (tryptone broth and minimum salt medium), both supplemented with 5% NaCl and 1% of cellulose, were performed. Tests conducted with the obtained colonies showed a higher occurrence of endoglycolytic activity (33 isolates) than exoglycolytic (19 isolates), and the degradation activity was shown to be modulated by the presence of NaCl. The isolated bacteria were clustered by BOX-PCR and further classified on the basis of partial 16S rRNA sequences as Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of studies focusing on the endemic species found in mangroves to exploit them as novel biotechnological tools for the degradation of cellulose. PMID:24516466

  18. 纤维素分解酶处理玉米秸秆对肉牛生产性能和经济效益的影响%Effects of corn stover fermented by cellulolytic enzyme on production performance and economic benefit in beef cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高月平; 张贵花; 王聪; 刘强; 白元生; 师周戈; 刘晓妮

    2013-01-01

    研究玉米秸秆经纤维素分解酶(纤维素酶和木聚糖酶)处理后的化学成分变化以及对肉牛生产性能和经济效益的影响.选用12月龄左右的西门塔尔牛36头,对照组饲喂基础日粮(混合精料十玉米秸秆,精粗比45∶55),试验组分别以0.5%、1.0%和1.5%的纤维素分解酶处理玉米秸秆替代基础饲粮中的玉米秸秆进行为期70 d的试验.结果表明:采用纤维素分解酶处理玉米秸秆后化学成分发生变化,粗蛋白质含量增加显著,中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维降低显著,1.5%的纤维素分解酶处理组中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维显著低于1.0%的纤维素分解酶处理组.1.0%、1.5%的纤维素分解酶处理组西门塔尔牛干物质采食量、平均日增重和经济效益提高显著(P<0.05).适宜的纤维素分解酶添加水平为1.0%.%The objective was to evaluate the effects of corn stover fermented by cellulolytic enzyme on nutrition of corn stover,production performance of beef cattles and economic benefit.Thirty-six Simmenta beef cattles (12-month-old) were randomly divided into 4 groups.The control group was fed the basal diet (mixed concentrate and corn stover,concentrate to roughage as 45 to 55).Treatments lasted for 70 days were fed corn stover fermented by cellulolytic enzyme at 0.5%,1.0% and 1.5 %,respectively.The results showed that chemical composition of corn stover changed with the addition of cellulolytic enzymes.The crude protein content increased significantly,neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased significantly.neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber of 1.5 % cellulolytic enzyme treatment were significantly lower than that of 1% cellulolytic enzyme treatment.The dry matter intake,average daily gain and economic benefit of 1.0%,1.5% cellulolytic enzyme treatment increased significantly (P<0.05).The cellulolytic enzyme addition level as 1% was good.

  19. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  20. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Riffat I; Schellenberg, John; Henrissat, Bernard; Verbeke, Tobin J; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199) and carbohydrate binding modules (95) were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  1. Biochemical passive reactors for treatment of acid mine drainage: Effect of hydraulic retention time on changes in efficiency, composition of reactive mixture, and microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Yaneth; Escobar, Maria C; Neculita, Carmen M; Arbeli, Ziv; Roldan, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Biochemical passive treatment represents a promising option for the remediation of acid mine drainage. This study determined the effect of three hydraulic retention times (1, 2, and 4 days) on changes in system efficiency, reactive mixture, and microbial activity in bioreactors under upward flow conditions. Bioreactors were sacrificed in the weeks 8, 17 and 36, and the reactive mixture was sampled at the bottom, middle, and top layers. Physicochemical analyses were performed on reactive mixture post-treatment and correlated with sulfate-reducing bacteria and cellulolytic and dehydrogenase activity. All hydraulic retention times were efficient at increasing pH and alkalinity and removing sulfate (>60%) and metals (85-99% for Fe(2+) and 70-100% for Zn(2+)), except for Mn(2+). The longest hydraulic retention time (4 days) increased residual sulfides, deteriorated the quality of treated effluent and negatively impacted sulfate-reducing bacteria. Shortest hydraulic retention time (1 day) washed out biomass and increased input of dissolved oxygen in the reactors, leading to higher redox potential and decreasing metal removal efficiency. Concentrations of iron, zinc and metal sulfides were high in the bottom layer, especially with 2 day of hydraulic retention time. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, cellulolytic and dehydrogenase activity were higher in the middle layer at 4 days of hydraulic retention time. Hydraulic retention time had a strong influence on overall performance of passive reactors.

  2. Isolation of anaerobic bacterial strains from cellulolytic bacterial com- munity WSC-9%纤维素分解复合菌系WSC-9中厌氧细菌的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温雪; 付博锐; 王彦杰; 高亚梅; 刘权; 晏磊; 王伟东

    2013-01-01

    The microbial community WSC-9 capable of degrading lignocellulose with high efficiency was enriched from composting of cattle manure and rice straw. The aims of this study were to isolate and identify the anaerobic bacterial strains from the cellulose-degrading bacterial community. An anaerobic, thermophilic and cellulolytic bacterium was isolated, which was named WSC-9-7. More than 47% of rice straw was degraded within 10 days of inoculation at 50 ° C by WSC-9-7. WSC-9-7 is a spore-forming and straight rod. Cellobiose, cellulose, filter paper and rice straw can be utilized as sole carbon and energy sources by WSC-9-7 in medium. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence similarity, WSC-9-7 was mapped to the genus Clostridium. It is closely related to HAW-RM37-2-B-1600d-W (99%), and Clostridium islandicum AK1(98%). Clostridium islandicum AK1 was a new anaerobic, saccharolytic, thermophilic bacterium, isolated from hot spring in Iceland. HAW-RM37-2-B-1600d-W was uncultured clone from compost environmental samples. All of them were thermophilic and anaerobic bacterium. Hence, WSC-9-7 represents a novel species is proposed.%  复合菌系WSC-9是一组具高效稳定分解纤维素能力的细菌复合群体.为了研究其微生物组成,以纤维素分解情况为依据,分离复合菌系中具有纤维素分解能力的厌氧纯培养菌株,通过16S rDNA基因序列初步分析确定系统发育地位.从WSC-9中获得1株可有效降解纤维素的严格厌氧细菌WSC-9-7,50℃培养10 d,稻秆的总干重减少了47%.WSC-9-7为杆菌,产孢,能够利用纤维二糖、纤维素、滤纸、稻秆等.经数据库比对,与菌株HAW-RM37-2-B-1600d-W(FN563295)的相似性达到99%,与Clostridium islandicum AK1(EF088328)的相似性为98%.其中,Clostridium islandicum AK1厌氧且可以分解多糖类物质,获于冰岛的热泉;HAW-RM37-2-B-1600d-W在堆肥样品的克隆结果中获得,未获得纯培养.菌株WSC-9-7与这两株细菌均为嗜高温的严格

  3. Co-inoculating ruminal content neither provides active hydrolytic microbes nor improves methanization of ¹³C-cellulose in batch digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleur, Olivier; Bize, Ariane; Serain, Thibaut; Mazéas, Laurent; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-03-01

    Cellulose hydrolysis often limits the kinetics and efficiency of anaerobic degradation in industrial digesters. In animal digestive systems, specialized microorganisms enable cellulose biodegradation at significantly higher rates. This study aims to assess the potential of ruminal microbial communities to settle and to express their cellulolytic properties in anaerobic digesters. Cellulose-degrading batch incubations were co-inoculated with municipal solid waste digester sludge and ruminal content. ¹³C-labeled cellulose degradation was described over time with Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. Results were linked to the identification of the microorganisms assimilating ¹³C and to the monitoring of their relative dynamics. Cellulose degradation in co-inoculated incubations was efficient but not significantly improved. Transient disturbances in degradation pathways occurred, as revealed by propionate accumulation. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis dynamics and pyrosequencing revealed that expected classes of Bacteria and Archaea were active and degraded cellulose. However, despite the favorable co-inoculation conditions, molecular tools also revealed that no ruminal species settled in the bioreactors. Other specific parameters were probably needed for this to happen. This study shows that exploiting the rumen's cellulolytic properties in anaerobic digesters is not straightforward. Co-inoculation can only be successful if ruminal microorganisms manage to thrive in the anaerobic digester and outcompete native microorganisms, which requires specific nutritional and environmental parameters, and a meticulous reproduction of the selection pressure encountered in the rumen.

  4. Microbial dynamics and enzyme activities during rapid composting of municipal solid waste - a compost maturity analysis perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, M P; Prince William, S P M; Bhattacharyya, J K; Chakrabarti, T; Devotta, S

    2008-09-01

    An investigation was carried out in the laboratory to find out the microbial dynamics and enzyme activities during rapid composting of municipal solid waste (MSW). Various treatments such as aeration (A), addition of chemical agents (glucose (G) and acetic acid (AA) and application of cellulolytic microbial (M) inoculum (Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trichoderma reesei) were used to facilitate the decomposition of MSW. The result of the present investigation revealed that the degradation of organic substrates were quick (within 9-12 days) in case of rapid composting as indicated by the reduction (below 20) in C/N ratio. Whereas, normal composting took more than 20 days to attain C/N ratio of below 20. Estimation of selected enzymes (amylase, protease, phosphatase and cellulase) provided information on the substrate specific degradation profiles of various labile substrates contained in organic waste.

  5. Determinación de la actividad lignocelulolítica en sustrato natural de aislamientos fúngicos obtenidos de sabana de pastoreo y de bosque secundario de sabana inundable tropical Determination of lignocellulolytic activity in a natural substrate of native fungi strains obtained from savanna and of secondary forest from a tropical flooded savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucía Ortiz Moreno

    2010-12-01

    integrated samples. A lignolytic strain (005L Verticillium spp. and 72 cellulolytic strains were obtained. A comparison of soil usages (savanna grazing and secondary forest showed no correlation between the number of obtained genera and soil characteristics. Selection of the strains to be evaluated in a dry-grass natural substrate (Brachiaria spp. was carried out by quantification of lignolytic and cellulolytic activity. Two strains with high exoglucanase activity (055C and 061C Penicillium spp. and a strain with high endoglucanase activity (019C Trichoderma spp. relative to the Trichoderma viride control were selected and evaluated in the natural substrate in consortia formed by one lignolytic and one cellulolytic. The test showed that the enzymatic activity of the selected strains increased in the substrate grass, surpassing that of the positive controls (Pleurotus ostreatus for lignin and T. viride for cellulose for both consortia. The use of the consortia is therefore recommended for the development of soil conditioning biofertilizers, especially that formed by the 005L (Verticillium spp. and 055C (Penicillium spp. strains with high lignolytic and cellulolytic activity.

  6. Effects of Tannin and Polyethylene Glycol on Ruminal Cellulolytic Bacteria Quantity in Sheep and Goats%单宁和聚乙二醇对绵羊和山羊瘤胃纤维降解菌数量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大彪; 张梅梅; 于永强; 李红磊; 塔娜; 邢媛媛; 王卫云

    2015-01-01

    本文旨在研究饲粮中添加不同水平的单宁和高单宁饲粮条件下添加聚乙二醇( PEG )对绵羊和山羊瘤胃纤维降解菌数量的影响。试验选用1.5岁、体重约45 kg、安装永久性瘤胃瘘管的绵羊和绒山羊各4只,采用自身对照试验设计,分4期进行。第1期饲喂基础饲粮(Ⅰ组),第2期在基础饲粮中添加2%的单宁(Ⅱ组),第3期在基础饲粮中添加6%的单宁(Ⅲ组),第4期在基础饲粮中添加6%单宁+12% PEG(Ⅳ组)。每期试验30 d,其中预试期12 d,正试期18 d。每个正试期第1天,采集绵羊和山羊瘤胃内容物,测定瘤胃液pH、氨态氮( NH3-N)和菌体蛋白( MCP)浓度;运用实时定量PCR技术对固相、液相及全食糜中所附着的白色瘤胃球菌、黄色瘤胃球菌、产琥珀酸拟杆菌进行定量检测。结果表明:1)与Ⅰ组相比,添加6%单宁显著降低了山羊瘤胃液NH3-N浓度和绵羊瘤胃液MCP浓度( P<0.05)。添加6%单宁+12% PEG后,这2个指标恢复至与Ⅰ组相当的水平。2)与Ⅰ组相比,添加6%单宁显著降低了绵羊和山羊瘤胃固相、绵羊瘤胃液相白色瘤胃球菌数量( P<0.05);添加2%和6%单宁显著降低了绵羊和山羊固相黄色瘤胃球菌数量( P<0.05),添加6%单宁显著降低了绵羊和山羊瘤胃液相黄色瘤胃球菌数量( P<0.05);添加6%单宁显著降低了绵羊和山羊瘤胃固相、绵羊全食糜产琥珀酸拟杆菌数量( P<0.05)。添加6%单宁+12% PEG后,绵羊和山羊瘤胃这3株纤维降解菌数量恢复至Ⅰ组水平或高于Ⅰ组。由此可见,饲粮单宁添加量达到6%时降低了瘤胃液NH3-N的浓度,影响MCP的合成,抑制瘤胃固相纤维降解菌的增殖;添加PEG可以削弱单宁对瘤胃纤维降解菌生长的负面影响,促进瘤胃发酵。%This paper studied the effects of different dietary tannin levels and high tannin diets supplemented with polyethylene glycol ( PEG) on ruminal cellulolytic bacteria quantity in sheep and

  7. Does cypermethrin affect enzyme activity, respiration rate and walking behavior of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronnie Von Santos Veloso; Eliseu José G.Pereira; Raul Narciso C.Guedes; Maria Goreti A.Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Insecticides cause a range of sub-lethal effects on targeted insects,which are frequently detrimental to them.However,targeted insects are able to cope with insecticides within sub-lethal ranges,which vary with their susceptibility.Here we assessed the response of three strains of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) to sub-lethal exposure to the pyrethoid insecticide cypermethrin.We expected enzyme induction associated with cypermethrin resistance since it would aid the resistant insects in surviving such exposure.Lower respiration rate and lower activity were also expected in insecticide-resistant insects since these traits are also likely to favor survivorship under insecticide exposure.Curiously though,cypermethrin did not affect activity of digestive and energy metabolism enzymes,and even reduced the activity of some enzymes (particularly for cellulase and cysteine-proteinase activity in this case).There was strain variation in response,which may be (partially) related to insecticide resistance in some strains.Sub-lethal exposure to cypermethrin depressed proteolytic and mainly cellulolytic activity in the exposed insects,which is likely to impair their fitness.However,such exposure did not affect respiration rate and walking behavior of the insects (except for the susceptible strain where walking activity was reduced).Walking activity varies with strain and may minimize insecticide exposure,which should be a concern,particularly if associated with (physiological) insecticide resistance.

  8. Does cypermethrin affect enzyme activity, respiration rate and walking behavior of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Santos Veloso, Ronnie; Pereira, Eliseu José G; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Oliveira, Maria Goreti A

    2013-06-01

    Insecticides cause a range of sub-lethal effects on targeted insects, which are frequently detrimental to them. However, targeted insects are able to cope with insecticides within sub-lethal ranges, which vary with their susceptibility. Here we assessed the response of three strains of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to sub-lethal exposure to the pyrethoid insecticide cypermethrin. We expected enzyme induction associated with cypermethrin resistance since it would aid the resistant insects in surviving such exposure. Lower respiration rate and lower activity were also expected in insecticide-resistant insects since these traits are also likely to favor survivorship under insecticide exposure. Curiously though, cypermethrin did not affect activity of digestive and energy metabolism enzymes, and even reduced the activity of some enzymes (particularly for cellulase and cysteine-proteinase activity in this case). There was strain variation in response, which may be (partially) related to insecticide resistance in some strains. Sub-lethal exposure to cypermethrin depressed proteolytic and mainly cellulolytic activity in the exposed insects, which is likely to impair their fitness. However, such exposure did not affect respiration rate and walking behavior of the insects (except for the susceptible strain where walking activity was reduced). Walking activity varies with strain and may minimize insecticide exposure, which should be a concern, particularly if associated with (physiological) insecticide resistance.

  9. Compounds Released from Biomass Deconstruction: Understanding Their Effect on Cellulose Enzyme Hydrolysis and Their Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djioleu, Angele Mezindjou

    The effect of compounds produced during biomass pretreatment on cellulolytic enzyme was investigated. Liquid prehydrolyzates were prepared by pretreating switchgrass using 24 combinations of temperature, time, and sulfuric acid concentration based on a full factorial design. Temperature was varied from 140°C to 180°C; time ranged from 10 to 40 min; and the sulfuric acid concentrations were 0.5% or 1% (v/v). Identified products in the prehydrolyzates included xylose, glucose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, acetic acid, formic acid, and phenolic compounds at concentration ranging from 0 to 21.4 g/L. Pretreatment conditions significantly affected the concentrations of compounds detected in prehydrolyzates. When assayed in the presence of switchgrass prehydrolyzates against model substrates, activities of cellulase, betaglucosidase, and exoglucanase, were significantly reduced by at least 16%, 31.8%, and 57.8%, respectively, as compared to the control. A strong positive correlation between inhibition of betaglucosidase and concentration of glucose, acetic acid, and furans in prehydrolyzate was established. Exoglucanase inhibition correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds and acetic acid. The prehydrolyzate, prepared at 160°C, 30 min, and 1% acid, was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) into six fractions; the inhibition effect of these fractions on betaglucosidase and exoglucanase was determined. The initial hydrolysis rate of cellobiose by betaglucosidase was significantly reduced by the CPC sugar-rich fraction; however, exoglucanase was deactivated by the CPC phenolic-rich fraction. Finally, biological activities of water-extracted compounds from sweetgum bark and their effect on cellulase was investigated. It was determined that 12% of solid content of the bark extract could be accounted by phenolic compounds with gallic acid identified as the most concentrated phytochemical. Sweetgum bark extract inhibited Staphylococcus

  10. Activated zeolite--suitable carriers for microorganisms in anaerobic digestion processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, S; Lebuhn, M; Andrade, D; Zankel, A; Cardinale, M; Birner-Gruenberger, R; Somitsch, W; Ueberbacher, B J; Guebitz, G M

    2013-04-01

    Plant cell wall structures represent a barrier in the biodegradation process to produce biogas for combustion and energy production. Consequently, approaches concerning a more efficient de-polymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose to monomeric sugars are required. Here, we show that natural activated zeolites (i.e. trace metal activated zeolites) represent eminently suitable mineral microhabitats and potential carriers for immobilisation of microorganisms responsible for anaerobic hydrolysis of biopolymers stabilising related bacterial and methanogenic communities. A strategy for comprehensive analysis of immobilised anaerobic populations was developed that includes the visualisation of biofilm formation via scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, community and fingerprint analysis as well as enzyme activity and identification analyses. Using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, hydrolytical active protein bands were traced by congo red staining. Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy revealed cellulolytical endo- and exoglucanase (exocellobiohydrolase) as well as hemicellulolytical xylanase/mannase after proteolytic digestion. Relations to hydrolytic/fermentative zeolite colonisers were obtained by using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) based on amplification of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA fragments. Thereby, dominant colonisers were affiliated to the genera Clostridium, Pseudomonas and Methanoculleus. The specific immobilisation on natural zeolites with functional microbes already colonising naturally during the fermentation offers a strategy to systematically supply the biogas formation process responsive to population dynamics and process requirements.

  11. Activities of cellulase and amylase in soils as influenced by insecticide interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundi, Vijay A K B; Viswanath, Buddolla; Chandra, M Subhosh; Kumar, V Narahari; Reddy, B Rajasekhar

    2007-10-01

    Interaction effects of the insecticides monocrotophos and quinalphos (organophosphates), and cypermethrin (pyrethroid), on microbial activities in two agricultural soils-black vertisol soil and red alfinsol soil were tested for 30 days under laboratory conditions. Individual application of the three insecticides at 5, 10 and 25microg g(-1) to the soil distinctly enhanced the activities of cellulase and amylase. Insecticide combinations involving monocrotophos or quinalphos with cypermethrin yielded synergistic, antagonistic and additive interaction effects on both enzymes in the soils. At lower levels, 5 and 10microg g(-1), the insecticides in combination interacted additively or synergistically toward both enzymes. But, both combinations at the highest level of 25microg g(-1) exhibited an antagonistic interaction, with a reduction in enzyme activities to a level lower than that of the control. Interaction effects of insecticides in combinations on two enzyme activities in both soils were related to populations of cellulolytic and amylolytic organisms in soils under the impact of combination of insecticides. These interaction responses were persistent even for 30 days.

  12. Enzymatic activity of endophytic bacterial isolates of Jacaranda decurrens Cham. (Carobinha-do-campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysha Jussara Ivonilde Carrim

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work was to isolate endophytic bacteria from Jacaranda decurrens Cham. and screening of some enzymes of biotechnological interest. Ten (10 bacterial species were isolated and identified from the leaves and steams. All the isolates presented enzymatic activity, which was ranked as follows: proteolytic (60% and amilolytic activity (60%, lipolytic (40%, esterasic (40%. However, cellulolytic and pectinolytic activities were not detected. This is the first report on the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria from Jacaranda decurrens Cham.O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar bactérias endofíticas de Jacaranda decurrens Cham. e selecionar algumas enzimas de interesse biotecnológico. Dez espécies de bactérias foram isoladas e identificadas de caule e folhas. Todos os isolados de apresentaram atividade enzimática, e a maior predominância foi de atividade proteolítica (60% e atividade amilolítica (60%, seguidas atividades lipolítica (40% e esterásica (40%. Contudo, as atividades celulolítica e pectinolítica não foram detectadas. Este é o primeiro relato de isolamento e identificação de bactérias presentes em Jacaranda decurrens Cham.

  13. Cellulase and xylanase activity during the decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes in a tropical oxbow lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sciessere

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the connection between enzymatic activity and degradation of different fractions of organic matter, enzyme assays can be used to estimate degradation rates of particulate and dissolved organic carbon in freshwater systems. The aim of this study was to quantify and model the enzymatic degradation involving the decomposition of macrophytes, describing temporal activity of cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 and EC 3.2.1.91 and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8 during in situ decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia sp., Eichhornia azurea and Cyperus giganteus on the surface and water-sediment interface (w-s interface of an oxbow lagoon (Óleo lagoon within a natural Brazilian Savanna Reserve. Overall, the enzymatic degradation of aquatic macrophytes in Óleo lagoon occurred during the whole year and was initiated together with leaching. Xylanase production was ca. 5 times higher than cellulase values due to easy access to this compound by cellulolytic microorganisms. Enzymatic production and detritus mass decay were similar on the surface and w-s interface. Salvinia sp. was the most recalcitrant detritus, with low mass decay and enzymatic activity. E. azurea and C. giganteus decomposition rates and enzymatic production were high and similar. Due to the physicochemical homogeneity observed in the Óleo lagoon, the differences between the decay rates of each species are mostly related with detritus chemical quality.

  14. Suite of Activity-Based Probes for Cellulose-Degrading Enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Weaver, Holly M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Koech, Phillip K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-12-19

    Microbial glycoside hydrolases play a dominant role in the biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to high-value biofuels. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are capable of producing multicomplex catalytic subunits containing cell-adherent cellulases, hemicellulases, xylanases, and other glycoside hydrolases to facilitate the degradation of highly recalcitrant cellulose and other related plant cell wall polysaccharides. Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulosome producing bacterium that couples rapid reproduction rates to highly efficient degradation of crystalline cellulose. Herein, we have developed and applied a suite of difluoromethylphenyl aglycone, N-halogenated glycosylamine, and 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglycoside activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes to the direct labeling of the C. thermocellum cellulosomal secretome. These activity-based probes (ABPs) were synthesized with alkynes to harness the utility and multimodal possibilities of click chemistry, and to increase enzyme active site inclusion for LC-MS analysis. We directly analyzed ABP-labeled and unlabeled global MS data, revealing ABP selectivity for glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes in addition to a large collection of integral cellulosome-containing proteins. By identifying reactivity and selectivity profiles for each ABP, we demonstrate our ability to widely profile the functional cellulose degrading machinery of the bacterium. Derivatization of the ABPs, including reactive groups, acetylation of the glycoside binding groups, and mono- and disaccharide binding groups, resulted in considerable variability in protein labeling. Our probe suite is applicable to aerobic and anaerobic cellulose degrading systems, and facilitates a greater understanding of the organismal role associated within biofuel development.

  15. A Suite of Activity-Based Probes for Cellulose Degrading Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvigné-Hines, Lacie M.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Weaver, Holly M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Koech, Phillip K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial glycoside hydrolases play a dominant role in the biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to high-value biofuels. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are capable of producing multicomplex catalytic subunits containing cell-adherent cellulases, hemicellulases, xylanases, and other glycoside hydrolases to facilitate the degradation of highly recalcitrant cellulose and other related plant cell wall polysaccharides. Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulosome producing bacterium that couples rapid reproduction rates to highly efficient degradation of crystalline cellulose. Herein, we have developed and applied a suite of difluoromethylphenyl aglycone, N-halogenated glycosylamine, and 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglycoside activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes to the direct labeling of the C. thermocellum cellulosomal secretome. These activity-based probes (ABPs) were synthesized with alkynes to harness the utility and multimodal possibilities of click chemistry, and to increase enzyme active site inclusion for LC-MS analysis. We directly analyzed ABP-labeled and unlabeled global MS data, revealing ABP selectivity for glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes, in addition to a large collection of integral cellulosome-containing proteins. By identifying reactivity and selectivity profiles for each ABP, we demonstrate our ability to widely profile the functional cellulose degrading machinery of the bacterium. Derivatization of the ABPs, including reactive groups, acetylation of the glycoside binding groups, and mono- and disaccharide binding groups, resulted in considerable variability in protein labeling. Our probe suite is applicable to aerobic and anaerobic microbial cellulose degrading systems, and facilitates a greater understanding of the organismal role associated with biofuel development. PMID:23176123

  16. Hyperthermostable cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes and their biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipparat Hongpattarakere

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermal cellulases and hemicellulases have been intensively studied due to their highly potential applications at extreme temperatures, which mimic industrial processes involving cellulose and hemicellulose degradation. More than 50 species of hyperthermophiles have been isolated, many of which possess hyperthermal enzymes required for hydrolyzing cellulose and hemicelluloses. Endoglucanases, exoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases, xylanases, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase, which are produced by the hyperthermophiles, are resistant to boiling temperature. The characteristics of these enzymes and the ability to maintain their functional integrity at high temperature as well as their biotechnological application are discussed.

  17. Hyperthermostable cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes and their biotechnological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tipparat Hongpattarakere

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermal cellulases and hemicellulases have been intensively studied due to their highly potential applications at extreme temperatures, which mimic industrial processes involving cellulose and hemicellulose degradation. More than 50 species of hyperthermophiles have been isolated, many of which possess hyperthermal enzymes required for hydrolyzing cellulose and hemicelluloses. Endoglucanases, exoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases, xylanases, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase, which are produ...

  18. Utilization of individual cellodextrins by three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Y; Weimer, P J

    1996-01-01

    Growth of the ruminal bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1, and R. albus 7 followed Monod kinetics with respect to concentrations of individual pure cellodextrins (cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and cellohexaose). Under the conditions tested, R. flavefaciens FD-1 possesses the greatest capacity to compete for low concentrations of these cellodextrins.

  19. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels.

  20. ISOLATION AND LIGNOCELLULOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF FIBER-DIGESTING BACTERIA FROM DIGESTIVE TRACT OF TERMITE (Cryptothermes sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I.M. Tampoebolon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to obtain the fiber-digesting bacteria isolates from termitedigestive tract and to determine the optimum conditions of growth and production of cellulase, xylanaseand ligninase enzyme of isolate. The first study was conducted to isolate and select the fiber-digestingbacteria from the digestive tract of termites based on the highest activity of cellulolytic (S, xylanolytic(X and lignolytic (L. The second study was optimation of the growth conditions of bacteria and theenzyme production due to effect of rice straw substrate and nitrogen. The material used were dry woodtermites, rice straw, and culture medium. The design used was a completely randomized factorial design,in which the first factor was rice straw substrate (1, 2, and 3% W/V, while the second factor wasnitrogen (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% W/V. Variables measured were cellulase, xylanase and ligninase activities.Results of the first sudy showed that the isolates obtained consisted of 3 types, those were cellulolyticbacteria (S1, S2, and S3, 3 types of bacteria xylanolytic (X1, X2, and X3 and 3 types of bacteria lignolytic(L1, L2, and L3. Meanwhile, results of the second study showed that isolates of S2, X3, and L1 had thehighest activity, those were 1.894 U/mL, 1.722 U/mL and 0.314 U/mL, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of 1% level of rice straw substrate and 0.3% of nitrogen showed the highest enzyme activity oncellulase, xylanase and ligninase.

  1. CHANGE OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF RENDZINA SOILS OF WESTERN CAUCASUS AT POLLUTION BY ZINC, CADMIUM, MOLYBDENUM AND SELENIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatlok D. R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rendzina soils are very widespread in the Caucasus. Because of their ecological and genetic characteristics Rendzina has significant buffering capacity to chemical pollution. The object of investigation was calcareous leached soil. Location selection - Azishskaya ridge on the border of the Republic of Adygea and the Krasnodar region. As pollutants, we have selected Zn, Cd, Mo, Se, since soil contamination with these elements in the south of Russia is not uncommon. Contamination of zinc, cadmium, molybdenum and selenium causes deterioration in the biological properties of calcareous soils of the Western Caucasus. We have investigated the toxicity of the elements formed following series due to their influence on Rendzina soils: Zn> Se> Cd> = Mo. The study attempted to analyze the entire range of concentrations of the examined elements in the soil, currently occurring in nature. In most cases, all the investigated substances registered direct correlation between the concentration of the pollutant in the soil and the degree of reduction of biological indicators. The activity of catalase and dehydrogenase cellulolytic ability, plenty of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, length of roots of radish can be used to monitor, diagnose and regulation of chemical pollution of soil Zn, Cd, Mo, Se

  2. Effects of Degradable Protein and Non-Fiber Carbohydrates on in Vitro Ruminal Fermentation,Microbial Synthesis,and Populations of Ruminal Cellulolytic Bacteria%日粮可降解蛋白与非纤维性碳水化合物对人工瘤胃发酵、微生物合成以及纤维分解菌菌群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵向辉; 刘婵娟; 刘烨; 李朝云; 姚军虎

    2012-01-01

    白合成方面具有优势.%[ Objective] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of levels of rumen degradable protein (RDP) and sources of non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) on ruminal fermentation, microbial synthesis, and populations of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria using the rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). [ Method] The experiment was a 2X4 factorial arrangement with four NFC types (corn starch, sucrose, pectin, inulin) each combined with two levels of RDP obtained by supplementing with 0 g·d-1 (low RDP) or 1.56 g-d'1 (high RDP) sodium caseinate. [Result] Apparent disappearance of dry matter and organic matter was greater (P <0.01) for the main effect means of sucrose and pectin than for other treatments. A NFC X RDP interaction (P<0.01) was observed for apparent neutral detergent fibre disappearance, which tended to be lower for sucrose (P=0.10) and pectin (P=0.09) than for starch treatment under low RDP conditions, but did not differ among treatments under high RDP conditions. The 16S rDNA copies of Ruminococcus albus were greater for the main effect means of pectin than for starch treatment. There were NFC X RDP interactions for 16S rDNA copy numbers of R. flavefaciem in both liquid and solid fractions and Fibrobacter succinogenes in liquid fraction. Compared with starch treatment, R. flavefaciem in solid fraction tended to be lower (P=0.06) for sucrose treatment under low RDP conditions and F. succinogenes in liquid fraction was lower (P<0.01) for inuSin treatment under high RDP conditions. Increasing dietary RDP increased total volatile fatty acids production (P<0.01) and total microbial nitrogen (MN) flow (P<0.01) in all treatments. The molar proportion of acetate and the ratio between acetate and propionate were both the greatest (P<0.05 and P< 0.01, respectively) for the main effect means of pectin among treatments. Butyrate molar proportion was greater (P<0.01) for sucrose and inulin treatments than for other treatments regardless of RDP level. Total MN flow did not

  3. Recombinant Trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase I (Cel7B) is a highly acidic and promiscuous carbohydrate-active enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Vanessa O A; Serpa, Viviane Isabel; Godoy, Andre S; Camilo, Cesar M; Bernardes, Amanda; Rezende, Camila A; Junior, Nei Pereira; Franco Cairo, João Paulo L; Squina, Fabio M; Polikarpov, Igor

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma filamentous fungi have been investigated due to their ability to secrete cellulases which find various biotechnological applications such as biomass hydrolysis and cellulosic ethanol production. Previous studies demonstrated that Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 has a high degree of cellulolytic activity and potential for biomass hydrolysis. However, enzymatic, biochemical, and structural studies of cellulases from T. harzianum are scarce. This work reports biochemical characterization of the recombinant endoglucanase I from T. harzianum, ThCel7B, and its catalytic core domain. The constructs display optimum activity at 55 °C and a surprisingly acidic pH optimum of 3.0. The full-length enzyme is able to hydrolyze a variety of substrates, with high specific activity: 75 U/mg for β-glucan, 46 U/mg toward xyloglucan, 39 U/mg for lichenan, 26 U/mg for carboxymethyl cellulose, 18 U/mg for 4-nitrophenyl β-D-cellobioside, 16 U/mg for rye arabinoxylan, and 12 U/mg toward xylan. The enzyme also hydrolyzed filter paper, phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, Sigmacell 20, Avicel PH-101, and cellulose, albeit with lower efficiency. The ThCel7B catalytic domain displays similar substrate diversity. Fluorescence-based thermal shift assays showed that thermal stability is highest at pH 5.0. We determined kinetic parameters and analyzed a pattern of oligosaccharide substrates hydrolysis, revealing cellobiose as a final product of C6 degradation. Finally, we visualized effects of ThCel7B on oat spelt using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrating the morphological changes of the substrate during the hydrolysis. The acidic behavior of ThCel7B and its considerable thermostability hold a promise of its industrial applications and other biotechnological uses under extremely acidic conditions.

  4. Novel glycoside hydrolases from thermophilic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic activity or hemicellulolytic activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of produ...

  5. Active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae can alleviate the effect of subacute ruminal acidosis in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahal, O; Dionissopoulos, L; Laarman, A H; Walker, N; McBride, B W

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ADSC) supplementation on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk components, ruminal pH, and microbial community during a dietary regimen that leads to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Sixteen multiparous, rumen-cannulated lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments that included ADSC (Biomate; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK; 8 × 10(10) cfu/head per day) or control. During wk 1 to 6, all cows received a high-forage (HF) diet (77:23, forage:concentrate). Cows were then abruptly switched during wk 7 to a high-grain (HG) diet (49:51, forage:concentrate) and remained on the HG until the end of wk 10. Feed intake and milk yields were recorded daily. Ruminal pH was recorded continuously using an indwelling system for 1 to 2 d per week during the pre-experimental phase, and wk 6, 7, and 10. Ruminal digesta samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analyzed for relative change in microbial communities using real-time quantitative PCR. Cows were considered to have SARA if the duration below pH 5.6 was ≥300 min/d. Ruminal pH during wk 6 (HF plateau) was not different across treatments (15 ± 46 min/d at pH inflammation within the rumen. Cows supplemented with ADSC had a 2.3-fold increase in Streptococcus bovis and a 12-fold reduction in Megasphaera elsdenii. The reduction in M. elsdenii may reflect lower concentration of lactic acid within the rumen for ADSC cows. In conclusion, ADSC supplementation to dairy cows was demonstrated to alleviate the condition of SARA caused by abrupt dietary changes from HF to HG, and can potentially improve rumen function, as indicated by greater numbers of cellulolytic microorganisms within the rumen.

  6. Effects of an exogenous enzyme preparation on microbial protein synthesis, enzyme activity and attachment to feed in the Rumen Simulation Technique (Rusitec).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; McAllister, T A; Rode, L M; Beauchemin, K A; Morgavi, D P; Nsereko, V L; Iwaasa, A D; Yang, W

    2001-03-01

    The effects of an exogenous enzyme preparation, the application method and feed type on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis were investigated using the rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). Steam-rolled barley grain and chopped alfalfa hay were sprayed with water (control, C), an enzyme preparation with a predominant xylanase activity (EF), or autoclaved enzyme (AEF) 24 h prior to feeding, or the enzyme was supplied in the buffer infused into the Rusitec (EI). Microbial N incorporation was measured using (15NH4)2SO4 in the buffer. Spent feed bags were pummelled mechanically in buffer to segregate the feed particle-associated (FPA) and feed particle-bound (FPB) bacterial fractions. Enzymes applied to feed reduced neutral-detergent fibre content, and increased the concentration of reducing sugars in barley grain, but not alfalfa hay. Ruminal cellulolytic bacteria were more numerous with EF than with C. Disappearance of DM from barley grain was higher with EF than with C, but alfalfa was unaffected by EF. Treatment EF increased incorporation of 15N into FPA and FPB fractions at 24 and 48 h. In contrast, AEF reduced the 24 h values, relative to C; AEF and C were similar at 48 h. Infused enzyme (EI) did not affect 15N incorporation. Xylanase activity in effluent was increased by EF and EI, compared to C, but not by AEF. Xylanase activity in FPA was higher at 48 h than at 24 h with all treatments; it was higher with EF than C at 24 and 48 h, but was not altered by AEF or EI. Applying enzymes onto feeds before feeding was more effective than dosing directly into the artificial rumen for increasing ruminal fibrolytic activity.

  7. Physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001941.htm Physical activity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- ...

  8. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activated Carbon, Animal Charcoal, Carbo Vegetabilis, Carbon, Carbón Activado, Charbon Actif, Charbon Activé, Charbon Animal, Charbon Médicinal, Charbon Végétal, Charbon Végétal Activé, Charcoal, Gas Black, Lamp Black, Medicinal Charcoal, Noir de Gaz, ...

  9. Evaluation of the enzymatic activity of Trichoderma inhamatum (BOL-12QD as possible biocontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Espejo Cielo Noemí

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Trichoderma spp. acts as a natural biocontroller of pathogen fungi, is for this reason, that this research studies the potential of its hydrolytic enzyme activity. In this article, first we determined that the speed of growth of Trichoderma inhamatum cepa BOL-12QD is 9 hours. Later, we proposed a simple and sensitive method based in the use of basal media (BM with coloidal chitin as the only carbon resource and supplemented with bromocresol purple for the qualitative determination of chitinase activi-ty. On the other hand, it was determined the celullolytic and proteolytic activities of Trichoderma in-hamatum cepa BOL-12QD and it was observed that agitation, type and concentration of sustrate are determinant factors in enzymatic production. Then, we evaluated the cellulolytic activity of Trichoderma inhamatum cepa BOL-12QD in agitation and stationary using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC as sustrate, finding that using a 2% of sustrate the highest activity is registered at 8 days of incubation in agitation with a value of 99.23 IU/L. In relation to the results at stationary the optimal value is at the fourth day with a value of 92.76 IU/L. The protease activity it was determined taking in consideration variables of agitation and stationary, using different types and concentration of sustrate at 2%, 4% y 6% (w/v of meat extract, 1%, 3%, 5% (w/v of jelly and 1%, 2%, 4% (w/v of casein. The highest protease activity was obtained at the end of the sev-enth day with an enzymatic activity of 3075.45 IU/L at stationary using a concentration of 6% (w/v of meat extract, and using jelly at 3% (w/v at stationary it was found an activity of 568.36 IU/L on the tenth day and in agitation a value of 547.27 IU/L was reached on the twelveth day, while using casein at 1% (w/v at stationary an activity of 407.06 IU/L is reached in the fifth day, and in agitation at 4% (w/v of casein a value of 547.27 IU/L is obtained on the twelfth day, while using

  10. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  11. Direct utilization of waste water algal biomass for ethanol production by cellulolytic Clostridium phytofermentans DSM1183.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Sanitha, Mary; Kumar, Thangarathinam; Iyappan, Sellamuthu; Ramya, Mohandass

    2016-02-01

    Direct bioconversion of waste water algal biomass into ethanol using Clostridium phytofermentans DSM1183 was demonstrated in this study. Fermentation of 2% (w/v) autoclaved algal biomass produced ethanol concentration of 0.52 g L(-1) (solvent yield of 0.19 g/g) where as fermentation of acid pretreated algal biomass (2%, w/v) produced ethanol concentration of 4.6 g L(-1) in GS2 media (solvent yield of 0.26 g/g). The control experiment with 2% (w/v) glucose in GS2 media produced ethanol concentration of 2.8 g L(-1) (solvent yield of 0.25 g/g). The microalgal strains from waste water algal biomass were identified as Chlamydomonas dorsoventralis, Graesiella emersonii, Coelastrum proboscideum, Scenedesmus obliquus, Micractinium sp., Desmodesmus sp., and Chlorella sp., based on ITS-2 molecular marker. The presence of glucose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose were detected by high performance liquid chromatography in the algal biomass. Scanning Electron Microscopy observations of fermentation samples showed characteristic morphological changes in algal cells and bioaccessibility of C. phytofermentans.

  12. Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter—DM) has...... matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation—PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM....... The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around...

  13. Genome Sequence and Analysis of the Soil Cellulolytic ActinomyceteThermobifida fusca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Anderson, Iain; Land, Miriam; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Martinez, Michele; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Richardson, Paul; Wilson,David B.; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2007-02-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic soilbacterium that belongs to Actinobacteria. 3 It is a major degrader ofplant cell walls and has been used as a model organism for the study of 4secreted, thermostable cellulases. The complete genome sequence showedthat T. fusca has a 5 single circular chromosome of 3642249 bp predictedto encode 3117 proteins and 65 RNA6 species with a coding densityof 85percent. Genome analysis revealed the existence of 29 putative 7glycoside hydrolases in addition to the previously identified cellulasesand xylanases. The 8 glycosyl hydrolases include enzymes predicted toexhibit mainly dextran/starch and xylan 9 degrading functions. T. fuscapossesses two protein secretion systems: the sec general secretion 10system and the twin-arginine translocation system. Several of thesecreted cellulases have 11 sequence signatures indicating theirsecretion may be mediated by the twin-arginine12 translocation system. T.fusca has extensive transport systems for import of carbohydrates 13coupled to transcriptional regulators controlling the expression of thetransporters and14 glycosylhydrolases. In addition to providing anoverview of the physiology of a soil 15 actinomycete, this study presentsinsights on the transcriptional regulation and secretion of16 cellulaseswhich may facilitate the industrial exploitation of thesesystems.

  14. Exploring and integrating cellulolytic systems of insects to advance biofuel technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Zhong Sun; Michael E. Scharf

    2010-01-01

    @@ In line with the requirements for sustainable economics and clean environments, cellulose-based biofuels have recently received tremendous attention both in industry and academic communities worldwide.Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass of-fer the potential to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate global climate change.

  15. Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter-DM) has proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation-PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM. The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around cellulose to around 94%, revealing that the most relevant products could be accounted for. One observation was the presence of oxidized sugar (gluconic acid) upon enzymatic hydrolysis with the latest enzyme preparation. Experiments showed gluconic acid formation by recently discovered enzymatic class of lytic polysaccharides monoxygenases (LPMO's) to be depending on the processing strategy. The lowest concentration was achieved in SSF, which could be correlated with less available oxygen due to simultaneous oxygen consumption by the yeast. Quantity of glycerol and cell mass was also depending on the selected processing strategy.

  16. Comparison of different cellulolytic fungi for bioconversion of apple distillery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.; Cimerman, A.; Perdih, A.

    1986-08-01

    The suitability of three ascomycetous fungi, Aspergillus niger, A. awamori and Trichoderma reesei, as well as two basidiomycetes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, for bioconversion of apple distillery slop was compared. Trichoderma and Phanerochaete degraded raw fibres by 20%, producing filter cakes with 17% to 22% raw protein contents. Aspergillus spp. were superior in filtration time and COD reduction and were of the same efficiency in protein synthesis as Trichoderma and Phanerochaete, but did not degrade fibres. Pleurotus ostreatus did not degrade lignin under fermentation conditions used and could not compete with other fungi due to its slower growth.

  17. Diarrhea-associated pathogens, lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces: responses to antibiotic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are important to equine medicine, but antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) can lead to poor performance and even mortality. AAD is attributed to disruption of the hindgut microbiota, which permits proliferation of pathogenic microbes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects o...

  18. Cellulolytic bacteria in the foregut of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Anjas A; Wright, André-Denis G; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2012-12-01

    Foregut digesta from five feral dromedary camels were inoculated into three different enrichment media: cotton thread, filter paper, and neutral detergent fiber. A total of 283 16S rRNA gene sequences were assigned to 33 operational taxonomic units by using 99% species-level identity. LIBSHUFF revealed significant differences in the community composition across all three libraries.

  19. Linking Hydrolysis Performance to Trichoderma reesei Cellulolytic Enzyme Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Petersen, Nanna; I. Jørgensen, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei expresses a large number of enzymes involved in lignocellulose hydrolysis and the mechanism of how these enzymes work together is too complex to study by traditional methods, e.g. by spiking with single enzymes and monitoring hydrolysis performance. In this study a multivariate...

  20. Optimization of Arundo donax Saccharification by (Hemi)cellulolytic Enzymes from Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; La Cara, Francesco; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    An enzymatic mixture of cellulases and xylanases was produced by Pleurotus ostreatus using microcrystalline cellulose as inducer, partially characterized and tested in the statistical analysis of Arundo donax bioconversion. The Plackett-Burman screening design was applied to identify the most significant parameters for the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated A. donax. As the most significant influence during the enzymatic hydrolysis of A. donax was exercised by the temperature (°C), pH, and time, the combined effect of these factors in the bioconversion by P. ostreatus cellulase and xylanase was analyzed by a 33 factorial experimental design. It is worth noting that the best result of 480.10 mg of sugars/gds, obtained at 45°C, pH 3.5, and 96 hours of incubation, was significant also when compared with the results previously reached by process optimization with commercial enzymes. PMID:26634214

  1. Optimization of Arundo donax Saccharification by (Hemi)cellulolytic Enzymes from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; La Cara, Francesco; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    An enzymatic mixture of cellulases and xylanases was produced by Pleurotus ostreatus using microcrystalline cellulose as inducer, partially characterized and tested in the statistical analysis of Arundo donax bioconversion. The Plackett-Burman screening design was applied to identify the most significant parameters for the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated A. donax. As the most significant influence during the enzymatic hydrolysis of A. donax was exercised by the temperature (°C), pH, and time, the combined effect of these factors in the bioconversion by P. ostreatus cellulase and xylanase was analyzed by a 3(3) factorial experimental design. It is worth noting that the best result of 480.10 mg of sugars/gds, obtained at 45 °C, pH 3.5, and 96 hours of incubation, was significant also when compared with the results previously reached by process optimization with commercial enzymes.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Thermophile Clostridium clariflavum Strain 4-2a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Elise A; Rowe, Kenneth T; Guseva, Anna; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James K; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor M; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Liolios, Konstantinos; Nordberg, Henrik P; Cantor, Michael N; Hua, Susan X; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Lynd, Lee R; Izquierdo, Javier A

    2015-07-23

    Clostridium clariflavum strain 4-2a, a novel strain isolated from a thermophilic biocompost pile, has demonstrated an extensive capability to utilize both cellulose and hemicellulose under thermophilic anaerobic conditions. Here, we report the draft genome of this strain.

  3. Linking Hydrolysis Performance to Trichoderma reesei Cellulolytic Enzyme Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Petersen, Nanna; I. Jørgensen, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei expresses a large number of enzymes involved in lignocellulose hydrolysis and the mechanism of how these enzymes work together is too complex to study by traditional methods, e.g. by spiking with single enzymes and monitoring hydrolysis performance. In this study a multivariate...... approach, partial least squares regression, was used to see if it could help explain the correlation between enzyme profile and hydrolysis performance. Diverse enzyme mixtures were produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 by exploiting various fermentation conditions and used for hydrolysis of washed...

  4. Quantitative analysis of cellulose degradation and growth of cellulolytic bacteria in the rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruminant animals digest cellulose via a symbiotic relationship with ruminal microorganisms. Because feedstuffs only remain in the rumen for a short time, the rate of cellulose digestion must be very rapid. This speed is facilitated by rumination, a process that returns food to the mouth to be re-...

  5. Diversity of Cellulolytic Microbes and the Biodegradation of Municipal Solid Waste by a Potential Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste contains high amounts of cellulose, which is an ideal organic waste for the growth of most of microorganism as well as composting by potential microbes. In the present study, Congo red test was performed for screening of microorganism, and, after selecting a potential strains, it was further used for biodegradation of organic municipal solid waste. Forty nine out of the 250 different microbes tested (165 belong to fungi and 85 to bacteria produced cellulase enzyme and among these Trichoderma viride was found to be a potential strain in the secondary screening. During the biodegradation of organic waste, after 60 days, the average weight losses were 20.10% in the plates and 33.35% in the piles. There was an increase in pH until 20 days. pH however, stabilized after 30 days in the piles. Temperature also stabilized as the composting process progressed in the piles. The high temperature continued until 30 days of decomposition, after which the temperature dropped to 40°C and below during the maturation. Good quality compost was obtained in 60 days.

  6. Activity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschmann, Timothy; Roschelle, Jeremy; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1998-01-01

    Includes three articles that discuss activity theory, based on "Context and Consciousness." Topics include human-computer interaction; computer interfaces; hierarchical structuring; mediation; contradictions and development; failure analysis; and designing educational technology. (LRW)

  7. Identifying Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Adrian S

    2009-01-01

    Identification of active constraints in constrained optimization is of interest from both practical and theoretical viewpoints, as it holds the promise of reducing an inequality-constrained problem to an equality-constrained problem, in a neighborhood of a solution. We study this issue in the more general setting of composite nonsmooth minimization, in which the objective is a composition of a smooth vector function c with a lower semicontinuous function h, typically nonsmooth but structured. In this setting, the graph of the generalized gradient of h can often be decomposed into a union (nondisjoint) of simpler subsets. "Identification" amounts to deciding which subsets of the graph are "active" in the criticality conditions at a given solution. We give conditions under which any convergent sequence of approximate critical points finitely identifies the activity. Prominent among these properties is a condition akin to the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification, which ensures boundedness of the set of...

  8. Activating schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Scheller, Hanne Bebendorf;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the Activating Schoolyards Study is to develop, implement, document and assess a comprehensive schoolyard intervention to promote physical activity (PA) during school recess for primary school children (grade 4-8). The intervention is designed to implement organizational...... to objectively determine where and how active the students are in the schoolyard, before and after the intervention. This provides a type of data that, to our knowledge, has not been used before in schoolyard interventions. Exploring the change in behavior in relation to specific intervention elements...... as well as quantitative methods can be seen as a strength, as the different types of data complement each other and results of one part of the study informed the following parts. A unique aspect of our study is the use of accelerometers in combination with GPS and GIS in the effect evaluation...

  9. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  10. Get Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have fun with your family. If you have children, you can be a role model for making healthy choices. Encourage your whole family to get active outside . Go for a hike or organize a family soccer game. If someone you know has trouble making ...

  11. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  12. Laboratory Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  13. Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Natural products of higher plants may possess a new source of antimicrobial agents with possibly novel mechanisms of action. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with conventional antimicrobials. A method using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus determining antimicrobial activity is presented in the chapter.

  14. Fumarase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Mose; Eldirdiri, Abubakr; Bertelsen, Lotte Bonde

    2017-01-01

    ]fumarate conversion to [1,4-(13)C2]malate by fumarase has been proposed as a measure of necrosis in rat tumor models and in chemically induced AKI rats. Here we show that the degradation of cell membranes in connection with necrosis leads to elevated fumarase activity in plasma and urine and secondly...... that hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C2]malate production 24 h after reperfusion correlates with renal necrosis in a 40-min unilateral ischemic rat model. Fumarase activity screening on bio-fluids can detect injury severity, in bilateral as well as unilateral AKI models, differentiating moderate and severe AKI as well...... as short- and long-term AKI. Furthermore after verification of renal injury by bio-fluid analysis the precise injury location can be monitored by in vivo measurements of the fumarase activity non-invasively by hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C]fumarate MR imaging. The combined in vitro and in vivo biomarker of AKI...

  15. Glucokinase activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipski, Kevin J; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Stevens, Benjamin D

    2012-07-01

    In this review we highlight recently disclosed progress in the field of small-molecule activators of the human glucokinase enzyme. Several of the reported chemotypes possess structural features that diverge from known leads; some of these modifications appear to be specifically designed to modulate tissue selectivity or discrete parameters of enzyme function (e.g., S0.5 v Vmax). This review will inform the reader of the extent of continued effort being directed toward discovery of a first-in-class drug for Type II diabetes mellitus that functions through this target. Patents were selected from those published in December 2009 up to November 2011; foreign filings were translated where possible to understand the claims and biological techniques utilized to characterize the reported glucokinase activators. Overall, there appears to be a recent trend leading to reduced patent filings for small-molecule glucokinase activators. There are many possible explanations for this trend; however, it is likely that the field has reached maturity and that the downturn of new disclosures represents the transition of many of these programs to the clinic.

  16. Effect of transportation on fecal bacterial communities and fermentative activities in horses: impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubladier, C; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; da Veiga, L; Julliand, V

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of transportation on fecal bacterial communities and activities in horses with or without supplementation of live yeast and attempted to link those effects with changes in blood stress markers. Four mature horses were assigned to a crossover design and fed a basal diet (60:40 forage to concentrate; 1.45% BW on a DM basis), with or without supplementation, of 2 × 10(10) cfu/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077. After a 14-d adaptation to dietary treatments, the 5-d experiment started 1 d before transportation (d -1). At d 0, horses were simultaneously transported in a truck for 2 h. Feces were sampled 4 h after the morning meal of concentrate at d -1, 0 (immediately after transportation), and 3 for enumeration of the main functional bacterial groups and determination of fermentative variables. Within each dietary treatment, feces were pooled before DNA extraction and molecular analysis of the bacterial communities, using temporal temperature gradient electrophoreses (TTGE). Blood samples were collected at the same time for determination of white blood cells (WBC) counts and glucose and total protein concentrations. Regardless of dietary treatment, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio increased during transportation (P horses were stressed. In both treatments, TTGE profiles were clearly different before and 3 d after transportation, and the percentage of similarity between profiles at d -1 and 3 was greater in supplemented horses compared with the controls. From d 0 to 3, the molar percentage of propionate increased and total concentration of VFA and the acetate + butyrate to propionate ratio decreased, regardless of dietary treatment (P horses (P = 0.03). Regardless of day of sampling, fecal concentrations of lactate-utilizing bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria were greater in supplemented horses than in control horses (P = 0.04 and 0.08, respectively). Our results indicate that transportation for 2 h disturbed the fecal bacterial

  17. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    2017-01-01

    themselves. We draw on two multi-year field studies of India and Denmark to investigate how national reforms and developments within the ranking industry interact in often surprising ways. Rankings do not always do what policy makers expect. We (1) highlight the activity of rankers in these two countries, (2......) show the dynamic nature of policy processes, and (3) consider the search for policy reference points among the different actors. We present rankers in motion, policies in motion, and finally the complex nature of the ranking device that needs to be both a relevant and malleable policy instrument...

  18. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  19. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Xpert Opinion Activity Calendar Activity Cards Ballet Baseball ... Disaster - Are You at Risk? Disaster - Helping Hands Physical Activity - Questions Physical Activity - Active or Not, Here it ...

  20. Intangible activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ‘Informal helping’ is often associated with other types of prosocial behaviour such as formal voluntary work. Therefore, one could jump to the conclusion that it would be the same factors driving both types of activities. This article demonstrates that this is not the case. The study relies...... on a population survey on informal helping and volunteering in Denmark. The two contributions of this article are as follows: (1) it demonstrates that the sociodemographic indicators that are closely linked to formal volunteering are not related to informal helping in the same manner and (2) it demonstrates...... that it is necessary to separate the decision to help and the amount of hours that people help, a distinction that previous empirical studies on this topic fail to include. The results show that informal helping may not simply be compared to other instances of prosocial behaviour. In particular, the socio...

  1. Active sharing

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  2. DAVIC activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    DAVIC (Digital Audio Visual Council) is the defacto standardization organization established in Mar. 1994, based on international consensus for digital audio visual services. After completion of MPEG2 standardization, the broadcasting industry, the communication industry, the computer industry, and consumer electronics industry have started development of concrete services and products. Especially the interactive digital audio visual services, such as Video On Demand (VOD) or Near Video On Demand (NVOD), have become hot topics all over the world. Such interactive digital audio visual services are combined technologies of multi-media coding, digital transmission and computer networking. Therefore more than 150 organizations from all industry sectors have participated in DAVIC and are contributing from their own industrial contexts. DAVIC's basic policy is to use the available technologies specified by the other standards bodies as much as possible. So DAVIC's standardization activities have close relationship with ISO IEC/JTC1/SC29, ITU-T SG 9, ATM-Forum, IETF, IMA, DVB, etc. DAVIC is trying to specify Applications, Reference Models, Security, Usage Information Control, and the interfaces and protocols among the Content Provider, the Server, the core network, the access network, and the Set Top Unit. DAVIC's first goal is to specify DAVIC1.0 based on CFP1 (Call for Proposal) and CFP2 by Dec. 1995, and the next direction is under preparation for further progress based on CFP3 and CFP4.

  3. IASS Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  4. Production of endoglucanase by the native strains of Streptomyces isolates in submerged fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellapandi, P.; Jani, Himanshu M.

    2008-01-01

    Cellulase is a complex enzyme system, commercially produced by filamentous fungi under solid-state and submerged cultivation. It has wide applicability in textile, food and beverage industry for effective saccharification process. In this study, cellulolytic enzyme activity, particularly endoglucanase of 26 Streptomyces strains isolated from garden soil was examined, including two isolates selected on the basis of potential cellulolytic activity on Bennett’s agar medium. To enhance the endoglucanase formation in broth culture, different conditions including carbon and nitrogen sources, and growth conditions were tested. The maximum endoglucanase activity (11.25-11.90 U/mL) was achieved within 72-88 h in fermentation medium containing Tween-80, followed by phosphate sources. Both cellulolytic Streptomyces isolates gave almost equal quantity of enzyme in all trials. However the effect of medium ingredients on endoglucanase induction diverged with strains in some extent. PMID:24031191

  5. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dashtban, Heidi Schraft, Wensheng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

  6. Activation Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  7. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of muscle-strengthening activities include lifting weights, yoga, push-ups, and sit-ups. A “repetition” is one complete movement of an activity. To get health benefits, do muscle-strengthening activities until it is hard ...

  8. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  9. Spirochaeta odontotermitis sp. nov., an obligately anaerobic, cellulolytic, halotolerant, alkaliphilic spirochaete isolated from the termite Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sravanthi, T; Tushar, L; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative spirochaete (strain JC202T) was isolated from the gut of the termite Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) from Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India. This strain was obligately anaerobic, mesophilic, halotolerant and required alkaline conditions for growth. Strain JC202T was resistant to rifampicin and kanamycin, but sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline, ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Strain JC202T possessed phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, glycolipid and six unidentified lipids. C18 : 1ω7c was the predominant cellular fatty acid with significant proportions of C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C14 : 0, C18 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c, C18 : 1ω5c and C20 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of strain JC202T was 59 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain JC202T is considered to belong to the genus Spirochaeta with Spirochaeta sphaeroplastigenens JC133T (100 % similarity), Spirochaeta alkalica Z-7491T (99.92 %), Spirochaeta americana ATCC BAA-392T (99.47 %) and other members of the genus Spirochaeta ( odontotermitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC202T ( = KCTC 15324T = NBRC 110104T).

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Cellulolytic Paenibacillus sp. Strains, MAEPY1 and MAEPY2, from Malaysian Landfill Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Patric; Yoo, Hye-Seung; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Sui-Mae

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of two Paenibacillus species with cellulose-degrading abilities isolated from landfill leachate. An array of genes putatively involved in cellulose degradation have been identified in both genome sequences, which can benefit various biotechnological industries.

  11. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Page Content Article Body Pediatricians can ...

  12. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Murdoch, Linda; Reeder, Anthony I; Amun, Qa-t-a

    2011-05-29

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  13. Criminalisation of Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism.......Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism....

  14. Active commuting to school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  15. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  16. Metagenomic analyses reveal no differences in genes involved in cellulose degradation under different tillage treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Maria; Schöler, Anne; Ertl, Julia; Xu, Zhuofei; Schloter, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Incorporation of plant litter is a frequent agricultural practice to increase nutrient availability in soil, and relies heavily on the activity of cellulose-degrading microorganisms. Here we address the question of how different tillage treatments affect soil microbial communities and their cellulose-degrading potential in a long-term agricultural experiment. To identify potential differences in microbial taxonomy and functionality, we generated six soil metagenomes of conventional (CT) and reduced (RT) tillage-treated topsoil samples, which differed in their potential extracellular cellulolytic activity as well as their microbial biomass. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic data revealed few differences between RT and CT, and a dominance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, whereas eukaryotic phyla were not prevalent. Prediction of cellulolytic enzymes revealed glycoside hydrolase families 1, 3 and 94, auxiliary activity family 8 and carbohydrate-binding module 2 as the most abundant in soil. These were annotated mainly to the phyla of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These results suggest that the observed higher cellulolytic activity in RT soils can be explained by a higher microbial biomass or changed expression levels but not by shifts in the soil microbiome. Overall, this study reveals the stability of soil microbial communities and cellulolytic gene composition under the investigated tillage treatments.

  17. Hydrolysis of model cellulose films by cellulosomes: Extension of quartz crystal microbalance techniques to multienzymatic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium thermocellum, a well-studied cellulolytic bacterium, produces highly active cellulases in the form of cellulosomes. The ability of the cellulose binding module within the cellulosome to adhere C. thermocellum cells to the cellulosic substrate is considered to contribute to its high cellu...

  18. Evaluation of Minimal Trichoderma reesei Cellulase Mixtures on Differently Pretreated Barley Straw Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Langston, J;

    2007-01-01

    The commercial cellulase product Celluclast 1.5, derived from Trichoderma reesei (Novozymes A/S, Bagsv ae rd, Denmark), is widely employed for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. This enzyme preparation contains a broad spectrum of cellulolytic enzyme activities, most notably...

  19. Evaluation of minimal Trichoderma reesei cellulase mixtures on differently pretreated barley straw substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Langston, Jim;

    2007-01-01

    The commercial cellulase product Celluclast 1.5, derived from Trichoderma reesei (Novozymes A/S, Bagsv ae rd, Denmark), is widely employed for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. This enzyme preparation contains a broad spectrum of cellulolytic enzyme activities, most notably...

  20. Cultural Activation of Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary

    2016-02-01

    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  1. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  2. ACS Community Activities Contests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgener, Marisa

    2007-08-01

    The Committee on Community Activities and the Office of Community Activities announce the winners of the Illustrated Haiku Contest, Earth Day 2007 and the Poster Contest, National Chemistry Week 2006.

  3. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  4. USAID Activity Locatons

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  5. Active magnetic regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  6. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page Subscribe to ePublications email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > ePublications > Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) ...

  7. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minutes Stairwalking for 15 minutes Sporting Activities Playing volleyball for 45–60 minutes Playing touch football for ... strenuous activities. Competitive sports, such as tennis and volleyball, can provide an enjoyable form of exercise for ...

  8. Italian active volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi

    2003-01-01

    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  9. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: ...

  10. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  11. Activity Theory and Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  12. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  13. Ras activation by SOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen;

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual ...

  14. Proteolytic activities in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheki, T; Holzer, H

    1975-03-28

    Studies on the mechanism and time course of the activation of proteinases A (EC 3.4.23.8), B (EC 3.4.22.9) and C (EC 3.4.12.--) in crude yeast extracts at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C showed that the increase in proteinase B activity is paralleled with the disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor. Addition of purified proteinase A to fresh crude extracts accelerates the inactivation of the proteinase B inhibitor and the appearance of maximal activities of proteinases B and C. The decrease of proteinase B inhibitor activity and the increase of proteinase B activity are markedly retarded by the addition of pepstatin. Because 10-minus 7 M pepstatin completely inhibits proteinase A without affecting proteinase B activity, this is another indication for the role of proteinase A during the activation of proteinase B. Whereas extracts of yeast grown on minimal medium reached maximal activation of proteinases B and C after 20 h of incubation at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C, extracts of yeast grown on complete medium had to be incubated for about 100 h. In the latter case, the addition of proteinas A results in maximal activation of proteinases B and C and disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor activity only after 10--20 h of incubation. With the optimal conditions, the maximal activities of proteinases A, B and C, as well as of the proteinase B inhibitor, were determined in crude extracts of yeast that had been grown batchwise for different lengths of time either on minimal or on complete medium. Upon incubation, all three proteinases were activated by several times their initial activity. This reflects the existence of proteolytically degradable inhibitors of the three proteinases and together with the above mentioned observations it demonstrates that the "activation" of yeast proteinases A, B and C upon incubation results from the proteolytic digestion of inhibitors rather than from activation of inactive zymogens by limited proteolysis.

  15. Recurrent radio activity in active galactic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamrozy M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing body of persuasive evidence to indicate that AGN activity, powered by mass accretion onto a supermassive black hole, can involve multiple episodes. Thus thinking of jet activity as occurring within a unique brief period in the life of a galaxy is no longer valid. The most striking examples of AGNs with recurrent jet activity are the double-double radio sources, which contain two or more pairs of distinct lobes on the opposite sides of a parent optical object. On the other hand, we have now conclusive arguments that galaxy mergers and interactions are principal triggers for AGNs. Quite a number of examples of powerful radio sources hosted by galaxies with peculiar optical morphologies (tails, shells, dust-lanes, etc. can be cited to support such a scenario. The structure and spectra of extended radio emission from radio galaxies, with sizes ranging up to a few Mpc, can provide a lot of information on the history of the central AGN activity, while the spectral and dynamical ages of these extended radio lobes could be used to constrain the time scales of recurrent AGN activity.

  16. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    the elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities...... ‘sites of active aging’ in Denmark. By presenting three technologies of active aging (billiards at an activity center for elderly persons, dancing tiles for rehabilitation after falls and an online fitness community for elderly persons) the paper suggests that active aging is more than regimes...

  17. Accessibility, activity participation and location of activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    By investigating relationships between residential location and the availability of facilities, location of activities, trip distances, activity participation and trip frequencies, this paper seeks to contribute to a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the relationships between residential...... outweigh each other. However, differences in trip distances due to the location of the dwelling relative to concentrations of facilities translate into substantially longer total travelling distances among suburbanites than among inner-city residents....... location and the amount of daily-life travel in an urban region. The empirical data are from a comprehensive study of residential location and travel in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area. Differences between inner- and outer-area residents in activity frequencies and trip frequencies are modest and partly...

  18. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  19. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E

    1999-01-01

    was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly...

  20. [Biomedical activity of biosurfactants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowska, Anna

    2010-07-23

    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of knowledge related to biomedical activity of biosurfactants.

  1. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  2. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  3. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling, food...

  4. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  5. Reflections on Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  6. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  7. Physical Activity Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostencka Alicja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the weekly energy expenditure measuring MET/min/week based on data collected through the Canada Fitness Survey (CFS, according to the classification used in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and to verify the adopted method to assess the level of physical activity in students of physical education.

  8. Active and Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  9. Activating Event Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  10. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  11. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  12. Activities of the ILO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Seven articles on International Labour Organization (ILO) activities cover study groups at ILO headquarters, a Philippine rural workers seminar, women's participation in Central American union activities, worksite courses in India, and seminars and symposia in Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Sierra Leone. (SK)

  13. Choreography of AMPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendorf, Christopher G; Kemp, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    A recent study published in Cell Research by Li and colleagues reports a detailed biophysical and structural study of AMPK's intra-molecular interactions during activation. By employing subunit tagging and proximity analysis with the aid of AlphaScreen instrumentation, Li et al. add to our understanding of the choreography of activation of AMPK by both nucleotides and phosphorylation.

  14. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  15. Active at Any Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go to the gym all the time to benefit from being active. To make physical activity more fun, try something you enjoy doing, such as dancing to the radio or taking a yoga class with friends. Many people find they start ...

  16. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) ...

  17. Biomedical activity of biosurfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Krasowska

    2010-01-01

    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of k...

  18. Activity-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

    : what you can do depends upon where you are. Finally, human and automatic machinery alternate in filling certain roles in the activity: sometime the officer maintains the course, sometimes the autopilot. Such activities require us to rethink the traditional oppositions between communication...

  19. Determinants of Physical Activity in Active and Low-Active, Sixth Grade African-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G.; Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth; Riner, William

    1999-01-01

    Compared determinants of physical activity in active and low-active African-American sixth graders, surveying students and making objective assessments of physical activity over seven days. Results indicated that physical activity self-efficacy, beliefs about physical activity outcomes, involvement in community-based physical activity, perception…

  20. Intracellular light-activation of riboswitch activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Steven; Gardner, Laura; Deiters, Alexander; Williams, Gavin J

    2014-06-16

    By combining a riboswitch with a cell-permeable photocaged small-molecule ligand, an optochemical gene control element was constructed that enabled spatial and temporal control of gene expression in bacterial cells. The simplicity of this strategy, coupled with the ability to create synthetic riboswitches with tailored ligand specificities and output in a variety of microorganisms, plants, and fungi might afford a general strategy to photocontrol gene expression in vivo. The ability to activate riboswitches by using light enables the interrogation and manipulation of a wide range of biological processes with high precision, and will have broad utility in the regulation of artificial genetic circuits.

  1. Biological activities of alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Mikinori; Oda, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into the structure-activity relationship of alginate, we examined the effect of alginates with varying molecular weights and M/G ratio on murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 cells in terms of induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion. Among the alginates tested, alginate with the highest molecular weight (MW 38,000, M/G 2.24) showed the most potent TNF-α-inducing activity. Alginates having higher M/G ratio tended to show higher activity. These results suggest that molecular size and M/G ratio are important structural parameters influencing the TNF-α-inducing activity. Interestingly, enzymatic depolymerization of alginate with bacterial alginate lyase resulted in dramatic increase in the TNF-α-inducing activity. The higher activity of enzymatically digested alginate oligomers to induce nitric oxide production from RAW264.7 cells than alginate polymer was also observed. On the other hand, alginate polymer and oligomer showed nearly equal hydroxyl radical scavenging activities.

  2. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  3. Active optical zoom system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  4. A universe of activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, J.; Jáuregui, F.; Gordón, N.; Manzanal, R.

    Since its opening back in november 1993 the Planetarium of Pamplona has gone a long way creating activities related to teaching and communicating Astronomy, Science and other areas of what we call Culture. In this poster we present a summary of some of the most relevant activities that have had an special relevance throughout these years. We will refer to our “School of Stars” in which more than 400 000 students have already been involved and other activities that have been very appreciated by our visitors.

  5. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  6. China's Space Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China National Space Administration

    2004-01-01

    @@ Currently, space activities are very active around the world. Space technologies continuously expand to various areas of human activities, and space technology and applications are becoming an indispensable part of modern information society,while the development of space science brings a brand-new view to the development of science and technology. The development of space law is not only an important approach to improving people' s quality of lives, expanding the living space of human being, and exploiting new resources, but also an important symbol of the comprehensive strength and civilization of a nation.

  7. Active Directory cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Laura

    2008-01-01

    When you need practical hands-on support for Active Directory, the updated edition of this extremely popular Cookbook provides quick solutions to more than 300 common (and uncommon) problems you might encounter when deploying, administering, and automating Microsoft's network directory service. For the third edition, Active Directory expert Laura E. Hunter offers troubleshooting recipes based on valuable input from Windows administrators, in addition to her own experience. You'll find solutions for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), ADAM (Active Directory Application Mode), m

  8. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  9. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  10. Creating Art Appreciation Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt, Ann H.

    1986-01-01

    The experiences of college students enrolled as majors in elementary education in designing art appreciation activities for use in elementary classrooms are described. The college students had no art background. (RM)

  11. Active flows on trees

    CERN Document Server

    Forrow, Aden; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection interacts with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages $\\sim 1/4$ the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macrosco...

  12. Tanzania - Kigoma Solar Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The performance evaluation of the Kigoma solar activity was designed to answer questions about the implementation of the program and about outcomes that may have...

  13. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  14. Homebuyer Activities Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet. PJs can use this report to view homebuyer activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS that are in final draw,...

  15. Math Lab Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, Douglas K.; Hynes, Michael C.

    1974-01-01

    The goals, objects, materials and grade levels are specified in this description of a laboratory activity involving analytic geometry concepts. Students mark out bicycle gymkhana courses in which directions to participants are given by Cartesian coordinates. (JP)

  16. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  17. Habitats, activities, and signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational, ......, and pragmatic, 2) proposes a notation, and 3) sketches a method and exemplifies areas of application using authentic cases from hospital work, primary school education, the maritime domain, and other areas......Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational...

  18. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  19. CDBG Public Improvements Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers, fire...

  20. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbon, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.

  1. MARIHUANA ACTIVITY OF CANNABINOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, S

    1945-12-14

    Cannabinol, generally believed to be an inert component of hemp oil, is shown to have marihuana activity. The significance of this observation with regard to the relationship between structure and mamactivity in the class of cannabinols is discussed.

  2. OTI Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OTI's worldwide activity database is a simple and effective information system that serves as a program management, tracking, and reporting tool. In each country,...

  3. Vessel Activity Record

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Activity Record is a bi-weekly spreadsheet that shows the status of fishing vessels. It records whether fishing vessels are fishing without an observer...

  4. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  5. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  6. TPR And TPR Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽萍

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the definition of Total Physical Response(TPR),elaborates the process and the principles of it 80 that more and more TPR activities can be created according to them.The use of TPR shows us an interesting and effective way of teaching and learning English.TPR activities are interesting,challenging and motivating that almost all the students enjoy them.

  7. Toroidal optical activity

    CERN Document Server

    Raybould, T A; Papasimakis, N; Kuprov, I; Youngs, I; Chen, W T; Tsai, D P; Zheludev, N I

    2015-01-01

    Optical activity is ubiquitous across natural and artificial media and is conventionally understood in terms of scattering from electric and magnetic moments. Here we demonstrate experimentally and confirm numerically a type of optical activity that cannot be attributed to electric and magnetic multipoles. We show that our observations can only be accounted for by the inclusion of the toroidal dipole moment, the first term of the recently established peculiar family of toroidal multipoles.

  8. Phytase activity in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Lamb, Andrew J

    2005-11-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

  10. Hypoglycemic Activity of Jatrorrhizine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The hypoglycemic activity and its mechanism of Jatrorrhizine (Jat) were studied. The normal mice and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice were given with different doses of Jat. Blood glucose and liver glycogen levels were determined by spectrophotometry with glucose-oxidase and iodine reagents respectively. The levels of blood lactic acid (LC) and liver lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were measured to explore the effect of Jat on anaerobic glycolysis. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in liver was measured to evaluate the effect of Jat on aerobic glycolysis in liver. It was found that Jat (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) could significantly decrease blood glucose level in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both normal and alloxan-diabetic mice, increase the activity of SDH, but had no significant effects on the LC level and LDH activity. Jat could significantly reduce the content of liver glycogen in normal mice. Moreover, Jat could inhibit the platelet aggregation in rabbits in vitro in a dose-effect relationship. It was concluded that Jat induced the pronounced decrease in blood glucose in normal and hyperglycemic mice. The hypoglycemic activity of Jat may be attributed to the enhancement of aerobic glycolysis.

  11. Psychomotor activities with seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kopřivová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the

  12. Antimutagenic activity of spearmint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Wei; Xu, Meirong; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2004-01-01

    The antimutagenic activity of spearmint (Mentha spicata), a popular food flavoring agent, was studied in the Salmonella assay. Spearmint leaves were brewed in hot water for 5 min at concentrations up to 5% (w/v), and the water extracts were tested against the direct-acting mutagens 4-nitro-1,2-phenylenediamine (NPD) and 2-hydroxyamino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (N-OH-IQ) using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. Nontoxic concentrations of spearmint extract inhibited the mutagenic activity of N-OH-IQ in a concentration-dependent fashion, but had no effect against NPD. These experiments by design focused on the water extract consumed commonly as an herbal tea, but chloroform and methanol extracts of spearmint also possessed antimutagenic activity against N-OH-IQ. Water extract of spearmint inhibited the mutagenic activity of the parent compound, 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), in the presence of rat liver S9; however, the concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) against IQ was approximately 10-fold higher than in assays with N-OH-IQ minus S9. At concentrations similar to those used in the Salmonella assays, spearmint extract inhibited two of the major enzymes that play a role in the metabolic activation of IQ, namely, cytochromes P4501A1 and 1A2, based on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase assays in vitro. In vivo, rats were given spearmint water extract (2%; w/v) as the sole source of drinking fluid before, during, and after 2-week treatment with IQ; colonic aberrant crypt foci were inhibited significantly at 8 weeks (P < 0.05, compared with rats given IQ alone). Collectively, these findings suggest that spearmint tea protects against IQ and possibly other heterocyclic amines through inhibition of carcinogen activation and via direct effects on the activated metabolite(s).

  13. ACTIVATION ENERGY OF DESORPTION OF DIBENZOFURAN ON ACTIVATED CARBONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; LI Zhong; XI Hongxia; LUO Lingai

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of commercial activated carbons, such as Norit RB1, Monolith and Chemviron activated carbons, were used as adsorbents for adsorption of dibenzofuran. The average pore size and specific surface area of these activated carbons were measured. Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons, and then the activation energy for desorption of dibenzofuran on the activated carbons was estimated. The results showed that the Chemviron and the Norit RB1 activated carbon maintained higher specific surface area and larger micropore pore volume in comparison with the Monolith activated carbon, and the activation energy for the desorption of dibenzofuran on these two activated carbons was higher than that on the Monolith activated carbon. The smaller the pore of the activated carbon was, the higher the activated energy of dibenzofuran desorption was.

  14. Interpreting EEG alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Vernon, D

    2014-07-01

    Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it. To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

  15. Active flows on trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrow, Aden; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-11-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection can interact with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks. Our analytical predictions agree well with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages 1 / 4 the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macroscopic response of active networks, from actin-myosin networks in cells to flow networks in Physarum polycephalum, can be dominated by a few select modes.

  16. Active noise control primer

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Scott D

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control - the reduction of noise by generating an acoustic signal that actively interferes with the noise - has become an active area of basic research and engineering applications. The aim of this book is to present all of the basic knowledge one needs for assessing how useful active noise control will be for a given problem and then to provide some guidance for designing, setting up, and tuning an active noise-control system. Written for students who have no prior knowledge of acoustics, signal processing, or noise control but who do have a reasonable grasp of basic physics and mathematics, the book is short and descriptive. It leaves for more advanced texts or research monographs all mathematical details and proofs concerning vibrations, signal processing and the like. The book can thus be used in independent study, in a classroom with laboratories, or in conjunction with a kit for experiment or demonstration. Topics covered include: basic acoustics; human perception and sound; sound intensity...

  17. Software Activation Using Multithreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrui Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Software activation is an anti-piracy technology designed to verify that software products have been legitimately licensed. Activation should be quick and simple while simultaneously being secure and protecting customer privacy. The most common form of software activation is for the user to enter a legitimate product serial number. However, software activation based on serial numbers appears to be weak, since cracks for many programs are readily available on the Internet. Users can employ such cracks to bypass software activation.Serial number verification logic usually executes sequentially in a single thread. Such an approach is relatively easy to break since attackers can trace the code to understand how the logic works. In this paper, we develop a practical multi-threaded verification design. Our results show that by proper use of multi-threading, the amount of traceable code in a debugger can be reduced to a low percentage of the total and the traceable code in each run can differ as well. This makes it significantly more difficult for an attacker to reverse engineer the code as a means of bypassing a security check. Finally, we attempt to quantify the increased effort needed to break our verification logic.

  18. Chromatin as active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Ganai, Nirmalendu; Sengupta, Surajit; Menon, Gautam I.

    2017-01-01

    Active matter models describe a number of biophysical phenomena at the cell and tissue scale. Such models explore the macroscopic consequences of driving specific soft condensed matter systems of biological relevance out of equilibrium through ‘active’ processes. Here, we describe how active matter models can be used to study the large-scale properties of chromosomes contained within the nuclei of human cells in interphase. We show that polymer models for chromosomes that incorporate inhomogeneous activity reproduce many general, yet little understood, features of large-scale nuclear architecture. These include: (i) the spatial separation of gene-rich, low-density euchromatin, predominantly found towards the centre of the nucleus, vis a vis. gene-poor, denser heterochromatin, typically enriched in proximity to the nuclear periphery, (ii) the differential positioning of individual gene-rich and gene-poor chromosomes, (iii) the formation of chromosome territories, as well as (iv), the weak size-dependence of the positions of individual chromosome centres-of-mass relative to the nuclear centre that is seen in some cell types. Such structuring is induced purely by the combination of activity and confinement and is absent in thermal equilibrium. We systematically explore active matter models for chromosomes, discussing how our model can be generalized to study variations in chromosome positioning across different cell types. The approach and model we outline here represent a preliminary attempt towards a quantitative, first-principles description of the large-scale architecture of the cell nucleus.

  19. [Inflammasome: activation mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Raibel; Buelvas, Neudo

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is a rapid biologic response of the immune system in vascular tissues, directed to eliminate stimuli capable of causing damage and begin the process of repair. The macromolecular complexes known as "inflammasomes" are formed by a receptor, either NOD (NLR) or ALR, the receptor absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). In addition, the inflammasome is formed by the speck-like protein associated to apoptosis (ASC) and procaspase-1, that may be activated by variations in the ionic and intracellular and extracellular ATP concentrations; and the loss of stabilization of the fagolisosomme by internalization of insoluble crystals and redox mechanisms. As a result, there is activation of the molecular platform and the processing of inflammatory prointerleukins to their active forms. There are two modalities of activation of the inflammasome: canonical and non-canonical, both capable of generating effector responses. Recent data associate NLRP 3, IL-1β and IL-18 in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, hyperhomocysteinemia, gout, malaria and hypertension. The inflammasome cascade is emerging as a new chemotherapeutic target in these diseases. In this review we shall discuss the mechanisms of activation and regulation of the inflammasome that stimulate, modulate and resolve inflammation.

  20. Effect of Different Pretreatment of Sugar Cane Bagasse on Cellulase and Xylanases Production by the Mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 Grown in Submerged Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Marli Camassola; Dillon, Aldo J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.25...

  1. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings......The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... is highly expressed in the prefrontal cortex areas, playing an important role in modulating cortical activity and neural oscillations (brain waves). This makes it an interesting potential pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric modes characterized by lack of inhibitory control...

  2. IHY activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (http://www.alage.org/IHYLA/ihyla.html), hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  3. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S;

    2009-01-01

    . The literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination......This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R...... in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  4. Active Elbow Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ripel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to the design of a motorized rehabilitation device – active elbow orthosis (AEO – inspired by the principles of robotic exoskeletons. The device is currently designed for the elbow joint, but can be easily modified for other joints as well. AEO determines the motion activity of the patient using a strain gauge and utilizes this measurement to control the actuator that drives the forearm part of the orthosis. Patient activity level is related to a free arm measurement obtained via a calibration procedure prior to the exercise. A high-level control module offers several types of exercises mimicking the physiotherapist. The device was successfully verified by tests on a number of patients, resulting in extended range of elbow-joint motion.

  5. Adapted Active Appearance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Séguier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Appearance Models (AAMs are able to align efficiently known faces under duress, when face pose and illumination are controlled. We propose Adapted Active Appearance Models to align unknown faces in unknown poses and illuminations. Our proposal is based on the one hand on a specific transformation of the active model texture in an oriented map, which changes the AAM normalization process; on the other hand on the research made in a set of different precomputed models related to the most adapted AAM for an unknown face. Tests on public and private databases show the interest of our approach. It becomes possible to align unknown faces in real-time situations, in which light and pose are not controlled.

  6. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector......Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  7. General human activity patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics and interplay between human communication, movement, and social proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. The main question we consider is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Based on statistics of the entire population, we successfully predict 71\\% of the activity and 85\\% of the inactivity involved in communication, movement, and social proximity. We find that individual level statistics only result in marginally better predictions, indicating a high degree of shared activity patterns across the population. Finally, we predict short-term activity patterns using a generalized linear model, which suggests that a simple linear description might be sufficient to explain a wide range of actions, whether they be of social or of physical character.

  8. SCOR announces new activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Edward R., Jr.

    Roger Revelle had many good ideas during his long and productive career. One of them came to fruition in 1957 in the form of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), which the International Council for Science created as its first interdisciplinary body, to promote international activities in oceanography. Revelle served as SCOR's first president from 1957 to 1960. SCOR offers opportunities for scientists from different countries to cooperate in planning and executing international programs in ocean sciences. Over its 44 years in existence, SCOR has sponsored 120 working groups and has actively participated in many of the major international oceanographic projects. Thirty-six nations presently participate as SCOR members.

  9. Actively coupled optical waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Alexeeva, N. V.; Barashenkov, I. V.; Rayanov, K.; Flach, S.

    2013-01-01

    We consider light propagation through a pair of nonlinear optical waveguides with absorption, placed in a medium with power gain. The active medium boosts the in-phase component of the overlapping evanescent fields of the guides, while the nonlinearity of the guides couples it to the damped out-of-phase component creating a feedback loop. As a result, the structure exhibits stable stationary and oscillatory regimes in a wide range of gain-loss ratios. We show that the pair of actively-coupled...

  10. Actively coupled optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeva, N. V.; Barashenkov, I. V.; Rayanov, K.; Flach, S.

    2014-01-01

    We consider light propagation through a pair of nonlinear optical waveguides with absorption, placed in a medium with power gain. The active medium boosts the in-phase component of the overlapping evanescent fields of the guides, while the nonlinearity of the guides couples it to the damped out-of-phase component creating a feedback loop. As a result, the structure exhibits stable stationary and oscillatory regimes in a wide range of gain-loss ratios. We show that the pair of actively coupled (AC) waveguides can act as a stationary or integrate-and-fire comparator sensitive to tiny differences in their input powers.

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Grepafloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Wiedemann

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Grepafloxin has an extremely broad spectrum of activity. Its activity against Gram-positive bacteria exceeds that of currently available quinolones. Grepafloxacin-resistant mutants seem to occur less frequently than ciprofloxacin - or ofloxacin-resistant mutants, and the increase in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against the former mutants is less than that of the latter. This applies only to the relative differences (in dilution steps; the absolute values are similar. Grepafloxacin kills Gram-positive bacteria at concentrations little above the MIC. Its pharmacodynamic profile against pneumococci is promising, favouring use of this drug for respiratory tract infections.

  12. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...... on the thigh (n=903) and one on the lower back (n= 856), for up to ten consecutive days. Participants were instructed not to reattach an accelerometer should it fall off. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to determine associations between accelerometer wear time and age, sex, BMI percentiles...

  13. Antifungal activity of diethyldithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Reisinger, E C; Söldner, B; Dierich, M P

    1989-10-01

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC) was evaluated for its ability to combat four different species of fungi in vitro. Using a microtiter-broth-dilution method we were able to demonstrate an antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor mucedo in doses achievable by intravenous administration in man.

  14. Atherosclerosis and Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mamari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease have been considered as major health problem worldwide. Abnormalities in lipids and lipoprotein metabolism and impairment of endothelial function have been implicated as the main contributing factors in atherosclerosis and its progression. Physical activity has been recognized as a preventive measure for atherosclerosis.

  15. Bonus Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Elementary level activity book presents suggestions for teaching students about endangered and threatened species worldwide. Students learn about what is causing the rapid extinction rate and what needs to be done. They also discover the value of rainforests and why conservationists are fighting to save them. (SM)

  16. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, A; Karoff, C

    2014-01-01

    In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by ...

  17. [Biological activity of Spirulina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkova, L P; Gorobets, O B; Baturo, A P

    2001-01-01

    In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances, indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals, chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media.

  18. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    dimensional 2D/3D deformable model. Our activation splines are easy to set up and can be used for physics based animation of deformable models such as snake motion and locomotion of characters. Our approach generalises easily to both 2D and 3D simulations and is applicable in physics based games or animations...

  19. Mechanism of charity activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman B. Golovkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to establish the essential properties of the mechanism of charitable activities and to formulate the concept of quotmechanism of charitable activityquot. Methods the objective of the study is achieved using the complex of methods which are based on the interaction of dialectical and metaphysical analysis the epistemological properties of which allowed to reveal various aspects of the charitable activities mechanism functioning taking into account the principles of comprehensiveness complexity specificity and objectivity of the research. Results the rules are stated of using the term quotmechanismquot to characterize actions of state and law the essence of the charity mechanism is defined the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activity quot is formulated. Scientific novelty for the first time at theoretical level in legal science the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activityquot is formulated and its essential properties are set. Practical significance the research will contribute to improving the legal regulation in the field of philanthropy as well as to improving the efficiency and quality of charitable activity in the Russian Federation. nbsp

  20. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  1. Low activity aluminum blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenati, R.; Tichler, P.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    The basic design of the breeding blanket consists of cylindrical aluminium canisters filled with a ceramic bed of moderating, shielding, and breeding materials all suitably cooled. A technical analysis of the blanket for an EPR design is given. Activation studies are presented. The effect of pulsed magnetic fields on module structure is investigated. (MOW)

  2. Seismology of active stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekker, S.; García, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this review we will discuss the current standing and open questions of seismology in active stars. With the longer photometric time series data that are, and will become, available from space-missions such as Kepler we foresee significant progress in our understanding of stellar internal structur

  3. 'Active' Thin Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, M.R.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Optical microscopy using thin sections has become more and more important over the last decade to study concrete. Unfortunately, this technique is not capable of studying actually hydrating cement paste. At Delft University of Technology a new technique has been developed using 'active' thin section

  4. Sexual activity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients.

  5. Elusive active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maiolino, R; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Nagar, NM; Bianchi, S; Boker, T; Colbert, E; Krabbe, A; Marconi, A; Matt, G; Salvati, M

    2003-01-01

    A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically 'elusive'. X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtai

  6. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and filtr...

  7. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures affecting…

  8. Active Math Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The presentation is concerned with general course planning philosophy and a specific case study (boomerang flight geometro-dynamics) for active learning of mathematics via computer assisted and hands-on unfolding of first principles - in this case the understanding of rotations and Eulers equatio...

  9. Marketing coprovided activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Pamela S

    2014-05-01

    Coproviding is a wonderful way for two or more organizations to work together to provide continuing nursing education. To be transparent to the learners, marketing materials identify the parties involved and prominently note the name of the organization accountable for developing the activity and awarding the contact hours.

  10. An electrochemical active valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neagu, C.R.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Elwenspoek, M.; Kelly, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    A novel electrochemical microactuator was developed, which operates as an active valve. The microactuator consists of an electrochemical cell and a membrane that deflects because of the pressure of oxygen gas generated by electrolysis. Relatively large pressures (up to tens of bars) can be reached w

  11. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, I look at the implications of transferable quotas on the organization of production; that is, how fishing activities are structured around access to the individual and transferable quotas and how, in turn, the quotas structure the production. Therefore, this chapter will give...

  12. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  13. CMMs Development Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; HU Yefa; HUANG Anyi

    2006-01-01

    The coordinate measuring machine (CMM) has been an important role in the digital manufacturing. This paper reviews CMM early stage development history and current activities. The authors provide some ideas about the areas that academic research can help to the CMMs development.

  14. Shark Tagging Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    In this group activity, children learn about the purpose of tagging and how scientists tag a shark. Using a cut-out of a shark, students identify, measure, record data, read coordinates, and tag a shark. Includes introductory information about the purpose of tagging and the procedure, a data sheet showing original tagging data from Tampa Bay, and…

  15. Antimalarial activity of cedronin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, C; Deharo, E; Sauvain, M; Jardel, C; David, P T; Gasquet, M

    1994-06-01

    Cedronin was isolated from Simaba cedron Planchon (Simaroubaceae), a species popularly believed in South America to have antimalarial properties. It was examined for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activities and for cytotoxicity against KB cells. Experimental results showed that cedronin was active against chloroquine-sensitive and resistant strain, with an IC50 of 0.25 micrograms/ml (0.65 mumol/ml). It was also found to be active in vivo against Plasmodium vinkei with an IC50 of 1.8 mg/kg (4.7 nM/kg) in the classic 4-day test. Cedronin belongs to the small group of quassinoids with a C19 basic skeleton and shows a rather low cytotoxicity against KB cells (IC50 = 4 micrograms/ml, 10.4 microM) as compared with C20 biologically active quassinoids; however its toxic/therapeutic ratio (10/1.8) remains lower than chloroquine (10/0.5).

  16. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  17. Activities. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Daffer, Phares G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provided are the activity sheets for students and the teaching guide for this middle school geometry activity. Materials, prerequisites, objectives, and procedures are listed. Extension activities are suggested. An answer key is included. (CW)

  18. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  19. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  20. Integration of Active Video Games in Extracurricular Activity at Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Huang, Charles; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more…

  1. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  2. Nematicidal activity of terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Alaniz, Nina M; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2013-01-01

    Thirty four phytoterpenoids were evaluated for their nematicidal effect using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematicidal activities of the tested compounds at concentrations of 50 μg/mL showed wide variation in their effects ranging from no effect, weak, moderate and strong effects. Terpenoids exerting 50% or higher mortality at 50 μg/mL were further tested at five different concentrations to calculate the concentration that will kill 50% of the nematode population (LC(50)). Among the most effective terpenoids were carvacrol, thymol, nerolidol, α-terpinene, geraniol, citronellol, farnesol, limonene, pseudoionone and eugenol in a descending order. These compounds exhibited a dose-dependent effect. The results suggest that the selected monoterpenoids and essential oils with a high concentration of these compounds mayprovide potential natural nematicides and merit further study as botanical nematicides for the control of both plant and animal parasitic nematodes. In general, oxygenated terpenoids and phenolic terpenoids exhibited higher nematicidal activity than hydrocarbons terpenoids.

  3. Apheresis activity in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, Christiane

    2005-07-01

    Interest for apheresis activity has been growing in Venezuela. In 1976 there were only a few devices; in 2003, 80 apheresis machines performed 27,675 donor apheresis procedures and 547 therapeutic procedures countrywide. We report the activity at the Metropolitan Blood Bank (the largest one of the country) in the period 1999-2003: 597 therapeutic procedures were performed in 171 patients, during 212 crisis episodes. The average age was 38 +/- 16 years, 65% male and 35% female. Most of the therapeutic procedures were therapeutic plasma exchange for hematology diseases (mainly thrombotic thrombocitopenic purpura and hemophilia inhibitors), including 184 therapeutic procedures with the Autopheresis-C (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL). Most common adverse effects (3.9%) were hypotension and allergic reactions to the plasma.

  4. Active optical clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN JingBiao

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the principles and techniques of active optical clock, a special laser combining the laser physics of one-atom laser, bad-cavity gas laser, super-cavity stabilized laser and optical atomic clock together. As a simple example, an active optical clock based on thermal strontium atomic beam shows a quantum-limited linewidth of 0.51 Hz, which is insensitive to laser cavity-length noise, and may surpass the recorded narrowest 6.7 Hz of Hg ion optical clock and 1.5 Hz of very recent optical lattice clock. The estimated 0.1 Hz one-second instability and 0.27 Hz uncertainty are limited only by the rela-tivistic Doppler effect, and can be improved by cold atoms.

  5. LANSCE Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Robinson; Audrey Archuleta; Barbara Maes; Dan Strottman; Earl Hoffman; Garth Tietjen; Gene Farnum; Geoff Greene; Joyce Roberts; Ken Johnson; Paul Lewis; Roger Pynn; Stan Schriber; Steve Sterbenz; Steve Wender; Sue Harper

    1999-02-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Activity Report describes scientific and technological progress and achievements in LANSCE Division during the period of 1995 to 1998. This report includes a message from the Division Director, an overview of LANSCE, sponsor overviews, research highlights, advanced projects and facility upgrades achievements, experimental and user program accomplishments, news and events, and a list of publications. The research highlights cover the areas of condensed-matter science and engineering, accelerator science, nuclear science, and radiography. This report also contains a compact disk that includes an overview, the Activity Report itself, LANSCE operations progress reports for 1996 and 1997, experiment reports from LANSCE users, as well as a search capability.

  6. Stellar Chromospheric Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Jeffrey C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sun, stars similar to it, and many rather dissimilar to it, have chromospheres, regions classically viewed as lying above the brilliant photosphere and characterized by a positive temperature gradient and a marked departure from radiative equilibrium. Stellar chromospheres exhibit a wide range of phenomena collectively called activity, stemming largely from the time evolution of their magnetic fields and the mass flux and transfer of radiation through the complex magnetic topology and the increasingly optically thin plasma of the outer stellar atmosphere. In this review, I will (1 outline the development of our understanding of chromospheric structure from 1960 to the present, (2 discuss the major observational programs and theoretical lines of inquiry, (3 review the origin and nature of both solar and stellar chromospheric activity and its relationship to, and effect on, stellar parameters including total energy output, and (4 summarize the outstanding problems today.

  7. Techniques for active passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  8. Cisplatin triggers platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togna, G I; Togna, A R; Franconi, M; Caprino, L

    2000-09-01

    Clinical observations suggest that anticancer drugs could contribute to the thrombotic complications of malignancy in treated patients. Thrombotic microangiopathy, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular thrombotic events have been reported for cisplatin, a drug widely used in the treatment of many solid tumours. The aim of this study is to explore in vitro cisplatin effect on human platelet reactivity in order to define the potentially active role of platelets in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced thrombotic complications. Our results demonstrate that cisplatin increases human platelet reactivity (onset of platelet aggregation wave and thromboxane production) to non-aggregating concentrations of the agonists involving arachidonic acid metabolism. Direct or indirect activation of platelet phospholipase A(2) appears to be implicated. This finding contributes to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of thrombotic complications occurring during cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  9. The Active Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Jewitt, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Some asteroids eject dust, unexpectedly producing transient, comet-like comae and tails. First ascribed to the sublimation of near-surface water ice, mass losing asteroids (also called "main-belt comets") can in fact be driven by a surprising diversity of mechanisms. In this paper, we consider eleven dynamical asteroids losing mass, in nine of which the ejected material is spatially resolved. We address mechanisms for producing mass loss including rotational instability, impact ejection, electrostatic repulsion, radiation pressure sweeping, dehydration stresses and thermal fracture, in addition to the sublimation of ice. In two objects (133P and 238P) the repetitive nature of the observed activity leaves ice sublimation as the only reasonable explanation while, in a third ((596) Scheila), a recent impact is the cause. Another impact may account for activity in P/2010 A2 but this tiny object can also be explained as having shed mass after reaching rotational instability. Mass loss from (3200) Phaethon is proba...

  10. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  11. Sesterterpenoids with Anticancer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Kornienko, Alexander; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Dasari, Ramesh; Evidente, Marco; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Terpenes have received a great deal of attention in the scientific literature due to complex, synthetically challenging structures and diverse biological activities associated with this class of natural products. Based on the number of C5 isoprene units they are generated from, terpenes are classified as hemi- (C5), mono- (C10), sesqui- (C15), di- (C20), sester- (C25), tri (C30), and tetraterpenes (C40). Among these, sesterterpenes and their derivatives known as sesterterpenoids, are ubiquitous secondary metabolites in fungi, marine organisms, and plants. Their structural diversity encompasses carbotricyclic ophiobolanes, polycyclic anthracenones, polycyclic furan-2-ones, polycyclic hydroquinones, among many other carbon skeletons. Furthermore, many of them possess promising biological activities including cytotoxicity and the associated potential as anticancer agents. This review discusses the natural sources that produce sesterterpenoids, provides sesterterpenoid names and their chemical structures, biological properties with the focus on anticancer activities and literature references associated with these metabolites. A critical summary of the potential of various sesterterpenoids as anticancer agents concludes the review.

  12. Human neutrophil antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E L; Lehrer, R I; Rest, R F

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) take up opsonized microorganisms into phagosomes that fuse with secretory granules in the PMN cytoplasm to form phagolysosomes. Killing and digestion of microorganisms take place within phagolysosomes. Antimicrobial activities in phagolysosomes are divided into two classes. Oxygen (O2)-dependent mechanisms are expressed when PMNs undergo the "respiratory burst." An NADPH oxidase in the phagolysosome membrane is activated and reduces O2 to superoxide (O2-). O2 reduction is the first step in a series of reactions that produce toxic oxidants. For example, .O2- dismutases to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the azurophil granule enzyme myeloperoxidase catalyzes the oxidation of Cl- by H2O2 to yield hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The reaction of HOCl with ammonia and amines modulates the toxicity of this oxidant. O2-independent antimicrobial mechanisms include the activities of lysosomal proteases, other hydrolytic enzymes, and proteins and peptides that bind to microorganisms and disrupt essential processes or structural components. For example, the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, cathepsin G, and the defensins are released into phagolysosomes from the azurophil granules. Proposed mechanisms of action of neutrophil antimicrobial agents, their range of microbial targets, and their possible interactions within phagolysosomes are discussed.

  13. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  14. Thermal activity on Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobie, G.; Besserer, J.; Behounkova, M.; Cadek, O.; Choblet, G.; Sotin, C.

    2009-04-01

    Observations by Cassini have revealed that Enceladus' souh pole is highly active, with jets of icy particles and water vapour emanated from narrow tectonic ridges, called "tiger stripes". This jet activity is associated to a very high thermal emission mainly focused along the tectonic ridges. Heat power required to sustain such an activity is probably related to the dissipation of mechanical energy due to tidal forces exerted by Saturn. However, the dissipation process and its relation to the tectonic features are not clearly established. Both shear heating along the tectonic ridges and viscous dissipation in the convective part of the ice shell could contribute to the energy budget (Nimmo et al. 2007, Tobie et al. 2008). Tobie et al. (2008) pointed out that only interior models with a liquid water layer at depth, covering at least ~2/3 of the southern hemisphere, can explain the observed magnitude of dissipation and its particular location at the south pole. However, the long term stability of such a liquid reservoir remains problematic (Roberts and Nimmo 2007) and the possible link between the liquid reservoir and the surface activities is unknown. Concentration of tidal stresses along the tiger ridges have also been invoked as a mechanism to trigger the eruptive processes (Hurtford et al. 2007, Smith-Konter et al. 2008). However, those models do not take into account a realistic rheological structure for the ice shell when computing the fluctuating stress field. Moreover, the effect of the faults on the background tidal stress is neglected. In particular, low viscosity values are expected to be associated with the shear zone along the tiger stripes and may have a significant impact of the global tidal stress field. In order to self-consistently determine the tidal deformation and its impact on the thermal activity on Enceladus, we are currently developing a 3D model that combines a thermal convection code in spherical geometry (Choblet et al. 2007) and a

  15. Adaptable typologies for active roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjel, E.M.C.J.; Zeiler, W.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this part of the 6th framework Pan-European EUR-ACTIVE ROOF-er project is to improve the interaction between design participants of dynamic adaptable Active Roofs in product development and Active Roofs from an architects/ customers perspective. Improvements in Active Roof desi

  16. Spontaneous Plasticity of Multineuronal Activity Patterns in Activated Hippocampal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Usami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using functional multineuron imaging with single-cell resolution, we examined how hippocampal networks by themselves change the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity during the course of emitting spontaneous activity. When extracellular ionic concentrations were changed to those that mimicked in vivo conditions, spontaneous activity was increased in active cell number and activity frequency. When ionic compositions were restored to the control conditions, the activity level returned to baseline, but the weighted spatial dispersion of active cells, as assessed by entropy-based metrics, did not. Thus, the networks can modify themselves by altering the internal structure of their correlated activity, even though they as a whole maintained the same level of activity in space and time.

  17. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance...... measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, α-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activated sludge and anaerobic hydrolysis sludge from a pilot scale plant. The enzymatic activity profiles were...... distinctly different, suggesting that microbial populations were different, or had different physiological properties, in the two types of sludge. Enzyme activity profiles in activated sludge from four full-scale plants seemed to be highly influenced by the composition of the inlet. Addition of hydrolysed...

  18. Advances in Activity Cliff Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Activity cliffs, i.e. similar compounds with large potency differences, are of interest from a chemical and informatics viewpoint; as a source of structure-activity relationship information, for compound optimization, and activity prediction. Herein, recent highlights of activity cliff research are discussed including studies that have further extended our understanding of activity cliffs, yielded unprecedented insights, or paved the way for practical applications.

  19. AMS Prototyping Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the activity around the Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) prototype. An AMS reference implementation has been available since late 2005. It is aimed at supporting message exchange both in on-board environments and over space links. The implementation incoroporates all mandatory elements of the draft recommendation from July 2007: (1) MAMS, AMS, and RAMS protocols. (2) Failover, heartbeats, resync. (3) "Hooks" for security, but no cipher suites included in the distribution. The performance is reviewed, and a Benchmark latency test over VxWorks Message Queues is shown as histograms of a count vs microseconds per 1000-byte message

  20. Athena: Assessment Phase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, David; Ayre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The Athena mission concept has been proposed by the community in response to science themes of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Unlike other, competitive, mission selection exercises this "Large" class observatory mission has essentially been pre-selected. Nevertheless it has to be demonstrated that Athena meets the programmatic constraints of 1Bn euro cost cap, and a readiness level appropriate for formal mission adoption by the end 2019. This should be confirmed through a Phase A study conducted with two parallel industry activities. We describe the technical and programmatic content of these and latest progress in space and ground segment definition.

  1. Topological Active Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreira N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological active volumes (TAVs model is a general model for 3D image segmentation. It is based on deformable models and integrates features of region-based and boundary-based segmentation techniques. Besides segmentation, it can also be used for surface reconstruction and topological analysis of the inside of detected objects. The TAV structure is flexible and allows topological changes in order to improve the adjustment to object's local characteristics, find several objects in the scene, and identify and delimit holes in detected structures. This paper describes the main features of the TAV model and shows its ability to segment volumes in an automated manner.

  2. System of Volcanic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HÉDERVARI

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made among the systems of B. G.
    Escher (3, of R. W. van Bemmelen (1 and that of the author (4. In this
    connection, on the basis of Esclier's classification, the terms of "constructiv
    e " and "destructive" eruptions are introduced into the author's system and
    at the same time Escher's concept on the possible relation between the depth
    of magma-chamber and the measure of the gas-pressure is discussed briefly.
    Three complementary remarks to the first paper (4 011 the subject of system
    of volcanic activity are added.

  3. COMPANY ACTIVITY FINANCIAL RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruntu Genu Alexandru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In economic and financial activity, risk is an inherent financial decisions, encountered in daily agenda of managers of companies. Unexpected changes in the price of a product development not only affect the financial results of a company, but can cause even bankruptcy. In fact, the nature of financial decisions involve uncertainty. Financial decisions are made based on cash flows under future contracts, which are par excellence incerte.Activitatea an enterprise that holds any weight in the industry is subject to risks, since it can not predict with certainty different components of its outcome (cost, quantity, price and operating cycle (purchase, processing, sales.

  4. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Blandford, RD; Woltjer, L

    1990-01-01

    Starting with this volume, the Lecture Notes of the renowned Advanced Courses of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy will be published annually. In each course, three extensive lectures given by leading experts in their respective fields cover different and essential aspects of the subject. The 20th course, held at Les Diablerets in April 1990, dealt with current research on active galactic nuclei; it represents the most up-to-date views on the subject, presented with particular regard for clarity. The previous courses considered a wide variety of subjects, beginning with ""Theory

  5. Active terahertz metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of research in our group in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and their applications. We have developed a series of planar metamaterials operating at THz frequencies, all of which exhibit a strong resonant response. By incorporating natural materials, e.g. semiconductors, as the substrates or as critical regions of metamaterial elements, we are able to effectively control the metamaterial resonance by the application of external stimuli, e.g., photoexcitation and electrical bias. Such actively controllable metamaterials provide novel functionalities for solid-state device applications with unprecedented performance, such as THz spectroscopy, imaging, and many others.

  6. Reuse of activated alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobensack, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

  7. Diagramming Complex Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    We increasingly live in heterogeneous ever-changing webs of activities where human actions are intertwined with events created by automatic machines.  In order to make such webs understandable to its human participants, their structure should be represented by displays emphasizing their action as...... aspect. The paper suggests thematic roles as a semantics for actions, argues that a selection of well-known diagramming techniques can be defined within this theory, and uses the theory to discuss new issues related to process control and mobile technology....

  8. Miscarriage and occupational activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Bonzini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    . METHODS: A search in Medline and EMBASE 1966-2012 identified 30 primary papers reporting the relative risk (RR) of miscarriage according to ≥1 of 5 occupational activities of interest. Following an assessment of completeness of reporting, confounding, and bias, each risk estimate was characterized as more......, N=10). RR for working hours and standing became smaller when analyses were restricted to higher quality studies. CONCLUSIONS: These largely reassuring findings do not provide a strong case for mandatory restrictions in relation to shift work, long working hours, occupational lifting, standing...

  9. Physical activity in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cvecka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  10. Physical Activity in Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  11. The Active Muon Shield

    CERN Document Server

    Bezshyiko, Iaroslava

    2016-01-01

    In the SHiP beam-dump of the order of 1011 muons will be produced per second. An active muon-shield is used to magnetically deflect these muons out of the acceptance of the spectrom- eter. This note describes how this shield is modelled and optimized. The SHiP spectrometer is being re-optimized using a conical decay-vessel, and utilizing the possibility to magnetize part of the beam-dump shielding iron. A shield adapted to these new conditions is presented which is significantly shorter and lighter than the shield used in the Technical Proposal (TP), while showing a similar performance.

  12. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Volker

    2012-01-01

    This AGN textbook includes phenomena based on new results in the X-Ray domain from new telescopes such as Chandra and XMM Newton not mentioned in any other book. Furthermore, it considers also the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope with its revolutionary advances of unprecedented sensitivity, field of view and all-sky monitoring. Those and other new developments as well as simulations of AGN merging events and formations, enabled through latest super-computing capabilities. The book gives an overview on the current knowledge of the Active Galacitc Nuclei phenomenon. The spectral energy d

  13. Direct Activation Of Methane

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2013-07-15

    Heteropolyacids (HPAs) can activate methane at ambient temperature (e.g., 20.degree. C.) and atmospheric pressure, and transform methane to acetic acid, in the absence of any noble metal such as Pd). The HPAs can be, for example, those with Keggin structure: H.sub.4SiW.sub.12O.sub.40, H.sub.3PW.sub.12O.sub.40, H.sub.4SiMo.sub.12O.sub.40, or H.sub.3PMo.sub.12O.sub.40, can be when supported on silica.

  14. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  15. Microbiologically active nanocomposite media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranovskii, Vitalii; Panina, Lyudmila; Bogomolova, Eugenia; Belostotskaya, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The most recent approach to the development of novel antimicrobial and antifungal agents is based on the application of synthetic and natural zeolites, because zeolites are known to be the carrier and slow releaser of the heavy metals with olygodynamic properties. The microbiological activity of the ion-exchanged zeolites is attributed to the ionic state of the metal sreleased from the zeolites by ion re-exchange. In the present work we used low cost natural clinoptilolite (Cli) as a substrate for copper and silver in different states. The state of oxidation of the exchanged metal in zeolite with supported Cu and Ag species (in the form of cations, small clusters, sub-coloidal particles, large particles) in order to fit them to fulfill the following criteria: to demonstrate their high protective abilities against fungi and long-term stability. The study of structure of samples with XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, their stability with temperature and during storage was carried out for obtaining the correct correlation with microbiological activity.

  16. The Active Solid Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic processes in Earth's crust, mantle and core shape Earth's surface and magnetic field over time scales of seconds to millennia, and even longer time scales as recorded in the ca. 4 Ga rock record. Our focus is the earthquake-volcano deformation cycles that occur over human time scales, and their comparison with time-averaged deformation studies, with emphasis on mantle plume provinces where magma and volatile release and vertical tectonics are readily detectable. Active deformation processes at continental and oceanic rift and back arc zones provide critical constraints on mantle dynamics, the role of fluids (volatiles, magma, water), and plate rheology. For example, recent studies of the East African rift zone, which formed above one of Earth's largest mantle upwellings reveal that magma production and volatile release rates are comparable to those of magmatic arcs, the archetypal zones of continental crustal creation. Finite-length faults achieve some plate deformation, but magma intrusion in the form of dikes accommodates extension in continental, back-arc, and oceanic rifts, and intrusion as sills causes permanent uplift that modulates the local time-space scales of earthquakes and volcanoes. Volatile release from magma intrusion may reduce fault friction and permeability, facilitating aseismic slip and creating magma pathways. We explore the implications of active deformation studies to models of the time-averaged structure of plume and extensional provinces in continental and oceanic plate settings.

  17. Active Optics in LAMOST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding-Qiang Su; Xiang-Qun Cui

    2004-01-01

    Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST)is one of the major national projects under construction in China. Active optics is one of the most important technologies for new large telescopes. It is used for correcting telescope errors generated by gravitational and thermal changes. Here,however, we use this technology to realize the configuration of LAMOST, -a task that cannot be done in the traditional way. A comprehensive and intensive research on the active optics used in LAMOST is also reported, including an open-loop control method and an auxiliary closed-loop control method. Another important development is in our pre-calibration method of open-loop control, which is with some new features: simultaneous calculation of the forces and displacements of force actuators and displacement actuators; the profile of mirror can be arbitrary;the mirror surface shape is not expressed by a fitting polynomial, but is derived from the mirror surface shape formula which is highly accurate; a proof is given that the solution of the pre-calibration method is the same as the least squares solution.

  18. Active Astronomy Roadshow Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Silas; Oram, Kathleen; Alabre, Dayana; Douyon, Ralph; UMass Lowell Haiti Development Studies Center

    2016-01-01

    College-age Haitian students working with advisors and volunteers from UMass Lowell in 2015 developed and tested an activity-based K-8 curriculum in astronomy, space, and earth science. Our partner school is located in Les Cayes, Haiti a city where only 65% of children attend school, and only half of those will complete 6th grade. Astronomy provides an accessible and non-intimidating entry into science, and activity-based learning contrasts with the predominant traditional teaching techniques in use in Haiti, to reach and inspire a different cohort of learners. Teachers are predominantly women in Haiti, so part of the effort involves connecting them with scientists, engineers and teacher peers in the US. As a developing nation, it is vital for Haitian (as for all) children to grow up viewing women as leaders in science. Meanwhile in the US, few are aware of the reality of getting an education in a 3rd world nation (i.e. most of the world), so we also joined with teachers in Massachusetts to give US school children a peek at what daily life is like for their peers living in our vibrant but impoverished neighbor. Our Haitian partners are committed to helping their sister-schools with curriculum and educator workshops, so that the overall quality of education can rise, and not be limited to the very few schools with access to resources. We will describe the activites, motivation, and and the lessons learned from our first year of the project.

  19. Leadership Development Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malikeh Beheshtifar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, human resource development is considered as a developed concept in HR field. It is a process for helping personnel to conduct their duties better. Most organizations tend to leadership development as a separable subject and as areas of responsibility within organization. Whereas the leadership development plans have been unsuccessful. This article aim to draw attention to the fact that leadership development is crucial in organizations. A literature review was conducted by searching journal databases, textbooks, and relevant reports. A categorization of the evidence allowed informed discussions on the key themes surrounding leadership development activities. Leadership development is caused to employees' promotion and progress via nurture of new talents, stimulus in employees by persuade to do individual development, save time and cost, and increase customers' satisfaction by relations improvement. Accordingly, the development systems can cover a wide scope in organization. They are effective to career management, training and development, performance management, strategic human resource planning, recruitment and selection, and succession planning activities. Despite the need for further scientific and validated studies, organizations should be urged to devote sufficient resources and attention towards leadership development for promoting long-term survival and prosperity.

  20. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  1. CBP Active Dumping and Active Countervailing (AD/CVD) Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The datasets provide information from CBP's reference files on active anti-dumping and active countervailing cases. This data includes associated case numbers (if...

  2. Sedentary activity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B; McClain, James J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults.......This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults....

  3. Characterization and distribution of esterase activity in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boczar, BA; Forney, LJ; Begley, WM; Larson, RJ; Federle, TW

    2001-01-01

    The location and activity of esterase enzymes in activated Sludge from three Municipal wastewater treatment plants were characterized using model Substrate, and denaturing and nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) Of particulate, freeze thaw (primarily periplasmic enzymes and those

  4. The active video games' narrative impact on children's physical activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...

  5. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tomska

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  6. How Active Are Older Americans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Kruger, PhD

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRegular physical activity can reduce age-related functional decline, as well people’s risk for chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of participation in aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and flexibility activities among Americans aged 50 years or older.MethodsUsing population-based data from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey, we classified qualified respondents (N = 11,969 according to whether they met the activity criteria used in Healthy People 2010 goals for leisure-time participation in regular aerobic physical activity, vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, strength-training activity, and flexibility activity. We also classified respondents according to their level of aerobic activity (i.e., inactive, insufficiently active, and regularly active.ResultsWe estimated that 46.4% of older Americans engaged in no leisure-time aerobic activity; that 26.1% were regularly active (participated in light- to moderate-intensity aerobic activities at least 5 days per week for at least 30 minutes or vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 16.2% participated in vigorous-intensity aerobic activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 13.7% participated in strength-training activities at least 2 days per week; and that 24.5% participated in flexibility activities at least 1 day per week. Among the 26.1% of older Americans who were regularly active, 30.5% engaged in strengthen-training activities at least 2 days per week. Overall, only 8.2% of older Americans met the criteria for both aerobic and strength-training activity.ConclusionAs of 2001, the percentage of older Americans who met recommended activity levels of physical activity were well below the goals for U.S. adults in Healthy People 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage older Americans to engage in

  7. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, John A. [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Oseen-Send, Kathryn [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ferguson, Luke [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Pouresfandiary, Jamshid [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cousins, Anand [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ralph, Heather [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hampto, Tom [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-12

    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  8. Examining Activism in Practice: A Qualitative Study of Archival Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joy Rainbow

    2013-01-01

    While archival literature has increasingly discussed activism in the context of archives, there has been little examination of the extent to which archivists in the field have accepted or incorporated archival activism into practice. Scholarship that has explored the practical application of archival activism has predominately focused on case…

  9. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  10. Project origami activities for exploring mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionActivity 1 Folding Equilateral Triangles in a Square Activity 2 Origami Trigonometry Activity 3 Dividing a Length into Equal Nths: Fujimoto Approximation Activity 4 Dividing a Length into Equal Nths Exactly Activity 5 Origami Helix Activity 6 Folding a Parabola Activity 7 Can Origami Trisect an Angle?Activity 8 Solving Cubic Equations Activity 9 Lill's Method Activity 10 Folding Strips into Knots Activity 11 Haga's ""Origamics"" Activity 12 Modular Star Ring Activity 13 Folding a Butterfly Bomb Activity 14 Molly's Hexahedron Activity 15 Business Card Modulars Activity 16 Five Inter

  11. Active Ageing: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Cristina Nuta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of ageing is a highly topical for Romania and for European Union. In this framework, to create and implement some strategies for active ageing is an important objective. The international and regional forums set (supported by official statistics that the number of older people growing rapidly. Romania needs some programmes (with labour, social, economic, health care aspects to deal with the demographic changes, programs that will reform the existing working life structures and legislation. Despite the actual pension reform, which tries to close the opportunity of early retirement (by penalizing the total pension flows, or increasing the retirement age, etc., the labour system does not sets some important targets for this area.

  12. DPAL activities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  13. SPORTS ACTIVITIES SPONSORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy

  14. The sound of activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, B; Vetter, C

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT A longtime advocate for female empowerment and equality, Boden Sandstrom has worked for political change in many arenas. In the 1960s, she began a career as a librarian, but soon made activism her full-time job, working for feminist, leftist and socialist causes. In the 1970s, she found a way to turn her lifelong passion for music into a career as a sound engineer. Once established in that profession, she began donating her services to political events, marches, demonstrations, and rallies. After thirteen years of running her own company, called Woman Sound,Inc. (later City Sound Productions,Inc.), she turned to the study of ethnomusicology. She is now Program Manager and Lecturer for the Ethnomusicology Program at the University of Maryland, where she is also working on her doctorate in that subject. She continues to freelance as a sound engineer and serve as a technical producer for major events.

  15. Actively stressed marginal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinman, M; MacKintosh, F C

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field, effective medium theory, scaling analysis and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of non-affine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress.

  16. Actively stressed marginal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, M; Broedersz, C P; MacKintosh, F C

    2012-12-07

    We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three-dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field theory, scaling analysis, and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of nonaffine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress.

  17. Active Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    FFOWCS WILLIAMS, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the two-dimensional problem of a plane vortex sheet disturbed by an impulsive line source. A previous incorrect treatment of this problem is examined in detail. Instabilities of the vortex sheet are triggered by the source and grow exponentially in space and time. The Green function is constructed for the problem and it is shown that a point source properly positioned and delayed will induce a field that cancels the unstable growing modes. The resulting displacement of the vortex sheet is expressed in simple terms. The instabilities are checked by the anti-source which combines with the field of the primary source into a vortex sheet response which decays with time at large time. This paper is a contribution to the study of active control of shear layer instabilities, the main contribution being to clear up a previous paper with peculiar results that are, in fact, wrong.

  18. Respiratory active mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Peleato, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Enriquez, Jose Antonio

    2008-11-21

    The structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes as four big independently moving entities connected by the mobile carriers CoQ and cytochrome c has been challenged recently. Blue native gel electrophoresis reveals the presence of high-molecular-weight bands containing several respiratory complexes and suggesting an in vivo assembly status of these structures (respirasomes). However, no functional evidence of the activity of supercomplexes as true respirasomes has been provided yet. We have observed that (1) supercomplexes are not formed when one of their component complexes is absent; (2) there is a temporal gap between the formation of the individual complexes and that of the supercomplexes; (3) some putative respirasomes contain CoQ and cytochrome c; (4) isolated respirasomes can transfer electrons from NADH to O(2), that is, they respire. Therefore, we have demonstrated the existence of a functional respirasome and propose a structural organization model that accommodates these findings.

  19. Plasminogen activation and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danø, Keld; Behrendt, N.; Hoyer-Hansen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Breakdown of the extracellular matrix is crucial for cancer invasion and metastasis. It is accomplished by the concerted action of several proteases, including the serine protease plasmin and a number of matrix metalloproteases.The activity of each of these proteases is regulated by an array......, the regulation of extracellular proteolysis in cancer involves a complex interplay between cancer cells and non-malignant stromal cells in the expression of the molecular components involved. For some types of cancer, this cellular interplay mimics that observed in the tissue of ori- gin during non......-neoplastic tissue remodelling processes.We propose that cancer invasion can be considered as uncontrolled tissue remodelling. Inhibition of extracellular proteases is an attractive approach to cancer therapy. Because proteases have many different functions in the normal organism, efficient inhibition will have...

  20. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... during leisure time. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations for girls and boys separately, adjusted by age group, parents' occupational social class, family structure, and migration status. There were significant and graded associations between adolescents' PA and all four...... dimensions of parental support for PA. The association patterns were similar for mothers' and fathers' social support and similar for girls and boys. Social processes in the family are important for adolescents' participation in PA. It is important to continue to explore these social processes in order...

  1. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  2. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  3. Consolidated Human Activities Database (CHAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) contains data obtained from human activity studies that were collected at city, state, and national levels. CHAD is...

  4. Motivating Kids to Be Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... set healthy patterns that will last into adulthood. Benefits of Being Active When kids are active, their ... school sports to after-school interests, such as yoga or skateboarding. It's important to remember that physical ...

  5. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more energy than resting. Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga, and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. According to the Department of Health and Human Services' 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for ...

  6. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  7. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  8. Physical active rest in education of active personality of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaycev V.P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of active personality of students. It is rotined that in education of active personality of students an important role is played by their research activity.

  9. Automated activity-aware prompting for activity initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Lawrence B; Cook, Diane J

    2013-01-01

    Performing daily activities without assistance is important to maintaining an independent functional lifestyle. As a result, automated activity prompting systems can potentially extend the period of time that adults can age in place. In this paper we introduce AP, an algorithm to automate activity prompting based on smart home technology. AP learns prompt rules based on the time when activities are typically performed as well as the relationship between activities that normally occur in a sequence. We evaluate the AP algorithm based on smart home datasets and demonstrate its ability to operate within a physical smart environment.

  10. Writing clear animal activity proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  11. Danish Labour Market Activation Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon; Pedersen, LIsbeth

    2007-01-01

    transformation over the past fifteen years. From the initial curbing of unemployment among the insured unemployed through standard activation offers, the aim today is also to increase labour supply among non-economic active groups using individually tailored programmes. Danish activation policies this embrace...

  12. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  13. Water-Related Teaching Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Herbert L.; Price, Charles L.

    This publication is designed to provide interested teachers with teaching activities for all grade levels and subject areas that can be used to help students learn about water resources. For each activity, the purpose, level, subject, and concept are given. Activities are organized by grade level. Most of these water related learning activities…

  14. Effect of heated waters on biocenosis of the moderately polluted Narew River: microbiological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godlewska-Lipowa, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on the density and biomass of bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and actinomyces were carried out in the 113-km-long sector of the Narew River from Ostroleka down to the Zegrzynski Dam Reservoir. Heterotrophic activity of microflora on cellulose and index of fecal pollution were determined. The number and biomass of bacteria in the Narew River remained, before (1973) and after the setting in motion of the Power Plant-B at Ostroleka (1973), at a stable level with only very slight oscillations. In 1973 the values of the index of fecal pollution and of actinomyces were slightly higher than in 1972. This refers also to the number and activity of cellulolytic bacteria. The values of the organic matter destruction in 1973 were many times higher than in 1972. It seems that this comes in result of a cumulative effect of a slightly higher water temperature and simulataneous water contamination.

  15. Cellulases: ambiguous nonhomologous enzymes in a genomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukharnikov, Leonid O; Cantwell, Brian J; Podar, Mircea; Zhulin, Igor B

    2011-10-01

    The key material for bioethanol production is cellulose, which is one of the main components of the plant cell wall. Enzymatic depolymerization of cellulose is an essential step in bioethanol production, and can be accomplished by fungal and bacterial cellulases. Most of the biochemically characterized bacterial cellulases come from only a few cellulose-degrading bacteria, thus limiting our knowledge of a range of cellulolytic activities that exist in nature. The recent explosion of genomic data offers a unique opportunity to search for novel cellulolytic activities; however, the absence of clear understanding of structural and functional features that are important for reliable computational identification of cellulases precludes their exploration in the genomic datasets. Here, we explore the diversity of cellulases and propose a genomic approach to overcome this bottleneck.

  16. Optically active quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Valerie; Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important optically active quantum dot (QD) based materials, study their properties and explore their biological applications. For the first time chiral II-VI QDs have been prepared by us using microwave induced heating with the racemic (Rac), D- and L-enantiomeric forms of penicillamine as stabilisers. Circular dichroism (CD) studies of these QDs have shown that D- and L-penicillamine stabilised particles produced mirror image CD spectra, while the particles prepared with a Rac mixture showed only a weak signal. It was also demonstrated that these QDs show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. These QDs have demonstrated highly specific chiral recognition of various biological species including aminoacids. The utilisation of chiral stabilisers also allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS nano-tetrapods, which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. Biological testing of chiral CdS nanotetrapods displayed a chiral bias for an uptake of the D- penicillamine stabilised nano-tetrapods by cancer cells. It is expected that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in nanobiotechnology, medicine and optical chemo- and bio-sensing.

  17. [Active management of labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L

    1991-01-01

    Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.

  18. Surface Active Components: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Shafiei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant or surface active components are produced by many different microorganisms. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic (generally hydrocarbon moieties that partition preferentially a within the interface between fluid phases with some other degrees of polarity and hydrogen bonding including oil/water or air/water interfaces. These properties render surfactants able to reducing surface and interfacial tension and forming microemulsion where hydrocarbons can solubilize in water or where water can solubilize in hydrocarbons, the majority of surfactants have gained importance in the fields of enhanced oil recovery, environmental bioremediation, food processing and pharmaceuticals. However, large-scale production of these molecules has not been realized as a result of low yields in production processes and high recovery and purification costs. This review article represents a classification of biosurfactant in addition to their microbial origin and effect of some nutrition and environmental factor for high production of biosurfactant. The nitrogen, carbon sources and environmental factors can make a difference key to the regulating biosurfactants synthesis Fascination with microbial surfactants have been steadily increasing recently because of advantages over the chemical surfactants for example environmentally friendly nature, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, higher selectivity and specific gravity at extreme temperature, pH and salinity. For this reason the demand of biosurfactant are increasing day by day.

  19. Elusive Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Maiolino, R; Gilli, R; Nagar, N M; Bianchi, S; Böker, T; Colbert, E; Krabbe, A; Marconi, A; Matt, G; Salvati, M

    2003-01-01

    A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically "elusive". X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtain a first estimate of the fraction of elusive AGN in local galaxies and to constrain their nature. Our results suggest that elusive AGN have a local density comparable to or even higher than optically classified Seyfert nuclei. Most elusive AGN are heavily absorbed in the X-rays, with gas column densities exceeding 10^24 cm^-2, suggesting that their peculiar nature is associated with obscuration. It is likely that in elusive AGN, the nuclear UV source is completely embedded and the ionizing photons cannot escape, which prevents the formation of a classical Narrow Line Region. Elusive AGN may contribute significantly to the 30 keV bump of the X-ray background.

  20. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  1. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....

  2. Perspectives in active liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Apala; Cristina, Marchetti M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2014-11-28

    Active soft matter is a young, growing field, with potential applications to a wide variety of systems. This Theme Issue explores this emerging new field by highlighting active liquid crystals. The collected contributions bridge theory to experiment, mathematical theories of passive and active nematics, spontaneous flows to defect dynamics, microscopic to continuum levels of description, spontaneous activity to biological activation. While the perspectives offered here only span a small part of this rapidly evolving field, we trust that they might provide the interested reader with a taste for this new class of non-equilibrium systems and their rich behaviour.

  3. In vivo imaging of protease activity by Probody therapeutic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth R; Menendez, Elizabeth; Craik, Charles S; Kavanaugh, W Michael; Vasiljeva, Olga

    2016-03-01

    Probody™ therapeutics are recombinant, proteolytically-activated antibody prodrugs, engineered to remain inert until activated locally by tumor-associated proteases. Probody therapeutics exploit the fundamental dysregulation of extracellular protease activity that exists in tumors relative to healthy tissue. Leveraging the ability of a Probody therapeutic to bind its target at the site of disease after proteolytic cleavage, we developed a novel method for profiling protease activity in living animals. Using NIR optical imaging, we demonstrated that a non-labeled anti-EGFR Probody therapeutic can become activated and compete for binding to tumor cells in vivo with a labeled anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, by inhibiting matriptase activity in vivo with a blocking-matriptase antibody, we show that the ability of the Probody therapeutic to bind EGFR in vivo was dependent on protease activity. These results demonstrate that in vivo imaging of Probody therapeutic activation can be used for screening and characterization of protease activity in living animals, and provide a method that avoids some of the limitations of prior methods. This approach can improve our understanding of the activity of proteases in disease models and help to develop efficient strategies for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Global optogenetic activation of inhibitory interneurons during epileptiform activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledri, Marco; Madsen, Marita Grønning; Nikitidou, Litsa; Kirik, Deniz; Kokaia, Merab

    2014-02-26

    Optogenetic techniques provide powerful tools for bidirectional control of neuronal activity and investigating alterations occurring in excitability disorders, such as epilepsy. In particular, the possibility to specifically activate by light-determined interneuron populations expressing channelrhodopsin-2 provides an unprecedented opportunity of exploring their contribution to physiological and pathological network activity. There are several subclasses of interneurons in cortical areas with different functional connectivity to the principal neurons (e.g., targeting their perisomatic or dendritic compartments). Therefore, one could optogenetically activate specific or a mixed population of interneurons and dissect their selective or concerted inhibitory action on principal cells. We chose to explore a conceptually novel strategy involving simultaneous activation of mixed populations of interneurons by optogenetics and study their impact on ongoing epileptiform activity in mouse acute hippocampal slices. Here we demonstrate that such approach results in a brief initial action potential discharge in CA3 pyramidal neurons, followed by prolonged suppression of ongoing epileptiform activity during light exposure. Such sequence of events was caused by massive light-induced release of GABA from ChR2-expressing interneurons. The inhibition of epileptiform activity was less pronounced if only parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons were activated by light. Our data suggest that global optogenetic activation of mixed interneuron populations is a more effective approach for development of novel therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, but the initial action potential generation in principal neurons needs to be taken in consideration.

  5. 长白山分解纤维素的瓶霉属和外瓶霉属真菌%CELLULOLYTIC PHIALOPHORA & EXOPHIALA IN THE CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩立刚; 袁毅

    2000-01-01

    瓶霉属、外瓶霉属真菌在自然界中广泛分布,是有着重要经济意义的一类真菌.迄今,我国已报道疣状瓶霉(Phialophora verrucosa)、裴氏瓶霉(Ph.pedrosoi)、棘状外瓶霉(Exophiala spinifera)、皮炎外瓶霉(E dermatitidis)和甄氏外瓶霉(E jeanselmei=Ph.gougerotii)5种,均是分离自人体的病原真菌.在长白山自然保护区的原始林中,用生长锥取样器随机钻取腐朽林木髓心,在实验室进行分离培养.共鉴定出瓶霉属真菌2种,外瓶霉属真菌3种,其中美州瓶霉(Ph.americana、烂木瓶霉(Ph.richardsiae)和鲑外瓶霉(E salmonis)为国内新记录种.

  6. The anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain L2 : Growth and production of (Hemi)cellulolytic enzymes on a range of carbohydrate substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkerman, R; Ledeboer, J; op den Camp, H.J M; Prins, R.A; van der Drift, C

    1997-01-01

    The anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain L2, isolated from the feces of a Ilama, was tested for growth on a range of soluble and insoluble carbohydrate substrates. The fungus was able to ferment glucose, cellobiose, fructose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, soluble starch, inulin, filter paper cell

  7. Reactor design for minimizing product inhibition during enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: I. Significance and mechanism of cellobiose and glucose inhibition on cellulolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2010-01-01

    Achievement of efficient enzymatic degradation of cellulose to glucose is one of the main prerequisites and one of the main challenges in the biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels and other valuable products. The specific inhibitory interferences by cellobiose and gluco...

  8. WITHDRAWN: Bioaugmentation strategies to improve cellulolytic and hydrogen-producing characteristics of CSTR intermittent fed with vegetable kitchen waste and napiergrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Chien; Chao, Yu-Chieh; Wang, Ying-Chi; Hsieh, Ping-Heng; Cheng, Sheng-Shung

    2012-11-15

    This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.

  9. Characterization of cellulases of fungal endophytes isolated from Espeletia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Luisa; Calderon, Carolina; Medina, Luis Miguel; Bahamon, Isabela; Cardenas, Martha; Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Gonzalez, Andrés; Restrepo, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that asymptomatically invade plant tissues. They can stimulate plant growth and/or provide defense against pathogen attacks through the production of secondary metabolites. Most endophyte species are still unknown, and because they may have several applications, the study of their metabolic capabilities is essential. We characterized 100 endophytes isolated from Espeletia spp., a genus unique to the paramo ecosystem, an extreme environment in the Andean mountain range. We evaluated the cellulolytic potential of these endophytes on the saccharification of the oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). The total cellulolytic activity was measured for each endophyte on filter paper (FPA). In addition, the specific carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase activities were determined. We found four fungi positive for cellulases. Of these fungi, Penicillium glabrum had the highest cellulolytic activity after partial purification, with maximal CMCase, exoglucanase and β-glucosidase enzyme activities of 44.5, 48.3, and 0.45 U/ml, respectively. Our data showed that the bioprospection of fungi and the characterization of their enzymes may facilitate the process of biofuel production.

  10. Evaluating Active U: an internet-mediated physical activity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodrich David E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging in regular physical activity can be challenging, particularly during the winter months. To promote physical activity at the University of Michigan during the winter months, an eight-week Internet-mediated program (Active U was developed providing participants with an online physical activity log, goal setting, motivational emails, and optional team participation and competition. Methods This study is a program evaluation of Active U. Approximately 47,000 faculty, staff, and graduate students were invited to participate in the online Active U intervention in the winter of 2007. Participants were assigned a physical activity goal and were asked to record each physical activity episode into the activity log for eight weeks. Statistics for program reach, effectiveness, adoption, and implementation were calculated using the Re-Aim framework. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the decline in rates of data entry and goal attainment during the program, to assess the likelihood of joining a team by demographic characteristics, to test the association between various predictors and the number of weeks an individual met his or her goal, and to analyze server load. Results Overall, 7,483 individuals registered with the Active U website (≈16% of eligible, and 79% participated in the program by logging valid data at least once. Staff members, older participants, and those with a BMI P Conclusion Internet-mediated physical activity interventions that focus on physical activity logging and goal setting while incorporating team competition may help a significant percentage of the target population maintain their physical activity during the winter months.

  11. Resources Management in Active Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In an active network, users can insert customized active codes into active nodes to execute. Thus it needs more resources than those required by conventional networks, and these resources must be effectively monitored and managed. Management policies in existing OSs are too complicated to apply to simple active packets. In this paper, we present new resources management policies that are mainly adoped to manage CPU, storage and transmission bandwidth. Namely, we use SPF algorithm to schedule and process active packets, and import an interval queue method to allocate transmission bandwidth, and use feedback mechanism to control congestion. At the same time, we design some experiments on prototype systems with and without resources management policies respectively. The experiments results show that management policies presented by us can effectively manage resources in active nodes and can improve the performance of active networks.

  12. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L

    2015-11-01

    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  13. Atmospheric neutrino data Active-Active x Active-Sterile oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Peres, O L G

    1998-01-01

    I summarize here the results of a global fit to the full data set corresponding to 33.0 kt-yr of data of the Super-Kamiokande experiment as well as to all other experiments in order to compare the active-active and active-sterile neutrinos oscillation channels to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly.

  14. Exo-endo cellulase fusion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Benjamin S [Palo Alto, CA; Larenas, Edmund A [Palo Alto, CA; Mitchinson, Colin [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-01-17

    The present invention relates to a heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct, which encodes a fusion protein having cellulolytic activity comprising a catalytic domain derived from a fungal exo-cellobiohydrolase and a catalytic domain derived from an endoglucanase. The invention also relates to vectors and fungal host cells comprising the heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct as well as methods for producing a cellulase fusion protein and enzymatic cellulase compositions.

  15. UV activity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    In Order to continue the work displayed in Buccino & Mauas(2003) and Buccino (2003), we have calculated the index Mg II (Xhk) on 1640 high resolution IUE spectra of 269 main sequence stars of spectral classes F, G and K. From this set of observations, we found an exponential relation between the continuum UV flux and the color (B-V). Contrary to Schrijver et al (1989), who assumed that the continuum UV flux depended on the color following the relation found by Rutten (1984) for the visible one, i.e. the logarithm of the flux is proportional to a polynomial of third order with the color. Nevertheless, the exponential relation flux in the continuous UV and the color (B-V) fits far better to our data that the given one by Rutten (1984). Obtained this dependency for the ultraviolet continuum flux, the index Xhk can be obtained from the single flux in the lines core, allowing to calculate the index of Mg II for those spectra where the continuum is very dark and so the relation signal noise is very low. As it were already reported in previous works (Rutten (1991), Schrijver (1992)), we found a minimum basal flux in the Mg II h and k lines core due to the cromospheric heating by disipation of acustics waves. From this minimum flux, we calculated minimum index of activity that satisfactorily fits to the minimum values of the indexes calculated on the 1640 spectra like quotient between the flux in the line core and the continuous one.

  16. Strategy as active waiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sull, Donald N

    2005-09-01

    Successful executives who cut their teeth in stable industries or in developed countries often stumble when they face more volatile markets. They falter, in part, because they assume they can gaze deep into the future and develop a long-term strategy that will confer a sustainable competitive advantage. But visibility into the future of volatile markets is sharply limited because so many different variables are in play. Factors such as technological innovation, customers' evolving needs, government policy, and changes in the capital markets interact with one another to create unexpected outcomes. Over the past six years, Donald Sull, an associate professor at London Business School, has led a research project examining some of the world's most volatile markets, from national markets like China and Brazil to industries like enterprise software, telecommunications, and airlines. One of the most striking findings from this research is the importance of taking action during comparative lulls in the storm. Huge business opportunities are relatively rare; they come along only once or twice in a decade. And, for the most part, companies can't manufacture those opportunities; changes in the external environment converge to make them happen. What managers can do is prepare for these golden opportunities by managing smart during the comparative calm of business as usual. During these periods of active waiting, leaders must probe the future and remain alert to anomalies that signal potential threats or opportunities; exercise restraint to preserve their war chests; and maintain discipline to keep the troops battle ready. When a golden opportunity or"sudden death"threat emerges, managers must have the courage to declare the main effort and concentrate resources to seize the moment.

  17. Genotoxic activity of praziquantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Ostrosky, P

    1997-12-01

    Praziquantel is a synthetic drug with a remarkable activity against parasites, particularly treamatodes and cestodes. Initial genotoxicity tests used a spectrum of endpoints including tests in bacteria, yeasts, mammalian cells and Drosophila and each one gave negative results. Effects on reproductive cells of mice were negative as well. However, host mediated studies in mice and humans were contradictory and a comutagenic effect with several mutagens and carcinogens was found. Later studies, including monitoring in humans and pigs have shown that Praziquantel induces a greater frequency of hyperploid lymphocytes as well as structural chromosomal aberrations, but not in all the individuals treated. In vitro studies have demonstrated that Praziquantel can induce micronuclei in syrian hamster embryonic (SHE) cells and in lymphocytes of some individuals. The same was found about structural chromosomal aberrations. Fetal death and fetal resorption were found when Praziquantel was administered in high doses to pregnant rats between the 6th and 10th day of gestation. Due to its efficiency as a parasiticide, Praziquantel is in use in Latin-American, Asiatic, African and East-European countries where infections by trematodes and cestodes are frequent. However, the extensive use of Praziquantel in multiple reinfections, in non-infected and non-diagnosed individuals for prevention, in higher doses or repeated doses for cysticercosis treatment and in individuals exposed to environmental mutagens, in conjunction with new findings about its metabolism and genotoxic properties, make it necessary to further evaluate the potential of this drug not only to be mutagenic per se, but to contribute in the development of neoplasm.

  18. Active Beam Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hellermann, M. G.; Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Biel, W.; Marchuk, O.; Summers, H. P.; Whiteford, A.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2008-03-01

    Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) plays a pivotal role in the diagnostics of hot fusion plasmas and is implemented currently in most of the operating devices. In the present report the main features of CXRS are summarized and supporting software packages encompassing "Spectral Analysis Code CXSFIT", "Charge Exchange Analysis Package CHEAP", and finally "Forward Prediction of Spectral Features" are described. Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) is proposed as indispensable cross-calibration tool for absolute local impurity density measurements and also for the continuous monitoring of the neutral beam power deposition profile. Finally, a full exploitation of the `Motional Stark Effect' pattern is proposed to deduce local pitch angles, total magnetic fields and possibly radial electric fields. For the proposed active beam spectroscopy diagnostic on ITER comprehensive performance studies have been carried out. Estimates of expected spectral signal-to-noise ratios are based on atomic modelling of neutral beam stopping and emissivities for CXRS, BES and background continuum radiation as well as extrapolations from present CXRS diagnostic systems on JET, Tore Supra, TEXTOR and ASDEX-UG. Supplementary to thermal features a further promising application of CXRS has been proposed recently for ITER, that is a study of slowing-down alpha particles in the energy range up to 2 MeV making use of the 100 keV/amu DNB (Diagnostic Neutral Beam) and the 500 keV/amu HNB (Heating Neutral Beam). Synthetic Fast Ion Slowing-Down spectra are evaluated in terms of source rates and slowing-down parameters

  19. 新疆连作、轮作棉田可培养的土壤微生物区系及活性分析%Dynamics Analysis of Culturable Soil Microflora and Microbial Activity in Continuous and Rotation Cropping Systems of Xinjiang Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩剑; 张静文; 徐文修; 罗明; 吴莉莉

    2011-01-01

    Variation of culturable soil microflora and microbial activity were investigated in continuous and rotation cropping cotton field in Xinjiang.The results showed that culturable microbial population gradually decreased with long-term continuous cropping of cotton.Compared with 5 years continous cropping, the total quantity of soil microbes in 6~8 years, 9~12 years and more than 13 years continuous cropping, decreased by 40.2%, 46.7%, 52.4%,respectively.After more than 5 years continuous cropping, the structure of the soil microbial community transformed from rich nutrition bacteria type to lower nutrition fungi type, the ratio ofbacteria to fungi and actinomycetes to fungi decreased significantly.The amount of nitrogen physiological communities such as ammonifying bacteria, nitrobacteria and aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria decreased, while denitrifying bacteria increased.Moreover, continuous cropping resulted in soil respiration intensity and cellulolytic activity reducing.Contrary to continuous cropping, under the cotton/melilotus suavena, tomato, spring wheat or com rotation systems were most beneficial for increasing the total quantity of soil micro-organism, improving the capability of soil microbial activity, adjusting the balance of microbial community.Also there was substantial increasement in the number of azotobacteria.The effects of different rotation modes were different, the benefits of cotton-tomato and cotton-melilotus suavena rotation were more obvious.%研究了新疆连作、轮作棉田土壤可培养微生物区系及活性变化.结果表明,棉花多年连作造成土壤中可培养微生物数量减少,连作6~8年、9~12年、大于13年的棉田与连作小于5年的棉田相比,土壤微生物总量分别下降了40.2%,46.7%,52.4%.连作超过5年后,土壤微生物菌群结构逐渐从高肥的"细菌型"向低肥的"真菌型"转化,细菌/真菌(B/F)和放线菌/真菌(A/F)比值均降低,拮抗菌

  20. IDENTIFICATION AND ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF ACTIVE DENITRIFIERS IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Le-Quy, Vang; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann;

    and when external carbon sources were supplemented to the activated sludge the composition of the denitrifying communities was significantly affected. Transcriptome profiling provided detailed insight in the metabolic pathways in several of the active denitrifiers in activated sludge. In conclusion...... reactor studies. To obtain better identification of active denitrifying communities in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) we applied DNA-SIP with 13C-labelled substrates, and RT-PCR of expressed denitrification genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) upon various substrate-inductions. To come around...... were determined with quantitative FISH, while their active metabolic pathways were investigated directly in activated sludge with a tag-based metatranscriptomic approach under acetate-utilizing and denitrifying conditions. The different methods revealed a majority of denitrifiers in all WWTPs belonging...

  1. Fluidization and Active Thinning by Molecular Kinetics in Active Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, David; Alert, Ricard; Casademunt, Jaume

    2017-02-24

    We derive the constitutive equations of an active polar gel from a model for the dynamics of elastic molecules that link polar elements. Molecular binding kinetics induces the fluidization of the material, giving rise to Maxwell viscoelasticity and, provided that detailed balance is broken, to the generation of active stresses. We give explicit expressions for the transport coefficients of active gels in terms of molecular properties, including nonlinear contributions on the departure from equilibrium. In particular, when activity favors linker unbinding, we predict a decrease of viscosity with activity-active thinning-of kinetic origin, which could explain some experimental results on the cell cortex. By bridging the molecular and hydrodynamic scales, our results could help understand the interplay between molecular perturbations and the mechanics of cells and tissues.

  2. Negotiating active ageing at a Danish activity centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    and practices active ageing. The paper uses an activity centre in Copenhagen as its site of negotiation. Methods: These questions have been explored with the use of ethnographic fieldwork and through a documentary study. The ethnographic fieldwork has been conducted at an activity centre with 4 months...... of participatory observation in 2011 and 2012, as well as 11 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with users of the centre. 4 of these users have been followed around during everyday activities such as doing groceries, picking up grandchildren, etc. The documentary study consists of documents and statements...

  3. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  4. Production and characterization of granular activated carbon from activated sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Al-Qodah

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activated sludge was used as a precursor to prepare activated carbon using sulfuric acid as a chemical activation agent. The effect of preparation conditions on the produced activated carbon characteristics as an adsorbent was investigated. The results indicate that the produced activated carbon has a highly porous structure and a specific surface area of 580 m²/g. The FT-IR analysis depicts the presence of a variety of functional groups which explain its improved adsorption behavior against pesticides. The XRD analysis reveals that the produced activated carbon has low content of inorganic constituents compared with the precursor. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to three adsorption isotherm models and found to closely fit the BET model with R² equal 0.948 at pH 3, indicating a multilayer of pesticide adsorption. The maximum loading capacity of the produced activated carbon was 110 mg pesticides/g adsorbent and was obtained at this pH value. This maximum loading was found experimentally to steeply decrease as the solution pH increases. The obtained results show that activated sludge is a promising low cost precursor for the production of activated carbon.

  5. Silicon active photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitrios

    Active photonic devices utilizing the optical nonlinearities of silicon have emerged in the last 5 years and the effort for commercial photonic devices in the material that has been the workhorse of electronics has been building up since. This dissertation presents the theory for some of these devices. We are concerned herein with CW lasers, amplifiers and wavelength converters that are based on the Raman effect. There have already been cursory experimental demonstrations of these devices and some of their limitations are already apparent. Most of the limitations observed are because of the appearance of effects that are competing with stimulated Raman scattering. Under the high optical powers that are necessary for the Raman effect (tens to hundrends of mW's) the process of optical two-photon (TPA) absorption occurs. The absorption of optical power that it causes itself is weak but in the process electrons and holes are generated which can further absorb light through the free-carrier absorption effect (FCA). The effective "lifetime" that these carriers have determines the magnitude of the FCA loss. We present a model for the carrier lifetime in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguides and numerical simulations to understand how this critical parameter varies and how it can be controlled. A p-i-n junction built along SOI waveguides can help achieve lifetime of the order of 20--100 ps but the price one has to pay is on-chip electrical power consumption on the order of 100's of mWs. We model CW Raman lasers and we find that the carrier lifetime reduces the output power. If the carrier lifetime exceeds a certain "critical" value optical losses become overwhelming and lasing is impossible. As we show, in amplifiers, the nonlinear loss does not only result in diminished gain, but also in a higher noise figure. Finally the effect of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is examined. The effect is important because with a pump frequency at 1434nm coherent power

  6. Permanent active longitudes and activity cycles on RS CVn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1998-08-01

    A new analysis of the published long-term photometric observations has revealed permanent active-longitude structures in four RS CVn stars: EI Eri, II Peg, sigma Gem, and HR 7275. Two active longitudes separated by half of the period are found to dominate on the surface during all available seasons. The positions of the longitudes on three stars (EI Eri, II Peg, HR 7275) are migrating in the orbital reference frame, and there is no preferred orientation with respect to the line of centres in the binaries. The rate of migration is approximately constant. In case of sigma Gem the active longitude migration is synchronized with the orbital motion in the direction of the line of centres in the binary. The active region lifetimes can be longer than the time span of the observations (>=15 yr). The periods of the active longitude rotation are determined: for EI Eri 1fd 9510, for II Peg 6fd 7066, for sigma Gem 19fd 604, for HR 7275 28fd 263. Long-term activity cycles of the stars are discovered from the analysis of the relative contribution of the two longitudes to the photometric variability. One longitude is found to be usually more active than the other at a given moment, and the change of the activity level between the longitudes is cyclic with periods of years. The switch of the activity takes a much shorter time, about a few months, similar to the ``flip-flop'' phenomenon found for FK Com stars. Moments of switching are regarded as new tracers of the activity, and total cycles, which return activity to the same longitude, are found to be for EI Eri 9.0 yr, for II Peg 9.3 yr, for sigma Gem 14.9 yr, for HR 7275 17.5 yr.

  7. Tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD4 activates its ubiquitin ligase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Avinash; Alberts, Philipp; Mari, Sara; Tong, Jiefei; Murchie, Ryan; Maspero, Elena; Safi, Frozan; Moran, Michael F; Polo, Simona; Rotin, Daniela

    2014-10-07

    Ligand binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1 (FGFR1) causes dimerization and activation by transphosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the kinase domain. FGFR1 is ubiquitylated by the E3 ligase NEDD4 (also known as NEDD4-1), which promotes FGFR1 internalization and degradation. Although phosphorylation of FGFR1 is required for NEDD4-dependent endocytosis, NEDD4 directly binds to a nonphosphorylated region of FGFR1. We found that activation of FGFR1 led to activation of c-Src kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD4, enhancing the ubiquitin ligase activity of NEDD4. Using mass spectrometry, we identified several FGF-dependent phosphorylated tyrosines in NEDD4, including Tyr(43) in the C2 domain and Tyr(585) in the HECT domain. Mutating these tyrosines to phenylalanine to prevent phosphorylation inhibited FGF-dependent NEDD4 activity and FGFR1 endocytosis and enhanced cell proliferation. Mutating the tyrosines to glutamic acid to mimic phosphorylation enhanced NEDD4 activity. Moreover, the NEDD4 C2 domain bound the HECT domain, and the presence of phosphomimetic mutations inhibited this interaction, suggesting that phosphorylation of NEDD4 relieves an inhibitory intra- or intermolecular interaction. Accordingly, activation of FGFR1 was not required for activation of NEDD4 that lacked its C2 domain. Activation of c-Src by epidermal growth factor (EGF) also promoted tyrosine phosphorylation and enhanced the activity of NEDD4. Thus, we identified a feedback mechanism by which receptor tyrosine kinases promote catalytic activation of NEDD4 and that may represent a mechanism of receptor crosstalk.

  8. CDPK Activation in PRR Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Heike; Boudsocq, Marie; Romeis, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases undergo a rapid biochemical activation in response to an intracellular Ca increase induced by the PRR-dependent perception of a pathogen-related stimulus. Based on SDS gel resolution, the in-gel kinase assay allows the analysis of multiple in vivo protein samples in parallel, combining the advantage of protein separation according to molecular mass with the activity read-out of a protein kinase assay. It thus enables to follow the transient CDPK activation and inactivation in response to in vivo elicitation with a time-wise resolution. In addition, changes of CDPK phosphorylation activity often correlate with slight shifts in the enzyme's apparent molecular mass, indicating posttranslational modifications and a conformational change of the active enzyme compared to its inactive resting form. These band shifts can be detected by a simple immunoblotting to monitor CDPK activation.

  9. Swim pressure of active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Sho; Yan, Wen; Brady, John; Caltech Team

    2014-11-01

    Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique ``swim pressure'' that is entirely athermal in origin. This new source for the active stress exists at all scales in both living and nonliving active systems, and also applies to larger organisms where inertia is important (i.e., the Stokes number is not small). Here we explain the origin of the swim stress and develop a simple thermodynamic model to study the self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria and catalytic nanobots, schools of fish and birds, and molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  10. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  11. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne;

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  12. Social activity and healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall...... level of physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology. We also found that social activity was significantly and moderately heritable (estimate of .36), raising the possibility that its association with late-life functioning might reflect selection processes. Further, social...... activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin...

  13. Activated sludge inhibition capacity index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Surerus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic compounds in sewage or industrial wastewater may inhibit the biological activity of activated sludge impairing the treatment process. This paper evaluates the Inhibition Capacity Index (ICI for the assessment of activated sludge in the presence of toxicants. In this study, activated sludge was obtained from industrial treatment plants and was also synthetically produced. Continuous respirometric measurements were carried out in a reactor, and the oxygen uptake rate profile obtained was used to evaluate the impact of inhibiting toxicants, such as dissolved copper, phenol, sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate and amoxicillin, on activated sludge. The results indicate that ICI is an efficient tool to quantify the intoxication capacity. The activated sludge from the pharmaceutical industry showed higher resistance than the sludge from other sources, since toxicants are widely discharged in the biological treatment system. The ICI range was from 58 to 81% when compared to the synthetic effluent with no toxic substances.

  14. Genomics of aerobic cellulose utilization systems in actinobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Anderson

    Full Text Available Cellulose degrading enzymes have important functions in the biotechnology industry, including the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobes including Clostridium species organize cellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases into large complexes known as cellulosomes. In contrast, aerobic actinobacteria utilize systems comprised of independently acting enzymes, often with carbohydrate binding domains. Numerous actinobacterial genomes have become available through the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA project. We identified putative cellulose-degrading enzymes belonging to families GH5, GH6, GH8, GH9, GH12, GH48, and GH51 in the genomes of eleven members of the actinobacteria. The eleven organisms were tested in several assays for cellulose degradation, and eight of the organisms showed evidence of cellulase activity. The three with the highest cellulase activity were Actinosynnema mirum, Cellulomonas flavigena, and Xylanimonas cellulosilytica. Cellobiose is known to induce cellulolytic enzymes in the model organism Thermobifida fusca, but only Nocardiopsis dassonvillei showed higher cellulolytic activity in the presence of cellobiose. In T. fusca, cellulases and a putative cellobiose ABC transporter are regulated by the transcriptional regulator CelR. Nine organisms appear to use the CelR site or a closely related binding site to regulate an ABC transporter. In some, CelR also regulates cellulases, while cellulases are controlled by different regulatory sites in three organisms. Mining of genome data for cellulose degradative enzymes followed by experimental verification successfully identified several actinobacteria species which were not previously known to degrade cellulose as cellulolytic organisms.

  15. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition by forest soil bacteria proceeds by the action of structurally variable enzymatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Zühlke, Daniela; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Evidence shows that bacteria contribute actively to the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose in forest soil; however, their role in this process is still unclear. Here we performed the screening and identification of bacteria showing potential cellulolytic activity from litter and organic soil of a temperate oak forest. The genomes of three cellulolytic isolates previously described as abundant in this ecosystem were sequenced and their proteomes were characterized during the growth on plant biomass and on microcrystalline cellulose. Pedobacter and Mucilaginibacter showed complex enzymatic systems containing highly diverse carbohydrate-active enzymes for the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, which were functionally redundant for endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, endoxylanases, β-xylosidases, mannosidases and carbohydrate-binding modules. Luteibacter did not express any glycosyl hydrolases traditionally recognized as cellulases. Instead, cellulose decomposition was likely performed by an expressed GH23 family protein containing a cellulose-binding domain. Interestingly, the presence of plant lignocellulose as well as crystalline cellulose both trigger the production of a wide set of hydrolytic proteins including cellulases, hemicellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases. Our findings highlight the extensive and unexplored structural diversity of enzymatic systems in cellulolytic soil bacteria and indicate the roles of multiple abundant bacterial taxa in the decomposition of cellulose and other plant polysaccharides.

  16. Japanese activities in refrigeration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; Ohtsuka, T.; Ishizaki, Y.

    This paper reviews recent activities in refrigeration technology in Japan. The projects described are stimulated by growing industrial needs or form part of large national projects. The JNR project on the MAGLEV train is currently the most powerful activity and it demands knowledge in all the different disciplines of cryogenics in particular on various scales of refrigeration. Research activities are also directed towards the development of Stirling cycle and magnetic refrigerators for applications in a wider area.

  17. L3 Study Team Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, David; L3ST Team

    2017-01-01

    The NASA-Chartered L3 Study Team is working to develop the US community participation and to support NASA's contribution to the ESA-led LISA mission to observe gravitational waves via space-based detectors. The present activities of the L3ST will be described, and the next steps for the Study Team will also be given. NASA supports travel activities and support for the Study Team activities.

  18. INNOVATIONS AND TOURISTIC ACTIVITY EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Novikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental and applied innovations impact activities in the tourist industry and evolution thereof. More and more sophisticated technologies and communication techniques are practically used to serve tourists. Basically, innovative tourist activity development concept represents innovation of values and in particular means that tourist’s impression is taken into account to higher extent and tourist product personification changes the products’ consumer value. Discussed in the article are tourist activity, tourist cluster, destination and glocalization development prospects.

  19. Activity Recognition in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-29

    activity is splitting. 6 Crowd video classification Ability to identify crowd behavior enables crowd management systems to design and manage public...characterize group activities . We then showed the effectiveness of group level features in crowd video classification . 9 List of Publications 1. N. Bhargava, S...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0044 Activity Recognition in Social Media Subhasis Chaudhuri INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BOMBAY Final Report 05/09/2016

  20. Activating Teaching for Quality Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2013-01-01

    Activating teaching is an educational concept which is based on active participation of students in the study process. It is becoming an alternative to more typical approach where the teacher will just lecture and the students will take notes. The study described in this paper considers student...... activating teaching methods focusing on those based on knowledge dissemination. The practical aspects of the implemented teaching method are considered, and employed assessment methods and tools are discussed....

  1. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  2. Architectural Design Activities for JAS

    CERN Document Server

    Khaled, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The critical part for building any software system is its architecture. Architectural design is a design at a higher level of abstraction. A good architecture ensures that software will satisfy its requirement. This paper defines the most important activities of architectural design that used through building any software; also it applies these activities on one type of Electronic Commerce (EC) applications that is Job Agency System(JAS) to show how these activities can work through these types of applications.

  3. Biological Activities of Hydrazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Güniz Küçükgüzel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumoral, vasodilator, antiviral and antischistosomiasis activities. Hydrazones possessing an azometine -NHN=CH- proton constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations have been guiding for the development of new hydrazones that possess varied biological activities.

  4. Active Combustion Control Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, research into active combustion control has yielded impressive results in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities and widening the...

  5. Studies in geophysics: Active tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Active tectonics is defined within the study as tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society. Such movements and their associated hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and land subsidence and emergence. The entire range of geology, geophysics, and geodesy is, to some extent, pertinent to this topic. The needs for useful forecasts of tectonic activity, so that actions may be taken to mitigate hazards, call for special attention to ongoing tectonic activity. Further progress in understanding active tectonics depends on continued research. Particularly important is improvement in the accuracy of dating techniques for recent geologic materials.

  6. Physical Activity in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réol, Lise Andersen

    2016-01-01

    physical activity during each school day from 0th to 10th school year, as a tool to facilitate health, motivation and academic performance. A qualitative study on pupils in 6th grade (N=8) and teachers’ (N=3) experience of movement and physical activities in school gives support to the idea, that physical...... activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...

  7. THERMAL ACTIVATION OF IMMOBILIZED PAPAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Papain (Papainase, EC 3.4.22.2) was immobilized on porous silica beads by cross linking with glutaraldehyde. The thermal activation of this immobilized papain in aqueous system was found at a temperature range from 50 to 90℃. The higher the temperature, the more active the immobilized papain will possess. At the same time,the durability of the immobilized papain on heating was greatly improved. The effect of additives and salts on the activity of the immobilized papain were also studied. The results showed that the additives and some of the salts studied could markedly enhance the activity of the immobilized papain at elevated temperature.

  8. CDBG Activity Funding by Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — All CDBG activities in the categories of acquisition, economic development, housing, public improvements, public services, and other summarized by Census Tract.

  9. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  10. Active Combustion Control Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, research into active combustion control has yielded impressive results in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities and widening the operational...

  11. Active Gas Regenerative Liquefier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We offer a novel liquefier that has the potential to simultaneously increase thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduce complexity. The ?active gas...

  12. Active Directory Designing, Deploying, and Running Active Directory

    CERN Document Server

    Desmond, Brian

    2008-01-01

    By giving you a thorough grounding in Active Directory, this bestselling book teaches you how to design, manage, and maintain an AD infrastructure, whether it's for a small business network or a multinational enterprise with thousands of resources, services, and users. The fourth edition covers Active Directory from Windows 2000 through Windows Server 2008 in an easy-to-understand narrative style.

  13. Incorporation of Socio-scientific Content into Active Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Moog, R.

    2014-12-01

    Active learning has gained increasing support as an effective pedagogical technique to improve student learning. One way to promote active learning in the classroom is the use of in-class activities in place of lecturing. As part of an NSF-funded project, a set of in-class activities have been created that use climate change topics to teach chemistry content. These activities use the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) methodology. In this pedagogical approach a set of models and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities in their groups, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. Each of these climate change activities contains a socio-scientific component, e.g., social, ethical and economic data. In one activity, greenhouse gases are used to explain the concept of dipole moment. Data about natural and anthropogenic production rates, global warming potential and atmospheric lifetimes for a list of greenhouse gases are presented. The students are asked to identify which greenhouse gas they would regulate, with a corresponding explanation for their choice. They are also asked to identify the disadvantages of regulating the gas they chose in the previous question. In another activity, where carbon sequestration is used to demonstrate the utility of a phase diagram, students use economic and environmental data to choose the best location for sequestration. Too often discussions about climate change (both in and outside the classroom) consist of purely emotional responses. These activities force students to use data to support their arguments and hypothesize about what other data could be used in the corresponding discussion to

  14. Active vibration and noise control by hybrid active acoustic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoebener, U.; Gaul, L. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. A fuer Mechanik

    2001-07-01

    In the present paper a hybrid passive and active treatment for vibration and noise reduction of plate type structures is proposed. The treatment is manufactured as sandwich structure and is called hybrid active acoustic panel. The passive component is used to reduce the vibration and sound radiation for high frequencies whereas the active part of the system is designed for the low frequency range. By selecting the thickness of the passive damping layer a certain frequency limit is defined, which divides the high and low frequency range. The actuator and sensor layout of the active component is evaluated by using the mode shapes of the low frequency range. According to the evaluated layout a hybrid active acoustic panel is manufactured and experimentally tested. The experimental results validate the proposed concept. (orig.)

  15. Screening for cellulase-encoding clones in metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmberger, Nele; Streit, Wolfgang R

    2010-01-01

    Modern biotechnology has the steady need to continuously identify novel enzymes for use in biotechnological applications. In industrial applications, however, enzymes often have to function under extreme and nonnatural conditions (i.e., in the presence of solvents, high temperature and/or at extreme pH values). Cellulases have many industrial applications from the generation of bioethanol, a realistic long-term energy source, to the finishing of textiles. These industrial processes require cellulolytic activity under a range of pH, temperature, and ionic conditions, and they are usually carried out by mixtures of cellulases. Investigation of the broad diversity of cellulolytic enzymes involved in the natural degradation of cellulose is necessary for optimization of these processes.

  16. Effects of Rhamnolipid and Microbial Inoculants on the Vermicomposting of Green Waste with Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Li, Suyan; Sun, Xiangyang; Wang, Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of adding the biosurfactant rhamnolipid, the lignolytic and cellulolytic fungus Phanerochete chrysosporium, and the free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chrococcum on vermicomposting of green waste with Eisenia fetida was investigated. The addition of rhamnolipid and/or either microorganism alone or in all combinations significantly increased E. fetida growth rate, the number of E. fetida juveniles and cocoons, the population densities of cellulolytic fungi and Azotobacter bacteria, and cellulase and urease activities in the vermicomposts. The quality of the final vermicompost (in terms of electrical conductivity, nutrient content, C/N ratio, humic acid content, lignin and cellulose contents, and phytotoxicity to germinating seeds) was enhanced by addition of rhamnolipid and/or microorganisms. The physical characteristics of vermicomposts produced with rhamnolipid and/or microorganisms were acceptable for agricultural application. The best quality vermicompost was obtained with the combined addition of P. chrysosporium, A. chrococcum, and rhamnolipid. PMID:28122059

  17. Protease activities of rumen protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, C W; Lovelock, L K; Krumholz, L; Buchanan-Smith, J G

    1984-01-01

    Intact, metabolically active rumen protozoa prepared by gravity sedimentation and washing in a mineral solution at 10 to 15 degrees C had comparatively low proteolytic activity on azocasein and low endogenous proteolytic activity. Protozoa washed in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) at 4 degrees C and stored on ice autolysed when they were warmed to 39 degrees C. They also exhibited low proteolytic activity on azocasein, but they had a high endogenous proteolytic activity with a pH optimum of 5.8. The endogenous proteolytic activity was inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors, for example, iodoacetate (63.1%) and the aspartic proteinase inhibitor, pepstatin (43.9%). Inhibitors specific for serine proteinases and metalloproteinases were without effect. The serine and cysteine proteinase inhibitors of microbial origin, including antipain, chymostatin, and leupeptin, caused up to 67% inhibition of endogenous proteolysis. Hydrolysis of casein by protozoa autolysates was also inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Some of the inhibitors decreased endogenous deamination, in particular, phosphoramidon, which had little inhibitory effect on proteolysis. Protozoal and bacterial preparations exhibited low hydrolytic activities on synthetic proteinase and carboxypeptidase substrates, although the protozoa had 10 to 78 times greater hydrolytic activity (per milligram of protein) than bacteria on the synthetic aminopeptidase substrates L-leucine-p-nitroanilide, L-leucine-beta-naphthylamide, and L-leucinamide. The aminopeptidase activity was partially inhibited by bestatin. It was concluded that cysteine proteinases and, to a lesser extent, aspartic proteinases are primarily responsible for proteolysis in autolysates of rumen protozoa. The protozoal autolysates had high aminopeptidase activity; low deaminase activity was observed on endogenous amino acids. PMID:6364968

  18. NSLS 2009 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasta K.; Mona R.

    2009-05-01

    2009 was an incredibly exciting year for light sources at Brookhaven. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) hosted more than 2,200 visiting researchers, who, along with the about 50 members of our scientific staff, produced a total of 957 publications - about 20 percent of which appeared in premier journals. Covering topics ranging from Alzheimer's disease detection to ethanol-powered fuel cells, a sampling of these findings can be found in this Activity Report. We've also seen the resurfacing of some of our long-time users hard work. I was very proud to hear that two of the three recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry have ties to the NSLS. Venki Ramakrishnan, a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department and long-time user of the NSLS, now at Cambridge University, and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, also a long-time NSLS user, shared the prize with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science for their work on the structure and function of the ribosome. In the late 1990s, Ramakrishnan and Steitz used protein crystallography at the NSLS to gather atomic-level images of two ribosome subunits: 30S (Ramakrishnan) and 50S (Steitz). Both laureates solved the high-resolution structures for these subunits based on this data. After struggling with a rough budget for several years, we received excellent funding, and then some, this year. In addition to NSLS operations funding, we received $3 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). We used that additional money for two exciting projects: construction of a full-field x-ray microscope and acquisition of several advanced x-ray detectors. The x-ray microscope will be able to image objects with a targeted spatial resolution of 30 nanometers. This capability will be particularly important for new initiatives in energy research and will prepare our users for the projected 1-nanometer resolution benchmark at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

  19. NSLS 2009 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasta K.; Mona R.

    2009-05-01

    2009 was an incredibly exciting year for light sources at Brookhaven. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) hosted more than 2,200 visiting researchers, who, along with the about 50 members of our scientific staff, produced a total of 957 publications - about 20 percent of which appeared in premier journals. Covering topics ranging from Alzheimer's disease detection to ethanol-powered fuel cells, a sampling of these findings can be found in this Activity Report. We've also seen the resurfacing of some of our long-time users hard work. I was very proud to hear that two of the three recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry have ties to the NSLS. Venki Ramakrishnan, a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department and long-time user of the NSLS, now at Cambridge University, and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, also a long-time NSLS user, shared the prize with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science for their work on the structure and function of the ribosome. In the late 1990s, Ramakrishnan and Steitz used protein crystallography at the NSLS to gather atomic-level images of two ribosome subunits: 30S (Ramakrishnan) and 50S (Steitz). Both laureates solved the high-resolution structures for these subunits based on this data. After struggling with a rough budget for several years, we received excellent funding, and then some, this year. In addition to NSLS operations funding, we received $3 million in funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). We used that additional money for two exciting projects: construction of a full-field x-ray microscope and acquisition of several advanced x-ray detectors. The x-ray microscope will be able to image objects with a targeted spatial resolution of 30 nanometers. This capability will be particularly important for new initiatives in energy research and will prepare our users for the projected 1-nanometer resolution benchmark at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

  20. Leisure activities, time and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Godskesen, Mirjam Irene

    2007-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to explore the relationships between leisure activities and the environment. Most research on leisure is unrelated to environmental issues, but when this research is “read” through environmental “glasses”, it provides relevant inputs for environmental studies...... use and activities rather than various categories of consumer spending....

  1. Developing Internal Controls through Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, F. Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Life events can include the Tuesday afternoon cooking class with the group worker or the Saturday afternoon football game, but in the sense that Fritz Redl thought of them, these activities are only threads in a fabric of living that includes all the elements of daily life: playing, working, school-based learning, learning through activities,…

  2. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Larsen, Marcus M.

    Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set of ...

  3. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Møller Larsen, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set of ...

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Securidaca longipedunculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajali, U; Chukwurah, B K C

    2004-11-01

    The folk herbal uses of Securidaca longipedunculata in the treatment of diarrhea, boils, gonorrhea, and cough prompted phytochemical analyses and antimicrobial activity screening of extracts of the root. Some flavonoids isolated showed activity against many micro-organisms. These flavonoids were isolated using chromatographic methods.

  5. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  6. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  7. FORECASTING NEED IN ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Danciu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inside a company activity planning is made according to estimates. This means that estimates are very important. If estimates are wrong the company's activity will be on the wrong way. In the management zone in order to focus on general objectives achievement there are used estimates and forecasting methods.

  8. Event-Based Activity Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    We present and discuss a modeling approach that supports event-based modeling of information and activity in information systems. Interacting human actors and IT-actors may carry out such activity. We use events to create meaningful relations between information structures and the related activit...

  9. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  10. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  11. An Application of Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marken, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Activity Theory has often been used in workplace settings to gain new theoretical understandings about work and the humans who engage in work, but rarely has there been sufficient detail in the literature to allow HPT practitioners to do their own activity analysis. The detail presented in this case is sufficient for HPT practitioners to begin to…

  12. Generic active appearance models revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Alabort-i-Medina, Joan; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Active Orientation Models (AOMs) are gen- erative models of facial shape and appearance. Their main dierences with the well-known paradigm of Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are (i) they use a dierent statistical model of appearance, (ii) they are accompanied by a robust algorithm for m

  13. Physical Activity and Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bellizzi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is burdened by high cardiovascular risk because of increased prevalence of traditional and disease-specific cardiovascular risk factors and, consequently, patients are affected by greater morbidity and mortality. In renal transplanted patients, healthy lifestyle and physical activity are recommended to improve overall morbidity and cardiovascular outcomes. According to METs (Metabolic Equivalent Task; i.e. the amount of energy consumed while sitting at rest, physical activities are classified as sedentary (<3.0 METs, of moderate-(3.0 to 5.9 METs or vigorous-intensity (≥6.0 METs. Guidelines suggest for patients with chronic kidney disease an amount of physical activity of at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity five times per week (min 450 MET-minutes/week. Data on physical activity in renal transplanted patients, however, are limited and have been mainly obtained by mean of non-objective methods. Available data suggest that physical activity is low either at the start or during renal transplantation and this may be associated with poor patient and graft outcomes. Therefore, in renal transplanted patients more data on physical activity obtained with objective, accelerometer-based methods are needed. In the meanwhile, physical activity have to be considered as an essential part of the medical care for renal transplanted recipients.

  14. Designing active objects in DEGAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, J.F.P. van den; Siebes, A.P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This report discusses application design for active databases, in particular for the active object-based database programming language DEGAS. In DEGAS one modularisation principle, the object, is applied to all elements of the application, including rules. We discuss a design process consisting of f

  15. 50 CFR 401.4 - Activities prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.4 Activities prohibited. Law enforcement, public relations, harvesting, marketing and processing activities, construction of fisherman use facilities, and activities concerned...

  16. Active properties of neuronal dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D; Magee, J C; Colbert, C M; Cristie, B R

    1996-01-01

    Dendrites of neurons in the central nervous system are the principal sites for excitatory synaptic input. Although little is known about their function, two disparate perspectives have arisen to describe the activity patterns inherent to these diverse tree-like structures. Dendrites are thus considered either passive or active in their role in integrating synaptic inputs. This review follows the history of dendritic research from before the turn of the century to the present, with a primary focus on the hippocampus. A number of recent techniques, including high-speed fluorescence imaging and dendritic patch clamping, have provided new information and perspectives about the active properties of dendrites. The results support previous notions about the dendritic propagation of action potentials and also indicate which types of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels are expressed and functionally active in dendrites. Possible roles for the active properties of dendrites in synaptic plasticity and integration are also discussed.

  17. Crystal activation experiment MA-151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombka, J. I.; Eller, E. L.; Schmadebeck, R. L.; Dyer, C. S.; Reedy, R. C.; Barr, D. W.; Gilmore, J. S.; Prestwood, R. J.; Bayhurst, B. P.; Perry, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    The crystal activation experiment consisted of two sample packages that were flown in the command module and returned to earth for analysis of the radioactivity induced in them during the flight. The objective of the experiment was to define the background caused by detector activation that interferes when gamma radiation is measured in the 0.02- to 10-megaelectronvolt range from earth orbit. Preliminary results show that the activation of the NaI(Tl) crystal was a factor of 3 below that from a similar measurement on Apollo 17. The identification of certain species and the level of activation observed show an important contribution from the interactions of thermal and energetic neutrons produced as secondaries in the spacecraft. That the activation was reduced by only a factor of 3 compared with the Apollo 17 experiment, despite the geomagnetically shielded orbit, possibly indicates more efficient secondary neutron production by the more energetic cosmic rays.

  18. Advances on Active Tectonics Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yong; Chen Qifu; Li Juan

    2001-01-01

    The tectonic movement at human scale has not been fully understood yet, especially for active tectonics, although it is the basis to study natural hazards and environmental variations. Many national and international scientific plans related closely to active tectonics research have been made in the past ten years. This paper briefly summarized the background of the undertaking of active tectonics research, its advances and existing problems, and the key points in its future studies are also pointed out. The emerging of new technologies like the Earth Observing Sys tem, Digital Seismology and so on provides unusual opportunities for tectonic research. It is emphasized, however, that careful analyses and building up of new theoretical frame are sill the key problems for studies of active tectonics, especially for active tectonics in China' s conti nent.

  19. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  20. Active matter, then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Evelyn Fox

    2016-09-01

    Historically, living was divided from dead, inert matter by its autonomous activity. Today, a number of materials not themselves alive are characterized as having inherent activity, and this activity has become the subject of a hot new field of physics, "Active Matter", or "Soft matter become alive." For active matter scientists, the relation of physics to biology is guaranteed in one direction by the assertion that the cell is a material, and hence its study can be considered a branch of material science, and in the other direction, by the claim that the physical dynamics of this material IS what brings the cell to life, and therefore its study is a proper branch of biology. I will examine these claims in relation to the concerns of nineteenth century scientists on the one hand, and on the other, in relation to future prospects of the division between animate and inanimate.