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Sample records for cellulolytic activity

  1. Chimeric polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogulis, Mark; Sweeney, Matthew; Heu, Tia

    2017-06-14

    The present invention relates to chimeric GH61 polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the chimeric GH61 polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the chimeric GH61 polypeptides.

  2. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyuran, Suchindra; Kramer, Randall; Harris, Paul

    2013-10-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  3. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities of common indoor fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Poulsen, Rehab; Hansen, Gustav Hammerich

    2016-01-01

    Moldy building materials, such as chip wood and gypsum, should be a good source for fungal strains with high production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Screening of 21 common indoor fungal strains showed, contrary to the expected, that the Chaetomium and Stachybotrys strains had little...... or no cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities using AZCL-assays. On the other hand, both Cladosporium sphaerospermum and Penicillium chrysogenum showed the highest cellulase, β-glucosidase, mannase, β-galactanase and arabinanase activities and would be good candidates for over-producers of enzymes needed...

  4. NREL Explains the Higher Cellulolytic Activity of a Vital Microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of a new mode of action by C. thermocellum to convert biomass to biofuels is significant because the bacterium is already recognized as one of the most effective in the biosphere. Researchers found that, in addition to using common cellulase degradation mechanisms attached to cells, C. thermocellum also uses a new category of cell-free scaffolded enzymes. The new discovery will influence the strategies used to improve the cellulolytic activity of biomass degrading microbes going forward. Better understanding of this bacterium could lead to cheaper production of ethanol and drop-in fuels. Also, this discovery demonstrates that nature's biomass conversion behaviors are not fully understood and remain as opportunities for future microbial/enzyme engineering efforts.

  5. Cellulolytic activities of wild type fungi isolated from decayed wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    amongst the fungal isolates while M. mucedo had the least cellulolytic ... across plant taxa, high cellulose content; typically in the range of ... antibiotic mixture made up of distilled water, 50 ml and Erythromycin: 500mg was .... cellulases including β-glucosidase were produced from Penicillium, Aspergillus and Trichoderma ...

  6. Enzymatic degradation of cellulose for thermophilic actinomycete: isolation, characterization and cellulolytic activity determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ramírez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty five cellulolytic thermophilic actinomycete strains were isolated from 71 compost, soil, hay and dung samples. Streptomyces sp. (50,63%, Thermomonospora curvata (15,82%, T. chromogena (13,92%, and other species were identified. Endoglucanase, exoglucanase and β-glucosidase activities were evaluated from 10 cellulolytic actinomycete strains. Among these the Streptomyces sp. 7CMC10 strain showed the biggest activity levels corresponding to 20,14; 2,61 and 5,40 UI/mg of protein, respectively.

  7. Isolation and characterization of aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity in the gut of endogeic earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Kana; Yoshida, Seo

    2012-09-01

    The ability of earthworms to decompose lignocellulose involves the assistance of microorganisms in their digestive system. While many studies have revealed a diverse microbiota in the earthworm gut, including aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, it remains unclear which of these species contribute to lignocellulose digestion. In this study, aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity isolated from the gut of two endogeic earthworms, Amynthas heteropoda (Megascolecidae) and Eisenia fetida (Lumbricidae) were isolated by solid culture of gut homogenates using filter paper as a carbon source. A total of 48 strains, including four bacterial and four fungal genera, were isolated from two earthworm species. Characterization of these strains using enzyme assays showed that the most representative ones had exocellulase and xylanase activities, while some had weak laccase activity. These findings suggest that earthworms digest lignocellulose by exploiting microbial exocellulase and xylanase besides their own endocellulase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that among the cellulolytic isolates in both earthworm species Burkholderia and Chaetomium were the dominant bacterial and fungal members.

  8. Comparative study of cellulolytic activity of three rumen fungi on different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasova-Pančevska Natalija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic chytridiomycete fungi are found in the gastrointestinal tracts of many domesticated ruminant and nonruminant herbivores and of a wide variety of wild herbivorous mammals. They produce high levels of cellulases and hemicellulases; these enzymes are regulated by substrate (especially soluble sugars available to the organisms. The aim of this paper was to do a comparative study of cellulolytic activity of three rumen fungi on carboxymethyl cellulose and Avicel. The capacity of enzymes was determined by monitoring the growth on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC and Avicel. Enzyme activity was detected extracellularly in culture supernatants after vegetative growth. All of the isolates degraded CMC and avicel, and exhibited cellulolytic activities (carboxymethyl cellulose-(CMC-ase and avicelase.

  9. Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Knudsen, I.; Elmholt, S.

    2002-01-01

    the Hanes-Wolf transformation of the Michaelis-Menten equation. Soil samples from 6 to 13 cm depth were collected in the early spring as undisturbed blocks from 10 arable soils with different physico-chemical properties and cultivation history. Significant correlations were found between soil suppresiveness......The objective was to investigate the relationship between soil suppression of seedling blight of barley caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Sacc. and the soil cellulolytic activity of beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase and endocellulase. Disease suppression was investigated in bioassays...... with test soils mixed with sand, and barley seeds inoculated with F. culmorum. After 19 days, disease severity was evaluated on the barley seedlings. Soil cellulolytic activities were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl-labelled fluorogenic substrates, and were expressed as V-max values obtained by using...

  10. Evaluation in Cellulolytic Activity of Stenotrophomonas sp. in Cellulose Nitrogen Free Mineral Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey Thet Paing Htway; San San Yu; Zaw Ko Latt

    2011-12-01

    Three bacterial strains were isolated from rice rhizospheric soil and their nitrogen fixing activity was determined in nitrogen free mineral medium and broth with glucose and cellulose as carbon sources and they produced ammonium concentration (above 3ppm) in G-NFFMM and (2-3ppm) in C-NFMM. Moreover, their cellulolytic activity was determined by DNS mothod and strain H3 having the cellulolytic activity was selected. Then, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, baggasse, pea haulm, corn stem, rice straw were used as substrates and determined its reducing sugar concentration. After detection of the cellulolytic activity, the bacteria produced the highest concentration of reducing sugar on cellulose substrate at 12 day incubation period with the reducing sugar amount of 0.12mg/ml and 0.298mg/ml on CMC substrates. In the study of argicultral wastes as substrates, the selected strain, H3, produced in the reducing sugar concentration with 0.12, 0.116,0.103 and 0.098mg/ml respectively. The selected strain was identified by biochemical characterists and 16s ribosomal DNA analysis and it was Stenotrophomonas sp.

  11. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsel Jaen, M.; Negro, M.J.; Saez, R.; Martin Moreno, C.

    1986-01-01

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reese QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars productions, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of O. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (author). 10 figs.; 10 refs

  12. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by Trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsel J, M.; Negro A, M. J.; Saez A, R.; Martin M, C.

    1986-01-01

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars production, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of 0. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (Author) 10 refs

  13. Production and characterization of cellulolytic activities produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hind

    2013-01-30

    Jan 30, 2013 ... These activities were stable at 50°C after 5 h incubation in a pH ... chemical methods for environmental reasons. ... components in a complex in which the product of one ... high yielding parent strain of many commercially strains .... variance (ANOVA) and expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD).

  14. Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity (MCHCA for enhanced biogas production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof ePoszytek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate in agricultural biogas plants is very popular and yields good results. However, the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, and thus biogas production, is not always satisfactory due to the slow or incomplete degradation (hydrolysis of plant matter. To enhance the solubilization of the lignocellulosic biomass various physical, chemical and biological pretreatment methods are used.The aim of this study was to select and characterize cellulose-degrading bacteria, and to construct a microbial consortium, dedicated for degradation of maize silage and enhancing biogas production from this substrate.Over one hundred strains of cellulose-degrading bacteria were isolated from: sewage sludge, hydrolyzer from an agricultural biogas plant, cattle slurry and manure. After physiological characterization of the isolates, sixteen strains (representatives of Bacillus, Providencia and Ochrobactrum genera were chosen for the construction of a Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity, called MCHCA. The selected strains had a high endoglucanase activity (exceeding 0.21 IU/mL CMCase activity and a wide range of tolerance to various physical and chemical conditions. Lab-scale simulation of biogas production using the selected strains for degradation of maize silage was carried out in a two-bioreactor system, similar to those used in agricultural biogas plants.The obtained results showed that the constructed MCHCA consortium is capable of efficient hydrolysis of maize silage, and increases biogas production by even 38%, depending on the inoculum used for methane fermentation. The results in this work indicate that the mesophilic Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity has a great potential for application on industrial scale in agricultural biogas plants.

  15. Isolation of microbial native Stumps with cellulolytic activity of a compost process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo G, Marisol; Ruiz V Orlando Simon; Yepes P, Maria del Socorro; Montoya C, Olga Ines

    2003-01-01

    The isolation, selection adaptation and handling of native microorganisms coming from organic waste are an alternative to avoid the accumulation and the lack of the proper use of these undesirable materials. This organic waste is a source for obtaining microbial strains, which are potentially producers of Industrial enzymes and, at the same time, it works as substrate so that these organisms can transform it into compost or organic manure. In this work, 39 native strains of microorganisms with potential cellulolytic activity coming from the organic waste of the urban and rural sector, from the Compost Plant of Marinilla Antioquia) municipality, were isolated, evaluated and purified. The waste was previously selected and then submitted to an aerobic degradation or compost. The microbial strains were isolated in a selective medium with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), of the phases mesophile, termophile, cooling and maturation of the compost process. Eighty-two percent (82%)of the obtained colonies were identified, in principle as Bacillus, because of their morphology and their reaction to the Gram coloration. The fungi population was seen only during the cooling phase. Then, the potential cellulolytic activity was evaluated qualitatively in a solid medium with the Congo Red coloration, with which the Beta-endoglucanase activity was evaluated through the formation of clarified zones. Such staining was applied in two mediums with CMC with and without glucose It was observed that 33.3% of the isolated organisms produced the enzyme In both mediums; however, 25.6% of microorganisms did not show the production of this enzyme, and only 15.8% did not require the inducers to produce it

  16. Temperature and pH optima of enzyme activities produced by cellulolytic thermophilic fungi in batch and solid-state cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grajek, W

    1986-01-01

    The temperature and pH optima of cellulolytic activities produced by thermophilic fungi in liquid and solid-state cultures were established. Some differences in optimal conditions for enzyme activities, which depended on culture methods, were confirmed. 10 references.

  17. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bradon R.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Fox, Brian G.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology. PMID:27276034

  18. Mitigation of Membrane Biofouling in MBR Using a Cellulolytic Bacterium, Undibacterium sp. DM-1, Isolated from Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Chang Hyun; Lee, Seonki; Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Kibaek; Lee, Jaewoo; Kwon, Hyeokpil; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Jung-Kee; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Chung-Hak; Park, Pyung-Kyu

    2017-03-28

    Biofilm formation on the membrane surface results in the loss of permeability in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment. Studies have revealed that cellulose is not only produced by a number of bacterial species but also plays a key role during formation of their biofilm. Hence, in this study, cellulase was introduced to a MBR as a cellulose-induced biofilm control strategy. For practical application of cellulase to MBR, a cellulolytic ( i.e ., cellulase-producing) bacterium, Undibacterium sp. DM-1, was isolated from a lab-scale MBR for wastewater treatment. Prior to its application to MBR, it was confirmed that the cell-free supernatant of DM-1 was capable of inhibiting biofilm formation and of detaching the mature biofilm of activated sludge and cellulose-producing bacteria. This suggested that cellulase could be an effective anti-biofouling agent for MBRs used in wastewater treatment. Undibacterium sp. DM-1-entrapping beads ( i.e ., cellulolytic-beads) were applied to a continuous MBR to mitigate membrane biofouling 2.2-fold, compared with an MBR with vacant-beads as a control. Subsequent analysis of the cellulose content in the biofilm formed on the membrane surface revealed that this mitigation was associated with an approximately 30% reduction in cellulose by cellulolytic-beads in MBR.

  19. Community composition and cellulase activity of cellulolytic bacteria from forest soils planted with broad-leaved deciduous and evergreen trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiang-Ke; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Yu, Heng-Yu; Cheng, Jian-Wen; Miao, Li-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Cellulolytic bacteria in forest soil provide carbon sources to improve the soil fertility and sustain the nutrient balance of the forest ecological system through the decomposition of cellulosic remains. These bacteria can also be utilized for the biological conversion of biomass into renewable biofuels. In this study, the community compositions and activities of cellulolytic bacteria in the soils of forests planted with broad-leaved deciduous (Chang Qing Garden, CQG) and broad-leaved evergreen (Forest Park, FP) trees in Wuhan, China were resolved through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. All of the isolates exhibited 35 RFLP fingerprint patterns and were clustered into six groups at a similarity level of 50 %. The phylogeny analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that these RFLP groups could be clustered into three phylogenetic groups and further divided into six subgroups at a higher resolution. Group I consists of isolates from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis complex (I-A) and from Paenibacillus amylolyticus-related complex (I-B) and exhibited the highest cellulase activity among all of the cellulolytic bacteria isolates. Cluster II consists of isolates belonging to Microbacterium testaceum (II-A), Chryseobacterium indoltheticum (II-B), and Flavobacterium pectinovorum and the related complex (II-C). Cluster III consists of isolates belonging to Pseudomonas putida-related species. The community shift with respect to the plant species and the soil properties was evidenced by the phylogenetic composition of the communities. Groups I-A and I-B, which account for 36.0 % of the cellulolytic communities in the CQG site, are the dominant groups (88.4 %) in the FP site. Alternatively, the ratio of the bacteria belonging to group III (P. putida-related isolates) shifted from 28.0 % in CQG to 4.0 % in FP. The soil nutrient analysis revealed that the CQG site planted with deciduous broad

  20. Screening Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Digestive Tract Snail (Achatina fulica and Test the Ability of Cellulase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijanarka Wijanarka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On the research of enzyme production levels observed cellulase produced by bacteria in the digestive tract of the isolation of the Snail (Achatina fulica. Isolation of bacteria based on the ability of bacteria to grow on CMC media. The purpose of this study was to determine cellulase activity by cellulolytic bacteria. Some bacterial isolates were identified as cellulolytic bacteria, they were KE-B1, KE-B2, KE-B3, KE-B4, KE-B5, and KE-B6. Isolates KE-B6 was the best isolates. Furthermore KE-B6 isolates were grown on media production to determine the pattern of growth and enzyme activity. Measurement of cell growth was conducted by inoculating starter aged 22 hours at CMC production of liquid medium. Cellulase enzyme activity measurements was performed by the DNS method. The results showed that the highest activity by new isolate bacteria KE-B6 and its value of the activity of 0.4539 U/mL, growth rate (µ 0.377/hour and generation time (g 1.84 hour. This research expected cellulase of producing bacteria were easy, inexpensive and efficient. This enzyme can be used as an enzyme biolytic once expected to replace expensive commercial enzyme. The biotylic enzyme can be applied to strains improvement (protoplast fusion.How to CiteWijanarka, W., Kusdiyantini, E. & Parman, S. (2016. Screening Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Digestive Tract Snail (Achatina fulica and Test the Ability of Cellulase Activity. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 386-392. 

  1. Temporal variations in microbial biomass C and cellulolytic enzyme activity in arable soils: effects of organic matter input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debosz, K.; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pedersen, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    Temporal variations in soil microbial biomass C concentration and in activity of extracellular enzymes of the cellulolytic complex were investigated in a field experiment after eight years of cultivation with either low organic matter input (low-OM) or high organic matter input (high-OM). The cul......Temporal variations in soil microbial biomass C concentration and in activity of extracellular enzymes of the cellulolytic complex were investigated in a field experiment after eight years of cultivation with either low organic matter input (low-OM) or high organic matter input (high......-OM). The cultivation systems differed in whether their source of fertiliser was mainly mineral or organic, in whether a winter cover crop was grown, and whether straw was mulched or removed. Sampling occurred at approximately monthly intervals, over a period of two years. Distinct temporal variations in microbial......) and an endocellulase activity of 44.2 +/- 1.1 nmol g(-1) h(-1). (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. The Cellulolytic Activity And Volatile Fatty Acid Product Of Rumen Bacteria Of Buffalo And Cattle On Rice Straw, Elephant Grass, and Sesbania Leaves Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caribu Hadi Prayitno

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment on The Cellulolytic Activity and Volatile Fatty Acid Product of Rumen Bacteria of Buffalo and Cattle on Rice Straw, Elephant Grass, and Sesbania Leaves Substrates had been conducted at Feedstuff Laboratory of Animal Science Soedirman University. The basic design  that was used in this experiment was Completely Randomized Design (CRD with factorial pattern of 6 x 3, three replications. The bacteria isolate as the factors were cellulolytic rumen bacteria isolate of buffalo (A1, A2, and A3 and cattle (A4, A5 and A6 while the substrates (second factor  were NDF rice straw (S1, elephant grass (S2, and sesbania leaves (S3 Cell walls. The result of this experiment showed that the interaction between bacteria isolate and substrate  type were significant on pH, NDF digestibility, cellulase activity, pH was  6.28 until 6.43.  The NDF digestibility range was 12.27 until 55.61 percent. The lowers of cellulase activity was 5.11 IU/ml and the higher was 24.47 IU/ml. The range of acetic acid yield was 63.37 to 307.467 mg/100 ml. Range of  propionic production was 15.17 to 352.20 mg/ 100 ml. The production of butiric acid was 8.77 to 40.87 mg/ 100 ml. The cellulase activity  of cellulolytic rumen bacteria of buffalo was higher than cattle, and also their effect on NDF digestibility of rice straw, elephant grass, and sesbania leaves cell walls. The A3 of cellulolytic rumen bacteria isolate of  buffalo changed cell walls substrat to volatile fatty  acid was more effective than cattle, especially on cell elephant grass. Propionic and butiric  acid that was produced by cellulolytic rumen bacteria isolate of buffalo more higher than cattle (Animal Production 1 (1 : 1-9 (1999 Key Words: Cellulolytic, VFA, Rumen Bacteria, Buffalo, Cattle.

  3. EXTRACELLULAR CELLULOLYTIC COMPLEXES PRODUCTION BY MICROSCOPIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Syrchin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to screen and to study the effect of inducers on the synthesis of the cellulolytic enzyme complexes by microscopic fungi. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities were determined by reducing sugar with DNS reagent, and β-glucosidase activity by pNPG hydrolysis. The enzyme preparations were obtained by ammonium sulphate precipitation. Among 32 studied strains of microscopic fungi 14 produced cellulo- and xylanolytic enzyme complexes. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 demonstrated the highest levels of all studied enzyme activities. Enzyme preparations with high endo-, exoglucanase, xylanase and β-glucosidase activities were obtained from these strains. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 were active producers of cellulase enzyme complexes during growth on natural substrates. It was shown that inductors of cellulolytic enzymes in Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 differed from the ones in Trichoderma reesei.

  4. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by Trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; Actividad enzimatica del complejo celulolitico producido por Trichoderma reesei. Hidrolisis enzimatica de la celulosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsel, M; Negro, M J; Saez, R; Martin, C

    1986-07-01

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars production, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of 0. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (Author) 10 refs.

  5. Biochanin A improves fiber fermentation by cellulolytic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine the effect of the isoflavone biochanin A (BCA) on rumen cellulolytic bacteria and consequent fermentative activity. When bovine microbial rumen cell suspensions (n = 3) were incubated (24 h, 39 °C) with ground hay, cellulolytic bacteria proliferated, short chain fatty...

  6. Activity-based protein profiling of secreted cellulolytic enzyme activity dynamics in Trichoderma reesei QM6a, NG14, and RUT-C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lindsey N.; Culley, David E.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Zink, Erika M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Magnuson, Jon M.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-12-01

    Development of alternative, non-petroleum based sources of bioenergy that can be applied in the short-term find great promise in the use of highly abundant and renewable lignocellulosic plant biomass.1 This material obtained from different feedstocks, such as forest litter or agricultural residues, can yield liquid fuels and other chemical products through biorefinery processes.2 Biofuels are obtained from lignocellulosic materials by chemical pretreatment of the biomass, followed by enzymatic decomposition of cellulosic and hemicellulosic compounds into soluble sugars that are converted to desired chemical products via microbial metabolism and fermentation.3, 4 To release soluble sugars from polymeric cellulose multiple enzymes are required, including endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase.5, 6 However, the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose into soluble sugars remains a significant limiting factor to the efficient and economically viable utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for transport fuels.7, 8 The primary industrial source of cellulose and hemicellulases is the mesophilic soft-rot fungus Trichoderma reesei,9 having widespread applications in food, feed, textile, pulp, and paper industries.10 The genome encodes 200 glycoside hydrolases, including 10 cellulolytic and 16 hemicellulolytic enzymes.11 The hypercellulolytic catabolite derepressed strain RUT-C30 was obtained through a three-step UV and chemical mutagenesis of the original T. reesei strain QM6a,12, 13 in which strains M7 and NG14 were intermediate, having higher cellulolytic activity than the parent strain but less activity and higher catabolite repression than RUT-C30.14 Numerous methods have been employed to optimize the secreted enzyme cocktail of T. reesei including cultivation conditions, operational parameters, and mutagenesis.3 However, creating an optimal and economical enzyme mixture for production-scale biofuels synthesis may take thousands of experiments to identify.

  7. Production and assay of cellulolytic enzyme activity of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya abbatoir, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Lokapirnasari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to produce and assay cellulolytic enzyme activity (endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-Dglucanase, and β-glucosidase, at optimum temperature and optimum pH of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya Abbatoir, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: To produce enzyme from a single colony of E. cloacae WPL 214, 98 × 1010 CFU/ml of isolates was put into 20 ml of liquid medium and incubated in a shaker incubator for 16 h at 35°C in accordance with growth time and optimum temperature of E. cloacae WPL 214. Further on, culture was centrifuged at 6000 rpm at 4°C for 15 min. Pellet was discarded while supernatant containing cellulose enzyme activity was withdrawn to assay endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, and β-glucosidase. Results: Cellulase enzyme of E. cloacae WPL 214 isolates had endoglucanase activity of 0.09 U/ml, exoglucanase of 0.13 U/ml, and cellobiase of 0.10 U/ml at optimum temperature 35°C and optimum pH 5. Conclusion: E. cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste produced cellulose enzyme with activity as cellulolytic enzyme of endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase and β-glucosidase.

  8. Spatial heterogeneity of cellulolytic activity and fungal communities within individual decomposing Quercus petraea leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátilová, Diana; Větrovský, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr

    27 Part A, JUNE (2017), s. 125-133 ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06763S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15086 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cellulose decomposition * Cellobiohydrolase * Enzyme activity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  9. Cellulolytic activity of some cellulose-decomposing fungi in salinized soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Badran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximum evolution of CO2 was marked in control soil inoculated by tested fungi but its rate decreased with the increasing salinity. The period of 10 days was most suitable for cellulose degradation by A. niger and P. chrysoecnum and 15 days by A. flavus and C. globosum in control soil. High salinity levels affected greatly the cellulolylic activities of tesled fungi. Carbon content of saline soils increased white the nitrogen content decreased.

  10. FibroChip, a Functional DNA Microarray to Monitor Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Activities of Rumen Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Comtet-Marre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants fulfill their energy needs for growth primarily through microbial breakdown of plant biomass in the rumen. Several biotic and abiotic factors influence the efficiency of fiber degradation, which can ultimately impact animal productivity and health. To provide more insight into mechanisms involved in the modulation of fibrolytic activity, a functional DNA microarray targeting genes encoding key enzymes involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation by rumen microbiota was designed. Eight carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme families (GH5, GH9, GH10, GH11, GH43, GH48, CE1, and CE6 were selected which represented 392 genes from bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. The DNA microarray, designated as FibroChip, was validated using targets of increasing complexity and demonstrated sensitivity and specificity. In addition, FibroChip was evaluated for its explorative and semi-quantitative potential. Differential expression of CAZyme genes was evidenced in the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 grown on wheat straw or cellobiose. FibroChip was used to identify the expressed CAZyme genes from the targeted families in the rumen of a cow fed a mixed diet based on grass silage. Among expressed genes, those encoding GH43, GH5, and GH10 families were the most represented. Most of the F. succinogenes genes detected by the FibroChip were also detected following RNA-seq analysis of RNA transcripts obtained from the rumen fluid sample. Use of the FibroChip also indicated that transcripts of fiber degrading enzymes derived from eukaryotes (protozoa and anaerobic fungi represented a significant proportion of the total microbial mRNA pool. FibroChip represents a reliable and high-throughput tool that enables researchers to monitor active members of fiber degradation in the rumen.

  11. FibroChip, a Functional DNA Microarray to Monitor Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Activities of Rumen Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtet-Marre, Sophie; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Bouzid, Ourdia; Mosoni, Pascale; Bayat, Ali R; Peyret, Pierre; Forano, Evelyne

    2018-01-01

    Ruminants fulfill their energy needs for growth primarily through microbial breakdown of plant biomass in the rumen. Several biotic and abiotic factors influence the efficiency of fiber degradation, which can ultimately impact animal productivity and health. To provide more insight into mechanisms involved in the modulation of fibrolytic activity, a functional DNA microarray targeting genes encoding key enzymes involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation by rumen microbiota was designed. Eight carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) families (GH5, GH9, GH10, GH11, GH43, GH48, CE1, and CE6) were selected which represented 392 genes from bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. The DNA microarray, designated as FibroChip, was validated using targets of increasing complexity and demonstrated sensitivity and specificity. In addition, FibroChip was evaluated for its explorative and semi-quantitative potential. Differential expression of CAZyme genes was evidenced in the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 grown on wheat straw or cellobiose. FibroChip was used to identify the expressed CAZyme genes from the targeted families in the rumen of a cow fed a mixed diet based on grass silage. Among expressed genes, those encoding GH43, GH5, and GH10 families were the most represented. Most of the F. succinogenes genes detected by the FibroChip were also detected following RNA-seq analysis of RNA transcripts obtained from the rumen fluid sample. Use of the FibroChip also indicated that transcripts of fiber degrading enzymes derived from eukaryotes (protozoa and anaerobic fungi) represented a significant proportion of the total microbial mRNA pool. FibroChip represents a reliable and high-throughput tool that enables researchers to monitor active members of fiber degradation in the rumen.

  12. Characterization and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from gut of Worker Macrotermes gilvus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Ferbiyanto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As a social insect, termite colony consists of three castes, i.e. reproductive, soldier, and worker castes. In their role of cellulose digestion, the worker termites use two sources of cellulolytic enzyme that include cellulases produced by the termite and the gut symbions. Macrotermes gilvus classified in mound builder termite, mostly depend on cellulolytic bacteria for cellulose digestion. This study aims to characterize cellulolytic bacteria of termite gut symbionts of worker M. gilvus and to identify the cellulolytic bacteria based on sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. Cellulolytic bacteria of termite gut were isolated and cultured in CMC (Carboxymethyl cellulose media. The biochemical characters of bacterial isolates were assayed using Microbact 12A and 12B. Cellulolytic activity was determined based on formation of clear zone and cellulolytic index on CMC plate media. The bacterial isolate that has the highest cellulolytic index was analyzed for its 16S rRNA gene sequences. Four isolates of cellulolytic bacteria were successfully isolated from gut of M. gilvus with aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The highest formation of cellulolytic index (2.5 was revealed by RA2. BLAST-N (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool for Nucleotides result of 16S rRNA gene sequences of RU4 and RA2 isolates showed that the isolate has similarity with Bacillus megaterium and Paracoccus yeei, respectively. This result indicated that RA2 isolate was P. yeei, a cellulolytic bacterium of a termite gut of M. gilvus.

  13. [Isolation and identification of rumen bacteria for cellulolytic enzyme production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihemaiti, Maierhaba; Zhen, Fan; Li, Yuezhong; Aibaidoula, Gulisimayi; Yimit, Wusiman

    2013-05-04

    We screened aerobic bacteria with cellulolytic activity from ruminal fluid of sheep, cattle and camel in Xinjiang. Fresh ruminal fluid was inoculated on sterilized sodium carboxymethylcellulose agar plates. Highly cellulolytic aerobic bacteria were screened out by using Congo red staining and liquid secondary screening culture media. The combination of morphological and biochemical test with 16SrDNA sequence analysis were used to classify the strains. Enzymatic activities of four strains with strong cellulose-decomposing abilities were studied under different culture conditions. Out 84 isolated cellulolytic strains, 40 exhibited strong abilities in decomposing cellulose. They are including 37 Gram-negative isolates and 3 Gram-positive strains. Identification of these 40 strains shows that they belong to 11 species of 6 genera, 16 strains in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 10 Ochrobactrum, 5 Sphingobacterium, 3 Microbacterium, 3 Paracoccus and 2 Pseudomonas. The results of the enzymatic studies of four strains with strong cellulolytic abilities indicates that the strains have the best enzyme producing property when straw powder was chosen as the carbon source; the pH at 5.5 -6.0 and temperature at 37 degrees C. The strains with highly cellulolytic abilities isolated from ruminal fluid show strong abilities in cellulose decomposition.

  14. Cellulolytic enzyme compositions and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Prashant; Gaspar, Armindo Ribiero; Croonenberghs, James; Binder, Thomas P.

    2017-07-25

    The present invention relates enzyme composition comprising a cellulolytic preparation and an acetylxylan esterase (AXE); and the used of cellulolytic enzyme compositions for hydrolyzing acetylated cellulosic material. Finally the invention also relates to processes of producing fermentation products from acetylated cellulosic materials using a cellulolytic enzyme composition of the invention.

  15. Overexpression of an exotic thermotolerant β-glucosidase in trichoderma reesei and its significant increase in cellulolytic activity and saccharification of barley straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashtban Mehdi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichoderma reesei is a widely used industrial strain for cellulase production, but its low yield of β-glucosidase has prevented its industrial value. In the hydrolysis process of cellulolytic residues by T. reesei, a disaccharide known as cellobiose is produced and accumulates, which inhibits further cellulases production. This problem can be solved by adding β-glucosidase, which hydrolyzes cellobiose to glucose for fermentation. It is, therefore, of high vvalue to construct T. reesei strains which can produce sufficient β-glucosidase and other hydrolytic enzymes, especially when those enzymes are capable of tolerating extreme conditions such as high temperature and acidic or alkali pH. Results We successfully engineered a thermostable β-glucosidase gene from the fungus Periconia sp. into the genome of T. reesei QM9414 strain. The engineered T. reesei strain showed about 10.5-fold (23.9 IU/mg higher β-glucosidase activity compared to the parent strain (2.2 IU/mg after 24 h of incubation. The transformants also showed very high total cellulase activity (about 39.0 FPU/mg at 24 h of incubation whereas the parent strain almost did not show any total cellulase activity at 24 h of incubation. The recombinant β-glucosidase showed to be thermotolerant and remains fully active after two-hour incubation at temperatures as high as 60°C. Additionally, it showed to be active at a wide pH range and maintains about 88% of its maximal activity after four-hour incubation at 25°C in a pH range from 3.0 to 9.0. Enzymatic hydrolysis assay using untreated, NaOH, or Organosolv pretreated barley straw as well as microcrystalline cellulose showed that the transformed T. reesei strains released more reducing sugars compared to the parental strain. Conclusions The recombinant T. reesei overexpressing Periconia sp. β-glucosidase in this study showed higher β-glucosidase and total cellulase activities within a shorter incubation

  16. Production of cellulolytic enzymes by fungal cultures. [Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Chaetomium, Stachybotrys, and Hypocrea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyc, R; Fiechter, A. Galas, E.

    1977-01-01

    Twelve fungal cultures belonging to the genera of Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Chaetomium, Stachybotrys, and Hypocrea were screened for the production of cellulolytic activity. All twelve were found to degrade xylan, avicel, and carboxymethylcellulose. More cellulolytic activity was obtained with shaken cultures than with still cultures and the addition of citrate-phosphate buffer to the media greatly depressed the levels of cellulolytic activity. Varying the composition of the mineral salts in the medium had no effect on the cellulolytic activity. The growth of Aspergillus wentii under controlled conditions in a bioreactor showed that the cellulolytic activity was not affected by the aeration rate or the type of stirrer. The rate of stirring, however, did effect the cellulolytic activity, as at lower stirring speeds considerable wall growth occurred which resulted in low levels of cellulolytic activity. Culture supernatant from Aspergillus wentii was found to hydrolyze from 30-32% of Solka-Floc and from 2-10% of corn cobs, wheat straw, and newsprint. The extensive hydrolysis of Solka-Floc indicates that with suitable treated cellulosic wastes and appropriate enzymes, appreciable amounts of sugars could be obtained.

  17. Compositions for enhancing hydroysis of cellulosic material by cellulolytic enzyme compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and an organic compound comprising a carboxylic acid moiety, a lactone moiety, a phenolic moiety, a flavonoid moiety, or a combination thereof, wherein the combination of the GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and the organic compound enhances hydrolysis of a cellulosic material by a cellulolytic enzyme compared to the GH61 polypeptide alone or the organic compound alone. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  18. Production of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus fumigatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, L S; Rao, K K

    1979-01-01

    Production of extracellular cellulase by A. fumigatus was studied in liquid shake culture. The effect of culture conditions such as C and N source and pH on cellulase was examined. Sequential appearance of cellulase components, beta-glucosidase on the 2nd day, followed by endo-beta-glucanase on the 4th day and exobeta-gluconase on the 6th day of growth was observed. Maximum production of all cellulase components was achieved on the 12th day of growth in basal medium containing cellulose as C source and a combination of (NH4)2S04 and NH4H2PO4 as N source. High cellulolytic activities were observed only in the presence of insoluble cellulose as C source, while no significant activities were observed in the presence of simple sugars.

  19. Production of cellulolytic enzymes from ascomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gustav Hammerich; Lübeck, Mette; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing production of cellulose degrading enzymes is of great interest in order to increase the feasibility of constructing biorefinery facilities for a sustainable supply of energy and chemical products. The ascomycete phylum has a large potential for the production of cellulolytic enzymes....... Although numerous enzymatic profiles have already been unraveled, the research has been covering only a limited number of species and genera, thus leaving many ascomycetes to be analyzed. Such analysis requires choosing appropriate media and cultivation methods that ensure enzyme profiles with high...... specificities and activities. However, the choice of media, cultivation methods and enzyme assays highly affect the enzyme activity profile observed. This review provides an overview of enzymatic profiles for several ascomycetes covering phylogenetically distinct genera and species. The profiles of cellulose...

  20. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.

  1. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP, Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.

  2. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Avellaneda-Torres,Lizeth Manuela; Pulido,Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas,Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as ...

  3. Characterization of Cellulolytic Bacterial Cultures Grown in Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Idris Alshelmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF of palm kernel cake (PKC. The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30∘C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC.

  4. Cellulolytic potential of thermophilic species from four fungal orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2013-01-01

    and in characterization of their industrially useful enzymes. In the present study we investigated the cellulolytic potential of 16 thermophilic fungi from the three ascomycete orders Sordariales, Eurotiales and Onygenales and from the zygomycete order Mucorales thus covering all fungal orders that include thermophiles....... Thermophilic fungi are the only described eukaryotes that can grow at temperatures above 45 ºC. All 16 fungi were able to grow on crystalline cellulose but their secreted enzymes showed widely different cellulolytic activities, pH optima and thermostabilities. Interestingly, in contrast to previous reports, we......Elucidation of fungal biomass degradation is important for understanding the turnover of biological materials in nature and has important implications for industrial biomass conversion. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in elucidating the biological role of thermophilic fungi...

  5. Insight into Dominant Cellulolytic Bacteria from Two Biogas Digesters and Their Glycoside Hydrolase Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Geng, Alei; Liu, Fanghua; Zhao, Guoping; Wang, Shengyue; Zhou, Zhihua; Yan, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Diverse cellulolytic bacteria are essential for maintaining high lignocellulose degradation ability in biogas digesters. However, little was known about functional genes and gene clusters of dominant cellulolytic bacteria in biogas digesters. This is the foundation to understand lignocellulose degradation mechanisms of biogas digesters and apply these gene resource for optimizing biofuel production. A combination of metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene clone library methods was used to investigate the dominant cellulolytic bacteria and their glycoside hydrolase (GH) genes in two biogas digesters. The 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the dominant cellulolytic bacteria were strains closely related to Clostridium straminisolvens and an uncultured cellulolytic bacterium designated BG-1. To recover GH genes from cellulolytic bacteria in general, and BG-1 in particular, a refined assembly approach developed in this study was used to assemble GH genes from metagenomic reads; 163 GH-containing contigs ≥ 1 kb in length were obtained. Six recovered GH5 genes that were expressed in E. coli demonstrated multiple lignocellulase activities and one had high mannanase activity (1255 U/mg). Eleven fosmid clones harboring the recovered GH-containing contigs were sequenced and assembled into 10 fosmid contigs. The composition of GH genes in the 163 assembled metagenomic contigs and 10 fosmid contigs indicated that diverse GHs and lignocellulose degradation mechanisms were present in the biogas digesters. In particular, a small portion of BG-1 genome information was recovered by PhyloPythiaS analysis. The lignocellulase gene clusters in BG-1 suggested that it might use a possible novel lignocellulose degradation mechanism to efficiently degrade lignocellulose. Dominant cellulolytic bacteria of biogas digester possess diverse GH genes, not only in sequences but also in their functions, which may be applied for production of biofuel in the future. PMID:26070087

  6. Cellulose hydrolysis by fungi. 1. Screening of cellulolytic strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussos, S.; Raimbault, M. (Laboratoire de Microbiologie ORSTOM, Centre de Recherche IRCHA, 91 - Vert-le-Petit (France))

    Trichoderma harzianum was selected from 30 strains of cellulolytic fungi with the aim of producing cellulases by solid state fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates. Special attention was paid to cellulase production (i. e. carboxymethylcellulase and filter paper activity), apical growth and conidia production. Under the conditions of our experiments, T. harzianum exhibited the highest cellulasic activities with 1,315 IU/I of carboxymethyl cellulose and 80 IU/l of filter paper activity. Apical growth (1 mm/h) and yield of conidial production (3.25 X 10/sup 10/ conidia/g of substrate dry weight) were also valuable characteristics of this strain in the use of solid state fermentation.

  7. Use of remazol blue dyed avicel for the determination of cellulolytic activity in basidiomycetes Uso de Avicel colorida com Remazol Blue para determinação da atividade celulolítica em Basidiomycetos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José Correia

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A modified method for direct determination of cellulolytic activity using Avicel colored with Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR in Agar test tubes is discussed. Refinements were introduced in a simple method for quantitation of cellulase activity, based on the release of dye from Avicel-RBBR medium by the enzymatic hydrolysis. Modifications in Avicel-dye preparation were enhanced and a spectrophotometer for direct OD measurement in agar test tubes used. The use of a spectrophotometer improved the precision of the collected data, since absorbance measurements could be done at the maximum wavelenght for RBBR (595 nm.Neste trabalho, é discutido um método modificado para determinação da atividade celulolítica em fungos utilizando Avicel colorida com Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR, diretamente em tubos com ágar, a partir de refinamentos introduzidos em uma metodologia simples e baseada na liberação deste corante pela ação hidrolítica em Avicel colorida com o RBBR. Foram feitas modificações no preparo da Avicel colorida, bem como um espectrofotômetro para medição direta da absorbância nos tubos com ágar foi usado. O uso de espectrofotômetro aumentou a precisão dos dados coletados, pois permitiu leituras de absorbância no comprimento de onda máximo para RBBR (595 nm.

  8. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme L. Pinheiro; Guilherme L. Pinheiro; Raquel eCorrea; Raquel eSoares; Alexander eCardoso; Catia eChaia; Mayssa M Clementino; Eloi eGarcia; Wanderley eDe Souza; Wanderley eDe Souza; Susana eFrases; Susana eFrases

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic bacterial divers...

  9. Differential cellulolytic activity of native-form and C-terminal tagged-form cellulase derived from coptotermes formosanus and expressed in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endogenous cellulase gene (CfEG3a) of Coptotermes formosanus, an economically important pest termite, was cloned and overexpressed in both native form (nCfEG) and C-terminal His-tagged form (tCfEG) in E.coli. Both forms of recombinant cellulases showed hydrolytic activity on cellulosic substrate...

  10. COMPARED ANALYSIS OF CATALASE AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS TRICHODERMA REESEI GROWN ON MEDIUM WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF GRINDED WHEAT AND BARLEY STRAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cristica

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of catalase and peroxidase activity in Trichoderma reesei grown on medium containing grinded wheat and barley straws. Carbon source of cultivation medium - glucose was replaced by various concentrations of grinded wheat and barley straws, finally resulting three experimental variants as follows: V1 = 20 g/l, V2 = 30 g/l, V3 = 40 g/l. ĂŽn addition to these variants a control sample was added in which composition remainded unchanged. The catalase activity was determined by spectrophotometric Sinha method (Artenie et al., 2008 while peroxidase activity was assesed using the o-dianisidine method (Cojocaru, 2009. Enzymatic determinations were carried out at 7 and 14 days from inoculation, in both fungus mycelium and culture liquid. The enzymatic assay showed significant differences between determinations intervals and work variants. Enzyme activity is influenced by the age of fungus and by the different nature of the substrate used.

  11. Screening genus Penicillium for producers of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian Bertel Rømer; Mørkeberg, Astrid; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    For enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material, cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei are most commenly used, but, there is a need for more efficient enzyme cocktails. In this study, the production of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes was investigated in 12 filamentous fungi from ...

  12. Characterization of the cellulolytic secretome of Trichoderma harzianum during growth on sugarcane bagasse and analysis of the activity boosting effects of swollenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A L Rocha, Vanessa; N Maeda, Roberto; Pereira, Nei; F Kern, Marcelo; Elias, Luisa; Simister, Rachael; Steele-King, Clare; Gómez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2016-03-01

    This study demonstrates the production of an active enzyme cocktail produced by growing Trichoderma harzianum on sugarcane bagasse. The component enzymes were identified by LCMS-MS. Glycosyl hydrolases were the most abundant class of proteins, representing 67% of total secreted protein. Other carbohydrate active enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction included lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (AA9), carbohydrate-binding modules, carbohydrate esterases and swollenin, all present at levels of 1%. In total, proteases and lipases represented 5 and 1% of the total secretome, respectively, with the rest of the secretome being made up of proteins of unknown or putative function. This enzyme cocktail was efficient in catalysing the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse cellulolignin to fermentable sugars for potential use in ethanol production. Apart from mapping the secretome of T. harzianum, which is a very important tool to understand the catalytic performance of enzyme cocktails, the gene coding for T. harzianum swollenin was expressed in Aspergillus niger. This novel aspect in this work, allowed increasing the swollenin concentration by 95 fold. This is the first report about the heterologous expression of swollenin from T. harzianum, and the findings are of interest in enriching enzyme cocktail with this important accessory protein which takes part in the cellulose amorphogenesis. Despite lacking detectable glycoside activity, the addition of swollenin of T. harzianum increased by two-fold the hydrolysis efficiency of a commercial cellulase cocktail. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:327-336, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. SACCHARIFICATION OF CORNCOB USING CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TITI CANDRA SUNARTI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulose degrading enzyme (cellulases for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material is a part of bioethanol production process. In this experiment, delignified corncob, its cellulose fraction and alpha cellulose were used as substrates to produce fermentable sugar by using three local isolates of celluloytic bacteria (C5-1, C4-4, C11-1 and Cmix ; mixed cultures of three isolates, and Saccharomyces cereviseae to produce ethanol. The results showed that all isolates of cellulolytic bacteria can grow on cellulose fraction better than on delignified corncob, and alpha cellulose. The highest hydrolytic activity produced from cellulose fraction was by isolate C4-4, which liberated 3.50 g/l of total sugar. Ethanol can be produced by mixed culture of bacteria and yeast, but because of competitive growth, the fermentation only produced 0.39-0.47 g/l of ethanol.

  14. Enrichment and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of Giant African snail, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Kiran D; Dar, Mudasir A; Rajput, Bharati P; Kulkarni, Girish J

    2015-02-01

    The cellulolytic bacterial community structure in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Achatina fulica was studied using culture-independent and -dependent methods by enrichment in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Culture-dependent method indicated that GI tract of snail was dominated by Enterobacteriaceae members. When tested for cellulase activities, all isolates obtained by culture-dependent method showed both or either of CMCase or avicelase activity. Isolate identified as Citrobacter freundii showed highest CMCase and medium avicelase activity. Sequencing of clones from the 16S rRNA gene clone library identified ten operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were affiliated to Enterobacteriaceae of phylum Gammaproteobacteria. Of these ten OTUs, eight OTUs closely matched with Enterobacter and Klebsiella genera. The most abundant OTU allied to Klebsiella oxytoca accounted for 70 % of the total sequences. The members of Klebsiella and Enterobacter were observed by both methods indicating their dominance among the cellulolytic bacterial community in the GI tract of the snail.

  15. Bioconversion process of rice straw by thermotolerant cellulolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    state fermentation for bioethanol production is a focus of current attention. ... Optimization of fermentation conditions showed highest cellulolytic enzymes ... using dilute acid pretreated rice straw hydrolysate with initial soluble ...

  16. Isolation and characterization of efficient cellulolytic fungi from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and characterization of efficient cellulolytic fungi from degraded wood and industrial samples. Abreham Bekele, Tariku Abena, Adane Habteyohannes, Addisalem Nugissie, Fitala Gudeta, Tigist Getie, Musin Kelel, Admas Berhanu ...

  17. Process relevant screening of cellulolytic organisms for consolidated bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Elena; Schlembach, Ivan; Regestein, Lars; Rosenbaum, Miriam A; Büchs, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Although the biocatalytic conversion of cellulosic biomass could replace fossil oil for the production of various compounds, it is often not economically viable due to the high costs of cellulolytic enzymes. One possibility to reduce costs is consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), integrating cellulase production, hydrolysis of cellulose, and the fermentation of the released sugars to the desired product into one process step. To establish such a process, the most suitable cellulase-producing organism has to be identified. Thereby, it is crucial to evaluate the candidates under target process conditions. In this work, the chosen model process was the conversion of cellulose to the platform chemical itaconic acid by a mixed culture of a cellulolytic fungus with Aspergillus terreus as itaconic acid producer. Various cellulase producers were analyzed by the introduced freeze assay that measures the initial carbon release rate, quantifying initial cellulase activity under target process conditions. Promising candidates were then characterized online by monitoring their respiration activity metabolizing cellulose to assess the growth and enzyme production dynamics. The screening of five different cellulase producers with the freeze assay identified Trichoderma   reesei and Penicillium   verruculosum as most promising. The measurement of the respiration activity revealed a retarded induction of cellulase production for P.   verruculosum but a similar cellulase production rate afterwards, compared to T.   reesei . The freeze assay measurement depicted that P.   verruculosum reaches the highest initial carbon release rate among all investigated cellulase producers. After a modification of the cultivation procedure, these results were confirmed by the respiration activity measurement. To compare both methods, a correlation between the measured respiration activity and the initial carbon release rate of the freeze assay was introduced. The analysis revealed that the

  18. Improvement of ethanol production from crystalline cellulose via optimizing cellulase ratios in cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Inokuma, Kentaro; Ho, Shih-Hsin; den Haan, Riaan; van Zyl, Willem H; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-06-01

    Crystalline cellulose is one of the major contributors to the recalcitrance of lignocellulose to degradation, necessitating high dosages of cellulase to digest, thereby impeding the economic feasibility of cellulosic biofuels. Several recombinant cellulolytic yeast strains have been developed to reduce the cost of enzyme addition, but few of these strains are able to efficiently degrade crystalline cellulose due to their low cellulolytic activities. Here, by combining the cellulase ratio optimization with a novel screening strategy, we successfully improved the cellulolytic activity of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain displaying four different synergistic cellulases on the cell surface. The optimized strain exhibited an ethanol yield from Avicel of 57% of the theoretical maximum, and a 60% increase of ethanol titer from rice straw. To our knowledge, this work is the first optimization of the degradation of crystalline cellulose by tuning the cellulase ratio in a cellulase cell-surface display system. This work provides key insights in engineering the cellulase cocktail in a consolidated bioprocessing yeast strain. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1201-1207. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Bioprospecting of Thermostable Cellulolytic Enzymes through Modeling and Virtual Screening Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Navanietha Krishnaraj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellulolytic enzymes are promising candidates for the use of cellulose in any bioprocess operations and for the disposal of the cellulosic wastes in an environmentally benign manner. Cellulases from thermophiles have the advantage of hydrolyzing cellulose at wider range of operating conditions unlike the normal enzymes. Herein we report the modeled structures of cellulolytic enzymes (endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase and ß-glucosidase from a thermophilic bacterium,Clostridium thermocellumand their validation using Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD and Ramachandran plot analyses. Further, the molecular interactions of the modeled enzyme with cellulose were analyzed using molecular docking technique. The results of molecular docking showed that the endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase and ß-glucosidase had the binding affinities of -10.7, -9.0 and -10.8 kcal/mol, respectively. A correlation between the binding affinity of the endoglucanase with cellulose and the enzyme activity was also demonstrated. The results showed that the binding affinities of cellulases with cellulose could be used as a tool to assess the hydrolytic activity of cellulases. The results obtained could be used in virtual screening of cellulolytic enzymes based on the molecular interactions with the substrate, and aid in developing systems biology models of thermophiles for industrial biotechnology applications.

  20. Cloning and recombinant expression of a cellulase from the cellulolytic strain Streptomyces sp. G12 isolated from compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of lignocellulosic materials for second generation ethanol production would give several advantages such as minimizing the conflict between land use for food and fuel production, providing less expensive raw materials than conventional agricultural feedstock, allowing lower greenhouse gas emissions than those of first generation ethanol. However, cellulosic biofuels are not produced at a competitive level yet, mainly because of the high production costs of the cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, this study was aimed at discovering new cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes. Results Different bacteria isolated from raw composting materials obtained from vegetable processing industry wastes were screened for their cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. Four strains belonging to the actinomycetes group were selected on the basis of their phenotypic traits and cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. The strain showing the highest cellulolytic activity was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Streptomyces genus and it was designated as Streptomyces sp. strain G12. Investigating the enzymes responsible for cellulase activity produced by Streptomyces G12 by proteomic analyses, two endoglucanases were identified. Gene coding for one of these enzymes, named CelStrep, was cloned and sequenced. Molecular analysis showed that the celstrep gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 379 amino acid residues, including a signal peptide of 37 amino acid residues. Comparison of deduced aminoacidic sequence to the other cellulases indicated that the enzyme CelStrep can be classified as a family 12 glycoside hydrolase. Heterologous recombinant expression of CelStrep was carried out in Escherichia coli, and the active recombinant enzyme was purified from culture supernatant and characterized. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose following a Michaelis

  1. Cloning and recombinant expression of a cellulase from the cellulolytic strain Streptomyces sp. G12 isolated from compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amore Antonella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of lignocellulosic materials for second generation ethanol production would give several advantages such as minimizing the conflict between land use for food and fuel production, providing less expensive raw materials than conventional agricultural feedstock, allowing lower greenhouse gas emissions than those of first generation ethanol. However, cellulosic biofuels are not produced at a competitive level yet, mainly because of the high production costs of the cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, this study was aimed at discovering new cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes. Results Different bacteria isolated from raw composting materials obtained from vegetable processing industry wastes were screened for their cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. Four strains belonging to the actinomycetes group were selected on the basis of their phenotypic traits and cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. The strain showing the highest cellulolytic activity was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Streptomyces genus and it was designated as Streptomyces sp. strain G12. Investigating the enzymes responsible for cellulase activity produced by Streptomyces G12 by proteomic analyses, two endoglucanases were identified. Gene coding for one of these enzymes, named CelStrep, was cloned and sequenced. Molecular analysis showed that the celstrep gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 379 amino acid residues, including a signal peptide of 37 amino acid residues. Comparison of deduced aminoacidic sequence to the other cellulases indicated that the enzyme CelStrep can be classified as a family 12 glycoside hydrolase. Heterologous recombinant expression of CelStrep was carried out in Escherichia coli, and the active recombinant enzyme was purified from culture supernatant and characterized. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose

  2. Anaerobic gut fungi: Advances in isolation, culture, and cellulolytic enzyme discovery for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitjema, Charles H; Solomon, Kevin V; Henske, John K; Theodorou, Michael K; O'Malley, Michelle A

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobic gut fungi are an early branching family of fungi that are commonly found in the digestive tract of ruminants and monogastric herbivores. It is becoming increasingly clear that they are the primary colonizers of ingested plant biomass, and that they significantly contribute to the decomposition of plant biomass into fermentable sugars. As such, anaerobic fungi harbor a rich reservoir of undiscovered cellulolytic enzymes and enzyme complexes that can potentially transform the conversion of lignocellulose into bioenergy products. Despite their unique evolutionary history and cellulolytic activity, few species have been isolated and studied in great detail. As a result, their life cycle, cellular physiology, genetics, and cellulolytic metabolism remain poorly understood compared to aerobic fungi. To help address this limitation, this review briefly summarizes the current body of knowledge pertaining to anaerobic fungal biology, and describes progress made in the isolation, cultivation, molecular characterization, and long-term preservation of these microbes. We also discuss recent cellulase- and cellulosome-discovery efforts from gut fungi, and how these interesting, non-model microbes could be further adapted for biotechnology applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Use of Cellulolytic Marine Bacteria for Enzymatic Pretreatment in Microalgal Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Camilo; Hidalgo, Catalina; Zapata, Manuel; Jeison, David; Riquelme, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we designed and evaluated a microalgal pretreatment method using cellulolytic bacteria that naturally degrades microalgae in their native habitat. Bacterial strains were isolated from each of two mollusk species in a medium containing 1% carboxymethyl cellulose agar. We selected nine bacterial strains that had endoglucanase activity: five strains from Mytilus chilensis, a Chilean mussel, and four strains from Mesodesma donacium, a clam found in the Southern Pacific. These strains were identified phylogenetically as belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Chryseobacterium, and Raoultella. The cellulase-producing capacities of these strains were characterized, and the degradation of cell walls in Botryococcus braunii and Nannochloropsis gaditana was tested with “whole-cell” cellulolytic experiments. Aeromonas bivalvium MA2, Raoultella ornithinolytica MA5, and Aeromonas salmonicida MC25 degraded B. braunii, and R. ornithinolytica MC3 and MA5 degraded N. gaditana. In addition, N. gaditana was pretreated with R. ornithinolytica strains MC3 and MA5 and was then subjected to an anaerobic digestion process, which increased the yield of methane by 140.32% and 158.68%, respectively, over that from nonpretreated microalgae. Therefore, a “whole-cell” cellulolytic pretreatment can increase the performance and efficiency of biogas production. PMID:24795376

  4. Formation and release of cellulolytic enzymes during growth of Trichoderma reesei on cellobiose and glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaheri, M.P.; Vaheri, M.E.O.; Kaupinen, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    Production and release of cellulolytic enzymes by T. reesei QM 9414 were studied under induced and non-induced conditions and glycerol, respectively, as the only C source. There was a base level of cell debris-bound hydrolytic activity against filter paper and p-nitrophenyl glycoside even in T. reesei grown non-induced on glycerol. T. reesei grown on cellobiose was induced to produce large amounts of extracellular filter paper- and CMC-hydrolyzing enzymes, which were actively released even in the early stages of cultivation. Beta-Glucosidase was mainly detected in the cell debris and was not released unless the cells were autolyzing.

  5. Effect of two fungicides, benlate and phenyl mercury acetate, on a population of cellulolytic fungi in soil and in pure culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.N.; Long, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulolytic fungi were successfully isolated from an arable loam type soil using the polythene rod technique and the screened substrate technique. Phenyl mercury acetate (PMA) applied to the soil at 100 ppm severely reduced the incidence of many cellulolytic fungi normally present, with a concomitant increase in the incidence of Penicillium spp and Trichoderma lignorum. The application of benlate at 100 ppm had little effect other than to increase the incidence of Doratomyces mircosporus, Dreschlera sp. and Papulospora sp. Both benlate and PMA were much more toxic when examined in-vitro in cellulose agar than when added to soil. Nevertheless, the incidence of cellulolytic isolates from soil reflected the relative sensitivity of the isolates to the respective fungicides in-vitro. The activity of benlate in-vitro decreased with an increase in glucose concentration in the media, but the activity of PMA was independent of glucose concentration.

  6. Vertical zonation and seed germination indices of chromium resistant cellulolytic and nitrogen fixing bacteria from a chronically metal exposed land area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, S.; Qazi, J.I.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty eight cellulolytic and 25 nitrogen fixing bacteria were isolated from 20, 40 and 60 cm depths of the chromium contaminated land area. The cellulolytic as well as nitrogen fixing microbial communities in soil profiles were dominated by genus Bacillus. More diverse nitrogen fixing bacterial isolates belonging to different genera Paenibacillus, Corynebacterium and Pseudomonas were observed as compared to cellulolytic bacterial community. Majority of the cellulolytic bacteria were found inhabitants of 20 cm soil layer while 40 cm depth was the preferred zone for the nitrogen fixing bacteria. Screening of the bacterial isolates for chromium resistance showed that isolates designated as ASK15 and ASK16 were able to resist up to 1800 mg/l of chromium while the nitrogen fixing isolates which offered a maximum resistant level up to 1650 mg/l of chromium were ASNt10 and ASNS13. Nitrogen fixing isolates enhanced seed germination by 33% and expressed efficient nitrogenase activity up to 0.80 (C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ nmol/ml/hr). Growth promoting assay proved ASNt10 a potential isolate which produced 90 meu g/ml of indoleacetic acid (IAA). Though cellulolytic isolates did not affect seed germination, a significant influence on root length similar to that of ASNt10 and ASNS13 with nearly 5-fold increase in comparison with uninoculated control was observed. The isolates ASK15, ASK16 were identified as Bacillus cereus while ASNt10 and ASNS13 as Paenibacillus barcinonensis and Bacillus megaterium, respectively. (author)

  7. Cellulolytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin A [San Diego, CA; Zhao, Lishan [Emeryville, CA; Cayouette, Michelle H [San Diego, CA

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, a endoglucanase, a cellobiohydrolase, a beta-glucosidase, a xylanase, a mannanse, a .beta.-xylosidase, an arabinofuranosidase, and/or an oligomerase activity, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, and methods of making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides polypeptides having an oligomerase activity, e.g., enzymes that convert recalcitrant soluble oligomers to fermentable sugars in the saccharification of biomass. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  8. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from thermophilic Aspergillus terreus RWY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Reetika; Kocher, Gurvinder Singh; Bhogal, Ravinder Singh; Oberoi, Harinder Singh

    2014-12-01

    Thermophilic Aspergillus terreus RWY produced cellulases and xylanases in optimal concentrations at 45 °C in solid state fermentation process, though enzyme production was also observed at 50 and 55 °C. Filter paper cellulase (FP), endoglucanase (EG), β-glucosidase (BGL), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), xylanase, β-xylosidase, α-L-arabinofuranosidase and xylan esterase activities for A. terreus RWY at 45 °C in 72 h were 11.3 ± 0.65, 103 ± 6.4, 122.5 ± 8.7, 10.3 ± 0.66, 872 ± 22.5, 22.1 ± 0.75, 126.4 ± 8.4 and 907 ± 15.5 U (g-ds)(-1) , respectively. Enzyme was optimally active at temperatures and pH ranging between 50-60 °C and 4.0-6.0, respectively. The half life (T1/2 ) of 270 and 240 min at 70 and 75 °C, respectively for the enzyme indicates its stability at higher temperatures. The addition of MnCl2 , CoCl2 , and FeCl3 significantly enhanced cellulase activity. Enzyme demonstrated multiplicity by having seven, one and three isoform(s) for EG, CBH and BGL, respectively. Significant production of functionally active consortium of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from A. terreus RWY makes it a potential candidate in bioprocessing applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. An innovative approach for hyperproduction of cellulolytic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work describes the production of cellulolytic enzymes and hemicellulolytic enzyme (xylanase) along with total extracellular protein by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride using submerged fermentation. Among seven different kinds of experiments, secretion rate of protein and enzymes was investigated by ...

  10. Biosynthesis of cellulolytic enzymes by Tricothecium roseum with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... good inducer for extracellular cellulolytic enzyme production by the fungus. Key words: Tricothecium ... feasible for the conversion of cellulose into fermentable sugars and fuel ... Biomass of the culture was dried at 70°C in an ...

  11. Technique for preparation of anaerobic microbes: Rodshaped cellulolytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius Thalib

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of anaerobic-rod cellulolytic bacteria with coating technique has been conducted. Steps of the processes involved were cultivation, coating, evaporation, and drying. Coating agent used was Gum Arabic, and drying techniquesconducted were freeze drying and sun drying. pH of culture media was firstly optimized to obtain the maximal population ofbacteria. Both coated and uncoated preparates were subjected to drying. Morphological and Gram type identifications showed that uncoated preparate dried with freeze drying is not contaminated (ie. all bacteria are rod shape with Gram-negative type while the one dried with sun drying is not morphologically pure (ie. containing of both rod and coccus shapes with Gram negative and positive. The coated preparates dried by both freeze and sun drying, were not contaminated (ie. all are rods with Gram-negative. The coating and drying processes decreased viability of preparates significantly. However, the decreasing of viability of coated preparate are lower than uncoated preparate (ie. 89 vs. 97%. Total count of bacteria in sun-drying coated preparate are higher (P<0.05 than the uncoated preparate (ie. 3.38 x 1010 vs. 1.97 x 1010 colony/g DM. Activity of sun-drying coated preparate to digest elephant grass and rice straw was higher (P<0.01 than the sun-drying uncoated preparate with the in vitro DMD values were 42.7 vs. 35.5% for elephant grass substrate and 29.3 vs. 24.6% for rice straw substrate. Therefore, it is concluded that coating technique has a positive effects on the preparation of rumen bacteria.

  12. Interactions between Cellulolytic Enzymes with Native, Autohydrolysis, and Technical Lignins and the Effect of a Polysorbate Amphiphile in Reducing Nonproductive Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Consuelo; Ferrer, Ana; Salas, Carlos; Jameel, Hasan; Rojas, Orlando J

    2015-12-14

    Understanding enzyme-substrate interactions is critical in designing strategies for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study we monitored molecular events, in situ and in real time, including the adsorption and desorption of cellulolytic enzymes on lignins and cellulose, by using quartz crystal microgravimetry and surface plasmon resonance. The effect of a nonionic surface active molecule was also elucidated. Three lignin substrates relevant to the sugar platform in biorefinery efforts were considered, namely, hardwood autohydrolysis cellulolytic (HWAH), hardwood native cellulolytic (MPCEL), and nonwood native cellulolytic (WSCEL) lignin. In addition, Kraft lignins derived from softwoods (SWK) and hardwoods (HWK) were used as references. The results indicated a high affinity between the lignins with both, monocomponent and multicomponent enzymes. More importantly, the addition of nonionic surfactants at concentrations above their critical micelle concentration reduced remarkably (by over 90%) the nonproductive interactions between the cellulolytic enzymes and the lignins. This effect was hypothesized to be a consequence of the balance of hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions. Moreover, the reduction of surface roughness and increased wettability of lignin surfaces upon surfactant treatment contributed to a lower affinity with the enzymes. Conformational changes of cellulases were observed upon their adsorption on lignin carrying preadsorbed surfactant. Weak electrostatic interactions were determined in aqueous media at pH between 4.8 and 5.5 for the native cellulolytic lignins (MPCEL and WSCEL), whereby a ∼20% reduction in the enzyme affinity was observed. This was mainly explained by electrostatic interactions (osmotic pressure effects) between charged lignins and cellulases. Noteworthy, adsorption of nonionic surfactants onto cellulose, in the form cellulose nanofibrils, did not affect its hydrolytic conversion. Overall, our results

  13. Selection and molecular characterization of cellulolytic-xylanolytic fungi from surface soil-biomass mixtures from Black Belt sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Benedict C; Hall, Rosine W; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda; Thomson, M Sue; Deravi, Yasaman; Sawyer, Leah; Prescott, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Plant biomass is an abundant renewable natural resource that can be transformed into chemical feedstocks. Enzymes used in saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass are a major part of biofuel production costs. A cocktail of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes are required for optimal saccharification of biomass. Accordingly, thirty-two fungal pure cultures were obtained from surface soil-biomass mixtures collected from Black Belt sites in Alabama by culturing on lignocellulosic biomass medium. The fungal strains were screened for the coproduction of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes. Strains that displayed promising levels of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes were characterized by molecular analysis of DNA sequences from the large subunit and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of their ribosomal RNA gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that two most promising isolates FS22A and FS5A were most similar to Penicillium janthinellum and Trichoderma virens. Production dynamics of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from these two strains were explored in submerged fermentation. Volumetric productivity after 120 h incubation was 121.08 units/L/h and 348 units/L/h for the filter paper cellulase and xylanase of strain FS22A, and 90.83 units/L/h and 359 units/L/h, respectively for strain FS5A. Assays with 10 times dilution of enzymes revealed that the activities were much higher than that observed in the crude culture supernatant. Additionally, both FS22A and FS5A also produced amylase in lignocellulose medium. The enzyme profiles of these strains and their activities suggest potential applications in cost effective biomass conversion and biodegradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro Cellulose Rich Organic Material Degradation by Cellulolytic Streptomyces albospinus (MTCC 8768

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky Prasad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Cellulosic biomass is the only foreseeable sustainable source of fuels and is also one of the dominating waste materials in nature resulting from human activities. Keeping in view the environmental problems like disposal of large volumes of cellulosic wastes and shortage of fossil fuel in the world, the main aim of the present investigation was to characterize and study the cellulolytic activity of Streptomyces albospinus (MTCC 8768, isolated from municipal wastes, on natural cellulosic substrates viz. straw powder, wood powder and finely grated vegetable peels.Methodology and Result: Stanier’s Basal broth with 100 mg of each of the substrates was inoculated separately with S. albospinus (MTCC No. 8768 and incubated at 37 °C for 8 days. The cellulosic substrates were re-weighed at an interval of 2 days and the difference between the initial weight and the final weight gave the amount of substratesdegraded by the isolate. It was observed that maximum degradation was observed in the grated vegetable peels (64 mg followed by straw powder (38 mg and wood powder (28 mg over a period of 8 days.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: By the selection of efficient cellulolytic microorganisms and cost-effective operational techniques, the production of useful end products from the biodegradation of the low cost enormous stock of cellulose in nature can be very beneficial.

  15. Diversity of bacteria and glycosyl hydrolase family 48 genes in cellulolytic consortia enriched from thermophilic biocompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Javier A; Sizova, Maria V; Lynd, Lee R

    2010-06-01

    The enrichment from nature of novel microbial communities with high cellulolytic activity is useful in the identification of novel organisms and novel functions that enhance the fundamental understanding of microbial cellulose degradation. In this work we identify predominant organisms in three cellulolytic enrichment cultures with thermophilic compost as an inoculum. Community structure based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries featured extensive representation of clostridia from cluster III, with minor representation of clostridial clusters I and XIV and a novel Lutispora species cluster. Our studies reveal different levels of 16S rRNA gene diversity, ranging from 3 to 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), as well as variability in community membership across the three enrichment cultures. By comparison, glycosyl hydrolase family 48 (GHF48) diversity analyses revealed a narrower breadth of novel clostridial genes associated with cultured and uncultured cellulose degraders. The novel GHF48 genes identified in this study were related to the novel clostridia Clostridium straminisolvens and Clostridium clariflavum, with one cluster sharing as little as 73% sequence similarity with the closest known relative. In all, 14 new GHF48 gene sequences were added to the known diversity of 35 genes from cultured species.

  16. Biodegradation of Palm Kernel Cake by Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Bacterial Cultures through Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Idris Alshelmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures were purchased from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. Two experiments were conducted; the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF of palm kernel cake (PKC, whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. In the first experiment, the SSF was lasted for 12 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w on different PKC to moisture ratios. In the second experiment, fifteen combinations were created among the four microbes with one untreated PKC as a control. The SSF lasted for 9 days, and the samples were autoclaved, dried, and analyzed for proximate analysis. Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. Findings in the second experiment showed that hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly P<0.05 decreased, whereas the amount of reducing sugars were significantly P<0.05 increased in the fermented PKC (FPKC compared with untreated PKC.

  17. Microbiota Dynamics Associated with Environmental Conditions and Potential Roles of Cellulolytic Communities in Traditional Chinese Cereal Starter Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Liang, Hebin; Lin, Wei-Tie; Feng, Feng; Luo, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    Traditional Chinese solid-state fermented cereal starters contain highly complex microbial communities and enzymes. Very little is known, however, about the microbial dynamics related to environmental conditions, and cellulolytic communities have never been proposed to exist during cereal starter fermentation. In this study, we performed Illumina MiSeq sequencing combined with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to investigate microbiota, coupled with clone library construction to trace cellulolytic communities in both fermentation stages. A succession of microbial assemblages was observed during the fermentation of starters. Lactobacillales and Saccharomycetales dominated the initial stages, with a continuous decline in relative abundance. However, thermotolerant and drought-resistant Bacillales, Eurotiales, and Mucorales were considerably accelerated during the heating stages, and these organisms dominated until the end of fermentation. Enterobacteriales were consistently ubiquitous throughout the process. For the cellulolytic communities, only the genera Sanguibacter, Beutenbergia, Agrobacterium, and Erwinia dominated the initial fermentation stages. In contrast, stages at high incubation temperature induced the appearance and dominance of Bacillus, Aspergillus, and Mucor. The enzymatic dynamics of amylase and glucoamylase also showed a similar trend, with the activities clearly increased in the first 7 days and subsequently decreased until the end of fermentation. Furthermore, β-glucosidase activity continuously and significantly increased during the fermentation process. Evidently, cellulolytic potential can adapt to environmental conditions by changes in the community structure during the fermentation of starters. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Utilization of mixed cellulolytic microbes from termite extract, elephant faecal solution and buffalo ruminal fluid to increase in vitro digestibility of King Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Prabowo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is a compound of plant cell walls which is difficult to be degraded because it composed of glucose monomers linked by β-(1.4-bound. It will be hydrolysed by cellulase enzyme secreted by cellulolytic microbes. The effective digestion of cellulose needs high activity of cellulase enzyme. This research aims to increase in vitro king grass digestibility utilizing mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid. Twelve syringes contained gas test media were randomly divided into four treatments based on sources of microbe (SM, namely: S (SM: cattle ruminal fluid [S], RGK (SM: mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid [RGK], with composition 1 : 1 : 1, S-RGK (SM: S + RGK, with composition 1:1, and TM (without given treatment microbe. Digestibility was measured using gas test method. Average of gas production treatment of S-RGK (70.2 + 0.6 ml was higher and significantly different (P<0.01 compared to treatment of S (60.3 + 0.8 ml, RGK (40.8 + 2.3 ml, and TM (13.3 + 2.0 ml. Utilization of mixed cellulolytic microbes of termite extract, elephant faecal solution, and buffalo ruminal fluid (RGK that combined with microbes of cattle ruminal fluid (S could increase in vitro digestibility of king grass.

  19. Cellulolytic enzyme expression and simultaneous conversion of lignocellulosic sugars into ethanol and xylitol by a new Candida tropicalis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattam, Anu Jose; Kuila, Arindam; Suralikerimath, Niranjan; Choudary, Nettem; Rao, Peddy V C; Velankar, Harshad Ravindra

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol production involves major steps such as thermochemical pretreatment of biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated biomass and the fermentation of released sugars into ethanol. At least two different organisms are conventionally utilized for producing cellulolytic enzymes and for ethanol production through fermentation, whereas in the present study a single yeast isolate with the capacity to simultaneously produce cellulases and xylanases and ferment the released sugars into ethanol and xylitol has been described. A yeast strain isolated from soil samples and identified as Candida tropicalis MTCC 25057 expressed cellulases and xylanases over a wide range of temperatures (32 and 42 °C) and in the presence of different cellulosic substrates [carboxymethylcellulose and wheat straw (WS)]. The studies indicated that the cultivation of yeast at 42 °C in pre-treated hydrolysate containing 0.5 % WS resulted in proportional expression of cellulases (exoglucanases and endoglucanases) at concentrations of 114.1 and 97.8 U g(-1) ds, respectively. A high xylanase activity (689.3 U g(-1) ds) was also exhibited by the yeast under similar growth conditions. Maximum expression of cellulolytic enzymes by the yeast occurred within 24 h of incubation. Of the sugars released from biomass after pretreatment, 49 g L(-1) xylose was aerobically converted into 15.8 g L(-1) of xylitol. In addition, 25.4 g L(-1) glucose released after the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass was fermented by the same yeast to obtain an ethanol titer of 7.3 g L(-1). During the present study, a new strain of C. tropicalis was isolated and found to have potential for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) applications. The strain could grow in a wide range of process conditions (temperature, pH) and in the presence of lignocellulosic inhibitors such as furfural, HMF and acetic acid. The new yeast produced cellulolytic enzymes over a wide temperature range and in the presence of

  20. Thermostable amylolytic enzymes from a cellulolytic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila D14 (ATCC 48 104)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadhukhan, R K; Manna, S; Roy, S K; Chakrabarty, S L [Bose Research Inst., Calcutta (India). Dept. of Microbiology

    1990-09-01

    The production of amylolytic enzymes by a thermophilic cellulolytic fungus, Myceliophthora thermophila D14 was investigated by batch cultivation in Czapek-Dox medium at 45deg C. Among various nitrogenous compounds used, NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} were found to be the best for amylase production. Starch, cellobiose and maltose induced the synthesis of amylase while glucose, fructose, galactose, lactose, arabinose, xylose, sorbitol, mesoinositol and sucrose did not. Calcium ions had the most stimulating effect on enzyme formation amongst many ions investigated. The synthesis of amylolytic enzymes was dependent on growth and occurred predominantly in the mid-stationary phase. The enzyme was active in a broad temperature range (50deg C-60deg C) and displayed activity optima at 60deg C and pH 5.6. (orig.).

  1. Isolation and characterization of cellulolytic Bacillus licheniformis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight cellulose degrading bacteria were isolated from compost and were identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA sequencing. Among the eight isolates, Bacillus licheniformis B4, B7 and B8 showed the highest cellulase activity. B. licheniformis B4 and B8 showed the maximum cellulase activity during the stationary ...

  2. Isolation and characterization of a cellulolytic actinomycete Microbispora bispora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, Jr, C R; Becker-Vallone, C A; Eveleigh, D E

    1986-09-01

    Protocols for the isolation of cellulolytic actinomycetes are described, and their use illustrated in the selection of thermophilic bacteria from soil. One isolate, Microbispora bispora, was selected for further study. It grew readily at 55/sup 0/C, produced an extracellular cellulase in good yield (endoglucanase, 5.9 U/ml) that had a broad pH range (pH 5.5 - 7.2) and was thermally stable. Its aryl-..beta..-glucosidase was cell-associated and was relatively resistant to end-product inhibition.

  3. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic potential of high β-glucosidase-producing Trichoderma from decaying biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Benedict C

    2014-10-01

    Availability, cost, and efficiency of microbial enzymes for lignocellulose bioconversion are central to sustainable biomass ethanol technology. Fungi enriched from decaying biomass and surface soil mixture displayed an array of strong cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Strains SG2 and SG4 produced a promising array of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes including β-glucosidase, usually low in cultures of Trichoderma species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rRNA gene revealed that strains SG2 and SG4 are closely related to Trichoderma inhamatum, Trichoderma piluliferum, and Trichoderma aureoviride. Trichoderma sp. SG2 crude culture supernatant correspondingly displayed as much as 9.84 ± 1.12, 48.02 ± 2.53, and 30.10 ± 1.11 units mL(-1) of cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase in 30 min assay. Ten times dilution of culture supernatant of strain SG2 revealed that total activities were about 5.34, 8.45, and 2.05 orders of magnitude higher than observed in crude culture filtrate for cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase, respectively, indicating that more enzymes are present to contact with substrates in biomass saccharification. In parallel experiments, Trichoderma species SG2 and SG4 produced more β-glucosidase than the industrial strain Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. Results indicate that strains SG2 and SG4 have potential for low cost in-house production of primary lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes for production of biomass saccharides and biofuel in the field.

  4. Genes regulated by AoXlnR, the xylanolytic and cellulolytic transcriptional regulator, in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Yuji; Sano, Motoaki; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Ko, Taro; Takeuchi, Michio; Kato, Masashi; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2009-11-01

    XlnR is a Zn(II)2Cys6 transcriptional activator of xylanolytic and cellulolytic genes in Aspergillus. Overexpression of the aoxlnR gene in Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae xlnR gene) resulted in elevated xylanolytic and cellulolytic activities in the culture supernatant, in which nearly 40 secreted proteins were detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis. DNA microarray analysis to identify the transcriptional targets of AoXlnR led to the identification of 75 genes that showed more than fivefold increase in their expression in the AoXlnR overproducer than in the disruptant. Of these, 32 genes were predicted to encode a glycoside hydrolase, highlighting the biotechnological importance of AoXlnR in biomass degradation. The 75 genes included the genes previously identified as AoXlnR targets (xynF1, xynF3, xynG2, xylA, celA, celB, celC, and celD). Thirty-six genes were predicted to be extracellular, which was consistent with the number of proteins secreted, and 61 genes possessed putative XlnR-binding sites (5'-GGCTAA-3', 5'-GGCTAG-3', and 5'-GGCTGA-3') in their promoter regions. Functional annotation of the genes revealed that AoXlnR regulated the expression of hydrolytic genes for degradation of beta-1,4-xylan, arabinoxylan, cellulose, and xyloglucan and of catabolic genes for the conversion of D-xylose to xylulose-5-phosphate. In addition, genes encoding glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase and L-arabinitol-4- dehydrogenase involved in D-glucose and L-arabinose catabolism also appeared to be targets of AoXlnR.

  5. Cellulolytic properties of an extremely thermophilic anaerobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, J A; Morgan, H W; Daniel, R M [Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand). Microbial Biochemistry and Biotechnology Unit

    1990-09-01

    An extremely thermophilic anaerobe was isolated from a New Zealand hot spring by incubating bacterial mat strands in a medium containing xylan. The Gramreaction-negative organism that was subsequently purified had a temperature optimum of 70deg C and a pH optimum of 7.0. The isolate, designated strain H173, grew on a restricted range of carbon sources. In batch culture H173 could degrade Avicel completely when supplied at 5 or 10 g l{sup -1}. There was an initial growth phase, during which a cellulase complex was produced and carbohydrates fermented to form acetic and lactic acids, followed by a phase where cells were not metabolising but the cellulase complex actively converted cellulose to glucose. When co-cultered with strain Rt8.B1, an ethanologenic extreme thermophile, glucose was fermented to ethanol and acetate, and no reducing sugars accumulated in the medium. In pH controlled batch culture H173 produced an increased amount of lactate and acetate but there was again a phase when reducing sugars accumulated in the medium, and these were converted to ethanol by co-culture with Rt8.B1. (orig.).

  6. Magnesium requirement of some of the principal rumen cellulolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M S; Dehority, B A

    2014-09-01

    Information available on the role of Mg for growth and cellulose degradation by rumen bacteria is both limited and inconsistent. In this study, the Mg requirements for two strains each of the cellulolytic rumen species Fibrobacter succinogenes (A3c and S85), Ruminococcus albus (7 and 8) and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (B34b and C94) were investigated. Maximum growth, rate of growth and lag time were all measured using a complete factorial design, 2(3)×6; factors were: strains (2), within species (3) and Mg concentrations (6). R. flavefaciens was the only species that did not grow when Mg was singly deleted from the media, and both strains exhibited a linear growth response to increasing Mg concentrations (PR. flavefaciens B34b was estimated as 0.54 mM; whereas the requirement for R. flavefaciens C94 was >0.82 as there was no plateau in growth. Although not an absolute requirement for growth, strains of the two other species of cellulolytic bacteria all responded to increasing Mg concentrations. For F. succinogenes S85, R. albus 7 and R. albus 8, their requirement estimated from maximum growth was 0.56, 0.52 and 0.51, respectively. A requirement for F. succinogenes A3c could not be calculated because there was no solution for contrasts. Whether R. flavefaciens had a Mg requirement for cellulose degradation was determined in NH3-free cellulose media, using a 2×4 factorial design, 2 strains and 4 treatments. Both strains of R. flavefaciens were found to have an absolute Mg requirement for cellulose degradation. Based on reported concentrations of Mg in the rumen, 1.0 to 10.1 mM, it seems unlikely that an in vivo deficiency of this element would occur.

  7. The significance of cellulolytic enzymes produced by Trichoderma in opportunistic lifestyle of this fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowska, Judyta; Błaszczyk, Lidia; Chełkowski, Jerzy

    2014-07-01

    The degradation of native cellulose to glucose monomers is a complex process, which requires the synergistic action of the extracellular enzymes produced by cellulolytic microorganisms. Among fungi, the enzymatic systems that can degrade native cellulose have been extensively studied for species belonging to the genera of Trichoderma. The majority of the cellulolytic enzymes described so far have been examples of Trichoderma reesei, extremely specialized in the efficient degradation of plant cell wall cellulose. Other Trichoderma species, such as T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. longibrachiatum, and T. viride, known for their capacity to produce cellulolytic enzymes, have been isolated from various ecological niches, where they have proved successful in various heterotrophic interactions. As saprotrophs, these species are considered to make a contribution to the degradation of lignocellulosic plant material. Their cellulolytic potential is also used in interactions with plants, especially in plant root colonization. However, the role of cellulolytic enzymes in species forming endophytic associations with plants or in those existing in the substratum for mushroom cultivation remains unknown. The present review discusses the current state of knowledge about cellulolytic enzymes production by Trichoderma species and the encoding genes, as well as the involvement of these proteins in the lifestyle of Trichoderma. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cellulolytic activity of gut extract of subterranean termite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a chief and cheap raw material for bioethanol production. However, pretreatment is a critical and most expensive step in lignocellulosic ... alternative for lignocellulosic biomass conversion using enzyme hydrolysis.

  9. FERROFLUIDS INFLUENCE ON DEHYDROGENASES ACTIVITY IN CELLULOLYTIC FUNGUS CHAETOMIUM GLOBOSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Manoliu

    2003-08-01

    Different results were noticed for different ferrofluids concentrations: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μl/L. Inhibitory or stimulatory ferrofluids effect was obtained depending on the nature of the investigated enzyme.

  10. Cellulolytic activities of wild type fungi isolated from decayed wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mycological profile of decayed wood cuttings sourced from a saw mill located at Uwasota Road, Benin City was investigated using serial dilution and pour plate techniques. The mean fungal counts ranged from 0.9 ×106 cfu/g to 2.7 ×106 cfu/g respectively. Four fungal species were identified; Aspergillus niger, ...

  11. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme L. Pinheiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, p-nitrophenyl-b-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG, p-nitrophenyl-b-D-cellobioside (pNPC, 4-methylumbelliferyl-b-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, 4-methylumbelliferyl-b-D-cellobioside (MUC and 4-methylumbelliferyl-b-D-xylopyranoside (MUX. Our results indicate that the snail Achatina fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes.

  12. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Guilherme L; Correa, Raquel F; Cunha, Raquel S; Cardoso, Alexander M; Chaia, Catia; Clementino, Maysa M; Garcia, Eloi S; de Souza, Wanderley; Frasés, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic aerobic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (MUG), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside (MUC), and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (MUX). Our results indicate that the snail A. fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes.

  13. Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials at high temperature using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus displaying cellulolytic enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanase, Shuhei; Yamada, Ryosuke; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Organization of Advanced Science and Technology

    2010-09-15

    To exploit cellulosic materials for fuel ethanol production, a microorganism capable of high temperature and simultaneous saccharification-fermentation has been required. However, a major drawback is the optimum temperature for the saccharification and fermentation. Most ethanol-fermenting microbes have an optimum temperature for ethanol fermentation ranging between 28 C and 37 C, while the activity of cellulolytic enzymes is highest at around 50 C and significantly decreases with a decrease in temperature. Therefore, in the present study, a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus, which has high growth and fermentation at elevated temperatures, was used as a producer of ethanol from cellulose. The strain was genetically engineered to display Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase and Aspergillus aculeatus {beta}-glucosidase on the cell surface, which successfully converts a cellulosic {beta}-glucan to ethanol directly at 48 C with a yield of 4.24 g/l from 10 g/l within 12 h. The yield (in grams of ethanol produced per gram of {beta}-glucan consumed) was 0.47 g/g, which corresponds to 92.2% of the theoretical yield. This indicates that high-temperature cellulose fermentation to ethanol can be efficiently accomplished using a recombinant K. marxianus strain displaying thermostable cellulolytic enzymes on the cell surface. (orig.)

  14. Characterization of cellulolytic enzymes and bioH2 production from anaerobic thermophilic Clostridium sp. TCW1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Huang, Chi-Yu; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Lin, Chiu-Yue; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    A thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Clostridium sp. TCW1 was isolated from dairy cow dung and was used to produce hydrogen from cellulosic feedstock. Extracellular cellulolytic enzymes produced from TCW1 strain were identified as endoglucanases (45, 53 and 70 kDa), exoglucanase (70 kDa), xylanases (53 and 60 kDa), and β-glucosidase (45 kDa). The endoglucanase and xylanase were more abundant. The optimal conditions for H2 production and enzyme production of the TCW1 strain were the same (60 °C, initial pH 7, agitation rate of 200 rpm). Ten cellulosic feedstock, including pure or natural cellulosic materials, were used as feedstock for hydrogen production by Clostridium strain TCW1 under optimal culture conditions. Using filter paper at 5.0 g/L resulted in the most effective hydrogen production performance, achieving a H2 production rate and yield of 57.7 ml/h/L and 2.03 mol H2/mol hexose, respectively. Production of cellulolytic enzyme activities was positively correlated with the efficiency of dark-H2 fermentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mixed submerged fermentation with two filamentous fungi for cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Kirchner, O; Muñoz-Aguilar, M; Pérez-Villalva, R; Huitrón-Vargas, C

    2002-01-01

    The efficient saccharification of lignocellulosic materials requires the cooperative actions of different cellulase enzyme activities: exoglucanase, endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase. Previous studies with the fungi strains Aureobasidium sp. CHTE-18, Penicillium sp. CH-TE-001, and Aspergillus terreus CH-TE-013, selected mainly because of their different cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities, have demonstrated the capacity of culture filtrates of cross-synergistic action in the saccharification of native sugarcane bagasse pith. In an attempt to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of different cellulosic materials, we investigated a coculture fermentation with two of these strains to enhance the production of cellulases and xylanases. The 48-h batch experimental results showed that the mixed culture of Penicillium sp. CH-TE-001 and A. terreus CH-TE-013 produced culture filtrates with high protein content, cellulase (mainly beta-glucosidase), and xylanase activities compared with the individual culture of each strain. The same culture conditions were used in a simple medium with mineral salts, corn syrup liquor, and sugarcane bagasse pith as the sole carbon source with moderate shaking at 29 degrees C. Finally, we compared the effect of the cell-free culture filtrates obtained from the mixed and single fermentations on the saccharification of different kinds of cellulosic materials.

  16. Adsorption of cellulase on cellulolytic enzyme lignin from lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Maobing; Pan, Xuejun; Saddler, Jack N

    2009-09-09

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials is significantly affected by cellulase adsorption onto the lignocellulosic substrates and lignin. The presence of lignin plays an important role in lignocellulosic hydrolysis and enzyme recycling. Three cellulase preparations (Celluclast, Spezyme CP, and MSUBC) were evaluated to determine their adsorption onto cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) from steam-exploded Lodgepole pine (SELP) and ethanol (organosolv)-pretreated Lodgepole pine (EPLP). The adsorption affinity of cellulase (Celluclast) onto isolated lignin (CEL-EPLP and CEL-SELP) was slightly higher than that from corresponding EPLP and SELP substrates on the basis of the Langmuir constants. Effects of temperature, ionic strength, and surfactant on cellulase adsorption onto isolated lignin were also explored in this study. Thermodynamic analysis of enzyme adsorption onto isolated lignin (Gibbs free energy change DeltaG(0) approximately -30 kJ/mol) indicated this adsorption was a spontaneous process. The addition of surfactant (0.2% w/v) could reduce the adsorption of cellulase onto CEL-SELP by 60%. Two types of adsorption isotherm were compared for cellulase adsorption onto isolated lignin. A Langmuir adsorption isotherm showed better fit for the experimental data than a Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

  17. Reactivity improvement of cellulolytic enzyme lignin via mild hydrothermal modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhuoming; Tang, Jiafa; Li, Shujun; Suo, Enxiang

    2017-12-01

    Isolated by the cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) process, water-alcohol (1:1, v/v) was introduced as co-solvent in the process of the hydrothermal treatment. The modification parameters such as reaction temperature and time, solid-to-liquid ratio, and catalysts (NaOH and NaOAlO 2 ) have been investigated in terms of the specific lignin properties, such as the phenolic hydroxyl content (OH phen ), DPPH free radical scavenging rate, and formaldehyde value. The CELs were also characterized by GPC, FT-IR and 1 H NMR spectroscopy, and Py-GC/MS. The key data are under optimal lignin modification conditions (solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and a temperature of 250°C for 60min) are: OH phen content: 2.50mmol/g; half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) towards DPPH free radicals: 88.2mg/L; formaldehyde value: 446.9g/kg). Both base catalysts decrease the residue rate, but phenol reactivities of the products were also detracted. Py-GC/MS results revealed that modified lignin had a higher phenolic composition than the CEL did, especially the modified lignin without catalyst (ML), which represented 74.51% phenolic content. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Rock phosphate solubilizing and cellulolytic actinomycete isolates of earthworm casts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mba, Caroline C.

    1994-03-01

    Four microbial isolates, OP2, OP3, OP6, and OP7, of earthworm casts of Pontoscolex corethrurus were found to be acid tolerant actinomycetes and efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers that could grow fast on NH4Cl-enriched or N-free carboxymethyl cellulose or glucose as sole carbon source. CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) induced production of extracellular cellulase enzyme and the production of reducing sugar in all the isolates. RP solubilizing power was observed to be inversely related to glucose consumption. The most efficient RP solubilizer was found to consume the least glucose. Growth was faster on cellulose than on glucose media. N-free CMC induced greater glucose production than NH4Cl-enriched CMC medium. Both CMC and glucose media were acidified by all the isolates, however, RP solubilizing power decreased with acidification. Solubilization power was greatest with isolate OP7, which also produced the greatest amount of reducing sugar per gram CMC. Both RP solubilizing power and the cellulolytic efficiency varied among isolates. A minimum of 631 µg P/0.1 g RP and a maximum of 951.4 µg P/0.1 g RP was recorded.

  19. Biosynthesis of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus niger A. n. 33 and its selectants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czajkowska, D.; Hornecka, D.; Ilnicka-Olejniczak, O.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the investigations was to obtain - from the parent strain Aspergillus niger A.n. 33 - selectants with an increased ability of cellulolytic enzymes biosynthesis. Own selection methods allowed to receive two selectants A.n. 33/2 and A.n. 33/20 characterized by enhanced activities of saccharifying cellulase (respectively 0.11 and 0.14 FPU/cm/sup 3/), endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (15.4 and 21.8 U/cm/sup 3/) and cellobiase (0.6 and 1.4 IU/cm/sup 3/) as compared with the parent strain (FPA - 0.09 IU, CMC - 8.2 U and CB - 0.1 IU/cm/sup 3/). Moreover, the selectants differed in shape and size of conidial heads, in shape and colour of conidia, as well as in structure and shape of hyphase. Enzyme preparations obtained after ultrafiltration of liquid cultures were characterized by following activities: FPA-4-16 IU, CMC-900-1800 U, CB-60-120 IU and xylanase-250-280 IU/cm/sup 3/.

  20. Evaluation of Myceliopthora thermophila as an Enzyme Factory for the Production of Thermophilic Cellulolytic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysis is a key step in bioethanol production. Efficient hydrolysis requires a consortium of different enzymes that are able to hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. Myceliopthora thermophila is a promising candidate for the production of thermophilic cellulolytic enzymes, the use of which could reduce the cost of ethanol production. The growth conditions of the fungus were optimized in order to achieve increased secretion of extracellular cellulases. Optimal conditions were found to be 7.0% w/v brewer’s spent grain as the carbon source and 0.4% w/v ammonium sulfate as the nitrogen source. The cellulases obtained were characterized for their optimum activity. The optimum temperature and pH for cellulase activity are 65 °C and pH 5.5, respectively. Studies on thermal inactivation of the crude extract showed that the cellulases of M. thermophila are stable for temperatures up to 60 °C. At this temperature the half-life was found to be as high as 27 h. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose resulted in 31.4% hydrolysis yield at 60 °C after 24 h of incubation. Finally, the recalcitrance constant for cellulose and cellulose pretreated with ionic liquids was calculated to be 5.46 and 2.69, respectively.

  1. Ras GTPases Modulate Morphogenesis, Sporulation and Cellulase Gene Expression in the Cellulolytic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Zhang, Yanmei; Zhong, Yaohua; Qu, Yinbo; Wang, Tianhong

    2012-01-01

    Background The model cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is capable of responding to environmental cues to compete for nutrients in its natural saprophytic habitat despite its genome encodes fewer degradative enzymes. Efficient signalling pathways in perception and interpretation of environmental signals are indispensable in this process. Ras GTPases represent a kind of critical signal proteins involved in signal transduction and regulation of gene expression. In T. reesei the genome contains two Ras subfamily small GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 homologous to Ras1 and Ras2 from S. cerevisiae, but their functions remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have investigated the roles of GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 during fungal morphogenesis and cellulase gene expression. We show that both TrRas1 and TrRas2 play important roles in some cellular processes such as polarized apical growth, hyphal branch formation, sporulation and cAMP level adjustment, while TrRas1 is more dominant in these processes. Strikingly, we find that TrRas2 is involved in modulation of cellulase gene expression. Deletion of TrRas2 results in considerably decreased transcription of cellulolytic genes upon growth on cellulose. Although the strain carrying a constitutively activated TrRas2G16V allele exhibits increased cellulase gene transcription, the cbh1 and cbh2 expression in this mutant still strictly depends on cellulose, indicating TrRas2 does not directly mediate the transmission of the cellulose signal. In addition, our data suggest that the effect of TrRas2 on cellulase gene is exerted through regulation of transcript abundance of cellulase transcription factors such as Xyr1, but the influence is independent of cAMP signalling pathway. Conclusions/Significance Together, these findings elucidate the functions for Ras signalling of T. reesei in cellular morphogenesis, especially in cellulase gene expression, which contribute to deciphering the

  2. The genome sequences of Cellulomonas fimi and "Cellvibrio gilvus" reveal the cellulolytic strategies of two facultative anaerobes, transfer of "Cellvibrio gilvus" to the genus Cellulomonas, and proposal of Cellulomonas gilvus sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R Christopherson

    Full Text Available Actinobacteria in the genus Cellulomonas are the only known and reported cellulolytic facultative anaerobes. To better understand the cellulolytic strategy employed by these bacteria, we sequenced the genome of the Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484(T. For comparative purposes, we also sequenced the genome of the aerobic cellulolytic "Cellvibrio gilvus" ATCC 13127(T. An initial analysis of these genomes using phylogenetic and whole-genome comparison revealed that "Cellvibrio gilvus" belongs to the genus Cellulomonas. We thus propose to assign "Cellvibrio gilvus" to the genus Cellulomonas. A comparative genomics analysis between these two Cellulomonas genome sequences and the recently completed genome for Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482(T showed that these cellulomonads do not encode cellulosomes but appear to degrade cellulose by secreting multi-domain glycoside hydrolases. Despite the minimal number of carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these genomes, as compared to other known cellulolytic organisms, these bacteria were found to be proficient at degrading and utilizing a diverse set of carbohydrates, including crystalline cellulose. Moreover, they also encode for proteins required for the fermentation of hexose and xylose sugars into products such as ethanol. Finally, we found relatively few significant differences between the predicted carbohydrate-active enzymes encoded by these Cellulomonas genomes, in contrast to previous studies reporting differences in physiological approaches for carbohydrate degradation. Our sequencing and analysis of these genomes sheds light onto the mechanism through which these facultative anaerobes degrade cellulose, suggesting that the sequenced cellulomonads use secreted, multidomain enzymes to degrade cellulose in a way that is distinct from known anaerobic cellulolytic strategies.

  3. Effects of commercial pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme preparations on the apple cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongowski, G; Sembries, S

    2001-09-01

    The action of three different commercial enzyme combinations on apple cell wall material has been examined in a model system under conditions of mash and pomace treatment by using an alcohol-insoluble substance prepared from apples. A part of the total dietary fiber, for example, galacturonan (pectin), appeared in the soluble fraction after enzymatic mash treatment. The soluble fraction increased intensely during pomace treatment. Furthermore, enzyme actions caused a change in the water-binding capacity of residues as well as changes in the monosaccharide composition and in the molecular weight distribution of saccharides in filtrates (soluble parts). The extent of decomposition of cell wall material and the increase of soluble oligomeric and/or polymeric dietary fiber components are caused by both the composition (pectinases, cellulases, and hemicellulases) and the activities of the enzyme preparations. The model experiments allow an insight into the reactions occurring during enzyme action on the plant cell wall, for example, during apple juice production using pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme preparations.

  4. PGASO: A synthetic biology tool for engineering a cellulolytic yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jui-Jen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To achieve an economical cellulosic ethanol production, a host that can do both cellulosic saccharification and ethanol fermentation is desirable. However, to engineer a non-cellulolytic yeast to be such a host requires synthetic biology techniques to transform multiple enzyme genes into its genome. Results A technique, named Promoter-based Gene Assembly and Simultaneous Overexpression (PGASO, that employs overlapping oligonucleotides for recombinatorial assembly of gene cassettes with individual promoters, was developed. PGASO was applied to engineer Kluyveromycesmarxianus KY3, which is a thermo- and toxin-tolerant yeast. We obtained a recombinant strain, called KR5, that is capable of simultaneously expressing exoglucanase and endoglucanase (both of Trichodermareesei, a beta-glucosidase (from a cow rumen fungus, a neomycin phosphotransferase, and a green fluorescent protein. High transformation efficiency and accuracy were achieved as ~63% of the transformants was confirmed to be correct. KR5 can utilize beta-glycan, cellobiose or CMC as the sole carbon source for growth and can directly convert cellobiose and beta-glycan to ethanol. Conclusions This study provides the first example of multi-gene assembly in a single step in a yeast species other than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We successfully engineered a yeast host with a five-gene cassette assembly and the new host is capable of co-expressing three types of cellulase genes. Our study shows that PGASO is an efficient tool for simultaneous expression of multiple enzymes in the kefir yeast KY3 and that KY3 can serve as a host for developing synthetic biology tools.

  5. Isolation and Identification of cellulolytic bacteria from mangrove sediment in Bangka Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, A.; Prihanto, A. A.; Sari, S. P.; Febriyanti, D.; Kurniawan, A.; Sambah, A. B.; Asriani, E.

    2018-04-01

    Cellulolytic bacteria is bacteria which hydrolyze cellulose to reducing sugars. This research aims to obtain cellulolytic bacteria from the sediment of mangroves in Bangka island. Reasearch was conducted from March to August 2017. Sampling was conducted at Sungailiat, and Tukak Sadai, South of Bangka. Bacteria was isolated using 1% Carboxymetyl Cellulosa (CMC). The isolation resulted in four isolates from Sungailiat and nine isolates from Tukak Sadai. Total five isolates, namely Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus amyloliquefacien, Bacillus alvei, Bacillus coagulant were identified. The best isolates that produced cellulose was Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  6. Comparative genotyping of Clostridium thermocellum strains isolated from biogas plants: genetic markers and characterization of cellulolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, Daniela E; Zverlov, Vladimir V; Liebl, Wolfgang; Schwarz, Wolfgang H

    2014-07-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is among the most prevalent of known anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria. In this study, genetic and phenotypic variations among C. thermocellum strains isolated from different biogas plants were determined and different genotyping methods were evaluated on these isolates. At least two C. thermocellum strains were isolated independently from each of nine different biogas plants via enrichment on cellulose. Various DNA-based genotyping methods such as ribotyping, RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) were applied to these isolates. One novel approach - the amplification of unknown target sequences between copies of a previously discovered Random Inserted Mobile Element (RIME) - was also tested. The genotyping method with the highest discriminatory power was found to be the amplification of the sequences between the insertion elements, where isolates from each biogas plant yielded a different band pattern. Cellulolytic potentials, optimal growth conditions and substrate spectra of all isolates were characterized to help identify phenotypic variations. Irrespective of the genotyping method used, the isolates from each individual biogas plant always exhibited identical patterns. This is suggestive of a single C. thermocellum strain exhibiting dominance in each biogas plant. The genotypic groups reflect the results of the physiological characterization of the isolates like substrate diversity and cellulase activity. Conversely, strains isolated across a range of biogas plants differed in their genotyping results and physiological properties. Both strains isolated from one biogas plant had the best specific cellulose-degrading properties and might therefore achieve superior substrate utilization yields in biogas fermenters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural insights into cellulolytic and chitinolytic enzymes revealing crucial residues of insect β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Liu

    Full Text Available The chemical similarity of cellulose and chitin supports the idea that their corresponding hydrolytic enzymes would bind β-1,4-linked glucose residues in a similar manner. A structural and mutational analysis was performed for the plant cellulolytic enzyme BGlu1 from Oryza sativa and the insect chitinolytic enzyme OfHex1 from Ostrinia furnacalis. Although BGlu1 shows little amino-acid sequence or topological similarity with OfHex1, three residues (Trp(490, Glu(328, Val(327 in OfHex1, and Trp(358, Tyr(131 and Ile(179 in BGlu1 were identified as being conserved in the +1 sugar binding site. OfHex1 Glu(328 together with Trp(490 was confirmed to be necessary for substrate binding. The mutant E328A exhibited a 8-fold increment in K(m for (GlcNAc(2 and a 42-fold increment in K(i for TMG-chitotriomycin. A crystal structure of E328A in complex with TMG-chitotriomycin was resolved at 2.5 Å, revealing the obvious conformational changes of the catalytic residues (Glu(368 and Asp(367 and the absence of the hydrogen bond between E328A and the C3-OH of the +1 sugar. V327G exhibited the same activity as the wild-type, but acquired the ability to efficiently hydrolyse β-1,2-linked GlcNAc in contrast to the wild-type. Thus, Glu(328 and Val(327 were identified as important for substrate-binding and as glycosidic-bond determinants. A structure-based sequence alignment confirmed the spatial conservation of these three residues in most plant cellulolytic, insect and bacterial chitinolytic enzymes.

  8. Isolation and characterization of Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic, anaerobic bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Mathrani, Indra M.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    An anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain 6A, was isolated from an alkaline hot spring in Hverageroi, Iceland. The bacterium was non-motile, rod-shaped (1.5-3.5 x 0.7 mu m) and occurred singly, in pairs or in chains and stained gram-negative. The growth...

  9. Sample handling factors affecting the enumeration of lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to compare media types and evaluate the effects of fecal storage time and temperature on the enumeration of cellulolytic bacteria and lactobacilli from horses. Fecal samples were collected from horses (n = 3) and transported to the lab (CO2, 37 ºC, 0.5 h). The samples were assign...

  10. The complete genome sequence of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 reveals a cellulolytic and metabolic specialist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garret Suen

    Full Text Available Fibrobacter succinogenes is an important member of the rumen microbial community that converts plant biomass into nutrients usable by its host. This bacterium, which is also one of only two cultivated species in its phylum, is an efficient and prolific degrader of cellulose. Specifically, it has a particularly high activity against crystalline cellulose that requires close physical contact with this substrate. However, unlike other known cellulolytic microbes, it does not degrade cellulose using a cellulosome or by producing high extracellular titers of cellulase enzymes. To better understand the biology of F. succinogenes, we sequenced the genome of the type strain S85 to completion. A total of 3,085 open reading frames were predicted from its 3.84 Mbp genome. Analysis of sequences predicted to encode for carbohydrate-degrading enzymes revealed an unusually high number of genes that were classified into 49 different families of glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs, carbohydrate esterases, and polysaccharide lyases. Of the 31 identified cellulases, none contain CBMs in families 1, 2, and 3, typically associated with crystalline cellulose degradation. Polysaccharide hydrolysis and utilization assays showed that F. succinogenes was able to hydrolyze a number of polysaccharides, but could only utilize the hydrolytic products of cellulose. This suggests that F. succinogenes uses its array of hemicellulose-degrading enzymes to remove hemicelluloses to gain access to cellulose. This is reflected in its genome, as F. succinogenes lacks many of the genes necessary to transport and metabolize the hydrolytic products of non-cellulose polysaccharides. The F. succinogenes genome reveals a bacterium that specializes in cellulose as its sole energy source, and provides insight into a novel strategy for cellulose degradation.

  11. Isolation and Screening of Potential Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Bacteria from Soil Sample for Degradation of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupal Govinda Shrestha

    2016-11-01

    them with the aptitude to produce stable enzymes, little emphasis has been given to cellulose/xylanase production from bacteria. Seven soil samples were collected from eastern hilly districts of Nepal viz. Taplejung, Panchthar and Sankhuwasabha districts, from soil surface and at depth of 10cm to 20cm, and were isolated separately. From the seven soil samples, four bacterial isolates were obtained. Isolates (PSS, P1D, TLC, SNK were then screened for cellulolytic/xylanolytic activity using Congo red assay on Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC/xylan agar plates. The enzyme activity obtained from isolates was dependent on substrate concentration. The activity of enzymes produced by isolates were also measured and compared on pretreated sugarcane bagasse. Among those samples, the greatest zone of inhibition in both CMC (1.3 cm and xylan (1.0 cm agar media was seen in isolate P1D. It also produced the highest activity of endoglucanase and xylanase i.e. activity 0.035 U/mL and 0.050 U/mL respectively at 0.010 mg mL-1 standard substrate concentration of CMC and xylan.

  12. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOLYTIC ENZYMES BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND RHIZOPUS SP . BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF PRICKLY PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMIRES CARVALHO DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prickly palm cactus husk was used as a solid - state fermentation support substrate for the production of cellulolytic enzymes using Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus sp. A Box - Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of water activity, fermentation time and temperature on endoglucanase and total cellulase production. Response Surface Methodology showed that optimum conditions for endoglucanase production were achieved at after 70.35 h of fermentation at 29.56°C and a water activity of 0.875 for Aspergillus niger and after 68.12 h at 30.41°C for Rhizopus sp. Optimum conditions for total cellulase production were achieved after 74.27 h of fermentation at 31.22°C for Aspergillus niger and after 72.48 h and 27.86°C for Rhizopus sp . Water activity had a significant effect on Aspergillus niger endoglucanase production only. In industrial applications, enzymatic characterization is important for optimizing variables such as temperature and pH. In this study we showed that endoglucanase and total cellulase had a high level of thermostability and pH stability in all the enzymatic extracts. Enzymatic deactivation kinetic experiments indicated that the enzymes remained active after the freezing of the crude extract. Based on the results, bioconversion of cactus is an excellent alternative for the production of thermostable enzymes.

  13. Isolation and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from termites gut (Cryptotermes sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peristiwati; Natamihardja, Y. S.; Herlini, H.

    2018-05-01

    The energy and environmental crises developed due to a huge amount of cellulosic materials are disposed of as “waste.” Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. The hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and soluble sugars has thus become a subject of intense research. Termites are one of the most important soil insects that efficiently decompose lignocelluloses with the aid of their associated microbial symbionts to a simpler form of sugars. The steps of this study consisted of cellulose isolation, cellulolytic bacteria isolation and identification. Cellulose degrading bacteria from termite (Cryptotermes sp.) gut flora were isolated, screened and their identification was studied which showed halo zones due to CMC agar. Among 12 isolates of bacteria, six isolates were cellulolytic. MLC-A isolate had shown a maximum in a cellulolytic index (1.32). Each isolate was identified based on standard physical and biochemical tests. Three isolates were identified in the genus of Clostridium, one isolate be placed in the group of Mycobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae or Coryneform and the last one in the genus Proteus.

  14. Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud eBerlemont

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition. We monitored communities seasonally over a period of two years to place environmental change responses into the context of natural variation. Fungal and bacterial communities displayed strong seasonal patterns, Fungi being mostly detected during the dry season whereas Bacteria were common during wet periods. Most putative cellulose degraders were associated with 33 bacterial genera and constituted ~18.2% of the microbial community. Precipitation reduction reduced bacterial abundance and cellulolytic potential whereas nitrogen addition did not affect the cellulolytic potential of the microbial community. Finally, we detected a strong correlation between the frequencies of genera putative cellulose degraders and cellulase genes. Thus, microbial taxonomic composition was predictive of cellulolytic potential. This work provides a framework for how environmental changes affect microorganisms responsible for plant litter deconstruction.

  15. Cellulolytic Enzymes Production via Solid-State Fermentation: Effect of Pretreatment Methods on Physicochemical Characteristics of Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushal Brijwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of pretreatment on the physicochemical characteristics—crystallinity, bed porosity, and volumetric specific surface of soybean hulls and production of cellulolytic enzymes in solid-state fermentation of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae cultures. Mild acid and alkali and steam pretreatments significantly increased crystallinity and bed porosity without significant change inholocellulosic composition of substrate. Crystalline and porous steam-pretreated soybean hulls inoculated with T. reesei culture had 4 filter paper units (FPU/g-ds, 0.6 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 45 IU/g-ds endocellulase, whereas untreated hulls had 0.75 FPU/g-ds, 0.06 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 7.29 IU/g-ds endocellulase enzyme activities. In A. oryzae steam-pretreated soybean hulls had 47.10 IU/g-ds endocellulase compared to 30.82 IU/g-ds in untreated soybean hulls. Generalized linear statistical model fitted to enzyme activity data showed that effects of physicochemical characteristics on enzymes production were both culture and enzyme specific. The paper shows a correlation between substrate physicochemical properties and enzyme production.

  16. Cellulolytic Enzymes Production via Solid-State Fermentation: Effect of Pretreatment Methods on Physicochemical Characteristics of Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijwani, Khushal; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of pretreatment on the physicochemical characteristics-crystallinity, bed porosity, and volumetric specific surface of soybean hulls and production of cellulolytic enzymes in solid-state fermentation of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae cultures. Mild acid and alkali and steam pretreatments significantly increased crystallinity and bed porosity without significant change inholocellulosic composition of substrate. Crystalline and porous steam-pretreated soybean hulls inoculated with T. reesei culture had 4 filter paper units (FPU)/g-ds, 0.6 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 45 IU/g-ds endocellulase, whereas untreated hulls had 0.75 FPU/g-ds, 0.06 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 7.29 IU/g-ds endocellulase enzyme activities. In A. oryzae steam-pretreated soybean hulls had 47.10 IU/g-ds endocellulase compared to 30.82 IU/g-ds in untreated soybean hulls. Generalized linear statistical model fitted to enzyme activity data showed that effects of physicochemical characteristics on enzymes production were both culture and enzyme specific. The paper shows a correlation between substrate physicochemical properties and enzyme production.

  17. Dominant ectosymbiotic bacteria of cellulolytic protists in the termite gut also have the potential to digest lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Masahiro; Kuwahara, Hirokazu; Shintani, Masaki; Izawa, Kazuki; Sato, Tomoyuki; Starns, David; Hongoh, Yuichi; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2015-12-01

    Wood-feeding lower termites harbour symbiotic gut protists that support the termite nutritionally by degrading recalcitrant lignocellulose. These protists themselves host specific endo- and ectosymbiotic bacteria, functions of which remain largely unknown. Here, we present draft genomes of a dominant, uncultured ectosymbiont belonging to the order Bacteroidales, 'Candidatus Symbiothrix dinenymphae', which colonizes the cell surface of the cellulolytic gut protists Dinenympha spp. We analysed four single-cell genomes of Ca. S. dinenymphae, the highest genome completeness was estimated to be 81.6-82.3% with a predicted genome size of 4.28-4.31 Mb. The genome retains genes encoding large parts of the amino acid, cofactor and nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In addition, the genome contains genes encoding various glycoside hydrolases such as endoglucanases and hemicellulases. The genome indicates that Ca. S. dinenymphae ferments lignocellulose-derived monosaccharides to acetate, a major carbon and energy source of the host termite. We suggest that the ectosymbiont digests lignocellulose and provides nutrients to the host termites, and hypothesize that the hydrolytic activity might also function as a pretreatment for the host protist to effectively decompose the crystalline cellulose components. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Production of cellulase by a novel cellulolytic Bacillus sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    squ

    2016-10-26

    Oct 26, 2016 ... activity during the stationary phase of growth; but for B7, the maximum activity of ... Accumulation of municipal solid waste is becoming a ... in landfills contaminates the ground water and cause the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide ... crops or wood are utilized either for extraction of.

  19. Cellulolytic and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens bacteria population density, after supplementing fodder diets (Pennisetum clandestinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licet Molina G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the population density of cellulolytic bacteria, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and the concentration of vaccenic acid, by supplementing diets consisting of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoechst. Ex Chiov. as base ingredient, together with cassava flour and biomass (effluent from ethanol production in rumen simulator-Rusitec. Materials and methods. Four treatments (T were evaluated, these were composed as: T1/Control 1: 100% kikuyu grass with a total protein intake of 23.9%, T2: a mixture of 70% kikuyu grass, 20% biomass and 10% cassava flour with a total protein intake of 19.4%; T3/Control 2: 100% kikuyu grass, with a 17.8% protein intake and T4: 70% kikuyu grass, 20% biomass and 10% cassava flour with a 15.3% protein intake. One and two-way variance analysis was made and the Pearson correlation coefficient was determined. Results. An increase was observed in the population density of viable cellulolytic bacteria (CFU/ml and B. fibrisolvens statistically significant (p<0.005 with treatment T2, in contrast to T1, T3 and T4 treatments. In addition, there was a significant increase in the concentration of vaccenic acid (mg/L in the ruminal content in Rusitec with the same treatment (T2. Conclusions. Results obtained in this ruminal simulation study are evidence to the benefits of kikuyu grass together with cassava flour and biomass diet implementation on the growth of ruminal cellulolytic and B. fibrisolvens bacteria, as well as on the production of vaccenic acid. The study also suggests the nutritional potential that such supplements could provide to grazing bovine feeding.

  20. Isolation of Cellulolytic Bacteria and Characterization of the Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Rachmania

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Four of cellulolitic bacteria isolates had beencharacterized. The determination of cellulase activity was conducted at the highest production time, using crudeenzymes with the modification of Miller methods (1959 on pure cellulose substrates such as CMC (Carboxymethylcellulose, Avicel and Filter paper Whatman No. 1 as well as agriculture waste such as rice straw, corn cob and bananapeel. Cellulase from C4-4, C5-1, C5-3 and C11-1 showed optimum activity at pH 5, 70°C, pH 3.5, 90°C, pH 5, 80°Cand pH 8, 70°C, respectively. Avicel is a appropriate substrate for C4-4 cellulase whereas CMC for the other three.C11-1 cellulase has the highest cellulase enzyme activity on rice straw substrate whereas C4-4 cellulase on banana peelsubstrates. C5-1 and C5-3 cellulase have relatively low cellulase activities in degrading substrates of agriculture waste.However, isolates of C5-1 and C5-3 have high cellulase activities on banana peel substrates.

  1. Isolation of Cellulolytic Bacteria and Characterization of the Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Nisa Rachmania; Titi Candra Sunarti; Besty Maranatha; Wahyu Widosari; Anja Meryandini; Hasrul Satria

    2009-01-01

    Four of cellulolitic bacteria isolates had beencharacterized. The determination of cellulase activity was conducted at the highest production time, using crudeenzymes with the modification of Miller methods (1959) on pure cellulose substrates such as CMC (Carboxymethylcellulose), Avicel and Filter paper Whatman No. 1 as well as agriculture waste such as rice straw, corn cob and bananapeel. Cellulase from C4-4, C5-1, C5-3 and C11-1 showed optimum activity at pH 5, 70°C, pH 3.5, 90°C, pH 5, 80°...

  2. An approach to mitigating soil CO2 emission by biochemically inhibiting cellulolytic microbial populations through mediation via the medicinal herb Isatis indigotica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Su-Yun; Li, Ji; Liu, Dong-Yang; Zhou, Ji; Xu, Ya; Shang, Xiao-Xia; Wei, Dong-yang; Yu, Lu-ji; Fang, Xiao-hang; Li, Shun-yi; Wang, Ke-ke

    2017-06-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2)) emissions from soil under wheat production are a significant source of agricultural carbon emissions that have not been mitigated effectively. A field experiment and a static incubation study in a lab were conducted to stimulate wheat growth and investigate its potential to reduce CO2 emissions from soil through intercropping with a traditional Chinese medicinal herb called Isatis indigotica. This work was conducted by adding I. indigotica root exudates based on the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of the DNA copy number of the rhizosphere or bulk soil microbial populations. This addition was performed in relation to the CO2 formation by cellulolytic microorganisms (Penicillium oxalicum, fungi and Ruminococcus albus) to elucidate the microbial ecological basis for the molecular mechanism that decreases CO2 emissions from wheat fields using I. indigotica. The results showed that the panicle weight and full grains per panicle measured through intercropping with I. indigotica (NPKWR) increased by 39% and 28.6%, respectively, compared to that of the CK (NPKW). Intercropping with I. indigotica significantly decreased the CO2 emissions from soil under wheat cultivation. Compared with CK, the total CO2 emission flux during the wheat growth period in the I. indigotica (NPKWR) intercropping treatment decreased by 29.26%. The intensity of CO2 emissions per kg of harvested wheat grain declined from 7.53 kg CO2/kg grain in the NPKW (CK) treatment to 5.55 kg CO2/kg grain in the NPKWR treatment. The qPCR analysis showed that the DNA copy number of the microbial populations of cellulolytic microorganisms (P. oxalicum, fungi and R. albus) in the field rhizosphere around I. indigotica or in the bulk soil under laboratory incubation was significantly lower than that of CK. This finding indicated that root exudates from I. indigotica inhibited the activity and number of cellulolytic microbial populations, which led

  3. Nutrient effects on production of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucosidase) by Aspergillus niger on three media in liquid shake culture was compared. The culture filtrate of this organism exhibited relatively highest activity of all three enzymes and extracellular protein content at 7-day interval during the course of its ...

  4. Selection of cellulolytic fungi isolated from diverse substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Caramez Triches Damaso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to select filamentous fungi isolated from diverse substrates to obtain the strains with potential to produce the hydrolytic enzymes. From a total of 215 strains, seven strains from the soils, six from the plants and one from sugarcane bagasse were selected and identified as belonging to the Trichoderma, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The best hydrolytic activities obtained by semi-solid fermentation using these strains were approximately: 35; 1; 160; 170 and 120 U/gdm (CMCase, FPase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and polygalacturonase, respectively, demonstrating their potential to synthesize the enzymes compared with the results reported in the literature.

  5. Screening and characterization of indigenous cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Bor Chyan; Pauline Liew Woan Ying; Mat Rasol Awang

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-six bacterial isolates were isolated from the soil samples collected from MADA Rice Experimental Plot, Kedah. Many of the isolates were Gram-positive bacteria suggesting this type of bacteria makes up the majority of the culturable populations residing in the plots investigated. These isolates were studied for their abilities to hydrolyse carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and xylan. Ability to hydrolyse CMC was observed in 61.5% of the isolates. Whilst 62.5% of the isolates exhibiting the ability to hydrolyse xylan. Active isolates were further confirmed by the presence of the respective gene(s) via molecular approaches. These isolates were later screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing of representative 16S rDNAs. Majority of identified isolates were members of common soil microbe such as members of the genera Bacillus. (Author)

  6. The improvement of eggs quality of Mojosari duck (Anas javanica with soybean husk fermentation using cellulolytic bacteria of Spodoptera litura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hidanah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to improve the quality of the eggs of Mojosari duck (Anas javanica through complete feeding containing soybean husk was fermented using cellulolytic bacteria of Spodoptera litura. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of three stages: The first stages, isolation and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from S. litura; the second stage, the fermentation of soybean husk through the application of bacterial cellulolytic isolate from the first stage; and the third stage, the application of the best complete feed formulation from the second stage to Mojosari duck. Results: There are four dominant bacteria: Bacillus sp., Cellulomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Cytophaga sp. Furthermore, the best reduction of the crude fiber of soybean husks is the use of Cellulomonas sp. bacteria. The final of the study, the quality of the eggs of Anas javanica, was improved, as indicated by cholesterol decrease from the yolk without the decrease of egg weight and eggshell thickness, although the decrease in egg yolk color was inevitable. Conclusion: Soy husk fermentation using cellulolytic bacteria of S. litura was added to complete feeding can be performed to improve the quality of the eggs of Mojosari duck.

  7. Effect of storage time and temperature of equine feces on the subsequent enumeration of lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulolytic bacteria and lactobacilli are beneficial microbes in the equine hindgut. There are several existing methodologies for the enumeration of these bacteria, which vary based on selective and differential media and sample handling procedures including storage time and temperature. The object...

  8. Characterization of a chitinase from the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Yasser; Mekasha, Sophanit; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-09-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a well-known cellulose-degrading actinomycete, which produces various glycoside hydrolases for this purpose. However, despite the presence of putative chitinase genes in its genome, T. fusca has not been reported to grow on chitin as sole carbon source. In this study, a gene encoding a putative membrane-anchored GH18 chitinase (Tfu0868) from T. fusca has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was produced as SUMO fusion protein and, upon removal of the SUMO domain, soluble pure TfChi18A was obtained with yields typically amounting to 150mg per litre of culture. The enzyme was found to be relatively thermostable (apparent Tm=57.5°C) but not particularly thermoactive, the optimum temperature being 40-45°C. TfChi18A bound to α- and β-chitin and degraded both these substrates. Interestingly, activity towards colloidal chitin was minimal and in this case, substrate inhibition was observed. TfChi18A also cleaved soluble chito-oligosaccharides and showed a clear preference for substrates having five sugars or more. While these results show that TfChi18A is a catalytically competent GH18 chitinase, the observed catalytic rates were low compared to those of well-studied GH18 chitinases. This suggests that TfChi18A is not a true chitinase and not likely to endow T. fusca with the ability to grow on chitin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cellulolytic (cel) genes of Clostridium thermocellum F7 and the proteins encoded by them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piruzyan, E.S.; Mogutov, M.A.; Velikodvorskaya, G.A.; Pushkarskaya, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with genes cell, ce12, and ce13 encoding the endoglucanase of the cellulolytic complex of the anaerobic thermophilic Clostridium thermocellum F7 bacteria, these genes having been closed by us earlier. The authors present the characteristics of proteins synthesized by the cel genes in the minicell system of the strain Escherichia coli K-12 X925. The molecular weights of the proteins encoded by genes cell, ce12, and ce13 are 30,000, 45,000, and 50,000 dalton, respectively. The study of the homology of the cloned section of the C. thermocellum DNA containing the endoglucanase genes, using Southern's blot-hybridization method, did not reveal their physical linkage in the genome. The authors detected a plasmid with a size of about 30 kb in the cells of the C. thermocellum F7 strain investigated

  10. Effect of bioaugmentation by cellulolytic bacteria enriched from sheep rumen on methane production from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayram, E Gozde; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of bioaugmentation with cellulolytic rumen microbiota to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. An anaerobic cellulolytic culture was enriched from sheep rumen fluid using wheat straw as substrate under mesophilic conditions. To investigate the effects of bioaugmentation on methane production from straw, the enrichment culture was added to batch reactors in proportions of 2% (Set-1) and 4% (Set-2) of the microbial cell number of the standard inoculum slurry. The methane production in the bioaugmented reactors was higher than in the control reactors. After 30 days of batch incubation, the average methane yield was 154 mL N CH 4 g VS -1 in the control reactors. Addition of 2% enrichment culture did not enhance methane production, whereas in Set-2 the methane yield was increased by 27%. The bacterial communities were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, while terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of mcrA genes was applied to analyze the methanogenic communities. The results highlighted that relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae increased during the enrichment. However, Cloacamonaceae, which were abundant in the standard inoculum, dominated the bacterial communities of all batch reactors. T-RFLP profiles revealed that Methanobacteriales were predominant in the rumen fluid, whereas the enrichment culture was dominated by Methanosarcinales. In the batch rectors, the most abundant methanogens were affiliated to Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales. Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with sheep rumen enrichment cultures can enhance the performance of digesters treating lignocellulosic feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation, screening, and identification of potential cellulolytic and xylanolytic producers for biodegradation of untreated oil palm trunk and its application in saccharification of lemongrass leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, S K; Yahya, Adibah; Abd Aziz, Suraini; Md Salleh, Madihah

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the isolation and screening of fungi with excellent ability to degrade untreated oil palm trunk (OPT) in a solid-state fermentation system (SSF). Qualitative assay of cellulases and xylanase indicates notable secretion of both enzymes by 12 fungal strains from a laboratory collection and 5 strains isolated from a contaminated wooden board. High production of these enzymes was subsequently quantified in OPT in SSF. Aspergillus fumigates SK1 isolated from cow dung gives the highest xylanolytic activity (648.448 U g(-1)), generally high cellulolytic activities (CMCase: 48.006, FPase: 6.860, beta-glucosidase: 16.328 U g(-1)) and moderate lignin peroxidase activity (4.820 U/g), and highest xylanolytic activity. The xylanase encoding gene of Aspergillus fumigates SK1 was screened using polymerase chain reaction by a pair of degenerate primers. Through multiple alignment of the SK1 strain's xylanase nucleotide sequences with other published xylanases, it was confirmed that the gene belonged to the xylanase glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11) with a protein size of 24.49 kD. Saccharification of lemongrass leaves using crude cellulases and xylanase gives the maximum reducing sugars production of 6.84 g/L with glucose as the major end product and traces of phenylpropanic compounds (vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid).

  12. Isolation, Screening, and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from Natural Reserves in the Subtropical Region of China and Optimization of Cellulase Production by Paenibacillus terrae ME27-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From different natural reserves in the subtropical region of China, a total of 245 aerobic bacterial strains were isolated on agar plates containing sugarcane bagasse pulp as the sole carbon source. Of the 245 strains, 22 showed hydrolyzing zones on agar plates containing carboxymethyl cellulose after Congo-red staining. Molecular identification showed that the 22 strains belonged to 10 different genera, with the Burkholderia genus exhibiting the highest strain diversity and accounting for 36.36% of all the 22 strains. Three isolates among the 22 strains showed higher carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase activity, and isolate ME27-1 exhibited the highest CMCase activity in liquid culture. The strain ME27-1 was identified as Paenibacillus terrae on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as well as physiological and biochemical properties. The optimum pH and temperature for CMCase activity produced by the strain ME27-1 were 5.5 and 50°C, respectively, and the enzyme was stable at a wide pH range of 5.0–9.5. A 12-fold improvement in the CMCase activity (2.08 U/mL of ME27-1 was obtained under optimal conditions for CMCase production. Thus, this study provided further information about the diversity of cellulose-degrading bacteria in the subtropical region of China and found P. terrae ME27-1 to be highly cellulolytic.

  13. Identification and characterization of an anaerobic ethanol-producing cellulolytic bacterial consortium from Great Basin hot springs with agricultural residues and energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Deng, Yunjin; Wang, Xingna; Li, Qiuzhe; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In order to obtain the cellulolytic bacterial consortia, sediments from Great Basin hot springs (Nevada, USA) were sampled and enriched with cellulosic biomass as the sole carbon source. The bacterial composition of the resulting anaerobic ethanol-producing celluloytic bacterial consortium, named SV79, was analyzed. With methods of the full-length 16S rRNA librarybased analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 21 bacteria belonging to eight genera were detected from this consortium. Clones with closest relation to the genera Acetivibrio, Clostridium, Cellulosilyticum, Ruminococcus, and Sporomusa were predominant. The cellulase activities and ethanol productions of consortium SV79 using different agricultural residues (sugarcane bagasse and spent mushroom substrate) and energy crops (Spartina anglica, Miscanthus floridulus, and Pennisetum sinese Roxb) were studied. During cultivation, consortium SV79 produced the maximum filter paper activity (FPase, 9.41 U/ml), carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 6.35 U/ml), and xylanase activity (4.28 U/ml) with sugarcane bagasse, spent mushroom substrate, and S. anglica, respectively. The ethanol production using M. floridulus as substrate was up to 2.63 mM ethanol/g using gas chromatography analysis. It has high potential to be a new candidate for producing ethanol with cellulosic biomass under anoxic conditions in natural environments.

  14. One-step production of biocommodities from lignocellulosic biomass by recombinant cellulolytic bacillus subtilis: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao-Zhou [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Zhang, Yi-Heng P. [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); BioEnergy Science Center of Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-10-15

    One-step consolidated bioprocessing that integrates cellulase production, cellulose hydrolysis, and product fermentation into a single step for decreasing costly cellulase use, increasing volumetric productivity, and reducing capital investment is widely accepted for low-cost production of biofuels or other value-added biochemicals. Considering the narrow margins between biomass and low-value biocommodities, good physiological performance of industrial microbes is crucial for economically viable production. Bacillus subtilis, the best-characterized Gram-positive microorganism, is a major industrial microorganism with numerous valuable features such as hexose and pentose utilization, low-nutrient needs, fast growth rate, high protein secretion capacity, industrial safety, etc. As compared with other potential consolidated bioprocessing microorganisms such as Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, recombinant cellulolytic B. subtilis strains would be a potential platform for biocommodity production from nonfood biomass. Here, we review the advances in recombinant cellulolytic B. subtilis development and metabolic engineering for biocommodity production, and discuss the opportunities and challenges of cellulolytic B. subtilis for biocommodity production. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Pyrosequencing reveals high-temperature cellulolytic microbial consortia in Great Boiling Spring after in situ lignocellulose enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Peacock

    Full Text Available To characterize high-temperature cellulolytic microbial communities, two lignocellulosic substrates, ammonia fiber-explosion-treated corn stover and aspen shavings, were incubated at average temperatures of 77 and 85°C in the sediment and water column of Great Boiling Spring, Nevada. Comparison of 109,941 quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences (pyrotags from eight enrichments to 37,057 quality-filtered pyrotags from corresponding natural samples revealed distinct enriched communities dominated by phylotypes related to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic Thermotoga and Dictyoglomus, cellulolytic and sugar-fermenting Desulfurococcales, and sugar-fermenting and hydrogenotrophic Archaeoglobales. Minor enriched populations included close relatives of hydrogenotrophic Thermodesulfobacteria, the candidate bacterial phylum OP9, and candidate archaeal groups C2 and DHVE3. Enrichment temperature was the major factor influencing community composition, with a negative correlation between temperature and richness, followed by lignocellulosic substrate composition. This study establishes the importance of these groups in the natural degradation of lignocellulose at high temperatures and suggests that a substantial portion of the diversity of thermophiles contributing to consortial cellulolysis may be contained within lineages that have representatives in pure culture.

  16. Bacillus coagulans MA-13: a promising thermophilic and cellulolytic strain for the production of lactic acid from lignocellulosic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulitto, Martina; Fusco, Salvatore; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Franzén, Carl Johan; Contursi, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    The transition from a petroleum-based economy towards more sustainable bioprocesses for the production of fuels and chemicals (circular economy) is necessary to alleviate the impact of anthropic activities on the global ecosystem. Lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars are suitable alternative feedstocks that can be fermented or biochemically converted to value-added products. An example is lactic acid, which is an essential chemical for the production of polylactic acid, a biodegradable bioplastic. However, lactic acid is still mainly produced by Lactobacillus species via fermentation of starch-containing materials, the use of which competes with the supply of food and feed. A thermophilic and cellulolytic lactic acid producer was isolated from bean processing waste and was identified as a new strain of Bacillus coagulans , named MA-13. This bacterium fermented lignocellulose-derived sugars to lactic acid at 55 °C and pH 5.5. Moreover, it was found to be a robust strain able to tolerate high concentrations of hydrolysate obtained from wheat straw pre-treated by acid-catalysed (pre-)hydrolysis and steam explosion, especially when cultivated in controlled bioreactor conditions. Indeed, unlike what was observed in microscale cultivations (complete growth inhibition at hydrolysate concentrations above 50%), B. coagulans MA-13 was able to grow and ferment in 95% hydrolysate-containing bioreactor fermentations. This bacterium was also found to secrete soluble thermophilic cellulases, which could be produced at low temperature (37 °C), still retaining an optimal operational activity at 50 °C. The above-mentioned features make B. coagulans MA-13 an appealing starting point for future development of a consolidated bioprocess for production of lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass, after further strain development by genetic and evolutionary engineering. Its optimal temperature and pH of growth match with the operational conditions of fungal enzymes hitherto

  17. Multifunctional Cellulolytic Enzymes Outperform Processive Fungal Cellulases for Coproduction of Nanocellulose and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, John M; Zhang, Ruoran; Mittal, Ashutosh; Vander Wall, Todd; Bomble, Yannick J; Decker, Stephen R; Himmel, Michael E; Ciesielski, Peter N

    2017-03-28

    Producing fuels, chemicals, and materials from renewable resources to meet societal demands remains an important step in the transition to a sustainable, clean energy economy. The use of cellulolytic enzymes for the production of nanocellulose enables the coproduction of sugars for biofuels production in a format that is largely compatible with the process design employed by modern lignocellulosic (second generation) biorefineries. However, yields of enzymatically produced nanocellulose are typically much lower than those achieved by mineral acid production methods. In this study, we compare the capacity for coproduction of nanocellulose and fermentable sugars using two vastly different cellulase systems: the classical "free enzyme" system of the saprophytic fungus, Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei) and the complexed, multifunctional enzymes produced by the hot springs resident, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii (C. bescii). We demonstrate by comparative digestions that the C. bescii system outperforms the fungal enzyme system in terms of total cellulose conversion, sugar production, and nanocellulose production. In addition, we show by multimodal imaging and dynamic light scattering that the nanocellulose produced by the C. bescii cellulase system is substantially more uniform than that produced by the T. reesei system. These disparities in the yields and characteristics of the nanocellulose produced by these disparate systems can be attributed to the dramatic differences in the mechanisms of action of the dominant enzymes in each system.

  18. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabote, Ravi D.; Xie, Gary; Leu, David H.; Normand, Philippe; Necsulea, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Médigue, Claudine; Adney, William S.; Xu, Xin Clare; Lapidus, Alla; Parales, Rebecca E.; Detter, Chris; Pujic, Petar; Bruce, David; Lavire, Celine; Challacombe, Jean F.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Berry, Alison M.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4-Mb genome of the cellulolytic actinobacterial thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B. New secreted glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases were identified in the genome, revealing a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire far greater than previously characterized and elevating the industrial value of this organism. A sizable fraction of these hydrolytic enzymes break down plant cell walls, and the remaining either degrade components in fungal cell walls or metabolize storage carbohydrates such as glycogen and trehalose, implicating the relative importance of these different carbon sources. Several of the A. cellulolyticus secreted cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes are fused to multiple tandemly arranged carbohydrate binding modules (CBM), from families 2 and 3. For the most part, thermophilic patterns in the genome and proteome of A. cellulolyticus were weak, which may be reflective of the recent evolutionary history of A. cellulolyticus since its divergence from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant endosymbiont and soil dweller. However, ribosomal proteins and noncoding RNAs (rRNA and tRNAs) in A. cellulolyticus showed thermophilic traits suggesting the importance of adaptation of cellular translational machinery to environmental temperature. Elevated occurrence of IVYWREL amino acids in A. cellulolyticus orthologs compared to mesophiles and inverse preferences for G and A at the first and third codon positions also point to its ongoing thermoadaptation. Additional interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs-dwelling prokaryote include a low occurrence of pseudogenes or mobile genetic elements, an unexpected complement of flagellar genes, and the presence of three laterally acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. PMID:19270083

  19. Cellulolytic Protist Numbers Rise and Fall Dramatically in Termite Queens and Kings during Colony Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Keisuke; Lo, Nathan; Kitade, Osamu; Wakui, Akane

    2013-01-01

    Among the best-known examples of mutualistic symbioses is that between lower termites and the cellulolytic flagellate protists in their hindguts. Although the symbiosis in worker termites has attracted much attention, there have been only a few studies of protists in other castes. We have performed the first examination of protist population dynamics in queens and kings during termite colony foundation. Protist numbers, as well as measurements of hindgut and reproductive tissue sizes, were undertaken at five time points over 400 days in incipient colonies of Reticulitermes speratus, as well as in other castes of mature colonies of this species. We found that protist numbers increased dramatically in both queens and kings during the first 50 days of colony foundation but began to decrease by day 100, eventually disappearing by day 400. Hindgut width followed a pattern similar to that of protist numbers, while ovary and testis widths increased significantly only at day 400. Kings were found to contain higher numbers of protists than queens in incipient colonies, which may be linked to higher levels of nutrient transfer from kings to queens than vice versa, as is known in some other termite species. Protists were found to be abundant in soldiers from mature colonies but absent in neotenics. This probably reflects feeding of soldiers by workers via proctodeal trophallaxis and of reproductives via stomodeal trophallaxis. The results reveal the dynamic nature of protist numbers during colony foundation and highlight the trade-offs that exist between reproduction and parental care during this critical phase of the termite life cycle. PMID:23376945

  20. Cellulolytic potential of probiotic Bacillus Subtilis AMS6 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi): An in-vitro study with regards to application as an animal feed additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhar, Ajay K; Bashir, Yasir; Saikia, Devabrata; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Konwar, Bolin K; Kumar, Rahul; Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the probiotic attributes of Bacillus subtilis AMS6 isolated from fermented soybean (Churpi). This isolate exhibited tolerance to low pH (pH 2.0) and bile salt (0.3%), capability to autoaggregate and coaggregate. AMS6 also showed highest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic indicator strain Salmonella enterica typhimurium (MTCC 1252) and susceptibility towards different antibiotics tested. The isolate was effective in inhibiting the adherence of food borne pathogens to Caco-2 epithelial cell lines, and was also found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthen the candidature of the isolate as a potential probiotic. Further studies revealed B. subtilis AMS6 showed cellulolytic activity (0.54±0.05 filter paper units mL(-1)) at 37°C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and maize (Zea mays) straw. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96h of incubation. A full length cellulase gene of AMS6 was amplified using degenerate primers consisting of 1499 nucleotides. The ORF encoded for a protein of 499 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular mass of 55.04kDa. The amino acids sequence consisted of a glycosyl hydrolase family 5 domain at N-terminal; Glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core and a CBM-3 cellulose binding domain at its C terminal. The study suggests potential probiotic B. subtilis AMS6 as a promising candidate envisaging its application as an animal feed additive for enhanced fiber digestion and gut health of animal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Enzyme activity of a Phanerochaete chrysosporium cellobiohydrolase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to produce a secreted, heterologously expressed Phanerochaete chrysosporium cellobiohydrolase (CBHI.1) protein that required no in vitro chemical refolding and to investigate the cellulolytic activity of the clone expressing the glutathione S-transferase (GST) fused CBHI.1 protein. Plate enzyme ...

  2. Sekuensing 16S DNA Bakteri Selulolitik Asal Limbah Cairan Rumen Sapi Peranakan Ongole (SEQUENCING OF 16S DNA OF CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA FROM BOVINE RUMEN FLUID WASTE ONGOLE CROSSBREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identified cellulolytic inoculant code WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Ongole Cross Breed of Surabaya Slaughter house. A single colony of isolates celulolytic grown on 5 mL of liquid media Luria Bertani (LB consist of 1 % NaCl , 1% tripton , 0.5 % yeast extract, containing1 % carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC at temperature 37°C, using a shaker of incubator during 16-18 hours. That isolate determined by 16S DNA gen analysis using High Fidelity Platinum Taq DNA Polymerase with primer forward PB36 5’-AGR GTT TGA TCM TGG CTC AG-3’ and primer reverse PB38 5’-GMT ACCTTG TTA CGA CTT-3’ for PCR. Nucleotide sequence of 16S DNA fragment was determined through the sequencing method. The result was then compared with GenBank database to recognize the type of the sample bacteria. DNA isolation and 16S DNA coding genes amplification were carried out using Kit High Fidelity Platinum Taq DNA Polymerase. Afterward, BLAST was applied to identify the phylogenetic tree. The bacteria was capable of indicating the existence of clear zone in a media CMC by congo red staining. The existence of the clear zone associated with the activity of microbes to degrade cellulose. The conclusión of this research based on the results was the sequencing nucleotides genome 16S DNA showed that cellulolytic inoculant was identified as Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi lebih lanjut isolat selulolitik kode WPL 214 yang telah diisolasi dari cairan rumen sapi peranakan ongole dari limbah Rumah Potong Hewan Surabaya. Koloni tunggal dari isolat selulolitik ditumbuhkan pada 5 mL media cair Luria Bertani (LB dengan komposisisi 1% NaCl, 1% tripton, 0,5% yeast ekstrak, yang mengandung 1% substrat carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC pada suhu 37°C, dengan pengocokan menggunakan shaker incubator selama ±16-18 jam. Penelitian ini terdiri dari dua tahap, tahap pertama dilakukan isolasi DNA, tahap kedua

  3. Dietary Corn Bran Fermented by Bacillus subtilis MA139 Decreased Gut Cellulolytic Bacteria and Microbiota Diversity in Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state fermentation of feedstuffs by Bacillus subtilis MA139 can reduce insoluble dietary fiber content in vitro and improve growth performance in pigs. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary corn bran (CB fermented by B. subtilis on growth performance and gut microbiota composition in finishing pigs. A total of 60 finishing pigs were allocated to 3 dietary treatments consisting of a control (CON diet, a 10% CB diet, and a 10% fermented CB (FCB diet in a 21 d feeding trial. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility were evaluated. Fecal samples were determined for bacterial community diversity by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The dietary CB and FCB did not affect growth performance of finishing pigs. The digestibility of organic matter was decreased in both CB and FCB treatments compared with CON group (P < 0.05. The α-diversity for bacterial community analysis of Chao 1 in FCB treatment was lower than CON treatment (P < 0.05. The Fibrobacteres phylum belongs to cellulolytic bacteria was isolated, and their relative abundance in CB group showed no difference between CON and FCB treatments. The abundance of Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group in CB treatment was higher than CON and FCB groups (P < 0.05, whereas the population of norank_f_Prevotellaceae was higher in FCB group compared to CON and CB groups (P < 0.05. In conclusion, dietary FCB decreased the abundance of bacterial communities, particularly the population of bacteria related to cellulolytic degradation.

  4. The mutagenic action of UV-light irradiation on aspergillus terreus in relation to antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Four strains of cellulolytic fungi (i.e Penicillium oxalicum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Trichoderma longibrachiatum) were tested for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and antibiotic action. these fungi were cultured on Czapek Dox's media with different cellulosic substrates. A. terreus. exhibited the highest cellulolytic activity and the highest level of anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. and Escherichia Coli, Ultraviolet light as a mutagenic treatment for A.terreus was investigated. Two treated isolates U.30.12 and U.60.10 were obtained after the treatment at dose 30 and 60 min., respectively with a higher antibiotic activity in comparison with the wild isolate. A compound of fifteen carbon atom of terrecylic acid was isolated from ethyl acetate extract using spectroscopic analysis

  5. Effects of replacing dietary starch with neutral detergent-soluble fibre on ruminal fermentation, microbial synthesis and populations of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X H; Liu, C J; Liu, Y; Li, C Y; Yao, J H

    2013-12-01

    A rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) apparatus with eight 800 ml fermenters was used to investigate the effects of replacing dietary starch with neutral detergent-soluble fibre (NDSF) by inclusion of sugar beet pulp in diets on ruminal fermentation, microbial synthesis and populations of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria. Experimental diets contained 12.7, 16.4, 20.1 or 23.8% NDSF substituted for starch on a dry matter basis. The experiment was conducted over two independent 15-day incubation periods with the last 8 days used for data collection. There was a tendency that 16.4% NDSF in the diet increased the apparent disappearance of organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Increasing dietary NDSF level increased carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activity in the solid fraction and apparent disappearance of acid detergent fibre (ADF) but reduced the 16S rDNA copy numbers of Ruminococcus albus in both liquid and solid fractions and R. flavefaciens in the solid fraction. The apparent disappearance of dietary nitrogen (N) was reduced by 29.6% with increased dietary NDSF. Substituting NDSF for starch appeared to increase the ratios of acetate/propionate and methane/volatile fatty acids (VFA) (mol/mol). Replacing dietary starch with NDSF reduced the daily production of ammonia-N and increased the growth of the solid-associated microbial pellets (SAM). Total microbial N flow and efficiency of microbial synthesis (EMS), expressed as g microbial N/kg OM fermented, tended to increase with increased dietary NDSF, but the numerical increase did not continue as dietary NDSF exceeded 20.1% of diet DM. Results suggested that substituting NDSF for starch up to 16.4% of diet DM increased digestion of nutrients (except for N) and microbial synthesis, and further increases (from 16.4% to 23.8%) in dietary NDSF did not repress microbial synthesis but did significantly reduce digestion of dietary N. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. The diversity and specificity of the extracellular proteome in the cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is driven by the nature of the cellulosic growth substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Suresh; Giannone, Richard J; Basen, Mirko; Nookaew, Intawat; Poole, Farris L; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W; Hettich, Robert L

    2018-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is a thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium that efficiently deconstructs lignocellulosic biomass into sugars, which subsequently can be fermented into alcohols, such as ethanol, and other products. Deconstruction of complex substrates by C. bescii involves a myriad of highly abundant, substrate-specific extracellular solute binding proteins (ESBPs) and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) containing carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was employed to investigate how these substrate recognition proteins and enzymes vary as a function of lignocellulosic substrates. Proteomic analysis revealed several key extracellular proteins that respond specifically to either C5 or C6 mono- and polysaccharides. These include proteins of unknown functions (PUFs), ESBPs, and CAZymes. ESBPs that were previously shown to interact more efficiently with hemicellulose and pectin were detected in high abundance during growth on complex C5 substrates, such as switchgrass and xylan. Some proteins, such as Athe_0614 and Athe_2368, whose functions are not well defined were predicted to be involved in xylan utilization and ABC transport and were significantly more abundant in complex and C5 substrates, respectively. The proteins encoded by the entire glucan degradation locus (GDL; Athe_1857, 1859, 1860, 1865, 1867, and 1866) were highly abundant under all growth conditions, particularly when C. bescii was grown on cellobiose, switchgrass, or xylan. In contrast, the glycoside hydrolases Athe_0609 (Pullulanase) and 0610, which both possess CBM20 and a starch binding domain, appear preferential to C5/complex substrate deconstruction. Some PUFs, such as Athe_2463 and 2464, were detected as highly abundant when grown on C5 substrates (xylan and xylose), also suggesting C5-substrate specificity. This study reveals the protein membership of the C. bescii secretome and demonstrates its plasticity based on the complexity (mono

  7. Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Mosher, Jennifer J; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Podar, Mircea; Carroll, Sue; Allman, Steve; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2010-02-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, designated OB47(T), was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, WY. The isolate was a nonmotile, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive rod approximately 2 microm long by 0.2 microm wide and grew at temperatures between 55 and 85 degrees C, with the optimum at 78 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 6.0 to 8.0, with values of near 7.0 being optimal. Growth on cellobiose produced the fastest specific growth rate at 0.75 h(-1). The organism also displayed fermentative growth on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, starch, lactose, mannose, sucrose, galactose, xylose, arabinogalactan, Avicel, xylan, filter paper, processed cardboard, pectin, dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass, and Populus. OB47(T) was unable to grow on mannitol, fucose, lignin, Gelrite, acetate, glycerol, ribose, sorbitol, carboxymethylcellulose, and casein. Yeast extract stimulated growth, and thiosulfate, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfur were not reduced. Fermentation end products were mainly acetate, H2, and CO2, although lactate and ethanol were produced in 5-liter batch fermentations. The G+C content of the DNA was 35 mol%, and sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene placed OB47(T) within the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed to be designated Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov. and OB47 is the type strain (ATCC BAA-2073).

  8. Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov., an Anaerobic, Extremely Thermophilic, Cellulolytic Bacterium Isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Mosher, Jennifer J.; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Podar, Mircea; Carroll, Sue; Allman, Steve; Phelps, Tommy J.; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G.

    2010-01-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, designated OB47T, was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, WY. The isolate was a nonmotile, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive rod approximately 2 μm long by 0.2 μm wide and grew at temperatures between 55 and 85°C, with the optimum at 78°C. The pH range for growth was 6.0 to 8.0, with values of near 7.0 being optimal. Growth on cellobiose produced the fastest specific growth rate at 0.75 h−1. The organism also displayed fermentative growth on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, starch, lactose, mannose, sucrose, galactose, xylose, arabinogalactan, Avicel, xylan, filter paper, processed cardboard, pectin, dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass, and Populus. OB47T was unable to grow on mannitol, fucose, lignin, Gelrite, acetate, glycerol, ribose, sorbitol, carboxymethylcellulose, and casein. Yeast extract stimulated growth, and thiosulfate, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfur were not reduced. Fermentation end products were mainly acetate, H2, and CO2, although lactate and ethanol were produced in 5-liter batch fermentations. The G+C content of the DNA was 35 mol%, and sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene placed OB47T within the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed to be designated Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov. and OB47 is the type strain (ATCC BAA-2073). PMID:20023107

  9. Host-Symbiont Cospeciation of Termite-Gut Cellulolytic Protists of the Genera Teranympha and Eucomonympha and their Treponema Endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Satoko; Shimizu, Daichi; Yuki, Masahiro; Kitade, Osamu; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2018-03-29

    Cellulolytic flagellated protists inhabit the hindgut of termites. They are unique and essential to termites and related wood-feeding cockroaches, enabling host feeding on cellulosic matter. Protists of two genera in the family Teranymphidae (phylum Parabasalia), Eucomonympha and Teranympha, are phylogenetically closely related and harbor intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria from the genus Treponema. In order to obtain a clearer understanding of the evolutionary history of this triplex symbiotic relationship, the molecular phylogenies of the three symbiotic partners, the Teranymphidae protists, their Treponema endosymbionts, and their host termites, were inferred and compared. Strong congruence was observed in the tree topologies of all interacting partners, implying their cospeciating relationships. In contrast, the coevolutionary relationship between the Eucomonympha protists and their endosymbionts was more complex, and evidence of incongruence against cospeciating relationships suggested frequent host switches of the endosymbionts, possibly because multiple Eucomonympha species are present in the same gut community. Similarities in the 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences of the endosymbionts were higher among Teranympha spp. (>99.25% and >97.2%, respectively), whereas those between Teranympha and Eucomonympha were lower (<97.1% and <91.9%, respectively). In addition, the endosymbionts of Teranympha spp. formed a phylogenetic clade distinct from those of Eucomonympha spp. Therefore, the endosymbiont species of Teranympha spp., designated here as "Candidatus Treponema teratonymphae", needs to be classified as a species distinct from the endosymbiont species of Eucomonympha spp.

  10. Development of a real-time PCR assay for monitoring anaerobic fungal and cellulolytic bacterial populations within the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Stuart E; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2006-12-01

    Traditional methods for enumerating and identifying microbial populations within the rumen can be time consuming and cumbersome. Methods that involve culturing and microscopy can also be inconclusive, particularly when studying anaerobic rumen fungi. A real-time PCR SYBR Green assay, using PCR primers to target total rumen fungi and the cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes, is described, including design and validation. The DNA and crude protein contents with respect to the fungal biomass of both polycentric and monocentric fungal isolates were investigated across the fungal growth stages to aid in standard curve generation. The primer sets used were found to be target specific with no detectable cross-reactivity. Subsequently, the real-time PCR assay was employed in a study to detect these populations within cattle rumen. The anaerobic fungal target was observed to increase 3.6-fold from 0 to 12 h after feeding. The results also indicated a 5.4-fold increase in F. succinogenes target between 0 and 12 h after feeding, whereas R. flavefaciens was observed to maintain more or less consistent levels. This is the first report of a real-time PCR assay to estimate the rumen anaerobic fungal population.

  11. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacome, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barabote, Ravi D [UC DAVIS; Leu, David [UC DAVIS; Normand, Philippe [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Necsula, Anamaria [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Daubin, Vincent [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Medigue, Claudine [CNRS/GENOSCOPE; Adney, William S [NREL; Xu, Xin C [UC DAVIS; Lapidus, Alla [DOE JOINT GENOME INST.; Pujic, Pierre [CNRS, UNIV LYON; Richardson, Paul [DOE JOINT GENOME INST; Berry, Alison M [UC DAVIS

    2008-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus lIB, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudogenes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  12. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Necsulea, Anamaria [UNIV LYON; Daubin, Vincent [UNIV LYON; Medigue, Claudine [GENOSCOPE; Adney, William S [NREL; Xu, Xin C [UC DAVIS; Lapidus, Alla [JGI; Pujic, Pierre [UNIV LYON; Berry, Alison M [UC DAVIS; Barabote, Ravi D [UC DAVIS; Leu, David [UC DAVIS; Normand, Phillipe [UNIV LYON

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudo genes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  13. Screening of highly cellulolytic fungi and the action of their cellulase enzyme systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saddler, J N

    1982-11-01

    Over 100 strains of wood-rotting fungi were compared for their ability to degrade wood blocks. Some of these strains were then assayed for extracellular cellulase (1,4-(1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan 4- glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.4) activity using a variety of different solid media containing carboxymethyl cellulose or acid swollen cellulose. The diameter of clearing on these plates gave an approximate indication of the order of cellulase activities obtained from culture filtrates of these strains. Trichoderma strains grown on Vogels medium gave the highest cellulase yields. The cellulase enzyme production of T. reesei C30 and QM9414 was compared with that of eight other Trichoderma strains. Trichoderma strain E58 had comparable endoglucanase and filter paper activities with the mutant strains while the beta-D-glucosidase (beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) activity was approximately six to nine times greater. (Refs. 26).

  14. Production of Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Enzymes From Aureobasidium pulluans on Solid State Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro; Bocchini, Daniela Alonso; da Silva Martins, Eduardo; Silva, Dênis; Gomes, Eleni; da Silva, Roberto

    This article investigates a strain of the yeast Aureobasidium pullulans for cellulase and hemicellulase production in solid state fermentation. Among the substrates analyzed, the wheat bran culture presented the highest enzymatic production (1.05 U/mL endoglucanase, 1.3 U/mL β-glucosidase, and 5.0 U/mL xylanase). Avicelase activity was not detected. The optimum pH and temperature for xylanase, endoglucanase and β-glucosidase were 5.0 and 50, 4.5 and 60, 4.0 and 75°C, respectively. These enzymes remained stable between a wide range of pH. The β-glucosidase was the most thermostable enzyme remaining 100% active when incubated at 75°C for 1 h.

  15. Improved cellulolytic efficacy in Penicilium decumbens via heterologous expression of Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yuqi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase II (Hjegl2 was heterologously expressed in Penicillium decumbens (yielding strain Pd::Hjegl2. After induction in cellulose containing media, strain Pd::Hjeg2 displayed increased carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 5.77 IU/ml, representing a 21% increase and cellulose degradation determined with a filter paper assay (FPA, 0.40 IU/ml, 67% increase, as compared to the parent strain. In media supplemented with glucose (2%, Pd::Hjegl2, displayed 51.2-fold and 3-fold higher CMCase and FPA activities, respectively, as compared to the parent strain. No changes in the expression levels of the four main native cellulase genes of P. decumbens (Pdegl1, Pdegl2, Pdcbh1, and Pdcbh2 were noted between the transformant and wild-type strains. These data support the idea that Hjegl2 cleaves both internal and terminal glycosidic residues, in a relatively random and processive manner. In situ polyacrylamide gelactivity staining of extracts derived from wild-type and Pd::Hjegl2 revealed two additional active fractions in the latter strain; one with a molecular mass ~50-65 KDa and another ~80-116 kDa.

  16. Functional diversity of family 3 β-glucosidases from thermophilic cellulolytic fungus Humicola insolens Y1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Bai, Yingguo; Cui, Ying; Xu, Xinxin; Qian, Lichun; Shi, Pengjun; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Huiying; Zhan, Xiuan; Yao, Bin

    2016-06-08

    The fungus Humicola insolens is one of the most powerful decomposers of crystalline cellulose. However, studies on the β-glucosidases from this fungus remain insufficient, especially on glycosyl hydrolase family 3 enzymes. In the present study, we analyzed the functional diversity of three distant family 3 β-glucosidases from Humicola insolens strain Y1, which belonged to different evolutionary clades, by heterogeneous expression in Pichia pastoris strain GS115. The recombinant enzymes shared similar enzymatic properties including thermophilic and neutral optima (50-60 °C and pH 5.5-6.0) and high glucose tolerance, but differed in substrate specificities and kinetics. HiBgl3B was solely active towards aryl β-glucosides while HiBgl3A and HiBgl3C showed broad substrate specificities including both disaccharides and aryl β-glucosides. Of the three enzymes, HiBgl3C exhibited the highest specific activity (158.8 U/mg on pNPG and 56.4 U/mg on cellobiose) and catalytic efficiency and had the capacity to promote cellulose degradation. Substitutions of three key residues Ile48, Ile278 and Thr484 of HiBgl3B to the corresponding residues of HiBgl3A conferred the enzyme activity towards sophorose, and vice versa. This study reveals the functional diversity of GH3 β-glucosidases as well as the key residues in recognizing +1 subsite of different substrates.

  17. Production and characterization of cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei grown on various carbon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warzywoda, Michel; Labre, Elisabeth; Pourquie, Jacques [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1992-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosics is considered, using a process in which biomass is first pretreated by steam explosion, yielding freely water-extractible pentoses and a cellulose-rich residue which can be further hydrolyzed by cellulases into glucose to be fermented into ethanol. Results that are reported show that both the pentose extracts and the glucose-rich hydrolyzates can be used as carbon sources for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei. When compared with lactose as the main carbon source, pentose extracts support lower but satisfactory protein productions which are characterized by an increase in hemicellulolytic activities, which significantly improves the saccharifying potential of these enzyme preparations. (author).

  18. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (Pgoats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  19. Genome-Centric Analysis of a Thermophilic and Cellulolytic Bacterial Consortium Derived from Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Leandro N.; Pereira, Roberta V.; Quaggio, Ronaldo B.; Martins, Layla F.; Moura, Livia M. S.; da Silva, Amanda R.; Antunes, Luciana P.; da Silva, Aline M.; Setubal, João C.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial consortia selected from complex lignocellulolytic microbial communities are promising alternatives to deconstruct plant waste, since synergistic action of different enzymes is required for full degradation of plant biomass in biorefining applications. Culture enrichment also facilitates the study of interactions among consortium members, and can be a good source of novel microbial species. Here, we used a sample from a plant waste composting operation in the São Paulo Zoo (Brazil) as inoculum to obtain a thermophilic aerobic consortium enriched through multiple passages at 60°C in carboxymethylcellulose as sole carbon source. The microbial community composition of this consortium was investigated by shotgun metagenomics and genome-centric analysis. Six near-complete (over 90%) genomes were reconstructed. Similarity and phylogenetic analyses show that four of these six genomes are novel, with the following hypothesized identifications: a new Thermobacillus species; the first Bacillus thermozeamaize genome (for which currently only 16S sequences are available) or else the first representative of a new family in the Bacillales order; the first representative of a new genus in the Paenibacillaceae family; and the first representative of a new deep-branching family in the Clostridia class. The reconstructed genomes from known species were identified as Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius and Caldibacillus debilis. The metabolic potential of these recovered genomes based on COG and CAZy analyses show that these genomes encode several glycoside hydrolases (GHs) as well as other genes related to lignocellulose breakdown. The new Thermobacillus species stands out for being the richest in diversity and abundance of GHs, possessing the greatest potential for biomass degradation among the six recovered genomes. We also investigated the presence and activity of the organisms corresponding to these genomes in the composting operation from which the consortium was built

  20. Uji Aktivitas Pertumbuhan Enterobacter cloacae Selulolitik Aerob Rumen-1 Isolat Asal Limbah Cairan Rumen Sapi Peranakan Ongole (GROWTH ACTIVITY ASSAY OF CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE SAR 1 (CELLULOLYTIC AEROB RUMEN 1 ISOLATED FROM ONGOLE CRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Nurhajati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimedto know the growth activityofcellulolytic bacteria EnterobactercloacaeSAR 1isolatedfrombovinerumen fluidwaste. Isolates that had been cultured were taken as much as 10 mL and thentransferred to100 mL growth medium in Erlenmeyer flask. Culturesuspensions were incubated in a shakerincubator (37°C, 120 rpm. Optical density was measured at ë 600 nm by taking as much as 1 mLsampling with interval of two hours for 24 hours (hour 0; 2; 4; 6; 10; 12; 14; 16; 18; 20; 22; 24. The firstsampling was done at 0thhour and continued until OD values †showed a clear decline. Optical density wasmeasured with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at wave length ë 600 nm. Growth curve was obtained from theresult of absorbance measurement on the time. Optimum growth production of E.cloacae SAR 1 occurredat the 12thhoursof incubation, optimum temperature of 35°C and optimum pH 6.

  1. Reactor design for minimizing product inhibition during enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: I. Significance and mechanism of cellobiose and glucose inhibition on cellulolytic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Achievement of efficient enzymatic degradation of cellulose to glucose is one of the main prerequisites and one of the main challenges in the biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels and other valuable products. The specific inhibitory interferences by cellobiose and glucose...... on enzyme-catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis reactions impose significant limitations on the efficiency of lignocellulose conversion especially at high-biomass dry matter conditions. To provide the base for selecting the optimal reactor conditions, this paper reviews the reaction kinetics, mechanisms......, and significance of this product inhibition, notably the cellobiose and glucose inhibition, on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. Particular emphasis is put on the distinct complexity of cellulose as a substrate, the multi-enzymatic nature of the cellulolytic degradation, and the particular features of cellulase...

  2. Kallotenue papyrolyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., a cellulolytic and filamentous thermophile that represents a novel lineage (Kallotenuales ord. nov., Kallotenuaceae fam. nov.) within the class Chloroflexia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Jesse; Gieler, Brandon; Heisler, Devon; Palisoc, Maryknoll; Williams, Amanda; Dohnalkova, Alice; Ming, Hong; Yu, Tian T.; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Li, Wen J.; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2013-08-15

    Several closely-related, thermophilic, and cellulolytic bacterial strains, designated JKG1T, JKG2, JKG3, JKG4, and JKG5, were isolated from a cellulolytic enrichment (corn stover) incubated in the water column of Great Boiling Spring, NV. Strain JKG1T had cells of a diameter of 0.7 - 0.9 μm and length of ~2.0 μm that formed non-branched multicellular filaments reaching >300 μm. Spores were not formed and dense liquid cultures were red. The temperature range for growth was 45-65 °C, with an optimum of 55 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.6-9.0, with an optimum of 7.5. JKG1T grew as an aerobic heterotroph, utilizing glucose, sucrose, xylose, arabinose, cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose, filter paper, microcrystalline cellulose, xylan, starch, casamino acids, tryptone, peptone, yeast extract, acetate, citrate, lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol as sole carbon sources, and was not observed to photosynthesize. The cells stained Gram-negative. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the new isolates in the class Chloroflexia, but distant from other cultivated members, with the highest sequence identity of 82.5% to Roseiflexus castenholzii. The major quinone was menaquinone-9; no ubiquinones were detected. The major cellular fatty acids (>5%) were C18:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C18:0, and iso-C17:0. C16:0, iso-C16:0, and C17:0. The peptidoglycan amino acids were alanine, ornithine, glutamic acid, serine, and asparagine. Whole-cell sugars included mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose, ribose, arabinose, and xylose. Morphological, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic results suggest that JKG1T is representative of a new lineage within the class Chloroflexia, which we propose to designate Kallotenue papyrolyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., Kallotenuaceae fam. nov., Kallotenuales ord. nov.

  3. Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the cellulolytic system in digestive fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient glucose release from sea lettuce by synergistic action of 45 kDa endoglucanase and 210 kDa ß-glucosidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Tsuji

    Full Text Available Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds. In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa. Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU-ß-glucoside, 4MU-ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K

  4. The effect of varying organosolv pretreatment chemicals on the physicochemical properties and cellulolytic hydrolysis of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Luis F; Chandra, Richard P; Saddler, Jack N

    2010-05-01

    Mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) chips were pretreated using the organosolv process, and their ease of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was assessed. The effect of varying pretreatment chemicals and solvents on the substrate's physicochemical characteristics was also investigated. The chemicals employed were MgCl2, H2SO4, SO2, and NaOH, and the solvents were ethanol and butanol. It was apparent that the different pretreatments resulted in variations in both the chemical composition of the solid and liquid fractions as well in the extent of cellulolytic hydrolysis (ranging from 21% to 82% hydrolysis after 12 h). Pretreatment under acidic conditions resulted in substrates that were readily hydrolyzed despite the apparent contradiction that pretreatment under alkaline conditions resulted in increased delignification (approximately 7% and 10% residual lignin for alkaline conditions versus 17% to 19% for acidic conditions). Acidic pretreatments also resulted in lower cellulose degree of polymerization, shorter fiber lengths, and increased substrate porosity. The substrates generated when butanol/water mixtures were used as the pretreatment solvent were also hydrolyzed more readily than those generated with ethanol/water. This was likely due to the limited miscibility of the solvents resulting in an increased concentration of pretreatment chemicals in the aqueous layer and thus a higher pretreatment severity.

  5. Assessment of microbial activity and biomass in different soils exposed to nicosulfuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Šantrić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the herbicide nicosulfuron on the abundance of cellulolytic and proteolytic microorganisms, activity of β-glucosidase and protease enzymes, and microbial phosphorus biomass were examined. A laboratory bioassay was set up on two types of agricultural soils differing in physicochemical properties. The following concentrations were tested: 0.3, 0.6, 3.0 and 30.0 mg a.i./kg of soil. Samples were collected 3, 7, 14, 30 and 45 days after treatment with nicosulfuron. The results showed that nicosulfuron significantly reduced the abundance of cellulolytic microorganisms in both soils, as well as microbial biomass phosphorus in sandy loam soil. The herbicide was found to stimulate β-glucosidase and protease activity in both types of soil and microbial biomass phosphorus in loamy soil. Proteolytic microorganisms remained unaffected by nicosulfuron.

  6. Chemical Pretreatment-Independent Saccharifications of Xylan and Cellulose of Rice Straw by Bacterial Weak Lignin-Binding Xylanolytic and Cellulolytic Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeravivattanakit, Thitiporn; Baramee, Sirilak; Phitsuwan, Paripok; Sornyotha, Somphit; Waeonukul, Rattiya; Pason, Patthra; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Poomputsa, Kanokwan; Kosugi, Akihiko; Sakka, Kazuo; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok

    2017-11-15

    Complete utilization of carbohydrate fractions is one of the prerequisites for obtaining economically favorable lignocellulosic biomass conversion. This study shows that xylan in untreated rice straw was saccharified to xylose in one step without chemical pretreatment, yielding 58.2% of the theoretically maximum value by Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 PcAxy43A, a weak lignin-binding trifunctional xylanolytic enzyme, endoxylanase/β-xylosidase/arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase. Moreover, xylose yield from untreated rice straw was enhanced to 78.9% by adding endoxylanases PcXyn10C and PcXyn11A from the same bacterium, resulting in improvement of cellulose accessibility to cellulolytic enzyme. After autoclaving the xylanolytic enzyme-treated rice straw, it was subjected to subsequent saccharification by a combination of the Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase CtCel9R and Thermoanaerobacter brockii β-glucosidase TbCglT, yielding 88.5% of the maximum glucose yield, which was higher than the glucose yield obtained from ammonia-treated rice straw saccharification (59.6%). Moreover, this work presents a new environment-friendly xylanolytic enzyme pretreatment for beneficial hydrolysis of xylan in various agricultural residues, such as rice straw and corn hull. It not only could improve cellulose saccharification but also produced xylose, leading to an improvement of the overall fermentable sugar yields without chemical pretreatment. IMPORTANCE Ongoing research is focused on improving "green" pretreatment technologies in order to reduce energy demands and environmental impact and to develop an economically feasible biorefinery. The present study showed that PcAxy43A, a weak lignin-binding trifunctional xylanolytic enzyme, endoxylanase/β-xylosidase/arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase from P. curdlanolyticus B-6, was capable of conversion of xylan in lignocellulosic biomass such as untreated rice straw to xylose in one step without chemical pretreatment. It

  7. Members of the amylovora group of Erwinia are cellulolytic and possess genes homologous to the type II secretion pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekki, R; Palomäki, T; Virtaharju, O; Kokko, H; Romantschuk, M; Saarilahti, H T

    2000-07-01

    A cellulase-producing clone was isolated from a genomic library of the Erwinia rhapontici (Millard) Burkholder strain NCPPB2989. The corresponding gene, named celA, encodes an endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) with the extremely low pH optimum of 3.4 and a temperature optimum between 40 and 50 degrees C. A single ORF of 999 nt was found to be responsible for the Cel activity. The corresponding protein, named CelA, showed 67% identity to the endoglucanase Y of E. chrysanthemi and 51.5% identity to the endoglucanase of Cellulomonas uda, and thus belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase family 8. The celA gene, or its homologue, was found to be present in all E. rhapontici isolates analysed, in E. chrysanthemi, and in E. amylovora. The presence of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in the amylovora group of Erwinia spp. had not previously been established. Furthermore, the DNA of both E. rhapontici and E. amylovora was found to exhibit homology to genes encoding the type II (GSP) secretion pathway, which is known to be responsible for extracellular targeting of cellulases and pectinases in Erwinia spp. that cause soft rotting, such as E. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi. Secretion of the CelA protein by E. rhapontici could not be verified. However, the CelA protein itself was found to include the information necessary for heterologous secretion by E. chrysanthemi.

  8. The FPase properties and morphology changes of a cellulolytic bacterium, Sporocytophaga sp. JL-01, on decomposing filter paper cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuran; Peng, Zhongqi; Sun, Xiaoling; Liu, Dongbo; Chen, Shan; Li, Fan; Xia, Hongmei; Lu, Tiancheng

    2012-01-01

    Sporocytophaga sp. JL-01 is a sliding cellulose degrading bacterium that can decompose filter paper (FP), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and cellulose CF11. In this paper, the morphological characteristics of S. sp. JL-01 growing in FP liquid medium was studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and one of the FPase components of this bacterium was analyzed. The results showed that the cell shapes were variable during the process of filter paper cellulose decomposition and the rod shape might be connected with filter paper decomposing. After incubating for 120 h, the filter paper was decomposed significantly, and it was degraded absolutely within 144 h. An FPase1 was purified from the supernatant and its characteristics were analyzed. The molecular weight of the FPase1 was 55 kDa. The optimum pH was pH 7.2 and optimum temperature was 50°C under experiment conditions. Zn(2+) and Co(2+) enhanced the enzyme activity, but Fe(3+) inhibited it.

  9. Genomic, proteomic, and biochemical analyses of oleaginous Mucor circinelloides: evaluating its capability in utilizing cellulolytic substrates for lipid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wei

    Full Text Available Lipid production by oleaginous microorganisms is a promising route to produce raw material for the production of biodiesel. However, most of these organisms must be grown on sugars and agro-industrial wastes because they cannot directly utilize lignocellulosic substrates. We report the first comprehensive investigation of Mucor circinelloides, one of a few oleaginous fungi for which genome sequences are available, for its potential to assimilate cellulose and produce lipids. Our genomic analysis revealed the existence of genes encoding 13 endoglucanases (7 of them secretory, 3 β-D-glucosidases (2 of them secretory and 243 other glycoside hydrolase (GH proteins, but not genes for exoglucanases such as cellobiohydrolases (CBH that are required for breakdown of cellulose to cellobiose. Analysis of the major PAGE gel bands of secretome proteins confirmed expression of two secretory endoglucanases and one β-D-glucosidase, along with a set of accessory cell wall-degrading enzymes and 11 proteins of unknown function. We found that M. circinelloides can grow on CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose and cellobiose, confirming the enzymatic activities of endoglucanases and β-D-glucosidases, respectively. The data suggested that M. circinelloides could be made usable as a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP strain by introducing a CBH (e.g. CBHI into the microorganism. This proposal was validated by our demonstration that M. circinelloides growing on Avicel supplemented with CBHI produced about 33% of the lipid that was generated in glucose medium. Furthermore, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis showed that when growing on pre-saccharified Avicel substrates, it produced a higher proportion of C14 fatty acids, which has an interesting implication in that shorter fatty acid chains have characteristics that are ideal for use in jet fuel. This substrate-specific shift in FAME profile warrants further investigation.

  10. Genomic, proteomic, and biochemical analyses of oleaginous Mucor circinelloides: evaluating its capability in utilizing cellulolytic substrates for lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Wang, Wei; Yarbrough, John M; Baker, John O; Laurens, Lieve; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Chen, Xiaowen; Taylor, Larry E; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E; Zhang, Min

    2013-01-01

    Lipid production by oleaginous microorganisms is a promising route to produce raw material for the production of biodiesel. However, most of these organisms must be grown on sugars and agro-industrial wastes because they cannot directly utilize lignocellulosic substrates. We report the first comprehensive investigation of Mucor circinelloides, one of a few oleaginous fungi for which genome sequences are available, for its potential to assimilate cellulose and produce lipids. Our genomic analysis revealed the existence of genes encoding 13 endoglucanases (7 of them secretory), 3 β-D-glucosidases (2 of them secretory) and 243 other glycoside hydrolase (GH) proteins, but not genes for exoglucanases such as cellobiohydrolases (CBH) that are required for breakdown of cellulose to cellobiose. Analysis of the major PAGE gel bands of secretome proteins confirmed expression of two secretory endoglucanases and one β-D-glucosidase, along with a set of accessory cell wall-degrading enzymes and 11 proteins of unknown function. We found that M. circinelloides can grow on CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) and cellobiose, confirming the enzymatic activities of endoglucanases and β-D-glucosidases, respectively. The data suggested that M. circinelloides could be made usable as a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) strain by introducing a CBH (e.g. CBHI) into the microorganism. This proposal was validated by our demonstration that M. circinelloides growing on Avicel supplemented with CBHI produced about 33% of the lipid that was generated in glucose medium. Furthermore, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis showed that when growing on pre-saccharified Avicel substrates, it produced a higher proportion of C14 fatty acids, which has an interesting implication in that shorter fatty acid chains have characteristics that are ideal for use in jet fuel. This substrate-specific shift in FAME profile warrants further investigation.

  11. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta......-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger...

  12. Endo- and exoglucanase activities in bacteria from mangrove sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Júnior, Fábio Lino; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; de Souza Lima, André Oliveira; Melo, Itamar Soares; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is an unexplored source for biotechnological applications. In this unique environment, endemic bacteria have the ability to thrive in the harsh environmental conditions (salinity and anaerobiosis), and act in the degradation of organic matter, promoting nutrient cycles. Thus, this study aimed to assess the cellulolytic activities of bacterial groups present in the sediment from a mangrove located in Ilha do Cardoso (SP, Brazil). To optimize the isolation of cellulolytic bacteria, enrichments in two types of culture media (tryptone broth and minimum salt medium), both supplemented with 5% NaCl and 1% of cellulose, were performed. Tests conducted with the obtained colonies showed a higher occurrence of endoglycolytic activity (33 isolates) than exoglycolytic (19 isolates), and the degradation activity was shown to be modulated by the presence of NaCl. The isolated bacteria were clustered by BOX-PCR and further classified on the basis of partial 16S rRNA sequences as Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of studies focusing on the endemic species found in mangroves to exploit them as novel biotechnological tools for the degradation of cellulose.

  13. Understanding the cellulolytic system of Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and enhancing saccharification of pretreated sugarcane bagasse by supplementation with pectinase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Cota, Júnio; Hoffmam, Zaira Bruna; Paixão, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Cairo, João Paulo Lourenço Franco; Lima, Deise Juliana; Squina, Fábio Marcio; Ruller, Roberto; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Supplementation of cellulase cocktails with accessory enzymes can contribute to a higher hydrolytic capacity in releasing fermentable sugars from plant biomass. This study investigated which enzymes were complementary to the enzyme set of Trichoderma harzianum in the degradation of sugarcane bagasse. Specific activities of T. harzianum extract on different substrates were compared with the extracts of Penicillium echinulatum and Trichoderma reesei, and two commercial cellulase preparations. Complementary analysis of the secretome of T. harzianum was also used to identify which enzymes were produced during growth on pretreated sugarcane bagasse. These analyses enabled the selection of the enzymes pectinase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) to be further investigated as supplements to the T. harzianum extract. The effect of enzyme supplementation on the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse saccharification was evaluated using response surface methodology. The supplementation of T. harzianum enzymatic extract with pectinase and AF increased the efficiency of hydrolysis by up to 116%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  15. EVALUATION OF ENDOGLUCANASE, EXOGLUCANASE, LACCASE, AND LIGNIN PEROXIDASE ACTIVITIES ON TEN WHITE-ROT FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Montoya B

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a way of tracking the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in ten species of white rot fungi: Lentinula edodes, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes trogii, Coriolus versicolor, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus ostreatus and Auricularia delicata. These species were first screened on solid culture media containing carboxymethyl cellulose, crystalline cellulose, ABTS (2,2´-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate and azure B, which showed the production of endoglucanase, exoglucanase, laccase and lignin peroxidase (LiP enzymes. Cellulolytic activities were detected after five days of incubation with congo red indicator, forming a clear-white halo in areas where cellulose was degraded. For ligninases, the tracking consisted of the monitoring in the formation of green halos due to ABTS oxidation for laccase, and decolorization halos on azure B for LiP during 14 days of incubation. From this qualitative screening, four strains were selected (G. lucidum, L. edodes, C. versicolor and T. trogii as the best producers of cellulolytic and ligninolytic enzymes. These four species were inoculated on a substrate of sawdust oak, yielding 51,8% of lignin degraded by L. edodes and 22% of cellulose degraded by C. versicolor.

  16. The effect of lignin removal by alkaline peroxide pretreatment on the susceptibility of corn stover to purified cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Michael J; Vinzant, Todd B; Himmel, Michael E; Decker, Stephen R

    2009-05-01

    Pretreatment of corn stover with alkaline peroxide (AP) at pH 11.5 resulted in reduction of lignin content in the residual solids as a function of increasing batch temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of these materials revealed notably more textured surfaces on the plant cell walls as a result of the delignifying pretreatment. As expected, digestion of the delignified samples with commercial cellulase preparations showed an inverse relationship between the content of lignin present in the residual solids after pretreatment and the extent of both glucan and xylan conversion achievable. Digestions with purified enzymes revealed that decreased lignin content in the pretreated solids did not significantly impact the extent of glucan conversion achievable by cellulases alone. Not until purified xylanolytic activities were included with the cellulases were significant improvements in glucan conversion realized. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed between lignin content after pretreatment and the extent of xylan conversion achievable in a 24-h period with the xylanolytic enzymes in the absence of the cellulases. This observation, coupled with the direct relationship between enzymatic xylan and glucan conversion observed in a number of cases, suggests that the presence of lignins may not directly occlude cellulose present in lignocelluloses but rather impact cellulase action indirectly by its association with xylan.

  17. Ultrasonic treatment of Viscozyme Cassava C preparation for improving cellulase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tra, Tran Thi Thu; Vu, Huynh Minh; Man, Le Van Viet

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the effects of ultrasonic treatment on the cellulolytic activity of Viscozyme Cassava C preparation were investigated. The biocatalyst was treated with ultrasound at different enzyme concentrations (from 0.02 to 19.50 mg protein/mL), ultrasonic powers (from 0 to 12 W/mL) and times (from 0 to 120 seconds). The highest cellulase activity was achieved when the enzyme preparation was ultrasonicated at 7.3 W/mL for 40 sec, under which the cellulase activity increased by 18.1% over the control. The optimal pH and temperature of the sonicated and unsonicated biocatalysts were statistically similar. However, the half-life value of the sonicated preparation at 4 °C was 24.5% higher than that of the unsonicated preparation. This result indicated that ultrasonic treatment of the enzyme preparation could reduce its amount used in biocatalysis.

  18. Co-inoculating ruminal content neither provides active hydrolytic microbes nor improves methanization of ¹³C-cellulose in batch digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleur, Olivier; Bize, Ariane; Serain, Thibaut; Mazéas, Laurent; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-03-01

    Cellulose hydrolysis often limits the kinetics and efficiency of anaerobic degradation in industrial digesters. In animal digestive systems, specialized microorganisms enable cellulose biodegradation at significantly higher rates. This study aims to assess the potential of ruminal microbial communities to settle and to express their cellulolytic properties in anaerobic digesters. Cellulose-degrading batch incubations were co-inoculated with municipal solid waste digester sludge and ruminal content. ¹³C-labeled cellulose degradation was described over time with Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. Results were linked to the identification of the microorganisms assimilating ¹³C and to the monitoring of their relative dynamics. Cellulose degradation in co-inoculated incubations was efficient but not significantly improved. Transient disturbances in degradation pathways occurred, as revealed by propionate accumulation. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis dynamics and pyrosequencing revealed that expected classes of Bacteria and Archaea were active and degraded cellulose. However, despite the favorable co-inoculation conditions, molecular tools also revealed that no ruminal species settled in the bioreactors. Other specific parameters were probably needed for this to happen. This study shows that exploiting the rumen's cellulolytic properties in anaerobic digesters is not straightforward. Co-inoculation can only be successful if ruminal microorganisms manage to thrive in the anaerobic digester and outcompete native microorganisms, which requires specific nutritional and environmental parameters, and a meticulous reproduction of the selection pressure encountered in the rumen. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Activity of Cellulase from Thermophilic Fungi Isolated from CaneBagasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aris-Toharisman; Akyunul-Jannah

    2000-01-01

    The activity of cellulase from thermophilic fungi isolated from canebagasses has been measured. This wild strain, named fungal strain PJ-2,secreted a large amount of cellulolytic enzyme components consisting of 0.46units of avicelase, 0.8 units of carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolizing enzyme(CMCase) and 0.5 units of β-glucosidase per ml of culture broth oncultivation in Mandels Reese medium for 7 days at 500 o C. These cellulasesproduction was lower than that of Trichoderma reesei NRRL 3653 producing 0.5units/ml avicelase, 1.6 units/ml CMCase and 0.4 units/ml ofβ-glucosidase cultivated in the same medium at 30 o C. However,thermophilic fungi may be potential to be exploited in lignocellulosedegradation at the tropical areas as the process usually needs temperature ofabove 50 o C. (author)

  20. Determinación de la actividad lignocelulolítica en sustrato natural de aislamientos fúngicos obtenidos de sabana de pastoreo y de bosque secundario de sabana inundable tropical Determination of lignocellulolytic activity in a natural substrate of native fungi strains obtained from savanna and of secondary forest from a tropical flooded savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucía Ortiz Moreno

    2010-12-01

    integrated samples. A lignolytic strain (005L Verticillium spp. and 72 cellulolytic strains were obtained. A comparison of soil usages (savanna grazing and secondary forest showed no correlation between the number of obtained genera and soil characteristics. Selection of the strains to be evaluated in a dry-grass natural substrate (Brachiaria spp. was carried out by quantification of lignolytic and cellulolytic activity. Two strains with high exoglucanase activity (055C and 061C Penicillium spp. and a strain with high endoglucanase activity (019C Trichoderma spp. relative to the Trichoderma viride control were selected and evaluated in the natural substrate in consortia formed by one lignolytic and one cellulolytic. The test showed that the enzymatic activity of the selected strains increased in the substrate grass, surpassing that of the positive controls (Pleurotus ostreatus for lignin and T. viride for cellulose for both consortia. The use of the consortia is therefore recommended for the development of soil conditioning biofertilizers, especially that formed by the 005L (Verticillium spp. and 055C (Penicillium spp. strains with high lignolytic and cellulolytic activity.

  1. Effects of Tannin and Polyethylene Glycol on Ruminal Cellulolytic Bacteria Quantity in Sheep and Goats%单宁和聚乙二醇对绵羊和山羊瘤胃纤维降解菌数量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大彪; 张梅梅; 于永强; 李红磊; 塔娜; 邢媛媛; 王卫云

    2015-01-01

    本文旨在研究饲粮中添加不同水平的单宁和高单宁饲粮条件下添加聚乙二醇( PEG )对绵羊和山羊瘤胃纤维降解菌数量的影响。试验选用1.5岁、体重约45 kg、安装永久性瘤胃瘘管的绵羊和绒山羊各4只,采用自身对照试验设计,分4期进行。第1期饲喂基础饲粮(Ⅰ组),第2期在基础饲粮中添加2%的单宁(Ⅱ组),第3期在基础饲粮中添加6%的单宁(Ⅲ组),第4期在基础饲粮中添加6%单宁+12% PEG(Ⅳ组)。每期试验30 d,其中预试期12 d,正试期18 d。每个正试期第1天,采集绵羊和山羊瘤胃内容物,测定瘤胃液pH、氨态氮( NH3-N)和菌体蛋白( MCP)浓度;运用实时定量PCR技术对固相、液相及全食糜中所附着的白色瘤胃球菌、黄色瘤胃球菌、产琥珀酸拟杆菌进行定量检测。结果表明:1)与Ⅰ组相比,添加6%单宁显著降低了山羊瘤胃液NH3-N浓度和绵羊瘤胃液MCP浓度( P<0.05)。添加6%单宁+12% PEG后,这2个指标恢复至与Ⅰ组相当的水平。2)与Ⅰ组相比,添加6%单宁显著降低了绵羊和山羊瘤胃固相、绵羊瘤胃液相白色瘤胃球菌数量( P<0.05);添加2%和6%单宁显著降低了绵羊和山羊固相黄色瘤胃球菌数量( P<0.05),添加6%单宁显著降低了绵羊和山羊瘤胃液相黄色瘤胃球菌数量( P<0.05);添加6%单宁显著降低了绵羊和山羊瘤胃固相、绵羊全食糜产琥珀酸拟杆菌数量( P<0.05)。添加6%单宁+12% PEG后,绵羊和山羊瘤胃这3株纤维降解菌数量恢复至Ⅰ组水平或高于Ⅰ组。由此可见,饲粮单宁添加量达到6%时降低了瘤胃液NH3-N的浓度,影响MCP的合成,抑制瘤胃固相纤维降解菌的增殖;添加PEG可以削弱单宁对瘤胃纤维降解菌生长的负面影响,促进瘤胃发酵。%This paper studied the effects of different dietary tannin levels and high tannin diets supplemented with polyethylene glycol ( PEG) on ruminal cellulolytic bacteria quantity in sheep and

  2. Does cypermethrin affect enzyme activity, respiration rate and walking behavior of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronnie Von Santos Veloso; Eliseu José G.Pereira; Raul Narciso C.Guedes; Maria Goreti A.Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Insecticides cause a range of sub-lethal effects on targeted insects,which are frequently detrimental to them.However,targeted insects are able to cope with insecticides within sub-lethal ranges,which vary with their susceptibility.Here we assessed the response of three strains of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) to sub-lethal exposure to the pyrethoid insecticide cypermethrin.We expected enzyme induction associated with cypermethrin resistance since it would aid the resistant insects in surviving such exposure.Lower respiration rate and lower activity were also expected in insecticide-resistant insects since these traits are also likely to favor survivorship under insecticide exposure.Curiously though,cypermethrin did not affect activity of digestive and energy metabolism enzymes,and even reduced the activity of some enzymes (particularly for cellulase and cysteine-proteinase activity in this case).There was strain variation in response,which may be (partially) related to insecticide resistance in some strains.Sub-lethal exposure to cypermethrin depressed proteolytic and mainly cellulolytic activity in the exposed insects,which is likely to impair their fitness.However,such exposure did not affect respiration rate and walking behavior of the insects (except for the susceptible strain where walking activity was reduced).Walking activity varies with strain and may minimize insecticide exposure,which should be a concern,particularly if associated with (physiological) insecticide resistance.

  3. Compounds Released from Biomass Deconstruction: Understanding Their Effect on Cellulose Enzyme Hydrolysis and Their Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djioleu, Angele Mezindjou

    The effect of compounds produced during biomass pretreatment on cellulolytic enzyme was investigated. Liquid prehydrolyzates were prepared by pretreating switchgrass using 24 combinations of temperature, time, and sulfuric acid concentration based on a full factorial design. Temperature was varied from 140°C to 180°C; time ranged from 10 to 40 min; and the sulfuric acid concentrations were 0.5% or 1% (v/v). Identified products in the prehydrolyzates included xylose, glucose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, acetic acid, formic acid, and phenolic compounds at concentration ranging from 0 to 21.4 g/L. Pretreatment conditions significantly affected the concentrations of compounds detected in prehydrolyzates. When assayed in the presence of switchgrass prehydrolyzates against model substrates, activities of cellulase, betaglucosidase, and exoglucanase, were significantly reduced by at least 16%, 31.8%, and 57.8%, respectively, as compared to the control. A strong positive correlation between inhibition of betaglucosidase and concentration of glucose, acetic acid, and furans in prehydrolyzate was established. Exoglucanase inhibition correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds and acetic acid. The prehydrolyzate, prepared at 160°C, 30 min, and 1% acid, was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) into six fractions; the inhibition effect of these fractions on betaglucosidase and exoglucanase was determined. The initial hydrolysis rate of cellobiose by betaglucosidase was significantly reduced by the CPC sugar-rich fraction; however, exoglucanase was deactivated by the CPC phenolic-rich fraction. Finally, biological activities of water-extracted compounds from sweetgum bark and their effect on cellulase was investigated. It was determined that 12% of solid content of the bark extract could be accounted by phenolic compounds with gallic acid identified as the most concentrated phytochemical. Sweetgum bark extract inhibited Staphylococcus

  4. Microbial Activity in Forest Soil Under Beech, Spruce, Douglas Fir and Fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal-Jafari Timea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the microbial activity in forest soil from different sites under deciduous and coniferous trees in Serbia. One site on Stara planina was under beech trees (Fagus sp. while another under mixture of spruce (Picea sp. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga sp.. The site on Kopaonik was under mixture of beech (Fagus sp. and spruce (Picea sp. trees. The site on Tara was dominantly under fir (Abies sp., beech (Fagus sp. and spruce (Picea sp.. The total number of bacteria, the number of actinobacteria, fungi and microorganisms involved in N and C cycles were determined using standard method of agar plates. The activities of dehydrogenase and ß-glucosidase enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The microbial activity was affected by tree species and sampling time. The highest dehydrogenase activity, total number of bacteria, number of actinobacteria, aminoheterotrophs, amylolytic and cellulolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under beech trees. The highest total number of fungi and number of pectinolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under spruce and Douglas fir trees. The correlation analyses proved the existence of statistically significant interdependency among investigated parameters.

  5. Composition of cellulase complex of Clostridium thermocellum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovchenko, N P; Chuvil' skaya, N A; Akimenko, V K

    1985-01-01

    It is thought that the anaerobic thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium C. thermocellum has the potential for direct industrial bioconversion of cellulose into ethanol. Therefore, much attention has been given to the study of the cellulolytic properties of the culture and to the characteristics of the cellulose complex, which is still not completely understood. Hence, the activity and location of various cellulolytic enzymes of C. thermocellum were determined. C. thermocellum has 6 known cellulolytic enzymes. Endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase and exoglucosidase are extracellular enzymes (99-100 percent of the activity is located outside the cells) while cellulobiases, cellobiose phosphorylase and cellodextrine phosphorylase are inside the cells (80-90% of the activity). 25 references.

  6. Suite of Activity-Based Probes for Cellulose-Degrading Enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Weaver, Holly M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Koech, Phillip K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-12-19

    Microbial glycoside hydrolases play a dominant role in the biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to high-value biofuels. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are capable of producing multicomplex catalytic subunits containing cell-adherent cellulases, hemicellulases, xylanases, and other glycoside hydrolases to facilitate the degradation of highly recalcitrant cellulose and other related plant cell wall polysaccharides. Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulosome producing bacterium that couples rapid reproduction rates to highly efficient degradation of crystalline cellulose. Herein, we have developed and applied a suite of difluoromethylphenyl aglycone, N-halogenated glycosylamine, and 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglycoside activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes to the direct labeling of the C. thermocellum cellulosomal secretome. These activity-based probes (ABPs) were synthesized with alkynes to harness the utility and multimodal possibilities of click chemistry, and to increase enzyme active site inclusion for LC-MS analysis. We directly analyzed ABP-labeled and unlabeled global MS data, revealing ABP selectivity for glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes in addition to a large collection of integral cellulosome-containing proteins. By identifying reactivity and selectivity profiles for each ABP, we demonstrate our ability to widely profile the functional cellulose degrading machinery of the bacterium. Derivatization of the ABPs, including reactive groups, acetylation of the glycoside binding groups, and mono- and disaccharide binding groups, resulted in considerable variability in protein labeling. Our probe suite is applicable to aerobic and anaerobic cellulose degrading systems, and facilitates a greater understanding of the organismal role associated within biofuel development.

  7. Cellulase and xylanase activity during the decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes in a tropical oxbow lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sciessere

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the connection between enzymatic activity and degradation of different fractions of organic matter, enzyme assays can be used to estimate degradation rates of particulate and dissolved organic carbon in freshwater systems. The aim of this study was to quantify and model the enzymatic degradation involving the decomposition of macrophytes, describing temporal activity of cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 and EC 3.2.1.91 and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8 during in situ decomposition of three aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia sp., Eichhornia azurea and Cyperus giganteus on the surface and water-sediment interface (w-s interface of an oxbow lagoon (Óleo lagoon within a natural Brazilian Savanna Reserve. Overall, the enzymatic degradation of aquatic macrophytes in Óleo lagoon occurred during the whole year and was initiated together with leaching. Xylanase production was ca. 5 times higher than cellulase values due to easy access to this compound by cellulolytic microorganisms. Enzymatic production and detritus mass decay were similar on the surface and w-s interface. Salvinia sp. was the most recalcitrant detritus, with low mass decay and enzymatic activity. E. azurea and C. giganteus decomposition rates and enzymatic production were high and similar. Due to the physicochemical homogeneity observed in the Óleo lagoon, the differences between the decay rates of each species are mostly related with detritus chemical quality.

  8. Presence and transcriptional activity of anaerobic fungi in agricultural biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollhofer, Veronika; Callaghan, Tony M; Griffith, Gareth W; Lebuhn, Michael; Bauer, Johann

    2017-07-01

    Bioaugmentation with anaerobic fungi (AF) is promising for improved biogas generation from lignocelluloses-rich substrates. However, before implementing AF into biogas processes it is necessary to investigate their natural occurrence, community structure and transcriptional activity in agricultural biogas plants. Thus, AF were detected with three specific PCR based methods: (i) Copies of their 18S genes were found in 7 of 10 biogas plants. (ii) Transcripts of a GH5 endoglucanase gene were present at low level in two digesters, indicating transcriptional cellulolytic activity of AF. (iii) Phylogeny of the AF-community was inferred with the 28S gene. A new Piromyces species was isolated from a PCR-positive digester. Evidence for AF was only found in biogas plants operated with high proportions of animal feces. Thus, AF were most likely transferred into digesters with animal derived substrates. Additionally, high process temperatures in combination with long retention times seemed to impede AF survival and activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels.

  10. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight) and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels. PMID:22490508

  11. Cellulolytic bacteria in human gut and irritable bowel syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopečný, Jan; Šimůnek, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2002), s. 421-427 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5020115; GA ČR GA525/02/0402; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : anaerobic bacteria * colon * fibrolytic Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.370, year: 2002

  12. Isolation and characterization of efficient cellulolytic fungi from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    potentially sustainable approach to develop novel bioprocesses and products. Microbial cellulases have become the focal biocatalysts due to their complex nature and wide spread industrial applications (Kuhad et al.,. 2011). The search for efficient microorganisms which can produce all the three types of cellulases that can ...

  13. Characterization of a chitinase from the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaber, Yasser; Mekasha, Sophanit; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Fraaije, Marco W

    Thermobifida fusca is a well-known cellulose-degrading actinomycete, which produces various glycoside hydrolases for this purpose. However, despite the presence of putative chitinase genes in its genome, T. fusca has not been reported to grow on chitin as sole carbon source. In this study, a gene

  14. Hyperthermostable cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes and their biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipparat Hongpattarakere

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermal cellulases and hemicellulases have been intensively studied due to their highly potential applications at extreme temperatures, which mimic industrial processes involving cellulose and hemicellulose degradation. More than 50 species of hyperthermophiles have been isolated, many of which possess hyperthermal enzymes required for hydrolyzing cellulose and hemicelluloses. Endoglucanases, exoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases, xylanases, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase, which are produced by the hyperthermophiles, are resistant to boiling temperature. The characteristics of these enzymes and the ability to maintain their functional integrity at high temperature as well as their biotechnological application are discussed.

  15. Particle size variations of activated carbon on biofilm formation in thermophilic biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, Nur Syakina; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam Wan; Abdul, Peer Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biofilm was developed on GAC by self-attachment immobilisation. • Effect of various micropore size of GAC was evaluated in H_2 production. • Capability of attached-biofilm to degrade cellulosic fibre in POME was evaluated. • Microbial community colonized on GAC was characterised. - Abstract: In this study, we examined the formation of thermophilic microbial biofilm by self-attachment on microbial carrier of granular activated carbon (GAC) in five different micro-pore volumes 0.31, 0.41, 0.44, 0.48, and 0.50 cm"3/g. It was found that the highest hydrogen production rate of 100.8 ± 3.7 mmol H_2/l.d and yield of 1.01 ± 0.07 mol H_2/mol sugar were obtained at 0.44 cm"3/g volume size of GAC. The cellulolytic activity of attached-biofilm was further investigated using POME as a feedstock. The results showed that in all diluted POME substrate, the total sugar consumed by the microbes was found higher than that the amount of soluble monomeric sugar present in the POME medium. It is believe that the microbial biofilm was able to hydrolyse polymeric sugar of cellulosic fibre in the POME by performing enzymatic hydrolysis into simple monomeric sugar. The isolated biofilm bacteria that subjected to 16S rRNA gene analysis presented 99% high homology to the species of Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum which were guaranteed to perform a cellulosic degradation activity.

  16. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  17. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2012-06-06

    In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray

  18. Bacillus subtilis with endocellulase and exocellulase activities isolated in the thermophilic phase from composting with coffee residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu-Rodas, Yadira; Calixto-Romo, María de Los Angeles; Guillén-Navarro, Karina; Sánchez, José E; Zamora-Briseño, Jesús Alejandro; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena

    2017-12-27

    The goal of this study was to isolate, select and characterize bacteria with cellulolytic activity from two different coffee residue composting piles, one of which had an internal temperature of 57°C and pH 5.5 and the other, a temperature of 61°C, and pH 9.3. Culture media were manipulated with carboxymethylcellulose and crystalline cellulose as sole carbon sources. The enzyme activity was assessed by hydrolysis halo formation, reducing sugar production and zymograms. Three out of twenty isolated strains showed higher enzymatic activity and were identified as Bacillus subtilis according to their morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and based on the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA regions. The enzymatic extracts of the three selected strains showed exocellulase and endocellulase maximum activity of 0.254 and 0.519 U/ml, respectively; the activity of these enzymes was maintained even in acid pH (4.8) and basic (9.3) and at temperatures of up to 60°C. The enzymatic activities observed in this study are within the highest reported for cellulose produced by bacteria of the genus Bacillus. Endocellulase activity was shown in the zymograms from 24h until 144h of incubation. Furthermore, the pH effect on the endocellulase activity is reported for the first time by zymograms. The findings in this study entail the possibility to use these enzymes in the procurement of fermentable substrates for the production of energy from the large amount of residues generated by the coffee agroindustry. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. ISOLATION AND LIGNOCELLULOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF FIBER-DIGESTING BACTERIA FROM DIGESTIVE TRACT OF TERMITE (Cryptothermes sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I.M. Tampoebolon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to obtain the fiber-digesting bacteria isolates from termitedigestive tract and to determine the optimum conditions of growth and production of cellulase, xylanaseand ligninase enzyme of isolate. The first study was conducted to isolate and select the fiber-digestingbacteria from the digestive tract of termites based on the highest activity of cellulolytic (S, xylanolytic(X and lignolytic (L. The second study was optimation of the growth conditions of bacteria and theenzyme production due to effect of rice straw substrate and nitrogen. The material used were dry woodtermites, rice straw, and culture medium. The design used was a completely randomized factorial design,in which the first factor was rice straw substrate (1, 2, and 3% W/V, while the second factor wasnitrogen (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% W/V. Variables measured were cellulase, xylanase and ligninase activities.Results of the first sudy showed that the isolates obtained consisted of 3 types, those were cellulolyticbacteria (S1, S2, and S3, 3 types of bacteria xylanolytic (X1, X2, and X3 and 3 types of bacteria lignolytic(L1, L2, and L3. Meanwhile, results of the second study showed that isolates of S2, X3, and L1 had thehighest activity, those were 1.894 U/mL, 1.722 U/mL and 0.314 U/mL, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of 1% level of rice straw substrate and 0.3% of nitrogen showed the highest enzyme activity oncellulase, xylanase and ligninase.

  20. Effects of isobutyrate supplementation on ruminal microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Zhang, Y L; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Wang, Y X; Yang, W Z; Bai, Y S; Shi, Z G; Liu, X N

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isobutyrate supplementation on rumen microflora, enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers consuming a corn stover-based diet. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. The treatments were control (without isobutyrate), low isobutyrate (LIB), moderate isobutyrate (MIB) and high isobutyrate (HIB) with 8.4, 16.8 and 25.2 g isobutyrate per steer per day respectively. Isobutyrate was hand-mixed into the concentrate portion. Diet consisted of 60% corn stover and 40% concentrate [dry matter (DM) basis]. Dry matter intake (averaged 9 kg/day) was restricted to a maximum of 90% of ad libitum intake. Population of total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and anaerobic fungi were linearly increased, whereas that of protozoa and total methanogens was linearly reduced with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Real-time PCR quantification of population of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Fibrobacter succinogenes was linearly increased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase were linearly increased, whereas that of protease was linearly reduced. Methane production was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Effective degradabilities of cellulose and hemicellulose of corn stover were linearly increased, whereas that of crude protein in diet was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. The present results indicate that isobutyrate supplemented improved microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in steers. It was suggested that the isobutyrate stimulated the digestive micro-organisms or enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. In the experimental conditions of this trial, the optimum isobutyrate dose was approximately 16.8 g isobutyrate per steer per day. Journal of Animal

  1. Xylanase XYN IV from Trichoderma reesei showing exo- and endo-xylanase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel xylanase from Trichoderma reesei Rut C30, named XYN IV, was purified from the cellulolytic system of the fungus. The enzyme was discovered on its ability to attack aldotetraohexenuronic acid (HexA-2Xyl-4Xyl-4Xyl, HexA3Xyl3), releasing the reducing-end xylose residue. XYN IV exhibited catalyt...

  2. Characterization of bacterial functional groups and microbial activity in microcosms with glyphosate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Sofia; Bonetto, Mariana; Baigorria, Tomas; Pegoraro, Vanesa; Ortiz, Jimena; Faggioli, Valeria; Conde, Belen; Cazorla, Cristian; Boccolini, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate is a worldwide used herbicide as c. 90% of transgenic crops are tolerant to it. Microbial degradation of glyphosate molecule in soil is considered the most important process that determines its persistence in the environment. However, the impact of this herbicide on target groups of soil biota remains poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the abundance of bacterial groups and global microbial activity, under controlled conditions with application of increasing doses of glyphosate. A bioassay was carried out in microcosms using an agricultural soil (Typic Argiudoll) with registered history of glyphosate application from National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA, EEA Marcos Juarez, Argentina). Glyphosate of commercial formulation (74.7%) was used and the following treatments were evaluated: Soil without glyphosate (control), and Soil with doses equivalent to 1.12 and 11.2 kg ai ha-1. Microbiological parameters were estimated at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after herbicide application by counting heterotrophic, cellulolytic, nitrogen fixing (N), and nitrifying bacteria; and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA), microbial respiration (MR) and microbial biomass (C-BM). The N cycle related bacteria showed greater sensitivity to glyphosate with significant increases in abundance. On the other hand the C cycle parameters were strongly conditioned by the time elapsed since the application of the herbicide, as did the MR. The FDA declined with the highest dose, while the C-BM was not affected. Therefore, we conclude that in the studied experimental conditions glyphosate stimulated bacterial growth (i.e. target abundances) representing a source of N, C and nutrients. On the other hand, enzymatic activity (FDA) decreased when glyphosate was applied in the highest dose, whereas, it had no effect on the MR nor C-BM, which could be attributable to the organic matter content of the soil. However, future research in field conditions is necessary, for

  3. Ethanol effect on metabolic activity of the ethalogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschos, Thomas; Xiros, Charilaos; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-03-12

    Fusarium oxysporum is a filamentous fungus which has attracted a lot of scientific interest not only due to its ability to produce a variety of lignocellulolytic enzymes, but also because it is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses to ethanol. Although this fungus has been studied a lot as a cell factory, regarding applications for the production of bioethanol and other high added value products, no systematic study has been performed concerning its ethanol tolerance levels. In aerobic conditions it was shown that both the biomass production and the specific growth rate were affected by the presence of ethanol. The maximum allowable ethanol concentration, above which cells could not grow, was predicted to be 72 g/L. Under limited aeration conditions the ethanol-producing capability of the cells was completely inhibited at 50 g/L ethanol. The lignocellulolytic enzymatic activities were affected to a lesser extent by the presence of ethanol, while the ethanol inhibitory effect appears to be more severe at elevated temperatures. Moreover, when the produced ethanol was partially removed from the broth, it led to an increase in fermenting ability of the fungus up to 22.5%. The addition of F. oxysporum's system was shown to increase the fermentation of pretreated wheat straw by 11%, in co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assessment of ethanol tolerance levels of F. oxysporum on aerobic growth, on lignocellulolytic activities and on fermentative performance confirmed its biotechnological potential for the production of bioethanol. The cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes of this fungus could be exploited within the biorefinery concept as their ethanol resistance is similar to that of the commercial enzymes broadly used in large scale fermentations and therefore, may substantially contribute to a rational design of a bioconversion process involving F. oxysporum. The SSCF experiments on liquefied wheat straw rich in hemicellulose indicated that the

  4. Recombinant Trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase I (Cel7B) is a highly acidic and promiscuous carbohydrate-active enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Vanessa O A; Serpa, Viviane Isabel; Godoy, Andre S; Camilo, Cesar M; Bernardes, Amanda; Rezende, Camila A; Junior, Nei Pereira; Franco Cairo, João Paulo L; Squina, Fabio M; Polikarpov, Igor

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma filamentous fungi have been investigated due to their ability to secrete cellulases which find various biotechnological applications such as biomass hydrolysis and cellulosic ethanol production. Previous studies demonstrated that Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 has a high degree of cellulolytic activity and potential for biomass hydrolysis. However, enzymatic, biochemical, and structural studies of cellulases from T. harzianum are scarce. This work reports biochemical characterization of the recombinant endoglucanase I from T. harzianum, ThCel7B, and its catalytic core domain. The constructs display optimum activity at 55 °C and a surprisingly acidic pH optimum of 3.0. The full-length enzyme is able to hydrolyze a variety of substrates, with high specific activity: 75 U/mg for β-glucan, 46 U/mg toward xyloglucan, 39 U/mg for lichenan, 26 U/mg for carboxymethyl cellulose, 18 U/mg for 4-nitrophenyl β-D-cellobioside, 16 U/mg for rye arabinoxylan, and 12 U/mg toward xylan. The enzyme also hydrolyzed filter paper, phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, Sigmacell 20, Avicel PH-101, and cellulose, albeit with lower efficiency. The ThCel7B catalytic domain displays similar substrate diversity. Fluorescence-based thermal shift assays showed that thermal stability is highest at pH 5.0. We determined kinetic parameters and analyzed a pattern of oligosaccharide substrates hydrolysis, revealing cellobiose as a final product of C6 degradation. Finally, we visualized effects of ThCel7B on oat spelt using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrating the morphological changes of the substrate during the hydrolysis. The acidic behavior of ThCel7B and its considerable thermostability hold a promise of its industrial applications and other biotechnological uses under extremely acidic conditions.

  5. Novel glycoside hydrolases from thermophilic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic activity or hemicellulolytic activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of produ...

  6. Studies on mangrove swamps of Goa 1. Heterotrophic bacterial flora from mangrove swamps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P; Mathani, S; Mavinkurve, S

    Heterotrophic bacterial flora from the mangrove swamps of Goa consisted of physiologically active organisms exhibiting cellulolytic, pectinolytic, amylolytic, proteolytic and H2S forming activities, throughout the year. Coryneform and Bacillus were...

  7. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 8, No 23 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation of Fusarium fujikuroi antagonistic bacteria and cloning of its .... Isolation of cellulolytic activities from Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) · EMAIL FREE ... alexandrinus (Geoffory Saint-Hilaire) in Bonny River, Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

  8. Active Teachers - Active Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as an initiative from the Polytechnic in Nantes, France and the University the Los Andes in Bogota, Colombia. The objective was to start a world wide collaboration allowing teachers in engineering to learn from each other about their experiences with active learning. In this thirteenth edition, ALE joins forces...... with the International Research Symposium on Problem Based Learning (IRSPB) and the International Symposium on Project Approaches in Engineering Education (PAEE) to organise the first International Joint Conference on the Learner in Engineering Education (IJCLEE 2015) hosted by Mondragon University, in San Sebastian...

  9. Is activation analysis still active?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of neutron activation analysis (NAA), covering instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), k 0 method, prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and molecular activation analysis (MAA). The comparison of neutron activation analysis with other analytical techniques are also made. (author)

  10. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common charcoal is made from peat, coal, wood, coconut shell, or petroleum. “Activated charcoal” is similar to common charcoal, but is made especially for use as a medicine. To make activated charcoal, manufacturers heat common ...

  11. Genomics insights into different cellobiose hydrolysis activities in two Trichoderma hamatum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Liu, Bo; Su, Yi; Hu, Yao; Hong, Yahui; Yi, Xinxin; Chen, Lei; Su, Shengying; Chu, Jeffrey S C; Chen, Nansheng; Xiong, Xingyao

    2017-04-19

    Efficient biomass bioconversion is a promising solution to alternative energy resources and environmental issues associated with lignocellulosic wastes. The Trichoderma species of cellulolytic fungi have strong cellulose-degrading capability, and their cellulase systems have been extensively studied. Currently, a major limitation of Trichoderma strains is their low production of β-glucosidases. We isolated two Trichoderma hamatum strains YYH13 and YYH16 with drastically different cellulose degrading efficiencies. YYH13 has higher cellobiose-hydrolyzing efficiency. To understand mechanisms underlying such differences, we sequenced the genomes of YYH13 and YYH16, which are essentially identical (38.93 and 38.92 Mb, respectively) and are similar to that of the T. hamatum strain GD12. Using GeneMark-ES, we annotated 11,316 and 11,755 protein-coding genes in YYH13 and YYH16, respectively. Comparative analysis identified 13 functionally important genes in YYH13 under positive selection. Through examining orthologous relationships, we identified 172,655, and 320 genome-specific genes in YYH13, YYH16, and GD12, respectively. We found 15 protease families that show differences between YYH13 and YYH16. Enzymatic tests showed that exoglucanase, endoglucanase, and β-glucosidase activities were higher in YYH13 than YYH16. Additionally, YYH13 contains 10 families of carbohydrate-active enzymes, including GH1, GH3, GH18, GH35, and GH55 families of chitinases, glucosidases, galactosidases, and glucanases, which are subject to stronger positive selection pressure. Furthermore, we found that the β-glucosidase gene (YYH1311079) and pGEX-KG/YYH1311079 bacterial expression vector may provide valuable insight for designing β-glucosidase with higher cellobiose-hydrolyzing efficiencies. This study suggests that the YYH13 strain of T. hamatum has the potential to serve as a model organism for producing cellulase because of its strong ability to efficiently degrade cellulosic biomass

  12. Active ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode F. Jacobsen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of active ageing has been gaining prominence in the Nordic countries and beyond. This has been reflected in policy papers in Norway and other Nordic nations. Aims: The aim of this article is to analyse the topic of active ageing in five Norwegian White Papers (2002 to 2015 and discuss those policy documents in context of relevant research literature. Methods: A qualitative document analyses is employed focusing on how active ageing, and ageing in general, is described and which concepts are employed. No ethical approval was needed. Findings: The general theme of ageing and the specific theme of active ageing are increasingly prominent in the Norwegian White Papers studied. In all documents, some assumptions regarding ageing and active ageing seem implicit, such as independence being more important than (interdependence. ‘Productive’ activities like participation in working life are stressed, while others, like reading, watching TV or watching children playing in the street, are ignored. Conclusions: The policy documents demonstrate that the topic of active ageing is growing in importance. The documents increasingly seem to stress ‘productive’ activities – those related to working life, voluntary work or sports and physical training. They exclude activities that are meaningful for many older people, like watching their grandchildren play or reading books. Implications for practice: Practitioners in older people’s care could consider reflecting on: Government documents dealing with their own practice The prevalent concept of active ageing The trend of active ageing as a facilitating or hindering factor for good care work How present discourse on active ageing may influence their attitude towards frail older persons How they wish to relate to active ageing in their own practice

  13. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  14. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry (IFM) presents every year a progress report containing a brief description of activities in research and education within the department. The report is intended as an information for colleagues and institutions. The present report contains activities for the academic year July 1989 to June 1990

  15. Study on the Effect of cellulolytic strain MYB3 for Corn Stover Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Bai, Bing; Cheng, Xiao-Xiao; Li, Guang-Chun; Huang, Shi-Chen; Piao, Chun-Xiang

    2018-03-01

    The effects of corn stover fermentation with the Bacillus megaterium MYB3 was studied in this paper. The results showed that the decomposition rates of cellulose and hemicellulose were 49.6%, 43.46% after 20 days respectively, after fermentation, pH was changed to 5.68, and adjusted to corn stover initial pH 3 to achieve the purpose of sterilization. The decomposition rate was significantly increased by adding corn flour. After adjusting fermentation composes with the ratio of the corn stove to corn flour was 15 : 1, the decomposition rate of cellulose would be 52.37% for 10 days.

  16. Genome Sequence and Analysis of the Soil Cellulolytic ActinomyceteThermobifida fusca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Anderson, Iain; Land, Miriam; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Martinez, Michele; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Richardson, Paul; Wilson,David B.; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2007-02-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic soilbacterium that belongs to Actinobacteria. 3 It is a major degrader ofplant cell walls and has been used as a model organism for the study of 4secreted, thermostable cellulases. The complete genome sequence showedthat T. fusca has a 5 single circular chromosome of 3642249 bp predictedto encode 3117 proteins and 65 RNA6 species with a coding densityof 85percent. Genome analysis revealed the existence of 29 putative 7glycoside hydrolases in addition to the previously identified cellulasesand xylanases. The 8 glycosyl hydrolases include enzymes predicted toexhibit mainly dextran/starch and xylan 9 degrading functions. T. fuscapossesses two protein secretion systems: the sec general secretion 10system and the twin-arginine translocation system. Several of thesecreted cellulases have 11 sequence signatures indicating theirsecretion may be mediated by the twin-arginine12 translocation system. T.fusca has extensive transport systems for import of carbohydrates 13coupled to transcriptional regulators controlling the expression of thetransporters and14 glycosylhydrolases. In addition to providing anoverview of the physiology of a soil 15 actinomycete, this study presentsinsights on the transcriptional regulation and secretion of16 cellulaseswhich may facilitate the industrial exploitation of thesesystems.

  17. Diversity of Cellulolytic Microbes and the Biodegradation of Municipal Solid Waste by a Potential Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, S. P.; Bundela, P. S.; Pandey, A. K.; Jamaluddin; Awasthi, M. K.; Sarsaiya, S.

    2012-01-01

    Municipal solid waste contains high amounts of cellulose, which is an ideal organic waste for the growth of most of microorganism as well as composting by potential microbes. In the present study, Congo red test was performed for screening of microorganism, and, after selecting a potential strains, it was further used for biodegradation of organic municipal solid waste. Forty nine out of the 250 different microbes tested (165 belong to fungi and 85 to bacteria) produced cellulase enzyme and among these Trichoderma viride was found to be a potential strain in the secondary screening. During the biodegradation of organic waste, after 60 days, the average weight losses were 20.10% in the plates and 33.35% in the piles. There was an increase in pH until 20 days. pH however, stabilized after 30 days in the piles. Temperature also stabilized as the composting process progressed in the piles. The high temperature continued until 30 days of decomposition, after which the temperature dropped to 40°C and below during the maturation. Good quality compost was obtained in 60 days. PMID:22518141

  18. Impact of enzyme loading on the efficacy and recovery of cellulolytic enzymes immobilized on enzymogel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaratunga, Ashani; Kudina, Olena; Nahar, Nurun; Zakharchenko, Andrey; Minko, Sergiy; Voronov, Andriy; Pryor, Scott W

    2015-03-01

    Cellulase and β-glucosidase were adsorbed on a polyacrylic acid polymer brush grafted on silica nanoparticles to produce enzymogels as a form of enzyme immobilization. Enzyme loading on the enzymogels was increased to a saturation level of approximately 110 μg (protein) mg(-1) (particle) for each enzyme. Enzymogels with varied enzyme loadings were then used to determine the impact on hydrolysis rate and enzyme recovery. Soluble sugar concentrations during the hydrolysis of filter paper and Solka-Floc with the enzymogels were 45 and 53%, respectively, of concentrations when using free cellulase. β-Glucosidase enzymogels showed lower performance; hydrolyzate glucose concentrations were just 38% of those using free enzymes. Increasing enzyme loading on the enzymogels did not reduce net efficacy for cellulase and improved efficacy for β-glucosidase. The use of free cellulases and cellulase enzymogels resulted in hydrolyzates with different proportions of cellobiose and glucose, suggesting differential attachment or efficacy of endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases present in cellulase mixtures. When loading β-glucosidase individually, higher enzyme loadings on the enzymogels produced higher hydrolyzate glucose concentrations. Approximately 96% of cellulase and 66 % of β-glucosidase were recovered on the enzymogels, while enzyme loading level did not impact recovery for either enzyme.

  19. Reliable simultaneous zymographic method of characterization of cellulolytic enzymes from fungal cellulase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dojnov, Biljana; Grujić, Marica; Vujčić, Zoran

    2015-08-01

    A method for zymographic detection of specific cellulases in a complex (endocellulase, exocellulase, and cellobiase) from crude fermentation extracts, after a single electrophoretic separation, is described in this paper. Cellulases were printed onto a membrane and, subsequently, substrate gel. Cellobiase isoforms were detected on the membrane using esculine as substrate, endocellulase isoforms on substrate gel with copolymerized carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), while exocellulase isoforms were detected in electrophoresis gel with 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-cellobioside (MUC). This can be a useful additional tool for monitoring and control of fungal cellulase production in industrial processes and fundamental research, screening for particular cellulase producers, or testing of new lignocellulose substrates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ferrovibrio soli sp. nov., a novel cellulolytic bacterium isolated from stream bank soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Ram Hari; Kim, Jaisoo

    2018-01-01

    Two isolates of bacterial strains A15 T and A17 were isolated from stream bank soil in Kyonggi University. Cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, opaque, and cream coloured. Both strains hydrolysed CM-cellulose. Strains were able to grow at 20-42 °C, pH 5.5-10.0 and at 1.5 % NaCl concentration (w/v). Indole test was positive. Analyses of phylogenetic trees based on its 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain A15 T formed a lineage within the family Rhodospirillaceae of the phylum Proteobacteria which was distinct from Ferrovibrio denitrificans S3 T (98.4 % sequence similarity) and Ferrovibrio xuzhouensis LM-6 T (97.4 %). The sole detected respiratory quinone was Q-10. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminolipid. The major cellular fatty acids were C19 : 0 cycloω8c, C16 : 0, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C18 : 0cyclo and C12 : 0. The DNA G+C contents of strains A15 T and A17 were 63.4 and 62.9 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain A15 T and other two members of the genus Ferrovibrioranged from 25 to 37 %. The polyphasic characterization revealed strains A15 T and A17 represent a novel species in the genus Ferrovibrio, for which the name Ferrovibriosoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A15 T (=KEMB 9005-522 T =KACC 19102 T =NBRC 112682 T ).

  1. Diversity of Cellulolytic Microbes and the Biodegradation of Municipal Solid Waste by a Potential Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste contains high amounts of cellulose, which is an ideal organic waste for the growth of most of microorganism as well as composting by potential microbes. In the present study, Congo red test was performed for screening of microorganism, and, after selecting a potential strains, it was further used for biodegradation of organic municipal solid waste. Forty nine out of the 250 different microbes tested (165 belong to fungi and 85 to bacteria produced cellulase enzyme and among these Trichoderma viride was found to be a potential strain in the secondary screening. During the biodegradation of organic waste, after 60 days, the average weight losses were 20.10% in the plates and 33.35% in the piles. There was an increase in pH until 20 days. pH however, stabilized after 30 days in the piles. Temperature also stabilized as the composting process progressed in the piles. The high temperature continued until 30 days of decomposition, after which the temperature dropped to 40°C and below during the maturation. Good quality compost was obtained in 60 days.

  2. Linking Hydrolysis Performance to Trichoderma reesei Cellulolytic Enzyme Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Petersen, Nanna; I. Jørgensen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei expresses a large number of enzymes involved in lignocellulose hydrolysis and the mechanism of how these enzymes work together is too complex to study by traditional methods, e.g. by spiking with single enzymes and monitoring hydrolysis performance. In this study a multivariate...... approach, partial least squares regression, was used to see if it could help explain the correlation between enzyme profile and hydrolysis performance. Diverse enzyme mixtures were produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 by exploiting various fermentation conditions and used for hydrolysis of washed...

  3. Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry...... matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation—PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM...... cellulose to around 94%, revealing that the most relevant products could be accounted for. One observation was the presence of oxidized sugar (gluconic acid) upon enzymatic hydrolysis with the latest enzyme preparation. Experiments showed gluconic acid formation by recently discovered enzymatic class...

  4. [Active euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folker, A P; Hvidt, N

    1995-02-20

    The growing interest in the subject of active euthanasia in connection with the debate regarding legalization of such practices in Denmark necessitates taking a definite standpoint. The difference in concept between active and passive euthanasia is stressed, and the Dutch guidelines are reviewed. The article discusses how far the patient's autonomy should go, as it regards the consideration of self-determination as being too narrow a criterion in itself. The discussion on the quality of life is included, and the consequences of the process of expulsion as a sociological concept are considered--the risk of a patient feeling guilty for being alive and therefore feeling compelled to request active euthanasia. The changed function of the physician is underlined, and it is discussed whether active euthansia will cause a breach of confidence between the physician and his patient. In connection with the debate the following tendencies in society are emphasized: lack of clarity, increasing medicalization and utilitarian priorities.

  5. Active colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranson, Igor S

    2013-01-01

    A colloidal suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid microscopic particles. Colloids play an important role in our everyday life, from food and pharmaceutical industries to medicine and nanotechnology. It is useful to distinguish two major classes of colloidal suspensions: equilibrium and active, i.e., maintained out of thermodynamic equilibrium by external electric or magnetic fields, light, chemical reactions, or hydrodynamic shear flow. While the properties of equilibrium colloidal suspensions are fairly well understood, active colloids pose a formidable challenge, and the research is in its early exploratory stage. One of the most remarkable properties of active colloids is the possibility of dynamic self-assembly, a natural tendency of simple building blocks to organize into complex functional architectures. Examples range from tunable, self-healing colloidal crystals and membranes to self-assembled microswimmers and robots. Active colloidal suspensions may exhibit material properties not present in their equilibrium counterparts, e.g., reduced viscosity and enhanced self-diffusivity, etc. This study surveys the most recent developments in the physics of active colloids, both in synthetic and living systems, with the aim of elucidation of the fundamental physical mechanisms governing self-assembly and collective behavior. (physics of our days)

  6. Physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  7. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  8. Identity Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    in reaction to their environment. They reflect an individual’s internal or external, conscious or subconscious , overt or covert, voluntary or...identity activities under a range of legal authorities, policy constraints, transnational threats, regional concerns and biases , and most likely...Biography. A baseline and descriptive analytic product that supports the development of the behavioral influences analysis ( BIA ) individual behavioral

  9. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    2017-01-01

    themselves. We draw on two multi-year field studies of India and Denmark to investigate how national reforms and developments within the ranking industry interact in often surprising ways. Rankings do not always do what policy makers expect. We (1) highlight the activity of rankers in these two countries, (2...

  10. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  11. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  12. Active solar information dissemination activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The principal objective of the project has been the development of an information dissemination strategy for the UK active solar heating industry. The project has also aimed to prepare the industry for the implementation of such a strategy and to produce initial information materials to support the early stages of the implementation process. (author)

  13. Growth and enzymatic activity of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a mutualistic fungus isolated from the leaf-cutting ant Atta mexicana, on cellulose and lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigueras, G; Paredes-Hernández, D; Revah, S; Valenzuela, J; Olivares-Hernández, R; Le Borgne, S

    2017-08-01

    A mutualistic fungus of the leaf-cutting ant Atta mexicana was isolated and identified as Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This isolate had a close phylogenetic relationship with L. gongylophorus fungi cultivated by other leaf-cutting ants as determined by ITS sequencing. A subcolony started with ~500 A. mexicana workers could process 2 g day -1 of plant material and generate a 135 cm 3 fungus garden in 160 days. The presence of gongylidia structures of ~35 μm was observed on the tip of the hyphae. The fungus could grow without ants on semi-solid cultures with α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose and in solid-state cultures with grass and sugarcane bagasse, as sole sources of carbon. The maximum CO 2 production rate on grass (V max  = 17·5 mg CO 2  L g -1  day -1 ) was three times higher than on sugarcane bagasse (V max  = 6·6 mg CO 2  L g -1 day -1 ). Recoveries of 32·9 mg glucose  g biomass -1 and 12·3 mg glucose  g biomass -1 were obtained from the fungal biomass and the fungus garden, respectively. Endoglucanase activity was detected on carboxymethylcellulose agar plates. This is the first study reporting the growth of L. gongylophorus from A. mexicana on cellulose and plant material. According to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the growth of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, isolated from the colony of the ant Atta mexicana, on semisolid medium with cellulose and solid-state cultures with lignocellulosic materials. The maximum CO 2 production rate on grass was three times higher than on sugarcane bagasse. Endoglucanase activity was detected and it was possible to recover glucose from the fungal gongylidia. The cellulolytic activity could be used to process lignocellulosic residues and obtain sugar or valuable products, but more work is needed in this direction. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Chocolate active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    There is a table of current radioactivity values for various foods and mushrooms. A special accent is on milk and chocolate. Chocolate sorts with more powdered milk are more active. Finally there is a chapter on radionucleides contained in the Chernobyl fallout, other than cesium 137, cesium 134 and strontium 90. The amounts of ruthenium 106, antimony 125, cerium 144, silver 110 m, cesium 134, strontium 90 and plutonium 239 relative to cesium 137 in soil samples in autumn 1987 are given. Special emphasis is on ruthenium 'hot particles' and on plutonium. (qui)

  15. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  16. Halal Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to further our understanding of contemporary Muslim consumer activism in Malaysia with a particular focus on halal (in Arabic, literally “permissible” or “lawful”) products and services. Muslim activists and organisations promote halal on a big scale in the interface...... zones between new forms of Islamic revivalism, the ethnicised state and Muslim consumer culture. Organisations such as the Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia play an important role in pushing and protecting halal in Malaysia, that is, halal activists constantly call on the state to tighten halal...... in particular historical/national settings and that these issues should be explored in the interfaces between Islam, the state and market. More specifically, this article examines the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with three Muslim organisations in Malaysia....

  17. Active sharing

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  18. Active Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary.We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach.

  19. IASS Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  20. Evidence that cellulolysis by an anaerobic ruminal fungus is catabolite regulated by glucose, cellobiose, and soluble starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.; Mackie, R.I.; Kistner, A.

    1990-01-01

    A Piromyces-like ruminal fungus was used to study preferential carbohydrate utilization of [U- 14 C]cellulose, both alone and in combination with several soluble sugars. For cells grown on cellulose alone, cellulolytic activity was immediate and, initially, greater than that observed in the presence of added carbohydrate. Cellulolytic activity remained minimal in cultures containing cellulose plus glucose or cellobiose until the soluble sugar was depleted. Soluble starch also regulated cellulose activity but to a lesser extent. The results presented suggest that some fungal cellulases are susceptible to catabolite regulatory mechanisms

  1. Activation Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  9. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Activity Calendar Activity Information Sheets I Heard Hurdle ... Links Sleep Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Physical Activity Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Lurking in ...

  10. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  11. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  12. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E

    1999-01-01

    was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly......The aim of the study was to estimate active knee flexion and active knee extension in athletes and to investigate the potential association of each to different types of sports activity. Active knee extension and active knee flexion was measured in 339 athletes. Active knee extension...... hours of soccer, European team handball and swimming. The results point to sport-specific adaptation of active knee flexion and active knee extension. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Apr...

  13. Effect of cellulase producing fungi on plant residues degradation used as organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.M

    2009-01-01

    Series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Soil microbiology Unit and Farm of soil and Water research department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Laboratory experiments revealed that between nine fungal strain, A. niger was the most potent cellulolytic fungus able to degrade many cellulosic sources (CP, CMC, and FP). Study the effect of cellulolytic fungi on degradation of plant residues used as organic fertilizer in addition to nitrogen fixing bacteria (symbiotically) on lupine growth, yield and nutrients uptake (Field experiment) had been carried out. This objective aims to recycling different plant residues in soil which is consistent with (sustainable development) and utilization of these organic residues as a single carbon source for cellulolytic fungi.Application of 15 N- tracer technique gave us the chance and opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to lupine plant under the effect of cellulolytic fungi on different plant residues.The obtained results could be summarized as following:I.Laboratory Technique Selection of the most potent cellulolytic fungi 1-Nine fungal strains of Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus flavus; Alterrnaria sp.; Trichderma harzianum ; Rhizopus sp. and Syncephalastrum sp. obtained from different sources and tested for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Aspergillus niger and Pencillium oxalicum exhibited the highest cellulase productivity followed by Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus.3- fungal mixtures of the most potent four genera Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus found to have a lower cellulolytic activities for all substrates compared with single inoculation with A. niger.4-Highest FPase activities were exhibited by A. niger when filter paper (FP) used as a carbon source.5-A. niger is

  14. Degradation of cellulosic substances by Thermomonospora curvata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzenberger, F J

    1979-05-01

    Research is reported on the cellulolytic activity of Thermomonospora curvata, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete prevalent in municipal solid waste compost. Various cellulosic wastes were evaluated for their potential for the induction of cellulase synthesis by Th. curvata and the extent of cellulose degradation under optimal culture conditions. All the substrates tested showed significant degradation of their cellulose content with the exception of sawdust and barley straw. In contrast to Trichoderma viride, cotton fibers were the best substrates for both C/sub 1/ and C/sub x/ cellulase production. Further research is recommended. (JSR)

  15. Activation analysis. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The principle, sample and calibration standard preparation, activation by neutrons, charged particles and gamma radiation, sample transport after activation, activity measurement, and chemical sample processing are described for activation analysis. Possible applications are shown of nondestructive activation analysis. (J.P.)

  16. Active transport and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter W

    2011-07-01

    Increasing heat may impede peoples' ability to be active outdoors thus limiting active transport options. Co-benefits from mitigation of and adaptation to global warming should not be assumed but need to be actively designed into strategies.

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ... Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a DFCN Promotion ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  2. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  3. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  4. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ...

  6. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  7. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  8. Regulation of the cellulolytic system in Trichoderma reesei by sophorose: induction of cellulase and repression of beta-glucosidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Sternberg, D; Mandels, G R

    1980-01-01

    Sophorose has two regulatory roles in the production of cellulase enzymes in Trichoderma reesei: beta-glucosidase repression and cellulase induction. Sophorose also is hydrolyzed by the mycelial-associated beta-glucosidase. Repression of beta-glucosidase reduces sophorose hydrolysis and thus may increase cellulase induction.

  9. Bacterial succession on decomposing leaf litter exhibits a specific occurrence pattern of cellulolytic taxa and potential decomposers of fungal mycelia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tláskal, Vojtěch; Voříšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 11 (2016), fiw177 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1288; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : bacteria * leaf litter * decomposition Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  10. Lactosylamidine-based affinity purification for cellulolytic enzymes EG I and CBH I from Hypocrea jecorina and their properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Makoto; Kameshima, Yumiko; Hattori, Takeshi; Michishita, Kousuke; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Totani, Kazuhide; Hiratake, Jun; Usui, Taichi

    2010-12-10

    Selective adsorption and separation of β-glucosidase, endo-acting endo-β-(1→4)-glucanase I (EG I), and exo-acting cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) were achieved by affinity chromatography with β-lactosylamidine as ligand. A crude cellulase preparation from Hypocrea jecorina served as the source of enzyme. When crude cellulase was applied to the lactosylamidine-based affinity column, β-glucosidase appeared in the unbound fraction. By contrast, EG I and CBH I were retained on the column and then separated from each other by appropriately adjusting the elution conditions. The relative affinities of the enzymes, based on their column elution conditions, were strongly dependent on the ligand. The highly purified EG I and CBH I, obtained by affinity chromatography, were further purified by Mono P and DEAE chromatography, respectively. EG I and CBH I cleave only at the phenolic bond in p-nitrophenyl glycosides with lactose and N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc). By contrast, both scissile bonds in p-nitrophenyl glycosides with cellobiose were subject to hydrolysis although with important differences in their kinetic parameters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Criminalisation of Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism.......Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism....

  12. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  13. Active nematic gels as active relaxing solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzi, Stefano S.

    2017-11-01

    I propose a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standard theories, activity is not introduced as an additional term of the stress tensor, but it is added as an external remodeling force that competes with the passive relaxation dynamics and drags the system out of equilibrium. In a simple one-dimensional channel geometry, we show that the interaction between nonuniform nematic order and activity results in either a spontaneous flow of particles or a self-organization into subchannels flowing in opposite directions.

  14. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  15. Active regions, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martres, M.J.; Bruzek, A.

    1977-01-01

    The solar Active Region is an extremely complex phenomenon comprising a large variety of features (active,region phenomena) in the photosphere, chromosphere and corona. The occurrence of the various active phenomena depends on the phase and state of evolution of the AR; their appearance depends on the radiation used for the observation. The various phenomena are described and illustrated with photographs. Several paragraphs are dedicated to magnetic classification of AR, Mt. Wilson Spot Classification, solar activity indices, and solar activity data publications

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 14, No 20 (2015), Cellulolytic activity of gut extract of subterranean termite, Odontotermes obesus Rambur: A pretreatment tool for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugar for biorefinery industry, Abstract PDF. N Senthilkumar, S Murugesan, DS Babu. 2001 - 2050 of 11090 Items, << < 36 37 38 39 40 ...

  17. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 20 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulolytic activity of gut extract of subterranean termite, Odontotermes obesus Rambur: A pretreatment tool for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugar for biorefinery industry · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. N Senthilkumar, S ...

  18. Response to Comment on "Revealing nature's cellulase diversity: the digestion mechanism of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii CelA".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Alahuhta, Markus; Xu, Qi; Donohoe, Bryon S; Crowley, Michael F; Kataeva, Irina A; Yang, Sung-Jae; Resch, Michael G; Adams, Michael W W; Lunin, Vladimir V; Himmel, Michael E; Bomble, Yannick J

    2014-05-09

    Gusakov critiques our methodology for comparing the cellulolytic activity of the bacterial cellulase CelA with the fungal cellulase Cel7A. We address his concerns by clarifying some misconceptions, carefully referencing the literature, and justifying our approach to point out that the results from our study still stand.

  19. Evaluation of minimal Trichoderma reesei cellulase mixtures on differently pretreated barley straw substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Langston, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The commercial cellulase product Celluclast 1.5, derived from Trichoderma reesei (Novozymes A/S, Bagsv ae rd, Denmark), is widely employed for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. This enzyme preparation contains a broad spectrum of cellulolytic enzyme activities, most notably...

  20. Evaluation of Minimal Trichoderma reesei Cellulase Mixtures on Differently Pretreated Barley Straw Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Langston, J

    2007-01-01

    The commercial cellulase product Celluclast 1.5, derived from Trichoderma reesei (Novozymes A/S, Bagsv ae rd, Denmark), is widely employed for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. This enzyme preparation contains a broad spectrum of cellulolytic enzyme activities, most notably...

  1. Lectures Abandoned: Active Learning by Active Seminars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Corry, Aino Vonge

    2012-01-01

    Traditional lecture-based courses are widely criticised for be- ing less eective in teaching. The question is of course what should replace the lectures and various active learning tech- niques have been suggested and studied. In this paper, we report on our experiences of redesigning a software ......- tive seminars as a replacement of traditional lectures, an activity template for the contents of active seminars, an ac- count on how storytelling supported the seminars, as well as reports on our and the students' experiences....

  2. Antifeedant activity of quassinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskinen, V; Polonsky, J; Bhatnagar, S

    1984-10-01

    The antifeedant activity of 13 quassinoids of different structural types has been studied against the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) 4th instar larvae and the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Crawer) 5th instar larvae. All quassinoids tested displayed significant activity against the Mexican bean beetle and, thus, do not reveal a simple structure-activity relationship. Five quassinoids were active against the southern armyworm. Interestingly, four of these-bruceantin (I), glaucarubinone (VI), isobruceine A (VIII), and simalikalactone D (XI)-possess the required structural features for antineoplastic activity. The noncytotoxic quassin (X) is an exception; it is active against both pests.

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

  4. Illicit Activities and Goondagardi

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research analyzes the pathways through which exclusionary urban ... casual labour in construction or small-scale trade activities, etc) and ... PATHWAYS TO ILLICIT ACTIVITIES .... VGG Nagar had become a gambling den for some time.

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity ... Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example ... Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  9. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  11. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  13. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

  17. Diabetes - keeping active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to add more activity to your day. Introduction There are many benefits to being active. Staying ... them emails. Take the stairs instead of the elevator. Stand up and move around while making phone ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  19. Activities for Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Arthur A.

    1987-01-01

    Ten activities that give learners in grades 5-8 a chance to explore mathematics with calculators are provided. The activity cards involve such topics as odd addends, magic squares, strange projects, and conjecturing rules. (MNS)

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  1. Major operations and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs ...

  3. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  4. Interpretable Active Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Richard L.; Chang, Kyu Hyun; Friedler, Sorelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Active learning has long been a topic of study in machine learning. However, as increasingly complex and opaque models have become standard practice, the process of active learning, too, has become more opaque. There has been little investigation into interpreting what specific trends and patterns an active learning strategy may be exploring. This work expands on the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations framework (LIME) to provide explanations for active learning recommendations. W...

  5. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & ...

  6. Activity-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

      In many types of activities communicative and material activities are so intertwined that the one cannot be understood without taking the other into account. This is true of maritime and hospital work that are used as examples in the paper. The spatial context of the activity is also important:...... and automatic machinery can replace one another in an activity. It also gives an example of how to use the framework for design....

  7. Ras activation by SOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual ...

  8. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  9. Modeling Patterns of Activities using Activity Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla N; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-06-01

    Pervasive computing offers an unprecedented opportunity to unobtrusively monitor behavior and use the large amount of collected data to perform analysis of activity-based behavioral patterns. In this paper, we introduce the notion of an activity curve , which represents an abstraction of an individual's normal daily routine based on automatically-recognized activities. We propose methods to detect changes in behavioral routines by comparing activity curves and use these changes to analyze the possibility of changes in cognitive or physical health. We demonstrate our model and evaluate our change detection approach using a longitudinal smart home sensor dataset collected from 18 smart homes with older adult residents. Finally, we demonstrate how big data-based pervasive analytics such as activity curve-based change detection can be used to perform functional health assessment. Our evaluation indicates that correlations do exist between behavior and health changes and that these changes can be automatically detected using smart homes, machine learning, and big data-based pervasive analytics.

  10. Heterogeneous Active Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Thomas; Klotsa, Daphne

    Active systems are composed of self-propelled (active) particles that locally convert energy into motion and exhibit emergent collective behaviors, such as fish schooling and bird flocking. Most works so far have focused on monodisperse, one-component active systems. However, real systems are heterogeneous, and consist of several active components. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of multi-component active matter systems and report on their emergent behavior. We discuss the phase diagram of dynamic states as well as parameters where we see mixing versus segregation.

  11. Active food packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited.

  12. Accessibility, activity participation and location of activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    By investigating relationships between residential location and the availability of facilities, location of activities, trip distances, activity participation and trip frequencies, this paper seeks to contribute to a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the relationships between residential...... location and the amount of daily-life travel in an urban region. The empirical data are from a comprehensive study of residential location and travel in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area. Differences between inner- and outer-area residents in activity frequencies and trip frequencies are modest and partly...... outweigh each other. However, differences in trip distances due to the location of the dwelling relative to concentrations of facilities translate into substantially longer total travelling distances among suburbanites than among inner-city residents....

  13. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  14. NEA activities in 1980. 9. Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1980 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, nuclear safety research and licensing, nuclear law, nuclear development and fuel cycle studies technical co-operation, nuclear science organisation and administration are reviewed

  15. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  16. Activated carbon from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  17. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    In the recent decade the concept of active aging has become important in the Western hemisphere. The World Health Organization and The European Union have staged active aging as a core policy area and initiated programs of physical activity, independence and prolonged working lives among...... the elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities...... in their socio-material practices form active aging. Hence, active aging is a mutual entanglement (Callon and Rabeharisoa 2004) between technologies, practices and subjectivities. The paper is based on four months of participant observations and 17 in-depth interviews with elderly persons conducted at three...

  18. Mechanics of active surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank

    2017-09-01

    We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations. We show that the bending modulus, the spontaneous curvature, and the surface tension of a passive surface are renormalized by active terms. Finally, we identify active terms which are not found in a passive theory and discuss examples of shape instabilities that are related to active processes in the surface.

  19. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  20. Optimizing Active Cyber Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenlian; Xu, Shouhuai; Yi, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Active cyber defense is one important defensive method for combating cyber attacks. Unlike traditional defensive methods such as firewall-based filtering and anti-malware tools, active cyber defense is based on spreading "white" or "benign" worms to combat against the attackers' malwares (i.e., malicious worms) that also spread over the network. In this paper, we initiate the study of {\\em optimal} active cyber defense in the setting of strategic attackers and/or strategic defenders. Specific...

  1. Contemporary physical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tainio, Matti

    2018-01-01

    The customary view of today’s recreational physical activities turns the human movement into a rational practice that is pursued for practical reasons only: for health, vitality, stamina and longevity. This prevalent point of view affects the understanding of the ends, content and quality of physical activities and it creates a bias where the biological, physiological and medical characteristics of physical activities are emphasized while the sensuous, experiential and creative aspects are su...

  2. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  4. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  5. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  6. Automatic NAA. Saturation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Grass, F.; Kuhnert, M.

    2008-01-01

    A system for Automatic NAA is based on a list of specific saturation activities determined for one irradiation position at a given neutron flux and a single detector geometry. Originally compiled from measurements of standard reference materials, the list may be extended also by the calculation of saturation activities from k 0 and Q 0 factors, and f and α values of the irradiation position. A systematic improvement of the SRM approach is currently being performed by pseudo-cyclic activation analysis, to reduce counting errors. From these measurements, the list of saturation activities is recalculated in an automatic procedure. (author)

  7. Contact activation: a revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, A H

    1997-07-01

    In conclusion, a revised view of the contact system has been presented. This system has little to do with the initiation of hemostasis. Like lupus anticoagulants, deficiencies of contact proteins give prolonged APTTs but may be risk factors for thrombosis. BK from kininogens is a potent modulator of vascular biology inducing vasodilation, tissue plasminogen activator release, and prostacyclin liberation. Kininogens, themselves, are selective inhibitors of alpha-thrombin-induced platelet activation preventing alpha-thrombin from cleaving the cloned thrombin receptor after arginine41. Kininogens' alpha-thrombin inhibitory activity exists in intact kininogens, BK, and all of BK's breakdown products. HK also is the pivotal protein for contact protein assembly on endothelium. It is the receptor for prekallikrein which when bound to HK becomes activated to kallikrein by an endothelial cell enzyme system independent of activated forms of plasma factor XII. Prekallikrein activation on endothelial cells results in kinetically favorable single chain urokinase and plasminogen activation. Thus the "physiologic, negatively charged surface" for contact system activation is really the assembly of these proteins on cell membranes and activation by membrane-associated enzymes.

  8. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, G.J.; Hancock, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  9. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling, food...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  11. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  12. NEA activities in 1983. 12. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1983 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, nuclear development and the fuel cycles nuclear safety technology and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings and other NEA joint projects, organisation and administration are reviewed

  13. Russian: An Active Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Nina

    The Active Introduction is one of the modules in an array of materials used in Russian training for beginners at the Foreign Service Institute. It is essentially a catalog of sentences relating to typical daily activities which can be combined to form different communication sequences in dialog form. Students learn to speak Russian through…

  14. Activation analysis. Detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, G.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical data and limits of detection related to the four irradiation modes, often used in activation analysis (reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons, photon gamma and charged particles) are presented here. The technical presentation of the activation analysis is detailed in the paper P 2565 of Techniques de l'Ingenieur. (A.L.B.)

  15. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  16. Rhythmic Activities for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Practical Pointers, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Focusing on the development of fundamental rhythm skills involved in music and movement activities, this teaching guide emphasizes activities that will help children express their feelings and communicate with others, develop perceptual and motor skills, and enhance sensory awareness. Suggestions for involving handicapped children and examples of…

  17. Elementary Environmental Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert J.

    This guide presents suggestions for field trips, out-of-doors activities, material for centers, and individualized activities in the teaching of elementary school science and particularly environmental education at the elementary level. The guide includes a section on preparation and procedures for conducting field trips, including sample…

  18. Enzyme with rhamnogalacturonase activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kofod, L.V.; Andersen, L.N.; Dalboge, H.; Kauppinen, M.S.; Christgau, S.; Heldt-Hansen, H.P.; Christophersen, C.; Nielsen, P.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme exhibiting rhamnogalacturonase activity, capable of cleaving a rhamnogalacturonan backbone in such a manner that galacturonic acids are left as the non-reducing ends, and which exhibits activity on hairy regions from a soy bean material and/or on saponified hairy regions from a sugar beet

  19. RTE activity report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The RTE (electric power transport network) is the french manger of the electric power transport. This activity report provides information on the company results for the year 2005: panorama of the year, management and organization, the place of RTE in the european market, the customers, the industrial tool, the environment the human resources, the international activity and the management report. (A.L.B.)

  20. Active and Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  1. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  2. Activity report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This annual report deals with the activities, the program management and the financial aspects of the ANDRA (National Agency for the radioactive wastes management) during 2002. After a presentation of the activities during the year 2002, it provides the financial accounting, data on company cash, the ANDRA missions and publications. (A.L.B.)

  3. Mental activity and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Gert Jan

    2018-01-01

    How does culture affect mental activity? That question, applied to the design of social agents, is tackled in this chapter. Mental activity acts on the perceived outside world. It does so in three steps: perceive, interpret, select action. We see that when culture is taken into account, objective

  4. NEA activities in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an account of the activities of the Nuclear Energy Agency. It deals with current nuclear trends, nuclear development and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety research and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings, and, organization and administration

  5. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  6. Respirometry in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to develop a respiration meter capable of continuously measuring, using different procedures, the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge and (2) to expand knowledge about respiration related characteristics of wastewater and activated sludge.

    A

  7. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  8. Automation of activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.N.; Ivanets, V.N.; Filippov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The basic data on the methods and equipment of activation analysis are presented. Recommendations on the selection of activation analysis techniques, and especially the technique envisaging the use of short-lived isotopes, are given. The equipment possibilities to increase dataway carrying capacity, using modern computers for the automation of the analysis and data processing procedure, are shown

  9. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  10. Children's recreational physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect

  11. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  12. Reflections on Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  13. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  14. Activity Fund Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Addresses the need of school districts in many states to decide on an appropriate mingling of centralization and decentralization in the operation of activity funds. Argues for analysis of activity fund operation through a breakdown into such major components as policy, the accounting system, and reporting and auditing. (JBM)

  15. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  16. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....

  17. AMP (Activity Manipulation Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, W.W. Jr.

    1976-03-01

    AMP is a FORTRAN IV program written to handle energy-group structured activity factors such as sources, conversion factors, and response functions, as used by ANISN, DOT III, and other nuclear reactor and shielding codes. Activities may be retrieved from ANISN-type cross-section and activity sets found on cards and tapes, and from tabular-type sets on cards. They may be altered by change of group structure, multiplication by a constant, or multiplication by delta E (the group-energy interval), and then output to ANISN-type cards or tape and tabular-type cards. A full edit of input and output activities is always printed by group and activity number

  18. ANDRA, 2006 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The French national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) was marked in 2006 by two outstanding events: the publication of the national inventory of radioactive wastes and valorisable materials, and the vote of the law from June 28, 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive wastes and materials. This road-map law has an impact on ANDRA's activities for the coming years. This activity report presents several 2006 highlights of ANDRA's missions as well: the public service mission, the by-law about the effluents of the Aube plant for the storage of low-medium activity wastes, the building of the first 'double-cell' at the very-low activity waste storage plant of Aube, the research studies about the project of deep underground disposal of high-medium activity, long-living wastes, and the public information about ANDRA's technical and scientific know-how. The management and financial reports are attached in appendix. (J.S.)

  19. Active chiral fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürthauer, S; Strempel, M; Grill, S W; Jülicher, F

    2012-09-01

    Active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries. Examples are the chirality of cytoskeletal filaments which interact with motor proteins, the chirality of the beat of cilia and flagella as well as the helical trajectories of many biological microswimmers. Here, we derive constitutive material equations for active fluids which account for the effects of active chiral processes. We identify active contributions to the antisymmetric part of the stress as well as active angular momentum fluxes. We discuss four types of elementary chiral motors and their effects on a surrounding fluid. We show that large-scale chiral flows can result from the collective behavior of such motors even in cases where isolated motors do not create a hydrodynamic far field.

  20. Activation neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1976-01-01

    An activation neutron detector made as a moulded and cured composition of a material capable of being neutron-activated is described. The material is selected from a group consisting of at least two chemical elements, a compound of at least two chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements being capable of interacting with neutrons to form radioactive isotopes having different radiation energies when disintegrating. The material capable of being neutron-activated is distributed throughout the volume of a polycondensation resin inert with respect to neutrons and capable of curing. 17 Claims, No Drawings

  1. Mnemonic activation by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneco, O.; Darcourt, J.; Benoit, M; Malandain, G.; Thirion, J.P.; Robert, Ph.; Vidal, R.; Desvignes, Ph.; Benoliel, J.; Ayache, N.; Bussiere, F.

    1997-01-01

    Data of literature show that SPECT is able to detect cerebral activations induced by sensory-motor stimuli. The facts are not clearly established in what concerns the cognitive activations the amplitude of which is lower. We have studied an activation paradigm such as the Grober and Bruschke test which implies the long term explicit memory. It comprises a visual presentation of words followed by their indexed recall. By using a two-day protocol, 2 SPECTs were achieved in 4 healthy right-handed voluntaries as follows: one of activation (A) and one of control (B). The fifth subject benefited by a SPECT B and of an MRI. The injection for the examination A has been done during the indexed recall stage and for the examination B at the moment when the patient repeated several times the same 3 words. The SPECT data were collected 1 hour after the injection of 370 MBq of ECD making use of a 3-head camera equipped with UHR fan collimators and ending by a LMH on the reconstructed images of 8 mm. The MRI has been achieved by means of a Signa 1.5 Tesla magnet. The SPECT A and B of the subjects 1 to 4 were matched elastically to that of the subject 5 and that of the subject 5 was rigidly matched on its MRI. In this way the individual activation cards of the 4 subjects could be averaged and superimposed on the MRI of the 5. subject. One observes an internal temporal activation (maximal activation of left tonsil, +25% and right uncus, +23%) and a right cingulum activation (maximal activation, +25%), in agreement with the neuro-physiological data. The elastic matching makes possible the inter-subject averaging, what increases the signal-to-noise ratio of activation. The inter-modality rigid matching facilitates the anatomical localisation of the activation site. With these adapted tools, the cognitive activation is thus possible by SPECT and opens perspectives for early diagnosis of neurological troubles, namely of Alzheimer's disease

  2. Forecast of auroral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, A.T.Y.

    2004-01-01

    A new technique is developed to predict auroral activity based on a sample of over 9000 auroral sites identified in global auroral images obtained by an ultraviolet imager on the NASA Polar satellite during a 6-month period. Four attributes of auroral activity sites are utilized in forecasting, namely, the area, the power, and the rates of change in area and power. This new technique is quite accurate, as indicated by the high true skill scores for forecasting three different levels of auroral dissipation during the activity lifetime. The corresponding advanced warning time ranges from 22 to 79 min from low to high dissipation levels

  3. Activity report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, L.V.; Lee, S.M.; Sahoo, D.; Sreedharan, O.M.; Srinivasan, G.

    1979-05-01

    The Research and Development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, during the year 1977 are reported. The report is presented in the form of individual summaries of R and D activities most of which are connected with the FBTR project. These R and D activities deal with various aspects of the FBTR project such as reactor physics, reactor design, reactor engineering, fabrication, testing and quality assurance of reactor materials and components, reactor chemistry, reactor safety, reprocessing, systems analysis and instrumentation. (M.G.B.)

  4. A neutron activation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1973-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron activation detector made from a moulded and hardened composition. According to the invention, that composition contains an activable substance constituted by at least two chemical elements and/or compounds of at least two chemical elements. Each of these chemical elements is capable of reacting with the neutrons forming radio-active isotopes with vatious levels of energy during desintegration. This neutron detector is mainly suitable for measuring integral thermal neutron and fast neutron fluxes during irradiation of the sample, and also for measuring the intensities of neutron fields [fr

  5. Active Directory cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Laura

    2008-01-01

    When you need practical hands-on support for Active Directory, the updated edition of this extremely popular Cookbook provides quick solutions to more than 300 common (and uncommon) problems you might encounter when deploying, administering, and automating Microsoft's network directory service. For the third edition, Active Directory expert Laura E. Hunter offers troubleshooting recipes based on valuable input from Windows administrators, in addition to her own experience. You'll find solutions for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), ADAM (Active Directory Application Mode), m

  6. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  7. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  8. 1985. Activity progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The research program of the Laboratory of nuclear and high energy physics (LPNHE) of the Institute of nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) presents the research activities of its groups: principally, the Delphi group which constructs the outer detector of Delphi at LEP, the neutrino group which studies the neutrino mass, the Hera group whose work is collaboration to the construction of a detector for Hera collisioner; in parallel to these activities, other more little groups continue analysis of activities which are going to be finished: they are the CELLO group, the EHS group, the omega prime group and the nuclear emulsion group [fr

  9. Scientific activities 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The scientific activities and achievements of the Nuclear Research Center Democritus for the year 1979 are presented in the form of a list of 78 projects giving title, objectives, commencement year, responsible of each project, developed activities and the pertaining lists of publications. The 15 chapters of this work cover the activities of the main Divisions of the Democritus NRC: Electronics, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Health Physics, Reactor, Radioisotopes, Environmental Radioactivity, Soil Science, Computer Center, Uranium Exploration, Medical Service, Technological Applications and Training. (T.A.)

  10. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  11. IPSN's 2001 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activities and operation of the French institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN) which has become the institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) after its merging with the office of protection against ionizing radiations (OPRI). IPSN's activities cover: the safety of nuclear facilities, the safety of nuclear wastes, the management of emergencies, the management of sensible materials, the protection of the environment and of the public health, some research activities with foreign partners (central and eastern Europe, Asia..), and a partnership with the GRS, the German homologue of IPSN. (J.S.)

  12. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  13. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of ... feet before, during, and after physical activity. What physical activities should I do if I have diabetes? Most ...

  14. Cryogenic Active Mirrors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort seeks to develop active mirrors that can correct for thermally-induced figure deformations upon cooling from room-temperature at the time of manufacture,...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  16. Mining activities at Neyveli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathy, P.V.; Rathinavel, R.

    1993-01-01

    Mining activities at lignite areas around Neyveli are described. Measures taken to safeguard the environment from despoliation of land, air pollution, noise pollution and effluents are described. (M.G.B.)

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  19. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC CDC A-Z Index ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript ...

  1. Uranium market activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized from the 1974 ERDA annual survey of buyers and sellers and from a survey of uranium price data which provided information on additional domestic buying activity during the first half of 1975 through 1982

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...

  3. CDBG Public Improvements Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers, fire...

  4. Homebuyer Activities Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet. PJs can use this report to view homebuyer activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS that are in final draw,...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to ... ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, ... If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a ...

  7. 1996 GRAMME activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This note draws a balance of the activities made at CEA-DEM within the frame of GRAMME collaboration. Results in six interest fields are presented: solidification, Mephisto program, transport phenomena, isothermal diffusion, rhenium alloys and instrumentation. (A.C.)

  8. OTI Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OTI's worldwide activity database is a simple and effective information system that serves as a program management, tracking, and reporting tool. In each country,...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  11. Home Activities Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet, broken up by state. PJs can use this report to view activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS, including;...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting ... attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple ...

  14. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World ... Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG ...

  19. Antitubercular activities of quinolones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper gives a brief account of the recently introduced Szeged index. (Sz). Using this .... good correlation with antitubercular activities and yield physically meaningful regressions. ..... Parr R G and Pearson R G 1983 J. Am. Chem. Soc.

  20. Enerplan, activity report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2010 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

  2. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  3. Activity report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1980-07-01

    The activites of the Eurochemic (European Company for the Chemical Processing of Irradiated Fuels) at Mol is summarized under the following headings: the decontamination and intervention in the Fuel Reception and Storage Building, the active operation of the bituminization facility, the construction of two additional storage bunkers, the full active operation of the section for the handling of solid waste and the construction of various units for the conditioning of organic liquid waste and plutonium hearing solid wastes. (AF)

  4. Activity report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drent, W.; Delande, E.

    1981-07-01

    The EUROCHEMIC Company's activity report for fiscal year 1980 covers the following topics: administrative and commercial matters; personnel; cleaning and decontamination works in the reprocessing plant; operation of the bituminization facility; active treatment of the spent solvent in the Eurowatt facility; operation of the waste sorting and shredding unit, preparing the plutonium contaminated solid wastes for conditioning and recovery of plutonium; radiation protection and library and documentation. (AF)

  5. Reflections on Active Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    with a Software Switch for Active Networks ”. We had initially called the project “ SoftSwitch ”, but after some concerns David Farber raised that this...Reflections on Active Networking Jonathan M. Smith CIS Department, University of Pennsylvania jms@cis.upenn.edu Abstract Interactions among...telecommunications networks , computers, and other peripheral devices have been of interest since the earliest distributed computing systems. A key

  6. Low activation ferritic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  7. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  8. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  9. Activity report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthakrishna, G.; Ramanathan, N.; Rodriguez, P.; Shankar Singh, R.; Venkataraman, S.

    1977-08-01

    The report covers a wide range of R and D activities in the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India). The scientific and technical activities in various fields such as: reactor physics, reactor design, reactor engineering, design of sodium circuits, reactor fuel handling, electrical and instrumentation engineering for FBTR, data processing system, reactor operation studies, reactor construction, materials science, metallurgy, reprocessing, instrumentation, safety research and engineering services, have been reported in brief. (A.K.)

  10. Fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelnik, R.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1981 numerous 14 MeV neutron activation analyses were performed at Korona. On the basis of that work the advantages of this analysis technique and therewith obtained results are compared with other analytical methods. The procedure of activation analysis, the characteristics of Korona, some analytical investigations in environmental research and material physics, as well as sources of systematic errors in trace analysis are described. (orig.) [de

  11. Taxing Financial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. Mintz

    2003-01-01

    In most countries, substantial business activity is related to financial intermediation: banking, trusts, investment companies and insurance. Financial businesses play a crucial role in the economy by matching lenders with borrowers as well as facilitating governance of businesses through close monitoring of funds lent to businesses. Financial institutions also reduce risk faced by investors by pooling investments over many different types of business activities and insuring against property,...

  12. Activity report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthakrishna, G.; Ramanathan, N.; Rodriguez, P.; Shankar Singh, R.; Venkataraman, S.

    1978-11-01

    The research and development activities of the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, during 1976 are reported. The main thrust of the R and D activities is directed towards the FBTR Project and they deal with the various aspects of the project such as reactor physics, reactor design, fuel handling, reactor instrumentation, reactor operation, reactor construction, reactor safety, reactor materials, reactor chemistry and fuel reprocessing. (M.G.B.)

  13. Liquidity and Shareholder Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Norli, Øyvind; Ostergaard, Charlotte; Schindele, Ibolya

    2009-01-01

    This is the authors’ accepted, refereed and final manuscript to the article Blockholders' incentives to intervene in corporate governance are weakened by free-rider problems and high costs of activism. Theory suggests activists may recoup expenses through informed trading of target rms' stock when stocks are liquid. We show that stock liquidity increases the probability of activism but does less so for potentially overvalued rms for which privately informed blockholders may h...

  14. Shareholder activism in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Raluca

    2015-01-01

    This paper conducts the first assessment of shareholder activism in banking and its effects on risk and performance. The focus is on the conflicts among bank shareholders, managers, and creditors (e.g., regulators, deposit insurer, taxpayers, depositors). This paper finds activism may generally be a destabilizing force, increasing bank risk-taking, but creating market value for shareholders, and leaving operating returns unchanged, consistent with the empirical dominance of the Shareholder-Cr...

  15. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  16. Antibacterial activity of antileukoprotease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, P S; Maassen, R J; Stolk, J; Heinzel-Wieland, R; Steffens, G J; Dijkman, J H

    1996-01-01

    Antileukoprotease (ALP), or secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor, is an endogenous inhibitor of serine proteinases that is present in various external secretions. ALP, one of the major inhibitors of serine proteinases present in the human lung, is a potent reversible inhibitor of elastase and, to a lesser extent, of cathepsin G. In equine neutrophils, an antimicrobial polypeptide that has some of the characteristics of ALP has been identified (M. A. Couto, S. S. L. Harwig, J. S. Cullor, J. P. Hughes, and R. I. Lehrer, Infect. Immun. 60:5042-5047, 1992). This report, together with the cationic nature of ALP, led us to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ALP. ALP was shown to display marked in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. On a molar basis, the activity of ALP was lower than that of two other cationic antimicrobial polypeptides, lysozyme and defensin. ALP comprises two homologous domains: its proteinase-inhibitory activities are known to be located in the second COOH-terminal domain, and the function of its first NH2-terminal domain is largely unknown. Incubation of intact ALP or its isolated first domain with E. coli or S. aureus resulted in killing of these bacteria, whereas its second domain displayed very little antibacterial activity. Together these data suggest a putative antimicrobial role for the first domain of ALP and indicate that its antimicrobial activity may equip ALP to contribute to host defense against infection. PMID:8890201

  17. Psychomotor activities with seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kopřivová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the

  18. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  19. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  20. Walkability and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with

  1. Active noise control primer

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Scott D

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control - the reduction of noise by generating an acoustic signal that actively interferes with the noise - has become an active area of basic research and engineering applications. The aim of this book is to present all of the basic knowledge one needs for assessing how useful active noise control will be for a given problem and then to provide some guidance for designing, setting up, and tuning an active noise-control system. Written for students who have no prior knowledge of acoustics, signal processing, or noise control but who do have a reasonable grasp of basic physics and mathematics, the book is short and descriptive. It leaves for more advanced texts or research monographs all mathematical details and proofs concerning vibrations, signal processing and the like. The book can thus be used in independent study, in a classroom with laboratories, or in conjunction with a kit for experiment or demonstration. Topics covered include: basic acoustics; human perception and sound; sound intensity...

  2. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  3. Parsing Heterogeneous Striatal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Nakamura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum. Looking for generality in the complex striatal activity patterns, here we briefly survey several types of striatal activity, focusing on their usefulness for mediating behaviors. In particular, we focus on two types of behavioral tasks: reward-based tasks that use salient sensory cues and manipulate outcomes associated with the cues; and perceptual decision tasks that manipulate the quality of noisy sensory cues and associate all correct decisions with the same outcome. Guided by previous insights on the modular organization and general selection-related functions of the basal ganglia, we relate striatal activity patterns on these tasks to two types of computations: implementation of selection and evaluation. We suggest that a parsing with the selection/evaluation categories encourages a focus on the functional commonalities revealed by studies with different animal models and behavioral tasks, instead of a focus on aspects of striatal activity that may be specific to a particular task setting. We then highlight several questions in the selection-evaluation framework for future explorations.

  4. Photon-activation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Photon Activation Therapy (PAT) is a technique in which radiation dose to tumor is enhanced via introduction of stable 127 I in the form of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd). Stimulation of cytotoxic effects from IdUrd is accomplished by activation with external (or implanted) radiation sources. Thus, accumulations of this nucleoside in actively competing cellpools do not preclude therapy in so far as such tissues can be excluded from the radiation field. Calculations show that 5% replacement of thymidine (Tyd) in tumor DNA should enhance the biological effectiveness of a given photon radiotherapy dose by a factor of approx. 3. Proportionally higher gains would result from higher replacements of Tyd and IdUrd. In addition, biological response is enhanced by chemical sensitization with IdUrd. The data indicate that damage from photon activation as well as chemical sensitization does not repair. Thus, at low dose rates, a further increase in therapeutic gain should accrue as normal tissues are allowed to repair and regenerate. A samarium-145 source has been developed for PAT, with activating x-ray energies of from 38 to 45 keV. Favorable clinical results can be expected through the use of IdUrd and protracted irradiations with low energy x-rays. In particular, PAT may provide unique advantages at selected sites such as brain, or head and neck tumors

  5. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  6. Arctic industrial activities compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Most industrial activities in the Beaufort Sea region are directly or indirectly associated with the search for oil and gas. Activities in marine areas include dredging, drilling, seismic and sounding surveys, island/camp maintenance, vessel movements, helicoptor and fixed-wind flights, and ice-breaking. This inventory contains a summary of chemical usage at 119 offshore drilling locations in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Islands and Davis Straight of the Canadian Arctic between 1973 and 1987. Data are graphically displayed for evaluating patterns of drill waste discharge in the three offshore drilling areas. These displays include a comparison of data obtained from tour sheets and well history records, summaries of drilling mud chemicals used by year, well and oil company, frequency of wells drilled as a function of water depth, and offshore drilling activity by year, company, and platform. 21 refs., 104 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector...... effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  8. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    for children and the elderly, which in turn allows in particular women to (re-)enter the labour market, de-commodification of labour through easy accessible and relative generous cash benefits providing a more flexible labour market, and re-commodification of labour through conditioning of benefits and active......This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...... labour market policies giving long-term unemployed and people with low skills better opportunities to participate in the labour market, whether the ordinary or in special activities....

  9. Rheology of Active Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintillan, David

    2018-01-01

    An active fluid denotes a viscous suspension of particles, cells, or macromolecules able to convert chemical energy into mechanical work by generating stresses on the microscale. By virtue of this internal energy conversion, these systems display unusual macroscopic rheological signatures, including a curious transition to an apparent superfluid-like state where internal activity exactly compensates viscous dissipation. These behaviors are unlike those of classical complex fluids and result from the coupling of particle configurations with both externally applied flows and internally generated fluid disturbances. Focusing on the well-studied example of a suspension of microswimmers, this review summarizes recent experiments, models, and simulations in this area and highlights the critical role played by the rheological response of these active materials in a multitude of phenomena, from the enhanced transport of passive suspended objects to the emergence of spontaneous flows and collective motion.

  10. IHY activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (http://www.alage.org/IHYLA/ihyla.html), hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  11. CEREM activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This 1997 issue of the activity report of the CEREM (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEREM organization, activities and human resources with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the materials fabrication for the nuclear and automotive industries, the powders metallurgy (molding by injection, cold pressing modelling), the simulation of the hot and cold working processes, the surface treatments, the joining (brazed joints, sintering, welding), the electrochemical storage of the energy (fuel cells, lithium accumulators), the corrosion and the physico-chemistry of fluids, the mechanical properties and the cracks, the robots for nuclear units dismantlement, the alteration mechanisms of properties under different solicitations (thermal, mechanical, chemical, irradiation) and the solidification-crystallogenesis. (O.M.)

  12. Activity report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1978-07-01

    The principal activities of Eurochemic plant in the fields of reprocessing and the solidification and conditioning of liquid wastes are presented in this report that covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1977. Works in the plant are closely related to the handling of fuel element and the treatment of solid wastes as well as the management of liquid wastes. Industrial development activities have been primarily devoted to the solidification of HEWC (highly enriched waste concentrate) by means of the Lotes process; the treatment of spent solvent by means of the Eurowatt process; the treatment of the plutonium-bearing solid wastes by the Eurowetcomb process and the conditioning of highly activity non-combustible solid wastes by incorporation into polymer-concrete matrix . (AF)

  13. Activity report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1979-07-01

    The principal activities of Eurochemic plant in the fields of reprocessing and the solidification and conditioning of liquid and solid wastes are presented in this report that covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1978. Works in the plant are closely related to the decontamination in cooperation with specialized firms. Active operation of bituminization facility was started in June, and a total of 66 m 3 of medium level waste was incorporated into bitumen by the end of 1978. The associated storage facility was in active operation since June and preliminary studies for its extension were completed. A facility was completed for the conditioning of solid wastes arising from the decontamination operation of solid wastes whch were stored under water during plant operation. (AF)

  14. Safeguards activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    Current Japanese State System for Accountancy and Control (SSAC) has been developing and fully satisfies requirements of both IAEA Safeguards and bilateral partners. However, the public attention on the national and international safeguards activities were increased and the safeguards authorities were required to promote the objective assessment of safeguards implementation to avoid mistrust in safeguards activities which directly influence the public acceptance of nuclear energy in itself. Additionally, since Japan has promoted to complete nuclear fuel cycle including spent fuel reprocessing, enrichment and mixed oxide fuel fabrication this would require further assurance of Japanese non-proliferation commitment. Japan supports the introduction of strengthened safeguards. In this context it is particularly important to strengthen the relationship between national and the IAEA safeguards to contribute actively to the IAEA safeguards in development and utilization of new technologies towards more effective and efficient IAEA safeguards

  15. Physical activity and osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gates, L S; Leyland, K M; Sheard, S

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as an important factor within studies of osteoarthritis (OA). However, subjective methods used to assess PA are highly variable and have not been developed for use within studies of OA, which creates difficulties when comparing and interpreting PA...... established via an international expert consensus meeting and modified Delphi exercise using a geographically diverse committee selected on the basis of individual expertise in physical activity, exercise medicine, and OA. Agreement was met for all aims of study: (1) The use of Metabolic Equivalent of Task...... (MET) minutes per week (MET-min/week) as a method for harmonising PA variables among cohorts; (2) The determination of methods for treating missing components of MET-min/week calculation; a value will be produced from comparable activities within a representative cohort; (3) Exclusion of the domain...

  16. Report of Activity - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    The Report of Activity on 1997 published by Waste Management Division (Direction chargee de la Gestion des Dechets) of French Atomic Energy Authority (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) presents the current activity in the framework of CEA Recovery Plan for Civil Centers initiated in 1991, aiming at managing all the radioactive problems issued from its Research and Development Activities. This plan covers three principal directions: management of radioactive wastes resulting from CEA research activities, reprocessing or storing the spent or un-used fuel resulting from research or prototype reactors, recovery measures and dismantling of nuclear facilities. In the field of radioactive waste management important projects, assuring the waste processing equipment, were developed in 1997 at Saclay (STELLA Installation), Cadarache (AGATE Installation) and Marcoule (ATENA Installation). The Radioactive Waste Storage TFA was put into operation at Cadarache. In the field of out-of-use fuel, in 1997 the fuel reprocessing units CARAMEL and UNGG were finished while as temporary storage for fuels waiting to be processed the CASCAD facility at Cadarache was assigned. Finally, concerning the recovery/dismantling activities, priority was granted to recover: the Radiochemical Lab. at Fontenay, the pilot workshop and UP1 plant of COGEMA at Marcoule, the EL4 reactor (in a joint action with EDF), and the AT1 pilot workshop at Cherbourg. The report is structured on five chapters with the following content: 1. The radioactive wastes; 2. The out-of-use fuels; 3. The dismantling of the definitively stopped installations; 4. The waste management at DAM (Direction des Applications Militaires); 5. Recovery activities at Marcoule

  17. Activated carbon material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards

  18. Andra 1997 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This activity report comprises two parts. The first part describes the missions and activities of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes): quality control of wastes produced by EdF, CEA, Cogema and the 1100 other small producers, design, construction and management of storage centres, anticipation and development of new management solutions, research and evaluation studies on deep storage facilities, inventory and control of all radioactive materials present in the French territory. The second part is a presentation of financial data. (J.S.)

  19. Regulatory activities; Actividades regulatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information.

  20. IPSN activity report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The IPSN (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire) carries out for the Government, studies and inspections on nuclear installations at many life steps (design, realisation, exploitation, shutdown and dismantling). To obtain quality researches, the Institut performs studies in all domains concerned by the safety and its improvement. The main projects of the year 1999, in the following topics are presented: the nuclear installations and the radioactive wastes safety, the crisis and nuclear materials management, the human and the environment protection, the international activities and cooperation, the quality insurance. It provides also information on the cooperation, the budget, the human resource policy and the communication activities. (A.L.B.)

  1. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings...... of a regulatory effect of the PFC on the emotional control of our actions....

  2. Intergovernmental organisation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Intergovernmental organisation activities: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Non-legally binding instruments; International relations; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency: Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS); Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (JC); The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC); International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX); Legislative assistance activities; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA): GIF Framework Agreement extended for ten years; Technology Road-map: Nuclear Energy; Steering Committee Policy Debate: Health Effects of Low-dose Radiation

  3. 1996 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 activity report of the Direction for Waste Management of the CEA, is presented. Its activities have been developed in the framework of the general CEA cleaning plan, and include the management of wastes generated before 1992 in R and D CEA facilities, the disposal of spent fuels generated by research reactors (Orphee and Siloe) or prototype reactors (EL4 at Brennilis), and the dismantling and cleaning of obsolete facilities such as the plutonium radiochemistry building at Fontenay-aux-Roses and the pilot workshop at Marcoule

  4. Reference neutron activation library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,{gamma}), (n,2n), (n,{alpha}), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n,{sup 3}He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10{sup -5} eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain

  5. Activity report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1982-07-01

    This report reviews the main activities of the Eurochemic company for the fiscal year 1981. These activities are: the plant operation including the safeguards for special nuclear materials, the management of radioactive wastes and the analytical services, new works such as vitrification project, Pamela building and the design for the storage of vitrified wastes. The industrial development concerns the Eurowatt process for solvent treatment, the wet combustion for plutonium bearing solid wastes, the separation of mercury, the incorporation of solid wastes into a polymer concrete matrix and the Pamela process. The health and safety division, the library and documentation service and the administrative matters are also presented. (AF)

  6. Activity report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drent, W.

    1985-07-01

    For the fiscal year 1984, the technical activities of Eurochemic were: a) the cleaning of the vessels having contained medium level liquid wastes and the incorporation into bitumen of the resulting solution, b) the conditioning of plutonium contaminated solid waste, c) the civil engineering works of Building 29 were completed and the mounting of equipment was begun. The installation will assure the surface storage of the blocks resulting from vitrification, by means of Pamela installation of the high-level liquid wastes. The report includes administrative matters as well as health and safety activity. (AF)

  7. Reference neutron activation library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,γ), (n,2n), (n,α), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n, 3 He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10 -5 eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain almost all the

  8. Intergovernmental Organisation Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities, sorted by Organisation: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed binding instruments, Adopted legally binding instruments, Non-legally binding instruments; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency: Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability, Legislative assistance activities; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Appointment of new Director-General, International experts in Japan to review safety after Fukushima Daiichi, China Atomic Energy Authority co-operation workshop

  9. MCO Monitoring activity description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description

  10. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  12. Sexual activity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. E-Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Joy

    2001-01-01

    Presents five technology-based activities to teach elementary students about the human body, including: creating a heartbeat graph; charting the benefits of exercise; playing a "sense"ational card game; reading online stories from three children living with various conditions or illnesses; and examining diagrams of the human body that have been…

  14. ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES THREATENING THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-02-17

    Feb 17, 2012 ... anthropogenic activities across the protected areas in the country. ... education and provision of fund to support sustainable livelihood practices. ... wildlife conservation and tourism. ... Fig: 1 Map of Oyo State showing location of Old Oyo National Park and adjoining community. #. #. # .... This was the view of.

  15. Acid-activated bentonite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we propose Maghnite-H + , as an ecological, cost-effective and easily renewable catalyst, for the polymerization of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). The Maghnite is a clay consisting primarily of smectite minerals (montmorillonite group), which can be activated/reactivated through a simple process, ...

  16. Activity report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1984-07-01

    The reports presents an account of the activities of the Eurochemic Company for the chemical processing of irradiated fuels, in the fiscal year l982. It deals with legal and administrative matters, industrial development, plant operation, new works, health and safety, library and documentation, and conferences and symposia. (AF)

  17. Active Math Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The presentation is concerned with general course planning philosophy and a specific case study (boomerang flight geometro-dynamics) for active learning of mathematics via computer assisted and hands-on unfolding of first principles - in this case the understanding of rotations and Eulers equatio...

  18. Activation Analysis of Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, Dag

    1961-01-15

    An analysis of pure aluminium alloyed with magnesium was per- formed by means of gamma spectrometry , Chemical separations were not employed. The isotopes to be determined were obtained in conditions of optimum activity by suitably choosing the time of irradiation and decay. The following elements were detected and measured quantitatively: Iron, zinc, copper, gallium, manganese, chromium, scandium and hafnium.

  19. Direct Activation Of Methane

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie; Sun, Miao; Caps, Valerie; Pelletier, Jeremie; Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2013-01-01

    Heteropolyacids (HPAs) can activate methane at ambient temperature (e.g., 20.degree. C.) and atmospheric pressure, and transform methane to acetic acid, in the absence of any noble metal such as Pd). The HPAs can be, for example, those with Keggin

  20. Flipped Classroom, active Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg; Levinsen, Henrik; Philipps, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Action research is conducted in three physics classes over a period of eighteen weeks with the aim of studying the effect of flipped classroom on the pupils agency and learning processes. The hypothesis is that flipped classroom teaching will potentially allocate more time to work actively...

  1. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  2. NEA activities in 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the main features of the Agency's work during 1985. It deals with current nuclear trends, nuclear developments and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety research and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings, and, organization and administration

  3. NEA activities in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the main features of the Agency's work during 1984. It deals with current nuclear trends, nuclear developments and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety research and licencing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings, and, organization and administration

  4. Model PET Scan Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About ...

  6. Bonus Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Elementary level activity book presents suggestions for teaching students about endangered and threatened species worldwide. Students learn about what is causing the rapid extinction rate and what needs to be done. They also discover the value of rainforests and why conservationists are fighting to save them. (SM)

  7. Activities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrochna, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    HTGR Activities in Europe: • Stimulated and coordinated by Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative (NC21) • a part of Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) • SNETP has 68 members: industry, research, TSO, ... Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative: Contribute to clean and competitive energy beyond electricity by facilitating deployment of nuclear cogeneration plants

  8. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  10. Heavy ion activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, B.D.; Roche, N.G.; Sanni, A.O.; Schweikert, E.A.; Ojo, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A report on radioactivation with ion beams of 3 6 Li and 14 N is presented with some analytical applications: the determination of C via 12 C( 6 Li,αn) 13 N; the determination of Li and Be, using 14 N activation. Next, examples, with limitations in selectivity. The detection limits using a 1 μA h of activation irradiation are 5 ppm for C and 1 ppm for Li or Be. With 9 Be suitable for analytical applications are: sup(10,11)B( 9 Be,xn) 18 F and 14 N( 9 Be,αn) 18 F. Assuming a 1 μA h irradiation the detection limits for N and B are 1.5 ng and 0.5 ng, respectively, using a 7.8 MeV 9 Be beam. For activation with 12 C, experimental results with 12 MeV 12 C beam demonstrate that the beam is best suited for 7 Li analysis by the reaction 7 Li( 12 C,n) 18 F. The detection limit for a 1 μA h irradiation is 1 ng and the only other low Z elements activated are B and C. Finally, 12 C radioactivation was further combined with autoradiography for positional analysis. The spatial resolution of the technique was estimated to be 40 μm for an exposure corresponding to 6x10 5 disintegrations. As low as 10 -12 g of Li was readily detected by autoradiography. (author)

  11. Multidisciplinary Wildlife Teaching Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernbrode, William R., Ed.

    This guide provides information and activities descriptions designed to allow the teacher to use wildlife concepts in the teaching of various subjects. The author suggests that wildlife and animals are tremendous motivators for children and hold their attention. In the process, concepts of wildlife interaction with man and the environment are…

  12. Neuromodulation on Cerebral Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremoux, Sylvain; Ibanez Pereda, Jaime; Ates, Sedar; Dessi, Alessia; Pons, José L.; Torricelli, Diego

    2014-01-01

    During a motor task, a causal relation occurs between the motor command generated in the cortex and the proprioceptive feedbacks that go from the activated muscles through the corticospinal pathway. This causal relation is of interest in neurorehabilitation to improve motor function for people with

  13. Mechanism of charity activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman B. Golovkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to establish the essential properties of the mechanism of charitable activities and to formulate the concept of quotmechanism of charitable activityquot. Methods the objective of the study is achieved using the complex of methods which are based on the interaction of dialectical and metaphysical analysis the epistemological properties of which allowed to reveal various aspects of the charitable activities mechanism functioning taking into account the principles of comprehensiveness complexity specificity and objectivity of the research. Results the rules are stated of using the term quotmechanismquot to characterize actions of state and law the essence of the charity mechanism is defined the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activity quot is formulated. Scientific novelty for the first time at theoretical level in legal science the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activityquot is formulated and its essential properties are set. Practical significance the research will contribute to improving the legal regulation in the field of philanthropy as well as to improving the efficiency and quality of charitable activity in the Russian Federation. nbsp

  14. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures…

  15. Bacteriology of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van H.W.

    1964-01-01

    The bacteriology and biochemistry of activated sludge grown in domestic waste water or fed with synthetic media were studied. The nature of the flocs was investigated by determining morphological and physiological characteristics of many strains isolated.

    Predominant bacteria were

  16. Institutional investor activism : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; Bratton, William; Bratton, William; McCahery, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in institutional ownership of recent decades has been accompanied by an enhanced role played by institutions in monitoring companies’ corporate governance behaviour. Activist hedge funds and private equity firms have achieved a degree of success in actively shaping the business plans of

  17. DPHPE activities during 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This annual report gives a short summary of experiments in progress and of approved proposals of experiments to be performed by the Elementary Particle Physics Department of Saclay, and also publication lists and informations about the Department activities during 1977 [fr

  18. NEA activities in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1981 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, nuclear safety research and licensing, nuclear law, nuclear development and fuel cycle studies technical co-operation, nuclear science organisation and administration are reviewed

  19. [Cycloferon biological activity characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkina, T M; Potekhina, L P; Kartashova, O L; Vasilchenko, A S

    2014-01-01

    Study the effect of cycloferon in experimental and clinical conditions on persistence properties of aurococci as well as features of their morpho-functional reaction by atomic force microscopy. The study was carried out in 12 Staphylococcus aureus clones isolated from mucous membrane of nose anterior part of a resident carrier. The effect of cycloferon in vivo was evaluated in 26 resident staphylococci carriers under the control of anti-carnosine activity of staphylococci. Anti-carnosine activity was determined by O.V. Bukharin et al. (1999), biofilm formation -by G.A. O'Toole et al. (2000). Staphylococci treated with cycloferon were studied by atomic force microscopy in contact mode using scanning probe SMM-2000 microscope. The decrease of persistence properties of staphylococci under the effect of cycloferon in vitro and in vivo may be examined as one of the mechanisms of biological activity of the preparation. A significant increase of S. aureus surface roughness and changes in their morphology under the effect of cycloferon allow stating the disorder of barrier functions in the aurococci cell wall. The data obtained expand the understanding of cycloferon biological activity mechanisms.

  20. Active Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  1. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  2. DPHPE activities during 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This annual report gives a short summary of experiments in progress and of approved proposals of experiments to be performed by the Elementary Particle Physics Department of Saclay, and also publication lists and informations about the Department activities during 1978 [fr

  3. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  4. Activity report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This activity report of the DSIN ( Direction of Nuclear Installations Safety) is divided into 4 parts bearing on: (1) Organisation, Safety principles, Regulations (2) Nuclear basis installations following (3) Surveillance by the regional directions of the Ministry of Industry, Research and Environment (4) Other missions of the DSIN

  5. Sexual activity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staruch, Monika; Kucharczyk, Aleksandra; Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Szymusik, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is usually associated with significant regression in genito-genital intercourse frequency, sexual desire and satisfaction. The aim of the study was to determine women's sexual habits during the third trimester of gestation and to compare their sexual activity before the current pregnancy and during previous pregnancies in case of multiparas. The study material consisted of women in the third trimester of pregnancy, recruited from the Outpatient Clinic of the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw between January 2013 and February 2014, who filled out a self-prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: demographic data, sexual activity prior to current pregnancy and during gestation, including sexual positions and sources of knowledge regarding the subject. The survey involved 25 questions and was distributed among 220 patients, out of which 165 were returned and 149 properly filled out and analyzed. The average age of the respondents was 29.6 ± 4.85 years; the majority (78.8%) were in an uncomplicated pregnancy. The decrease in sexual activity was evident in all age groups--the majority usually had sex 1 to 3 times a month in contrast to 1-2 times a week prior to conceiving. Sexual activity decreased significantly with increasing age. The main reasons for abandoning sexual activity included: decreased libido (35.5%), the doctor's suggestion (29%) and fears concerning child's health (29%). During pregnancy the frequency of vaginal intercourse significantly decreased (100% prior to vs. 86.6% during pregnancy; p < 0.001); as did oral sex (44.3% vs. 29.5%; p = 0.043) and anal sex (12% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02). 54% of the respondents declared reduced satisfaction with sexual life during pregnancy in comparison with the previous period; almost half (43.5%) felt less attractive while pregnant. The same claim was related to libido--it decreased in 58.8% of respondents. Multiparas tended to have sexual

  6. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  7. Defining active progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Börnsen, Lars; Ammitzbøll, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether disease activity according to consensus criteria (magnetic resonance imaging activity or clinical relapses) associate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To compare CSF biomarkers in active and inactive...

  8. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs ... Starting Physical Activity Related Topics Section Navigation Tips to Help You Get Active ...

  9. Formation of cellulases and degradation of cellulose by several fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, D; Luck, G; Dellweg, H

    1978-01-01

    Five strains of fungi (Aspergillus niger, Lenzites trabea, Myrothecium verrucaria, Trichoderma koningii and Trichoderma lignorum) were tested for the production of cellulolytic enzymes on pure glucose and on cellulose media. The most active strains belonging to the genera of Trichoderma, Aspergillus and Myrothecium, also secreting high activities of ..beta..-glucosidase, were grown in a bioreactor under defined conditions. Depending on the strain this procedure resulted in a manifold increase in cellulolytic activities. The culture filtrates were concentrated and standardized with respect to ..beta..-glucosidase activity and used for the hydrolysis of cellulose powder. With Trichoderma-cellulase, 46% conversion of crystalline cellulose to glucose was achieved within 48 h. The ratio of cellobiose to glucose found in the hydrolysate, the amount of high molecular carbohydrates as well as the degree of hydrolysis widely depended on the type of cellulase used.

  10. High activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaul, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Chem-Nuclear Environmental Services (CNES) has developed a container that is capable of containing high activity waste and can be shipped as a regular DOT Type A shipment. By making the container special form the amount of activity that can be transported in a Type A shipment is greatly enhanced. Special form material presents an extra degree of protection to the environment by requiring the package to be destroyed to get access to the radioactive material and must undergo specific testing requirements, whereas normal form material can allow access to the radioactive material. With the special form container up to 10 caries of radium can be transported in a single package. This paper will describe the considerations that were taken to develop these products

  11. Techniques for active passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  12. Activation/waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maninger, C.

    1984-10-01

    The selection of materials and the design of the blankets for fusion reactors have significant effects upon the radioactivity generated by neutron activation in the materials. This section considers some aspects of materials selection with respect to waste management. The activation of the materials is key to remote handling requirements for waste, to processing and disposal methods for waste, and to accident severity in waste management operations. In order to realize the desirable evnironmental potentials of fusion power systems, there are at least three major goals for waste management. These are: (a) near-surface burial; (b) disposal on-site of the fusion reactor; (c) acceptable radiation doses at least cost during and after waste management operations

  13. Powernext 2005 activity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility which organizes and warrants the transactions on the European power exchange and CO 2 exchange markets. This activity report presents the highlights of the market and of Powernext in 2005: market conditions (birth of the carbon market, price evolution on the power market), weather-related conditions, electricity production and consumption, situation at the borders, price of fuels, traded volumes at the three markets (Powernext Day-Ahead TM in the case of day-ahead contracts, Powernext Futures TM in the case of medium-term contracts, and Powernext Carbon in the case of CO 2 ), new active members, liquidity on the power market. (J.S.)

  14. Activity report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The ''Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire'' (IPSN), carries out researches and expert studies needed to manage nuclear risks and their consequences on people and environment. These activities cover the installation safety, the radioactive matter transport, the public health and environmental control, the nuclear matters safety and control and the crisis situation management. The IPSN have got also a mission of public information and participates to international actions in the domain of scientific researches or expert's report. This annual report presents the highlights of the year 1998, information on staff, budgets and geographical situation. Then technical and scientific papers gathers the activities of the year covered by the IPSN: the ''Free Tribune'', installations and radioactive wastes safety, crisis and nuclear matter management, public health and environment control, international cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  15. Effects of Activating Schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Andersen, Henriette Bondo

    schools. Two gender-segregated focus groups at each school, including in total 57 fourth to eight graders (28 girls), were conducted. The focus groups included go-along interviews in the schoolyard, and a post-it note activity. The data was collected between April and June 2016 (six months after...... as positive for their schoolyard as it provided more variation in play facilities and improved the appearance. However, at most schools the children experienced that the renewed schoolyards were dominated by the youngest children (under 10-year-old). To minimise crowding some schools had formally restricted...... access to the renovated areas for older children and allowed them to leave the school area during recess. Furthermore, most of the children felt that the renewed schoolyard areas were far from their classrooms. CONCLUSIONS: Renewing the schoolyard is not enough to stimulate physical activity. Schools...

  16. IPSN activity report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ''Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire'' (IPSN), carries out researches and expert studies needed to manage nuclear risks and their consequences on people and environment. These activities cover the installation safety, the radioactive matter transport, the public health and environmental control, the nuclear matters safety and control and the crisis situation management. The IPSN have got also a mission of public information and participates to international actions in the domain of scientific researches or expert's report. This annual report presents the highlights of the year 1999, information on staff, budgets and geographical situation. Then technical and scientific papers gathers the activities of the year covered by the IPSN: the ''Free Tribune'', installations and radioactive wastes safety, crisis and nuclear matter management, public health and environment control, international cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  17. Thermal Activated Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The research studies the making of a responsive architectural envelope based on bi-materials. The bi-materials are organized according to a method that combines different isotropic metals and plastic into an active composite structure that reacts to temperature variations. Through an evolutionary......, environmental dynamics and occupancy dynamics. Lastly, a physical prototype is created, which illustrates the physical expression of the bi-materials and the problems related to manufacturing of these composite structures.......The research studies the making of a responsive architectural envelope based on bi-materials. The bi-materials are organized according to a method that combines different isotropic metals and plastic into an active composite structure that reacts to temperature variations. Through an evolutionary...

  18. Industrial Activity at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalik, G

    2000-01-01

    The decrease in the number of CERN staff creates the need for optimization of the non-core, infrastructure-related activities. An industrial, service-orientated approach has long been considered as an appropriate way to cope with the problem of diminishing resources. This paper presents industrial and service activity issues at CERN based on the experience of the exploitation of the power network. The most important problems linked to the application of the industrial approach to the exploitation of equipment in the CERN research environment are covered. These include the interface between accelerators and electrical exploitation services, external and internal regulations, sharing of responsibility between CERN staff and external contractors, continuous modification of clients' requirements, the balance between the cost of accelerator downtime versus the cost of infrastructure upgrade. A benchmarking through a comparison with a big industrial manufacturer is followed by recommendations for possible improveme...

  19. Sulfur activation in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1987-01-01

    In 1979, we attempted to establish the validity of source terms for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs using experimental data on sulfur activation. Close agreement was observed between measured and calculated values for test firings of Nagasaki-type bombs. The calculated values were based on source terms developed by W.E. Preeg at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A discrepancy was found, however, when we compared calculated values for the two bombs because a 1956 report by R.R. Wilson stated that sulfur acitvation by fast neutrons in Hiroshima was approximately three times greater than in Nagasaki. Our calculations based on Preeg's source-term data predicted about equal sulfur activation in the two cities

  20. Active3 noise reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzfuss, J.

    1996-01-01

    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics