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Sample records for cellular transcription factor

  1. Cellular Transcription Factor YY1 Mediates the Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) IE62 Transcriptional Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed I.; Sommer, Marvin; Arvin, Ann; Hay, John; Ruyechan, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Several cellular transcription factors have been shown to be involved in IE62-mediated activation. The YY1 cellular transcription factor has activating and repressive effects on gene transcription. Analysis of the VZV genome revealed 19 postulated YY1 binding sites located within putative promoters of 16 VZV genes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) confirmed the binding of YY1 to ORF10, ORF28/29 and gI promoters and the mutation of these binding sites inhibited YY1 binding and the promoter activation by IE62 alone or following VZV infection. Mutation of the ORF28/29 YY1 site in the VZV genome displayed insignificant influence on virus growth in melanoma cells; but it inhibited the virus replication significantly at day 5 and 6 post infection in HELF cells. This work suggests a novel role for the cellular factor YY1 in VZV replication through the mediation of IE62 activation of viral gene expression. PMID:24418559

  2. Transcription Factors in the Cellular Response to Charged Particle Exposure

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    Hellweg, Christine E.; Spitta, Luis F.; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Charged particles, such as carbon ions, bear the promise of a more effective cancer therapy. In human spaceflight, exposure to charged particles represents an important risk factor for chronic and late effects such as cancer. Biological effects elicited by charged particle exposure depend on their characteristics, e.g., on linear energy transfer (LET). For diverse outcomes (cell death, mutation, transformation, and cell-cycle arrest), an LET dependency of the effect size was observed. These outcomes result from activation of a complex network of signaling pathways in the DNA damage response, which result in cell-protective (DNA repair and cell-cycle arrest) or cell-destructive (cell death) reactions. Triggering of these pathways converges among others in the activation of transcription factors, such as p53, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), activated protein 1 (AP-1), nuclear erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB). Depending on dose, radiation quality, and tissue, p53 induces apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest. In low LET radiation therapy, p53 mutations are often associated with therapy resistance, while the outcome of carbon ion therapy seems to be independent of the tumor’s p53 status. NF-κB is a central transcription factor in the immune system and exhibits pro-survival effects. Both p53 and NF-κB are activated after ionizing radiation exposure in an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent manner. The NF-κB activation was shown to strongly depend on charged particles’ LET, with a maximal activation in the LET range of 90–300 keV/μm. AP-1 controls proliferation, senescence, differentiation, and apoptosis. Nrf2 can induce cellular antioxidant defense systems, CREB might also be involved in survival responses. The extent of activation of these transcription factors by charged particles and their interaction in the cellular radiation response greatly influences the destiny of the irradiated and also

  3. Transcription Factors in the Cellular Response to Charged Particle Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Elisabeth Hellweg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Charged particles such as carbon ions bear the promise of a more effective cancer therapy. In human spaceflight, exposure to charged particles represents an important risk factor for chronic and late effects such as cancer. Biological effects elicited by charged particle exposure depend on their characteristics, e.g. on linear energy transfer (LET. For diverse outcomes (cell death, mutation, transformation, cell cycle arrest, an LET dependency of the effect size was observed. These outcomes result from activation of a complex network of signaling pathways in the DNA damage response, which result in cell-protective (DNA repair, cell cycle arrest or cell-destructive (cell death reactions. Triggering of these pathways converges amongst others in the activation of transcription factors such as p53, Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kappaB, activated protein 1 (AP-1, nuclear erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and Cyclic-Nucleotide Response Element-Binding Protein (CREB. Depending on dose, radiation quality and tissue, p53 induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. In low-LET radiation therapy, p53 mutations are often associated with therapy resistance, while the outcome of carbon ion therapy seems to be independent of the tumor’s p53 status. NF-kappaB is a central transcription factor in the immune system and exhibits pro-survival effects. Both p53 and NF-kappaB are activated after ionizing radiation exposure in an ATM dependent manner. The NF-kappaB activation was shown to strongly depend on charged particles’ LET, with a maximal activation in the LET range of 90-300 keV/µm. AP-1 controls proliferation, senescence, differentiation and apoptosis. Nrf2 can induce cellular antioxidant defense systems, CREB might also be involved in survival responses. The extent of activation of these transcription factors by charged particles and their interaction in the cellular radiation response greatly influences the destiny of the irradiated and also

  4. Cellular Levels of Signaling Factors Are Sensed by β-actin Alleles to Modulate Transcriptional Pulse Intensity

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    Alon Kalo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transcriptional response of β-actin to extra-cellular stimuli is a paradigm for transcription factor complex assembly and regulation. Serum induction leads to a precisely timed pulse of β-actin transcription in the cell population. Actin protein is proposed to be involved in this response, but it is not known whether cellular actin levels affect nuclear β-actin transcription. We perturbed the levels of key signaling factors and examined the effect on the induced transcriptional pulse by following endogenous β-actin alleles in single living cells. Lowering serum response factor (SRF protein levels leads to loss of pulse integrity, whereas reducing actin protein levels reveals positive feedback regulation, resulting in elevated gene activation and a prolonged transcriptional response. Thus, transcriptional pulse fidelity requires regulated amounts of signaling proteins, and perturbations in factor levels eliminate the physiological response, resulting in either tuning down or exaggeration of the transcriptional pulse.

  5. Inhibition of in vitro myogenic differentiation by cellular transcription factor E2F1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, J; Helin, K; Jin, P

    1995-01-01

    Terminal differentiation of cultured myocytes requires withdrawal of the cells from the cell cycle. Constitutive overexpression of several oncogenes in myoblasts can inhibit in vitro myogenesis. Here we studied the role of the cellular transcription factor E2F1 on myogenic differentiation. E2F1...... expression is irreversibly down-regulated during differentiation of C2C12 myocytes. Furthermore, deregulated E2F1 expression in C2C12 cells prevented myogenic differentiation. This inhibition of myogenesis was associated with the repression of myogenin expression and an elevated cyclin D1 expression....... Moreover, E2F1-overexpressing myocytes failed to exit the cell cycle under differentiation conditions. These results are consistent with the notion that E2F1 can function as an oncogene and further suggest that E2F1 down-regulation is required for myogenic differentiation....

  6. SOX family transcription factors involved in diverse cellular events during development.

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    She, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2015-12-01

    In metazoa, SOX family transcription factors play many diverse roles. In vertebrate, they are well-known regulators of numerous developmental processes. Wide-ranging studies have demonstrated the co-expression of SOX proteins in various developing tissues and that they occur in an overlapping manner and show functional redundancy. In particular, studies focusing on the HMG box of SOX proteins have revealed that the HMG box regulates DNA-binding properties, and mediates both the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SOX proteins and their physical interactions with partner proteins. Posttranslational modifications are further implicated in the regulation of the transcriptional activities of SOX proteins. In this review, we discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the SOX-partner factor interactions and the functional modes of SOX-partner complexes during development. We particularly emphasize the representative roles of the SOX group proteins in major tissues during developmental and physiological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Human papillomavirus type 16 E2 protein transcriptionally activates the promoter of a key cellular splicing factor, SF2/ASF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Sarah; Milligan, Steven G; Graham, Sheila V

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) gene expression is regulated in concert with the epithelial differentiation program. In particular, expression of the virus capsid proteins L1 and L2 is tightly restricted to differentiated epithelial cells. For HPV16, the capsid proteins are encoded by 13 structurally different mRNAs that are produced by extensive alternative splicing. Previously, we demonstrated that upon epithelial differentiation, HPV16 infection upregulates hnRNP A1 and SF2/ASF, both key factors in alternative splicing regulation. Here we cloned a 1-kb region upstream of and including the transcriptional start site of the SF2ASF gene and used it in in vivo transcription assays to demonstrate that the HPV16 E2 transcription factor transactivates the SF2/ASF promoter. The transactivation domain but not the DNA binding domain of the protein is necessary for this. Active E2 association with the promoter was demonstrated using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that E2 interacted with a region 482 to 684 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site in vitro. This is the first time that HPV16 E2 has been shown to regulate cellular gene expression and the first report of viral regulation of expression of an RNA processing factor. Such E2-mediated control during differentiation of infected epithelial cells may facilitate late capsid protein expression and completion of the virus life cycle.

  8. The myocardin-related transcription factor MKL co-regulates the cellular levels of two profilin isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Marion; Gau, David; Castellucci, Nevin; Prywes, Ron; Roy, Partha

    2017-07-14

    Megakaryoblastic leukemia (MKL)/serum-response factor (SRF)-mediated gene transcription is a highly conserved mechanism that connects dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton to regulation of expression of a wide range of genes, including SRF itself and many important structural and regulatory components of the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we examined the possible role of MKL/SRF in the context of regulation of profilin (Pfn), a major controller of actin dynamics and actin cytoskeletal remodeling in cells. We demonstrated that despite being located on different genomic loci, two major isoforms of Pfn (Pfn1 and Pfn2) are co-regulated by a common mechanism involving the action of MKL that is independent of its SRF-related activity. We found that MKL co-regulates the expression of Pfn isoforms indirectly by modulating signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and utilizing its SAP-domain function. Unexpectedly, our studies revealed that cellular externalization, rather than transcription of Pfn1, is affected by the perturbations of MKL. We further demonstrated that MKL can influence cell migration by modulating Pfn1 expression, indicating a functional connection between MKL and Pfn1 in actin-dependent cellular processes. Finally, we provide initial evidence supporting the ability of Pfn to influence MKL and SRF expression. Collectively, these findings suggest that Pfn may play a role in a possible feedback loop of the actin/MKL/SRF signaling circuit. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein-1 (cIAP1) Can Regulate E2F1 Transcription Factor-mediated Control of Cyclin Transcription*

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    Cartier, Jessy; Berthelet, Jean; Marivin, Arthur; Gemble, Simon; Edmond, Valérie; Plenchette, Stéphanie; Lagrange, Brice; Hammann, Arlette; Dupoux, Alban; Delva, Laurent; Eymin, Béatrice; Solary, Eric; Dubrez, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The inhibitor of apoptosis protein cIAP1 (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1) is a potent regulator of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family and NF-κB signaling pathways in the cytoplasm. However, in some primary cells and tumor cell lines, cIAP1 is expressed in the nucleus, and its nuclear function remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the N-terminal part of cIAP1 directly interacts with the DNA binding domain of the E2F1 transcription factor. cIAP1 dramatically increases the transcriptional activity of E2F1 on synthetic and CCNE promoters. This function is not conserved for cIAP2 and XIAP, which are cytoplasmic proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that cIAP1 is recruited on E2F binding sites of the CCNE and CCNA promoters in a cell cycle- and differentiation-dependent manner. cIAP1 silencing inhibits E2F1 DNA binding and E2F1-mediated transcriptional activation of the CCNE gene. In cells that express a nuclear cIAP1 such as HeLa, THP1 cells and primary human mammary epithelial cells, down-regulation of cIAP1 inhibits cyclin E and A expression and cell proliferation. We conclude that one of the functions of cIAP1 when localized in the nucleus is to regulate E2F1 transcriptional activity. PMID:21653699

  10. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP1) can regulate E2F1 transcription factor-mediated control of cyclin transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Jessy; Berthelet, Jean; Marivin, Arthur; Gemble, Simon; Edmond, Valérie; Plenchette, Stéphanie; Lagrange, Brice; Hammann, Arlette; Dupoux, Alban; Delva, Laurent; Eymin, Béatrice; Solary, Eric; Dubrez, Laurence

    2011-07-29

    The inhibitor of apoptosis protein cIAP1 (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1) is a potent regulator of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family and NF-κB signaling pathways in the cytoplasm. However, in some primary cells and tumor cell lines, cIAP1 is expressed in the nucleus, and its nuclear function remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the N-terminal part of cIAP1 directly interacts with the DNA binding domain of the E2F1 transcription factor. cIAP1 dramatically increases the transcriptional activity of E2F1 on synthetic and CCNE promoters. This function is not conserved for cIAP2 and XIAP, which are cytoplasmic proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that cIAP1 is recruited on E2F binding sites of the CCNE and CCNA promoters in a cell cycle- and differentiation-dependent manner. cIAP1 silencing inhibits E2F1 DNA binding and E2F1-mediated transcriptional activation of the CCNE gene. In cells that express a nuclear cIAP1 such as HeLa, THP1 cells and primary human mammary epithelial cells, down-regulation of cIAP1 inhibits cyclin E and A expression and cell proliferation. We conclude that one of the functions of cIAP1 when localized in the nucleus is to regulate E2F1 transcriptional activity.

  11. Modulation of enhancer looping and differential gene targeting by Epstein-Barr virus transcription factors directs cellular reprogramming.

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    Michael J McClellan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV epigenetically reprogrammes B-lymphocytes to drive immortalization and facilitate viral persistence. Host-cell transcription is perturbed principally through the actions of EBV EBNA 2, 3A, 3B and 3C, with cellular genes deregulated by specific combinations of these EBNAs through unknown mechanisms. Comparing human genome binding by these viral transcription factors, we discovered that 25% of binding sites were shared by EBNA 2 and the EBNA 3s and were located predominantly in enhancers. Moreover, 80% of potential EBNA 3A, 3B or 3C target genes were also targeted by EBNA 2, implicating extensive interplay between EBNA 2 and 3 proteins in cellular reprogramming. Investigating shared enhancer sites neighbouring two new targets (WEE1 and CTBP2 we discovered that EBNA 3 proteins repress transcription by modulating enhancer-promoter loop formation to establish repressive chromatin hubs or prevent assembly of active hubs. Re-ChIP analysis revealed that EBNA 2 and 3 proteins do not bind simultaneously at shared sites but compete for binding thereby modulating enhancer-promoter interactions. At an EBNA 3-only intergenic enhancer site between ADAM28 and ADAMDEC1 EBNA 3C was also able to independently direct epigenetic repression of both genes through enhancer-promoter looping. Significantly, studying shared or unique EBNA 3 binding sites at WEE1, CTBP2, ITGAL (LFA-1 alpha chain, BCL2L11 (Bim and the ADAMs, we also discovered that different sets of EBNA 3 proteins bind regulatory elements in a gene and cell-type specific manner. Binding profiles correlated with the effects of individual EBNA 3 proteins on the expression of these genes, providing a molecular basis for the targeting of different sets of cellular genes by the EBNA 3s. Our results therefore highlight the influence of the genomic and cellular context in determining the specificity of gene deregulation by EBV and provide a paradigm for host-cell reprogramming through

  12. Expression and cellular localization of the transcription factor NeuroD1 in the developing and adult rat pineal gland.

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    Castro, Analía E; Benitez, Sergio G; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Savastano, Luis E; Patterson, Sean I; Muñoz, Estela M

    2015-05-01

    Circadian rhythms govern many aspects of mammalian physiology. The daily pattern of melatonin synthesis and secretion is one of the classic examples of circadian oscillations. It is mediated by a class of neuroendocrine cells known as pinealocytes which are not yet fully defined. An established method to evaluate functional and cytological characters is through the expression of lineage-specific transcriptional regulators. NeuroD1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in the specification and maintenance of both endocrine and neuronal phenotypes. We have previously described developmental and adult regulation of NeuroD1 mRNA in the rodent pineal gland. However, the transcript levels were not influenced by the elimination of sympathetic input, suggesting that any rhythmicity of NeuroD1 might be found downstream of transcription. Here, we describe NeuroD1 protein expression and cellular localization in the rat pineal gland during development and the daily cycle. In embryonic and perinatal stages, protein expression follows the mRNA pattern and is predominantly nuclear. Thereafter, NeuroD1 is mostly found in pinealocyte nuclei in the early part of the night and in cytoplasm during the day, a rhythm maintained into adulthood. Additionally, nocturnal nuclear NeuroD1 levels are reduced after sympathetic disruption, an effect mimicked by the in vivo administration of α- and β-adrenoceptor blockers. NeuroD1 phosphorylation at two sites, Ser(274) and Ser(336) , associates with nuclear localization in pinealocytes. These data suggest that NeuroD1 influences pineal phenotype both during development and adulthood, in an autonomic and phosphorylation-dependent manner. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cellular Transcription Factors Sp1 and Sp3 Suppress Varicella-Zoster Virus Origin-Dependent DNA Replication▿

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    Khalil, Mohamed I.; Hay, John; Ruyechan, William T.

    2008-01-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) origin of DNA replication (oriS) contains a 46-bp AT-rich palindrome and three consensus binding sites for the VZV origin binding protein (OBP) encoded by VZV ORF51. All three OBP binding sites are upstream of the palindrome in contrast to the sequence of the herpes simplex virus oriS, which has required OBP binding sites upstream and downstream of the AT-rich region. We are investigating the roles that sequences downstream of the palindrome play in VZV oriS-dependent DNA replication. Computer analysis identified two GC boxes, GC box 1 and GC box 2, in the downstream region which were predicted to be binding sites for the cellular transcription factor Sp1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and supershift assays showed that two members of the Sp family (Sp1 and Sp3) stably bind to GC box 1, but not to GC box 2. A predicted binding site for the cellular factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) that overlaps with GC box 2 was also identified. Supershift and mutational analyses confirmed the binding of YY1 to this site. Mutation of GC box 1 resulted in loss of Sp1 and Sp3 binding and an increase in origin-dependent replication efficiency in DpnI replication assays. In contrast, mutation of the YY1 site had a statistically insignificant effect. These results suggest a model where origin-dependent DNA replication and viral transcription are coupled by the binding of Sp1 and Sp3 to the downstream region of the VZV replication origin during lytic infection. They may also have implications regarding establishment or reactivation of viral latency. PMID:18815296

  14. Transcription factors Mat2 and Znf2 operate cellular circuits orchestrating opposite- and same-sex mating in Cryptococcus neoformans.

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    Xiaorong Lin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a human fungal pathogen that undergoes a dimorphic transition from a unicellular yeast to multicellular hyphae during opposite sex (mating and unisexual reproduction (same-sex mating. Opposite- and same-sex mating are induced by similar environmental conditions and involve many shared components, including the conserved pheromone sensing Cpk1 MAPK signal transduction cascade that governs the dimorphic switch in C. neoformans. However, the homeodomain cell identity proteins Sxi1alpha/Sxi2a encoded by the mating type locus that are essential for completion of sexual reproduction following cell-cell fusion during opposite-sex mating are dispensable for same-sex mating. Therefore, identification of downstream targets of the Cpk1 MAPK pathway holds the key to understanding molecular mechanisms governing the two distinct developmental fates. Thus far, homology-based approaches failed to identify downstream transcription factors which may therefore be species-specific. Here, we applied insertional mutagenesis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and transcription analysis using whole genome microarrays to identify factors involved in C. neoformans differentiation. Two transcription factors, Mat2 and Znf2, were identified as key regulators of hyphal growth during same- and opposite-sex mating. Mat2 is an HMG domain factor, and Znf2 is a zinc finger protein; neither is encoded by the mating type locus. Genetic, phenotypic, and transcriptional analyses of Mat2 and Znf2 provide evidence that Mat2 is a downstream transcription factor of the Cpk1 MAPK pathway whereas Znf2 functions as a more terminal hyphal morphogenesis determinant. Although the components of the MAPK pathway including Mat2 are not required for virulence in animal models, Znf2, as a hyphal morphology determinant, is a negative regulator of virulence. Further characterization of these elements and their target circuits will reveal genes controlling biological

  15. Structures and short linear motif of disordered transcription factor regions provide clues to the interactome of the cellular hub radical-induced cell death1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Shea, Charlotte; Staby, Lasse; Bendsen, Sidsel Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDRs) lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure, but often facilitate key protein functions. Some interactions between IDRs and folded protein domains rely on short linear motifs (SLiMs). These motifs are challenging to identify, but once found can...... point to larger networks of interactions, such as with proteins that serve as hubs for essential cellular functions. The stress-associated plant protein Radical-Induced Cell Death1 (RCD1) is one such hub, interacting with many transcription factors via their flexible IDRs. To identify the SLiM bound......046 formed different structures or were fuzzy in the complexes. These findings allow us to present a model of the stress-associated RCD1-transcription factor interactome and to contribute to the emerging understanding of the interactions between folded hubs and their intrinsically disordered partners....

  16. WRKY transcription factors.

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    Rushton, Paul J; Somssich, Imre E; Ringler, Patricia; Shen, Qingxi J

    2010-05-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants and form integral parts of signalling webs that modulate many plant processes. Here, we review recent significant progress in WRKY transcription factor research. New findings illustrate that WRKY proteins often act as repressors as well as activators, and that members of the family play roles in both the repression and de-repression of important plant processes. Furthermore, it is becoming clear that a single WRKY transcription factor might be involved in regulating several seemingly disparate processes. Mechanisms of signalling and transcriptional regulation are being dissected, uncovering WRKY protein functions via interactions with a diverse array of protein partners, including MAP kinases, MAP kinase kinases, 14-3-3 proteins, calmodulin, histone deacetylases, resistance proteins and other WRKY transcription factors. WRKY genes exhibit extensive autoregulation and cross-regulation that facilitates transcriptional reprogramming in a dynamic web with built-in redundancy. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cellular Transcription Factor Oct-1 Interacts with the Epstein-Barr Virus BRLF1 Protein To Promote Disruption of Viral Latency▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda R.; Kwek, Swee Sen; Hagemeier, Stacy R.; Wille, Coral K.; Kenney, Shannon C.

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent-to-lytic switch is an essential part of the viral life cycle, but the cellular factors that promote viral reactivation are not well defined. In this report, we demonstrate that the cellular transcription factor Oct-1 cooperates with the EBV immediate-early protein BRLF1 (R, Rta) to induce lytic viral reactivation. We show that cotransfected Oct-1 enhances the ability of BRLF1 to activate lytic gene expression in 293 cells stably infected with a BRLF1-defective EBV mutant (BRLF1-stop) and that Oct-1 increases BRLF1-mediated activation of lytic EBV promoters in reporter gene assays. We find that Oct-1 interacts directly with BRLF1 in vitro and that a mutant BRLF1 protein (the M140A mutant) attenuated for the ability to interact with Oct-1 in vitro is also resistant to Oct-1-mediated transcriptional enhancement in 293 BRLF1-stop cells. Furthermore, we show that cotransfected Oct-1 augments BRLF1 binding to a variety of lytic EBV promoters in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays (including the BZLF1, BMRF1, and SM promoters) and that BRLF1 tethers Oct-1 to lytic EBV promoters. In addition, we demonstrate that an Oct-1 mutant defective in DNA binding (the S335D mutant) still retains the ability to enhance BRLF1 transcriptional effects. Finally, we show that knockdown of endogenous Oct-1 expression reduces the level of constitutive lytic EBV gene expression in both EBV-positive B-cell and EBV-positive epithelial cell lines. These results suggest that Oct-1 acts as a positive regulator of EBV lytic gene expression and that this effect is at least partially mediated through its interaction with the viral protein BRLF1. PMID:21697476

  18. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130...

  19. WRKY transcription factors

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    Bakshi, Madhunita; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators found exclusively in plants. They have diverse biological functions in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress responses, nutrient deprivation, senescence, seed and trichome development, embryogenesis, as well as additional developmental and hormone-controlled processes. WRKYs can act as transcriptional activators or repressors, in various homo- and heterodimer combinations. Here we review recent progress on the function of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and other plant species such as rice, potato, and parsley, with a special focus on abiotic, developmental, and hormone-regulated processes. PMID:24492469

  20. Eukaryotic transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staby, Lasse; O'Shea, Charlotte; Willemoës, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Gene-specific transcription factors (TFs) are key regulatory components of signaling pathways, controlling, for example, cell growth, development, and stress responses. Their biological functions are determined by their molecular structures, as exemplified by their structured DNA-binding domains...

  1. Neuroplasticity in addiction: cellular and transcriptional perspectives

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    Heather eMadsen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disorder which consists of compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and taking that occurs at the expense of other activities. The transition from casual to compulsive drug use and the enduring propensity to relapse is thought to be underpinned by long lasting neuroadaptations in specific brain circuitry, analogous to those that underlie long-term memory formation. Research spanning the last two decades has made great progress in identifying cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to drug-induced changes in plasticity and behaviour. Alterations in synaptic transmission within the mesocorticolimbic and corticostriatal pathways, and changes in the transcriptional potential of cells by epigenetic mechanisms are two important means by which drugs of abuse can induce lasting changes in behaviour. In this review we provide a summary of more recent research that has furthered our understanding of drug-induced neuroplastic changes both at the level of the synapse, and on a transcriptional level, and how these changes may relate to the human disease of addiction.

  2. Molecular and cellular analysis of the pH response transcription factor PacC in the fungal symbiont Epichloë festucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukito, Yonathan; Chujo, Tetsuya; Scott, Barry

    2015-12-01

    In order to survive and adapt to the environment, it is imperative for fungi to be able to sense and respond to changes in extracellular pH conditions. In ascomycetes, sensing of extracellular pH is mediated by the Pal pathway resulting in activation of the PacC transcription factor at alkaline pH. The role of PacC in regulating fungal virulence and pathogenicity has been described in several pathogenic fungi but to date not in a symbiotic fungus. Epichloë festucae is a biotrophic fungal endophyte that forms a stable mutualistic interaction with Lolium perenne. In this study, pacC deletion (ΔpacC) and dominant active (pacC(C)) mutants were generated in order to study the cellular roles of PacC in E. festucae. Deletion of pacC resulted in increased sensitivity of the mutant to salt-stress but surprisingly did not affect the ability of the mutant to grow under alkaline pH conditions. Alkaline pH was observed to induce conidiation in wild-type E. festucae but not in the ΔpacC mutant. On the other hand the pacC(C) mutant had increased conidiation at neutral pH alone. Null pacC mutants had no effect on the symbiotic interaction with ryegrass plants whereas the pacC(C) mutant increased the tiller number. Examination of the growth of the pacC(C) mutant in the plant revealed the formation of aberrant convoluted hyphal structures and an increase in hyphal breakage, which are possible reasons for the altered host interaction phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; Stormo, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major modulators of transcription and subsequent cellular processes. The binding of TFs to specific regulatory elements is governed by their specificity. Considering the gap between known TFs sequence and specificity, specificity prediction frameworks are highly...

  4. A novel embryological theory of autism causation involving endogenous biochemicals capable of initiating cellular gene transcription: a possible link between twelve autism risk factors and the autism 'epidemic'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chiara R

    2011-05-01

    Human alpha-fetoprotein is a pregnancy-associated protein with an undetermined physiological role. As human alpha-fetoprotein binds retinoids and inhibits estrogen-dependent cancer cell proliferation, and because retinoic acid (a retinol metabolite) and estradiol (an estrogen) can both initiate cellular gene transcription, it is hypothesized here that alpha-fetoprotein functions during critical gestational periods to prevent retinoic acid and maternal estradiol from inappropriately stimulating gene expression in developing brain regions which are sensitive to these chemicals. Prenatal/maternal factors linked to increased autism risk include valproic acid, thalidomide, alcohol, rubella, cytomegalovirus, depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autoimmune disease, stress, allergic reaction, and hypothyroidism. It will be shown how each of these risk factors may initiate expression of genes which are sensitive to retinoic acid and/or estradiol - whether by direct promotion or by reducing production of alpha-fetoprotein. It is thus hypothesized here that autism is not a genetic disorder, but is rather an epigenetic disruption in brain development caused by gestational exposure to chemicals and/or conditions which either inhibit alpha-fetoprotein production or directly promote retinoic acid-sensitive or estradiol-sensitive gene expression. This causation model leads to potential chemical explanations for autistic brain morphology, the distinct symptomatology of Asperger's syndrome, and the differences between high-functioning and low-functioning autism with regard to mental retardation, physical malformation, and sex ratio. It will be discussed how folic acid may cause autism under the retinoic acid/estradiol model, and the history of prenatal folic acid supplementation will be shown to coincide with the history of what is popularly known as the autism epidemic. It is thus hypothesized here that prenatal folic acid supplementation has contributed to the

  5. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, P; Helin, K

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation of the t......To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation...... transcription factor families are regulated by similar mechanisms, there are several differences that allow for the specific activation of each transcription factor. This review discusses the general import and export pathways found to be common amongst many different transcription factors, and highlights...... a select group of transcription factors that demonstrate the diversity displayed in their mode of activation and inactivation....

  6. Exploring cellular memory molecules marking competent and active transcriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu De-Pei

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development in higher eukaryotes involves programmed gene expression. Cell type-specific gene expression is established during this process and is inherited in succeeding cell cycles. Higher eukaryotes have evolved elegant mechanisms by which committed gene-expression states are transmitted through numerous cell divisions. Previous studies have shown that both DNase I-sensitive sites and the basal transcription factor TFIID remain on silenced mitotic chromosomes, suggesting that certain trans-factors might act as bookmarks, maintaining the information and transmitting it to the next generation. Results We used the mouse globin gene clusters as a model system to examine the retention of active information on M-phase chromosomes and its contribution to the persistence of transcriptional competence of these gene clusters in murine erythroleukemia cells. In cells arrested in mitosis, the erythroid-specific activator NF-E2p45 remained associated with its binding sites on the globin gene loci, while the other major erythroid factor, GATA-1, was removed from chromosome. Moreover, despite mitotic chromatin condensation, the distant regulatory regions and promoters of transcriptionally competent globin gene loci are marked by a preserved histone code consisting in active histone modifications such as H3 acetylation, H3-K4 dimethylation and K79 dimethylation. Further analysis showed that other active genes are also locally marked by the preserved active histone code throughout mitotic inactivation of transcription. Conclusion Our results imply that certain kinds of specific protein factors and active histone modifications function as cellular memory markers for both competent and active genes during mitosis, and serve as a reactivated core for the resumption of transcription when the cells exit mitosis.

  7. Polymorphisms in SREBF1 and SREBF2, two antipsychotic-activated transcription factors controlling cellular lipogenesis, are associated with schizophrenia in German and Scandinavian samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Hellard, S; Mühleisen, T W; Djurovic, S

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported structural brain abnormalities, decreased myelination and oligodendrocyte dysfunction in schizophrenia. In the central nervous system, glia-derived de novo synthesized cholesterol is essential for both myelination and synaptogenesis. Previously, we demonstrated...... in glial cell lines that antipsychotic drugs induce the expression of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acids biosynthesis through activation of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors, encoded by the sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1...... collaboration of psychiatric etiology study, SCOPE) replicated the association for the five SREBF1 markers and for two markers in SREBF2. A combined analysis of all samples resulted in highly significant genotypic P-values of 9 x 10(-4) for SREBF1 (rs11868035, odd ration (OR)=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI...

  8. Transcription Factor Networks in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Y. Rhee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific cellular fates and functions depend on differential gene expression, which occurs primarily at the transcriptional level and is controlled by complex regulatory networks of transcription factors (TFs. TFs act through combinatorial interactions with other TFs, cofactors, and chromatin-remodeling proteins. Here, we define protein-protein interactions using a coaffinity purification/mass spectrometry method and study 459 Drosophila melanogaster transcription-related factors, representing approximately half of the established catalog of TFs. We probe this network in vivo, demonstrating functional interactions for many interacting proteins, and test the predictive value of our data set. Building on these analyses, we combine regulatory network inference models with physical interactions to define an integrated network that connects combinatorial TF protein interactions to the transcriptional regulatory network of the cell. We use this integrated network as a tool to connect the functional network of genetic modifiers related to mastermind, a transcriptional cofactor of the Notch pathway.

  9. Mitotic bookmarking by transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadauke, Stephan; Blobel, Gerd A

    2013-04-02

    Mitosis is accompanied by dramatic changes in chromatin organization and nuclear architecture. Transcription halts globally and most sequence-specific transcription factors and co-factors are ejected from mitotic chromatin. How then does the cell maintain its transcriptional identity throughout the cell division cycle? It has become clear that not all traces of active transcription and gene repression are erased within mitotic chromatin. Many histone modifications are stable or only partially diminished throughout mitosis. In addition, some sequence-specific DNA binding factors have emerged that remain bound to select sites within mitotic chromatin, raising the possibility that they function to transmit regulatory information through the transcriptionally silent mitotic phase, a concept that has been termed "mitotic bookmarking." Here we review recent approaches to studying potential bookmarking factors with regards to their mitotic partitioning, and summarize emerging ideas concerning the in vivo functions of mitotically bound nuclear factors.

  10. TCP transcription factors: architectures of plant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassero, Nora G Uberti; Viola, Ivana L; Welchen, Elina; Gonzalez, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    After its initial definition in 1999, the TCP family of transcription factors has become the focus of a multiplicity of studies related with plant development at the cellular, organ, and tissue levels. Evidence has accumulated indicating that TCP transcription factors are the main regulators of plant form and architecture and constitute a tool through which evolution shapes plant diversity. The TCP transcription factors act in a multiplicity of pathways related with cell proliferation and hormone responses. In recent years, the molecular pathways of TCP protein action and biochemical studies on their mode of interaction with DNA have begun to shed light on their mechanism of action. However, the available information is fragmented and a unifying view of TCP protein action is lacking, as well as detailed structural studies of the TCP-DNA complex. Also important, the possible role of TCP proteins as integrators of plant developmental responses to the environment has deserved little attention. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the structure and functions of TCP transcription factors and analyze future perspectives for the study of the role of these proteins and their use to modify plant development.

  11. Transcription factors in alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko

    2013-01-01

    Higher plants produce a large variety of low-molecular weight secondary compounds. Among them, nitrogen-containing alkaloids are the most biologically active and are often used pharmaceutically. Whereas alkaloid chemistry has been intensively investigated, alkaloid biosynthesis, including the relevant biosynthetic enzymes, genes and their regulation, and especially transcription factors, is largely unknown, as only a limited number of plant species produce certain types of alkaloids and they are difficult to study. Recently, however, several groups have succeeded in isolating the transcription factors that are involved in the biosynthesis of several types of alkaloids, including bHLH, ERF, and WRKY. Most of them show Jasmonate (JA) responsiveness, which suggests that the JA signaling cascade plays an important role in alkaloid biosynthesis. Here, we summarize the types and functions of transcription factors that have been isolated in alkaloid biosynthesis, and characterize their similarities and differences compared to those in other secondary metabolite pathways, such as phenylpropanoid and terpenoid biosyntheses. The evolution of this biosynthetic pathway and regulatory network, as well as the application of these transcription factors to metabolic engineering, is discussed. © 2013, Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Cellular transcriptional response to zirconia-based implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Brigitte; Rabel, Kerstin; Kohal, Ralf J; Proksch, Susanne; Tomakidi, Pascal; Adolfsson, Erik; Bernsmann, Falk; Palmero, Paola; Fürderer, Tobias; Steinberg, Thorsten

    2017-02-01

    To adequately address clinically important issues such as osseointegration and soft tissue integration, we screened for the direct biological cell response by culturing human osteoblasts and gingival fibroblasts on novel zirconia-based dental implant biomaterials and subjecting them to transcriptional analysis. Biomaterials used for osteoblasts involved micro-roughened surfaces made of a new type of ceria-stabilized zirconia composite with two different topographies, zirconium dioxide, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (control). For fibroblasts smooth ceria- and yttria-stabilized zirconia surface were used. The expression of 90 issue-relevant genes was determined on mRNA transcription level by real-time PCR Array technology after growth periods of 1 and 7 days. Generally, modulation of gene transcription exhibited a dual dependence, first by time and second by the biomaterial, whereas biomaterial-triggered changes were predominantly caused by the biomaterials' chemistry rather than surface topography. Per se, modulated genes assigned to regenerative tissue processes such as fracture healing and wound healing and in detail included colony stimulating factors (CSF2 and CSF3), growth factors, which regulate bone matrix properties (e.g. BMP3 and TGFB1), osteogenic BMPs (BMP2/4/6/7) and transcription factors (RUNX2 and SP7), matrix collagens and osteocalcin, laminins as well as integrin ß1 and MMP-2. With respect to the biomaterials under study, the screening showed that a new zirconia-based composite stabilized with ceria may be promising to provide clinically desired periodontal tissue integration. Moreover, by detecting biomarkers modulated in a time- and/or biomaterial-dependent manner, we identified candidate genes for the targeted analysis of cell-implant bioresponse during biomaterial research and development. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Journey of a Transcription Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pireyre, Marie

    Plants have developed astonishing networks regulating their metabolism to adapt to their environment. The complexity of these networks is illustrated by the expansion of families of regulators such as transcription factors in the plant kingdom. Transcription factors specifically impact...... transcriptional networks by integrating exogenous and endogenous stimuli and regulating gene expression accordingly. Regulation of transcription factors and their activation is thus highly important to modulate the transcriptional programs and increase fitness of the plant in a given environment. Plant metabolism....... The biosynthetic machinery of GLS is governed by interplay of six MYB and three bHLH transcription factors. MYB28, MYB29 and MYB76 regulate methionine-derived GLS, and MYB51, MYB34 and MYB122 regulate tryptophan-derived GLS. The three bHLH transcription factors MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 physically interact with all six...

  14. Cloning and characterization of a putative transcription factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The ABA-controlled process is vital for plant survival. At present, certain cellular and ... et al., 1998; Eferl et al., 1999). C/EBP family of. bZIP transcription factors control the proliferation and .... al., 1999) using a biolistic PDS-1000/HeTM particle gun (Bio-Rad). After incubation for 18 - 24 h, fluorescence ...

  15. FOXO Transcriptional Factors and Long-Term Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Murtaza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several pathologies such as neurodegeneration and cancer are associated with aging, which is affected by many genetic and environmental factors. Healthy aging conceives human longevity, possibly due to carrying the defensive genes. For instance, FOXO (forkhead box O genes determine human longevity. FOXO transcription factors are involved in the regulation of longevity phenomenon via insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling. Only one FOXO gene (FOXO DAF-16 exists in invertebrates, while four FOXO genes, that is, FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4, and FOXO6 are found in mammals. These four transcription factors are involved in the multiple cellular pathways, which regulate growth, stress resistance, metabolism, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis in mammals. However, the accurate mode of longevity by FOXO factors is unclear until now. This article describes briefly the existing knowledge that is related to the role of FOXO factors in human longevity.

  16. Synthetic transcription elongation factors license transcription across repressive chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Graham S; Grieshop, Matthew P; Ali, Asfa; Qi, Jun; Lawlor, Matthew; Kumar, Deepak; Ahmad, Istaq; McNally, Anna; Teider, Natalia; Worringer, Katie; Sivasankaran, Rajeev; Syed, Deeba N; Eguchi, Asuka; Ashraf, Md; Jeffery, Justin; Xu, Mousheng; Park, Paul M C; Mukhtar, Hasan; Srivastava, Achal K; Faruq, Mohammed; Bradner, James E; Ansari, Aseem Z

    2017-11-30

    Releasing a paused RNA polymerase II into productive elongation is tightly-regulated, especially at genes that impact human development and disease. To exert control over this rate-limiting step, we designed sequence-specific synthetic transcription elongation factors (Syn-TEFs). These molecules are composed of programmable DNA-binding ligands flexibly tethered to a small molecule that engages the transcription elongation machinery. By limiting activity to targeted loci, Syn-TEFs convert constituent modules from broad-spectrum inhibitors of transcription into gene-specific stimulators. We present Syn-TEF1, a molecule that actively enables transcription across repressive GAA repeats that silence frataxin expression in Friedreich's ataxia, a terminal neurodegenerative disease with no effective therapy. Furthermore, the modular design of Syn-TEF1 defines a general framework for developing a class of molecules that license transcription elongation at targeted genomic loci. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Evolution of general transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunbin, K V; Ruvinsky, A

    2013-02-01

    Three genes GTF2IRD1, GTF2I, and GTF2IRD2, which encode members of the GTF2I (or TFII-I) family of so-called general transcription factors, were discovered and studied during the last two decades. Chromosome location and similarity of exon-intron structures suggest that the family evolved by duplications. The initial duplication of ancestral proto-GTF2IRD1 gene likely occurred in early vertebrates prior to origin of cartilaginous fish and led to formation of GTF2I (>450 MYA), which was later lost in bony fish but successfully evolved in the land vertebrates. The second duplication event, which created GTF2IRD2, occurred prior to major radiation events of eutherian mammalian evolution (>100 MYA). During recent steps of primate evolution there was another duplication which led to formation of GTF2IRD2B (evolution of the genes. The atypical substitutions are often located on secondary structures joining α-helices and affect 3D arrangement of the protein globule. Such substitutions are commonly traced at the early stages of evolution in Tetrapoda, Amniota, and Mammalia.

  18. Commitment to a cellular transition precedes genome-wide transcriptional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Umut; Falleur-Fettig, Melody; Johnson, Amy; Skotheim, Jan M

    2011-08-19

    In budding yeast, commitment to cell division corresponds to activating the positive feedback loop of G1 cyclins controlled by the transcription factors SBF and MBF. This pair of transcription factors has over 200 targets, implying that cell-cycle commitment coincides with genome-wide changes in transcription. Here, we find that genes within this regulon have a well-defined distribution of transcriptional activation times. Combinatorial use of SBF and MBF results in a logical OR function for gene expression and partially explains activation timing. Activation of G1 cyclin expression precedes the activation of the bulk of the G1/S regulon, ensuring that commitment to cell division occurs before large-scale changes in transcription. Furthermore, we find similar positive feedback-first regulation in the yeasts S. bayanus and S. cerevisiae, as well as human cells. The widespread use of the feedback-first motif in eukaryotic cell-cycle control, implemented by nonorthologous proteins, suggests its frequent deployment at cellular transitions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. African swine fever virus controls the host transcription and cellular machinery of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Elena G; Quintas, Ana; Nogal, Marisa; Castelló, Alfredo; Revilla, Yolanda

    2013-04-01

    Throughout a viral infection, the infected cell reprograms the gene expression pattern in order to establish a satisfactory antiviral response. African swine fever virus (ASFV), like other complex DNA viruses, sets up a number of strategies to evade the host's defense systems, such as apoptosis, inflammation and immune responses. The capability of the virus to persist in its natural hosts and in domestic pigs, which recover from infection with less virulent isolates, suggests that the virus displays effective mechanisms to escape host defense systems. ASFV has been described to regulate the activation of several transcription factors, thus regulating the activation of specific target genes during ASFV infection. Whereas some reports have concerned about anti-apoptotic ASFV genes and the molecular mechanisms by which ASFV interferes with inducible gene transcription and immune evasion, less is yet known regarding how ASFV regulates the translational machinery in infected cells, although a recent report has shown a mechanism for favored expression of viral genes based on compartmentalization of viral mRNA and ribosomes with cellular translation factors within the virus factory. The viral mechanisms involved both in the regulation of host genes transcription and in the control of cellular protein synthesis are summarized in this review. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcription Factor Pathways and Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulley, David J.; Black, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Mutations in numerous transcription factors have been identified in patients and families with some of the most common forms of cardiac malformations and arrhythmias. This review discusses factor pathways known to be important for normal heart development and how abnormalities in these pathways have been linked to morphological and functional forms of congenital heart defects. A comprehensive, current list of known transcription factor mutations associated with congenital heart disease is provided, but the review focuses primarily on three key transcription factors, Nkx2-5, GATA4, and Tbx5, and their known biochemical and genetic partners. By understanding the interaction partners, transcriptional targets, and upstream activators of these core cardiac transcription factors, additional information about normal heart formation and further insight into genes and pathways affected in congenital heart disease should result. PMID:22449847

  1. The ets-related transcription factor GABP directs bidirectional transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Collins

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of genes in the human genome are distributed such that their transcription start sites are located less than 1 kb apart on opposite strands. These divergent gene pairs have a single intergenic segment of DNA, which in some cases appears to share regulatory elements, but it is unclear whether these regions represent functional bidirectional promoters or two overlapping promoters. A recent study showed that divergent promoters are enriched for consensus binding sequences of a small group of transcription factors, including the ubiquitous ets-family transcription factor GA-binding protein (GABP. Here we show that GABP binds to more than 80% of divergent promoters in at least one cell type. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GABP binding is correlated and associated with bidirectional transcriptional activity in a luciferase transfection assay. In addition, we find that the addition of a strict consensus GABP site into a set of promoters that normally function in only one direction significantly increases activity in the opposite direction in 67% of cases. Our findings demonstrate that GABP regulates the majority of divergent promoters and suggest that bidirectional transcriptional activity is mediated through GABP binding and transactivation at both divergent and nondivergent promoters.

  2. Oxidative stress activates a specific p53 transcriptional response that regulates cellular senescence and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Valentina; De Michele, Giulia; Venezia, Oriella; Migliaccio, Pierluigi; Dall'Olio, Valentina; Bernard, Loris; Minardi, Simone Paolo; Della Fazia, Maria Agnese; Bartoli, Daniela; Servillo, Giuseppe; Alcalay, Myriam; Luzi, Lucilla; Giorgio, Marco; Scrable, Heidi; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Migliaccio, Enrica

    2013-06-01

    Oxidative stress is a determining factor of cellular senescence and aging and a potent inducer of the tumour-suppressor p53. Resistance to oxidative stress correlates with delayed aging in mammals, in the absence of accelerated tumorigenesis, suggesting inactivation of selected p53-downstream pathways. We investigated p53 regulation in mice carrying deletion of p66, a mutation that retards aging and confers cellular resistance and systemic resistance to oxidative stress. We identified a transcriptional network of ~200 genes that are repressed by p53 and encode for determinants of progression through mitosis or suppression of senescence. They are selectively down-regulated in cultured fibroblasts after oxidative stress, and, in vivo, in proliferating tissues and during physiological aging. Selectivity is imposed by p66 expression and activation of p44/p53 (also named Delta40p53), a p53 isoform that accelerates aging and prevents mitosis after protein damage. p66 deletion retards aging and increases longevity of p44/p53 transgenic mice. Thus, oxidative stress activates a specific p53 transcriptional response, mediated by p44/p53 and p66, which regulates cellular senescence and aging. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  3. The Transcription Factor THO Promotes Transcription Initiation and Elongation by RNA Polymerase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinfeng; French, Sarah L; Beyer, Ann L; Schneider, David A

    2016-02-05

    Although ribosomal RNA represents the majority of cellular RNA, and ribosome synthesis is closely connected to cell growth and proliferation rates, a complete understanding of the factors that influence transcription of ribosomal DNA is lacking. Here, we show that the THO complex positively affects transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). We found that THO physically associates with the rDNA repeat and interacts genetically with Pol I transcription initiation factors. Pol I transcription in hpr1 or tho2 null mutants is dramatically reduced to less than 20% of the WT level. Pol I occupancy of the coding region of the rDNA in THO mutants is decreased to ~50% of WT level. Furthermore, although the percentage of active rDNA repeats remains unaffected in the mutant cells, the overall rDNA copy number increases ~2-fold compared with WT. Together, these data show that perturbation of THO function impairs transcription initiation and elongation by Pol I, identifying a new cellular target for the conserved THO complex. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Phylogenetic and Transcription Analysis of Chrysanthemum WRKY Transcription Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; Li, Peiling; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Li, Huiyun; Zeng, Jun; Shao, Yafeng; Zhu, Lu; Zhang, Zhaohe; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are known to function in a number of plant processes. Here we have characterized 15 WRKY family genes of the important ornamental species chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium). A total of 15 distinct sequences were isolated; initially internal fragments were amplified based on transcriptomic sequence, and then the full length cDNAs were obtained using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) PCR. The transcription of these 15 genes in response to a variety of phytohormone treatments and both biotic and abiotic stresses was characterized. Some of the genes behaved as would be predicted based on their homology with Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY genes, but others showed divergent behavior. PMID:25196345

  5. Biochemical Factors Modulating Cellular Neurotoxicity of Methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvinder Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg, an environmental toxicant primarily found in fish and seafood, poses a dilemma to both consumers and regulatory authorities, given the nutritional benefits of fish consumption versus the possible adverse neurological damage. Several studies have shown that MeHg toxicity is influenced by a number of biochemical factors, such as glutathione (GSH, fatty acids, vitamins, and essential elements, but the cellular mechanisms underlying these complex interactions have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this paper is to outline the cellular response to dietary nutrients, as well as to describe the neurotoxic exposures to MeHg. In order to determine the cellular mechanism(s of toxicity, the effect of pretreatment with biochemical factors (e.g., N-acetyl cysteine, (NAC; diethyl maleate, (DEM; docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA; selenomethionine, SeM; Trolox and MeHg treatment on intercellular antioxidant status, MeHg content, and other endpoints was evaluated. This paper emphasizes that the protection against oxidative stress offered by these biochemical factors is among one of the major mechanisms responsible for conferring neuroprotection. It is therefore critical to ascertain the cellular mechanisms associated with various dietary nutrients as well as to determine the potential effects of neurotoxic exposures for accurately assessing the risks and benefits associated with fish consumption.

  6. Real-time transcriptional profiling of cellular and viral gene expression during lytic cytomegalovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Marcinowski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During viral infections cellular gene expression is subject to rapid alterations induced by both viral and antiviral mechanisms. In this study, we applied metabolic labeling of newly transcribed RNA with 4-thiouridine (4sU-tagging to dissect the real-time kinetics of cellular and viral transcriptional activity during lytic murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection. Microarray profiling on newly transcribed RNA obtained at different times during the first six hours of MCMV infection revealed discrete functional clusters of cellular genes regulated with distinct kinetics at surprising temporal resolution. Immediately upon virus entry, a cluster of NF-κB- and interferon-regulated genes was induced. Rapid viral counter-regulation of this coincided with a very transient DNA-damage response, followed by a delayed ER-stress response. Rapid counter-regulation of all three clusters indicated the involvement of novel viral regulators targeting these pathways. In addition, down-regulation of two clusters involved in cell-differentiation (rapid repression and cell-cycle (delayed repression was observed. Promoter analysis revealed all five clusters to be associated with distinct transcription factors, of which NF-κB and c-Myc were validated to precisely match the respective transcriptional changes observed in newly transcribed RNA. 4sU-tagging also allowed us to study the real-time kinetics of viral gene expression in the absence of any interfering virion-associated-RNA. Both qRT-PCR and next-generation sequencing demonstrated a sharp peak of viral gene expression during the first two hours of infection including transcription of immediate-early, early and even well characterized late genes. Interestingly, this was subject to rapid gene silencing by 5-6 hours post infection. Despite the rapid increase in viral DNA load during viral DNA replication, transcriptional activity of some viral genes remained remarkably constant until late-stage infection, or was

  7. Selective transcriptional regulation by Myc in cellular growth control and lymphomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabò, Arianna; Kress, Theresia R; Pelizzola, Mattia; de Pretis, Stefano; Gorski, Marcin M; Tesi, Alessandra; Morelli, Marco J; Bora, Pranami; Doni, Mirko; Verrecchia, Alessandro; Tonelli, Claudia; Fagà, Giovanni; Bianchi, Valerio; Ronchi, Alberto; Low, Diana; Müller, Heiko; Guccione, Ernesto; Campaner, Stefano; Amati, Bruno

    2014-07-24

    The c-myc proto-oncogene product, Myc, is a transcription factor that binds thousands of genomic loci. Recent work suggested that rather than up- and downregulating selected groups of genes, Myc targets all active promoters and enhancers in the genome (a phenomenon termed 'invasion') and acts as a general amplifier of transcription. However, the available data did not readily discriminate between direct and indirect effects of Myc on RNA biogenesis. We addressed this issue with genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA expression profiles during B-cell lymphomagenesis in mice, in cultured B cells and fibroblasts. Consistent with long-standing observations, we detected general increases in total RNA or messenger RNA copies per cell (hereby termed 'amplification') when comparing actively proliferating cells with control quiescent cells: this was true whether cells were stimulated by mitogens (requiring endogenous Myc for a proliferative response) or by deregulated, oncogenic Myc activity. RNA amplification and promoter/enhancer invasion by Myc were separable phenomena that could occur without one another. Moreover, whether or not associated with RNA amplification, Myc drove the differential expression of distinct subsets of target genes. Hence, although having the potential to interact with all active or poised regulatory elements in the genome, Myc does not directly act as a global transcriptional amplifier. Instead, our results indicate that Myc activates and represses transcription of discrete gene sets, leading to changes in cellular state that can in turn feed back on global RNA production and turnover.

  8. High throughput assays for analyzing transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianqiang; Jiang, Xin; Yaoi, Takuro

    2006-06-01

    Transcription factors are a group of proteins that modulate the expression of genes involved in many biological processes, such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations in transcription factor function are associated with many human diseases, and therefore these proteins are attractive potential drug targets. A key issue in the development of such therapeutics is the generation of effective tools that can be used for high throughput discovery of the critical transcription factors involved in human diseases, and the measurement of their activities in a variety of disease or compound-treated samples. Here, a number of innovative arrays and 96-well format assays for profiling and measuring the activities of transcription factors will be discussed.

  9. Mitochondrial transcription factor A protects human retinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and the probable mechanism. Methods: After ... Keywords: Mitochondrial transcription factor A, NF-κB, Hypoxia, Human retinal endothelial cell,. Diabetic retinopathy ..... choice for diabetic retinopathy therapy, as TFAM activity clearly affects the ...

  10. Comparison of Transcription Factor Binding Site Models

    KAUST Repository

    Bhuyan, Sharifulislam

    2012-05-01

    Modeling of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and TFBS prediction on genomic sequences are important steps to elucidate transcription regulatory mechanism. Dependency of transcription regulation on a great number of factors such as chemical specificity, molecular structure, genomic and epigenetic characteristics, long distance interaction, makes this a challenging problem. Different experimental procedures generate evidence that DNA-binding domains of transcription factors show considerable DNA sequence specificity. Probabilistic modeling of TFBSs has been moderately successful in identifying patterns from a family of sequences. In this study, we compare performances of different probabilistic models and try to estimate their efficacy over experimental TFBSs data. We build a pipeline to calculate sensitivity and specificity from aligned TFBS sequences for several probabilistic models, such as Markov chains, hidden Markov models, Bayesian networks. Our work, containing relevant statistics and evaluation for the models, can help researchers to choose the most appropriate model for the problem at hand.

  11. IL-2 Expression in Activated Human Memory FOXP3(+) Cells Critically Depends on the Cellular Levels of FOXP3 as Well as of Four Transcription Factors of  T Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendfeldt, Hanna; Benary, Manuela; Scheel, Tobias; Steinbrink, Kerstin; Radbruch, Andreas; Herzel, Hanspeter; Baumgrass, Ria

    2012-01-01

    The human CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T cell population is heterogeneous and consists of various subpopulations which remain poorly defined. Anergy and suppression are two main functional characteristics of FOXP3(+)Treg cells. We used the anergic behavior of FOXP3(+)Treg cells for a better discrimination and characterization of such subpopulations. We compared IL-2-expressing with IL-2-non-expressing cells within the memory FOXP3(+) T cell population. In contrast to IL-2-non-expressing FOXP3(+) cells, IL-2-expressing FOXP3(+) cells exhibit intermediate characteristics of Treg and Th cells concerning the Treg cell markers CD25, GITR, and Helios. Besides lower levels of FOXP3, they also have higher levels of the transcription factors NFATc2, c-Fos, NF-κBp65, and c-Jun. An approach combining flow cytometric measurements with statistical interpretation for quantitative transcription factor analysis suggests that the physiological expression levels not only of FOXP3 but also of NFATc2, c-Jun, c-Fos, and NF-κBp65 are limiting for the decision whether IL-2 is expressed or not in activated peripheral human memory FOXP3(+) cells. These findings demonstrate that concomitant high levels of NFATc2, c-Jun, c-Fos, and NF-κBp65 lead in addition to potential IL-2 expression in those FOXP3(+) cells with low levels of FOXP3. We hypothesize that not only the level of FOXP3 expression but also the amounts of the four transcription factors studied represent determining factors for the anergic phenotype of FOXP3(+) Treg cells.

  12. IL-2 Expression in Activated Human Memory FOXP3+ Cells Critically Depends on the Cellular Levels of FOXP3 as Well as of Four Transcription Factors of  T Cell Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendfeldt, Hanna; Benary, Manuela; Scheel, Tobias; Steinbrink, Kerstin; Radbruch, Andreas; Herzel, Hanspeter; Baumgrass, Ria

    2012-01-01

    The human CD4+FOXP3+ T cell population is heterogeneous and consists of various subpopulations which remain poorly defined. Anergy and suppression are two main functional characteristics of FOXP3+Treg cells. We used the anergic behavior of FOXP3+Treg cells for a better discrimination and characterization of such subpopulations. We compared IL-2-expressing with IL-2-non-expressing cells within the memory FOXP3+ T cell population. In contrast to IL-2-non-expressing FOXP3+ cells, IL-2-expressing FOXP3+ cells exhibit intermediate characteristics of Treg and Th cells concerning the Treg cell markers CD25, GITR, and Helios. Besides lower levels of FOXP3, they also have higher levels of the transcription factors NFATc2, c-Fos, NF-κBp65, and c-Jun. An approach combining flow cytometric measurements with statistical interpretation for quantitative transcription factor analysis suggests that the physiological expression levels not only of FOXP3 but also of NFATc2, c-Jun, c-Fos, and NF-κBp65 are limiting for the decision whether IL-2 is expressed or not in activated peripheral human memory FOXP3+ cells. These findings demonstrate that concomitant high levels of NFATc2, c-Jun, c-Fos, and NF-κBp65 lead in addition to potential IL-2 expression in those FOXP3+ cells with low levels of FOXP3. We hypothesize that not only the level of FOXP3 expression but also the amounts of the four transcription factors studied represent determining factors for the anergic phenotype of FOXP3+ Treg cells. PMID:22969764

  13. IL-2 expression in activated human memory FOXP3+ cells critically depends on the cellular levels of FOXP3 as well as of four transcription factors of T cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eBendfeldt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The human CD4+FOXP3+ T cell population is heterogeneous and consists of various subpopulations which remain poorly defined. Anergy and suppression are two main functional characteristics of FOXP3+Treg cells. We used the anergic behavior of FOXP3+Treg cells for a better discrimination and characterization of such subpopulations. We compared IL-2-expressing with IL-2-nonexpressing cells within the memory FOXP3+ T cell population. In contrast to IL-2 nonexpressing FOXP3+ cells, IL-2-expressing FOXP3+ cells exhibit intermediate characteristics of Treg and Th cells concerning the Treg cell markers CD25, GITR, and Helios. Besides lower levels of FOXP3, they also have higher levels of the transcription factors NFATc2, c-Fos, NF-Bp65, and c-Jun. An approach combining flow cytometric measurements with statistical interpretation for quantitative transcription factor analysis suggest that the physiological expression levels not only of FOXP3 but also of NFATc2, c-Jun, c-Fos, and NF-Bp65 are limiting for the decision whether IL-2 is expressed or not in activated peripheral human memory FOXP3+ cells. These findings demonstrate that concomitant high levels of NFATc2, c-Jun, c-Fos, and NF-Bp65 lead in addition to potential IL-2 expression in those FOXP3+ cells with low levels of FOXP3. We hypothesize that not only the level of FOXP3 expression but also the amounts of the four transcription factors studied represent determining factors for the anergic phenotype of FOXP3+ Treg cells.

  14. Phylogenetic and Transcription Analysis of Chrysanthemum WRKY Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are known to function in a number of plant processes. Here we have characterized 15 WRKY family genes of the important ornamental species chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium. A total of 15 distinct sequences were isolated; initially internal fragments were amplified based on transcriptomic sequence, and then the full length cDNAs were obtained using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR. The transcription of these 15 genes in response to a variety of phytohormone treatments and both biotic and abiotic stresses was characterized. Some of the genes behaved as would be predicted based on their homology with Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY genes, but others showed divergent behavior.

  15. Transcription Factors in Xylem Development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederoff, Ronald; Whetten, Ross; O' Malley, David; Campbell, Malcolm

    1999-07-01

    Answers to the following questions are answered in this report. do the two pine Byb proteins previously identified as candidate transcription factors bind to DNA and activate transcription? In what cell types are tehse Myb proteins expressed? Are these proteins localized to the nucleus? Do other proteins in pine xylem interact with these Myb proteins? Does altered expression of these genes have an impact on xylogenesis, specifically the expression of monolignol biosynthetic genes?

  16. Transcription factor CTCF and mammalian genome organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotova E. S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The CTCF transcription factor is thought to be one of the main participants in various gene regulatory networks including transcription activation and repression, formation of independently functioning chromatin domains, regulation of imprinting etc. Sequencing of human and other genomes opened up a possibility to ascertain the genomic distribution of CTCF binding sites and to identify CTCF-dependent cis-regulatory elements, including insulators. In the review, we summarized recent data on CTCF functioning within a framework of the chromatin loop domain hypothesis of large-scale regulation of the genome activity. Its fundamental properties allow CTCF to serve as a transcription factor, an insulator protein and a dispersed genome-wide demarcation tool able to recruit various factors that emerge in response to diverse external and internal signals, and thus to exert its signal-specific function(s.

  17. Zinc Finger-Containing Cellular Transcription Corepressor ZBTB25 Promotes Influenza Virus RNA Transcription and Is a Target for Zinc Ejector Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Jeng, King-Song; Lai, Michael M C

    2017-10-15

    Influenza A virus (IAV) replication relies on an intricate interaction between virus and host cells. How the cellular proteins are usurped for IAV replication remains largely obscure. The aim of this study was to search for novel and potential cellular factors that participate in IAV replication. ZBTB25, a transcription repressor of a variety of cellular genes, was identified by an RNA interference (RNAi) genomic library screen. Depletion of ZBTB25 significantly reduced IAV production. Conversely, overexpression of ZBTB25 enhanced it. ZBTB25 interacted with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein and modulated its transcription activity. In addition, ZBTB25 also functioned as a viral RNA (vRNA)-binding protein, binding preferentially to the U-rich sequence within the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of vRNA. Both protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions involving ZBTB25 facilitated viral RNA transcription and replication. In addition, ZBTB25 suppressed interferon production, further enhancing viral replication. ZBTB25-associated functions required an intact zinc finger domain and posttranslational SUMO-1 modification of ZBTB25. Furthermore, treatment with disulfiram (a zinc ejector) of ZBTB25-overexpressing cells showed significantly reduced IAV production as a result of reduced RNA synthesis. Our findings indicate that IAV usurps ZBTB25 for IAV RNA synthesis and serves as a novel and potential therapeutic antiviral target.IMPORTANCE IAV-induced seasonal influenza causes severe illness and death in high-risk populations. However, IAV has developed resistance to current antiviral drugs due to its high mutation rate. Therefore, development of drugs targeting cellular factors required for IAV replication is an attractive alternative for IAV therapy. Here, we discovered a cellular protein, ZBTB25, that enhances viral RdRp activity by binding to both viral RdRp and viral RNA to stimulate viral RNA synthesis. A unique feature of ZBTB25 in the regulation of

  18. Resveratrol regulates gene transcription via activation of stimulus-responsive transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Gerald; Rössler, Oliver G

    2017-03-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin of grapes and other fruits and plants, is a common constituent of our diet and of dietary supplements. Many health-promoting benefits have been connected with resveratrol in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, neurodegeneration, and diseases connected with aging. To explain the pleiotropic effects of resveratrol, the molecular targets of this compound have to be identified on the cellular level. Resveratrol induces intracellular signal transduction pathways which ultimately lead to changes in the gene expression pattern of the cells. Here, we review the effect of resveratrol on the activation of the stimulus-responsive transcription factors CREB, AP-1, Egr-1, Elk-1, and Nrf2. Following activation, these transcription factors induce transcription of delayed response genes. The gene products of these delayed response genes are ultimately responsible for the changes in the biochemistry and physiology of resveratrol-treated cells. The activation of stimulus-responsive transcription factors may explain many of the intracellular activities of resveratrol. However, results obtained in vitro may not easily be transferred to in vivo systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptional regulation of Hb-α and Hb-β through nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) activation in human vaginal cells: A novel mechanism of cellular adaptability to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Debarchana; Koli, Swanand; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2017-06-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb), a major protein involved in transport of oxygen (O2 ), is expressed by erythroid lineages. Until recently, it was not known whether non-erythroid cells express Hb. The objective was to evaluate the expression and functional significance of Hb-α and Hb-β in human primary vaginal epithelial cells (hPVECs) and decipher downstream signaling. RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, Western blot, immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the expression of Hb-α, Hb-β, and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2(Nrf2) after hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) induction. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were used to determine the binding efficiency of Nrf2 on the Hb-α promoter. Stimulation of hPVECs and human vaginal epithelial cell line, VK2/E6E7 with H2 O2 augmented the expression of Hb-α, Hb-β, Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment of these cells with Nrf2 inhibitor, trigonelline (Trig) inhibited Hb-α and Hb-β expressions. Hb-α and Hb-β overexpression downregulated H2 O2 -induced ROS. The presence of Nrf2 binding domain was demonstrated within Hb-α promoter. The results revealed for the first time that Hb-α and Hb-β were induced by oxidative stress through the activation of Nrf2. Overexpression of Hb-α and Hb-β ameliorated H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress, indicating one of the possible mechanism(s) to protect hPVECS from oxidative stress. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of cellular reprogramming to induced pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Mark; Kenis, Gunter; Bardy, Cedric; van den Hove, Daniel L; Gage, Fred H; Steinbusch, Harry W; Rutten, Bart P

    2016-08-01

    Enforced ectopic expression of a cocktail of pluripotency-associated genes such as Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc can reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The remarkable proliferation ability of iPSCs and their aptitude to redifferentiate into any cell lineage makes these cells a promising tool for generating a variety of human tissue in vitro. Yet, pluripotency induction is an inefficient process, as cells undergoing reprogramming need to overcome developmentally imposed epigenetic barriers. Recent work has shed new light on the molecular mechanisms that drive the reprogramming of somatic cells to iPSCs. Here, we present current knowledge on the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of pluripotency induction and discuss how variability in epigenetic states impacts iPSCs' inherent biological properties.

  1. Hey bHLH transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David; Wiese, Cornelia; Gessler, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Hey bHLH transcription factors are direct targets of canonical Notch signaling. The three mammalian Hey proteins are closely related to Hes proteins and they primarily repress target genes by either directly binding to core promoters or by inhibiting other transcriptional activators. Individual candidate gene approaches and systematic screens identified a number of Hey target genes, which often encode other transcription factors involved in various developmental processes. Here, we review data on interaction partners and target genes and conclude with a model for Hey target gene regulation. Furthermore, we discuss how expression of Hey proteins affects processes like cell fate decisions and differentiation, e.g., in cardiovascular, skeletal, and neural development or oncogenesis and how this relates to the observed developmental defects and phenotypes observed in various knockout mice. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Runx transcription factors in neuronal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiga Takashi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Runt-related (Runx transcription factors control diverse aspects of embryonic development and are responsible for the pathogenesis of many human diseases. In recent years, the functions of this transcription factor family in the nervous system have just begun to be understood. In dorsal root ganglion neurons, Runx1 and Runx3 play pivotal roles in the development of nociceptive and proprioceptive sensory neurons, respectively. Runx appears to control the transcriptional regulation of neurotrophin receptors, numerous ion channels and neuropeptides. As a consequence, Runx contributes to diverse aspects of the sensory system in higher vertebrates. In this review, we summarize recent progress in determining the role of Runx in neuronal development.

  3. The LIM Homeodomain Transcription Factor LHX6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zichao; Gutierrez, Diana; Li, Xiao; Bidlack, Felicitas; Cao, Huojun; Wang, Jianbo; Andrade, Kelsey; Margolis, Henry C.; Amendt, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    LHX6 is a LIM-homeobox transcription factor expressed during embryogenesis; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating LHX6 transcriptional activities are unknown. LHX6 and the PITX2 homeodomain transcription factor have overlapping expression patterns during tooth and craniofacial development, and in this report, we demonstrate new transcriptional mechanisms for these factors. PITX2 and LHX6 are co-expressed in the oral and dental epithelium and epithelial cell lines. Lhx6 expression is increased in Pitx2c transgenic mice and decreased in Pitx2 null mice. PITX2 activates endogenous Lhx6 expression and the Lhx6 promoter, whereas LHX6 represses its promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments reveal endogenous PITX2 binding to the Lhx6 promoter. LHX6 directly interacts with PITX2 to inhibit PITX2 transcriptional activities and activation of multiple promoters. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays reveal an LHX6·PITX2 nuclear interaction in living cells. LHX6 has a dominant repressive effect on the PITX2 synergistic activation with LEF-1 and β-catenin co-factors. Thus, LHX6 acts as a transcriptional repressor and represses the expression of several genes involved in odontogenesis. We have identified specific defects in incisor, molar, mandible, bone, and root development and late stage enamel formation in Lhx6 null mice. Amelogenin and ameloblastin expression is reduced and/or delayed in the Lhx6 null mice, potentially resulting from defects in dentin deposition and ameloblast differentiation. Our results demonstrate that LHX6 regulates cell proliferation in the cervical loop and promotes cell differentiation in the anterior region of the incisor. We demonstrate new molecular mechanisms for LHX6 and an interaction with PITX2 for normal craniofacial and tooth development. PMID:23229549

  4. NAC transcription factors: structurally distinct, functionally diverse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Addie Nina; Ernst, Heidi A; Leggio, Leila Lo

    2005-01-01

    NAC proteins constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors, and the family is present in a wide range of land plants. Here, we summarize the biological and molecular functions of the NAC family, paying particular attention to the intricate regulation of NAC protei...

  5. Transcription factor decoy technology: A therapeutic update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Wagner, Andreas H

    2017-11-15

    Targeting transcription factors represents one possibility to interfere with a known activated regulatory pathway that promotes disease. Double-stranded transcription factor decoy (TFD) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) are therapeutic drug candidates, which are able to specifically target and neutralize key transcription factors involved in the pathogenesis of a given disease. These short double-stranded TFD molecules mimic the consensus DNA binding site of a specific transcription factor in the promoter region of its target genes. Therefore, it is possible to exploit this nucleic acid-based drug class for the treatment of diseases caused by aberrant expression of such target genes the products of which are involved in disease initiation and progression. This research update focuses firstly on the mechanism of action of TFD molecules. Long-term effects of such ODNs depend on their stability and the efficiency by which they are delivered to the target tissue and taken up by their target cells. Hence structural modifications like e.g., single-stranded TFD molecules hybridising to itself to form an intramolecular hairpin molecule or circular ODNs assuming a dumbbell configuration, intended to enhance both stability and efficacy, are addressed. Also specific drug delivery methods like ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction with TFD ODN-coated microbubbles or adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for tissue-specific transduction and long-term TFD molecule expression in non-dividing cells will be discussed. Finally, current therapeutic applications of TFD ODN will be summarized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyphenol Compound as a Transcription Factor Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeon Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A target-based approach has been used to develop novel drugs in many therapeutic fields. In the final stage of intracellular signaling, transcription factor–DNA interactions are central to most biological processes and therefore represent a large and important class of targets for human therapeutics. Thus, we focused on the idea that the disruption of protein dimers and cognate DNA complexes could impair the transcriptional activation and cell transformation regulated by these proteins. Historically, natural products have been regarded as providing the primary leading compounds capable of modulating protein–protein or protein-DNA interactions. Although their mechanism of action is not fully defined, polyphenols including flavonoids were found to act mostly as site-directed small molecule inhibitors on signaling. There are many reports in the literature of screening initiatives suggesting improved drugs that can modulate the transcription factor interactions responsible for disease. In this review, we focus on polyphenol compound inhibitors against dimeric forms of transcription factor components of intracellular signaling pathways (for instance, c-jun/c-fos (Activator Protein-1; AP-1, c-myc/max, Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB and β-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf.

  7. Cross-Family Transcription Factor Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, Marian; Dijk, van Aalt-Jan; Immink, Richard G.H.; Angenent, Gerco C.

    2017-01-01

    Specific and dynamic gene expression strongly depends on transcription factor (TF) activity and most plant TFs function in a combinatorial fashion. They can bind to DNA and control the expression of the corresponding gene in an additive fashion or cooperate by physical interactions, forming larger

  8. Mitochondrial transcription factor A protects human retinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), as a modulator of NF-κB, on proliferation of hypoxia-induced human retinal endothelial cell (HREC), and the probable mechanism. Methods: After exposure to hypoxia (1 % O2) for 5 days, cell proliferation and cell cycle of HREC were ...

  9. MOF maintains transcriptional programs regulating cellular stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, B N; Bechtel-Walz, W; Lucci, J; Karpiuk, O; Hild, I; Hartleben, B; Vornweg, J; Helmstädter, M; Sahyoun, A H; Bhardwaj, V; Stehle, T; Diehl, S; Kretz, O; Voss, A K; Thomas, T; Manke, T; Huber, T B; Akhtar, A

    2016-05-01

    MOF (MYST1, KAT8) is the major H4K16 lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) in Drosophila and mammals and is essential for embryonic development. However, little is known regarding the role of MOF in specific cell lineages. Here we analyze the differential role of MOF in proliferating and terminally differentiated tissues at steady state and under stress conditions. In proliferating cells, MOF directly binds and maintains the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression. In contrast, MOF is dispensable for terminally differentiated, postmitotic glomerular podocytes under physiological conditions. However, in response to injury, MOF is absolutely critical for podocyte maintenance in vivo. Consistently, we detect defective nuclear, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi structures, as well as presence of multivesicular bodies in vivo in podocytes lacking Mof following injury. Undertaking genome-wide expression analysis of podocytes, we uncover several MOF-regulated pathways required for stress response. We find that MOF, along with the members of the non-specific lethal but not the male-specific lethal complex, directly binds to genes encoding the lysosome, endocytosis and vacuole pathways, which are known regulators of podocyte maintenance. Thus, our work identifies MOF as a key regulator of cellular stress response in glomerular podocytes.

  10. NAC Transcription Factors in Stress Responses and Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Shea, Charlotte

    Plant-specific NAM/ATAF/CUC (NAC) transcription factors have recently received considerable attention due to their significant roles in plant development and stress signalling. This interest has resulted in a number of physiological, genetic and cell biological studies of their functions. Some...... low degree of average structure but different patterns of disorder/order and molecular recognition features (MoRFs). For example, senescence-associated ANAC046 has a simple pattern with just a single MoRF. Analysis in yeast and thermodynamic characterisation suggested that the 11-residue C-terminal Mo......RF is a functional hotspot for both transcriptional activity and interaction with the cellular hub protein Radical Induced Cell Death1 (RCD1). Specific amino acid residues essential for the interaction were identified. These studies and structural analysis suggested that RCD1-ANAC046 complex formation does...

  11. Hydrogen peroxide sensing, signaling and regulation of transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, H. Susana; Real, Carla; Cyrne, Luísa; Soares, Helena; Antunes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms by which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) modulates the activity of transcription factors in bacteria (OxyR and PerR), lower eukaryotes (Yap1, Maf1, Hsf1 and Msn2/4) and mammalian cells (AP-1, NRF2, CREB, HSF1, HIF-1, TP53, NF-κB, NOTCH, SP1 and SCREB-1) are reviewed. The complexity of regulatory networks increases throughout the phylogenetic tree, reaching a high level of complexity in mammalians. Multiple H2O2 sensors and pathways are triggered converging in the regulation of transcription factors at several levels: (1) synthesis of the transcription factor by upregulating transcription or increasing both mRNA stability and translation; (ii) stability of the transcription factor by decreasing its association with the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex or by inhibiting this complex; (iii) cytoplasm–nuclear traffic by exposing/masking nuclear localization signals, or by releasing the transcription factor from partners or from membrane anchors; and (iv) DNA binding and nuclear transactivation by modulating transcription factor affinity towards DNA, co-activators or repressors, and by targeting specific regions of chromatin to activate individual genes. We also discuss how H2O2 biological specificity results from diverse thiol protein sensors, with different reactivity of their sulfhydryl groups towards H2O2, being activated by different concentrations and times of exposure to H2O2. The specific regulation of local H2O2 concentrations is also crucial and results from H2O2 localized production and removal controlled by signals. Finally, we formulate equations to extract from typical experiments quantitative data concerning H2O2 reactivity with sensor molecules. Rate constants of 140 M−1 s−1 and ≥1.3 × 103 M−1 s−1 were estimated, respectively, for the reaction of H2O2 with KEAP1 and with an unknown target that mediates NRF2 protein synthesis. In conclusion, the multitude of H2O2 targets and mechanisms provides an opportunity for highly

  12. Hydrogen peroxide sensing, signaling and regulation of transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Susana Marinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory mechanisms by which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 modulates the activity of transcription factors in bacteria (OxyR and PerR, lower eukaryotes (Yap1, Maf1, Hsf1 and Msn2/4 and mammalian cells (AP-1, NRF2, CREB, HSF1, HIF-1, TP53, NF-κB, NOTCH, SP1 and SCREB-1 are reviewed. The complexity of regulatory networks increases throughout the phylogenetic tree, reaching a high level of complexity in mammalians. Multiple H2O2 sensors and pathways are triggered converging in the regulation of transcription factors at several levels: (1 synthesis of the transcription factor by upregulating transcription or increasing both mRNA stability and translation; (ii stability of the transcription factor by decreasing its association with the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex or by inhibiting this complex; (iii cytoplasm–nuclear traffic by exposing/masking nuclear localization signals, or by releasing the transcription factor from partners or from membrane anchors; and (iv DNA binding and nuclear transactivation by modulating transcription factor affinity towards DNA, co-activators or repressors, and by targeting specific regions of chromatin to activate individual genes. We also discuss how H2O2 biological specificity results from diverse thiol protein sensors, with different reactivity of their sulfhydryl groups towards H2O2, being activated by different concentrations and times of exposure to H2O2. The specific regulation of local H2O2 concentrations is also crucial and results from H2O2 localized production and removal controlled by signals. Finally, we formulate equations to extract from typical experiments quantitative data concerning H2O2 reactivity with sensor molecules. Rate constants of 140 M−1 s−1 and ≥1.3 × 103 M−1 s−1 were estimated, respectively, for the reaction of H2O2 with KEAP1 and with an unknown target that mediates NRF2 protein synthesis. In conclusion, the multitude of H2O2 targets and mechanisms provides an opportunity for

  13. Breaking the mold: transcription factors in the anucleate platelet and platelet-derived microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L Lannan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are small anucleate blood cells derived from megakaryocytes. In addition to their pivotal roles in hemostasis, platelets are the smallest, yet most abundant, immune cell and regulate inflammation, immunity, and disease progression. Although platelets lack DNA, and thus no functional transcriptional activities, they are nonetheless rich sources of RNAs, possess an intact spliceosome, and are thus capable of synthesizing proteins. Previously, it was thought that platelet RNAs and translational machinery were remnants from the megakaryocyte. We now know that the initial description of platelets as cellular fragments is an antiquated notion, as mounting evidence suggests otherwise. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that platelet transcription factors are not vestigial remnants from megakaryoctes, but have important, if only partly understood functions. Proteins play multiple cellular roles to minimize energy expenditure for maximum cellular function; thus, the same can be expected for transcription factors. In fact, numerous transcription factors have non-genomic roles, both in platelets and in nucleated cells. Our lab and others have discovered the presence and nongenomic roles of transcription factors in platelets, such as the nuclear factor kappa β (NFκB family of proteins and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. In addition to numerous roles in regulating platelet activation, functional transcription factors can be transferred to vascular and immune cells through platelet microparticles. This method of transcellular delivery of key immune molecules may be a vital mechanism by which platelet transcription factors regulate inflammation and immunity. At the very least, platelets are an ideal model cell to dissect out the nongenomic roles of transcription factors in nucleated cells. There is abundant evidence to suggest that transcription factors in platelets play key roles in regulating inflammatory and

  14. Role of Forkhead Transcription Factors in Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Ponugoti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder, characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from insulin deficiency and/or insulin resistance. Recent evidence suggests that high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and subsequent oxidative stress are key contributors in the development of diabetic complications. The FOXO family of forkhead transcription factors including FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4, and FOXO6 play important roles in the regulation of many cellular and biological processes and are critical regulators of cellular oxidative stress response pathways. FOXO1 transcription factors can affect a number of different tissues including liver, retina, bone, and cell types ranging from hepatocytes to microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes to osteoblasts. They are induced by oxidative stress and contribute to ROS-induced cell damage and apoptosis. In this paper, we discuss the role of FOXO transcription factors in mediating oxidative stress-induced cellular response.

  15. The AP-2 family of transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Dawid; Buhl, Sandra; Weber, Susanne; Jäger, Richard; Schorle, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    The AP-2 family of transcription factors consists of five different proteins in humans and mice: AP-2α, AP-2β, AP-2γ, AP-2δ and AP-2ε. Frogs and fish have known orthologs of some but not all of these proteins, and homologs of the family are also found in protochordates, insects and nematodes. The proteins have a characteristic helix-span-helix motif at the carboxyl terminus, which, together with a central basic region, mediates dimerization and DNA binding. The amino terminus contains the tra...

  16. Pea3 transcription factor promotes neurite outgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BASAK eKANDEMIR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pea3 subfamily of ETS transcription factors consist of three major proteins, Pea3, ERM and ER81. Although important for many different tissues that exhibit branching morphogenesis, the function of Pea3 family in nervous system development and regeneration is only beginning to unfold. In this study, we provide evidence that Pea3 can directs neurite extension and axonal outgrowth in different model systems, and that Serine 90 is important for this function. We have also identified neurofilament-L and neurofilament-M as two putative novel targets for Pea3.

  17. The evolution of WRKY transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinerson, Charles I; Rabara, Roel C; Tripathi, Prateek; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J

    2015-02-27

    The availability of increasing numbers of sequenced genomes has necessitated a re-evaluation of the evolution of the WRKY transcription factor family. Modern day plants descended from a charophyte green alga that colonized the land between 430 and 470 million years ago. The first charophyte genome sequence from Klebsormidium flaccidum filled a gap in the available genome sequences in the plant kingdom between unicellular green algae that typically have 1-3 WRKY genes and mosses that contain 30-40. WRKY genes have been previously found in non-plant species but their occurrence has been difficult to explain. Only two WRKY genes are present in the Klebsormidium flaccidum genome and the presence of a Group IIb gene was unexpected because it had previously been thought that Group IIb WRKY genes first appeared in mosses. We found WRKY transcription factor genes outside of the plant lineage in some diplomonads, social amoebae, fungi incertae sedis, and amoebozoa. This patchy distribution suggests that lateral gene transfer is responsible. These lateral gene transfer events appear to pre-date the formation of the WRKY groups in flowering plants. Flowering plants contain proteins with domains typical for both resistance (R) proteins and WRKY transcription factors. R protein-WRKY genes have evolved numerous times in flowering plants, each type being restricted to specific flowering plant lineages. These chimeric proteins contain not only novel combinations of protein domains but also novel combinations and numbers of WRKY domains. Once formed, R protein WRKY genes may combine different components of signalling pathways that may either create new diversity in signalling or accelerate signalling by short circuiting signalling pathways. We propose that the evolution of WRKY transcription factors includes early lateral gene transfers to non-plant organisms and the occurrence of algal WRKY genes that have no counterparts in flowering plants. We propose two alternative hypotheses

  18. Analysis of the petunia MADS-box transcription factor family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, R.G.H.; Ferrario, S.I.T.; Busscher-Lange, J.; Kooiker, M.; Busscher, M.; Angenent, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Transcription factors are key regulators of plant development. One of the major groups of transcription factors is the MADS-box family, of which at least 80 members are encoded in the Arabidopsis genome. In this study, 23 members of the petunia MADS-box transcription factor family were investigated

  19. [Progresses on plant AP2/ERF transcription factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Yu; Wang, Qing-Ju; Guo, Zhong-Ren

    2012-07-01

    Plant AP2/ERF transcription factor with AP2/ERF domain containing 60-70 amino acids is a huge gene family present in all plant. AP2/ERF transcriptional factors are involved in various biological functions such as plant development, flower development, fruit and seed maturation, wounding, pathogen defense, high salty, drought, and so on. AP2/ERF transcription factor are involved in salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, abscisic acid signal transduction pathways and among them. The transcription factors are cross-talk factor in stress signal pathway. This paper summarizes the most advanced researches on types, biological functions, and gene regulations of plant AP2/ERF transcription factors.

  20. Defining the transcriptional and cellular landscape of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Carrero

    Full Text Available Our ability to successfully intervene in disease processes is dependent on definitive diagnosis. In the case of autoimmune disease, this is particularly challenging because progression of disease is lengthy and multifactorial. Here we show the first chronological compendium of transcriptional and cellular signatures of diabetes in the non-obese diabetic mouse. Our data relates the immunological environment of the islets of Langerhans with the transcriptional profile at discrete times. Based on these data, we have parsed diabetes into several discrete phases. First, there is a type I interferon signature that precedes T cell activation. Second, there is synchronous infiltration of all immunological cellular subsets and a period of control. Finally, there is the killing phase of the diabetogenic process that is correlated with an NF-kB signature. Our data provides a framework for future examination of autoimmune diabetes and its disease progression markers.

  1. pH modulates the binding of early growth response protein 1 transcription factor to DNA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikles, David C; Bhat, Vikas; Schuchardt, Brett J; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; McDonald, Caleb B; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor early growth response protein ( EGR )1 orchestrates a plethora of signaling cascades involved in cellular homeostasis, and its downregulation has been implicated in the development of prostate cancer...

  2. The WRKY transcription factor family in Brachypodium distachyon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Langum, Tanner J; Boken, Ashley K; Rushton, Deena L; Boomsma, Darius D; Rinerson, Charles I; Rabara, Jennifer; Reese, R Neil; Chen, Xianfeng; Rohila, Jai S; Rushton, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    .... Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits...

  3. NAC transcription factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 enhances drought tolerance in tomato

    KAUST Repository

    Thirumalaikumar, Venkatesh P.

    2017-06-22

    Water deficit (drought stress) massively restricts plant growth and the yield of crops; reducing the deleterious effects of drought is therefore of high agricultural relevance. Drought triggers diverse cellular processes including the inhibition of photosynthesis, the accumulation of cell-damaging reactive oxygen species, and gene expression reprogramming, besides others. Transcription factors (TF) are central regulators of transcriptional reprogramming and expression of many TF genes is affected by drought, including members of the NAC family. Here, we identify the NAC factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 (JUB1) as a regulator of drought tolerance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Expression of tomato JUB1 (SlJUB1) is enhanced by various abiotic stresses, including drought. Inhibiting SlJUB1 by virus-induced gene silencing drastically lowers drought tolerance concomitant with an increase in ion leakage, an elevation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels, and a decrease of the expression of various drought-responsive genes. In contrast, overexpression of AtJUB1 from Arabidopsis thaliana increases drought tolerance in tomato, alongside with a higher relative leaf water content during drought and reduced H2 O2 levels. AtJUB1 was previously shown to stimulate expression of DREB2A, a TF involved in drought responses, and of the DELLA genes GAI and RGL1. We show here that SlJUB1 similarly controls the expression of the tomato orthologs SlDREB1, SlDREB2, and SlDELLA. Furthermore, AtJUB1 directly binds to the promoters of SlDREB1, SlDREB2 and SlDELLA in tomato. Our study highlights JUB1 as a transcriptional regulator of drought tolerance and suggests considerable conservation of the abiotic stress-related gene regulatory networks controlled by this NAC factor between Arabidopsis and tomato. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. FOXO Transcription Factors: Their Clinical Significance and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the class O of forkhead box transcription factors (FOXO have important roles in metabolism, cellular proliferation, stress resistance, and apoptosis. The activity of FOXOs is tightly regulated by posttranslational modification, including phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitylation. Activation of cell survival pathways such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase/AKT/IKK or RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates FOXOs at different sites which regulate FOXOs nuclear localization or degradation. FOXO transcription factors are upregulated in a number of cell types including hepatocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, and cardiac myocytes. They are involved in a number of pathologic and physiologic processes that include proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, metabolism, inflammation, cytokine expression, immunity, differentiation, and resistance to oxidative stress. These processes impact a number of clinical conditions such as carcinogenesis, diabetes, diabetic complications, cardiovascular disease, host response, and wound healing. In this paper, we focus on the potential role of FOXOs in different disease models and the regulation of FOXOs by various stimuli.

  5. Transcription elongation factor GreA has functional chaperone activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial GreA is an indispensable factor in the RNA polymerase elongation complex. It plays multiple roles in transcriptional elongation, and may be implicated in resistance to various stresses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we show that Escherichia coli GreA inhibits aggregation of several substrate proteins under heat shock condition. GreA can also effectively promote the refolding of denatured proteins. These facts reveal that GreA has chaperone activity. Distinct from many molecular chaperones, GreA does not form stable complexes with unfolded substrates. GreA overexpression confers the host cells with enhanced resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress. Moreover, GreA expression in the greA/greB double mutant could suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype, and dramatically alleviate the in vivo protein aggregation. The results suggest that bacterial GreA may act as chaperone in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that GreA, in addition to its function as a transcription factor, is involved in protection of cellular proteins against aggregation.

  6. Targeting Sp1 transcription factors in prostate cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankpal, Umesh T; Goodison, Steven; Abdelrahim, Maen; Basha, Riyaz

    2011-09-01

    Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences within gene promoter regions. Specificity protein (Sp) family transcription factors play a critical role in various cellular processes and have been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis. The Sp family consists of several members that contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain composed of three zinc fingers at the C-terminus and serine/threonine- and glutamine-rich transactivation domains at the N-terminal. Sp1 is elevated in several cancers including prostate and is associated with the prognosis of patients. Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulate a variety of cancer associated genes that are involved in cell cycle, proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Studies have shown that in prostate cancer, Sp1 regulates important genes like androgen receptor, TGF-β, c-Met, fatty acid synthase, matrix metalloprotein (MT1-MMP), PSA, and α-integrin. These results highlight the importance of Sp1 in prostate cancer and emphasize the potential therapeutic value of targeting Sp1. Several strategies, including the use of natural and synthetic compounds, have been used to inhibit Sp1 in prostate cancer. These include polyphenol quercetin, betulinic acid, acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, tea phenols, isothiocyanates, thiazolidinediones, arsenic trioxide, and selenium. This review will describe the association of Sp proteins in prostate cancer with a special emphasis on some of the agents tested to target Sp proteins for the treatment of this malignancy.

  7. TOBFAC: the database of tobacco transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brannock Jennifer F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of gene expression at the level of transcription is a major control point in many biological processes. Transcription factors (TFs can activate and/or repress the transcriptional rate of target genes and vascular plant genomes devote approximately 7% of their coding capacity to TFs. Global analysis of TFs has only been performed for three complete higher plant genomes – Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, poplar (Populus trichocarpa and rice (Oryza sativa. Presently, no large-scale analysis of TFs has been made from a member of the Solanaceae, one of the most important families of vascular plants. To fill this void, we have analysed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum TFs using a dataset of 1,159,022 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs obtained by methylation filtering of the tobacco genome. An analytical pipeline was developed to isolate TF sequences from the GSR data set. This involved multiple (typically 10–15 independent searches with different versions of the TF family-defining domain(s (normally the DNA-binding domain followed by assembly into contigs and verification. Our analysis revealed that tobacco contains a minimum of 2,513 TFs representing all of the 64 well-characterised plant TF families. The number of TFs in tobacco is higher than previously reported for Arabidopsis and rice. Results TOBFAC: the database of tobacco transcription factors, is an integrative database that provides a portal to sequence and phylogeny data for the identified TFs, together with a large quantity of other data concerning TFs in tobacco. The database contains an individual page dedicated to each of the 64 TF families. These contain background information, domain architecture via Pfam links, a list of all sequences and an assessment of the minimum number of TFs in this family in tobacco. Downloadable phylogenetic trees of the major families are provided along with detailed information on the bioinformatic pipeline that was used to find

  8. Transcription factor control of growth rate dependent genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A three factor design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2008-01-01

    Background: Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three...... factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results: We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which m......RNA expression changes are significantly associated. Among key metabolic pathways, this analysis revealed de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides and ATP producing and consuming reactions at fast cellular growth. By scoring the significance of overlap between growth rate dependent genes and known...

  9. Nrf2 transcription factor gene regulates basal transcription of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Key words: Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), antioxidant response element (ARE), mitochondrial superoxide ... the commonality of the presence of a cis-acting anti- oxidant response element (ARE) ... stream genes encoding GSTs (Lee et al., 2002) and glutamate-cysteine ligase (Ishii et al., ...

  10. Increasing coverage of transcription factor position weight matrices through domain-level homology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady Bernard

    Full Text Available Transcription factor-DNA interactions, central to cellular regulation and control, are commonly described by position weight matrices (PWMs. These matrices are frequently used to predict transcription factor binding sites in regulatory regions of DNA to complement and guide further experimental investigation. The DNA sequence preferences of transcription factors, encoded in PWMs, are dictated primarily by select residues within the DNA binding domain(s that interact directly with DNA. Therefore, the DNA binding properties of homologous transcription factors with identical DNA binding domains may be characterized by PWMs derived from different species. Accordingly, we have implemented a fully automated domain-level homology searching method for identical DNA binding sequences.By applying the domain-level homology search to transcription factors with existing PWMs in the JASPAR and TRANSFAC databases, we were able to significantly increase coverage in terms of the total number of PWMs associated with a given species, assign PWMs to transcription factors that did not previously have any associations, and increase the number of represented species with PWMs over an order of magnitude. Additionally, using protein binding microarray (PBM data, we have validated the domain-level method by demonstrating that transcription factor pairs with matching DNA binding domains exhibit comparable DNA binding specificity predictions to transcription factor pairs with completely identical sequences.The increased coverage achieved herein demonstrates the potential for more thorough species-associated investigation of protein-DNA interactions using existing resources. The PWM scanning results highlight the challenging nature of transcription factors that contain multiple DNA binding domains, as well as the impact of motif discovery on the ability to predict DNA binding properties. The method is additionally suitable for identifying domain-level homology mappings to

  11. Interplay between viral Tat protein and c-Jun transcription factor in controlling LTR promoter activity in different human immunodeficiency virus type I subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Renée M.; Derking, Ronald; Breidel, Seyguerney; Speijer, Dave; Berkhout, Ben; Jeeninga, Rienk E.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 transcription depends on cellular transcription factors that bind to sequences in the long-terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. Each HIV-1 subtype has a specific LTR promoter configuration, and minor sequence changes in transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) or their arrangement can influence

  12. Transcription Factor Functional Protein-Protein Interactions in Plant Defense Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S. Alves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Responses to biotic stress in plants lead to dramatic reprogramming of gene expression, favoring stress responses at the expense of normal cellular functions. Transcription factors are master regulators of gene expression at the transcriptional level, and controlling the activity of these factors alters the transcriptome of the plant, leading to metabolic and phenotypic changes in response to stress. The functional analysis of interactions between transcription factors and other proteins is very important for elucidating the role of these transcriptional regulators in different signaling cascades. In this review, we present an overview of protein-protein interactions for the six major families of transcription factors involved in plant defense: basic leucine zipper containing domain proteins (bZIP, amino-acid sequence WRKYGQK (WRKY, myelocytomatosis related proteins (MYC, myeloblastosis related proteins (MYB, APETALA2/ ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTORS (AP2/EREBP and no apical meristem (NAM, Arabidopsis transcription activation factor (ATAF, and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC (NAC. We describe the interaction partners of these transcription factors as molecular responses during pathogen attack and the key components of signal transduction pathways that take place during plant defense responses. These interactions determine the activation or repression of response pathways and are crucial to understanding the regulatory networks that modulate plant defense responses.

  13. Rhythmic expressed clock regulates the transcription of proliferating cellular nuclear antigen in teleost retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hang; Wang, Defeng; De Jesus Perez, Felipe; Xie, Rongrong; Liu, Zhipeng; Chen, Chun-Chun; Yu, Meijuan; Yuan, Liudi; Fernald, Russell D; Zhao, Sheng

    2017-07-01

    Teleost fish continues to grow their eyes throughout life with the body size. In Astatotilapia burtoni, the fish retina increases by adding new retinal cells at the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) and in the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Cell proliferation at both sites exhibits a daily rhythm in number of dividing cells. To understand how this diurnal rhythm of new cell production is controlled in retinal progenitor cells, we studied the transcription pattern of clock genes in retina, including clock1a, clock1b, bmal1a (brain and muscle ARNT-Like), and per1b (period1b). We found that these genes have a strong diurnal rhythmic transcription during light-dark cycles but not in constant darkness. An oscillation in pcna transcription was also observed during light-dark cycles, but again not in constant darkness. Our results also indicate an association between Clock proteins and the upstream region of pcna (proliferating cellular nuclear antigen) gene. A luciferase reporter assay conducted in an inducible clock knockdown cell line further demonstrated that the mutation on predicted E-Boxes in pcna promoter region significantly attenuated the transcriptional activation induced by Clock protein. These results suggested that the diurnal rhythmic expression of clock genes in A. burtoni retina could be light dependent and might contribute to the daily regulation of the proliferation of the retina progenitors through key components of cell cycle machinery, for instance, pcna. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. WRKY Transcription Factors: Molecular Regulation and Stress Responses in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjal J Phukan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants in their natural habitat have to face multiple stresses simultaneously. Evolutionary adaptation of developmental, physiological and biochemical parameters give advantage over a single window of stress but not multiple. On the other hand transcription factors like WRKY can regulate diverse responses through a complicated network of genes. So molecular orchestration of WRKYs in plant may provide the most anticipated outcome of simultaneous multiple responses. Activation or repression through W-box and W-box like sequences is regulated at transcriptional, translational and domain level. Because of the tight regulation involved in specific recognition and binding of WRKYs to downstream promoters, they have become promising candidate for crop improvement. Epigenetic, retrograde and proteasome mediated regulation enable WRKYs to attain the dynamic cellular homeostatic reprograming. Overexpression of several WRKYs face the paradox of having several beneficial affects but with some unwanted traits. These overexpression-associated undesirable phenotypes need to be identified and removed for proper growth, development and yeild. Taken together, we have highlighted the diverse regulation and multiple stress response of WRKYs in plants along with the future prospects in this field of research.

  15. Molecular architecture of transcription factor hotspots in early adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Baek, Songjoon; Rabiee, Atefeh

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors have recently been shown to colocalize in hotspot regions of the genome, which are further clustered into super-enhancers. However, the detailed molecular organization of transcription factors at hotspot regions is poorly defined. Here, we have used digital genomic footprint......Transcription factors have recently been shown to colocalize in hotspot regions of the genome, which are further clustered into super-enhancers. However, the detailed molecular organization of transcription factors at hotspot regions is poorly defined. Here, we have used digital genomic...

  16. Translation Factors Specify Cellular Metabolic State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of Cell Reports, Shah et al. present evidence that a subcomplex of the eIF3 translation initiation factor regulates translation of mRNAs encoding components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and glycolytic enzymes, thus linking translational control with energy metabolism.

  17. The WRKY transcription factor family in Brachypodium distachyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Prateek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complete assembled genome sequence of wheat is not yet available. Therefore, model plant systems for wheat are very valuable. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits. Studies of WRKY transcription factors in Brachypodium and wheat therefore promise to lead to new strategies for wheat improvement. Results We have identified and manually curated the WRKY transcription factor family from Brachypodium using a pipeline designed to identify all potential WRKY genes. 86 WRKY transcription factors were found, a total higher than all other current databases. We therefore propose that our numbering system (BdWRKY1-BdWRKY86 becomes the standard nomenclature. In the JGI v1.0 assembly of Brachypodium with the MIPS/JGI v1.0 annotation, nine of the transcription factors have no gene model and eleven gene models are probably incorrectly predicted. In total, twenty WRKY transcription factors (23.3% do not appear to have accurate gene models. To facilitate use of our data, we have produced The Database of Brachypodium distachyon WRKY Transcription Factors. Each WRKY transcription factor has a gene page that includes predicted protein domains from MEME analyses. These conserved protein domains reflect possible input and output domains in signaling. The database also contains a BLAST search function where a large dataset of WRKY transcription factors, published genes, and an extensive set of wheat ESTs can be searched. We also produced a phylogram containing the WRKY transcription factor families from Brachypodium, rice, Arabidopsis, soybean, and Physcomitrella patens, together with published WRKY transcription factors from wheat. This phylogenetic tree provides evidence for orthologues, co-orthologues, and paralogues of Brachypodium WRKY transcription factors

  18. The WRKY transcription factor family in Brachypodium distachyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Langum, Tanner J; Boken, Ashley K; Rushton, Deena L; Boomsma, Darius D; Rinerson, Charles I; Rabara, Jennifer; Reese, R Neil; Chen, Xianfeng; Rohila, Jai S; Rushton, Paul J

    2012-06-22

    A complete assembled genome sequence of wheat is not yet available. Therefore, model plant systems for wheat are very valuable. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits. Studies of WRKY transcription factors in Brachypodium and wheat therefore promise to lead to new strategies for wheat improvement. We have identified and manually curated the WRKY transcription factor family from Brachypodium using a pipeline designed to identify all potential WRKY genes. 86 WRKY transcription factors were found, a total higher than all other current databases. We therefore propose that our numbering system (BdWRKY1-BdWRKY86) becomes the standard nomenclature. In the JGI v1.0 assembly of Brachypodium with the MIPS/JGI v1.0 annotation, nine of the transcription factors have no gene model and eleven gene models are probably incorrectly predicted. In total, twenty WRKY transcription factors (23.3%) do not appear to have accurate gene models. To facilitate use of our data, we have produced The Database of Brachypodium distachyon WRKY Transcription Factors. Each WRKY transcription factor has a gene page that includes predicted protein domains from MEME analyses. These conserved protein domains reflect possible input and output domains in signaling. The database also contains a BLAST search function where a large dataset of WRKY transcription factors, published genes, and an extensive set of wheat ESTs can be searched. We also produced a phylogram containing the WRKY transcription factor families from Brachypodium, rice, Arabidopsis, soybean, and Physcomitrella patens, together with published WRKY transcription factors from wheat. This phylogenetic tree provides evidence for orthologues, co-orthologues, and paralogues of Brachypodium WRKY transcription factors. The description of the WRKY transcription factor

  19. A Genome-Scale Resource for the Functional Characterization of Arabidopsis Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Pruneda-Paz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive transcriptional networks play major roles in cellular and organismal functions. Transcript levels are in part determined by the combinatorial and overlapping functions of multiple transcription factors (TFs bound to gene promoters. Thus, TF-promoter interactions provide the basic molecular wiring of transcriptional regulatory networks. In plants, discovery of the functional roles of TFs is limited by an increased complexity of network circuitry due to a significant expansion of TF families. Here, we present the construction of a comprehensive collection of Arabidopsis TFs clones created to provide a versatile resource for uncovering TF biological functions. We leveraged this collection by implementing a high-throughput DNA binding assay and identified direct regulators of a key clock gene (CCA1 that provide molecular links between different signaling modules and the circadian clock. The resources introduced in this work will significantly contribute to a better understanding of the transcriptional regulatory landscape of plant genomes.

  20. Functional characterization of tobacco transcription factor TGA2.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegler, C.; Lenk, I.; Krawczyk, S.

    2004-01-01

    Activation sequence-1 (as-1)-like regulatory cis elements mediate transcriptional activation in response to increased levels of plant signalling molecules auxin and salicylic acid (SA). Our earlier work has shown that tobacco cellular as-1-binding complex SARP (salicylic acid responsive protein...

  1. At the intersection of non-coding transcription, DNA repair, chromatin structure, and cellular senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke eOhsawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well accepted that non-coding RNAs play a critical role in regulating gene expression. Recent paradigm-setting studies are now revealing that non-coding RNAs, other than microRNAs, also play intriguing roles in the maintenance of chromatin structure, in the DNA damage response, and in adult human stem cell aging. In this review, we will discuss the complex inter-dependent relationships among non-coding RNA transcription, maintenance of genomic stability, chromatin structure and adult stem cell senescence. DNA damage-induced non-coding RNAs transcribed in the vicinity of the DNA break regulate recruitment of the DNA damage machinery and DNA repair efficiency. We will discuss the correlation between non-coding RNAs and DNA damage repair efficiency and the potential role of changing chromatin structures around double-strand break sites. On the other hand, induction of non-coding RNA transcription from the repetitive Alu elements occurs during human stem cell aging and hinders efficient DNA repair causing entry into senescence. We will discuss how this fine balance between transcription and genomic instability may be regulated by the dramatic changes to chromatin structure that accompany cellular senescence.

  2. Network motifs in integrated cellular networks of transcription-regulation and protein-protein interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Sattath, Shmuel; Kashtan, Nadav; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Milo, Ron; Pinter, Ron Y.; Alon, Uri; Margalit, Hanah

    2004-04-01

    Genes and proteins generate molecular circuitry that enables the cell to process information and respond to stimuli. A major challenge is to identify characteristic patterns in this network of interactions that may shed light on basic cellular mechanisms. Previous studies have analyzed aspects of this network, concentrating on either transcription-regulation or protein-protein interactions. Here we search for composite network motifs: characteristic network patterns consisting of both transcription-regulation and protein-protein interactions that recur significantly more often than in random networks. To this end we developed algorithms for detecting motifs in networks with two or more types of interactions and applied them to an integrated data set of protein-protein interactions and transcription regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found a two-protein mixed-feedback loop motif, five types of three-protein motifs exhibiting coregulation and complex formation, and many motifs involving four proteins. Virtually all four-protein motifs consisted of combinations of smaller motifs. This study presents a basic framework for detecting the building blocks of networks with multiple types of interactions.

  3. Pioneering barren land: mitotic bookmarking by transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro

    2013-02-25

    Genome condensation during mitosis presents a chromatin landscape largely inaccessible to RNA polymerase II and most transcription factors. Caravaca et al. (2013) now report in Genes and Development that the pioneer transcription factor FOXA1 is retained at mitotic chromosomes, bookmarking the genome to enable gene expression reestablishment upon mitotic exit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcription-dependent degradation controls the stability of the SREBP family of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Anders; Ericsson, Johan

    2003-11-25

    Cholesterol metabolism is tightly controlled by members of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) family of transcription factors. Here we demonstrate that the ubiquitination and degradation of SREBPs depend on their transcriptional activity. Mutations in the transactivation or DNA-binding domains of SREBPs inhibit their transcriptional activity and stabilize the proteins. The transcriptional activity and degradation of these mutants are restored when fused to heterologous transactivation or DNA-binding domains. When SREBP1a was fused to the DBD of Gal4, the ubiquitination and degradation of the fusion protein depended on coexpression of a promoter-reporter gene containing Gal4-binding sites. In addition, disruption of the interaction between WT SREBP and endogenous p300/CBP resulted in inhibition of SREBP-dependent transcription and stabilization of SREBP. Chemical inhibitors of transcription reduced the degradation of transcriptionally active SREBP1a, whereas they had no effect on the stability of transcriptionally inactive mutants, demonstrating that transcriptional activation plays an important role in the degradation of SREBPs. Thus, transcription-dependent degradation of SREBP constitutes a feedback mechanism to regulate the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and may represent a general mechanism to regulate the duration of transcriptional responses.

  5. The physical size of transcription factors is key to transcriptional regulation in chromatin domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Kaizu, Kazunari; Tamura, Sachiko; Nozaki, Tadasu; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Koichi

    2015-02-01

    Genetic information, which is stored in the long strand of genomic DNA as chromatin, must be scanned and read out by various transcription factors. First, gene-specific transcription factors, which are relatively small (˜50 kDa), scan the genome and bind regulatory elements. Such factors then recruit general transcription factors, Mediators, RNA polymerases, nucleosome remodellers, and histone modifiers, most of which are large protein complexes of 1-3 MDa in size. Here, we propose a new model for the functional significance of the size of transcription factors (or complexes) for gene regulation of chromatin domains. Recent findings suggest that chromatin consists of irregularly folded nucleosome fibres (10 nm fibres) and forms numerous condensed domains (e.g., topologically associating domains). Although the flexibility and dynamics of chromatin allow repositioning of genes within the condensed domains, the size exclusion effect of the domain may limit accessibility of DNA sequences by transcription factors. We used Monte Carlo computer simulations to determine the physical size limit of transcription factors that can enter condensed chromatin domains. Small gene-specific transcription factors can penetrate into the chromatin domains and search their target sequences, whereas large transcription complexes cannot enter the domain. Due to this property, once a large complex binds its target site via gene-specific factors it can act as a ‘buoy’ to keep the target region on the surface of the condensed domain and maintain transcriptional competency. This size-dependent specialization of target-scanning and surface-tethering functions could provide novel insight into the mechanisms of various DNA transactions, such as DNA replication and repair/recombination.

  6. Defining transcriptional networks through integrative modeling of mRNA expression and transcription factor binding data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussemaker Harmen J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional genomics studies are yielding information about regulatory processes in the cell at an unprecedented scale. In the yeast S. cerevisiae, DNA microarrays have not only been used to measure the mRNA abundance for all genes under a variety of conditions but also to determine the occupancy of all promoter regions by a large number of transcription factors. The challenge is to extract useful information about the global regulatory network from these data. Results We present MA-Networker, an algorithm that combines microarray data for mRNA expression and transcription factor occupancy to define the regulatory network of the cell. Multivariate regression analysis is used to infer the activity of each transcription factor, and the correlation across different conditions between this activity and the mRNA expression of a gene is interpreted as regulatory coupling strength. Applying our method to S. cerevisiae, we find that, on average, 58% of the genes whose promoter region is bound by a transcription factor are true regulatory targets. These results are validated by an analysis of enrichment for functional annotation, response for transcription factor deletion, and over-representation of cis-regulatory motifs. We are able to assign directionality to transcription factors that control divergently transcribed genes sharing the same promoter region. Finally, we identify an intrinsic limitation of transcription factor deletion experiments related to the combinatorial nature of transcriptional control, to which our approach provides an alternative. Conclusion Our reliable classification of ChIP positives into functional and non-functional TF targets based on their expression pattern across a wide range of conditions provides a starting point for identifying the unknown sequence features in non-coding DNA that directly or indirectly determine the context dependence of transcription factor action. Complete analysis results are

  7. Regulation of the yeast metabolic cycle by transcription factors with periodic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Matteo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When growing budding yeast under continuous, nutrient-limited conditions, over half of yeast genes exhibit periodic expression patterns. Periodicity can also be observed in respiration, in the timing of cell division, as well as in various metabolite levels. Knowing the transcription factors involved in the yeast metabolic cycle is helpful for determining the cascade of regulatory events that cause these patterns. Results Transcription factor activities were estimated by linear regression using time series and genome-wide transcription factor binding data. Time-translation matrices were estimated using least squares and were used to model the interactions between the most significant transcription factors. The top transcription factors have functions involving respiration, cell cycle events, amino acid metabolism and glycolysis. Key regulators of transitions between phases of the yeast metabolic cycle appear to be Hap1, Hap4, Gcn4, Msn4, Swi6 and Adr1. Conclusions Analysis of the phases at which transcription factor activities peak supports previous findings suggesting that the various cellular functions occur during specific phases of the yeast metabolic cycle.

  8. Regulation of the Ets transcription factor Tel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roukens, Mark Guido

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we report novel studies on the molecular regulation of the transcriptional repressor Tel (Translocation Ets Leukemia). The work in this thesis is presented as follows: Chapter 1 is an introduction which summarizes the literature about Tel and its Drosophila orthologue Yan as it was

  9. Emerging roles for MEF2 transcription factors in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, A J; Cole, C J; Josselyn, S A

    2014-01-01

    In the brain, transcription factors are critical for linking external stimuli to protein production, enabling neurons and neuronal networks to adapt to the ever-changing landscape. Gene transcription and protein synthesis are also vital for the formation of long-term memory. Members of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors have a well-characterized role in the development of a variety of tissues, but their role in the adult brain is only beginning to be understood. Recent evidence indicates that MEF2 regulates the structural and synaptic plasticity underlying memory formation. However, in stark contrast to most other transcription factors implicated in memory, MEF2-mediated transcription constrains (rather than promotes) memory formation. Here, we review recent data examining the role of MEF2 in adult memory formation in rodents. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  10. BRD4 Phosphorylation Regulates HPV E2-Mediated Viral Transcription, Origin Replication, and Cellular MMP-9 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwu-Yuan Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modification can modulate protein conformation and alter binding partner recruitment within gene regulatory regions. Here, we report that bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4, a transcription co-factor and chromatin regulator, uses a phosphorylation-induced switch mechanism to recruit E2 protein encoded by cancer-associated human papillomavirus (HPV to viral early gene and cellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 promoters. Enhanced MMP-9 expression, induced upon keratinocyte differentiation, occurs via BRD4-dependent recruitment of active AP-1 and NF-κB to their target sequences. This is triggered by replacement of AP-1 family members JunB and JunD by c-Jun and by re-localization of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In addition, BRD4 phosphorylation is critical for E2- and origin-dependent HPV DNA replication. A class of phospho-BRD4-targeting compounds, distinct from the BET bromodomain inhibitors, effectively blocks BRD4 phosphorylation-specific functions in transcription and factor recruitment.

  11. The adenovirus oncoprotein E1a stimulates binding of transcription factor ETF to transcriptionally activate the p53 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, T K; Braithwaite, A W

    1999-08-20

    Expression of the tumor suppressor protein p53 plays an important role in regulating the cellular response to DNA damage. During adenovirus infection, levels of p53 protein also increase. It has been shown that this increase is due not only to increased stability of the p53 protein but to the transcriptional activation of the p53 gene during infection. We demonstrate here that the E1a proteins of adenovirus are responsible for activating the mouse p53 gene and that both major E1a proteins, 243R and 289R, are required for complete activation. E1a brings about the binding of two cellular transcription factors to the mouse p53 promoter. One of these, ETF, binds to three upstream sites in the p53 promoter and one downstream site, whereas E2F binds to one upstream site in the presence of E1a. Our studies indicate that E2F binding is not essential for activation of the p53 promoter but that ETF is. Our data indicate the ETF site located downstream of the start site of transcription is the key site in conferring E1a responsiveness on the p53 promoter.

  12. Termination factor Rho: From the control of pervasive transcription to cell fate determination in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Pierre; Repoila, Francis; Bardowski, Jacek; Aymerich, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA species originating from pervasive transcription are regulators of various cellular processes, from the expression of individual genes to the control of cellular development and oncogenesis. In prokaryotes, the function of pervasive transcription and its output on cell physiology is still unknown. Most bacteria possess termination factor Rho, which represses pervasive, mostly antisense, transcription. Here, we investigate the biological significance of Rho-controlled transcription in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Rho inactivation strongly affected gene expression in B. subtilis, as assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of a rho–null mutant during exponential growth in rich medium. Subsequent physiological analyses demonstrated that a considerable part of Rho-controlled transcription is connected to balanced regulation of three mutually exclusive differentiation programs: cell motility, biofilm formation, and sporulation. In the absence of Rho, several up-regulated sense and antisense transcripts affect key structural and regulatory elements of these differentiation programs, thereby suppressing motility and biofilm formation and stimulating sporulation. We dissected how Rho is involved in the activity of the cell fate decision-making network, centered on the master regulator Spo0A. We also revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of Spo0A activation through Rho-dependent intragenic transcription termination of the protein kinase kinB gene. Altogether, our findings indicate that distinct Rho-controlled transcripts are functional and constitute a previously unknown built-in module for the control of cell differentiation in B. subtilis. In a broader context, our results highlight the recruitment of the termination factor Rho, for which the conserved biological role is probably to repress pervasive transcription, in highly integrated, bacterium-specific, regulatory networks. PMID:28723971

  13. Interactome analysis of transcriptional coactivator multiprotein bridging factor 1 unveils a yeast AP-1-like transcription factor involved in oxidation tolerance of mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xin-Ling; Dong, Wei-Xia; Ding, Jin-Li; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2017-09-04

    Oxidation tolerance is an important determinant to predict the virulence and biocontrol potential of Beauveria bassiana, a well-known entomopathogenic fungus. As a transcriptional coactivator, multiprotein bridging factor 1 mediates the activity of transcription factor in diverse physiological processes, and its homolog in B. bassiana (BbMBF1) contributes to fungal oxidation tolerance. In this study, the BbMBF1-interactomes under oxidative stress and normal growth condition were deciphered by mass spectrometry integrated with the immunoprecipitation. BbMBF1p factor has a broad interaction with proteins that are involved in various cellular processes, and this interaction is dynamically regulated by oxidative stress. Importantly, a B. bassiana homolog of yeast AP-1-like transcription factor (BbAP-1) was specifically associated with the BbMBF1-interactome under oxidation and significantly contributed to fungal oxidation tolerance. In addition, qPCR analysis revealed that several antioxidant genes are jointly controlled by BbAP-1 and BbMBF1. Conclusively, it is proposed that BbMBF1p protein mediates BbAP-1p factor to transcribe the downstream antioxidant genes in B. bassiana under oxidative stress. This study demonstrates for the first time a proteomic view of the MBF1-interactome in fungi, and presents an initial framework to probe the transcriptional mechanism involved in fungal response to oxidation, which will provide a new strategy to improve the biocontrol efficacy of B. bassiana.

  14. GATA family transcriptional factors: emerging suspects in hematologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Juehua; Chen, Yi-Hua; Peterson, LoAnn C

    2015-01-01

    GATA transcription factors are zinc finger DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription during development and cell differentiation. The three important GATA transcription factors GATA1, GATA2 and GATA3 play essential roles in the development and maintenance of hematopoietic systems. GATA1 is required for the erythroid and megakaryocytic commitment during hematopoiesis. GATA2 is crucial for the proliferation and survival of early hematopoietic cells, and is also involved in lineage specific transcriptional regulation as the dynamic partner of GATA1. GATA3 plays an essential role in T lymphoid cell development and immune regulation. As a result, mutations in genes encoding the GATA transcription factors or alteration in the protein expression level or their function have been linked to a variety of human hematologic disorders. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge regarding the disrupted biologic function of GATA in various hematologic disorders.

  15. The pluripotency transcription factor network at work in reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    Pluripotency-associated transcription factors possess a pivotal role to maintain pluripotency in pluripotent stem cells as well as to induce pluripotency in somatic cells. They direct specific pattern of gene expression from the genome by co-operating with the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Recent findings revealed that these mechanisms possess unique features in pluripotent stem cells, which is different from that in somatic cells either qualitatively and quantitatively. To reprogram somatic cells, pluripotency-associated transcription factors should modulate the co-operating machineries to establish the optimal environment for their function to maintain pluripotency-associated transcription factor network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Maintenance of Transcription-Translation Coupling by Elongation Factor P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Elgamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of tight coupling between translation and transcription, the ribosome enables synthesis of full-length mRNAs by preventing both formation of intrinsic terminator hairpins and loading of the transcription termination factor Rho. While previous studies have focused on transcription factors, we investigated the role of Escherichia coli elongation factor P (EF-P, an elongation factor required for efficient translation of mRNAs containing consecutive proline codons, in maintaining coupled translation and transcription. In the absence of EF-P, the presence of Rho utilization (rut sites led to an ~30-fold decrease in translation of polyproline-encoding mRNAs. Coexpression of the Rho inhibitor Psu fully restored translation. EF-P was also shown to inhibit premature termination during synthesis and translation of mRNAs encoding intrinsic terminators. The effects of EF-P loss on expression of polyproline mRNAs were augmented by a substitution in RNA polymerase that accelerates transcription. Analyses of previously reported ribosome profiling and global proteomic data identified several candidate gene clusters where EF-P could act to prevent premature transcription termination. In vivo probing allowed detection of some predicted premature termination products in the absence of EF-P. Our findings support a model in which EF-P maintains coupling of translation and transcription by decreasing ribosome stalling at polyproline motifs. Other regulators that facilitate ribosome translocation through roadblocks to prevent premature transcription termination upon uncoupling remain to be identified.

  17. Chromatin Kinases Act on Transcription Factors and Histone Tails in Regulation of Inducible Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefowicz, Steven Z; Shimada, Miho; Armache, Anja; Li, Charles H; Miller, Rand M; Lin, Shu; Yang, Aerin; Dill, Brian D; Molina, Henrik; Park, Hee-Sung; Garcia, Benjamin A; Taunton, Jack; Roeder, Robert G; Allis, C David

    2016-10-20

    The inflammatory response requires coordinated activation of both transcription factors and chromatin to induce transcription for defense against pathogens and environmental insults. We sought to elucidate the connections between inflammatory signaling pathways and chromatin through genomic footprinting of kinase activity and unbiased identification of prominent histone phosphorylation events. We identified H3 serine 28 phosphorylation (H3S28ph) as the principal stimulation-dependent histone modification and observed its enrichment at induced genes in mouse macrophages stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we identified mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases (MSKs) as primary mediators of H3S28ph in macrophages. Cell-free transcription assays demonstrated that H3S28ph directly promotes p300/CBP-dependent transcription. Further, MSKs can activate both signal-responsive transcription factors and the chromatin template with additive effects on transcription. Specific inhibition of MSKs in macrophages selectively reduced transcription of stimulation-induced genes. Our results suggest that MSKs incorporate upstream signaling inputs and control multiple downstream regulators of inducible transcription. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcriptional Control of Synaptic Plasticity by Transcription Factor NF-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Christian; Haenold, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factors is required for the induction of synaptic plasticity and memory formation. All components of this signaling pathway are localized at synapses, and transcriptionally active NF-κB dimers move to the nucleus to translate synaptic signals into altered gene expression. Neuron-specific inhibition results in altered connectivity of excitatory and inhibitory synapses and functionally in selective learning deficits. Recent research on transgenic mice with impaired or hyperactivated NF-κB gave important insights into plasticity-related target gene expression that is regulated by NF-κB. In this minireview, we update the available data on the role of this transcription factor for learning and memory formation and comment on cross-sectional activation of NF-κB in the aged and diseased brain that may directly or indirectly affect κB-dependent transcription of synaptic genes. PMID:26881128

  19. Wild type p53 transcriptionally represses the SALL2 transcription factor under genotoxic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Farkas

    Full Text Available SALL2- a member of the Spalt gene family- is a poorly characterized transcription factor found deregulated in various cancers, which suggests it plays a role in the disease. We previously identified SALL2 as a novel interacting protein of neurotrophin receptors and showed that it plays a role in neuronal function, which does not necessarily explain why or how SALL2 is deregulated in cancer. Previous evidences indicate that SALL2 gene is regulated by the WT1 and AP4 transcription factors. Here, we identified SALL2 as a novel downstream target of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the SALL2 gene revealed several putative p53 half sites along the promoter region. Either overexpression of wild-type p53 or induction of the endogenous p53 by the genotoxic agent doxorubicin repressed SALL2 promoter activity in various cell lines. However R175H, R249S, and R248W p53 mutants, frequently found in the tumors of cancer patients, were unable to repress SALL2 promoter activity, suggesting that p53 specific binding to DNA is important for the regulation of SALL2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated binding of p53 to one of the identified p53 half sites in the Sall2 promoter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed in vivo interaction of p53 with the promoter region of Sall2 containing this half site. Importantly, by using a p53ER (TAM knockin model expressing a variant of p53 that is completely dependent on 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen for its activity, we show that p53 activation diminished SALL2 RNA and protein levels during genotoxic cellular stress in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs and radiosensitive tissues in vivo. Thus, our finding indicates that p53 represses SALL2 expression in a context-specific manner, adding knowledge to the understanding of SALL2 gene regulation, and to a potential mechanism for its deregulation in cancer.

  20. A Nucleolar Protein, Ribosomal RNA Processing 1 Homolog B (RRP1B), Enhances the Recruitment of Cellular mRNA in Influenza Virus Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-Chi; Hsu, Shih-Feng; Lee, Yi-Yuan; Jeng, King-Song; Lai, Michael M C

    2015-11-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) undergoes RNA transcription by a unique capped-mRNA-dependent transcription, which is carried out by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), consisting of the viral PA, PB1, and PB2 proteins. However, how the viral RdRp utilizes cellular factors for virus transcription is not clear. Previously, we conducted a genome-wide pooled short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen to identify host factors important for influenza A virus replication. Ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B (RRP1B) was identified as one of the candidates. RRP1B is a nucleolar protein involved in ribosomal biogenesis. Upon IAV infection, part of RRP1B was translocated from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm, where viral RNA synthesis likely takes place. The depletion of RRP1B significantly reduced IAV mRNA transcription in a minireplicon assay and in virus-infected cells. Furthermore, we showed that RRP1B interacted with PB1 and PB2 of the RdRp and formed a coimmunoprecipitable complex with RdRp. The depletion of RRP1B reduced the amount of capped mRNA in the RdRp complex. Taken together, these findings indicate that RRP1B is a host factor essential for IAV transcription and provide a target for new antivirals. Influenza virus is an important human pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality and threatens the human population with epidemics and pandemics every year. Due to the high mutation rate of the virus, antiviral drugs targeting viral proteins might ultimately lose their effectiveness. An alternative strategy that explores the genetic stability of host factors indispensable for influenza virus replication would thus be desirable. Here, we characterized the rRNA processing 1 homolog B (RRP1B) protein as an important cellular factor for influenza A virus transcription. We showed that silencing RRP1B hampered viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity, which is responsible for virus transcription and replication. Furthermore, we reported that RRP1B is

  1. Regulation of transcription initiation by Gfh factors from Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapov, Aleksei; Esyunina, Daria; Pupov, Danil; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2016-12-01

    Transcription factors of the Gre family bind within the secondary channel of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) directly modulating its catalytic activities. Universally conserved Gre factors activate RNA cleavage by RNAP, by chelating catalytic metal ions in the RNAP active site, and facilitate both promoter escape and transcription elongation. Gfh factors are Deinococcus/Thermus-specific homologues of Gre factors whose transcription functions remain poorly understood. Recently, we found that Gfh1 and Gfh2 proteins from Deinococcus radiodurans dramatically stimulate RNAP pausing during transcription elongation in the presence of Mn(2+), but not Mg(2+), ions. In contrast, we show that Gfh1 and Gfh2 moderately inhibit transcription initiation in the presence of either Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) ions. By using a molecular beacon assay, we demonstrate that Gfh1 and Gfh2 do not significantly change promoter complex stability or the rate of promoter escape by D. radiodurans RNAP. At the same time, Gfh factors significantly increase the apparent KM value for the 5'-initiating nucleotide, without having major effects on the affinity of metal ions for the RNAP active site. Similar inhibitory effects of Gfh factors are observed for transcription initiation on promoters recognized by the principal and an alternative σ factor. In summary, our data suggest that D. radiodurans Gfh factors impair the binding of initiating substrates independently of the metal ions bound in the RNAP active site, but have only mild overall effects on transcription initiation. Thus the mechanisms of modulation of RNAP activity by these factors are different for various steps of transcription. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Ab initio prediction of transcription factor targets using structural knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches for identification and detection of transcription factor binding sites rely on an extensive set of known target genes. Here we describe a novel structure-based approach applicable to transcription factors with no prior binding data. Our approach combines sequence data and structural information to infer context-specific amino acid-nucleotide recognition preferences. These are used to predict binding sites for novel transcription factors from the same structural family. We demonstrate our approach on the Cys(2His(2 Zinc Finger protein family, and show that the learned DNA-recognition preferences are compatible with experimental results. We use these preferences to perform a genome-wide scan for direct targets of Drosophila melanogaster Cys(2His(2 transcription factors. By analyzing the predicted targets along with gene annotation and expression data we infer the function and activity of these proteins.

  3. The Arabidopsis Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Family

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriela Toledo-Ortiz; Enamul Huq; Peter H. Quail

    2003-01-01

    The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that bind as dimers to specific DNA target sites and that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes as important regulatory components...

  4. The Dynamics of Transcript Abundance during Cellularization of Developing Barley Endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runxuan; Tucker, Matthew R; Burton, Rachel A; Shirley, Neil J; Little, Alan; Morris, Jenny; Milne, Linda; Houston, Kelly; Hedley, Pete E; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2016-03-01

    Within the cereal grain, the endosperm and its nutrient reserves are critical for successful germination and in the context of grain utilization. The identification of molecular determinants of early endosperm development, particularly regulators of cell division and cell wall deposition, would help predict end-use properties such as yield, quality, and nutritional value. Custom microarray data have been generated using RNA isolated from developing barley grain endosperm 3 d to 8 d after pollination (DAP). Comparisons of transcript abundance over time revealed 47 gene expression modules that can be clustered into 10 broad groups. Superimposing these modules upon cytological data allowed patterns of transcript abundance to be linked with key stages of early grain development. Here, attention was focused on how the datasets could be mined to explore and define the processes of cell wall biosynthesis, remodeling, and degradation. Using a combination of spatial molecular network and gene ontology enrichment analyses, it is shown that genes involved in cell wall metabolism are found in multiple modules, but cluster into two main groups that exhibit peak expression at 3 DAP to 4 DAP and 5 DAP to 8 DAP. The presence of transcription factor genes in these modules allowed candidate genes for the control of wall metabolism during early barley grain development to be identified. The data are publicly available through a dedicated web interface (https://ics.hutton.ac.uk/barseed/), where they can be used to interrogate co- and differential expression for any other genes, groups of genes, or transcription factors expressed during early endosperm development. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. The sox family of transcription factors: versatile regulators of stem and progenitor cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abby; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2013-01-03

    Sox family transcription factors are well-established regulators of cell fate decisions during development. Accumulating evidence documents that they play additional roles in adult tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Remarkably, forced expression of Sox factors, in combination with other synergistic factors, reprograms differentiated cells into somatic or pluripotent stem cells. Dysregulation of Sox factors has been further implicated in diseases including cancer. Here, we review molecular and functional evidence linking Sox proteins with stem cell biology, cellular reprogramming, and disease with an emphasis on Sox2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SoyDB: a knowledge database of soybean transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valliyodan Babu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors play the crucial rule of regulating gene expression and influence almost all biological processes. Systematically identifying and annotating transcription factors can greatly aid further understanding their functions and mechanisms. In this article, we present SoyDB, a user friendly database containing comprehensive knowledge of soybean transcription factors. Description The soybean genome was recently sequenced by the Department of Energy-Joint Genome Institute (DOE-JGI and is publicly available. Mining of this sequence identified 5,671 soybean genes as putative transcription factors. These genes were comprehensively annotated as an aid to the soybean research community. We developed SoyDB - a knowledge database for all the transcription factors in the soybean genome. The database contains protein sequences, predicted tertiary structures, putative DNA binding sites, domains, homologous templates in the Protein Data Bank (PDB, protein family classifications, multiple sequence alignments, consensus protein sequence motifs, web logo of each family, and web links to the soybean transcription factor database PlantTFDB, known EST sequences, and other general protein databases including Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology, KEGG, EMBL, TAIR, InterPro, SMART, PROSITE, NCBI, and Pfam. The database can be accessed via an interactive and convenient web server, which supports full-text search, PSI-BLAST sequence search, database browsing by protein family, and automatic classification of a new protein sequence into one of 64 annotated transcription factor families by hidden Markov models. Conclusions A comprehensive soybean transcription factor database was constructed and made publicly accessible at http://casp.rnet.missouri.edu/soydb/.

  7. TrSDB: a proteome database of transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Antoni; Aguilar, Daniel; Aviles, Francesc X.; Querol, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    TrSDB—TranScout Database—(http://ibb.uab.es/trsdb) is a proteome database of eukaryotic transcription factors based upon predicted motifs by TranScout and data sources such as InterPro and Gene Ontology Annotation. Nine eukaryotic proteomes are included in the current version. Extensive and diverse information for each database entry, different analyses considering TranScout classification and similarity relationships are offered for research on transcription factors or gene expression. PMID:14681387

  8. Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF transcription factor family expansion, diversification, divergence and selection in eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allie M Graham

    Full Text Available Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF transcription factors are crucial for regulating a variety of cellular activities in response to oxygen stress (hypoxia. In this study, we determine the evolutionary history of HIF genes and their associated transactivation domains, as well as perform selection and functional divergence analyses across their four characteristic domains. Here we show that the HIF genes are restricted to metazoans: At least one HIF-α homolog is found within the genomes of non-bilaterians and bilaterian invertebrates, while most vertebrate genomes contain between two and six HIF-α genes. We also find widespread purifying selection across all four characteristic domain types, bHLH, PAS, NTAD, CTAD, in HIF-α genes, and evidence for Type I functional divergence between HIF-1α, HIF-2α /EPAS, and invertebrate HIF genes. Overall, we describe the evolutionary histories of the HIF transcription factor gene family and its associated transactivation domains in eukaryotes. We show that the NTAD and CTAD domains appear de novo, without any appearance outside of the HIF-α subunits. Although they both appear in invertebrates as well as vertebrate HIF- α sequences, there seems to have been a substantial loss across invertebrates or were convergently acquired in these few lineages. We reaffirm that HIF-1α is phylogenetically conserved among most metazoans, whereas HIF-2α appeared later. Overall, our findings can be attributed to the substantial integration of this transcription factor family into the critical tasks associated with maintenance of oxygen homeostasis and vascularization, particularly in the vertebrate lineage.

  9. Role of Transcription Factor Modifications in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver not due to alcohol abuse. NAFLD is accompanied by variety of symptoms related to metabolic syndrome. Although the metabolic link between NAFLD and insulin resistance is not fully understood, it is clear that NAFLD is one of the main cause of insulin resistance. NAFLD is shown to affect the functions of other organs, including pancreas, adipose tissue, muscle and inflammatory systems. Currently efforts are being made to understand molecular mechanism of interrelationship between NAFLD and insulin resistance at the transcriptional level with specific focus on post-translational modification (PTM of transcription factors. PTM of transcription factors plays a key role in controlling numerous biological events, including cellular energy metabolism, cell-cycle progression, and organ development. Cell type- and tissue-specific reversible modifications include lysine acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation. Moreover, phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation on serine and threonine residues have been shown to affect protein stability, subcellular distribution, DNA-binding affinity, and transcriptional activity. PTMs of transcription factors involved in insulin-sensitive tissues confer specific adaptive mechanisms in response to internal or external stimuli. Our understanding of the interplay between these modifications and their effects on transcriptional regulation is growing. Here, we summarize the diverse roles of PTMs in insulin-sensitive tissues and their involvement in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

  10. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 3 Is an Oxygen-Dependent Transcription Activator and Regulates a Distinct Transcriptional Response to Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs play key roles in the cellular response to hypoxia. It is widely accepted that whereas HIF-1 and HIF-2 function as transcriptional activators, HIF-3 inhibits HIF-1/2α action. Contrary to this idea, we show that zebrafish Hif-3α has strong transactivation activity. Hif-3α is degraded under normoxia. Mutation of P393, P493, and L503 inhibits this oxygen-dependent degradation. Transcriptomics and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses identify genes that are regulated by Hif-3α, Hif-1α, or both. Under hypoxia or when overexpressed, Hif-3α binds to its target gene promoters and upregulates their expression. Dominant-negative inhibition and knockdown of Hif-3α abolish hypoxia-induced Hif-3α-promoter binding and gene expression. Hif-3α not only mediates hypoxia-induced growth and developmental retardation but also possesses hypoxia-independent activities. Importantly, transactivation activity is conserved and human HIF-3α upregulates similar genes in human cells. These findings suggest that Hif-3 is an oxygen-dependent transcription factor and activates a distinct transcriptional response to hypoxia.

  11. The transcription factor ATF2 promotes melanoma metastasis by suppressing protein fucosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Eric; Feng, Yongmei; Claps, Giuseppina; Fukuda, Michiko N.; Perlina, Ally; Donn, Dylan; Jilaveanu, Lucia; Kluger, Harriet; Freeze, Hudson H.; Ronai, Ze’ev A.

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most lethal skin cancers worldwide, primarily because of its propensity to metastasize. Thus, the elucidation of mechanisms that govern metastatic propensity is urgently needed. We found that protein kinase Cε (PKCε)–mediated activation of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) controls the migratory and invasive behaviors of melanoma cells. PKCε-dependent phosphorylation of ATF2 promoted its transcriptional repression of the gene encoding fucokinase (FUK), which mediates the fucose salvage pathway and thus global cellular protein fucosylation. In primary melanocytes and cell lines representing early-stage melanoma, the abundance of PKCε-phosphorylated ATF2 was low, thereby enabling the expression of FUK and cellular protein fucosylation, which promoted cellular adhesion and reduced motility. In contrast, increased expression of the gene encoding PKCε and abundance of phosphorylated, transcriptionally active ATF2 were observed in advanced-stage melanomas and correlated with decreased FUK expression, decreased cellular protein fucosylation, attenuated cell adhesion, and increased cell motility. Restoring fucosylation in mice either by dietary fucose supplementation or by genetic manipulation of murine Fuk expression attenuated primary melanoma growth, increased the number of intratumoral natural killer cells, and decreased distal metastasis in murine isograft models. Tumor microarray analysis of human melanoma specimens confirmed reduced fucosylation in metastatic tumors and a better prognosis for primary melanomas that had high abundance of fucosylation. Thus, inhibiting PKCε or ATF2 or increasing protein fucosylation in tumor cells may improve clinical outcome in melanoma patients. PMID:26645581

  12. The transcription factor ATF2 promotes melanoma metastasis by suppressing protein fucosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Eric; Feng, Yongmei; Claps, Giuseppina; Fukuda, Michiko N; Perlina, Ally; Donn, Dylan; Jilaveanu, Lucia; Kluger, Harriet; Freeze, Hudson H; Ronai, Ze'ev A

    2015-12-08

    Melanoma is one of the most lethal skin cancers worldwide, primarily because of its propensity to metastasize. Thus, the elucidation of mechanisms that govern metastatic propensity is urgently needed. We found that protein kinase Cε (PKCε)-mediated activation of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) controls the migratory and invasive behaviors of melanoma cells. PKCε-dependent phosphorylation of ATF2 promoted its transcriptional repression of the gene encoding fucokinase (FUK), which mediates the fucose salvage pathway and thus global cellular protein fucosylation. In primary melanocytes and cell lines representing early-stage melanoma, the abundance of PKCε-phosphorylated ATF2 was low, thereby enabling the expression of FUK and cellular protein fucosylation, which promoted cellular adhesion and reduced motility. In contrast, increased expression of the gene encoding PKCε and abundance of phosphorylated, transcriptionally active ATF2 were observed in advanced-stage melanomas and correlated with decreased FUK expression, decreased cellular protein fucosylation, attenuated cell adhesion, and increased cell motility. Restoring fucosylation in mice either by dietary fucose supplementation or by genetic manipulation of murine Fuk expression attenuated primary melanoma growth, increased the number of intratumoral natural killer cells, and decreased distal metastasis in murine isograft models. Tumor microarray analysis of human melanoma specimens confirmed reduced fucosylation in metastatic tumors and a better prognosis for primary melanomas that had high abundance of fucosylation. Thus, inhibiting PKCε or ATF2 or increasing protein fucosylation in tumor cells may improve clinical outcome in melanoma patients. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Integration and diversity of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hozumi; O'Connor, Tania; Katsuoka, Fumiki; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2002-07-10

    Recent progress in the analysis of transcriptional regulation has revealed the presence of an exquisite functional network comprising the Maf and Cap 'n' collar (CNC) families of regulatory proteins, many of which have been isolated. Among Maf factors, large Maf proteins are important in the regulation of embryonic development and cell differentiation, whereas small Maf proteins serve as obligatory heterodimeric partner molecules for members of the CNC family. Both Maf homodimers and CNC-small Maf heterodimers bind to the Maf recognition element (MARE). Since the MARE contains a consensus TRE sequence recognized by AP-1, Jun and Fos family members may act to compete or interfere with the function of CNC-small Maf heterodimers. Overall then, the quantitative balance of transcription factors interacting with the MARE determines its transcriptional activity. Many putative MARE-dependent target genes such as those induced by antioxidants and oxidative stress are under concerted regulation by the CNC family member Nrf2, as clearly proven by mouse germline mutagenesis. Since these genes represent a vital aspect of the cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress, Nrf2-null mutant mice are highly sensitive to xenobiotic and oxidative insults. Deciphering the molecular basis of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors will undoubtedly lead to a new paradigm for the cooperative function of transcription factors.

  14. Bookmarking target genes in mitosis: a shared epigenetic trait of phenotypic transcription factors and oncogenes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sayyed K; Grandy, Rodrigo A; Lopez-Camacho, Cesar; Montecino, Martin; van Wijnen, Andre J; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2014-01-15

    The regulatory information for phenotype, proliferation, and growth of normal and tumor cells must be maintained through genome replication in the S phase and cell division during mitosis. Epigenetic mechanisms that include DNA methylation, posttranslational modifications of histones, selective utilization of histone variants, and inheritable RNA molecules play pivotal roles in maintaining cellular identity through mitotic divisions. Recent studies demonstrate that mitotic occupancy of genes, which are determinants of cell fate, growth, and proliferation, by lineage-restricted transcription factors is a key epigenetic mechanism for retention and transmission of cellular expression memory. Evidence is emerging for the presence of distinct transcriptional regulatory microenvironments in mitotic chromosomes in which the genes bookmarked for reactivation postmitotically reside. Importantly, some oncoproteins are present in mitotic microenvironments where they occupy target genes during mitosis and may contribute to perpetuating the transformed phenotype. We discuss emerging regulatory implications of epigenetically bookmarking genes during mitosis for physiologic control as well as for the onset and progression of cancer.

  15. Recovery from an acute infection in C. elegans requires the GATA transcription factor ELT-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Brian; Aballay, Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    The mechanisms involved in the recognition of microbial pathogens and activation of the immune system have been extensively studied. However, the mechanisms involved in the recovery phase of an infection are incompletely characterized at both the cellular and physiological levels. Here, we establish a Caenorhabditis elegans-Salmonella enterica model of acute infection and antibiotic treatment for studying biological changes during the resolution phase of an infection. Using whole genome expression profiles of acutely infected animals, we found that genes that are markers of innate immunity are down-regulated upon recovery, while genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification, redox regulation, and cellular homeostasis are up-regulated. In silico analyses demonstrated that genes altered during recovery from infection were transcriptionally regulated by conserved transcription factors, including GATA/ELT-2, FOXO/DAF-16, and Nrf/SKN-1. Finally, we found that recovery from an acute bacterial infection is dependent on ELT-2 activity.

  16. TcoF-DB: dragon database for human transcription co-factors and transcription factor interacting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ulf; Schmeier, Sebastian; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2011-01-01

    The initiation and regulation of transcription in eukaryotes is complex and involves a large number of transcription factors (TFs), which are known to bind to the regulatory regions of eukaryotic DNA. Apart from TF-DNA binding, protein-protein interaction involving TFs is an essential component of the machinery facilitating transcriptional regulation. Proteins that interact with TFs in the context of transcription regulation but do not bind to the DNA themselves, we consider transcription co-factors (TcoFs). The influence of TcoFs on transcriptional regulation and initiation, although indirect, has been shown to be significant with the functionality of TFs strongly influenced by the presence of TcoFs. While the role of TFs and their interaction with regulatory DNA regions has been well-studied, the association between TFs and TcoFs has so far been given less attention. Here, we present a resource that is comprised of a collection of human TFs and the TcoFs with which they interact. Other proteins that have a proven interaction with a TF, but are not considered TcoFs are also included. Our database contains 157 high-confidence TcoFs and additionally 379 hypothetical TcoFs. These have been identified and classified according to the type of available evidence for their involvement in transcriptional regulation and their presence in the cell nucleus. We have divided TcoFs into four groups, one of which contains high-confidence TcoFs and three others contain TcoFs which are hypothetical to different extents. We have developed the Dragon Database for Human Transcription Co-Factors and Transcription Factor Interacting Proteins (TcoF-DB). A web-based interface for this resource can be freely accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/tcof/ and http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/tcof/.

  17. TcoF-DB: dragon database for human transcription co-factors and transcription factor interacting proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Ulf

    2010-10-21

    The initiation and regulation of transcription in eukaryotes is complex and involves a large number of transcription factors (TFs), which are known to bind to the regulatory regions of eukaryotic DNA. Apart from TF-DNA binding, protein-protein interaction involving TFs is an essential component of the machinery facilitating transcriptional regulation. Proteins that interact with TFs in the context of transcription regulation but do not bind to the DNA themselves, we consider transcription co-factors (TcoFs). The influence of TcoFs on transcriptional regulation and initiation, although indirect, has been shown to be significant with the functionality of TFs strongly influenced by the presence of TcoFs. While the role of TFs and their interaction with regulatory DNA regions has been well-studied, the association between TFs and TcoFs has so far been given less attention. Here, we present a resource that is comprised of a collection of human TFs and the TcoFs with which they interact. Other proteins that have a proven interaction with a TF, but are not considered TcoFs are also included. Our database contains 157 high-confidence TcoFs and additionally 379 hypothetical TcoFs. These have been identified and classified according to the type of available evidence for their involvement in transcriptional regulation and their presence in the cell nucleus. We have divided TcoFs into four groups, one of which contains high-confidence TcoFs and three others contain TcoFs which are hypothetical to different extents. We have developed the Dragon Database for Human Transcription Co-Factors and Transcription Factor Interacting Proteins (TcoF-DB). A web-based interface for this resource can be freely accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/tcof/ and http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/tcof/. © The Author(s) 2010.

  18. Cellular Reprogramming Using Defined Factors and MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Eguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of human bodies, organs, and tissues contains numerous steps of cellular differentiation including an initial zygote, embryonic stem (ES cells, three germ layers, and multiple expertized lineages of cells. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells have been recently developed using defined reprogramming factors such as Nanog, Klf5, Oct3/4 (Pou5f1, Sox2, and Myc. This outstanding innovation is largely changing life science and medicine. Methods of direct reprogramming of cells into myocytes, neurons, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts have been further developed using modified combination of factors such as N-myc, L-myc, Sox9, and microRNAs in defined cell/tissue culture conditions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are also emerging multipotent stem cells with particular microRNA expression signatures. It was shown that miRNA-720 had a role in cellular reprogramming through targeting the pluripotency factor Nanog and induction of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs. This review reports histories, topics, and idea of cellular reprogramming.

  19. Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, Richard B; Zhou, M.; Ohm, Robin A; Leeggangers, Hendrika A C F; Visser, Loek; de Vries, Ronald P; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been

  20. Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, Richard B.; Zhou, Miaomiao; Ohm, Robin A.; Leeggangers, Melissa; Visser, Loek; Vries, De Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been analysed and

  1. TIPT2 and geminin interact with basal transcription factors to synergize in transcriptional regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitulescu Mara E

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The re-replication inhibitor Geminin binds to several transcription factors including homeodomain proteins, and to members of the polycomb and the SWI/SNF complexes. Results Here we describe the TATA-binding protein-like factor-interacting protein (TIPT isoform 2, as a strong binding partner of Geminin. TIPT2 is widely expressed in mouse embryonic and adult tissues, residing both in cyto- and nucleoplasma, and enriched in the nucleolus. Like Geminin, also TIPT2 interacts with several polycomb factors, with the general transcription factor TBP (TATA box binding protein, and with the related protein TBPL1 (TRF2. TIPT2 synergizes with geminin and TBP in the activation of TATA box-containing promoters, and with TBPL1 and geminin in the activation of the TATA-less NF1 promoter. Geminin and TIPT2 were detected in the chromatin near TBP/TBPL1 binding sites. Conclusion Together, our study introduces a novel transcriptional regulator and its function in cooperation with chromatin associated factors and the basal transcription machinery.

  2. NFE2L3 (NRF3): the Cinderella of the Cap'n'Collar transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillard, Grégory; Blank, Volker

    2011-10-01

    NFE2L3 [Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 3] or NRF3, a member of the Cap'n'Collar (CNC) family, is a basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor that was first identified over 10 years ago. Contrary to its extensively studied homolog NFE2L2 (NRF2), the regulation and function of the NFE2L3 protein have not yet attracted as much attention. Nevertheless, several recent reports have now shed light on the possible roles of NFE2L3. Structural and biochemical studies revealed a series of domains and modifications that are critical for its cellular regulation. The control of the subcellular localization of NFE2L3 appears to be essential for understanding its role in various cellular processes. Importantly, newer studies provide fascinating insights linking NFE2L3 to differentiation, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Here, we present an overview of the current level of knowledge of NFE2L3 transcription factor biology in humans and mice. From being the Cinderella of the CNC transcription factors for many years, NFE2L3 may now rapidly come into its own.

  3. Induction of human neuronal cells by defined transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhiping P.; Yang, Nan; Vierbuchen, Thomas; Ostermeier, Austin; Fuentes, Daniel R.; Yang, Troy Q.; Citri, Ami; Sebastiano, Vittorio; Marro, Samuele; Südhof, Thomas C.; Wernig, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Summary Somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, or expression of lineage-specific factors have been shown to induce cell-fate changes in diverse somatic cell types1–12. We recently observed that forced expression of a combination of three transcription factors, Brn2 (also known as Pou3f2), Ascl1, and Myt1l can efficiently convert mouse fibroblasts into functional induced neuronal (iN) cells13. Here, we show that the same three factors can generate functional neurons from human pluripotent stem cells as early as 6 days after transgene activation. When combined with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1, these factors could also convert fetal and postnatal human fibroblasts into iN cells displaying typical neuronal morphologies and expressing multiple neuronal markers, even after downregulation of the exogenous transcription factors. Importantly, the vast majority of human iN cells were able to generate action potentials and many matured to receive synaptic contacts when co-cultured with primary mouse cortical neurons. Our data demonstrate that non-neural human somatic cells, as well as pluripotent stem cells, can be directly converted into neurons by lineage-determining transcription factors. These methods may facilitate robust generation of patient-specific human neurons for in vitro disease modeling or future applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:21617644

  4. A Systematic Approach to Identify Candidate Transcription Factors that Control Cell Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. D’Alessio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of transcription factors (TFs are expressed in each cell type, but cell identity can be induced through the activity of just a small number of core TFs. Systematic identification of these core TFs for a wide variety of cell types is currently lacking and would establish a foundation for understanding the transcriptional control of cell identity in development, disease, and cell-based therapy. Here, we describe a computational approach that generates an atlas of candidate core TFs for a broad spectrum of human cells. The potential impact of the atlas was demonstrated via cellular reprogramming efforts where candidate core TFs proved capable of converting human fibroblasts to retinal pigment epithelial-like cells. These results suggest that candidate core TFs from the atlas will prove a useful starting point for studying transcriptional control of cell identity and reprogramming in many human cell types.

  5. A Transcription Factor Pulse Can Prime Chromatin for Heritable Transcriptional Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberg-Badeaux, Aimee; Collombet, Samuel; Laurent, Benoit; van Oevelen, Chris; Chin, Kuo-Kai; Thieffry, Denis; Graf, Thomas; Shi, Yang

    2017-02-15

    Short-term and long-term transcriptional memory is the phenomenon whereby the kinetics or magnitude of gene induction is enhanced following a prior induction period. Short-term memory persists within one cell generation or in postmitotic cells, while long-term memory can survive multiple rounds of cell division. We have developed a tissue culture model to study the epigenetic basis for long-term transcriptional memory (LTTM) and subsequently used this model to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that enable heritable memory of temporary stimuli. We find that a pulse of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) induces LTTM on a subset of target genes that survives nine cell divisions. The chromatin landscape at genes that acquire LTTM is more repressed than at those genes that do not exhibit memory, akin to a latent state. We show through chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and chemical inhibitor studies that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation is important for establishing memory in this model but that Pol II itself is not retained as part of the memory mechanism. More generally, our work reveals that a transcription factor involved in lineage specification can induce LTTM and that failure to rerepress chromatin is one epigenetic mechanism underlying transcriptional memory. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Dissecting teleost B cell differentiation using transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwollo, Patty

    2011-09-01

    B cell developmental pathways in teleost fishes are poorly understood. In the absence of serological reagents, an alternative approach to dissecting teleost B cell development is to use transcription factors that are differentially expressed during B cell development. This review discusses the structure and function of six transcription factors that play essential roles during teleost B cell development: Ikaros, E2A, EBF, Pax5, Blimp1, and XbpI. Research on alternative splicing of both the Ikaros and Pax5 genes in rainbow trout is presented, including their functional significance. An application is discussed that should aid in elucidating teleost B cell development and activation, by using transcription factors as developmental markers in flow cytometric analysis. Possible future studies in teleost B cell development are suggested in the context of gene regulation. Lastly, broader impacts and practical applications are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cancer prevention and therapy through the modulation of transcription factors by bioactive natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Muthu K; Lee, Jong Hyun; Chai, Edna Zhi Pei; Kanchi, Madhu Mathi; Kar, Shreya; Arfuso, Frank; Dharmarajan, Arunasalam; Kumar, Alan Prem; Ramar, Perumal Samy; Looi, Chung Yeng; Mustafa, Mohammad Rais; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Bishayee, Anupam; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Sethi, Gautam

    2016-10-01

    The association between chronic inflammation and cancer development has been well documented. One of the major obstacles in cancer treatment is the persistent autocrine and paracrine activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, activator protein 1, fork head box protein M1, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α in a wide variety of tumor cell lines and patient specimens. This, in turn, leads to an accelerated production of cellular adhesion molecules, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, anti-apoptotic molecules, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Numerous medicinal plant-derived compounds have made a tremendous impact in drug discovery research endeavors, and have been reported to modulate the activation of diverse oncogenic transcription factors in various tumor models. Moreover, novel therapeutic combinations of standard chemotherapeutic drugs with these agents have significantly improved patient survival by making cancer cells more susceptible to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this review, we critically analyze the existing literature on the modulation of diverse transcription factors by various natural compounds and provide views on new directions for accelerating the discovery of novel drug candidates derived from Mother Nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of pro-angiogenic engineered transcription factors for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Edward J

    2004-07-01

    Gene therapies that use engineered transcription factors to regulate a patient's own endogenous genetic loci offer several advantages over cDNA-based approaches, including the capacity to upregulate all splice variants of a therapeutic gene. Currently, two engineered transcription factors are being developed for use in gene-mediated revascularisation therapies of cardiovascular disease. Both proteins target a powerful, constitutive transcriptional activation module to a defined sequence in the promoter region of vascular endothelial growth factor-A via linkage to an appropriately specific DNA-binding domain, either the basic helix-loop-helix motif of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) or a designed zinc finger protein. Both factors activate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A in cellular studies and induce angiogenesis in animal models of cardiovascular disease. Phase I studies are underway for the HIF-1alpha-based factor and are expected to commence for the zinc finger protein-based factor by the second half of 2004.

  9. OCTAMER-BINDING TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS: GENOMICS AND FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Feng-Qi

    2013-01-01

    The Octamer-binding proteins (Oct) are a group of highly conserved transcription factors that specifically bind to the octamer motif (ATGCAAAT) and closely related sequences that are found in promoters and enhancers of a wide variety of both ubiquitously expressed and cell type-specific genes. Oct factors belong to the larger family of POU domain factors that are characterized by the presence of a highly conserved bipartite DNA binding domain, consisting of an amino-terminal specific subdomai...

  10. Differential regulation of TGA transcription factors by post-transcriptional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Dominique; Privat, Isabelle; Trifa, Youssef; Zhou, Jun-Ma; Klessig, Daniel F; Lam, Eric

    2002-12-01

    Transcription factors often belong to multigene families and their individual contribution in a particular regulatory network remains difficult to assess. We show here that specific members from a family of conserved Arabidopsis bZIP transcription factors, the TGA proteins, are regulated in their protein stability by developmental stage-specific proteolysis. Using GFP fusions of three different Arabidopsis TGA factors that represent members of distinct subclasses of the TGA factor family, we demonstrate that two of these TGA proteins are specifically targeted for proteolysis in mature leaf cells. Using a supershift gel mobility assay, we found evidence for similar regulation of the cognate proteins as compared to the GFP fusion proteins expressed under the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Using various inhibitors, we showed that the expression of at least one of these three TGA factors could be stabilized by inhibition of proteasome-mediated proteolysis. This study indicates that TGA transcription factors may be regulated by distinct pathways of targeted proteolysis that can serve to modulate the contribution of specific members of a multigene family in complex regulatory pathways.

  11. Flavonoids as Putative Inducers of the Transcription Factors Nrf2, FoxO, and PPARγ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pallauf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary flavonoids have been shown to extend the lifespan of some model organisms and may delay the onset of chronic ageing-related diseases. Mechanistically, the effects could be explained by the compounds scavenging free radicals or modulating signalling pathways. Transcription factors Nrf2, FoxO, and PPARγ possibly affect ageing by regulating stress response, adipogenesis, and insulin sensitivity. Using Hek-293 cells transfected with luciferase reporter constructs, we tested the potency of flavonoids from different subclasses (flavonols, flavones, flavanols, and isoflavones to activate these transcription factors. Under cell-free conditions (ABTS and FRAP assays, we tested their free radical scavenging activities and used α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as positive controls. Most of the tested flavonoids, but not the antioxidant vitamins, stimulated Nrf2-, FoxO-, and PPARγ-dependent promoter activities. Flavonoids activating Nrf2 also tended to induce a FoxO and PPARγ response. Interestingly, activation patterns of cellular stress response by flavonoids were not mirrored by their activities in ABTS and FRAP assays, which depended mostly on hydroxylation in the flavonoid B ring and, in some cases, extended that of the vitamins. In conclusion, the free radical scavenging properties of flavonoids do not predict whether these molecules can stimulate a cellular response linked to activation of longevity-associated transcription factors.

  12. Deep sequencing reveals direct targets of gammaherpesvirus-induced mRNA decay and suggests that multiple mechanisms govern cellular transcript escape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Clyde

    Full Text Available One characteristic of lytic infection with gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV68, is the dramatic suppression of cellular gene expression in a process known as host shutoff. The alkaline exonuclease proteins (KSHV SOX, MHV-68 muSOX and EBV BGLF5 have been shown to induce shutoff by destabilizing cellular mRNAs. Here we extend previous analyses of cellular mRNA abundance during lytic infection to characterize the effects of SOX and muSOX, in the absence of other viral genes, utilizing deep sequencing technology (RNA-seq. Consistent with previous observations during lytic infection, the majority of transcripts are downregulated in cells expressing either SOX or muSOX, with muSOX acting as a more potent shutoff factor than SOX. Moreover, most cellular messages fall into the same expression class in both SOX- and muSOX-expressing cells, indicating that both factors target similar pools of mRNAs. More abundant mRNAs are more efficiently downregulated, suggesting a concentration effect in transcript targeting. However, even among highly expressed genes there are mRNAs that escape host shutoff. Further characterization of select escapees reveals multiple mechanisms by which cellular genes can evade downregulation. While some mRNAs are directly refractory to SOX, the steady state levels of others remain unchanged, presumably as a consequence of downstream effects on mRNA biogenesis. Collectively, these studies lay the framework for dissecting the mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of mRNA to destruction during lytic gammaherpesvirus infection.

  13. Deep sequencing reveals direct targets of gammaherpesvirus-induced mRNA decay and suggests that multiple mechanisms govern cellular transcript escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Karen; Glaunsinger, Britt A

    2011-05-09

    One characteristic of lytic infection with gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV68), is the dramatic suppression of cellular gene expression in a process known as host shutoff. The alkaline exonuclease proteins (KSHV SOX, MHV-68 muSOX and EBV BGLF5) have been shown to induce shutoff by destabilizing cellular mRNAs. Here we extend previous analyses of cellular mRNA abundance during lytic infection to characterize the effects of SOX and muSOX, in the absence of other viral genes, utilizing deep sequencing technology (RNA-seq). Consistent with previous observations during lytic infection, the majority of transcripts are downregulated in cells expressing either SOX or muSOX, with muSOX acting as a more potent shutoff factor than SOX. Moreover, most cellular messages fall into the same expression class in both SOX- and muSOX-expressing cells, indicating that both factors target similar pools of mRNAs. More abundant mRNAs are more efficiently downregulated, suggesting a concentration effect in transcript targeting. However, even among highly expressed genes there are mRNAs that escape host shutoff. Further characterization of select escapees reveals multiple mechanisms by which cellular genes can evade downregulation. While some mRNAs are directly refractory to SOX, the steady state levels of others remain unchanged, presumably as a consequence of downstream effects on mRNA biogenesis. Collectively, these studies lay the framework for dissecting the mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of mRNA to destruction during lytic gammaherpesvirus infection.

  14. Bioinformatic landscapes for plant transcription factor system research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun; Lu, Wenjie; Deng, Dexiang

    2016-02-01

    Diverse bioinformatic resources have been developed for plant transcription factor (TF) research. This review presents the bioinformatic resources and methodologies for the elucidation of plant TF-mediated biological events. Such information is helpful to dissect the transcriptional regulatory systems in the three reference plants Arabidopsis , rice, and maize and translation to other plants. Transcription factors (TFs) orchestrate diverse biological programs by the modulation of spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression via binding cis-regulatory elements. Advanced sequencing platforms accompanied by emerging bioinformatic tools revolutionize the scope and extent of TF research. The system-level integration of bioinformatic resources is beneficial to the decoding of TF-involved networks. Herein, we first briefly introduce general and specialized databases for TF research in three reference plants Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. Then, as proof of concept, we identified and characterized heat shock transcription factor (HSF) members through the TF databases. Finally, we present how the integration of bioinformatic resources at -omics layers can aid the dissection of TF-mediated pathways. We also suggest ways forward to improve the bioinformatic resources of plant TFs. Leveraging these bioinformatic resources and methodologies opens new avenues for the elucidation of transcriptional regulatory systems in the three model systems and translation to other plants.

  15. Cooperative binding of transcription factors promotes bimodal gene expression response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo S Gutierrez

    Full Text Available In the present work we extend and analyze the scope of our recently proposed stochastic model for transcriptional regulation, which considers an arbitrarily complex cis-regulatory system using only elementary reactions. Previously, we determined the role of cooperativity on the intrinsic fluctuations of gene expression for activating transcriptional switches, by means of master equation formalism and computer simulation. This model allowed us to distinguish between two cooperative binding mechanisms and, even though the mean expression levels were not affected differently by the acting mechanism, we showed that the associated fluctuations were different. In the present generalized model we include other regulatory functions in addition to those associated to an activator switch. Namely, we introduce repressive regulatory functions and two theoretical mechanisms that account for the biphasic response that some cis-regulatory systems show to the transcription factor concentration. We have also extended our previous master equation formalism in order to include protein production by stochastic translation of mRNA. Furthermore, we examine the graded/binary scenarios in the context of the interaction energy between transcription factors. In this sense, this is the first report to show that the cooperative binding of transcription factors to DNA promotes the "all-or-none" phenomenon observed in eukaryotic systems. In addition, we confirm that gene expression fluctuation levels associated with one of two cooperative binding mechanism never exceed the fluctuation levels of the other.

  16. Regulation of neural gene transcription by optogenetic inhibition of the RE1-silencing transcription factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paonessa, Francesco; Criscuolo, Stefania; Sacchetti, Silvio; Amoroso, Davide; Scarongella, Helena; Pecoraro Bisogni, Federico; Carminati, Emanuele; Pruzzo, Giacomo; Maragliano, Luca; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics provides new ways to activate gene transcription; however, no attempts have been made as yet to modulate mammalian transcription factors. We report the light-mediated regulation of the repressor element 1 (RE1)-silencing transcription factor (REST), a master regulator of neural genes. To tune REST activity, we selected two protein domains that impair REST-DNA binding or recruitment of the cofactor mSin3a. Computational modeling guided the fusion of the inhibitory domains to the light-sensitive Avena sativa light–oxygen–voltage-sensing (LOV) 2-phototrophin 1 (AsLOV2). By expressing AsLOV2 chimeras in Neuro2a cells, we achieved light-dependent modulation of REST target genes that was associated with an improved neural differentiation. In primary neurons, light-mediated REST inhibition increased Na+-channel 1.2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcription and boosted Na+ currents and neuronal firing. This optogenetic approach allows the coordinated expression of a cluster of genes impinging on neuronal activity, providing a tool for studying neuronal physiology and correcting gene expression changes taking place in brain diseases. PMID:26699507

  17. The role of WRKY transcription factors in plant abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ligang; Song, Yu; Li, Shujia; Zhang, Liping; Zou, Changsong; Yu, Diqiu

    2012-02-01

    The WRKY gene family has been suggested to play important roles in the regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with plant stress responses. Modification of the expression patterns of WRKY genes and/or changes in their activity contribute to the elaboration of various signaling pathways and regulatory networks. Furthermore, a single WRKY gene often responds to several stress factors, and then their proteins may participate in the regulation of several seemingly disparate processes as negative or positive regulators. WRKY proteins also function via protein-protein interaction and autoregulation or cross-regulation is extensively recorded among WRKY genes, which help us understand the complex mechanisms of signaling and transcriptional reprogramming controlled by WRKY proteins. Here, we review recent progress made in starting to reveal the role of WRKY transcription factors in plant abiotic stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant gene regulation in response to abiotic stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo phosphorylation of WRKY transcription factor by MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihama, Nobuaki; Adachi, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Miki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Plants activate signaling networks in response to diverse pathogen-derived signals, facilitating transcriptional reprogramming through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. Identification of phosphorylation targets of MAPK and in vivo detection of the phosphorylated substrates are important processes to elucidate the signaling pathway in plant immune responses. We have identified a WRKY transcription factor, which is phosphorylated by defense-related MAPKs, SIPK and WIPK. Recent evidence demonstrated that some group I WRKY transcription factors, which contain a conserved motif in the N-terminal region, are activated by MAPK-dependent phosphorylation. In this chapter, we describe protocols for preparation of anti-phosphopeptide antibodies, detection of activated MAPKs using anti-phospho-MAPK antibody, and activated WRKY using anti-phospho-WRKY antibody, respectively.

  19. Homeodomain transcription factor Phox2a, via cyclic AMP-mediated activation, induces p27Kip1 transcription, coordinating neural progenitor cell cycle exit and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Maryline; Wang, Wen-Horng; Shin, Min-Hwa; Franklin, David S; Andrisani, Ourania M

    2006-12-01

    Mechanisms coordinating neural progenitor cell cycle exit and differentiation are incompletely understood. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) is transcriptionally induced, switching specific neural progenitors from proliferation to differentiation. However, neuronal differentiation-specific transcription factors mediating p27(Kip1) transcription have not been identified. We demonstrate the homeodomain transcription factor Phox2a, required for central nervous system (CNS)- and neural crest (NC)-derived noradrenergic neuron differentiation, coordinates cell cycle exit and differentiation by inducing p27(Kip1) transcription. Phox2a transcription and activation in the CNS-derived CAD cell line and primary NC cells is mediated by combined cyclic AMP (cAMP) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) signaling. In the CAD cellular model, cAMP and BMP2 signaling initially induces proliferation of the undifferentiated precursors, followed by p27(Kip1) transcription, G(1) arrest, and neuronal differentiation. Small interfering RNA silencing of either Phox2a or p27(Kip1) suppresses p27(Kip1) transcription and neuronal differentiation, suggesting a causal link between p27(Kip1) expression and differentiation. Conversely, ectopic Phox2a expression via the Tet-off expression system promotes accelerated CAD cell neuronal differentiation and p27(Kip1) transcription only in the presence of cAMP signaling. Importantly, endogenous or ectopically expressed Phox2a activated by cAMP signaling binds homeodomain cis-acting elements of the p27(Kip1) promoter in vivo and mediates p27(Kip1)-luciferase expression in CAD and NC cells. We conclude that developmental cues of cAMP signaling causally link Phox2a activation with p27(Kip1) transcription, thereby coordinating neural progenitor cell cycle exit and differentiation.

  20. Cellular Factors Targeting APCs to Modulate Adaptive T Cell Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle Visperas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of adaptive T cell immunity is determined by multiple cellular and molecular factors, among which the cytokine milieu plays the most important role in this process. Depending on the cytokines present during the initial T cell activation, T cells become effector cells that produce different effector molecules and execute adaptive immune functions. Studies thus far have primarily focused on defining how these factors control T cell differentiation by targeting T cells themselves. However, other non-T cells, particularly APCs, also express receptors for the factors and are capable of responding to them. In this review, we will discuss how APCs, by responding to those cytokines, influence T cell differentiation and adaptive immunity.

  1. Integrated genome-wide analysis of transcription factor occupancy, RNA polymerase II binding and steady-state RNA levels identify differentially regulated functional gene classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokry, M.; Hatzis, P.; Schuijers, J.; Lansu, N.; Ruzius, F.P.; Clevers, H.; Cuppen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Routine methods for assaying steady-state mRNA levels such as RNA-seq and micro-arrays are commonly used as readouts to study the role of transcription factors (TFs) in gene expression regulation. However, cellular RNA levels do not solely depend on activity of TFs and subsequent transcription by

  2. The Role of WRKY Transcription Factors in Plant Immunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shree P. Pandey; Imre E. Somssich

    2009-01-01

    ... variable environments, is mainly achieved by enforcement of a network of various transcription factors (TFs). WRKY TFs are a large family of regulatory proteins forming such a network (Eulgem and Somssich, 2007). They are involved in various plant processes but most notably in coping with diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. In this update, we will re...

  3. Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding sites across promoters of sense-intronic long noncoding RNAs. Sourav Ghosh, Satish Sati, Shantanu Sengupta and Vinod Scaria. J. Genet. 94, 17–25. Gencode V9 lncRNA gene : 11004. Known lncRNA : 1175. Novel lncRNA : 5898. Putative lncRNA :.

  4. Transcription factor profiling unveils the oncogenes involved in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... involved in the pathogenesis of cutaneous T cell lymphomas ... Figure 1. Schematic representation of the different steps of signal ... potential. Wild type oncogenes that function normally in contrast to ... transduction, these include growth factor receptors (e.g. .... This leads to the formation of DNA/transcription.

  5. Development of a Transcription Factor-Based Lactam Biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Barajas, Jesus F.; Burdu, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    a chemoinformatic approach inspired by small molecule drug discovery. We define this approach as analogue generation toward catabolizable chemicals or AGTC. We discovered a lactam biosensor based on the ChnR/Pb transcription factor-promoter pair. The microbial biosensor is capable of sensing ε-caprolactam, Î...

  6. GATA family of transcription factors of vertebrates: phylogenetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCHU

    Wuhan 430072, P R China. *Corresponding authors (Fax, 86-27-68756253; Email, rjzhou@whu.edu.cn, hhcheng@whu.edu.cn). GATA genes are an evolutionarily conserved family, which encode a group of important transcription factors involved in the regulation of diverse processes including the development of the heart ...

  7. Expression analysis of OsbZIP transcription factors in resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zino

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... abiotic stresses. Resistance response mediated by the rice blast resistance gene Pi36 is a typical signal transduction, in which 12 OsbZIP genes were differentially ... Key words: OsbZIP transcription factors, rice blast, resistance response, plant hormones stresses. ..... Crosstalk between abiotic and biotic.

  8. Control of cellulose biosynthesis by overexpression of a transcription factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyung-Hwan; Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Won-Chan; Kim; , Joo-Yeol

    2017-05-16

    The invention relates to the over-expression of a transcription factor selected from the group consisting of MYB46, HAM1, HAM2, MYB112, WRKY11, ERF6, and any combination thereof in a plant, which can modulate and thereby modulating the cellulose content of the plant.

  9. Transcriptional factor influence on OTA production and the quelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the influence of some transcriptional factors on ochratoxin A production as well as investigates the quelling attributes of some designed siRNA on the OTA producing Aspergillus section Nigri using standard recommended techniques. Results obtained following comparison of the pks gene promoter ...

  10. Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    promoters, our analysis suggests a possible alternative mechanism of regulation and/or biogenesis of sense-intronic lncRNAs. [Ghosh S., Sati S., Sengupta S. and Scaria V. 2015 Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding sites across promoters of sense-intronic long noncoding RNAs. J. Genet.

  11. The WRKY transcription factor family and senescence in switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Early aerial senescence in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can significantly limit biomass yields. WRKY transcription factors that can regulate senescence could be used to reprogram senescence and enhance biomass yields. Methods: All potential WRKY genes present in the version 1.0 of the...

  12. WRKY transcription factor superfamily: Structure, origin and functions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    terminal ends contain the WRKYGQR amino acid sequence and a zinc-finger motif. WRKY transcription factors can regulate the expression of target genes that contain the W-box elements (C/T)TGAC(C/T) in the promoter regions by specifically ...

  13. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a harpin protein and affect resistance to the green peach aphid in Arabidopsis. Ruoxue Liu Beibei Lü Xiaomeng Wang Chunling Zhang Shuping Zhang Jun Qian Lei Chen Haojie Shi Hansong Dong. Articles Volume 35 Issue 3 September 2010 pp 435-450 ...

  14. Analysis of genomic sequence motifs for deciphering transcription factor binding and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eBoeva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genomes contain a variety of structured patterns: repetitive elements, binding sites of DNA and RNA associated proteins, splice sites and so on. Often, these structured patterns can be formalized as motifs and described using a proper mathematical model such as position weight matrix and IUPAC consensus. Two key tasks are typically carried out for motifs in the context of the analysis of genomic sequences. These are: identification in a set of DNA regions of over-represented motifs from a particular motif database, and de novo discovery of over-represented motifs. Here we describe existing methodology to perform these two tasks for motifs characterizing transcription factor binding. When applied to the output of ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo experiments, or to promoter regions of co-modulated genes, motif analysis techniques allow for the prediction of transcription factor binding events and enable identification of transcriptional regulators and co-regulators. The usefulness of motif analysis is further exemplified in this review by how motif discovery improves peak calling in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo experiments and, when coupled with information on gene expression, allows insights into physical mechanisms of transcriptional modulation.

  15. A new FACS approach isolates hESC derived endoderm using transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiong Pan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that high quality microarray gene expression profiles can be obtained following FACS sorting of cells using combinations of transcription factors. We use this transcription factor FACS (tfFACS methodology to perform a genomic analysis of hESC-derived endodermal lineages marked by combinations of SOX17, GATA4, and CXCR4, and find that triple positive cells have a much stronger definitive endoderm signature than other combinations of these markers. Additionally, SOX17(+ GATA4(+ cells can be obtained at a much earlier stage of differentiation, prior to expression of CXCR4(+ cells, providing an important new tool to isolate this earlier definitive endoderm subtype. Overall, tfFACS represents an advancement in FACS technology which broadly crosses multiple disciplines, most notably in regenerative medicine to redefine cellular populations.

  16. New Frontiers for the NFIL3 bZIP Transcription Factor in Cancer, Metabolism and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keniry, Megan; Dearth, Robert K.; Persans, Michael; Parsons, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The bZIP transcription factor NFIL3 (Nuclear factor Interleukin 3 regulated, also known as E4 binding protein 4, E4BP4) regulates diverse biological processes from circadian rhythm to cellular viability. Recently, a host of novel roles have been identified for NFIL3 in immunological signal transduction, cancer, aging and metabolism. Elucidating the signaling pathways that are impacted by NFIL3 and the regulatory mechanisms that it targets, inhibits or activates will be critical for developing a clearer picture of its physiological roles in disease and normal processes. This review will discuss the recent advances and emerging issues regarding NFIL3-mediated transcriptional regulation of CEBPβ and FOXO1 activated genes and signal transduction. PMID:26539561

  17. The transcription factor TFII-I promotes DNA translesion synthesis and genomic stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjana J Fattah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Translesion synthesis (TLS enables DNA replication through damaged bases, increases cellular DNA damage tolerance, and maintains genomic stability. The sliding clamp PCNA and the adaptor polymerase Rev1 coordinate polymerase switching during TLS. The polymerases Pol η, ι, and κ insert nucleotides opposite damaged bases. Pol ζ, consisting of the catalytic subunit Rev3 and the regulatory subunit Rev7, then extends DNA synthesis past the lesion. Here, we show that Rev7 binds to the transcription factor TFII-I in human cells. TFII-I is required for TLS and DNA damage tolerance. The TLS function of TFII-I appears to be independent of its role in transcription, but requires homodimerization and binding to PCNA. We propose that TFII-I bridges PCNA and Pol ζ to promote TLS. Our findings extend the general principle of component sharing among divergent nuclear processes and implicate TLS deficiency as a possible contributing factor in Williams-Beuren syndrome.

  18. Cellular monitoring systems for the assessment of space environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Arenz, Andrea; Meier, Matthias M.; Baumstark-Khan, Christa

    Detrimental environmental factors - namely ionizing radiation - will continue to affect future manned space missions. The Cellular Biodiagnostics group at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops cellular monitoring systems, which include bacterial and mammalian cell systems capable of responding to DNA damage as a consequence of the presence of genotoxic conditions. Such bioassays will complement the physical detector systems used in space, insofar as they yield intrinsically biologically weighted measures of cellular responses. Furthermore, synergistic toxic impacts of the radiation environment together with other potentially genotoxic constituents of the space habitat can be quantified using such systems. The biological end-point under investigation in this work is the gene activation by radiation in mammalian cells, based on fluorescent promoter reporter systems using the destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein variant (d2EGFP). The promoter element to be investigated reflects the activity of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. The NF-κB family of proteins plays a major role in the inflammatory and immune response, cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. After exposure to X-rays, an increase in NF-κB activation was seen only with high doses. Experiments using accelerated argon ions (95 MeV/u, LET ˜230 keV/μm) produced at the French heavy ion accelerator GANIL have shown activation of the NF-κB pathway with doses greater than 1 × 10 6 particles cm -2 (P cm -2), reaching its maximal activation at 2 × 10 7 P cm -2. These results suggest that the exceptional radiation field in space may activate the NF-κB pathway in human cells.

  19. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase regulation by DNA methylation, transcription factor binding and alternative splicing (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avin, Brittany A; Umbricht, Christopher B; Zeiger, Martha A

    2016-12-01

    The catalytic subunit of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), plays an essential role in telomere maintenance to oppose cellular senescence and, is highly regulated in normal and cancerous cells. Regulation of hTERT occurs through multiple avenues, including a unique pattern of CpG promoter methylation and alternative splicing. Promoter methylation affects the binding of transcription factors, resulting in changes in expression of the gene. In addition to expression level changes, changes in promoter binding can affect alternative splicing in a cotranscriptional manner. The alternative splicing of hTERT results in either the full length transcript which can form the active telomerase complex with hTR, or numerous inactive isoforms. Both regulation strategies are exploited in cancer to activate telomerase, however, the exact mechanism is unknown. Therefore, unraveling the link between promoter methylation status and alternative splicing for hTERT could expose yet another level of hTERT regulation. In an attempt to provide insight into the cellular control of active telomerase in cancer, this review will discuss our current perspective on CpG methylation of the hTERT promoter region, summarize the different forms of alternatively spliced variants, and examine examples of transcription factor binding that affects splicing.

  20. Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB by Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellits, Kenneth H; Mullen, Joseph; Wand, Matthew; Armbruster, Gisèle; Patel, Amit; Connerton, Phillippa L; Skelly, Maeve; Connerton, Ian F

    2002-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a food-borne pathogen responsible for infectious enterocolitis. The early-response transcription factor NF-kappa B triggers the expression of genes associated with cellular immune and inflammatory responses. Co-incubation of HeLa cells with viable C. jejuni leads to the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B as determined by specific induction of a cellular luciferase-based reporter. Boiled cell-free extracts of C. jejuni are also potent dose-dependent stimulators of NF-kappa B-dependent transcription, the levels of which can reach up to 1000-fold as compared with independent controls. Using both cultured HeLa cells and human colonic epithelial (HCA-7) cells, the activation of NF-kappa B by C. jejuni boiled extract has been monitored through the degradation of IKB alpha and DNA binding of the nuclear translocated p50/p65 heterodimer of NF-kappa B. These events are co-ordinated with elaboration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8. Fractionation of the boiled C. jejuni extract suggests that the majority of the bioactive component has a molecular mass of 3 kDa or less, which is insensitive to proteinase K treatment.

  1. Structural Fingerprints of Transcription Factor Binding Site Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transforms are a powerful tool in the prediction of DNA sequence properties, such as the presence/absence of codons. We have previously compiled a database of the structural properties of all 32,896 unique DNA octamers. In this work we apply Fourier techniques to the analysis of the structural properties of human chromosomes 21 and 22 and also to three sets of transcription factor binding sites within these chromosomes. We find that, for a given structural property, the structural property power spectra of chromosomes 21 and 22 are strikingly similar. We find common peaks in their power spectra for both Sp1 and p53 transcription factor binding sites. We use the power spectra as a structural fingerprint and perform similarity searching in order to find transcription factor binding site regions. This approach provides a new strategy for searching the genome data for information. Although it is difficult to understand the relationship between specific functional properties and the set of structural parameters in our database, our structural fingerprints nevertheless provide a useful tool for searching for function information in sequence data. The power spectrum fingerprints provide a simple, fast method for comparing a set of functional sequences, in this case transcription factor binding site regions, with the sequences of whole chromosomes. On its own, the power spectrum fingerprint does not find all transcription factor binding sites in a chromosome, but the results presented here show that in combination with other approaches, this technique will improve the chances of identifying functional sequences hidden in genomic data.

  2. Gene expression of transcription factor NFATc1 in periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Belibasakis, G N; Emingil, G; Saygan, B; Turkoglu, O; Atilla, G; Bostanci, N

    2011-01-01

    Belibasakis GN, Emingil G, Saygan B, Turkoglu O, Atilla G, Bostanci N. Gene expression of transcription factor NFATc1 in periodontal diseases. APMIS 2011; 119: 167-172. Periodontitis is a disease of infectious aetiology that causes inflammatory destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues. Activated T cells are central to the pathogenesis of the disease, by producing receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) that stimulates bone resorption. Antigenic activation of T cells ...

  3. Disease Model of GATA4 Mutation Reveals Transcription Factor Cooperativity in Human Cardiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Yen-Sin; Rivas, Renee N; Ribeiro, Alexandre J S; Srivas, Rohith; Rivera, Janell; Stone, Nicole R; Pratt, Karishma; Mohamed, Tamer M A; Fu, Ji-Dong; Spencer, C Ian; Tippens, Nathaniel D; Li, Molong; Narasimha, Anil; Radzinsky, Ethan; Moon-Grady, Anita J; Yu, Haiyuan; Pruitt, Beth L; Snyder, Michael P; Srivastava, Deepak

    2016-12-15

    Mutation of highly conserved residues in transcription factors may affect protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions, leading to gene network dysregulation and human disease. Human mutations in GATA4, a cardiogenic transcription factor, cause cardiac septal defects and cardiomyopathy. Here, iPS-derived cardiomyocytes from subjects with a heterozygous GATA4-G296S missense mutation showed impaired contractility, calcium handling, and metabolic activity. In human cardiomyocytes, GATA4 broadly co-occupied cardiac enhancers with TBX5, another transcription factor that causes septal defects when mutated. The GATA4-G296S mutation disrupted TBX5 recruitment, particularly to cardiac super-enhancers, concomitant with dysregulation of genes related to the phenotypic abnormalities, including cardiac septation. Conversely, the GATA4-G296S mutation led to failure of GATA4 and TBX5-mediated repression at non-cardiac genes and enhanced open chromatin states at endothelial/endocardial promoters. These results reveal how disease-causing missense mutations can disrupt transcriptional cooperativity, leading to aberrant chromatin states and cellular dysfunction, including those related to morphogenetic defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Distinguishing Direct versus Indirect Transcription Factor-DNA Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordân, Raluca; Hartemink, Alexander J.; Bulyk, Martha L.

    Transcriptional regulation is largely enacted by transcription factors (TFs) binding DNA. Large numbers of TF binding motifs have been revealed by ChIP-chip experiments followed by computational DNA motif discovery. However, the success of motif discovery algorithms has been limited when applied to sequences bound in vivo (such as those identified by ChIP-chip) because the observed TF-DNA interactions are not necessarily direct: some TFs predominantly associate with DNA indirectly through protein partners, while others exhibit both direct and indirect binding.

  5. Simplified Method for Predicting a Functional Class of Proteins in Transcription Factor Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Piatek, Marek J.

    2013-07-12

    Background:Initiation of transcription is essential for most of the cellular responses to environmental conditions and for cell and tissue specificity. This process is regulated through numerous proteins, their ligands and mutual interactions, as well as interactions with DNA. The key such regulatory proteins are transcription factors (TFs) and transcription co-factors (TcoFs). TcoFs are important since they modulate the transcription initiation process through interaction with TFs. In eukaryotes, transcription requires that TFs form different protein complexes with various nuclear proteins. To better understand transcription regulation, it is important to know the functional class of proteins interacting with TFs during transcription initiation. Such information is not fully available, since not all proteins that act as TFs or TcoFs are yet annotated as such, due to generally partial functional annotation of proteins. In this study we have developed a method to predict, using only sequence composition of the interacting proteins, the functional class of human TF binding partners to be (i) TF, (ii) TcoF, or (iii) other nuclear protein. This allows for complementing the annotation of the currently known pool of nuclear proteins. Since only the knowledge of protein sequences is required in addition to protein interaction, the method should be easily applicable to many species.Results:Based on experimentally validated interactions between human TFs with different TFs, TcoFs and other nuclear proteins, our two classification systems (implemented as a web-based application) achieve high accuracies in distinguishing TFs and TcoFs from other nuclear proteins, and TFs from TcoFs respectively.Conclusion:As demonstrated, given the fact that two proteins are capable of forming direct physical interactions and using only information about their sequence composition, we have developed a completely new method for predicting a functional class of TF interacting protein partners

  6. Role of Transcription Factors in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti ePatodia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Following axotomy, the activation of multiple intracellular signalling cascades causes the expression of a cocktail of regeneration-associated transcription factors which interact with each other and the extracellular environment to determine the fate of the injured neurons. The nerve injury response is channelled through manifold and parallel pathways, integrating diverse inputs and controlling a complex transcriptional output. Transcription factors form a vital link in the chain of regeneration, converting injury-induced stress signals into downstream protein expression via gene regulation. They can regulate the intrinsic ability of axons to grow, by controlling expression of whole cassettes of gene targets. In this review, we have investigated the functional role of a number of different transcription factors – c-jun, ATF3, CREB, STAT3, C/EBP β & δ, Oct-6, Sox11, p53, NFκB, and ELK3 – in peripheral nerve regeneration. Studies involving use of conditional mutants, microarrays, promoter region mapping and different injury paradigms, have enabled us to understand their distinct as well as overlapping roles in achieving functional and anatomical regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

  7. Transcriptional Regulation of the p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene in S-Phase of the Cell-Cycle and the Cellular Response to DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Reisman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The p53 tumor suppressor induces the transcription of genes that negatively regulate progression of the cell cycle in response to DNA damage or other cellular stressors and thus participates in maintaining genome stability. Numerous studies have demonstrated that p53 transcription is activated before or during early S-phase in cells progressing from G0/G1 into S-phase through the combined action of two DNA-binding factors RBP-Jκ and C/EBPβ-2. Here, we review evidence that this induction occurs to provide available p53 mRNA in order to prepare the cell for DNA damage in S-phase, this ensuring a rapid response to DNA damage before exiting this stage of the cell cycle.

  8. A dynamic mode of mitotic bookmarking by transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teves, Sheila S; An, Luye; Hansen, Anders S; Xie, Liangqi; Darzacq, Xavier; Tjian, Robert

    2016-11-19

    During mitosis, transcription is shut off, chromatin condenses, and most transcription factors (TFs) are reported to be excluded from chromosomes. How do daughter cells re-establish the original transcription program? Recent discoveries that a select set of TFs remain bound on mitotic chromosomes suggest a potential mechanism for maintaining transcriptional programs through the cell cycle termed mitotic bookmarking. Here we report instead that many TFs remain associated with chromosomes in mouse embryonic stem cells, and that the exclusion previously described is largely a fixation artifact. In particular, most TFs we tested are significantly enriched on mitotic chromosomes. Studies with Sox2 reveal that this mitotic interaction is more dynamic than in interphase and is facilitated by both DNA binding and nuclear import. Furthermore, this dynamic mode results from lack of transcriptional activation rather than decreased accessibility of underlying DNA sequences in mitosis. The nature of the cross-linking artifact prompts careful re-examination of the role of TFs in mitotic bookmarking.

  9. Artificial transcription factor-mediated regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Niels; van der Zaal, Bert J

    2014-08-01

    The transcriptional regulation of endogenous genes with artificial transcription factors (TFs) can offer new tools for plant biotechnology. Three systems are available for mediating site-specific DNA recognition of artificial TFs: those based on zinc fingers, TALEs, and on the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Artificial TFs require an effector domain that controls the frequency of transcription initiation at endogenous target genes. These effector domains can be transcriptional activators or repressors, but can also have enzymatic activities involved in chromatin remodeling or epigenetic regulation. Artificial TFs are able to regulate gene expression in trans, thus allowing them to evoke dominant mutant phenotypes. Large scale changes in transcriptional activity are induced when the DNA binding domain is deliberately designed to have lower binding specificity. This technique, known as genome interrogation, is a powerful tool for generating novel mutant phenotypes. Genome interrogation has clear mechanistic and practical advantages over activation tagging, which is the technique most closely resembling it. Most notably, genome interrogation can lead to the discovery of mutant phenotypes that are unlikely to be found when using more conventional single gene-based approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards resolving the transcription factor network controlling myelin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Debra L; Denarier, Eric; Friedman, Hana C; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Peterson, Alan C

    2011-10-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin is produced from spirally-wrapped oligodendrocyte plasma membrane and, as exemplified by the debilitating effects of inherited or acquired myelin abnormalities in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, it plays a critical role in nervous system function. Myelin sheath production coincides with rapid up-regulation of numerous genes. The complexity of their subsequent expression patterns, along with recently recognized heterogeneity within the oligodendrocyte lineage, suggest that the regulatory networks controlling such genes drive multiple context-specific transcriptional programs. Conferring this nuanced level of control likely involves a large repertoire of interacting transcription factors (TFs). Here, we combined novel strategies of computational sequence analyses with in vivo functional analysis to establish a TF network model of coordinate myelin-associated gene transcription. Notably, the network model captures regulatory DNA elements and TFs known to regulate oligodendrocyte myelin gene transcription and/or oligodendrocyte development, thereby validating our approach. Further, it links to numerous TFs with previously unsuspected roles in CNS myelination and suggests collaborative relationships amongst both known and novel TFs, thus providing deeper insight into the myelin gene transcriptional network.

  11. Effects of cytosine methylation on transcription factor binding sites

    KAUST Repository

    Medvedeva, Yulia A

    2014-03-26

    Background: DNA methylation in promoters is closely linked to downstream gene repression. However, whether DNA methylation is a cause or a consequence of gene repression remains an open question. If it is a cause, then DNA methylation may affect the affinity of transcription factors (TFs) for their binding sites (TFBSs). If it is a consequence, then gene repression caused by chromatin modification may be stabilized by DNA methylation. Until now, these two possibilities have been supported only by non-systematic evidence and they have not been tested on a wide range of TFs. An average promoter methylation is usually used in studies, whereas recent results suggested that methylation of individual cytosines can also be important.Results: We found that the methylation profiles of 16.6% of cytosines and the expression profiles of neighboring transcriptional start sites (TSSs) were significantly negatively correlated. We called the CpGs corresponding to such cytosines " traffic lights" We observed a strong selection against CpG " traffic lights" within TFBSs. The negative selection was stronger for transcriptional repressors as compared with transcriptional activators or multifunctional TFs as well as for core TFBS positions as compared with flanking TFBS positions.Conclusions: Our results indicate that direct and selective methylation of certain TFBS that prevents TF binding is restricted to special cases and cannot be considered as a general regulatory mechanism of transcription. 2013 Medvedeva et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. Screening Driving Transcription Factors in the Processing of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Construction of the transcriptional regulatory network can provide additional clues on the regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic applications in gastric cancer. Methods. Gene expression profiles of gastric cancer were downloaded from GEO database for integrated analysis. All of DEGs were analyzed by GO enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment. Transcription factors were further identified and then a global transcriptional regulatory network was constructed. Results. By integrated analysis of the six eligible datasets (340 cases and 43 controls, a bunch of 2327 DEGs were identified, including 2100 upregulated and 227 downregulated DEGs. Functional enrichment analysis of DEGs showed that digestion was a significantly enriched GO term for biological process. Moreover, there were two important enriched KEGG pathways: cell cycle and homologous recombination. Furthermore, a total of 70 differentially expressed TFs were identified and the transcriptional regulatory network was constructed, which consisted of 566 TF-target interactions. The top ten TFs regulating most downstream target genes were BRCA1, ARID3A, EHF, SOX10, ZNF263, FOXL1, FEV, GATA3, FOXC1, and FOXD1. Most of them were involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. Conclusion. The transcriptional regulatory network can help researchers to further clarify the underlying regulatory mechanisms of gastric cancer tumorigenesis.

  13. FOXA and master transcription factors recruit Mediator and Cohesin to the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Michèle; Bourriquen, Gaëlle; Lamaze, Fabien C.; Côté, Maxime C.; Fournier, Éric; Joly-Beauparlant, Charles; Caron, Vicky; Gobeil, Stéphane; Droit, Arnaud; Bilodeau, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Controlling the transcriptional program is essential to maintain the identity and the biological functions of a cell. The Mediator and Cohesin complexes have been established as central cofactors controlling the transcriptional program in normal cells. However, the distribution, recruitment and importance of these complexes in cancer cells have not been fully investigated. Here we show that FOXA and master transcription factors are part of the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells and are essential to recruit M ediator and Cohesin. Indeed, Mediator and Cohesin occupied the enhancer and promoter regions of actively transcribed genes and maintained the proliferation and colony forming potential. Through integration of publically available ChIP-Seq datasets, we predicted the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of each cancer cell. Unexpectedly, for all cells investigated, the pioneer transcription factors FOXA1 and/or FOXA2 were identified in addition to cell-specific master transcription factors. Loss of both types of transcription factors phenocopied the loss of Mediator and Cohesin. Lastly, the master and pioneer transcription factors were essential to recruit Mediator and Cohesin to regulatory regions of actively transcribed genes. Our study proposes that maintenance of the cancer cell state is dependent on recruitment of Mediator and Cohesin through FOXA and master transcription factors.

  14. Functionally significant, rare transcription factor variants in tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpf, Ana; Griffin, Helen R; Glen, Elise; Soemedi, Rachel; Brown, Danielle L; Hall, Darroch; Rahman, Thahira J; Eloranta, Jyrki J; Jüngst, Christoph; Stuart, A Graham; O'Sullivan, John; Keavney, Bernard D; Goodship, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    Rare variants in certain transcription factors involved in cardiac development cause Mendelian forms of congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the frequency of rare transcription factor variants in sporadic patients with the cardiac outflow tract malformation tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). We sequenced the coding, 5'UTR, and 3'UTR regions of twelve transcription factor genes implicated in cardiac outflow tract development (NKX2.5, GATA4, ISL1, TBX20, MEF2C, BOP/SMYD1, HAND2, FOXC1, FOXC2, FOXH, FOXA2 and TBX1) in 93 non-syndromic, non-Mendelian TOF cases. We also analysed Illumina Human 660W-Quad SNP Array data for copy number variants in these genes; none were detected. Four of the rare variants detected have previously been shown to affect transactivation in in vitro reporter assays: FOXC1 p.P297S, FOXC2 p.Q444R, FOXH1 p.S113T and TBX1 p.P43_G61del PPPPRYDPCAAAAPGAPGP. Two further rare variants, HAND2 p.A25_A26insAA and FOXC1 p.G378_G380delGGG, A488_491delAAAA, affected transactivation in in vitro reporter assays. Each of these six functionally significant variants was present in a single patient in the heterozygous state; each of the four for which parental samples were available were maternally inherited. Thus in the 93 TOF cases we identified six functionally significant mutations in the secondary heart field transcriptional network. This study indicates that rare genetic variants in the secondary heart field transcriptional network with functional effects on protein function occur in 3-13% of patients with TOF. This is the first report of a functionally significant HAND2 mutation in a patient with congenital heart disease.

  15. Functionally significant, rare transcription factor variants in tetralogy of Fallot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Töpf

    Full Text Available Rare variants in certain transcription factors involved in cardiac development cause Mendelian forms of congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the frequency of rare transcription factor variants in sporadic patients with the cardiac outflow tract malformation tetralogy of Fallot (TOF.We sequenced the coding, 5'UTR, and 3'UTR regions of twelve transcription factor genes implicated in cardiac outflow tract development (NKX2.5, GATA4, ISL1, TBX20, MEF2C, BOP/SMYD1, HAND2, FOXC1, FOXC2, FOXH, FOXA2 and TBX1 in 93 non-syndromic, non-Mendelian TOF cases. We also analysed Illumina Human 660W-Quad SNP Array data for copy number variants in these genes; none were detected. Four of the rare variants detected have previously been shown to affect transactivation in in vitro reporter assays: FOXC1 p.P297S, FOXC2 p.Q444R, FOXH1 p.S113T and TBX1 p.P43_G61del PPPPRYDPCAAAAPGAPGP. Two further rare variants, HAND2 p.A25_A26insAA and FOXC1 p.G378_G380delGGG, A488_491delAAAA, affected transactivation in in vitro reporter assays. Each of these six functionally significant variants was present in a single patient in the heterozygous state; each of the four for which parental samples were available were maternally inherited. Thus in the 93 TOF cases we identified six functionally significant mutations in the secondary heart field transcriptional network.This study indicates that rare genetic variants in the secondary heart field transcriptional network with functional effects on protein function occur in 3-13% of patients with TOF. This is the first report of a functionally significant HAND2 mutation in a patient with congenital heart disease.

  16. Functionally Significant, Rare Transcription Factor Variants in Tetralogy of Fallot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpf, Ana; Griffin, Helen R.; Glen, Elise; Soemedi, Rachel; Brown, Danielle L.; Hall, Darroch; Rahman, Thahira J.; Eloranta, Jyrki J.; Jüngst, Christoph; Stuart, A. Graham; O'Sullivan, John; Keavney, Bernard D.; Goodship, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Rare variants in certain transcription factors involved in cardiac development cause Mendelian forms of congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the frequency of rare transcription factor variants in sporadic patients with the cardiac outflow tract malformation tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods and Results We sequenced the coding, 5′UTR, and 3′UTR regions of twelve transcription factor genes implicated in cardiac outflow tract development (NKX2.5, GATA4, ISL1, TBX20, MEF2C, BOP/SMYD1, HAND2, FOXC1, FOXC2, FOXH, FOXA2 and TBX1) in 93 non-syndromic, non-Mendelian TOF cases. We also analysed Illumina Human 660W-Quad SNP Array data for copy number variants in these genes; none were detected. Four of the rare variants detected have previously been shown to affect transactivation in in vitro reporter assays: FOXC1 p.P297S, FOXC2 p.Q444R, FOXH1 p.S113T and TBX1 p.P43_G61del PPPPRYDPCAAAAPGAPGP. Two further rare variants, HAND2 p.A25_A26insAA and FOXC1 p.G378_G380delGGG, A488_491delAAAA, affected transactivation in in vitro reporter assays. Each of these six functionally significant variants was present in a single patient in the heterozygous state; each of the four for which parental samples were available were maternally inherited. Thus in the 93 TOF cases we identified six functionally significant mutations in the secondary heart field transcriptional network. Significance This study indicates that rare genetic variants in the secondary heart field transcriptional network with functional effects on protein function occur in 3–13% of patients with TOF. This is the first report of a functionally significant HAND2 mutation in a patient with congenital heart disease. PMID:25093829

  17. Subgroup-specific intrinsic disorder profiles of arabidopsis NAC transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Emil G.; O'Shea, Charlotte; Skriver, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Protein intrinsic disorder (ID), referring to the lack of a fixed tertiary structure, is significant in signaling and transcription. We recently characterized ID in 6 phylogenetically representative Arabidopsis thaliana NAC transcription factors. Their transcription regulatory domains are mostly...

  18. Post-translational modifications of hormone-responsive transcription factors: the next level of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kristine

    2015-08-01

    Plants exhibit a high level of developmental plasticity and growth is responsive to multiple developmental and environmental cues. Hormones are small endogenous signalling molecules which are fundamental to this phenotypic plasticity. Post-translational modifications of proteins are a central feature of the signal transduction pathways that regulate gene transcription in response to hormones. Modifications that affect the function of transcriptional regulators may also serve as a mechanism to incorporate multiple signals, mediate cross-talk, and modulate specific responses. This review discusses recent research that suggests hormone-responsive transcription factors are subject to multiple modifications which imply an additional level of regulation conferred by enzymes that mediate specific modifications, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, and S-nitrosylation. These modifications can affect protein stability, sub-cellular localization, interactions with co-repressors and activators, and DNA binding. The focus here is on direct cross-talk involving transcription factors downstream of auxin, brassinosteroid, and gibberellin signalling. However, many of the concepts discussed are more broadly relevant to questions of how plants can modify their growth by regulating subsets of genes in response to multiple cues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Heat shock factor 1 promotes TERRA transcription and telomere protection upon heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskas, Sivan; Decottignies, Anabelle; Dufour, Solenne; Pezet, Mylène; Verdel, André; Vourc'h, Claire; Faure, Virginie

    2017-06-20

    In response to metabolic or environmental stress, cells activate powerful defense mechanisms to prevent the formation and accumulation of toxic protein aggregates. The main orchestrator of this cellular response is HSF1 (heat shock factor 1), a transcription factor involved in the up-regulation of protein-coding genes with protective roles. It has become very clear that HSF1 has a broader function than initially expected. Indeed, our previous work demonstrated that, upon stress, HSF1 activates the transcription of a non-coding RNA, named Satellite III, at pericentromeric heterochromatin. Here, we observe that the function of HSF1 extends to telomeres and identify subtelomeric DNA as a new genomic target of HSF1. We show that the binding of HSF1 to subtelomeric regions plays an essential role in the upregulation of non-coding TElomeric Repeat containing RNA (TERRA) transcription upon heat shock. Importantly, our data show that telomere integrity is impacted by heat shock and that telomeric DNA damages are markedly enhanced in HSF1 deficient cells. Altogether, our findings reveal a new direct and essential function of HSF1 in the transcriptional activation of TERRA and in telomere protection upon stress. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Mapping Variation in Cellular and Transcriptional Response to 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia N Kariuki

    Full Text Available The active hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D is an important modulator of the immune system, inhibiting cellular proliferation and regulating transcription of immune response genes. In order to characterize the genetic basis of variation in the immunomodulatory effects of 1,25D, we mapped quantitative traits of 1,25D response at both the cellular and the transcriptional level. We carried out a genome-wide association scan of percent inhibition of cell proliferation (Imax induced by 1,25D treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 88 healthy African-American individuals. Two genome-wide significant variants were identified: rs1893662 in a gene desert on chromosome 18 (p = 2.32 x 10-8 and rs6451692 on chromosome 5 (p = 2.55 x 10-8, which may influence the anti-proliferative activity of 1,25D by regulating the expression of nearby genes such as the chemokine gene, CCL28, and the translation initiation gene, PAIP1. We also identified 8 expression quantitative trait loci at a FDR<0.10 for transcriptional response to 1,25D treatment, which include the transcriptional regulator ets variant 3-like (ETV3L and EH-domain containing 4 (EHD4. In addition, we identified response eQTLs in vitamin D receptor binding sites near genes differentially expressed in response to 1,25D, such as FERM Domain Containing 6 (FRMD6, which plays a critical role in regulating both cell proliferation and apoptosis. Combining information from the GWAS of Imax and the response eQTL mapping enabled identification of putative Imax-associated candidate genes such as PAIP1 and the transcriptional repressor gene ZNF649. Overall, the variants identified in this study are strong candidates for immune traits and diseases linked to vitamin D, such as multiple sclerosis.

  1. Biological effects of tolerable level chronic boron intake on transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenay Boyacioglu, Seda; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Kahraman, Erkan; Yildirim, Hatice; Bora, Selin; Ataman, Osman Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of boron effect on human transcription and translation has not been fully understood. In the current study it was aimed to reveal the role of boron on the expression of certain transcription factors that play key roles in many cellular pathways on human subjects chronically exposed to low amounts of boron. The boron concentrations in drinking water samples were 1.57±0.06mg/l for boron group while the corresponding value for the control group was 0.016±0.002mg/l. RNA isolation was performed using PAX gene RNA kit on the blood samples from the subjects. The RNA was then reverse transcribed into cDNA and analyzed using the Human Transcription Factors RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays. While the boron amount in urine was detected as 3.56±1.47mg/day in the boron group, it was 0.72±0.30mg/day in the control group. Daily boron intake of the boron and control groups were calculated to be 6.98±3.39 and 1.18±0.41mg/day, respectively. The expression levels of the transcription factor genes were compared between the boron and control groups and no statistically significant difference was detected (P>0.05). The data suggest that boron intake at 6.98±3.39mg/day, which is the dose at which beneficial effects might be seen, does not result in toxicity at molecular level since the expression levels of transcription factors are not changed. Although boron intake over this level will seem to increase RNA synthesis, further examination of the topic is needed using new molecular epidemiological data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and Transcript Analysis of the TCP Transcription Factors in the Diploid Woodland Strawberry Fragaria vesca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang; Cui, Meng-Yuan; Han, Yong-Tao; Gao, Kuan; Feng, Jia-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (TCP) transcription factors play versatile functions in multiple processes of plant growth and development. However, no systematic study has been performed in strawberry. In this study, 19 FvTCP genes were identified in the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) accession Heilongjiang-3. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the FvTCP genes were classified into two main classes, with the second class further divided into two subclasses, which was supported by the exon-intron organizations and the conserved motif structures. Promoter analysis revealed various cis-acting elements related to growth and development, hormone and/or stress responses. We analyzed FvTCP gene transcript accumulation patterns in different tissues and fruit developmental stages. Among them, 12 FvTCP genes exhibited distinct tissue-specific transcript accumulation patterns. Eleven FvTCP genes were down-regulated in different fruit developmental stages, while five FvTCP genes were up-regulated. Transcripts of FvTCP genes also varied with different subcultural propagation periods and were induced by hormone treatments and biotic and abiotic stresses. Subcellular localization analysis showed that six FvTCP-GFP fusion proteins showed distinct localizations in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Notably, transient over-expression of FvTCP9 in strawberry fruits dramatically affected the expression of a series of genes implicated in fruit development and ripening. Taken together, the present study may provide the basis for functional studies to reveal the role of this gene family in strawberry growth and development. PMID:28066489

  3. Transcription factors as readers and effectors of DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heng; Wang, Guohua; Qian, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made it possible to decode DNA methylomes at single-base-pair resolution under various physiological conditions. Many aberrant or differentially methylated sites have been discovered, but the mechanisms by which changes in DNA methylation lead to observed phenotypes, such as cancer, remain elusive. The classical view of methylation-mediated protein-DNA interactions is that only proteins with a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) can interact with methylated DNA. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that transcription factors lacking a MBD can also interact with methylated DNA. The identification of these proteins and the elucidation of their characteristics and the biological consequences of methylation-dependent transcription factor-DNA interactions are important stepping stones towards a mechanistic understanding of methylation-mediated biological processes, which have crucial implications for human development and disease. PMID:27479905

  4. Neuroprotective Transcription Factors in Animal Models of Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Blaudin de Thé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of transcription factors, including En1/2, Foxa1/2, Lmx1a/b, Nurr1, Otx2, and Pitx3, with key roles in midbrain dopaminergic (mDA neuron development, also regulate adult mDA neuron survival and physiology. Mouse models with targeted disruption of some of these genes display several features reminiscent of Parkinson disease (PD, in particular the selective and progressive loss of mDA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc. The characterization of these animal models has provided valuable insights into various mechanisms of PD pathogenesis. Therefore, the dissection of the mechanisms and survival signalling pathways engaged by these transcription factors to protect mDA neuron from degeneration can suggest novel therapeutic strategies. The work on En1/2-mediated neuroprotection also highlights the potential of protein transduction technology for neuroprotective approaches in PD.

  5. Divergence of transcription factor binding sites across related yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, Anthony R; Gianoulis, Tara A; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Yu, Haiyuan; Rozowsky, Joel; Seringhaus, Michael R; Wang, Lu Yong; Gerstein, Mark; Snyder, Michael

    2007-08-10

    Characterization of interspecies differences in gene regulation is crucial for understanding the molecular basis of both phenotypic diversity and evolution. By means of chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA microarray analysis, the divergence in the binding sites of the pseudohyphal regulators Ste12 and Tec1 was determined in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. mikatae, and S. bayanus under pseudohyphal conditions. We have shown that most of these sites have diverged across these species, far exceeding the interspecies variation in orthologous genes. A group of Ste12 targets was shown to be bound only in S. mikatae and S. bayanus under pseudohyphal conditions. Many of these genes are targets of Ste12 during mating in S. cerevisiae, indicating that specialization between the two pathways has occurred in this species. Transcription factor binding sites have therefore diverged substantially faster than ortholog content. Thus, gene regulation resulting from transcription factor binding is likely to be a major cause of divergence between related species.

  6. The transcription factor snail controls epithelial-mesenchymal transitions by repressing E-cadherin expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cano, A; Pérez-Moreno, M A; Rodrigo, I

    2000-01-01

    , occurring concomitantly with the cellular acquisition of migratory properties following downregulation of expression of the adhesion protein E-cadherin. Here we show that mouse Snail is a strong repressor of transcription of the E-cadherin gene. Epithelial cells that ectopically express Snail adopt...... a fibroblastoid phenotype and acquire tumorigenic and invasive properties. Endogenous Snail protein is present in invasive mouse and human carcinoma cell lines and tumours in which E-cadherin expression has been lost. Therefore, the same molecules are used to trigger epithelial-mesenchymal transitions during......The Snail family of transcription factors has previously been implicated in the differentiation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells (epithelial-mesenchymal transitions) during embryonic development. Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions are also determinants of the progression of carcinomas...

  7. Transcription factors expressed in soybean roots under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S S; Guimarães, F C M; Carvalho, J F C; Stolf-Moreira, R; Oliveira, M C N; Rolla, A A P; Farias, J R B; Neumaier, N; Nepomuceno, A L

    2011-10-21

    To gain insight into stress-responsive gene regulation in soybean plants, we identified consensus sequences that could categorize the transcription factors MYBJ7, BZIP50, C2H2, and NAC2 as members of the gene families myb, bzip, c2h2, and nac, respectively. We also investigated the evolutionary relationship of these transcription factors and analyzed their expression levels under drought stress. The NCBI software was used to find the predicted amino acid sequences of the transcription factors, and the Clustal X software was used to align soybean and other plant species sequences. Phylogenetic trees were built using the Mega 4.1 software by neighbor joining and the degree of confidence test by Bootstrap. Expression level studies were carried out using hydroponic culture; the experiments were designed in completely randomized blocks with three repetitions. The blocks consisted of two genotypes, MG/BR46 Conquista (drought-tolerant) and BR16 (drought-sensitive) and the treatments consisted of increasingly long dehydration periods (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 min). The transcription factors presented domains and/or conserved regions that characterized them as belonging to the bzip, c2h2, myb, and nac families. Based on the phylogenetic trees, it was found that the myb, bzip and nac genes are closely related to myb78, bzip48 and nac2 of soybean and that c2h2 is closely related to c2h2 of Brassica napus. Expression of all genes was in general increased under drought stress in both genotypes. Major differences between genotypes were due to the lowering of the expression of the mybj7 and c2h2 genes in the drought-tolerant variety at some times. Over-expression or silencing of some of these genes has the potential to increase stress tolerance.

  8. Transcription factors regulating B cell fate in the germinal centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recaldin, T; Fear, D J

    2016-01-01

    Diversification of the antibody repertoire is essential for the normal operation of the vertebrate adaptive immune system. Following antigen encounter, B cells are activated, proliferate rapidly and undergo two diversification events; somatic hypermutation (followed by selection), which enhances the affinity of the antibody for its cognate antigen, and class-switch recombination, which alters the effector functions of the antibody to adapt the response to the challenge faced. B cells must then differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells or long-lived memory B cells. These activities take place in specialized immunological environments called germinal centres, usually located in the secondary lymphoid organs. To complete the germinal centre activities successfully, a B cell adopts a transcriptional programme that allows it to migrate to specific sites within the germinal centre, proliferate, modify its DNA recombination and repair pathways, alter its apoptotic potential and finally undergo terminal differentiation. To co-ordinate these processes, B cells employ a number of 'master regulator' transcription factors which mediate wholesale transcriptomic changes. These master transcription factors are mutually antagonistic and form a complex regulatory network to maintain distinct gene expression programs. Within this network, multiple points of positive and negative feedback ensure the expression of the 'master regulators', augmented by a number of 'secondary' factors that reinforce these networks and sense the progress of the immune response. In this review we will discuss the different activities B cells must undertake to mount a successful T cell-dependent immune response and describe how a regulatory network of transcription factors controls these processes. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  9. Transcription factors for modification of lignin content in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanzhong; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2015-06-02

    The invention provides methods for modifying lignin, cellulose, xylan, and hemicellulose content in plants, and for achieving ectopic lignification and, for instance, secondary cell wall synthesis in pith cells, by altered regulation of a WRKY transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for altered WRKY-TF expression are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise modified pith cell walls, and lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops.

  10. Transcription factors: normal and malignant development of blood cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravid, Katya; Licht, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    ... and the Development of the Erythroid Lineage James J. Bieker 71 II TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS AND THE MYELOID LINEAGE 85 6 RUNX1(AML1) and CBFB: Genes Required for the Development of All Definitive Hematopoietic Lineages 87 Nancy A. Speck and Elaine Dzierzak 7 PU.1 and the Development of the Myeloid Lineage Daniel G. Tenen 103 vvi CONTENTS 8 CCAAT/Enhancer-...

  11. The WRKY Transcription Factor Genes in Lotus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Song; Pengfei Wang; Zhibiao Nan; Xingjun Wang

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor genes play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. WRKY genes have been examined in various higher plants, but they have not been characterized in Lotus japonicus. The recent release of the L. japonicus whole genome sequence provides an opportunity for a genome wide analysis of WRKY genes in this species. In this study, we identified 61 WRKY genes in the L. japonicus genome. Based on the WRKY protein structure, L. japonicus WRKY (...

  12. Mechanotransduction and Growth Factor Signalling to Engineer Cellular Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipitria, Amaia; Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel

    2017-08-01

    Engineering cellular microenvironments involves biochemical factors, the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the interaction with neighbouring cells. This progress report provides a critical overview of key studies that incorporate growth factor (GF) signalling and mechanotransduction into the design of advanced microenvironments. Materials systems have been developed for surface-bound presentation of GFs, either covalently tethered or sequestered through physico-chemical affinity to the matrix, as an alternative to soluble GFs. Furthermore, some materials contain both GF and integrin binding regions and thereby enable synergistic signalling between the two. Mechanotransduction refers to the ability of the cells to sense physical properties of the ECM and to transduce them into biochemical signals. Various aspects of the physics of the ECM, i.e. stiffness, geometry and ligand spacing, as well as time-dependent properties, such as matrix stiffening, degradability, viscoelasticity, surface mobility as well as spatial patterns and gradients of physical cues are discussed. To conclude, various examples illustrate the potential for cooperative signalling of growth factors and the physical properties of the microenvironment for potential applications in regenerative medicine, cancer research and drug testing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Noisy transcription factor NF-¿B oscillations stabilize and sensitize cytokine signaling in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gangstad, S.W.; Feldager, C.W.; Juul, Jeppe Søgaard

    2013-01-01

    communication, as it is both activated by and upregulates production of cytokines, signals used by white blood cells to find the source of inflammation. While the oscillatory dynamics of NF-¿B has been extensively investigated both experimentally and theoretically, the role of the noise and the lower secondary......NF-¿B is a major transcription factor mediating inflammatory response. In response to a pro-inflammatory stimulus, it exhibits a characteristic response - a pulse followed by noisy oscillations in concentrations of considerably smaller amplitude. NF-¿B is an important mediator of cellular...... amplitude has not been addressed. We use a cellular automaton model to address these issues in the context of spatially distributed communicating cells. We find that noisy secondary oscillations stabilize concentric wave patterns, thus improving signal quality. Furthermore, both lower secondary amplitude...

  14. Plant MYB Transcription Factors: Their Role in Drought Response Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoni, Elena; Genga, Annamaria; Cominelli, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is one of the major causes of poor plant performance and limited crop yields worldwide and it is the single most common cause of severe food shortage in developing countries. Several molecular networks involved in stress perception, signal transduction and stress responses in plants have been elucidated so far. Transcription factors are major players in water stress signaling. In recent years, different MYB transcription factors, mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. but also in some crops, have been characterized for their involvement in drought response. For some of them there is evidence supporting a specific role in response to water stress, such as the regulation of stomatal movement, the control of suberin and cuticular waxes synthesis and the regulation of flower development. Moreover, some of these genes have also been characterized for their involvement in other abiotic or biotic stresses, an important feature considering that in nature, plants are often simultaneously subjected to multiple rather than single environmental perturbations. This review summarizes recent studies highlighting the role of the MYB family of transcription factors in the adaptive responses to drought stress. The practical application value of MYBs in crop improvement, such as stress tolerance engineering, is also discussed. PMID:26184177

  15. Transcription Factors Exhibit Differential Conservation in Bacteria with Reduced Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Galán-Vásquez

    Full Text Available The description of transcriptional regulatory networks has been pivotal in the understanding of operating principles under which organisms respond and adapt to varying conditions. While the study of the topology and dynamics of these networks has been the subject of considerable work, the investigation of the evolution of their topology, as a result of the adaptation of organisms to different environmental conditions, has received little attention. In this work, we study the evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria from a genome reduction perspective, which manifests itself as the loss of genes at different degrees. We used the transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli as a reference to compare 113 smaller, phylogenetically-related γ-proteobacteria, including 19 genomes of symbionts. We found that the type of regulatory action exerted by transcription factors, as genomes get progressively smaller, correlates well with their degree of conservation, with dual regulators being more conserved than repressors and activators in conditions of extreme reduction. In addition, we found that the preponderant conservation of dual regulators might be due to their role as both global regulators and nucleoid-associated proteins. We summarize our results in a conceptual model of how each TF type is gradually lost as genomes become smaller and give a rationale for the order in which this phenomenon occurs.

  16. Cell-type specificity of ChIP-predicted transcription factor binding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håndstad Tony

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Context-dependent transcription factor (TF binding is one reason for differences in gene expression patterns between different cellular states. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq identifies genome-wide TF binding sites for one particular context—the cells used in the experiment. But can such ChIP-seq data predict TF binding in other cellular contexts and is it possible to distinguish context-dependent from ubiquitous TF binding? Results We compared ChIP-seq data on TF binding for multiple TFs in two different cell types and found that on average only a third of ChIP-seq peak regions are common to both cell types. Expectedly, common peaks occur more frequently in certain genomic contexts, such as CpG-rich promoters, whereas chromatin differences characterize cell-type specific TF binding. We also find, however, that genotype differences between the cell types can explain differences in binding. Moreover, ChIP-seq signal intensity and peak clustering are the strongest predictors of common peaks. Compared with strong peaks located in regions containing peaks for multiple transcription factors, weak and isolated peaks are less common between the cell types and are less associated with data that indicate regulatory activity. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that experimental noise is prevalent among weak peaks, whereas strong and clustered peaks represent high-confidence binding events that often occur in other cellular contexts. Nevertheless, 30-40% of the strongest and most clustered peaks show context-dependent regulation. We show that by combining signal intensity with additional data—ranging from context independent information such as binding site conservation and position weight matrix scores to context dependent chromatin structure—we can predict whether a ChIP-seq peak is likely to be present in other cellular contexts.

  17. miRNA-1236 inhibits HIV-1 infection of monocytes by repressing translation of cellular factor VprBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Shen, Chan-Juan; Cohen, Éric A; Xiong, Si-Dong; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Primary monocytes are refractory to HIV-1 infection and become permissive upon differentiation into monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) or macrophages. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to interpret HIV-1 restriction in monocytes. Human cellular miRNAs can modulate HIV-1 infection by targeting either conserved regions of the HIV-1 genome or host gene transcripts. We have recently reported that the translation of host protein pur-alpha is repressed by abundant cellular miRNAs to inhibit HIV-1 infection in monocytes. Here, we report that the transcript of another cellular factor, VprBP [Vpr (HIV-1)-binding protein], was repressed by cellular miRNA-1236, which contributes to HIV-1 restriction in monocytes. Transfection of miR-1236 inhibitors enhanced translation of VprBP in monocytes and significantly promoted viral infection; exogenous input of synthesized miR-1236 mimics into MDDCs suppressed translation of VprBP, and, accordingly, significantly impaired viral infection. Our data emphasize the role of miRNA in modulating differentiation-dependent susceptibility of the host cell to HIV-1 infection. Understanding the modulation of HIV-1 infection by cellular miRNAs may provide key small RNAs or the identification of new important protein targets regulated by miRNAs for the development of antiviral strategies.

  18. Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-07-01

    The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development.

  19. Influence of the dopaminergic system, CREB, and transcription factor-κB on cocaine neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planeta, C S; Lepsch, L B; Alves, R; Scavone, C

    2013-10-15

    Cocaine is a widely used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. Abnormalities in newborns have been demonstrated to be due to the toxic effects of cocaine during fetal development. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is complex and involves interactions of the drug with several neurotransmitter systems, such as the increase of extracellular levels of dopamine and free radicals, and modulation of transcription factors. The aim of this review was to evaluate the importance of the dopaminergic system and the participation of inflammatory signaling in cocaine neurotoxicity. Our study showed that cocaine activates the transcription factors NF-κB and CREB, which regulate genes involved in cellular death. GBR 12909 (an inhibitor of dopamine reuptake), lidocaine (a local anesthetic), and dopamine did not activate NF-κB in the same way as cocaine. However, the attenuation of NF-κB activity after the pretreatment of the cells with SCH 23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, suggests that the activation of NF-κB by cocaine is, at least partially, due to activation of D1 receptors. NF-κB seems to have a protective role in these cells because its inhibition increased cellular death caused by cocaine. The increase in BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) mRNA can also be related to the protective role of both CREB and NF-κB transcription factors. An understanding of the mechanisms by which cocaine induces cell death in the brain will contribute to the development of new therapies for drug abusers, which can help to slow down the progress of degenerative processes.

  20. Influence of the dopaminergic system, CREB, and transcription factor-κB on cocaine neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Neuropsicofarmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Lepsch, L.B.; Alves, R.; Scavone, C. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Cocaine is a widely used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. Abnormalities in newborns have been demonstrated to be due to the toxic effects of cocaine during fetal development. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is complex and involves interactions of the drug with several neurotransmitter systems, such as the increase of extracellular levels of dopamine and free radicals, and modulation of transcription factors. The aim of this review was to evaluate the importance of the dopaminergic system and the participation of inflammatory signaling in cocaine neurotoxicity. Our study showed that cocaine activates the transcription factors NF-κB and CREB, which regulate genes involved in cellular death. GBR 12909 (an inhibitor of dopamine reuptake), lidocaine (a local anesthetic), and dopamine did not activate NF-κB in the same way as cocaine. However, the attenuation of NF-κB activity after the pretreatment of the cells with SCH 23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, suggests that the activation of NF-κB by cocaine is, at least partially, due to activation of D1 receptors. NF-κB seems to have a protective role in these cells because its inhibition increased cellular death caused by cocaine. The increase in BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) mRNA can also be related to the protective role of both CREB and NF-κB transcription factors. An understanding of the mechanisms by which cocaine induces cell death in the brain will contribute to the development of new therapies for drug abusers, which can help to slow down the progress of degenerative processes.

  1. A systems biology approach to transcription factor binding site prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhou

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of mammalian transcriptional regulatory networks holds great promise for both basic and translational research and remains one the greatest challenges to systems biology. Recent reverse engineering methods deduce regulatory interactions from large-scale mRNA expression profiles and cross-species conserved regulatory regions in DNA. Technical challenges faced by these methods include distinguishing between direct and indirect interactions, associating transcription regulators with predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs, identifying non-linearly conserved binding sites across species, and providing realistic accuracy estimates.We address these challenges by closely integrating proven methods for regulatory network reverse engineering from mRNA expression data, linearly and non-linearly conserved regulatory region discovery, and TFBS evaluation and discovery. Using an extensive test set of high-likelihood interactions, which we collected in order to provide realistic prediction-accuracy estimates, we show that a careful integration of these methods leads to significant improvements in prediction accuracy. To verify our methods, we biochemically validated TFBS predictions made for both transcription factors (TFs and co-factors; we validated binding site predictions made using a known E2F1 DNA-binding motif on E2F1 predicted promoter targets, known E2F1 and JUND motifs on JUND predicted promoter targets, and a de novo discovered motif for BCL6 on BCL6 predicted promoter targets. Finally, to demonstrate accuracy of prediction using an external dataset, we showed that sites matching predicted motifs for ZNF263 are significantly enriched in recent ZNF263 ChIP-seq data.Using an integrative framework, we were able to address technical challenges faced by state of the art network reverse engineering methods, leading to significant improvement in direct-interaction detection and TFBS-discovery accuracy. We estimated the accuracy

  2. Leveraging cross-species transcription factor binding site patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussnitzer, Melina; Dankel, Simon N; Klocke, Bernward

    2014-01-01

    to disease susceptibility. We show that integrative computational analysis of phylogenetic conservation with a complexity assessment of co-occurring transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) can identify cis-regulatory variants and elucidate their mechanistic role in disease. Analysis of established type 2...... diabetes risk loci revealed a striking clustering of distinct homeobox TFBS. We identified the PRRX1 homeobox factor as a repressor of PPARG2 expression in adipose cells and demonstrate its adverse effect on lipid metabolism and systemic insulin sensitivity, dependent on the rs4684847 risk allele...

  3. Transcription factor FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sang-Min; An, Joo-Hee; Kim, Chul-Hong; Kim, Jung-Woong, E-mail: jungkim@cau.ac.kr; Choi, Kyung-Hee, E-mail: khchoi@cau.ac.kr

    2015-08-07

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-mediated death. Although various therapeutic approaches are used for lung cancer treatment, these mainly target the tumor suppressor p53 transcription factor, which is involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, p53-targeted therapies have limited application in lung cancer, since p53 is found to be mutated in more than half of lung cancers. In this study, we propose tumor suppressor FOXA2 as an alternative target protein for therapies against lung cancer and reveal a possible FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network by identifying new target genes and binding partners of FOXA2 by using various screening techniques. The genes encoding Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2), nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2 (NR0B2), cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) were identified as putative target genes of FOXA2. Additionally, the proteins including highly similar to heat shock protein HSP 90-beta (HSP90A), heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A variant (HSPA1A), histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC3 were identified as novel interacting partners of FOXA2. Moreover, we showed that FOXA2-dependent promoter activation of BAX and p21 genes is significantly reduced via physical interactions between the identified binding partners and FOXA2. These results provide opportunities to understand the FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network and novel therapeutic targets to modulate this network in p53-deficient lung cancer. - Highlights: • Identification of new target genes of FOXA2. • Identifications of novel interaction proteins of FOXA2. • Construction of FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulatory network in non-small cell lung cancer.

  4. Cellular sensitivity to UV-irradiation is mediated by RNA polymerase I transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Assfalg

    Full Text Available The nucleolus has long been considered to be a pure ribosome factory. However, over the last two decades it became clear that the nucleolus is involved in numerous other functions besides ribosome biogenesis. Our experiments indicate that the activity of RNA polymerase I (Pol I transcription monitors the integrity of the DNA and influences the response to nucleolar stress as well as the rate of survival. Cells with a repressed ribosomal DNA (rDNA transcription activity showed an increased and prolonged p53 stabilisation after UVC-irradiation. Furthermore, p53 stabilisation after inhibition and especially after UVC-irradiation might be due to abrogation of the HDM2-p53 degradation pathway by ribosomal proteins (RPs. Apoptosis mediated by highly activated p53 is a typical hallmark of Cockayne syndrome cells and transcriptional abnormalities and the following activation of the RP-HDM2-p53 pathway would be a possible explanation.

  5. Cellular sensitivity to UV-irradiation is mediated by RNA polymerase I transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assfalg, Robin; Alupei, Marius Costel; Wagner, Maximilian; Koch, Sylvia; Gonzalez, Omar Garcia; Schelling, Adrian; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Iben, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The nucleolus has long been considered to be a pure ribosome factory. However, over the last two decades it became clear that the nucleolus is involved in numerous other functions besides ribosome biogenesis. Our experiments indicate that the activity of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription monitors the integrity of the DNA and influences the response to nucleolar stress as well as the rate of survival. Cells with a repressed ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription activity showed an increased and prolonged p53 stabilisation after UVC-irradiation. Furthermore, p53 stabilisation after inhibition and especially after UVC-irradiation might be due to abrogation of the HDM2-p53 degradation pathway by ribosomal proteins (RPs). Apoptosis mediated by highly activated p53 is a typical hallmark of Cockayne syndrome cells and transcriptional abnormalities and the following activation of the RP-HDM2-p53 pathway would be a possible explanation.

  6. Structure and transcription of the cellular homolog (c-myb) of the avian myeloblastosis virus transforming gene (v-myb).

    OpenAIRE

    Gonda, T J; Bishop, J M

    1983-01-01

    We isolated and characterized molecular clones containing the chicken cellular homolog (c-myb) of the avian myeloblastosis virus oncogene (v-myb). Mapping of the c-myb clones using restriction endonucleases and hybridization to radiolabeled v-myb probes revealed that the sequences homologous to v-myb are contained within four separate regions, which have since been shown by nucleotide sequencing (Klempnauer et al., Cell 31:453-463, 1982) to carry seven exons. Analysis of c-myb transcripts sho...

  7. The cryo-electron microscopy structure of human transcription factor IIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Basil J; Nguyen, Thi Hoang Duong; Fang, Jie; Afonine, Pavel V; Adams, Paul D; Nogales, Eva

    2017-09-21

    Human transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) is part of the general transcriptional machinery required by RNA polymerase II for the initiation of eukaryotic gene transcription. Composed of ten subunits that add up to a molecular mass of about 500 kDa, TFIIH is also essential for nucleotide excision repair. The seven-subunit TFIIH core complex formed by XPB, XPD, p62, p52, p44, p34, and p8 is competent for DNA repair, while the CDK-activating kinase subcomplex, which includes the kinase activity of CDK7 as well as the cyclin H and MAT1 subunits, is additionally required for transcription initiation. Mutations in the TFIIH subunits XPB, XPD, and p8 lead to severe premature ageing and cancer propensity in the genetic diseases xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome, and trichothiodystrophy, highlighting the importance of TFIIH for cellular physiology. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structure of human TFIIH at 4.4 Å resolution. The structure reveals the molecular architecture of the TFIIH core complex, the detailed structures of its constituent XPB and XPD ATPases, and how the core and kinase subcomplexes of TFIIH are connected. Additionally, our structure provides insight into the conformational dynamics of TFIIH and the regulation of its activity.

  8. Plant Abiotic Stress Proteomics: The Major Factors Determining Alterations in Cellular Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan O.; Prášil, Ilja T.; Renaut, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS: Major environmental and genetic factors determining stress-related protein abundance are discussed.Major aspects of protein biological function including protein isoforms and PTMs, cellular localization and protein interactions are discussed.Functional diversity of protein isoforms and PTMs is discussed. Abiotic stresses reveal profound impacts on plant proteomes including alterations in protein relative abundance, cellular localization, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications (PTMs), protein interactions with other protein partners, and, finally, protein biological functions. The main aim of the present review is to discuss the major factors determining stress-related protein accumulation and their final biological functions. A dynamics of stress response including stress acclimation to altered ambient conditions and recovery after the stress treatment is discussed. The results of proteomic studies aimed at a comparison of stress response in plant genotypes differing in stress adaptability reveal constitutively enhanced levels of several stress-related proteins (protective proteins, chaperones, ROS scavenging- and detoxification-related enzymes) in the tolerant genotypes with respect to the susceptible ones. Tolerant genotypes can efficiently adjust energy metabolism to enhanced needs during stress acclimation. Stress tolerance vs. stress susceptibility are relative terms which can reflect different stress-coping strategies depending on the given stress treatment. The role of differential protein isoforms and PTMs with respect to their biological functions in different physiological constraints (cellular compartments and interacting partners) is discussed. The importance of protein functional studies following high-throughput proteome analyses is presented in a broader context of plant biology. In summary, the manuscript tries to provide an overview of the major factors which have to be considered when interpreting data from proteomic

  9. A transcription factor hierarchy defines an environmental stress response network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Wise, Aaron; Castanon, Rosa; Nery, Joseph R; Chen, Huaming; Watanabe, Marina; Thomas, Jerushah; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-11-04

    Environmental stresses are universally encountered by microbes, plants, and animals. Yet systematic studies of stress-responsive transcription factor (TF) networks in multicellular organisms have been limited. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) influences the expression of thousands of genes, allowing us to characterize complex stress-responsive regulatory networks. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, we identified genome-wide targets of 21 ABA-related TFs to construct a comprehensive regulatory network in Arabidopsis thaliana Determinants of dynamic TF binding and a hierarchy among TFs were defined, illuminating the relationship between differential gene expression patterns and ABA pathway feedback regulation. By extrapolating regulatory characteristics of observed canonical ABA pathway components, we identified a new family of transcriptional regulators modulating ABA and salt responsiveness and demonstrated their utility to modulate plant resilience to osmotic stress. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Regulator of calcineurin 1 gene transcription is regulated by nuclear factor-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lanlan; Liu, Heng; Wang, Pin; Song, Weihong; Sun, Xiulian

    2014-02-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) has been implicated in pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and various cancers. Recently, we showed that RCAN1 expression was elevated in Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's disease and its expression transpose over induced neuronal apoptosis. As NF-κB is an important transcription factor involved in cell survival and RCAN1 played vital roles in cell viability, we examined whether NF-κB regulates RCAN1 gene expression. Our results here showed that the RCAN1 isoform 4 gene transcription can be activated by NF-κB signaling. NF-κB activated RCAN1 isoform 4 gene promoter. Luciferase assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a NF-κB responsive element in the region of -576-554bp of the RCAN1 isoform 4 promoter. Activation of RCAN1 gene expression by NF-κB is independent from the calcineurin-NFAT signaling since the NF-κB responsive element was distinct from the NFAT binding sites that was previously identified in the region of -350-166bp. Indeed, activation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling decreased NF-κB transcriptional activity, while activation of NF-κB elevated NFAT transcriptional activity. RCAN1 isoform 4 gene transcription was repressed by its own protein expression in a negative feedback loop. Our findings about RCAN1 gene transcription regulated by NF-κB further supported the vital roles of RCAN1 in cellular functions and its involvement in AD pathogenesis.

  11. A new transcription factor for mitosis: in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the RFX transcription factor Sak1 works with forkhead factors to regulate mitotic expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Angad; Futcher, Bruce; Leatherwood, Janet

    2015-08-18

    Mitotic genes are one of the most strongly oscillating groups of genes in the eukaryotic cell cycle. Understanding the regulation of mitotic gene expression is a key issue in cell cycle control but is poorly understood in most organisms. Here, we find a new mitotic transcription factor, Sak1, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Sak1 belongs to the RFX family of transcription factors, which have not previously been connected to cell cycle control. Sak1 binds upstream of mitotic genes in close proximity to Fkh2, a forkhead transcription factor previously implicated in regulation of mitotic genes. We show that Sak1 is the major activator of mitotic gene expression and also confirm the role of Fkh2 as the opposing repressor. Sep1, another forkhead transcription factor, is an activator for a small subset of mitotic genes involved in septation. From yeasts to humans, forkhead transcription factors are involved in mitotic gene expression and it will be interesting to see whether RFX transcription factors may also be involved in other organisms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Engineering phenolics metabolism in the grasses using transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotewold, Erich [The Ohio State University

    2013-07-26

    The economical competitiveness of agriculture-derived biofuels can be significantly enhanced by increasing biomass/acre yields and by furnishing the desired carbon balance for facilitating liquid fuel production (e.g., ethanol) or for high-energy solid waste availability to be used as biopower (e.g., for electricity production). Biomass production and carbon balance are tightly linked to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are found in crops and in agricultural residues either as lignins, as part of the cell wall, or as soluble phenolics which play a variety of functions in the biology of plants. The grasses, in particular maize, provide the single major source of agricultural biomass, offering significant opportunities for increasing renewable fuel production. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of transcription factors for manipulating plant metabolic pathways, an approach that will be applied here towards altering the composition of phenolic compounds in maize. Previously, we identified a small group of ten maize R2R3-MYB transcription factors with all the characteristics of regulators of different aspects of phenolic biosynthesis. Here, we propose to investigate the participation of these R2R3-MYB factors in the regulation of soluble and insoluble maize phenolics, using a combination of over-expression and down-regulation of these transcription factors in transgenic maize cultured cells and in maize plants. Maize cells and plants altered in the activity of these regulatory proteins will be analyzed for phenolic composition by targeted metabolic profiling. Specifically, we will I) Investigate the effect of gain- and loss-of-function of a select group of R2R3-MYB transcription factors on the phenolic composition of maize plants and II) Identify the biosynthetic genes regulated by each of the selected R2R3-MYB factors. While a likely outcome of these studies are transgenic maize plants with altered phenolic composition, this research will significantly

  13. Elk-1 a transcription factor with multiple facets in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    antoine eBesnard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ternary complex factor (TCF Elk-1 is a transcription factor that regulates immediate early gene (IEG expression via the Serum Response Element (SRE DNA consensus site. Elk-1 is associated with a dimer of Serum Response Factor (SRF at the SRE site, and its phosphorylation occurs at specific residues in response to Mitogen Activated protein Kinases, including c-Jun-Nterminal Kinase (JNK, p38/MAPK and ERK (Extracellular-signal Regulated Kinases. This phosphorylation event is critical for triggering SRE-dependent transcription. Although MAPKs are fundamental actors for the instatement and maintenance of memory, and much investigation of their downstream signaling partners have been done, no data yet clearly implicate Elk-1 in these processes. This is partly due to the complexity of Elk-1 sub-cellular localization, and hence functions, within neurons. Elk-1 is present in its resting state in the cytoplasm, where it colocalizes with mitochondrial proteins or microtubules. In this particular sub-cellular compartment, overexpression of Elk-1 is toxic for neuronal cells. When phosphorylated by the MAPK/ERK, Elk-1 translocates to the nucleus where it is implicated in regulating chromatin remodeling, SRE-dependent transcription, and neuronal differentiation. Another post-translational modification is sumoylation, which relocalizes Elk-1 in the cytoplasm. Thus, Elk-1 plays a dual role in neuronal functions: pro-apoptotic within the cytoplasm, and pro-differentiation within the nucleus. To address the role of Elk-1 in the brain, one must be aware of its multiple facets, and design molecular tools that will shut down Elk-1 expression, trafficking or activation, in specific neuronal compartments. We summarize in this review the known molecular functions of Elk-1, its regulation in neuronal cells, and present evidence of its possible implication in model systems of synaptic plasticity, experience-learning, but also in psychiatric or neurodegenerative

  14. Grainyhead-like Transcription Factors in Craniofacial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinelli, M R; de Vries, M E; Jane, S M; Dworkin, S

    2017-10-01

    Craniofacial development in vertebrates involves the coordinated growth, migration, and fusion of several facial prominences during embryogenesis, processes governed by strict genetic and molecular controls. A failure in any of the precise spatiotemporal sequences of events leading to prominence fusion often leads to anomalous facial, skull, and jaw formation-conditions termed craniofacial defects (CFDs). Affecting approximately 0.1% to 0.3% of live births, CFDs are a highly heterogeneous class of developmental anomalies, which are often underpinned by genetic mutations. Therefore, identifying novel disease-causing mutations in genes that regulate craniofacial development is a critical prerequisite to develop new preventive or therapeutic measures. The Grainyhead-like ( GRHL) transcription factors are one such gene family, performing evolutionarily conserved roles in craniofacial patterning. The antecedent member of this family, Drosophila grainyhead ( grh), is required for head skeleton development in fruit flies, loss or mutation of Grhl family members in mouse and zebrafish models leads to defects of both maxilla and mandible, and recently, mutations in human GRHL3 have been shown to cause or contribute to both syndromic (Van Der Woude syndrome) and nonsyndromic palatal clefts. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the craniofacial-specific function of the Grainyhead-like family in multiple model species, identify some of the major target genes regulated by the Grhl transcription factors in craniofacial patterning, and, by examining animal models, draw inferences as to how these data will inform the likely roles of GRHL factors in human CFDs comprising palatal clefting. By understanding the molecular networks regulated by Grhl2 and Grhl3 target genes in other systems, we can propose likely pathways that mediate the effects of these transcription factors in human palatogenesis.

  15. Sequentially acting Sox transcription factors in neural lineage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsland, Maria; Ramsköld, Daniel; Zaouter, Cécile; Klum, Susanne; Sandberg, Rickard; Muhr, Jonas

    2011-12-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells can generate all cell types, but how cell lineages are initially specified and maintained during development remains largely unknown. Different classes of Sox transcription factors are expressed during neurogenesis and have been assigned important roles from early lineage specification to neuronal differentiation. Here we characterize the genome-wide binding for Sox2, Sox3, and Sox11, which have vital functions in ES cells, neural precursor cells (NPCs), and maturing neurons, respectively. The data demonstrate that Sox factor binding depends on developmental stage-specific constraints and reveal a remarkable sequential binding of Sox proteins to a common set of neural genes. Interestingly, in ES cells, Sox2 preselects for neural lineage-specific genes destined to be bound and activated by Sox3 in NPCs. In NPCs, Sox3 binds genes that are later bound and activated by Sox11 in differentiating neurons. Genes prebound by Sox proteins are associated with a bivalent chromatin signature, which is resolved into a permissive monovalent state upon binding of activating Sox factors. These data indicate that a single key transcription factor family acts sequentially to coordinate neural gene expression from the early lineage specification in pluripotent cells to later stages of neuronal development.

  16. Transcriptional control of adenosine signaling by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors during ischemic or inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poth, Jens M; Brodsky, Kelley; Ehrentraut, Heidi; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K

    2013-02-01

    Inflammatory lesions, ischemic tissues, or solid tumors are characterized by the occurrence of severe tissue hypoxia within the diseased tissue. Subsequent stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors-particularly of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A)--results in significant alterations of gene expression of resident cells or inflammatory cells that have been recruited into such lesions. Interestingly, studies of hypoxia-induced changes of gene expression identified a transcriptional program that promotes extracellular adenosine signaling. Adenosine is a signaling molecule that functions through the activation of four distinct adenosine receptors--the ADORA1, ADORA2A, ADORA2B, and ADORA3 receptors. Extracellular adenosine is predominantly derived from the phosphohydrolysis of precursor nucleotides, such as adenosine triphosphate or adenosine monophosphate. HIF1A-elicited alterations in gene expression enhance the enzymatic capacity within inflamed tissues to produce extracellular adenosine. Moreover, hypoxia-elicited induction of adenosine receptors--particularly of ADORA2B--results in increased signal transduction. Functional studies in genetic models for HIF1A or adenosine receptors implicate this pathway in an endogenous feedback loop that dampens excessive inflammation and promotes injury resolution, while at the same time enhancing ischemia tolerance. Therefore, pharmacological strategies to enhance HIF-elicited adenosine production or to promote adenosine signaling through adenosine receptors are being investigated for the treatment of acute inflammatory or ischemic diseases characterized by tissue hypoxia.

  17. Negative transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) by nuclear TFAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Kang, Young Cheol; Park, Wook-Ha; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Pak, Youngmi Kim, E-mail: ykpak@khu.ac.kr

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • TFAM localizes in nuclei and mitochondria of neuronal cells. • Nuclear TFAM does not bind the Tfam promoter. • Nuclear TFAM reduced the Tfam promoter activity via suppressing NRF-1 activity. • A novel self-negative feedback regulation of Tfam gene expression is explored. • FAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations. - Abstract: The nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is synthesized in cytoplasm and transported into mitochondria. TFAM enhances both transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA. It is unclear, however, whether TFAM plays a role in regulating nuclear gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that TFAM was localized to the nucleus and mitochondria by immunostaining, subcellular fractionation, and TFAM-green fluorescent protein hybrid protein studies. In HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells, human TFAM (hTFAM) overexpression suppressed human Tfam promoter-mediated luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mitochondria targeting sequence-deficient hTFAM also repressed Tfam promoter activity to the same degree as hTFAM. It indicated that nuclear hTFAM suppressed Tfam expression without modulating mitochondrial activity. The repression required for nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), but hTFAM did not bind to the NRF-1 binding site of its promoter. TFAM was co-immunoprecipitated with NRF-1. Taken together, we suggest that nuclear TFAM down-regulate its own gene expression as a NRF-1 repressor, showing that TFAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations.

  18. Molecular cloning of metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1 and transcriptional responses to metal and heat stresses in Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1 is a key transcriptional regulator playing crucial roles in metal homeostasis and cellular adaptation to diverse oxidative stresses. In order to understand cellular pathways associated with metal regulation and stress responses in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai, this study was aimed to isolate the genetic determinant of abalone MTF-1 and to examine its expression characteristics under basal and experimentally stimulated conditions. Results The abalone MTF-1 shared conserved features in zinc-finger DNA binding domain with its orthologs; however, it represented a non-conservative shape in presumed transactivation domain region with the lack of typical motifs for nuclear export signal (NES and Cys-cluster. Abalone MTF-1 promoter exhibited various transcription factor binding motifs that would be potentially related with metal regulation, stress responses, and development. The highest messenger RNA (mRNA expression level of MTF-1 was observed in the testes, and MTF-1 transcripts were detected during the entire period of embryonic and early ontogenic developments. Abalone MTF-1 was found to be Cd inducible and highly modulated by heat shock treatment. Conclusion Abalone MTF-1 possesses a non-consensus structure of activation domains and represents distinct features for its activation mechanism in response to metal overload and heat stress. The activation mechanism of abalone MTF-1 might include both indirect zinc sensing and direct de novo synthesis of transcripts. Taken together, results from this study could be a useful basis for future researches on stress physiology of this abalone species, particularly with regard to heavy metal detoxification and thermal adaptation.

  19. Molecular signatures of mood stabilisers highlight the role of the transcription factor REST/NRSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Alix; Savage, Abigail L; Myers, Paul; Peeney, David; Bubb, Vivien J; Quinn, John P

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the affects of mood modifying drugs on the transcriptome, in a tissue culture model, using qPCR arrays as a cost effective approach to identifying regulatory networks and pathways that might coordinate the cell response to a specific drug. We addressed the gene expression profile of 90 plus genes associated with human mood disorders using the StellARray™ qPCR gene expression system in the human derived SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. Global Pattern Recognition (GPR) analysis identified a total of 9 genes (DRD3(⁎), FOS(†), JUN(⁎), GAD1(⁎†), NRG1(⁎), PAFAH1B3(⁎), PER3(⁎), RELN(⁎) and RGS4(⁎)) to be significantly regulated in response to cellular challenge with the mood stabilisers sodium valproate ((⁎)) and lithium ((†)). Modulation of FOS and JUN highlights the importance of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor pathway in the cell response. Enrichment analysis of transcriptional networks relating to this gene set also identified the transcription factor neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF) and the oestrogen receptor as an important regulatory mechanism. Cell line models offer a window of what might happen in vivo but have the benefit of being human derived and homogenous with regard to cell type. This data highlights transcription factor pathways, acting synergistically or separately, in the modulation of specific neuronal gene networks in response to mood stabilising drugs. This model can be utilised in the comparison of the action of multiple drug regimes or for initial screening purposes to inform optimal drug design. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. SeqEnrich: A tool to predict transcription factor networks from co-expressed Arabidopsis and Brassica napus gene sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael G; Walker, Philip L; Pulgar-Vidal, Nadège C; Belmonte, Mark F

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factors and their associated DNA binding sites are key regulatory elements of cellular differentiation, development, and environmental response. New tools that predict transcriptional regulation of biological processes are valuable to researchers studying both model and emerging-model plant systems. SeqEnrich predicts transcription factor networks from co-expressed Arabidopsis or Brassica napus gene sets. The networks produced by SeqEnrich are supported by existing literature and predicted transcription factor-DNA interactions that can be functionally validated at the laboratory bench. The program functions with gene sets of varying sizes and derived from diverse tissues and environmental treatments. SeqEnrich presents as a powerful predictive framework for the analysis of Arabidopsis and Brassica napus co-expression data, and is designed so that researchers at all levels can easily access and interpret predicted transcriptional circuits. The program outperformed its ancestral program ChipEnrich, and produced detailed transcription factor networks from Arabidopsis and Brassica napus gene expression data. The SeqEnrich program is ideal for generating new hypotheses and distilling biological information from large-scale expression data.

  1. Global mapping of transcription factor motifs in human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfego, David; Rodeck, Ulrich; Kriete, Andres

    2018-01-01

    Biological aging is a complex process dependent on the interplay of cell autonomous and tissue contextual changes which occur in response to cumulative molecular stress and manifest through adaptive transcriptional reprogramming. Here we describe a transcription factor (TF) meta-analysis of gene expression datasets accrued from 18 tissue sites collected at different biological ages and from 7 different in-vitro aging models. In-vitro aging platforms included replicative senescence and an energy restriction model in quiescence (ERiQ), in which ATP was transiently reduced. TF motifs in promoter regions of trimmed sets of target genes were scanned using JASPAR and TRANSFAC. TF signatures established a global mapping of agglomerating motifs with distinct clusters when ranked hierarchically. Remarkably, the ERiQ profile was shared with the majority of in-vivo aged tissues. Fitting motifs in a minimalistic protein-protein network allowed to probe for connectivity to distinct stress sensors. The DNA damage sensors ATM and ATR linked to the subnetwork associated with senescence. By contrast, the energy sensors PTEN and AMPK connected to the nodes in the ERiQ subnetwork. These data suggest that metabolic dysfunction may be linked to transcriptional patterns characteristic of many aged tissues and distinct from cumulative DNA damage associated with senescence.

  2. Investigation of molecular size of transcription factor TFIIE in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Unzai, Satoru; Sato, Mamoru; Nagadoi, Aritaka; Okuda, Masahiko; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Akashi, Satoko

    2005-11-15

    Human general transcription factor IIE (TFIIE), a component of a transcription preinitiation complex associated with RNA polymerase II, was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Recombinant human TFIIE was purified to homogeneity and shown to contain equimolar amounts of TFIIEalpha (50 kDa) and TFIIEbeta (35 kDa) by SDS-PAGE. In the analysis of size-exclusion chromatography of the purified sample, as already reported, TFIIE was shown to be a 170-kDa alpha(2)beta(2) heterotetramer. However, by using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry the purified sample gave the molecular mass of 84,152 +/- 5, indicating that TFIIE is an alphabeta heterodimer but not a heterotetramer. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiment of TFIIE provided that only a single component with the molecular mass of ca. 80,000 existed in solution, also suggesting an alphabeta heterodimer. In addition, its extraordinarily rod-like molecular shape was confirmed by SAXS. It is likely that the rod-like molecular shape of TFIIE has misled larger molecular size in size-exclusion chromatography, which was calibrated by globular proteins. It is demonstrated that TFIIE exists as a heterodimer under our present conditions in solution, although two molecules of heterodimer might be required for the formation of the preinitiation complex with RNA polymerase II for starting the transcription process. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. ROLE OF PAX-5 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR IN IMMUNOLOGICAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Mineev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.  The  review  article  concerns  various  features  of  PAX-5  (paired  box  5  transcription  factor,  its structure, functions, regulation of activity, involvement into differentiation and activation of B lymphocytes, switching to IgE synthesis, its role in oncogenesis, and a putative role of this factor for development of bronchial asthma.Further  insight  into  specific  properties  of  PAX-5  factor  in  bronchial  asthma  may  provide  a  promising approach to studying mechanisms of this disorder. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 6, pp 569-580

  4. The ETS family of oncogenic transcription factors in solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Gina M; Pitarresi, Jason R; Balakrishnan, Subhasree; Ostrowski, Michael C

    2017-06-01

    Findings over the past decade have identified aberrant activation of the ETS transcription factor family throughout all stages of tumorigenesis. Specifically in solid tumours, gene rearrangement and amplification, feed-forward growth factor signalling loops, formation of gain-of-function co-regulatory complexes and novel cis-acting mutations in ETS target gene promoters can result in increased ETS activity. In turn, pro-oncogenic ETS signalling enhances tumorigenesis through a broad mechanistic toolbox that includes lineage specification and self-renewal, DNA damage and genome instability, epigenetics and metabolism. This Review discusses these different mechanisms of ETS activation and subsequent oncogenic implications, as well as the clinical utility of ETS factors.

  5. Myocardin-related transcription factor regulates Nox4 protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam

    2016-01-01

    translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application......TGFβ-induced expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is essential for fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. Rho has been implicated in Nox4 regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a Rho/actin polymerization-controlled coactivator...... of serum response factor, drives myofibroblast transition from various precursors. We have shown that TGFβ is necessary but insufficient for epithelial-myofibroblast transition in intact epithelia; the other prerequisite is the uncoupling of intercellular contacts, which induces Rho-dependent nuclear...

  6. Structural characterization of mammalian bHLH-PAS transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dalei; Rastinejad, Fraydoon

    2017-04-01

    The mammalian basic helix-loop-helix-PER-ARNT-SIM (bHLH-PAS) transcription factors share common architectural features that include a bHLH DNA-binding domain and tandemly positioned PAS domains. The sixteen members of this family include the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α), ARNT (also known as HIF-1β), CLOCK and BMAL1. Most bHLH-PAS proteins have been genetically linked to variety of diseases in humans, including cancers, metabolic syndromes and psychiatric conditions. To function as transcription factors, the bHLH-PAS proteins must form heterodimeric complexes. Recent crystallographic studies of HIF-α-ARNT and CLOCK-BMAL1 complexes have unveiled the organization of their multi-domain bHLH-PAS-A-PAS-B segments, revealing how these architectures can give rise to unique patterns of heterodimerization. As our structural understanding becomes better integrated with ligand-discovery and target gene identification, a more comprehensive picture of their architectural and functional properties will emerge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been analysed and appears to be highly variable with some regulators widely conserved and others showing narrow distribution. Although genome-scale transcription factor surveys have been performed before, no global study into the prevalence of specific regulators across the fungal kingdom has been presented. Results In this study we have analysed the number of members for 37 regulator classes in 77 ascomycete and 31 basidiomycete fungal genomes and revealed significant differences between ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. In addition, we determined the presence of 64 regulators characterised in ascomycetes across these 108 genomes. This demonstrated that overall the highest presence of orthologs is in the filamentous ascomycetes. A significant number of regulators lacked orthologs in the ascomycete yeasts and the basidiomycetes. Conversely, of seven basidiomycete regulators included in the study, only one had orthologs in ascomycetes. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant difference in the regulatory repertoire of ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, at the level of both regulator class and individual regulator. This suggests that the current regulatory systems of these fungi have been mainly developed after the two phyla diverged. Most regulators detected in both phyla are involved in central functions of fungal physiology and therefore were likely already present in the ancestor of the two phyla. PMID:24650355

  8. Decomposing Oncogenic Transcriptional Signatures to Generate Maps of Divergent Cellular States* | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The systematic sequencing of the cancer genome has led to the identification of numerous genetic alterations in cancer. However, a deeper understanding of the functional consequences of these alterations is necessary to guide appropriate therapeutic strategies. Here, we describe Onco-GPS (OncoGenic Positioning System), a data-driven analysis framework to organize individual tumor samples with shared oncogenic alterations onto a reference map defined by their underlying cellular states.

  9. OsWRKY IIa Transcription Factors Modulate Rice Innate Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Ying; Laura E. Bartley; Canlas, Patrick; Ronald, Pamela C

    2010-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors regulate diverse plant processes including responses to biotic stresses. Our previous studies indicate that OsWRKY62, an OsWRKY IIa subfamily member, functions as a negative regulator of the rice defense against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Here, we report that a large inverted repeat construct designed to knock down the expression of the four OsWRKY IIa subfamily members (OsWRKY62, OsWRKY28, OsWRKY71, and OsWRKY76) leads to overexpression of all four genes and di...

  10. A systems approach to analyze transcription factors in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Eric; Andrieu-Soler, Charlotte; Boer, Ernie de; Bryne, Jan Christian; Thongjuea, Supat; Rijkers, Erikjan; Demmers, Jeroen; van IJcken, Wilfred; Grosveld, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play a central role in the development of multicellular organisms. The sequential actions of critical TFs direct cells to adopt defined differentiation pathways leading to functional, fully differentiated tissues. Here, we describe a generic experimental pipeline that integrates biochemistry, genetics and next generation sequencing with bioinformatics to characterize TF complexes composition, function and target genes at a genome-wide scale. We show an application of this experimental pipeline which aims to unravel the molecular events taking place during hematopoietic cell differentiation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeting the transcription factor Myb by small-molecule inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttarkar, Sagar; Frampton, Jon; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2017-03-01

    The transcription factor Myb is a key regulator of hematopoietic cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival and has been implicated in the development of leukemia and several other human cancers. Pharmacological inhibition of Myb is therefore emerging as a potential therapeutic strategy. Recently, the first low-molecular-weight compounds that show Myb inhibitory activity have been identified. Characterization of these compounds suggests disruption of the protein-protein-interaction of Myb and the coactivator p300 as a suitable strategy to inhibit Myb. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of Specialized Metabolism by WRKY Transcription Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluttenhofer, Craig; Yuan, Ling

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are well known for regulating plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. However, much less is known about how WRKY TFs affect plant-specialized metabolism. Analysis of WRKY TFs regulating the production of specialized metabolites emphasizes the values of the family outside of traditionally accepted roles in stress tolerance. WRKYs with conserved roles across plant species seem to be essential in regulating specialized metabolism. Overall, the WRKY family plays an essential role in regulating the biosynthesis of important pharmaceutical, aromatherapy, biofuel, and industrial components, warranting considerable attention in the forthcoming years. PMID:25501946

  13. A key role for stress-induced satellite III transcripts in the relocalization of splicing factors into nuclear stress granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Alexandra; Soret, Johann; Vourc'h, Claire; Tazi, Jamal; Jolly, Caroline

    2004-09-01

    Exposure of cells to stressful conditions results in the rapid synthesis of a subset of specialized proteins termed heat shock proteins (HSPs) which function in protecting the cell against damage. The stress-induced activation of hsp genes is controlled by the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). At the cellular level, one of the most striking effects of stress is the rapid and reversible redistribution of HSF1 into a few nuclear structures termed nuclear stress granules which form primarily on the 9q12 locus in humans. Within these structures, HSF1 binds to satellite III repeated elements and drives the RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription of these sequences into stable RNAs which remain associated with the 9q12 locus for a certain time after synthesis. Other proteins, in particular splicing factors, were also shown to relocalize to the granules upon stress. Here, we investigated the role of stress-induced satellite III transcripts in the relocalization of splicing factors to the granules. We show that the recruitment of the two serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins SF2/ASF and SRp30c requires the presence of stress-induced satellite III transcripts. In agreement with these findings, we identified the second RNA-recognition motif (RRM2) of hSF2/ASF as the motif required for the targeting to the granules, and we showed by immunoprecipitation that the endogenous hSF2/ASF protein is present in a complex with satellite III transcripts in stressed cells in vivo. Interestingly, satellite III transcripts also immunoprecipitate together with small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) in vivo whereas the intronless hsp70 transcripts do not, supporting the proposal that these transcripts are subject to splicing. Altogether, these data highlight the central role for satellite III transcripts in the targeting and/or retention of splicing factors into the granules upon stress.

  14. The cotton transcription factor TCP14 functions in auxin-mediated epidermal cell differentiation and elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao-Ying; Zhao, Pi-Ming; Cheng, Huan-Qing; Han, Li-Bo; Wu, Xiao-Min; Gao, Peng; Wang, Hai-Yun; Yang, Chun-Lin; Zhong, Nai-Qin; Zuo, Jian-Ru; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2013-07-01

    Plant-specific TEOSINTE-BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors play crucial roles in development, but their functional mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the cellular functions of the class I TCP transcription factor GhTCP14 from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). GhTCP14 is expressed predominantly in fiber cells, especially at the initiation and elongation stages of development, and its expression increased in response to exogenous auxin. Induced heterologous overexpression of GhTCP14 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) enhanced initiation and elongation of trichomes and root hairs. In addition, root gravitropism was severely affected, similar to mutant of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) gene. Examination of auxin distribution in GhTCP14-expressing Arabidopsis by observation of auxin-responsive reporters revealed substantial alterations in auxin distribution in sepal trichomes and root cortical regions. Consistent with these changes, expression of the auxin uptake carrier AUXIN1 (AUX1) was up-regulated and PIN2 expression was down-regulated in the GhTCP14-expressing plants. The association of GhTCP14 with auxin responses was also evidenced by the enhanced expression of auxin response gene IAA3, a gene in the AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) family. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GhTCP14 bound the promoters of PIN2, IAA3, and AUX1, and transactivation assays indicated that GhTCP14 had transcription activation activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GhTCP14 is a dual-function transcription factor able to positively or negatively regulate expression of auxin response and transporter genes, thus potentially acting as a crucial regulator in auxin-mediated differentiation and elongation of cotton fiber cells.

  15. E2F1 and p53 Transcription Factors as Accessory Factors for Nucleotide Excision Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Johnson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the biochemical details of nucleotide excision repair (NER have been established using purified proteins and DNA substrates. In cells however, DNA is tightly packaged around histones and other chromatin-associated proteins, which can be an obstacle to efficient repair. Several cooperating mechanisms enhance the efficiency of NER by altering chromatin structure. Interestingly, many of the players involved in modifying chromatin at sites of DNA damage were originally identified as regulators of transcription. These include ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, histone modifying enzymes and several transcription factors. The p53 and E2F1 transcription factors are well known for their abilities to regulate gene expression in response to DNA damage. This review will highlight the underappreciated, transcription-independent functions of p53 and E2F1 in modifying chromatin structure in response to DNA damage to promote global NER.

  16. Transcription factors and stress response gene alterations in human keratinocytes following Solar Simulated Ultra Violet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Thomas L Des; Kluz, Thomas; Xu, Dazhong; Zhang, Xiaoru; Gesumaria, Lisa; Matsui, Mary S; Costa, Max; Sun, Hong

    2017-10-19

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight is the major effector for skin aging and carcinogenesis. However, genes and pathways altered by solar-simulated UVR (ssUVR), a mixture of UVA and UVB, are not well characterized. Here we report global changes in gene expression as well as associated pathways and upstream transcription factors in human keratinocytes exposed to ssUVR. Human HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to either a single dose or 5 repetitive doses of ssUVR. Comprehensive analyses of gene expression profiles as well as functional annotation were performed at 24 hours post irradiation. Our results revealed that ssUVR modulated genes with diverse cellular functions changed in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression in cells exposed to a single dose of ssUVR differed significantly from those that underwent repetitive exposures. While single ssUVR caused a significant inhibition in genes involved in cell cycle progression, especially G2/M checkpoint and mitotic regulation, repetitive ssUVR led to extensive changes in genes related to cell signaling and metabolism. We have also identified a panel of ssUVR target genes that exhibited persistent changes in gene expression even at 1 week after irradiation. These results revealed a complex network of transcriptional regulators and pathways that orchestrate the cellular response to ssUVR.

  17. Redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 regulates vascular smooth muscle cell migration and neointimal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashino, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoshida, Takemi; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species are important mediators for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas excess reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress contributes to the development and progression of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is pivotal in cellular defense against oxidative stress by transcriptional upregulation of antioxidant proteins. This study aimed to elucidate the role of Nrf2 in PDGF-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell migration and neointimal hyperplasia. PDGF promoted nuclear translocation of Nrf2, followed by the induction of target genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and thioredoxin-1. Nrf2 depletion by small interfering RNA enhanced PDGF-promoted Rac1 activation and reactive oxygen species production and persistently phosphorylated downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Nrf2 depletion enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell migration in response to PDGF and wound scratch. In vivo, Nrf2-deficient mice showed enhanced neointimal hyperplasia in a wire injury model. These findings suggest that the Nrf2 system is important for PDGF-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell migration by regulating reactive oxygen species elimination, which may contribute to neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. Our findings provide insight into the Nrf2 system as a novel therapeutic target for vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis.

  18. Mapping Transcription Factors on Extended DNA: A Single Molecule Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenstein, Yuval; Gassman, Natalie; Weiss, Shimon

    The ability to determine the precise loci and distribution of nucleic acid binding proteins is instrumental to our detailed understanding of cellular processes such as transcription, replication, and chromatin reorganization. Traditional molecular biology approaches and above all Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) based methods have provided a wealth of information regarding protein-DNA interactions. Nevertheless, existing techniques can only provide average properties of these interactions, since they are based on the accumulation of data from numerous protein-DNA complexes analyzed at the ensemble level. We propose a single molecule approach for direct visualization of DNA binding proteins bound specifically to their recognition sites along a long stretch of DNA such as genomic DNA. Fluorescent Quantum dots are used to tag proteins bound to DNA, and the complex is deposited on a glass substrate by extending the DNA to a linear form. The sample is then imaged optically to determine the precise location of the protein binding site. The method is demonstrated by detecting individual, Quantum dot tagged T7-RNA polymerase enzymes on the bacteriophage T7 genomic DNA and assessing the relative occupancy of the different promoters.

  19. Mutations and binding sites of human transcription factors

    KAUST Repository

    Kamanu, Frederick Kinyua

    2012-06-01

    Mutations in any genome may lead to phenotype characteristics that determine ability of an individual to cope with adaptation to environmental challenges. In studies of human biology, among the most interesting ones are phenotype characteristics that determine responses to drug treatments, response to infections, or predisposition to specific inherited diseases. Most of the research in this field has been focused on the studies of mutation effects on the final gene products, peptides, and their alterations. Considerably less attention was given to the mutations that may affect regulatory mechanism(s) of gene expression, although these may also affect the phenotype characteristics. In this study we make a pilot analysis of mutations observed in the regulatory regions of 24,667 human RefSeq genes. Our study reveals that out of eight studied mutation types, insertions are the only one that in a statistically significant manner alters predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). We also find that 25 families of TFBSs have been altered by mutations in a statistically significant manner in the promoter regions we considered. Moreover, we find that the related transcription factors are, for example, prominent in processes related to intracellular signaling; cell fate; morphogenesis of organs and epithelium; development of urogenital system, epithelium, and tube; neuron fate commitment. Our study highlights the significance of studying mutations within the genes regulatory regions and opens way for further detailed investigations on this topic, particularly on the downstream affected pathways. 2012 Kamanu, Medvedeva, Schaefer, Jankovic, Archer and Bajic.

  20. Expression of the transcription factor PITX2 in ameloblastic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Mario A; Licéaga-Escalera, Carlos; Licéaga-Reyes, Rodrigo; Carreón-Burciaga, Ramón Gil; González-González, Rogelio; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-06-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumour that combines the histological features of ameloblastoma with cytological atypia. Until 2005, the incidence of ameloblastic carcinoma was unknown, and since then, fewer than 60 cases have been reported. These tumours may originate from pre-existing tumours or cysts, or they arise de novo from the activation or transformation of embryological cells. PITX2 is a transcription factor that is a product and regulator of the WNT cell signalling pathway, which has been involved in development of several tumours. To analyse whether PITX2 could be involved in the biological behaviour of ameloblastic carcinoma, we analysed the expression of this transcription factor in a sample of this tumour and nine benign ameloblastomas to compare. The results of Western blotting and RT-PCR analyses were positive, and considering the hundreds of genes that PITX2 regulates, we believe that its expression could be intimately linked to the behaviour of ameloblastic carcinoma and possibly other odontogenic lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Generation of pure GABAergic neurons by transcription factor programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; Chanda, Soham; Marro, Samuele; Ng, Yi-Han; Janas, Justyna A; Haag, Daniel; Ang, Cheen Euong; Tang, Yunshuo; Flores, Quetzal; Mall, Moritz; Wapinski, Orly; Li, Mavis; Ahlenius, Henrik; Rubenstein, John L; Chang, Howard Y; Buylla, Arturo Alvarez; Südhof, Thomas C; Wernig, Marius

    2017-06-01

    Approaches to differentiating pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into neurons currently face two major challenges-(i) generated cells are immature, with limited functional properties; and (ii) cultures exhibit heterogeneous neuronal subtypes and maturation stages. Using lineage-determining transcription factors, we previously developed a single-step method to generate glutamatergic neurons from human PSCs. Here, we show that transient expression of the transcription factors Ascl1 and Dlx2 (AD) induces the generation of exclusively GABAergic neurons from human PSCs with a high degree of synaptic maturation. These AD-induced neuronal (iN) cells represent largely nonoverlapping populations of GABAergic neurons that express various subtype-specific markers. We further used AD-iN cells to establish that human collybistin, the loss of gene function of which causes severe encephalopathy, is required for inhibitory synaptic function. The generation of defined populations of functionally mature human GABAergic neurons represents an important step toward enabling the study of diseases affecting inhibitory synaptic transmission.

  2. DAF-16/FOXO Transcription Factor in Aging and Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with age-related diseases and an increase susceptibility of cancer. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms that underlie aging and longevity would contribute to implications for preventing and treating the age-dependent diseases or cancers. Multiple signaling pathways such as the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway, TOR signaling, AMPK pathway, JNK pathway and germline signaling have been found to be involved in aging and longevity. And DAF-16/FOXO, as a key transcription factor, could integrate different signals from these pathways to modulate aging, and longevity via shuttling from cytoplasm to nucleus. Hence, understanding how DAF-16/FOXO functions will be pivotal to illustrate the processes of aging and longevity. Here, we summarized how DAF-16/FOXO receives signals from these pathways to affect aging and longevity. We also briefly discussed the transcriptional regulation and posttranslational modifications of DAF-16/FOXO, its co-factors as well as its potential downstream targets participating in lifespan according to the published data in C. elegans and in mammals, and in most cases, we may focus on the studies in C. elegans which has been considered to be a very good animal model for longevity research.

  3. Class-C SOX Transcription Factors Control GnRH Gene Expression via the Intronic Transcriptional Enhancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Dae; Choe, Han Kyoung; Chung, Sooyoung; Kim, Myungjin; Seong, Jae Young

    2011-01-01

    GnRH is a pivotal hypothalamic neurohormone governing reproduction and sexual development. Because transcriptional regulation is crucial for the spatial and temporal expression of the GnRH gene, a region approximately 3.0 kb upstream of the mammalian GnRH promoter has been extensive studied. In the present study, we demonstrate a transcription-enhancer located in the first intron (intron A) region of the GnRH gene. This transcriptional enhancer harbors putative sex-determining region Y-related high-mobility-group box (SOX) family transcription factor-binding sites, which are well conserved across many mammalian species. The class-C SOX member proteins (SOX-C) (SOX4 and SOX11) specifically augment this transcriptional activation by binding to these SOX-binding sites. In accordance, SOX11 is highly enriched in immortalized GnRH-producing GT1-1 cells, and suppression of its expression significantly decreases GnRH gene expression as well as GnRH secretion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that endogenous SOX-C factors recognize and bind to the intronic enhancer in GT1-1 cells and the hypothalamus. Accompanying immunohistochemical analysis demonstrates that SOX4 or SOX11 are highly expressed in the majority of hypothalamic GnRH neurons in adult mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that SOX-C transcription factors function as important transcriptional regulators of cell type-specific GnRH gene expression by acting on the intronic transcriptional enhancer. PMID:21527504

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma recruits the positive transcription elongation factor b complex to activate transcription and promote adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iankova, Irena; Petersen, Rasmus K; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien

    2006-01-01

    Positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, facilitating transcriptional elongation. In addition to its participation in general transcription, P-TEFb is recruited to specific promoters by some transcription factors such as c...... with and phosphorylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), which is the master regulator of this process, on the promoter of PPARgamma target genes. PPARgamma-cdk9 interaction results in increased transcriptional activity of PPARgamma and therefore increased adipogenesis.......-Myc or MyoD. The P-TEFb complex is composed of a cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk9) subunit and a regulatory partner (cyclin T1, cyclin T2, or cyclin K). Because cdk9 has been shown to participate in differentiation processes, such as muscle cell differentiation, we studied a possible role of cdk9...

  5. Accurate prediction of inducible transcription factor binding intensities in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Guertin

    Full Text Available DNA sequence and local chromatin landscape act jointly to determine transcription factor (TF binding intensity profiles. To disentangle these influences, we developed an experimental approach, called protein/DNA binding followed by high-throughput sequencing (PB-seq, that allows the binding energy landscape to be characterized genome-wide in the absence of chromatin. We applied our methods to the Drosophila Heat Shock Factor (HSF, which inducibly binds a target DNA sequence element (HSE following heat shock stress. PB-seq involves incubating sheared naked genomic DNA with recombinant HSF, partitioning the HSF-bound and HSF-free DNA, and then detecting HSF-bound DNA by high-throughput sequencing. We compared PB-seq binding profiles with ones observed in vivo by ChIP-seq and developed statistical models to predict the observed departures from idealized binding patterns based on covariates describing the local chromatin environment. We found that DNase I hypersensitivity and tetra-acetylation of H4 were the most influential covariates in predicting changes in HSF binding affinity. We also investigated the extent to which DNA accessibility, as measured by digital DNase I footprinting data, could be predicted from MNase-seq data and the ChIP-chip profiles for many histone modifications and TFs, and found GAGA element associated factor (GAF, tetra-acetylation of H4, and H4K16 acetylation to be the most predictive covariates. Lastly, we generated an unbiased model of HSF binding sequences, which revealed distinct biophysical properties of the HSF/HSE interaction and a previously unrecognized substructure within the HSE. These findings provide new insights into the interplay between the genomic sequence and the chromatin landscape in determining transcription factor binding intensity.

  6. Triptolide inhibits transcription of hTERT through down-regulation of transcription factor specificity protein 1 in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Cong; Wang, Jingchao [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Pathology and Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Wang, Huan; Wang, Chao; Liu, Yu [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Sun, Xiaoping, E-mail: xsun6@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a key component responsible for the regulation of telomerase activity, plays important roles in cellular immortalization and cancer development. Triptolide purified from Tripterygium extracts displays a broad-spectrum bioactivity profile, including immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor. In this study, it is investigated whether triptolide reduces hTERT expression and suppresses its activity in PEL cells. The mRNA and protein levels of hTERT were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activity of hTERT promoter was determined by Dual luciferase reporter assay. Our results demonstrated that triptolide decreased expression of hTERT at both mRNA and protein levels. Further gene sequence analysis indicated that the activity of hTERT promoter was suppressed by triptolide. Triptolide also reduced the half-time of hTERT. Additionally, triptolide inhibited the expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1(Sp1) in PEL cells. Furthermore, knock-down of Sp1 by using specific shRNAs resulted in down-regulation of hTERT transcription and protein expression levels. Inhibition of Sp1 by specific shRNAs enhanced triptolide-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of triptolide on hTERT transcription is possibly mediated by inhibition of transcription factor Sp1 in PEL cells. - Highlights: • Triptolide reduces expression of hTERT by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide reduces promoter activity and stability of hTERT. • Triptolide down-regulates expression of Sp1. • Special Sp1 shRNAs inhibit transcription and protein expression of hTERT. • Triptolide and Sp1 shRNA2 induce cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis.

  7. The ubiquitous transcription factor CTCF promotes lineage-specific epigenomic remodeling and establishment of transcriptional networks driving cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Chevalier, Julie; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Eeckhoute, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cell differentiation relies on tissue-specific transcription factors (TFs) that cooperate to establish unique transcriptomes and phenotypes. However, the role of ubiquitous TFs in these processes remains poorly defined. Recently, we have shown that the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is required for adipocyte differentiation through epigenomic remodelling of adipose tissue-specific enhancers and transcriptional activation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), the main driver of the adipogenic program (PPARG), and its target genes. Here, we discuss how these findings, together with the recent literature, illuminate a functional role for ubiquitous TFs in lineage-determining transcriptional networks.

  8. Transcription factor EGR1 directs tendon differentiation and promotes tendon repair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Charvet, Benjamin; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Havis, Emmanuelle; Ronsin, Olivier; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Ruggiu, Mathilde; Olivera-Martinez, Isabel; Robert, Nicolas; Lu, Yinhui; Kadler, Karl E; Baumberger, Tristan; Doursounian, Levon; Berenbaum, Francis; Duprez, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Tendon formation and repair rely on specific combinations of transcription factors, growth factors, and mechanical parameters that regulate the production and spatial organization of type I collagen...

  9. Targeted release of transcription factors for human cell reprogramming by ZEBRA cell-penetrating peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulier, Benjamin; Berthoin, Lionel; Coradin, Helène; Garban, Frédéric; Dagher, Marie Claire; Polack, Benoît; Toussaint, Bertrand; Lenormand, Jean Luc; Laurin, David

    2017-08-30

    Transcription factors (TFs) are key actors of the control of gene expression and consequently of every major process within cells, ranging from cell fate determination, cell cycle control and response to environment. Their ectopic expression has proven high potential in reprogramming cells for regenerative medicine; ontogenesis studies and cell based modelling. Direct delivery of proteins could represent an alternative to current reprogramming methods using gene transfer but still needs technological improvements. Herein, we set-up an efficient cellular penetration of recombinant TFs fused to the minimal transduction domain (MD) from the ZEBRA protein. We show that ZEBRA MD-fused TFs applied on primary human fibroblasts and cord blood CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells route through the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The delivery of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog by MD leads to the activation of mRNA transcripts from genes regulated by these TFs. Moreover, the expression of genes involved in the pluripotency network but not directly bound by these TFs, is also induced. Overall, the repeated application of MD-Oct4, MD-Sox2, MD-Nanog TFs and the post-transcriptional regulator RNA-binding protein MD-Lin28a, triggers the rejuvenation of human fibroblasts and CD34 + cells. This study provides powerful tools for cell fate reprogramming without genetic interferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The WRKY70 transcription factor of Arabidopsis influences both the plant senescence and defense signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Bekir; Shahid Mukhtar, M; Somssich, Imre E

    2007-06-01

    Regulatory proteins play critical roles in controlling the kinetics of various cellular processes during the entire life span of an organism. Leaf senescence, an integral part of the plant developmental program, is fine-tuned by a complex transcriptional regulatory network ensuring a successful switch to the terminal life phase. To expand our understanding on how transcriptional control coordinates leaf senescence, we characterized AtWRKY70, a gene encoding a WRKY transcription factor that functions as a negative regulator of developmental senescence. To gain insight into the interplay of senescence and plant defense signaling pathways, we employed a collection of mutants, allowing us to specifically define the role of AtWRKY70 in the salicylic acid-mediated signaling cascades and to further dissect the cross-talk of signal transduction pathways during the onset of senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results provide strong evidence that AtWRKY70 influences plant senescence and defense signaling pathways. These studies could form the basis for further unraveling of these two complex interlinked regulatory networks.

  11. Systematic analysis of disease-related regulatory mutation classes reveals distinct effects on transcription factor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, Kirsti; Lähdesmäki, Harri

    2009-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation is essential in understanding the gene expression in its entirety. Transcription is regulated, among other things, by transcription factors that bind to DNA and can enhance or repress the transcription process. If a transcription factor fails to bind to DNA or binds to a wrong DNA region that can cause severe effects to the gene expression, to the cell and even to the individual. The problems in transcription factor binding can be caused by alterations in DNA structure which often occurs when parts of the DNA strands are mutated. An increasing number of the identified disease-related mutations occur in gene regulatory sequences. These regulatory mutations can disrupt transcription factor binding sites or create new ones. We have studied effects of mutations on transcription factor binding affinity computationally. We have compared our results with experimentally verified cases where a mutation in a gene regulatory region either creates a new transcription factor binding site or deletes a previously existing one. We have investigated the statistical properties of the changes on transcription factor binding affinity according to the mutation type. Our analysis shows that the probability of a loss of a transcription factor binding site and a creation of a new one varies remarkably by the mutation type. Our results demonstrate that computational analysis provides valuable information about the effect of mutations on transcription factor binding sites. The analysis results also give a useful test set for in vitro studies of regulatory mutation effects.

  12. Adaptation of Organisms by Resonance of RNA Transcription with the Cellular Redox Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Sequence variation in organisms differs across the genome and the majority of mutations are caused by oxidation, yet its origin is not fully understood. It has also been shown that the reduction-oxidation reaction cycle is the fundamental biochemical cycle that coordinates the timing of all biochemical processes in that cell, including energy production, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. It is shown that the temporal resonance of transcriptome biosynthesis with the oscillating binary state of the reduction-oxidation reaction cycle serves as a basis for non-random sequence variation at specific genome-wide coordinates that change faster than by accumulation of chance mutations. This work demonstrates evidence for a universal, persistent and iterative feedback mechanism between the environment and heredity, whereby acquired variation between cell divisions can outweigh inherited variation.

  13. Forkhead box transcription factors in embryonic heart development and congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic heart development is a very complicated process regulated precisely by a network composed of many genes and signaling pathways in time and space. Forkhead box (Fox, FOX) proteins are a family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of an evolutionary conserved "forkhead"or "winged-helix" DNA-binding domain and able to organize temporal and spatial gene expression during development. They are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, proliferation, differentiation, migration, metabolism and DNA damage response. An abundance of studies in model organisms and systems has established that Foxa2, Foxc1/c2, Foxh1 and Foxm1, Foxos and Foxps are important components of the signaling pathways that instruct cardiogenesis and embryonic heart development, playing paramount roles in heart development. The previous studies also have demonstrated that mutations in some of the forkhead box genes and the aberrant expression of forkhead box gene are heavily implicated in the congenital heart disease (CHD) of humans. This review primarily focuses on the current understanding of heart development regulated by forkhead box transcription factors and molecular genetic mechanisms by which forkhead box factors modulate heart development during embryogenesis and organogenesis. This review also summarizes human CHD related mutations in forkhead box genes as well as the abnormal expression of forkhead box gene, and discusses additional possible regulatory mechanisms of the forkhead box genes during embryonic heart development that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Essential role for the planarian intestinal GATA transcription factor in stem cells and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Natasha M; Oviedo, Néstor J; Sage, Julien

    2016-10-01

    The cellular turnover of adult tissues and injury-induced repair proceed through an exquisite integration of proliferation, differentiation, and survival signals that involve stem/progenitor cell populations, their progeny, and differentiated tissues. GATA factors are DNA binding proteins that control stem cells and the development of tissues by activating or repressing transcription. Here we examined the role of GATA transcription factors in Schmidtea mediterranea, a freshwater planarian that provides an excellent model to investigate gene function in adult stem cells, regeneration, and differentiation. Smed-gata4/5/6, the homolog of the three mammalian GATA-4,-5,-6 factors is expressed at high levels in differentiated gut cells but also at lower levels in neoblast populations, the planarian stem cells. Smed-gata4/5/6 knock-down results in broad differentiation defects, especially in response to injury. These defects are not restricted to the intestinal lineage. In particular, at late time points during the response to injury, loss of Smed-gata4/5/6 leads to decreased neoblast proliferation and to gene expression changes in several neoblast subpopulations. Thus, Smed-gata4/5/6 plays a key evolutionary conserved role in intestinal differentiation in planarians. These data further support a model in which defects in the intestinal lineage can indirectly affect other differentiation pathways in planarians. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Restoration of Mesenchymal RPE by Transcription Factor-Mediated Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ying-Hsuan; Radeke, Monte J; Radeke, Carolyn M; Coffey, Pete J

    2017-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major component of the wound healing response and a negative determinant of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) differentiation. We have shown previously that inhibition of TGFβ signaling restored the capacity of mesenchymal RPE to differentiate; however, the potential lessens with extensive passaging. We investigated TGFβ-independent mechanisms that regulate RPE differentiation following repetitive passaging. Retinal pigment epithelium-EMT was induced by repetitive passaging of fetal RPE at subconfluence. Suppression of EMT was achieved by the addition of A-83-01, a TGFβ receptor kinase inhibitor. Transcriptomic analysis was used to identify potential TGFβ independent processes that prevent differentiation after extensive passage. Downregulated transcription factors were identified and transduced into highly passaged RPE to restore cell differentiation. Restoration was evaluated according to morphology, expression of RPE/mesenchymal markers, transcriptomic analysis, cell doubling time, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity. A-83-01-treated RPE failed to differentiate after 7 passages (P7). This failure was concomitant with downregulation of RPE genes, misregulation of cell cycle genes, a decline in proliferative potential, and cell senescence. Exogenous expression of MYCN and OTX2 in conjunction with A-83-01 restored P7-RPE differentiation to a status similar to minimally passaged RPE. Moreover, the treatment allowed cells to maintain their differentiation capacity after extended passaging. Retinal pigment epithelium subjected to chronic wound stimulus undergoes TGFβ-mediated EMT, loss of expression of signature RPE genes, and senescence. Targeting these aspects with a TGFβ receptor kinase inhibitor, a RPE transcription factor, and a cell cycle regulator restores the capacity of highly passaged RPE cells to regenerate and differentiate.

  16. Abiotic Stresses Cause Differential Regulation of Alternative Splice Forms of GATA Transcription Factor in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Gupta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The GATA gene family is one of the most conserved families of transcription factors, playing a significant role in different aspects of cellular processes, in organisms ranging from fungi to angiosperms. GATA transcription factors are DNA-binding proteins, having a class IV zinc-finger motif CX2CX17−20CX2C followed by a highly basic region and are known to bind a consensus sequence WGATAR. In plants, GATAs are known to be involved in light-dependent gene regulation and nitrate assimilation. However, a comprehensive analysis of these GATA gene members has not yet been highlighted in rice when subjected to environmental stresses. In this study, we present an overview of the GATA gene family in rice (OsGATA in terms of, their chromosomal distribution, domain architecture, and phylogeny. Our study has revealed the presence of 28 genes, encoding 35 putative GATA transcription factors belonging to seven subfamilies in the rice genome. Transcript abundance analysis in contrasting genotypes of rice—IR64 (salt sensitive and Pokkali (salt tolerant, for individual GATA members indicated their differential expression in response to various abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, and exogenous ABA. One of the members of subfamily VII—OsGATA23a, emerged as a multi-stress responsive transcription factor giving elevated expression levels in response to salinity and drought. ABA also induces expression of OsGATA23a by 35 and 55-folds in IR64 and Pokkali respectively. However, OsGATA23b, an alternative splice variant of OsGATA23 did not respond to above-mentioned stresses. Developmental regulation of the OsGATA genes based on a publicly available microarray database showed distinct expression patterns for most of the GATA members throughout different stages of rice development. Altogether, our results suggest inherent roles of diverse OsGATA factors in abiotic stress signaling and also throw some light on the tight regulation of the spliced variants of

  17. OpaR controls a network of downstream transcription factors in Vibrio parahaemolyticus BB22OP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Kernell Burke

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging world-wide human pathogen that is associated with food-borne gastroenteritis when raw or undercooked seafood is consumed. Expression of virulence factors in this organism is modulated by the phenomenon known as quorum sensing, which permits differential gene regulation at low versus high cell density. The master regulator of quorum sensing in V. parahaemolyticus is OpaR. OpaR not only controls virulence factor gene expression, but also the colony and cellular morphology associated with growth on a surface and biofilm formation. Whole transcriptome Next Generation sequencing (RNA-Seq was utilized to determine the OpaR regulon by comparing strains BB22OP (opaR+, LM5312 and BB22TR (∆opaR1, LM5674. This work, using the published V. parahaemolyticus BB22OP genome sequence, confirms and expands upon a previous microarray analysis for these two strains that used an Affymetrix GeneChip designed from the closely related V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 genome sequence. Overall there was excellent correlation between the microarray and RNA-Seq data. Eleven transcription factors under OpaR control were identified by both methods and further confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR analysis. Nine of these transcription factors were demonstrated to be direct OpaR targets via in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays with purified hexahistidine-tagged OpaR. Identification of the direct and indirect targets of OpaR, including small RNAs, will enable the construction of a network map of regulatory interactions important for the switch between the nonpathogenic and pathogenic states.

  18. Transcription factor interactions mediate EGF-dependent COX-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaiming; Shu, Hui-Kuo G

    2013-08-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is linked to poor prognosis in patients with malignant gliomas. Amplification/overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is commonly seen in these tumors. EGFR signaling, through activation of the p38-MAPK/PKC-δ/Sp1 cascade, plays an essential role in the regulation of COX-2 expression in glioma cells. Here, we report that Src kinase contributes upstream to this signaling cascade. In addition, more detailed analysis revealed the involvement of FOXM1, a member of the forkhead box family of transcriptional activators, in EGF-dependent COX-2 induction. FOXM1 protein increased after stimulation with EGF, although its role in modulating COX-2 expression does not depend on this increase. While a conventional FOXM1 responsive element resides in a distal region (-2872/-2539 relative to the transcriptional start site) of the COX-2 promoter, this is not required for EGF-dependent induction of COX-2. Instead, FOXM1 forms a cooperative interaction with Sp1 at the Sp1-binding site (-245/-240 relative to the start site) of the COX-2 promoter to mediate EGF-induced COX-2 expression. Definition of this novel interaction provides a clearer understanding of the mechanistic basis for EGF induction of COX-2. These data provide a guide for the evaluation of potential newer therapeutic targets that have relevance in this disease. ©2013 AACR.

  19. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the SOX18 Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Frank; Overman, Jeroen; Moustaqil, Mehdi; Mamidyala, Sreeman; Salim, Angela; Narasimhan, Kamesh; Prokoph, Nina; Robertson, Avril A B; Lua, Linda; Alexandrov, Kirill; Koopman, Peter; Capon, Robert J; Sierecki, Emma; Gambin, Yann; Jauch, Ralf; Cooper, Matthew A; Zuegg, Johannes; Francois, Mathias

    2017-03-16

    Pharmacological modulation of transcription factors (TFs) has only met little success over the past four decades. This is mostly due to standard drug discovery approaches centered on blocking protein/DNA binding or interfering with post-translational modifications. Recent advances in the field of TF biology have revealed a central role of protein-protein interaction in their mode of action. In an attempt to modulate the activity of SOX18 TF, a known regulator of vascular growth in development and disease, we screened a marine extract library for potential small-molecule inhibitors. We identified two compounds, which inspired a series of synthetic SOX18 inhibitors, able to interfere with the SOX18 HMG DNA-binding domain, and to disrupt HMG-dependent protein-protein interaction with RBPJ. These compounds also perturbed SOX18 transcriptional activity in a cell-based reporter gene system. This approach may prove useful in developing a new class of anti-angiogenic compounds based on the inhibition of TF activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A WRKY Transcription Factor Regulates Fe Translocation under Fe Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing Ying; Li, Chun Xiao; Sun, Li; Ren, Jiang Yuan; Li, Gui Xin; Ding, Zhong Jie; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2016-07-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency affects plant growth and development, leading to reduction of crop yields and quality. Although the regulation of Fe uptake under Fe deficiency has been well studied in the past decade, the regulatory mechanism of Fe translocation inside the plants remains unknown. Here, we show that a WRKY transcription factor WRKY46 is involved in response to Fe deficiency. Lack of WRKY46 (wrky46-1 and wrky46-2 loss-of-function mutants) significantly affects Fe translocation from root to shoot and thus causes obvious chlorosis on the new leaves under Fe deficiency. Gene expression analysis reveals that expression of a nodulin-like gene (VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER1-LIKE1 [VITL1]) is dramatically increased in wrky46-1 mutant. VITL1 expression is inhibited by Fe deficiency, while the expression of WRKY46 is induced in the root stele. Moreover, down-regulation of VITL1 expression can restore the chlorosis phenotype on wrky46-1 under Fe deficiency. Further yeast one-hybrid and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that WRKY46 is capable of binding to the specific W-boxes present in the VITL1 promoter. In summary, our results demonstrate that WRKY46 plays an important role in the control of root-to-shoot Fe translocation under Fe deficiency condition via direct regulation of VITL1 transcript levels. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Transcription factor repertoire in Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) through analytics of transcriptomic resources: Insights into regulation of development and withanolide metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sandhya; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Narnoliya, Lokesh Kumar; Srivastava, Yashdeep; Mishra, Bhawana; Sangwan, Neelam Singh

    2017-11-30

    Transcription factors (TFs) are important regulators of cellular and metabolic functions including secondary metabolism. Deep and intensive RNA-seq analysis of Withania somnifera using transcriptomic databases provided 3532 annotated transcripts of transcription factors in leaf and root tissues, belonging to 90 different families with major abundance for WD-repeat (174 and 165 transcripts) and WRKY (93 and 80 transcripts) in root and leaf tissues respectively, followed by that of MYB, BHLH and AP2-ERF. Their detailed comparative analysis with Arabidopsis thaliana, Capsicum annum, Nicotiana tabacum and Solanum lycopersicum counterparts together gave interesting patterns. However, no homologs for WsWDR representatives, LWD1 and WUSCHEL, were observed in other Solanaceae species. The data extracted from the sequence read archives (SRA) in public domain databases were subjected to re-annotation, re-mining, re-analysis and validation for dominant occurrence of WRKY and WD-repeat (WDR) gene families. Expression of recombinant LWD1 and WUSCHEL proteins in homologous system led to enhancements in withanolide content indicating their regulatory role in planta in the biosynthesis. Contrasting expression profiles of WsLWD1 and WsWUSCHEL provided tissue-specific insights for their participation in the regulation of developmental processes. The in-depth analysis provided first full-spectrum and comparative characteristics of TF-transcripts across plant species, in the perspective of integrated tissue-specific regulation of metabolic processes including specialized metabolism.

  2. Multiple steps in the regulation of transcription-factor level and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calkhoven, CF; Ab, G

    1996-01-01

    This review focuses on the regulation of transcription factors, many of which are DNA-binding proteins that recognize cis-regulatory elements of target genes and are the most direct regulators of gene transcription. Transcription factors serve as integration centres of the different

  3. TRIENNIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: Factors influencing bovine intramuscular adipose tissue development and cellularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, E; Schering, L; Liu, Y; Komolka, K; Kühn, C; Wimmers, K; Gotoh, T; Maak, S

    2017-05-01

    Appearance, distribution, and amount of intramuscular fat (IMF), often referred to as marbling, are highly variable and depend on environmental and genetic factors. On the molecular level, the concerted action of several drivers, including hormones, receptors, transcription factors, etc., determines where clusters of adipocytes arise. Therefore, the aim of future studies remains to identify such factors as biological markers of IMF to increase the ability to identify animals that deposit IMF early in age to increase efficiency of high-quality meat production. In an attempt to unravel the cellular development of marbling, we investigated the abundance of markers for adipogenic differentiation during fattening of cattle and the transcriptome of muscle and dissected IMF. Markers of different stages of adipogenic differentiation are well known from cell culture experiments. They are usually transiently expressed, such as delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) that is abundant in preadipocytes and absent during differentiation to mature adipocytes. It is even a greater challenge to detect those markers in live animals. Within skeletal muscles, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes can be observed throughout life. Therefore, development of marbling requires, on the cellular level, recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of adipogenic cells to store excess energy in the form of lipids in new cells. In a recent study, we investigated the localization and abundance of early markers of adipogenic differentiation, such as DLK1, in bovine muscle tissue. An inverse relationship between IMF content and number of DLK1-positive cells in bovine muscle was demonstrated. Considering the cellular environment of differentiating adipocytes in muscle and the secretory action of adipocytes and myocytes, it becomes obvious that cross talk between cells via adipokines and myokines may be important for IMF development. Secreted proteins can act on other cells, inhibiting or stimulating

  4. Fundamental Design Principles for Transcription-Factor-Based Metabolite Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Ahmad A; Liu, Di; Zhang, Fuzhong; Oyarzún, Diego A

    2017-10-20

    Metabolite biosensors are central to current efforts toward precision engineering of metabolism. Although most research has focused on building new biosensors, their tunability remains poorly understood and is fundamental for their broad applicability. Here we asked how genetic modifications shape the dose-response curve of biosensors based on metabolite-responsive transcription factors. Using the lac system in Escherichia coli as a model system, we built promoter libraries with variable operator sites that reveal interdependencies between biosensor dynamic range and response threshold. We developed a phenomenological theory to quantify such design constraints in biosensors with various architectures and tunable parameters. Our theory reveals a maximal achievable dynamic range and exposes tunable parameters for orthogonal control of dynamic range and response threshold. Our work sheds light on fundamental limits of synthetic biology designs and provides quantitative guidelines for biosensor design in applications such as dynamic pathway control, strain optimization, and real-time monitoring of metabolism.

  5. Tunable signal processing through modular control of transcription factor translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Nan; Budnik, Bogdan A; Gunawardena, Jeremy; O'Shea, Erin K

    2013-01-25

    Signaling pathways can induce different dynamics of transcription factor (TF) activation. We explored how TFs process signaling inputs to generate diverse dynamic responses. The budding yeast general stress-responsive TF Msn2 acted as a tunable signal processor that could track, filter, or integrate signals in an input-dependent manner. This tunable signal processing appears to originate from dual regulation of both nuclear import and export by phosphorylation, as mutants with one form of regulation sustained only one signal-processing function. Versatile signal processing by Msn2 is crucial for generating distinct dynamic responses to different natural stresses. Our findings reveal how complex signal-processing functions are integrated into a single molecule and provide a guide for the design of TFs with "programmable" signal-processing functions.

  6. A role for the transcription factor HEY1 in glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulleman, Esther; Quarto, Micaela; Vernell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the highest-grade glioma, is the most frequent tumour of the brain with a very poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Although little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie glioblastoma formation, a number of signal transduction routes...... and that expression of HEY1 in GBM correlates with tumour-grade and survival. In addition, we show by chromatin immunoprecipitations, luciferase assays and Northern blot experiments that HEY1 is a bona fide target of the E2F family of transcription factors, connecting the Ras and Notch signalling pathways. Finally......, we show that ectopic expression of HEY1 induces cell proliferation in neural stem cells, while depletion of HEY1 by RNA interference reduces proliferation of glioblastoma cells in tissue culture. Together, these data imply a role for HEY1 in the progression of GBM, and therefore we propose that HEY1...

  7. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Noah D; Garruss, Alexander S; Moretti, Rocco; Chan, Sum; Arbing, Mark A; Cascio, Duilio; Rogers, Jameson K; Isaacs, Farren J; Kosuri, Sriram; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M; Raman, Srivatsan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. We engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol or sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along with multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits. PMID:26689263

  8. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriya Kumari Ramiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil (CON, (ii basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA, and (iii basal diet with 5% CLA (HCLA.The content of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was between 1.69- and 2.3-fold greater (P<0.05 than that of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the abdominal fat of the LCLA and HCLA group. The adipogenic capacity of the abdominal fat depot in LCLA and HCLA fed chicken is associated with a decreased proportion of adipose cells and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. The transcriptional level of adipocyte protein (aP2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ was downregulated by 1.08- to 2.5-fold in CLA supplemented diets, respectively. It was speculated that feeding CLA to broiler chickens reduced adipocyte size and downregulated PPARγ and aP2 that control adipocyte cellularity. Elevation of CLA isomers into their adipose tissue provides a potential CLA-rich source for human consumption.

  9. (Some cellular mechanisms influencing the transcription of human endogenous retrovirus, HERV-Fc1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Janina Laska

    Full Text Available DNA methylation and histone acetylation are epigenetic modifications that act as regulators of gene expression. DNA methylation is considered an important mechanism for silencing of retroelements in the mammalian genome. However, the methylation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs is not well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional potential of HERV-Fc1 proviral 5'LTR in more detail, and examined the specific influence of CpG methylation on this LTR in number of cell lines. Specifically, the role of demethylating chemicals e.g. 5-aza-2' deoxycytidine and Trichostatin-A, in inducing or reactivating expression of HERV-Fc1 specific sequences and the mechanisms were investigated. In our present study, 5-aza-dC is shown to be a powerful inducer of HERV-Fc1, and at the same time it strongly inhibits methylation of DNA. Treatment with this demethylating agent 5-aza-dC, results in significantly increased levels of HERV-Fc1 expression in cells previously not expressing HERV-Fc1, or with a very low expression level. The extent of expression of HERV-Fc1 RNAs precisely correlates with the apparent extent of demethylation of the related DNA sequences. In conclusion, the results suggest that inhibition of DNA methylation/histone deacetylase can interfere with gene silencing mechanisms affecting HERV-Fc1 expression in human cells.

  10. Cisplatin- and UV-damaged DNA lure the basal transcription factor TFIID/TBP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Vichi; F. Coin (Frédéric); J-P. Renaud (Jean-Paul); W. Vermeulen (Wim); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); D. Moras; J-M. Egly (Jean-Marc)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA connection between transcription and DNA repair was demonstrated previously through the characterization of TFIIH. Using filter binding as well as in vitro transcription challenge competition assays, we now show that the promoter recognition factor TATA boxbinding protein

  11. Transcription factor Rex in regulation of pathophysiology in oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitoun, J P; Wen, Z T

    2016-04-01

    The NAD(+) and NADH-sensing transcriptional regulator Rex is widely conserved across gram-positive bacteria. Rex monitors cellular redox poise and controls the expression of genes/operons involved in diverse pathways including alternative fermentation, oxidative stress responses, and biofilm formation. The oral cavity undergoes frequent and drastic fluctuations in nutrient availability, pH, temperature, oxygen tension, saliva, and shear forces. The oral streptococci are major colonizers of oral mucosa and tooth surfaces and include commensals as well as opportunistic pathogens, including the primary etiological agent of dental caries, Streptococcus mutans. Current understanding of the Rex regulon in oral bacteria is mostly based on studies in S. mutans and endodontic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. Indeed, other oral bacteria encode homologs of the Rex protein and much is to be gleaned from more in-depth studies. Our current understanding has Rex positioned at the interface of oxygen and energy metabolism. In biofilms, heterogeneous oxygen tension influences the ratio of intracellular NADH and NAD(+) , which is finely tuned through glycolysis and fermentation. In S. mutans, Rex regulates the expression of glycolytic enzyme NAD(+) -dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NADH-dependent fermentation enzymes/complexes lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, alcohol-acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, and fumarate reductase. In addition, Rex controls the expression of NADH oxidase, a major enzyme used to eliminate oxidative stress and regenerate NAD(+) . Here, we summarize recent studies carried out on the Rex regulators in S. mutans and E. faecalis. This research has important implications for understanding how Rex monitors redox balance and optimizes fermentation pathways for survival and subsequent pathogenicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 entry by transcription factor XBP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Lin, Chiou-Yan [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong, E-mail: jimtong@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lau, Kean Seng [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRE1 was activated but no XBP1 splicing was detected during enterovirus 71 infection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XBP1 was subject to translational shutoff by enterovirus 71-induced eIF4G cleavage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uptake of UV-irradiated virus was decreased in XBP1-overexpressing cells. -- Abstract: Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) plays an important role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or unfolded protein, stress response by activating its downstream transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1). We demonstrated previously that enterovirus 71 (EV71) upregulated XBP1 mRNA levels but did not activate spliced XBP1 (XBP1s) mRNA or its downstream target genes, EDEM and chaperones. In this study, we investigated further this regulatory mechanism and found that IRE1 was phosphorylated and activated after EV71 infection, whereas its downstream XBP1s protein level decreased. We also found that XBP1s was not cleaved directly by 2A{sup pro}, but that cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by the EV71 2A{sup pro} protein may contribute to the decrease in XBP1s expression. Knockdown of XBP1 increased viral protein expression, and the synthesis of EV71 viral protein and the production of EV71 viral particles were inhibited in XBP1-overexpressing RD cells. When incubated with replication-deficient and UV-irradiated EV71, XBP1-overexpressing RD cells exhibited reduced viral RNA levels, suggesting that the inhibition of XBP1s by viral infection may underlie viral entry, which is required for viral replication. Our findings are the first indication of the ability of XBP1 to inhibit viral entry, possibly via its transcriptional activity in regulating molecules in the endocytic machinery.

  13. Identifying differential transcription factor binding in ChIP-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Ying eWu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ChIP seq is a widely used assay to measure genome-wide protein binding. The decrease in costs associated with sequencing has led to a rise in the number of studies that investigate protein binding across treatment conditions or cell lines. In addition to the identification of binding sites, new studies evaluate the variation in protein binding between conditions. A number of approaches to study differential transcription factor binding have recently been developed. Several of these methods build upon established methods from RNA-seq to quantify differences in read counts. We compare how these new approaches perform on different data sets from the ENCODE project to illustrate the impact of data processing pipelines under different study designs. The performance of normalization methods for differential ChIP-seq depends strongly on the variation in total amount of protein bound between conditions, with total read count outperforming effective library size, or variants thereof, when a large variation in binding was studied. Use of input subtraction to correct for non-specific binding showed a relatively modest impact on the number of differential peaks found and the fold change accuracy to biological validation, however a larger impact might be expected for samples with more extreme copy number variations between them. Still, it did identify a small subset of novel differential regions while excluding some differential peaks in regions with high background signal.These results highlight proper scaling for between-sample data normalization as critical for differential transcription factor binding analysis and suggest bioinformaticians need to know about the variation in level of total protein binding between conditions to select the best analysis method. At the same time, validation using fold-change estimates from qRT-PCR suggests there is still room for further method improvement.

  14. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Activating Transcription Factor 5-Deficient Mice

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    Mariko Umemura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5 is a member of the CREB/ATF family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors. We previously reported that ATF5-deficient (ATF5-/- mice demonstrated abnormal olfactory bulb development due to impaired interneuron supply. Furthermore, ATF5-/- mice were less aggressive than ATF5+/+ mice. Although ATF5 is widely expressed in the brain, and involved in the regulation of proliferation and development of neurons, the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain. We performed a comprehensive behavioral analysis using ATF5-/- mice and wild type littermates. ATF5-/- mice exhibited abnormal locomotor activity in the open field test. They also exhibited abnormal anxiety-like behavior in the light/dark transition test and open field test. Furthermore, ATF5-/- mice displayed reduced social interaction in the Crawley’s social interaction test and increased pain sensitivity in the hot plate test compared with wild type. Finally, behavioral flexibility was reduced in the T-maze test in ATF5-/- mice compared with wild type. In addition, we demonstrated that ATF5-/- mice display disturbances of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in several brain regions. These results indicate that ATF5 deficiency elicits abnormal behaviors and the disturbance of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain. The behavioral abnormalities of ATF5-/- mice may be due to the disturbance of monoamine levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that ATF5-/- mice may be a unique animal model of some psychiatric disorders.

  15. Osteogenic Potential of the Transcription Factor c-MYB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oralova, V; Matalova, E; Killinger, M; Knopfova, L; Smarda, J; Buchtova, M

    2017-03-01

    The transcription factor c-MYB is a well-known marker of undifferentiated cells such as haematopoietic cell precursors, but recently it has also been observed in differentiated cells that produce hard tissues. Our previous findings showed the presence of c-MYB in intramembranous bones and its involvement in the chondrogenic steps of endochondral ossification, where the up-regulation of early chondrogenic markers after c-myb overexpression was observed. Since we previously detected c-MYB in osteoblasts, we aimed to analyse the localisation of c-MYB during later stages of endochondral bone formation and address its function during bone matrix production. c-MYB-positive cells were found in the chondro-osseous junction zone in osteoblasts of trabecular bone as well as deeper in the zone of ossification in cells of spongy bone. To experimentally evaluate the osteogenic potential of c-MYB during endochondral bone formation, micromasses derived from embryonic mouse limb buds were established. Nuclear c-MYB protein expression was observed in long-term micromasses, especially in the areas around nodules. c-myb overexpression induced the expression of osteogenic-related genes such as Bmp2, Comp, Csf2 and Itgb1. Moreover, alizarin red staining and osteocalcin labelling promoted mineralised matrix production in c-myb-overexpressing cultures, whereas downregulation of c-myb by siRNA reduced mineralised matrix production. In conclusion, c-Myb plays a role in the osteogenesis of long bones by inducing osteogenic genes and causing the enhancement of mineral matrix production. This action of the transcription factor c-Myb might be of interest in the future for the establishment of novel approaches to tissue regeneration.

  16. P. gingivalis modulates keratinocytes through FOXO transcription factors.

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    Shuai Li

    Full Text Available P. gingivalis is a prominent periodontal pathogen that has potent effects on host cells. In this study we challenged gingival epithelial cells with P. gingivalis with the aim of assessing how mRNA levels of key target genes were modulated by P. gingivalis via the transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3. Primary mono- and multi-layer cultures of gingival epithelial cells were challenged and barrier function was examined by fluorescent dextran and apoptosis was measured by cytoplasmic histone associated DNA. Gene expression levels were measured by real-time PCR with and without FOXO1 and FOXO3 siRNA compared to scrambled siRNA. P. gingivalis induced a loss of barrier function and stimulated gingival epithelial cell apoptosis in multilayer cultures that was in part gingipain dependent. P. gingivalis stimulated an increase in FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA, enhanced mRNA levels of genes associated with differentiated keratinocyte function (keratin-1, -10, -14, and involucrin, increased mRNA levels of apoptotic genes (BID and TRADD, reduced mRNA levels of genes that regulate inflammation (TLR-2 and -4 and reduced those associated with barrier function (integrin beta-1, -3 and -6. The ability of P. gingivalis to modulate these genes was predominantly FOXO1 and FOXO3 dependent. The results indicate that P. gingivalis has pronounced effects on gingival keratinocytes and modulates mRNA levels of genes that affect host response, differentiation, apoptosis and barrier function. Moreover, this modulation is dependent upon the transcription factors FOXO1 or FOXO3. In addition, a new function for FOXO1 was identified, that of suppressing TLR-2 and TLR-4 and maintaining integrin beta -1, beta -3 and beta -6 basal mRNA levels in keratinocytes.

  17. Identifying differential transcription factor binding in ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dai-Ying; Bittencourt, Danielle; Stallcup, Michael R; Siegmund, Kimberly D

    2015-01-01

    ChIP seq is a widely used assay to measure genome-wide protein binding. The decrease in costs associated with sequencing has led to a rise in the number of studies that investigate protein binding across treatment conditions or cell lines. In addition to the identification of binding sites, new studies evaluate the variation in protein binding between conditions. A number of approaches to study differential transcription factor binding have recently been developed. Several of these methods build upon established methods from RNA-seq to quantify differences in read counts. We compare how these new approaches perform on different data sets from the ENCODE project to illustrate the impact of data processing pipelines under different study designs. The performance of normalization methods for differential ChIP-seq depends strongly on the variation in total amount of protein bound between conditions, with total read count outperforming effective library size, or variants thereof, when a large variation in binding was studied. Use of input subtraction to correct for non-specific binding showed a relatively modest impact on the number of differential peaks found and the fold change accuracy to biological validation, however a larger impact might be expected for samples with more extreme copy number variations between them. Still, it did identify a small subset of novel differential regions while excluding some differential peaks in regions with high background signal. These results highlight proper scaling for between-sample data normalization as critical for differential transcription factor binding analysis and suggest bioinformaticians need to know about the variation in level of total protein binding between conditions to select the best analysis method. At the same time, validation using fold-change estimates from qRT-PCR suggests there is still room for further method improvement.

  18. ATR controls cellular adaptation to hypoxia through positive regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallone, F; Britton, S; Nieto, L; Salles, B; Muller, C

    2013-09-12

    Tumor cells adaptation to severe oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) plays a major role in tumor progression. The transcription factor HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor 1), whose α-subunit is stabilized under hypoxic conditions is a key component of this process. Recent studies showed that two members of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) family, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase), regulate the hypoxic-dependent accumulation of HIF-1. These proteins initiate cellular stress responses when DNA damage occurs. In addition, it has been demonstrated that extreme hypoxia induces a replicative stress resulting in regions of single-stranded DNA at stalled replication forks and the activation of ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein), another member of the PIKKs family. Here, we show that even less severe hypoxia (0.1% O2) also induces activation of ATR through replicative stress. Importantly, in using either transiently silenced ATR cells, cells expressing an inactive form of ATR or cells exposed to an ATR inhibitor (CGK733), we demonstrate that hypoxic ATR activation positively regulates the key transcription factor HIF-1 independently of the checkpoint kinase Chk1. We show that ATR kinase activity regulates HIF-1α at the translational level and we find that the elements necessary for the regulation of HIF-1α translation are located within the coding region of HIF-1α mRNA. Finally, by using three independent cellular models, we clearly show that the loss of ATR expression and/or kinase activity results in the decrease of HIF-1 DNA binding under hypoxia and consequently affects protein expression levels of two HIF-1 target genes, GLUT-1 and CAIX. Taken together, our data show a new function for ATR in cellular adaptation to hypoxia through regulation of HIF-1α translation. Our work offers new prospect for cancer therapy using ATR inhibitors with the potential to decrease cellular adaptation in hypoxic

  19. Regulation of Memory Formation by the Transcription Factor XBP1

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    Gabriela Martínez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Contextual memory formation relies on the induction of new genes in the hippocampus. A polymorphism in the promoter of the transcription factor XBP1 was identified as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease and bipolar disorders. XBP1 is a major regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR, mediating adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Using a phenotypic screen, we uncovered an unexpected function of XBP1 in cognition and behavior. Mice lacking XBP1 in the nervous system showed specific impairment of contextual memory formation and long-term potentiation (LTP, whereas neuronal XBP1s overexpression improved performance in memory tasks. Gene expression analysis revealed that XBP1 regulates a group of memory-related genes, highlighting brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a key component in memory consolidation. Overexpression of BDNF in the hippocampus reversed the XBP1-deficient phenotype. Our study revealed an unanticipated function of XBP1 in cognitive processes that is apparently unrelated to its role in ER stress.

  20. Suppression of chronic inflammation with engineered nanomaterials delivering nuclear factor κB transcription factor decoy oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Leila; Darvishi, Behrad; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan

    2017-11-01

    As a prototypical pro-inflammatory transcription factor, constitutive activation of NF-κB signaling pathway has been reported in several chronic inflammatory disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. Application of decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) against NF-κB, as an effective molecular therapy approach, has brought about several promising outcomes in treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders. However, systematic administration of these genetic constructs is mostly hampered due to their instability, rapid degradation by nucleases and poor cellular uptake. Both chemical modification and application of delivery systems have shown to effectively overcome some of these limitations. Among different administered delivery systems, nanomaterials have gained much attention for delivering NF-κB decoy ODNs owing to their high loading capacity, targeted delivery and ease of synthesis. In this review, we highlight some of the most recently developed nanomaterial-based delivery systems for overcoming limitations associated with clinical application of these genetic constructs.

  1. Circadian transcription factor BMAL1 regulates innate immunity against select RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Tanmay; Dhar, Jayeeta; Patel, Sonal; Kondratov, Roman; Barik, Sailen

    2017-02-01

    BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as MOP3 or ARNT3) belongs to the family of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS domain-containing transcription factors, and is a key component of the molecular oscillator that generates circadian rhythms. Here, we report that BMAL1-deficient cells are significantly more susceptible to infection by two major respiratory viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family, namely RSV and PIV3. Embryonic fibroblasts from Bmal1-/- mice produced nearly 10-fold more progeny virus than their wild type controls. These results were supported by animal studies whereby pulmonary infection of RSV produced a more severe disease and morbidity in Bmal1-/-mice. These results show that BMAL1 can regulate cellular innate immunity against specific RNA viruses.

  2. Genome-wide identification of transcription factors and transcription-factor binding sites in oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Jing; Jing, Gongchao; Ning, Kang; Xu, Jian

    2014-06-26

    Nannochloropsis spp. are a group of oleaginous microalgae that harbor an expanded array of lipid-synthesis related genes, yet how they are transcriptionally regulated remains unknown. Here a phylogenomic approach was employed to identify and functionally annotate the transcriptional factors (TFs) and TF binding-sites (TFBSs) in N. oceanica IMET1. Among 36 microalgae and higher plants genomes, a two-fold reduction in the number of TF families plus a seven-fold decrease of average family-size in Nannochloropsis, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta were observed. The degree of similarity in TF-family profiles is indicative of the phylogenetic relationship among the species, suggesting co-evolution of TF-family profiles and species. Furthermore, comparative analysis of six Nannochloropsis genomes revealed 68 "most-conserved" TFBS motifs, with 11 of which predicted to be related to lipid accumulation or photosynthesis. Mapping the IMET1 TFs and TFBS motifs to the reference plant TF-"TFBS motif" relationships in TRANSFAC enabled the prediction of 78 TF-"TFBS motif" interaction pairs, which consisted of 34 TFs (with 11 TFs potentially involved in the TAG biosynthesis pathway), 30 TFBS motifs and 2,368 regulatory connections between TFs and target genes. Our results form the basis of further experiments to validate and engineer the regulatory network of Nannochloropsis spp. for enhanced biofuel production.

  3. A Pitx transcription factor controls the establishment and maintenance of the serotonergic lineage in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    März, Martin; Seebeck, Florian; Bartscherer, Kerstin

    2013-11-01

    In contrast to adult vertebrates, which have limited capacities for neurogenesis, adult planarians undergo constitutive cellular turnover during homeostasis and are even able to regenerate a whole brain after decapitation. This enormous plasticity derives from pluripotent stem cells residing in the planarian body in large numbers. It is still obscure how these stem cells are programmed for differentiation into specific cell lineages and how lineage identity is maintained. Here we identify a Pitx transcription factor of crucial importance for planarian regeneration. In addition to patterning defects that are co-dependent on the LIM homeobox transcription factor gene islet1, which is expressed with pitx at anterior and posterior regeneration poles, RNAi against pitx results in islet1-independent specific loss of serotonergic (SN) neurons during regeneration. Besides its expression in terminally differentiated SN neurons we found pitx in stem cell progeny committed to the SN fate. Also, intact pitx RNAi animals gradually lose SN markers, a phenotype that depends neither on increased apoptosis nor on stem cell-based turnover or transdifferentiation into other neurons. We propose that pitx is a terminal selector gene for SN neurons in planarians that controls not only their maturation but also their identity by regulating the expression of the Serotonin production and transport machinery. Finally, we made use of this function of pitx and compared the transcriptomes of regenerating planarians with and without functional SN neurons, identifying at least three new neuronal targets of Pitx.

  4. Beyond Transcription Factors: The Role of Chromatin Modifying Enzymes in Regulating Transcription Required for Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ruth M.; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2008-01-01

    One of the alluring aspects of examining chromatin modifications in the role of modulating transcription required for long-term memory processes is that these modifications may provide transient and potentially stable epigenetic marks in the service of activating and/or maintaining transcriptional processes. These, in turn, may ultimately…

  5. A Differentiation Transcription Factor Establishes Muscle-Specific Proteostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Lavan, Yael; Shemesh, Netta; Dror, Shiran; Ofir, Rivka; Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Ben-Zvi, Anat

    2016-12-01

    Safeguarding the proteome is central to the health of the cell. In multi-cellular organisms, the composition of the proteome, and by extension, protein-folding requirements, varies between cells. In agreement, chaperone network composition differs between tissues. Here, we ask how chaperone expression is regulated in a cell type-specific manner and whether cellular differentiation affects chaperone expression. Our bioinformatics analyses show that the myogenic transcription factor HLH-1 (MyoD) can bind to the promoters of chaperone genes expressed or required for the folding of muscle proteins. To test this experimentally, we employed HLH-1 myogenic potential to genetically modulate cellular differentiation of Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic cells by ectopically expressing HLH-1 in all cells of the embryo and monitoring chaperone expression. We found that HLH-1-dependent myogenic conversion specifically induced the expression of putative HLH-1-regulated chaperones in differentiating muscle cells. Moreover, disrupting the putative HLH-1-binding sites on ubiquitously expressed daf-21(Hsp90) and muscle-enriched hsp-12.2(sHsp) promoters abolished their myogenic-dependent expression. Disrupting HLH-1 function in muscle cells reduced the expression of putative HLH-1-regulated chaperones and compromised muscle proteostasis during and after embryogenesis. In turn, we found that modulating the expression of muscle chaperones disrupted the folding and assembly of muscle proteins and thus, myogenesis. Moreover, muscle-specific over-expression of the DNAJB6 homolog DNJ-24, a limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-associated chaperone, disrupted the muscle chaperone network and exposed synthetic motility defects. We propose that cellular differentiation could establish a proteostasis network dedicated to the folding and maintenance of the muscle proteome. Such cell-specific proteostasis networks can explain the selective vulnerability that many diseases of protein misfolding exhibit

  6. Transcription factor PIF4 controls the thermosensory activation of flowering

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. Vinod

    2012-03-21

    Plant growth and development are strongly affected by small differences in temperature. Current climate change has already altered global plant phenology and distribution, and projected increases in temperature pose a significant challenge to agriculture. Despite the important role of temperature on plant development, the underlying pathways are unknown. It has previously been shown that thermal acceleration of flowering is dependent on the florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). How this occurs is, however, not understood, because the major pathway known to upregulate FT, the photoperiod pathway, is not required for thermal acceleration of flowering. Here we demonstrate a direct mechanism by which increasing temperature causes the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) to activate FT. Our findings provide a new understanding of how plants control their timing of reproduction in response to temperature. Flowering time is an important trait in crops as well as affecting the life cycles of pollinator species. A molecular understanding of how temperature affects flowering will be important for mitigating the effects of climate change. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptional regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in nectarine (Prunus persica) by a set of R2R3 MYB transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaglia, Daniela; Espley, Richard V; Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A; Andreotti, Carlo; Ziosi, Vanina; Hellens, Roger P; Costa, Guglielmo; Allan, Andrew C

    2013-04-25

    Flavonoids such as anthocyanins, flavonols and proanthocyanidins, play a central role in fruit colour, flavour and health attributes. In peach and nectarine (Prunus persica) these compounds vary during fruit growth and ripening. Flavonoids are produced by a well studied pathway which is transcriptionally regulated by members of the MYB and bHLH transcription factor families. We have isolated nectarine flavonoid regulating genes and examined their expression patterns, which suggests a critical role in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. In nectarine, expression of the genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid pathway correlated with the concentration of proanthocyanidins, which strongly increases at mid-development. In contrast, the only gene which showed a similar pattern to anthocyanin concentration was UDP-glucose-flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), which was high at the beginning and end of fruit growth, remaining low during the other developmental stages. Expression of flavonol synthase (FLS1) correlated with flavonol levels, both temporally and in a tissue specific manner. The pattern of UFGT gene expression may be explained by the involvement of different transcription factors, which up-regulate flavonoid biosynthesis (MYB10, MYB123, and bHLH3), or repress (MYB111 and MYB16) the transcription of the biosynthetic genes. The expression of a potential proanthocyanidin-regulating transcription factor, MYBPA1, corresponded with proanthocyanidin levels. Functional assays of these transcription factors were used to test the specificity for flavonoid regulation. MYB10 positively regulates the promoters of UFGT and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) but not leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). In contrast, MYBPA1 trans-activates the promoters of DFR and LAR, but not UFGT. This suggests exclusive roles of anthocyanin regulation by MYB10 and proanthocyanidin regulation by MYBPA1. Further, these transcription factors appeared to be responsive to both

  8. Overexpression of transcription factor Sp1 leads to gene expression perturbations and cell cycle inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Deniaud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1 regulates the expression of a vast number of genes involved in many cellular functions ranging from differentiation to proliferation and apoptosis. Sp1 expression levels show a dramatic increase during transformation and this could play a critical role for tumour development or maintenance. Although Sp1 deregulation might be beneficial for tumour cells, its overexpression induces apoptosis of untransformed cells. Here we further characterised the functional and transcriptional responses of untransformed cells following Sp1 overexpression. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We made use of wild-type and DNA-binding-deficient Sp1 to demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis by Sp1 is dependent on its capacity to bind DNA. Genome-wide expression profiling identified genes involved in cancer, cell death and cell cycle as being enriched among differentially expressed genes following Sp1 overexpression. In silico search to determine the presence of Sp1 binding sites in the promoter region of modulated genes was conducted. Genes that contained Sp1 binding sites in their promoters were enriched among down-regulated genes. The endogenous sp1 gene is one of the most down-regulated suggesting a negative feedback loop induced by overexpressed Sp1. In contrast, genes containing Sp1 binding sites in their promoters were not enriched among up-regulated genes. These results suggest that the transcriptional response involves both direct Sp1-driven transcription and indirect mechanisms. Finally, we show that Sp1 overexpression led to a modified expression of G1/S transition regulatory genes such as the down-regulation of cyclin D2 and the up-regulation of cyclin G2 and cdkn2c/p18 expression. The biological significance of these modifications was confirmed by showing that the cells accumulated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle before the onset of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the binding to DNA

  9. Mapping of functional domains and characterization of the transcription factor Cph1 that mediate morphogenesis in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Protiti; Ghorai, Priyanka; Ghosh, Sumit; Kamthan, Mohan; Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar; Datta, Asis

    2015-10-01

    Cph1, a transcription factor of the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinase pathway, regulates morphogenesis in human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Here, by following a systemic deletion approach, we have identified functional domains and motifs of Cph1 that are involved in transcription factor activity and cellular morphogenesis. We found that the N-terminal homeodomain is essential for the DNA binding activity; however, C-terminal domain and polyglutamine motif (PQ) are indispensable for the transcriptional activation function. Complementation analysis of the cph1Δ null mutant using various deletion derivatives revealed functional significance of the N- and C-terminal domains and PQ motif in filamentation process, chlamydospore formation and sensitivity to the cell wall interfering compounds. Genome-wide identification of the Cph1 binding site and quantitative RT-PCR transcript analysis in cph1Δ null mutant revealed that a number of genes which are associated with the filamentous growth, maintaining cell wall organization and mitochondrial function, and the genes of the pH response pathway are the transcriptional targets of Cph1. The data also suggest that Cph1 may function as a positive or negative regulator depending on the morphological state and physiological conditions. Moreover, differential expression of the upstream MAP kinase pathway genes in wild type and cph1Δ null mutant indicated the existence of a feedback regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcription factors ETF, E2F, and SP-1 are involved in cytokine-independent proliferation of murine hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmer, Sebastian; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Godoy, Patricio; Weng, Honglei; Meyer, Christoph; Lehmann, Thomas; Sparna, Titus; Schormann, Wiebke; Hammad, Seddik; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; von Weizsäcker, Fritz; Thürmann, Petra A; Merfort, Irmgard; Guthke, Reinhard; Dooley, Steven; Hengstler, Jan G; Gebhardt, Rolf

    2010-12-01

    The cellular basis of liver regeneration has been intensely investigated for many years. However, the mechanisms initiating hepatocyte "plasticity" and priming for proliferation are not yet fully clear. We investigated alterations in gene expression patterns during the first 72 hours of C57BL/6N mouse hepatocyte culture on collagen monolayers (CM), which display a high basal frequency of proliferation in the absence of cytokines. Although many metabolic genes were down-regulated, genes related to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and cell cycle were up-regulated. The latter genes showed an overrepresentation of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) for ETF (TEA domain family member 2), E2F1 (E2F transcription factor 1), and SP-1 (Sp1 transcription factor) (P Cultivation of murine hepatocytes on CM primes cells for proliferation through cytokine-independent activation of MAPK signaling. The transcription factors ETF, E2F1, and SP-1 seem to play a pronounced role in mediating proliferation-dependent differential gene expression. Similar events, but on a shorter time-scale, occur very early after liver damage in vivo. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Hypoxia, Hypoxia-inducible Transcription Factors, and Renal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schödel, Johannes; Grampp, Steffen; Maher, Eamonn R; Moch, Holger; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Russo, Paul; Mole, David R

    2016-04-01

    Renal cancer is a common urologic malignancy, and therapeutic options for metastatic disease are limited. Most clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) are associated with loss of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (pVHL) function and deregulation of hypoxia pathways. This review summarizes recent evidence from genetic and biological studies showing that hypoxia and hypoxia-related pathways play critical roles in the development and progress of renal cancer. We used a systematic search for articles using the keywords hypoxia, HIF, renal cancer, and VHL. Identification of the tumor suppressor pVHL has allowed the characterization of important ccRCC-associated pathways. pVHL targets α-subunits of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF) for proteasomal degradation. The two main HIF-α isoforms have opposing effects on RCC biology, possibly through distinct interactions with additional oncogenes. Furthermore, HIF-1α activity is commonly diminished by chromosomal deletion in ccRCCs, and increased HIF-1 activity reduces tumor burden in xenograft tumor models. Conversely, polymorphisms at the HIF-2α gene locus predispose to the development of ccRCCs, and HIF-2α promotes tumor growth. Genetic studies have revealed a prominent role for chromatin-modifying enzyme genes in ccRCC, and these may further modulate specific aspects of the HIF response. This suggests that, rather than global activation of HIF, specific components of the response are important in promoting kidney cancer. Some of these processes are already targets for current therapeutic strategies, and further dissection of this pathway might yield novel methods of treating RCC. In contrast to many tumor types, HIF-1α and HIF-2α have opposing effects in ccRCC biology, with HIF-1α acting as a tumor suppressor and HIF-2α acting as an oncogene. The overall effect of VHL inactivation will depend on fine-tuning of the HIF response. High levels of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF) are

  12. Transcription factor AP2 beta involved in severe female alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Niklas; Göktürk, Camilla; Comasco, Erika; Nilsson, Kent W; Oreland, Lars; Hallman, Jarmila

    2009-12-11

    Susceptibility to alcoholism and antisocial behavior exhibits an evident link to monoaminergic neurotransmission. The serotonin system in particular, which is associated with regulation of mood and behavior, has an influence on personality characters that are firmly connected to risk of developing alcoholism and antisocial behavior, such as impulsiveness, and aggression. The transcription factor TFAP2b has repeatedly been shown to be involved in monoaminergic transmission, likely due to a regulatory effect on genes that are fundamental to this system, e.g. monoamine oxidase type A, and the serotonin transporter. Recent research has identified a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding TFAP2B that regulates its level of expression. In the present study we have compared a sample of female alcoholics (n=107), sentenced to institutional care for their severe addiction, contrasted against a control sample of adolescent females (n=875). The results showed that parental alcohol misuse was significantly more common among the alcoholic females, and also that parental alcohol misuse was associated with a reduction in age of alcohol debut. We also addressed the question of whether a functional TFAP2b polymorphism was associated with alcoholism. Results showed that the high-functioning allele was significantly more common among the female alcoholics, compared to the non-alcoholic controls. Furthermore, the results also indicated that psychosocial factors, in terms of parental alcohol misuse, depression or psychiatric disorder, had an influence on the association. It was observed that the genetic association was restricted to the subset of cases that had not experienced these negative psychosocial factors.

  13. Impact of Heat Stress on Cellular and Transcriptional Adaptation of Mammary Epithelial Cells in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapila, Neha; Sharma, Ankita; Kishore, Amit; Sodhi, Monika; Tripathi, Pawan K; Mohanty, Ashok K; Mukesh, Manishi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the heat responsive genes and biological pathways in heat stressed buffalo mammary epithelial cells (MECs). The primary mammary epithelial cells of riverine buffalo were exposed to thermal stress at 42°C for one hour. The cells were subsequently allowed to recover at 37°C and harvested at different time intervals (30 min to 48 h) along with control samples (un-stressed). In order to assess the impact of heat stress in buffalo MECs, several in-vitro cellular parameters (lactate dehydrogenase activity, cell proliferation assay, cellular viability, cell death and apoptosis) and transcriptional studies were conducted. The heat stress resulted in overall decrease in cell viability and cell proliferation of MECs while induction of cellular apoptosis and necrosis. The transcriptomic profile of heat stressed MECs was generated using Agilent 44 K bovine oligonucleotide array and at cutoff criteria of ≥3-or ≤3 fold change, a total of 153 genes were observed to be upregulated while 8 genes were down regulated across all time points post heat stress. The genes that were specifically up-regulated or down-regulated were identified as heat responsive genes. The upregulated genes in heat stressed MECs belonged to heat shock family viz., HSPA6, HSPB8, DNAJB2, HSPA1A. Along with HSPs, genes like BOLA, MRPL55, PFKFB3, PSMC2, ENDODD1, ARID5A, and SENP3 were also upregulated. Microarray data revealed that the heat responsive genes belonged to different functional classes viz., chaperons; immune responsive; cell proliferation and metabolism related. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment of several biological processes like; cellular process, metabolic process, response to stimulus, biological regulation, immune system processes and signaling. The transcriptome analysis data was further validated by RT-qPCR studies. Several HSP (HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and HSPB1), apoptotic (Bax and Bcl2), immune (IL6, TNFα and NF-kβ) and oxidative

  14. Impact of Heat Stress on Cellular and Transcriptional Adaptation of Mammary Epithelial Cells in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Kapila

    Full Text Available The present study aims to identify the heat responsive genes and biological pathways in heat stressed buffalo mammary epithelial cells (MECs. The primary mammary epithelial cells of riverine buffalo were exposed to thermal stress at 42°C for one hour. The cells were subsequently allowed to recover at 37°C and harvested at different time intervals (30 min to 48 h along with control samples (un-stressed. In order to assess the impact of heat stress in buffalo MECs, several in-vitro cellular parameters (lactate dehydrogenase activity, cell proliferation assay, cellular viability, cell death and apoptosis and transcriptional studies were conducted. The heat stress resulted in overall decrease in cell viability and cell proliferation of MECs while induction of cellular apoptosis and necrosis. The transcriptomic profile of heat stressed MECs was generated using Agilent 44 K bovine oligonucleotide array and at cutoff criteria of ≥3-or ≤3 fold change, a total of 153 genes were observed to be upregulated while 8 genes were down regulated across all time points post heat stress. The genes that were specifically up-regulated or down-regulated were identified as heat responsive genes. The upregulated genes in heat stressed MECs belonged to heat shock family viz., HSPA6, HSPB8, DNAJB2, HSPA1A. Along with HSPs, genes like BOLA, MRPL55, PFKFB3, PSMC2, ENDODD1, ARID5A, and SENP3 were also upregulated. Microarray data revealed that the heat responsive genes belonged to different functional classes viz., chaperons; immune responsive; cell proliferation and metabolism related. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment of several biological processes like; cellular process, metabolic process, response to stimulus, biological regulation, immune system processes and signaling. The transcriptome analysis data was further validated by RT-qPCR studies. Several HSP (HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and HSPB1, apoptotic (Bax and Bcl2, immune (IL6, TNFα and NF-kβ and

  15. Identification and molecular cloning of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) transcript and its induction in spleen following intraperitoneal polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles Y; Rise, Matthew L

    2011-09-01

    Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) participates in cellular processes to adapt to various extra- and intra-cellular changes including the modulation of immunity to prevent uncontrolled immune responses to pathogens. In teleost fishes, the involvement of ATF3 in immune response has not been documented. In this study, the putative Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) ATF3 transcript was identified by performing rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on unknown expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that are potentially inducible by polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC, a synthetic double-stranded RNA viral mimic) in Atlantic cod. ATF3-like ESTs were the most abundant unknown transcript (i.e. lacking significant BLAST hits) generated from a previously constructed cDNA library enriched for pIC inducible transcripts in Atlantic cod spleen. The full-length cDNA of cod ATF3 consists of 2329 nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) of 735 bp encoding 244 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Atlantic cod ATF3 shares over 45% identity with its putative orthologs from other vertebrates. In addition, the presence of a conserved basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) domain in the deduced Atlantic cod ATF3-like protein further supports its identity as an ATF3 homolog. In the spleen of Atlantic cod challenged with intraperitoneal (IP) injections of pIC, the time-course transcript expression of ATF3 was studied using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). At 6 h following the pIC injection, the relative expression level of ATF3 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in comparison to a pre-injected control (61.9-fold) and its time-matched saline-injected control (97.3-fold). At 24 h following the pIC injection, the mRNA expression level of cod ATF3 had subsided and was no longer significantly different from its pre-injected control, but significantly higher (1.88-fold) than its time-matched saline-injected control. Collectively, these

  16. Transcription factor HBP1 is a direct anti-cancer target of transcription factor FOXO1 in invasive oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chien-Yi; Huang, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Roth, Mendel M; Chou, I-Tai; Lien, Chia-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Fen; Huang, Chun-Yin

    2017-02-28

    Either FOXO1 or HBP1 transcription factor is a downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt pathway and associated with tumorigenesis. However, the relationship between FOXO1 and HBP1 in oral cancer remains unclear. Analysis of 30 oral tumor specimens revealed that mean mRNA levels of both FOXO1 and HBP1 in non-invasive and invasive oral tumors were found to be significantly lower than that of the control tissues, and the status of low FOXO1 and HBP1 (oral tumors. To investigate if HBP1 is a direct transcription target of FOXO1, we searched potential FOXO1 binding sites in the HBP1 promoter using the MAPPER Search Engine, and two putative FOXO1 binding sites located in the HBP1 promoter -132 to -125 bp and -343 to -336 bp were predicted. These binding sites were then confirmed by both reporter gene assays and the in cellulo ChIP assay. In addition, Akt activity manipulated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or Akt mutants was shown to negatively affect FOXO1-mediated HBP1 promoter activation and gene expression. Last, the biological significance of the FOXO1-HBP1 axis in oral cancer malignancy was evaluated in cell growth, colony formation, and invasiveness. The results indicated that HBP1 knockdown potently promoted malignant phenotypes of oral cancer and the suppressive effect of FOXO1 on cell growth, colony formation, and invasion was alleviated upon HBP1 knockdown in invasive oral cancer cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence for HBP1 as a direct downstream target of FOXO1 in oral cancer malignancy.

  17. Regulation of cell proliferation by the E2F transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K

    1998-01-01

    demonstrated that individual members of the E2F transcription factor family are likely to have distinct roles in mammalian development and homeostasis. Additional mechanisms regulating the activity of the E2F transcription factors have been reported, including subcellular localization and proteolysis of the E2......Fs in the proteasomes. Novel target genes for the E2F transcription factors have been identified that link the E2Fs directly to the initiation of DNA replication....

  18. Hacking an Algal Transcription Factor for Lipid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiulai; Hu, Guipeng; Liu, Liming

    2018-02-03

    Transcriptional engineering is a viable means for engineering microalgae to produce lipid, but it often results in a trade-off between production and growth. A recent study shows that engineering a single transcriptional regulator enables efficient carbon partitioning to lipid biosynthesis with high biomass productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional analysis of Dof transcription factors controlling heading date and PPDK gene expression in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents a general introduction to the factors involved in crop domestication and the specific role of transcription factors in this process. Chapter 2 describes the functional analysis of a Dof-type transcription factor, named OsDof24, from rice.chapter 3 describes the role of OsDof25 in

  20. TRF2: TRansForming the view of general transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehavi, Yonathan; Kedmi, Adi; Ideses, Diana; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is pivotal for development and differentiation of organisms. Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) initiates at the core promoter. Core promoters, which encompass the transcription start site, may contain functional core promoter elements, such as the TATA box, initiator, TCT and downstream core promoter element. TRF2 (TATA-box-binding protein-related factor 2) does not bind TATA box-containing promoters. Rather, it is recruited to core promoters via sequences other than the TATA box. We review the recent findings implicating TRF2 as a basal transcription factor in the regulation of diverse biological processes and specialized transcriptional programs.

  1. Transcription Factor YY1 Modulates Lung Cancer Progression by Activating lncRNA-PVT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tonghai; Wang, Guangsuo; Yang, Lin; Peng, Bin; Wen, Yuxin; Ding, Guanggui; Wang, Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite the advancement in surgery and chemotherapy, the prognosis of patients with advanced lung cancer is still poor. Yin Yang-1 (YY1) is a multifunctional transcription factor that exhibits positive and negative control on a large number of cellular and viral genes. In this study, we showed that the expression of YY1 is upregulated in lung cancer tissues as compared to adjacent normal tissues. Patients with higher expression of YY1 had larger tumor size, poor differentiation, higher TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis. Ectopic expression of YY1 in lung cancer cells promoted cell proliferation and invasion. Inversely, siRNA-mediated silencing of YY1 inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. These results suggested that YY1 may function as an oncogene in lung cancer. Moreover, through luciferase reporter assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we showed that YY1 could directly bind to the promoter region of (long noncoding RNA-plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 [lncRNA-PVT1]) and activated its transcription through the consensus YY1 motif. Knockdown of the expression of YY1 reduced cell proliferation in vivo, consistent with the results obtained from silencing the expression of YY1 in lung cancer cells. Collectively, our study showed a critical role of YY1 in the regulation of tumorigenesis, partly through its downstream target PVT1.

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel MYB transcription factor gene in rubber tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bi; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Meng

    2014-12-01

    MYB family proteins regulate a variety of cellular processes in plants. Tapping panel dryness (TPD) in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) affects latex biosynthesis and causes serious losses to rubber producers. In this study, a novel SANT/MYB transcription factor gene down-regulated in TPD rubber tree, named as HbSM1, was isolated from rubber tree. The complete HbSM1 open reading frame (ORF) was 948 bp in length. The deduced HbSM1 protein is 315 amino acids. HbSM1 belonged to 1RMYB subfamily with a single SANT domain. Sequence alignment revealed that HbSM1 had high homology with MYB members from Ricinus communis and Manihot esculenta, with 72 and 78 % identity, respectively. Moreover, HbSM1 shared 56 % identity with Glycine max GmMYB176. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbSM1, GmMYB176, rice OsMYBS2, and OsMYBS3 fell into the same cluster with 93 % bootstrap support value. Comparing expression among different tissues demonstrated that HbSM1 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, but it appeared to be preferentially expressed in leaf and latex. Furthermore, HbSM1 transcripts were significantly induced by various phytohormones (including gibberellic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid) and wounding treatments. These results suggested that HbSM1 might play multiple roles in plant development via different phytohormones signaling pathways.

  3. Regulation of cerebral cortical neurogenesis by the Pax6 transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Martine N; Mi, Da; Mason, John O; Price, David J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding brain development remains a major challenge at the heart of understanding what makes us human. The neocortex, in evolutionary terms the newest part of the cerebral cortex, is the seat of higher cognitive functions. Its normal development requires the production, positioning, and appropriate interconnection of very large numbers of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Pax6 is one of a relatively small group of transcription factors that exert high-level control of cortical development, and whose mutation or deletion from developing embryos causes major brain defects and a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders. Pax6 is very highly conserved between primate and non-primate species, is expressed in a gradient throughout the developing cortex and is essential for normal corticogenesis. Our understanding of Pax6's functions and the cellular processes that it regulates during mammalian cortical development has significantly advanced in the last decade, owing to the combined application of genetic and biochemical analyses. Here, we review the functional importance of Pax6 in regulating cortical progenitor proliferation, neurogenesis, and formation of cortical layers and highlight important differences between rodents and primates. We also review the pathological effects of PAX6 mutations in human neurodevelopmental disorders. We discuss some aspects of Pax6's molecular actions including its own complex transcriptional regulation, the distinct molecular functions of its splice variants and some of Pax6's known direct targets which mediate its actions during cortical development.

  4. Simplified method to predict mutual interactions of human transcription factors based on their primary structure

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian

    2011-07-05

    Background: Physical interactions between transcription factors (TFs) are necessary for forming regulatory protein complexes and thus play a crucial role in gene regulation. Currently, knowledge about the mechanisms of these TF interactions is incomplete and the number of known TF interactions is limited. Computational prediction of such interactions can help identify potential new TF interactions as well as contribute to better understanding the complex machinery involved in gene regulation. Methodology: We propose here such a method for the prediction of TF interactions. The method uses only the primary sequence information of the interacting TFs, resulting in a much greater simplicity of the prediction algorithm. Through an advanced feature selection process, we determined a subset of 97 model features that constitute the optimized model in the subset we considered. The model, based on quadratic discriminant analysis, achieves a prediction accuracy of 85.39% on a blind set of interactions. This result is achieved despite the selection for the negative data set of only those TF from the same type of proteins, i.e. TFs that function in the same cellular compartment (nucleus) and in the same type of molecular process (transcription initiation). Such selection poses significant challenges for developing models with high specificity, but at the same time better reflects real-world problems. Conclusions: The performance of our predictor compares well to those of much more complex approaches for predicting TF and general protein-protein interactions, particularly when taking the reduced complexity of model utilisation into account. © 2011 Schmeier et al.

  5. Transcription factor genes essential for cell proliferation and replicative lifespan in budding yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Yuka; Tai, Akiko; Dakeyama, Shota; Yamamoto, Kaori; Inoue, Yamato; Kishimoto, Yoshifumi; Ohara, Hiroya; Mukai, Yukio, E-mail: y_mukai@nagahama-i-bio.ac.jp

    2015-07-31

    Many of the lifespan-related genes have been identified in eukaryotes ranging from the yeast to human. However, there is limited information available on the longevity genes that are essential for cell proliferation. Here, we investigated whether the essential genes encoding DNA-binding transcription factors modulated the replicative lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Heterozygous diploid knockout strains for FHL1, RAP1, REB1, and MCM1 genes showed significantly short lifespan. {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated a characteristic metabolic profile in the Δfhl1/FHL1 mutant. These results strongly suggest that FHL1 regulates the transcription of lifespan related metabolic genes. Thus, heterozygous knockout strains could be the potential materials for discovering further novel lifespan genes. - Highlights: • Involvement of yeast TF genes essential for cell growth in lifespan was evaluated. • The essential TF genes, FHL1, RAP1, REB1, and MCM1, regulate replicative lifespan. • Heterozygous deletion of FHL1 changes cellular metabolism related to lifespan.

  6. Profiling of transcription factor binding events by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Koga, Yusuke; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    In multi-cellular organisms, gene expression is orchestrated by thousands of transcription factors (TF). Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a robust tool to investigate gene expression because this technique profiles in vivo protein-DNA interaction at a genome-wide scale. Eight years after the first ChIP-seq paper, there are limited reports of ChIP-seq experiments in plants, especially for sequence-specific DNA binding TFs This lag greatly prevents our understanding of transcriptional regulation in an entire kingdom. In order to bridge the technical gap, we describe a ChIP-seq procedure that we have successfully applied to dozens of sequence-specific DNA binding TFs. The basic protocol includes procedures to isolate nuclei, sonicate chromatin, immunoprecipitate TF-DNA complex, and recover ChIP-enriched DNA fragments. The support protocol also describes practices to optimize library preparation by a gel-free DNA size selection. Lastly, examples are given to optimize library amplification using real-time PCR.

  7. Cellular origin and procoagulant activity of tissue factor-exposing microparticles in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, A.; Berckmans, R.J.; Böing, A.N.; Sturk, A.; Büller, H.R.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Nieuwland, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In patients with cancer, tissue factor-exposing microparticles (TF-exposing MP) have been associated with disease progression and thrombosis. The cellular origin and coagulant activity of TF-exposing MP, however, remain disputed. Therefore, we investigated the cellular origin of the

  8. Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a framework for predicting quantitative relationships between molecular initiatin...

  9. Synergic reprogramming of mammalian cells by combined exposure to mitotic Xenopus egg extracts and transcription factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olivier Ganier; Stéphane Bocquet; Isabelle Peiffer; Vincent Brochard; Philippe Arnaud; Aurore Puy; Alice Jouneau; Robert Feil; Jean-Paul Renard; Marcel Méchali

    2011-01-01

    Transfer of somatic cell nuclei to enucleated eggs and ectopic expression of specific transcription factors are two different reprogramming strategies used to generate pluripotent cells from differentiated cells...

  10. Transcription factors Foxa1 and Foxa2 are required for adult dopamine neurons maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii eDomanskyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proteins Foxa1 and Foxa2 belong to the forkhead family of transcription factors and are involved in the development of several tissues, including liver, pancreas, lung, prostate, and the neural system. Both Foxa1 and Foxa2 are also crucial for the specification and differentiation of dopamine (DA neurons during embryonic development, while about 30% of mice with an embryonic deletion of a single allele of the Foxa2 gene exhibit an age-related asymmetric loss of DA neurons and develop locomotor symptoms resembling Parkinson’s disease (PD. Notably, both Foxa1 and Foxa2 factors continue to be expressed in the adult dopamine system. To directly assess their functions selectively in adult DA neurons, we induced genetic deletions of Foxa1/2 transcription factors in mice using a tamoxifen inducible tissue-specific CreERT2 recombinase expressed under control of the dopamine transporter (DAT promoter (DATCreERT2. The conditional DA neurons-specific ablation of both genes, but not of Foxa2 alone, in early adulthood, caused a decline of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, along with locomotor deficits. At early pre-symptomatic stages, we observed a decline in aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A1 (Aldh1a1 protein expression in DA neurons. Further analyses revealed a decline of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC and a complete loss of DAT expression in these neurons. These molecular changes ultimately led to a reduction of DA neuron numbers in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc of aged cFoxa1/2-/- mice, resembling the progressive course of PD in humans. Altogether, in this study, we address the molecular, cellular and functional role of both Foxa1 and Foxa2 factors in the maintenance of the adult dopamine system which may help to find better approaches for PD treatment.

  11. Single molecule transcription factor dynamics in the syncytial Drosophila embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzacq, Xavier

    During early development in the Drosophila embryo, cell fates are determined over the course of just 2 hours with exquisite spatio-temoral precision. One of the key regulators of this process is the transcription factor Bicoid which forms a concentration gradient across the long axis of the embryo. Although Bicoids' primary role is activation at the anterior, where concentrations are highest, it is also known to play a role in the posterior where there are only 100s of molecules per nucleus. Understanding how Bicoid can find its target at such low concentrations has remained intractable, largely due to the inability to perform single molecule imaging in the context of the developing embryo. Here we use lattice light sheet microscopy to overcome the technical barriers of sample thickness and auto-fluorescence to characterize the single molecule dynamics of Bicoid. We find that off-rates do not vary across the embryo and that instead the on-rates are modulated through the formation of clusters that enrich local concentration. This data is contrary to the current concentration dependent model of Bicoid function since local concentration within the nucleus is now a regulated parameter and suggests a previously unknown mechanism for regulation at extremely low concentrations.

  12. WRKY transcription factors in plant responses to stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Ma, Shenghui; Ye, Nenghui; Jiang, Ming; Cao, Jiashu; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    The WRKY gene family is among the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in higher plants. By regulating the plant hormone signal transduction pathway, these TFs play critical roles in some plant processes in response to biotic and abiotic stress. Various bodies of research have demonstrated the important biological functions of WRKY TFs in plant response to different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses and working mechanisms. However, very little summarization has been done to review their research progress. Not just important TFs function in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses, WRKY also participates in carbohydrate synthesis, senescence, development, and secondary metabolites synthesis. WRKY proteins can bind to W-box (TGACC (A/T)) in the promoter of its target genes and activate or repress the expression of downstream genes to regulate their stress response. Moreover, WRKY proteins can interact with other TFs to regulate plant defensive responses. In the present review, we focus on the structural characteristics of WRKY TFs and the research progress on their functions in plant responses to a variety of stresses. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Pluripotent stem cell transcription factors during human odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Juliana Malta; da Costa-Neves, Adriana; Kerkis, Irina; da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Stem cells are capable of generating various cell lines and can be obtained from adult or embryonic tissues for clinical therapies. Stem cells from deciduous dental pulp are among those that are easily obtainable from adult tissues and have been widely studied because of their ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lines in the presence of various chemical mediators. We have analyze the expression of several proteins related to the differentiation and proliferative potential of cell populations that compose the tooth germ of human fetuses. We evaluate 20 human fetuses of both genders. After being paraffin-embedded, cap and bell stages of tooth germ development were subjected to immunohistochemistry for the following markers: Oct-4, Nanog, Stat-3 and Sox-2. The studied antibodies showed nuclear or cytoplasmic immunnostaining within various anatomical structures and with various degrees of expression, indicating the action of these proteins during tooth development. We conclude that the interrelationship between these transcription factors is complex and associated with self-renewal and cell differentiation. Our results suggest that the expression of Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2 and Stat-3 are related to differentiation in ameloblasts and odontoblasts.

  14. Bivariate Genomic Footprinting Detects Changes in Transcription Factor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songjoon Baek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In response to activating signals, transcription factors (TFs bind DNA and regulate gene expression. TF binding can be measured by protection of the bound sequence from DNase digestion (i.e., footprint. Here, we report that 80% of TF binding motifs do not show a measurable footprint, partly because of a variable cleavage pattern within the motif sequence. To more faithfully portray the effect of TFs on chromatin, we developed an algorithm that captures two TF-dependent effects on chromatin accessibility: footprinting and motif-flanking accessibility. The algorithm, termed bivariate genomic footprinting (BaGFoot, efficiently detects TF activity. BaGFoot is robust to different accessibility assays (DNase-seq, ATAC-seq, all examined peak-calling programs, and a variety of cut bias correction approaches. BaGFoot reliably predicts TF binding and provides valuable information regarding the TFs affecting chromatin accessibility in various biological systems and following various biological events, including in cases where an absolute footprint cannot be determined.

  15. Bivariate Genomic Footprinting Detects Changes in Transcription Factor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Songjoon; Goldstein, Ido; Hager, Gordon L

    2017-05-23

    In response to activating signals, transcription factors (TFs) bind DNA and regulate gene expression. TF binding can be measured by protection of the bound sequence from DNase digestion (i.e., footprint). Here, we report that 80% of TF binding motifs do not show a measurable footprint, partly because of a variable cleavage pattern within the motif sequence. To more faithfully portray the effect of TFs on chromatin, we developed an algorithm that captures two TF-dependent effects on chromatin accessibility: footprinting and motif-flanking accessibility. The algorithm, termed bivariate genomic footprinting (BaGFoot), efficiently detects TF activity. BaGFoot is robust to different accessibility assays (DNase-seq, ATAC-seq), all examined peak-calling programs, and a variety of cut bias correction approaches. BaGFoot reliably predicts TF binding and provides valuable information regarding the TFs affecting chromatin accessibility in various biological systems and following various biological events, including in cases where an absolute footprint cannot be determined. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. SoxC transcription factors in retinal development and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kun-Che; Hertz, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies result in optic nerve degeneration and the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through complex signaling pathways. Although the mechanisms that regulate RGC development remain unclear, uncovering novel developmental pathways may support new strategies to regenerate the optic nerve or replace RGCs. Here we review recent studies that provide strong evidence that the Sry-related high-mobility-group C (SoxC) subfamily of transcription factors (TFs) are necessary and sufficient for axon guidance and RGC fate specification. These findings also uncover novel SoxC-dependent mechanisms that serve as master regulators during important steps of RGC development. For example, we review work showing that SoxC TFs regulate RGC axon guidance and direction through the optic chiasm towards their appropriate targets in the brain. We also review work demonstrating that Sox11 subcellular localization is, in part, controlled through small ubiquitin-like post-translational modifier (SUMO) and suggest compensatory cross-talk between Sox4 and Sox11. Furthermore, Sox4 overexpression is shown to positively drive RGC differentiation in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Finally, we discuss how these findings may contribute to the advancement of regenerative and cell-based therapies to treat glaucoma and other optic nerve neuropathies.

  17. Reprogramming with Small Molecules instead of Exogenous Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongxiang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs could be employed in the creation of patient-specific stem cells, which could subsequently be used in various basic and clinical applications. However, current iPSC methodologies present significant hidden risks with respect to genetic mutations and abnormal expression which are a barrier in realizing the full potential of iPSCs. A chemical approach is thought to be a promising strategy for safety and efficiency of iPSC generation. Many small molecules have been identified that can be used in place of exogenous transcription factors and significantly improve iPSC reprogramming efficiency and quality. Recent studies have shown that the use of small molecules results in the generation of chemically induced pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. These studies might lead to new areas of stem cell research and medical applications, not only human iPSC by chemicals alone, but also safe generation of somatic stem cells for cell based clinical trials and other researches. In this paper, we have reviewed the recent advances in small molecule approaches for the generation of iPSCs.

  18. The Sox transcriptional factors: Functions during intestinal development in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liezhen; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2017-03-01

    The intestine has long been studied as a model for adult stem cells due to the life-long self-renewal of the intestinal epithelium through the proliferation of the adult intestinal stem cells. Recent evidence suggests that the formation of adult intestinal stem cells in mammals takes place during the thyroid hormone-dependent neonatal period, also known as postembryonic development, which resembles intestinal remodeling during frog metamorphosis. Studies on the metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis have revealed that many members of the Sox family, a large family of DNA binding transcription factors, are upregulated in the intestinal epithelium during the formation and/or proliferation of the intestinal stem cells. Similarly, a number of Sox genes have been implicated in intestinal development and pathogenesis in mammals. Futures studies are needed to determine the expression and potential involvement of this important gene family in the development of the adult intestinal stem cells. These include the analyses of the expression and regulation of these and other Sox genes during postembryonic development in mammals as well as functional investigations in both mammals and amphibians by using the recently developed gene knockout technologies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The transcription factor FOXL2 in ovarian function and dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfride De Baere

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Blepharophimosis Ptosis Epicanthus-inversus Syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by complex eyelid malformations often associated with premature ovarian failure (POF. BPES is basically an autosomal dominant disease, due to mutations in the FOXL2 gene, which encodes a forkhead transcription factor. More than one hundred mutations of FOXL2 have been described to date. In agreement with the BPES phenotype, FOXL2 is expressed (though not exclusively in the developing eyelids and in fetal and adult ovaries. Two mouse knock-out models have been produced. They recapitulate the BPES phenotype and have provided insights into the pathology. Loss-of-function mutations in FOXL2 are predicted to lead to BPES and POF, while hypomorphic mutations might lead to BPES without ovarian dysfunction. However, exceptions to the genotype-phenotype correlation have been described. To better understand the pathogenic effect of these mutations it is crucial to study the normal regulation of FOXL2 and its targets. We briefly address these aspects in this review and hope that basic research around FOXL2 will eventually lead to uncover new therapeutic avenues.

  20. Transcriptional activation of Mina by Sp1/3 factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Shangli; Potula, Hari Hara S K; Pillai, Meenu R; Van Stry, Melanie; Koyanagi, Madoka; Chung, Linda; Watanabe, Makiko; Bix, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Mina is an epigenetic gene regulatory protein known to function in multiple physiological and pathological contexts, including pulmonary inflammation, cell proliferation, cancer and immunity. We showed previously that the level of Mina gene expression is subject to natural genetic variation linked to 21 SNPs occurring in the Mina 5' region. In order to explore the mechanisms regulating Mina gene expression, we set out to molecularly characterize the Mina promoter in the region encompassing these SNPs. We used three kinds of assays--reporter, gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation--to analyze a 2 kb genomic fragment spanning the upstream and intron 1 regions flanking exon 1. Here we discovered a pair of Mina promoters (P1 and P2) and a P1-specific enhancer element (E1). Pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA knockdown experiments suggested that Sp1/3 transcription factors trigger Mina expression through additive activity targeted to a cluster of four Sp1/3 binding sites forming the P1 promoter. These results set the stage for comprehensive analysis of Mina gene regulation from the context of tissue specificity, the impact of inherited genetic variation and the nature of upstream signaling pathways.

  1. Transcription factor-based biosensors enlightened by the analyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul eFernandez-Lopez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Whole cell biosensors (WCBs have multiple applications for environmental monitoring, detecting a wide range of pollutants. WCBs depend critically on the sensitivity and specificity of the transcription factor (TF used to detect the analyte. We describe the mechanism of regulation and the structural and biochemical properties of TF families that are used, or could be used, for the development of environmental WCBs. Focusing on the chemical nature of the analyte, we review TFs that respond to aromatic compounds (XylS-AraC, XylR-NtrC and LysR, metal ions (MerR, ArsR, DtxR, Fur and NikR or antibiotics (TetR and MarR. Analyzing the structural domains involved in DNA recognition, we highlight the similitudes in the DNA binding domains (DBDs of these TF families. Opposite to DBDs, the wide range of analytes detected by TFs results in a diversity of structures at the effector binding domain (EBD. The modular architecture of TFs opens the possibility of engineering TFs with hybrid DNA and effector specificities. Yet, the lack of a crisp correlation between structural domains and specific functions makes this a challenging task.

  2. Predicting Transcription Factor Specificity with All-Atom Models

    CERN Document Server

    Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Mirny, Leonid A; Kardar, Mehran

    2008-01-01

    The binding of a transcription factor (TF) to a DNA operator site can initiate or repress the expression of a gene. Computational prediction of sites recognized by a TF has traditionally relied upon knowledge of several cognate sites, rather than an ab initio approach. Here, we examine the possibility of using structure-based energy calculations that require no knowledge of bound sites but rather start with the structure of a protein-DNA complex. We study the PurR E. coli TF, and explore to which extent atomistic models of protein-DNA complexes can be used to distinguish between cognate and non-cognate DNA sites. Particular emphasis is placed on systematic evaluation of this approach by comparing its performance with bioinformatic methods, by testing it against random decoys and sites of homologous TFs. We also examine a set of experimental mutations in both DNA and the protein. Using our explicit estimates of energy, we show that the specificity for PurR is dominated by direct protein-DNA interactions, and w...

  3. Transcription factor-based biosensors enlightened by the analyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-López, Raul; Ruiz, Raul; de la Cruz, Fernando; Moncalián, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Whole cell biosensors (WCBs) have multiple applications for environmental monitoring, detecting a wide range of pollutants. WCBs depend critically on the sensitivity and specificity of the transcription factor (TF) used to detect the analyte. We describe the mechanism of regulation and the structural and biochemical properties of TF families that are used, or could be used, for the development of environmental WCBs. Focusing on the chemical nature of the analyte, we review TFs that respond to aromatic compounds (XylS-AraC, XylR-NtrC, and LysR), metal ions (MerR, ArsR, DtxR, Fur, and NikR) or antibiotics (TetR and MarR). Analyzing the structural domains involved in DNA recognition, we highlight the similitudes in the DNA binding domains (DBDs) of these TF families. Opposite to DBDs, the wide range of analytes detected by TFs results in a diversity of structures at the effector binding domain. The modular architecture of TFs opens the possibility of engineering TFs with hybrid DNA and effector specificities. Yet, the lack of a crisp correlation between structural domains and specific functions makes this a challenging task. PMID:26191047

  4. The WRKY Transcription Factor Genes in Lotus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factor genes play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. WRKY genes have been examined in various higher plants, but they have not been characterized in Lotus japonicus. The recent release of the L. japonicus whole genome sequence provides an opportunity for a genome wide analysis of WRKY genes in this species. In this study, we identified 61 WRKY genes in the L. japonicus genome. Based on the WRKY protein structure, L. japonicus WRKY (LjWRKY genes can be classified into three groups (I–III. Investigations of gene copy number and gene clusters indicate that only one gene duplication event occurred on chromosome 4 and no clustered genes were detected on chromosomes 3 or 6. Researchers previously believed that group II and III WRKY domains were derived from the C-terminal WRKY domain of group I. Our results suggest that some WRKY genes in group II originated from the N-terminal domain of group I WRKY genes. Additional evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained by Medicago truncatula WRKY (MtWRKY protein motif analysis. We found that LjWRKY and MtWRKY group III genes are under purifying selection, suggesting that WRKY genes will become increasingly structured and functionally conserved.

  5. The WRKY Transcription Factor Genes in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Nan, Zhibiao; Wang, Xingjun

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor genes play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. WRKY genes have been examined in various higher plants, but they have not been characterized in Lotus japonicus. The recent release of the L. japonicus whole genome sequence provides an opportunity for a genome wide analysis of WRKY genes in this species. In this study, we identified 61 WRKY genes in the L. japonicus genome. Based on the WRKY protein structure, L. japonicus WRKY (LjWRKY) genes can be classified into three groups (I-III). Investigations of gene copy number and gene clusters indicate that only one gene duplication event occurred on chromosome 4 and no clustered genes were detected on chromosomes 3 or 6. Researchers previously believed that group II and III WRKY domains were derived from the C-terminal WRKY domain of group I. Our results suggest that some WRKY genes in group II originated from the N-terminal domain of group I WRKY genes. Additional evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained by Medicago truncatula WRKY (MtWRKY) protein motif analysis. We found that LjWRKY and MtWRKY group III genes are under purifying selection, suggesting that WRKY genes will become increasingly structured and functionally conserved.

  6. WRKY transcription factor genes in wild rice Oryza nivara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hengjian; Watanabe, Kenneth A; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Qingxi J

    2016-08-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant development and stress response. Although many WRKY genes have been studied in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), the WRKY genes in the wild rice species Oryza nivara, the direct progenitor of O. sativa, have not been studied. O. nivara shows abundant genetic diversity and elite drought and disease resistance features. Herein, a total of 97 O. nivara WRKY (OnWRKY) genes were identified. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that OnWRKY genes were generally expressed at higher levels in the roots of 30-day-old plants. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that most of OnWRKY genes could be induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and drought. Abundant potential MAPK phosphorylation sites in OnWRKYs suggest that activities of most OnWRKYs can be regulated by phosphorylation. Phylogenetic analyses of OnWRKYs support a novel hypothesis that ancient group IIc OnWRKYs were the original ancestors of only some group IIc and group III WRKYs. The analyses also offer strong support that group IIc OnWRKYs containing the HVE sequence in their zinc finger motifs were derived from group Ia WRKYs. This study provides a solid foundation for the study of the evolution and functions of WRKY genes in O. nivara. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  7. Computational identification of combinatorial regulation and transcription factor binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Taewoo; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Dae-Won; Lee, Doheon

    2007-08-15

    A number of computational methods have been used to unravel the core mechanisms governing the regulation of gene expression, but these techniques examine only portions of the genetic regulatory mechanism. For example, some studies have failed to include the combined action of multiple transcription factors (TFs) or the importance of TF binding constraints (i.e., the binding position and orientation), while others have examined combinations of only 2 or 3 TFs. Thus, we sought to develop a new method for identifying regulatory modules in yeast, using an algorithm that includes all combinations of TFs plus a number of binding constraints when identifying target genes. We successfully developed a computational method for using microarray and TF-DNA interaction data to identify regulatory modules. All possible combinations of yeast TFs and various binding constraints were tested to identify regulatory modules. Within the identified modules, target genes were found to have common binding constraints such as fixed binding regions and orientations for each TF. Moreover, targets showed similar mRNA expression profiles and high functional coherence. Our novel approach, which accounts for both combined actions of TFs and their binding constraints, can be used to identify target genes and reliably predict regulatory modules over a broad range of functional categories. Complete results and additional information are available online at http://bisl. kaist.ac.kr/~dhlee/comModule/index.html. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Noisy transcription factor NF-κB oscillations stabilize and sensitize cytokine signaling in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangstad, Sirin W.; Feldager, Cilie W.; Juul, Jeppe; Trusina, Ala

    2013-02-01

    NF-κB is a major transcription factor mediating inflammatory response. In response to a pro-inflammatory stimulus, it exhibits a characteristic response—a pulse followed by noisy oscillations in concentrations of considerably smaller amplitude. NF-κB is an important mediator of cellular communication, as it is both activated by and upregulates production of cytokines, signals used by white blood cells to find the source of inflammation. While the oscillatory dynamics of NF-κB has been extensively investigated both experimentally and theoretically, the role of the noise and the lower secondary amplitude has not been addressed. We use a cellular automaton model to address these issues in the context of spatially distributed communicating cells. We find that noisy secondary oscillations stabilize concentric wave patterns, thus improving signal quality. Furthermore, both lower secondary amplitude as well as noise in the oscillation period might be working against chronic inflammation, the state of self-sustained and stimulus-independent excitations. Our findings suggest that the characteristic irregular secondary oscillations of lower amplitude are not accidental. On the contrary, they might have evolved to increase robustness of the inflammatory response and the system's ability to return to a pre-stimulated state.

  9. Functional Analysis of Kinases and Transcription Factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using an Integrated Overexpression Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Youn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinases and transcription factors (TFs are key modulators of important signaling pathways and their activities underlie the proper function of many basic cellular processes such as cell division, differentiation, and development. Changes in kinase and TF dosage are often associated with disease, yet a systematic assessment of the cellular phenotypes caused by the combined perturbation of kinases and TFs has not been undertaken. We used a reverse-genetics approach to study the phenotypic consequences of kinase and TF overexpression (OE in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a collection of strains expressing stably integrated inducible alleles of kinases and TFs and used a variety of assays to characterize the phenotypes caused by TF and kinase OE. We used the Synthetic Genetic Array (SGA method to examine dosage-dependent genetic interactions (GIs between 239 gain-of-function (OE alleles of TFs and six loss-of-function (LOF and seven OE kinase alleles, the former identifying Synthetic Dosage Lethal (SDL interactions and the latter testing a GI we call Double Dosage Lethality (DDL. We identified and confirmed 94 GIs between 65 OE alleles of TFs and 9 kinase alleles. Follow-up experiments validated regulatory relationships between genetically interacting pairs (Cdc28–Stb1 and Pho85–Pdr1, suggesting that GI studies involving OE alleles of regulatory proteins will be a rich source of new functional information.

  10. Functional Analysis of Kinases and Transcription Factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using an Integrated Overexpression Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ji-Young; Friesen, Helena; Nguyen Ba, Alex N.; Liang, Wendy; Messier, Vincent; Cox, Mike J.; Moses, Alan M.; Andrews, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Kinases and transcription factors (TFs) are key modulators of important signaling pathways and their activities underlie the proper function of many basic cellular processes such as cell division, differentiation, and development. Changes in kinase and TF dosage are often associated with disease, yet a systematic assessment of the cellular phenotypes caused by the combined perturbation of kinases and TFs has not been undertaken. We used a reverse-genetics approach to study the phenotypic consequences of kinase and TF overexpression (OE) in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a collection of strains expressing stably integrated inducible alleles of kinases and TFs and used a variety of assays to characterize the phenotypes caused by TF and kinase OE. We used the Synthetic Genetic Array (SGA) method to examine dosage-dependent genetic interactions (GIs) between 239 gain-of-function (OE) alleles of TFs and six loss-of-function (LOF) and seven OE kinase alleles, the former identifying Synthetic Dosage Lethal (SDL) interactions and the latter testing a GI we call Double Dosage Lethality (DDL). We identified and confirmed 94 GIs between 65 OE alleles of TFs and 9 kinase alleles. Follow-up experiments validated regulatory relationships between genetically interacting pairs (Cdc28–Stb1 and Pho85–Pdr1), suggesting that GI studies involving OE alleles of regulatory proteins will be a rich source of new functional information. PMID:28122947

  11. bZIPDB: a database of regulatory information for human bZIP transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Taewoo; Jung, Juhyun; Lee, Sunjae; Nam, Ho Jung; Hong, Sun Woo; Yoo, Jae Wook; Lee, Dong-ki; Lee, Doheon

    2007-05-30

    Basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins are a class of transcription factors (TFs) that play diverse roles in eukaryotes. Malfunctions in these proteins lead to cancer and various other diseases. For detailed characterization of these TFs, further public resources are required. We constructed a database, designated bZIPDB, containing information on 49 human bZIP TFs, by means of automated literature collection and manual curation. bZIPDB aims to provide public data required for deciphering the gene regulatory network of the human bZIP family, e.g., evaluation or reference information for the identification of regulatory modules. The resources provided by bZIPDB include (1) protein interaction data including direct binding, phosphorylation and functional associations between bZIP TFs and other cellular proteins, along with other types of interactions, (2) bZIP TF-target gene relationships, (3) the cellular network of bZIP TFs in particular cell lines, and (4) gene information and ontology. In the current version of the database, 721 protein interactions and 560 TF-target gene relationships are recorded. bZIPDB is annually updated for the newly discovered information. bZIPDB is a repository of detailed regulatory information for human bZIP TFs that is collected and processed from the literature, designed to facilitate analysis of this protein family. bZIPDB is available for public use at http://biosoft.kaist.ac.kr/bzipdb.

  12. The role of factor inhibiting HIF (FIH-1 in inhibiting HIF-1 transcriptional activity in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enfeng Wang

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM accounts for about 38% of primary brain tumors in the United States. GBM is characterized by extensive angiogenesis induced by vascular growth factors and cytokines. The transcription of these growth factors and cytokines is regulated by the Hypoxia-Inducible-Factor-1(HIF-1, which is a key regulator mediating the cellular response to hypoxia. It is known that Factor Inhibiting HIF-1, or FIH-1, is also involved in the cellular response to hypoxia and has the capability to physically interact with HIF-1 and block its transcriptional activity under normoxic conditions. Delineation of the regulatory role of FIH-1 will help us to better understand the molecular mechanism responsible for tumor growth and progression and may lead to the design of new therapies targeting cellular pathways in response to hypoxia. Previous studies have shown that the chromosomal region of 10q24 containing the FIH-1 gene is often deleted in GBM, suggesting a role for the FIH-1 in GBM tumorigenesis and progression. In the current study, we found that FIH-1 is able to inhibit HIF-mediated transcription of GLUT1 and VEGF-A, even under hypoxic conditions in human glioblastoma cells. FIH-1 has been found to be more potent in inhibiting HIF function than PTEN. This observation points to the possibility that deletion of 10q23-24 and loss or decreased expression of FIH-1 gene may lead to a constitutive activation of HIF-1 activity, an alteration of HIF-1 targets such as GLUT-1 and VEGF-A, and may contribute to the survival of cancer cells in hypoxia and the development of hypervascularization observed in GBM. Therefore FIH-1 can be potential therapeutic target for the treatment of GBM patients with poor prognosis.

  13. Embryonic epigenetic reprogramming by a pioneer transcription factor in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zeng; Shen, Lisha; Gu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yizhong; Yu, Hao; He, Yuehui

    2017-11-02

    Epigenetic modifications, including chromatin modifications and DNA methylation, have a central role in the regulation of gene expression in plants and animals. The transmission of epigenetic marks is crucial for certain genes to retain cell lineage-specific expression patterns and maintain cell fate. However, the marks that have accumulated at regulatory loci during growth and development or in response to environmental stimuli need to be deleted in gametes or embryos, particularly in organisms such as plants that do not set aside a germ line, to ensure the proper development of offspring. In Arabidopsis thaliana, prolonged exposure to cold temperatures (winter cold), in a process known as vernalization, triggers the mitotically stable epigenetic silencing of the potent floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), and renders plants competent to flower in the spring; however, this silencing is reset during each generation. Here we show that the seed-specific transcription factor LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) promotes the initial establishment of an active chromatin state at FLC and activates its expression de novo in the pro-embryo, thus reversing the silenced state inherited from gametes. This active chromatin state is passed on from the pro-embryo to post-embryonic life, and leads to transmission of the embryonic memory of FLC activation to post-embryonic stages. Our findings reveal a mechanism for the reprogramming of embryonic chromatin states in plants, and provide insights into the epigenetic memory of embryonic active gene expression in post-embryonic phases, through which an embryonic factor acts to 'control' post-embryonic development processes that are distinct from embryogenesis in plants.

  14. Inter- and intra-combinatorial regulation by transcription factors and microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Joseph T

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a novel class of non-coding small RNAs. In mammalian cells, miRNAs repress the translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs or degrade mRNAs. miRNAs play important roles in development and differentiation, and they are also implicated in aging, and oncogenesis. Predictions of targets of miRNAs suggest that they may regulate more than one-third of all genes. The overall functions of mammalian miRNAs remain unclear. Combinatorial regulation by transcription factors alone or miRNAs alone offers a wide range of regulatory programs. However, joining transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms enables higher complexity regulatory programs that in turn could give cells evolutionary advantages. Investigating coordinated regulation of genes by miRNAs and transcription factors (TFs from a statistical standpoint is a first step that may elucidate some of their roles in various biological processes. Results Here, we studied the nature and scope of coordination among regulators from the transcriptional and miRNA regulatory layers in the human genome. Our findings are based on genome wide statistical assessment of regulatory associations ("interactions" among the sets of predicted targets of miRNAs and sets of putative targets of transcription factors. We found that combinatorial regulation by transcription factor pairs and miRNA pairs is much more abundant than the combinatorial regulation by TF-miRNA pairs. In addition, many of the strongly interacting TF-miRNA pairs involve a subset of master TF regulators that co-regulate genes in coordination with almost any miRNA. Application of standard measures for evaluating the degree of interaction between pairs of regulators show that strongly interacting TF-miRNA, TF-TF or miRNA-miRNA pairs tend to include TFs or miRNAs that regulate very large numbers of genes. To correct for this potential bias we introduced an additional Bayesian measure that incorporates

  15. RNA-guided transcriptional regulation in planta via synthetic dCas9-based transcription factors

    KAUST Repository

    Piatek, Agnieszka Anna

    2014-11-14

    Targeted genomic regulation is a powerful approach to accelerate trait discovery and development in agricultural biotechnology. Bacteria and archaea use clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) regulatory systems for adaptive molecular immunity against foreign nucleic acids introduced by invading phages and conjugative plasmids. The type II CRISPR/Cas system has been adapted for genome editing in many cell types and organisms. A recent study used the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) protein combined with guide-RNAs (gRNAs) as a DNA-targeting platform to modulate gene expression in bacterial, yeast, and human cells. Here, we modified this DNA-targeting platform for targeted transcriptional regulation in planta by developing chimeric dCas9-based transcriptional activators and repressors. To generate transcriptional activators, we fused the dCas9 C-terminus with the activation domains of EDLL and TAL effectors. To generate a transcriptional repressor, we fused the dCas9 C-terminus with the SRDX repression domain. Our data demonstrate that dCas9 fusion with the EDLL activation domain (dCas9:EDLL) and the TAL activation domain (dCas9:TAD), guided by gRNAs complementary to selected promoter elements, induce strong transcriptional activation on Bs3

  16. Transcription factor Sp1 prevents TRF2(ΔBΔM)-induced premature senescence in human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyun Ju; Lee, Hyeon Ju; Jang, Suhwa; Jung, Yu-Jin; Choi, Sun Shim; Park, Sang Chul; Han, Jeong A

    2016-03-01

    Telomere uncapping is thought to be the fundamental cause of replicative cellular senescence, but the cellular machineries mediating this process have not been fully understood. In the present study, we present the role of Sp1 transcription factor in the state of telomere uncapping using the TRF2(ΔBΔM)-induced senescence model in human diploid fibroblasts. We observed that the expression of Sp1 is down-regulated in the TRF2(ΔBΔM)-induced senescence, which was mediated by ATM and p38 MAPK. In addition, overexpression of Sp1 prevented the TRF2(ΔBΔM)-induced senescence. Among transcriptional targets of Sp1, expression levels of nuclear transport genes such as karyopherin α, Nup107, and Nup50 were down-regulated in the TRF2(ΔBΔM)-induced senescence, which was prevented by Sp1 overexpression. Moreover, inhibition of the nuclear transport by wheat germ agglutinin (an import inhibitor) and leptomycin B (an export inhibitor) induced premature senescence. These results suggest that Sp1 is an anti-senescence transcription factor in the telomere uncapping-induced senescence and that down-regulation of Sp1 leads to the senescence via down-regulation of the nuclear transport.

  17. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Meng, Goh Yong; Sheau Wei, Tan; Swee Keong, Yeap; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i) basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil) (CON), (ii) basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA), and (iii) basal diet with 5% CLA (HCLA).The content of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was between 1.69- and 2.3-fold greater (P adipocyte protein (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was downregulated by 1.08- to 2.5-fold in CLA supplemented diets, respectively. It was speculated that feeding CLA to broiler chickens reduced adipocyte size and downregulated PPARγ and aP2 that control adipocyte cellularity. Elevation of CLA isomers into their adipose tissue provides a potential CLA-rich source for human consumption.

  18. Controllability analysis of transcriptional regulatory networks reveals circular control patterns among transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österlund, Tobias; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    we analyze the topology and organization of nine transcriptional regulatory networks for E. coli, yeast, mouse and human, and we evaluate how the structure of these networks influences two of their key properties, namely controllability and stability. We calculate the controllability for each network......% for the human network. The high controllability (low number of drivers needed to control the system) in yeast, mouse and human is due to the presence of internal loops in their regulatory networks where the TFs regulate each other in a circular fashion. We refer to these internal loops as circular control...... motifs (CCM). The E. coli transcriptional regulatory network, which does not have any CCMs, shows a hierarchical structure of the transcriptional regulatory network in contrast to the eukaryal networks. The presence of CCMs also has influence on the stability of these networks, as the presence of cycles...

  19. [Functions of transcription factor TRF2 in Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytova, D V; Kopantseva, M R; Nabirochkina, E N; Vorob'eva, N E; Georgieva, S G; Krasnov, A N

    2008-03-01

    A study was made of the function of the Drosophila melanogaster TRF2 protein. Expression analysis of the trf2(P1) mutation implicated TRF2 in the D. melanogaster embryo development. High-level expression of the trf2 gene was observed in female germline cells. A high level of TRF2 was detected in primary spermatocytes and trophocytes, characterized by intense transcription. In the female gonads, TRF2 was detected in both nurse cells with intense transcription and transcriptionally inactive oocyte nuclei. In addition, TRF2 proved to be necessary for premeiotic chromatin condensation and further differentiation of germline cells.

  20. The SOX transcription factors as key players in pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelalim, Essam M; Emara, Mohamed M; Kolatkar, Prasanna R

    2014-11-15

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and induced PSCs (iPSCs) are able to self-renew and differentiate into a multitude of specialized cellular lineages. In these cells, the pluripotential identity is maintained by a group of transcription factors (TFs). Among these factors, SOX TFs play an essential role, not only in regulating pluripotency but also in mediating self-renewal and differentiation. Some SOX TFs are highly expressed in undifferentiated PSCs, while others are upregulated upon differentiation to promote specific lineage differentiation. Further roles of SOX factors in pluripotency are highlighted through their critical involvement in iPSCs generation. To perform these multiple functions and activities, SOX TFs are strongly associated with a complex regulatory network(s) that involves the binding of SOX factors to variant trans-acting partners to activate or suppress specific genes. Although, SOX2 has attracted special attention as a critical factor in maintaining PSCs characteristics and as an integral component that is required to reprogram somatic cells into pluripotency, new reports widely appreciated that other SOX TFs, such as SOX1, SOX3, or reengineered SOX7 and SOX17, can compensate for the absence of SOX2 and thus play a fundamental role during the reprogramming process and maintaining pluripotency. These findings indicate that the recent progress has greatly expanded our knowledge about the role of SOX factors in PSCs. Thus, in this review we summarize what is currently known about the roles of SOX factors in PSCs and their role in somatic cell reprogramming. Also, we intend to provide an update on their relationship with other factors in regulating the characteristics and early differentiation of PSCs.

  1. The sequence-specific transcription factor c-Jun targets Cockayne syndrome protein B to regulate transcription and chromatin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robert J; Boetefuer, Erica L; Tsai, Pei-Fang; Jeong, Jieun; Choi, Inchan; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Fan, Hua-Ying

    2014-04-01

    Cockayne syndrome is an inherited premature aging disease associated with numerous developmental and neurological defects, and mutations in the gene encoding the CSB protein account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome cases. Accumulating evidence suggests that CSB functions in transcription regulation, in addition to its roles in DNA repair, and those defects in this transcriptional activity might contribute to the clinical features of Cockayne syndrome. Transcription profiling studies have so far uncovered CSB-dependent effects on gene expression; however, the direct targets of CSB's transcriptional activity remain largely unknown. In this paper, we report the first comprehensive analysis of CSB genomic occupancy during replicative cell growth. We found that CSB occupancy sites display a high correlation to regions with epigenetic features of promoters and enhancers. Furthermore, we found that CSB occupancy is enriched at sites containing the TPA-response element. Consistent with this binding site preference, we show that CSB and the transcription factor c-Jun can be found in the same protein-DNA complex, suggesting that c-Jun can target CSB to specific genomic regions. In support of this notion, we observed decreased CSB occupancy of TPA-response elements when c-Jun levels were diminished. By modulating CSB abundance, we found that CSB can influence the expression of nearby genes and impact nucleosome positioning in the vicinity of its binding site. These results indicate that CSB can be targeted to specific genomic loci by sequence-specific transcription factors to regulate transcription and local chromatin structure. Additionally, comparison of CSB occupancy sites with the MSigDB Pathways database suggests that CSB might function in peroxisome proliferation, EGF receptor transactivation, G protein signaling and NF-κB activation, shedding new light on the possible causes and mechanisms of Cockayne syndrome.

  2. The sequence-specific transcription factor c-Jun targets Cockayne syndrome protein B to regulate transcription and chromatin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Lake

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome is an inherited premature aging disease associated with numerous developmental and neurological defects, and mutations in the gene encoding the CSB protein account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome cases. Accumulating evidence suggests that CSB functions in transcription regulation, in addition to its roles in DNA repair, and those defects in this transcriptional activity might contribute to the clinical features of Cockayne syndrome. Transcription profiling studies have so far uncovered CSB-dependent effects on gene expression; however, the direct targets of CSB's transcriptional activity remain largely unknown. In this paper, we report the first comprehensive analysis of CSB genomic occupancy during replicative cell growth. We found that CSB occupancy sites display a high correlation to regions with epigenetic features of promoters and enhancers. Furthermore, we found that CSB occupancy is enriched at sites containing the TPA-response element. Consistent with this binding site preference, we show that CSB and the transcription factor c-Jun can be found in the same protein-DNA complex, suggesting that c-Jun can target CSB to specific genomic regions. In support of this notion, we observed decreased CSB occupancy of TPA-response elements when c-Jun levels were diminished. By modulating CSB abundance, we found that CSB can influence the expression of nearby genes and impact nucleosome positioning in the vicinity of its binding site. These results indicate that CSB can be targeted to specific genomic loci by sequence-specific transcription factors to regulate transcription and local chromatin structure. Additionally, comparison of CSB occupancy sites with the MSigDB Pathways database suggests that CSB might function in peroxisome proliferation, EGF receptor transactivation, G protein signaling and NF-κB activation, shedding new light on the possible causes and mechanisms of Cockayne syndrome.

  3. Comprehensive human transcription factor binding site map for combinatory binding motifs discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo J Müller-Molina

    Full Text Available To know the map between transcription factors (TFs and their binding sites is essential to reverse engineer the regulation process. Only about 10%-20% of the transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs have been reported. This lack of data hinders understanding gene regulation. To address this drawback, we propose a computational method that exploits never used TF properties to discover the missing TFBMs and their sites in all human gene promoters. The method starts by predicting a dictionary of regulatory "DNA words." From this dictionary, it distills 4098 novel predictions. To disclose the crosstalk between motifs, an additional algorithm extracts TF combinatorial binding patterns creating a collection of TF regulatory syntactic rules. Using these rules, we narrowed down a list of 504 novel motifs that appear frequently in syntax patterns. We tested the predictions against 509 known motifs confirming that our system can reliably predict ab initio motifs with an accuracy of 81%-far higher than previous approaches. We found that on average, 90% of the discovered combinatorial binding patterns target at least 10 genes, suggesting that to control in an independent manner smaller gene sets, supplementary regulatory mechanisms are required. Additionally, we discovered that the new TFBMs and their combinatorial patterns convey biological meaning, targeting TFs and genes related to developmental functions. Thus, among all the possible available targets in the genome, the TFs tend to regulate other TFs and genes involved in developmental functions. We provide a comprehensive resource for regulation analysis that includes a dictionary of "DNA words," newly predicted motifs and their corresponding combinatorial patterns. Combinatorial patterns are a useful filter to discover TFBMs that play a major role in orchestrating other factors and thus, are likely to lock/unlock cellular functional clusters.

  4. Contributions of in vitro transcription to the understanding of human RNA polymerase III transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Durrieu-Gaillard, Stéphanie; El Ayoubi, Leyla; Parrot, Camila; Teichmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human RNA polymerase III transcribes small untranslated RNAs that contribute to the regulation of essential cellular processes, including transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of this transcription system by in vitro transcription techniques has largely contributed to the discovery of its transcription factors and to the understanding of the regulation of human RNA polymerase III transcription. Here we review some of the key steps that led to the identification of transcript...

  5. MicroRNA-27a regulates basal transcription by targeting the p44 subunit of general transcription factor IIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Maximiliano M

    2011-05-24

    General transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) is a complex RNA polymerase II basal transcription factor comprising 10 different polypeptides that display activities involved in transcription and DNA repair processes. Although biochemical studies have uncovered TFIIH importance, little is known about how the mRNAs that code for TFIIH subunits are regulated. Here it is shown that mRNAs encoding seven of the TFIIH subunits (p34, p44, p52, p62, XPB, CDK7, and p8) are regulated at the posttranscriptional level in a Dicer-dependent manner. Indeed, abolition of the miRNA pathway induces abnormal accumulation, stabilization, and translational activation of these seven mRNAs. Herein, miR-27a was identified as a key regulator of p44 mRNA. Moreover, miR-27a was shown to destabilize the p44 subunit of the TFIIH complex during the G2-M phase, thereby modulating the transcriptional shutdown observed during this transition. This work is unique in providing a demonstration of global transcriptional regulation through the action of a single miRNA.

  6. Suppressed expression of T-box transcription factors is involved in senescence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K Acquaah-Mensah

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major global health problem. The etiology of COPD has been associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. However, understanding of the molecular interactions that modulate COPD pathogenesis remains only partly resolved. We conducted an exploratory study on COPD etiology to identify the key molecular participants. We used information-theoretic algorithms including Context Likelihood of Relatedness (CLR, Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNE, and Inferelator. We captured direct functional associations among genes, given a compendium of gene expression profiles of human lung epithelial cells. A set of genes differentially expressed in COPD, as reported in a previous study were superposed with the resulting transcriptional regulatory networks. After factoring in the properties of the networks, an established COPD susceptibility locus and domain-domain interactions involving protein products of genes in the generated networks, several molecular candidates were predicted to be involved in the etiology of COPD. These include COL4A3, CFLAR, GULP1, PDCD1, CASP10, PAX3, BOK, HSPD1, PITX2, and PML. Furthermore, T-box (TBX genes and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A, which are in a direct transcriptional regulatory relationship, emerged as preeminent participants in the etiology of COPD by means of senescence. Contrary to observations in neoplasms, our study reveals that the expression of genes and proteins in the lung samples from patients with COPD indicate an increased tendency towards cellular senescence. The expression of the anti-senescence mediators TBX transcription factors, chromatin modifiers histone deacetylases, and sirtuins was suppressed; while the expression of TBX-regulated cellular senescence markers such as CDKN2A, CDKN1A, and CAV1 was elevated in the peripheral lung tissue samples from patients with COPD. The critical balance

  7. Suppressed Expression of T-Box Transcription Factors is Involved in Senescence in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acquaah-Mensah, George; Malhotra, Deepti; Vulimiri, Madhulika; McDermott, Jason E.; Biswal, Shyam

    2012-06-19

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem. The etiology of COPD has been associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. However, understanding of the molecular interactions that modulate COPD pathogenesis remains only partly resolved. We conducted an exploratory study on COPD etiology to identify the key molecular participants. We used information-theoretic algorithms including Context Likelihood of Relatedness (CLR), Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNE), and Inferelator. We captured direct functional associations among genes, given a compendium of gene expression profiles of human lung epithelial cells. A set of genes differentially expressed in COPD, as reported in a previous study were superposed with the resulting transcriptional regulatory networks. After factoring in the properties of the networks, an established COPD susceptibility locus and domain-domain interactions involving protein products of genes in the generated networks, several molecular candidates were predicted to be involved in the etiology of COPD. These include COL4A3, CFLAR, GULP1, PDCD1, CASP10, PAX3, BOK, HSPD1, PITX2, and PML. Furthermore, T-box (TBX) genes and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which are in a direct transcriptional regulatory relationship, emerged as preeminent participants in the etiology of COPD by means of senescence. Contrary to observations in neoplasms, our study reveals that the expression of genes and proteins in the lung samples from patients with COPD indicate an increased tendency towards cellular senescence. The expression of the anti-senescence mediators TBX transcription factors, chromatin modifiers histone deacetylases, and sirtuins was suppressed; while the expression of TBX-regulated cellular senescence markers such as CDKN2A, CDKN1A, and CAV1 was elevated in the peripheral lung tissue samples from patients with COPD. The critical balance between senescence

  8. WRKY transcription factors: key components in abscisic acid signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Deena L; Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Lin, Jun; Ringler, Patricia; Boken, Ashley K; Langum, Tanner J; Smidt, Lucas; Boomsma, Darius D; Emme, Nicholas J; Chen, Xianfeng; Finer, John J; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of many plant processes, including the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, senescence, seed dormancy and seed germination. For over 15 years, limited evidence has been available suggesting that WRKY TFs may play roles in regulating plant responses to the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), notably some WRKY TFs are ABA-inducible repressors of seed germination. However, the roles of WRKY TFs in other aspects of ABA signalling, and the mechanisms involved, have remained unclear. Recent significant progress in ABA research has now placed specific WRKY TFs firmly in ABA-responsive signalling pathways, where they act at multiple levels. In Arabidopsis, WRKY TFs appear to act downstream of at least two ABA receptors: the cytoplasmic PYR/PYL/RCAR-protein phosphatase 2C-ABA complex and the chloroplast envelope-located ABAR-ABA complex. In vivo and in vitro promoter-binding studies show that the target genes for WRKY TFs that are involved in ABA signalling include well-known ABA-responsive genes such as ABF2, ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, DREB1a, DREB2a and RAB18. Additional well-characterized stress-inducible genes such as RD29A and COR47 are also found in signalling pathways downstream of WRKY TFs. These new insights also reveal that some WRKY TFs are positive regulators of ABA-mediated stomatal closure and hence drought responses. Conversely, many WRKY TFs are negative regulators of seed germination, and controlling seed germination appears a common function of a subset of WRKY TFs in flowering plants. Taken together, these new data demonstrate that WRKY TFs are key nodes in ABA-responsive signalling networks. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Biophysical fitness landscapes for transcription factor binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Haldane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic states and evolutionary trajectories available to cell populations are ultimately dictated by complex interactions among DNA, RNA, proteins, and other molecular species. Here we study how evolution of gene regulation in a single-cell eukaryote S. cerevisiae is affected by interactions between transcription factors (TFs and their cognate DNA sites. Our study is informed by a comprehensive collection of genomic binding sites and high-throughput in vitro measurements of TF-DNA binding interactions. Using an evolutionary model for monomorphic populations evolving on a fitness landscape, we infer fitness as a function of TF-DNA binding to show that the shape of the inferred fitness functions is in broad agreement with a simple functional form inspired by a thermodynamic model of two-state TF-DNA binding. However, the effective parameters of the model are not always consistent with physical values, indicating selection pressures beyond the biophysical constraints imposed by TF-DNA interactions. We find little statistical support for the fitness landscape in which each position in the binding site evolves independently, indicating that epistasis is common in the evolution of gene regulation. Finally, by correlating TF-DNA binding energies with biological properties of the sites or the genes they regulate, we are able to rule out several scenarios of site-specific selection, under which binding sites of the same TF would experience different selection pressures depending on their position in the genome. These findings support the existence of universal fitness landscapes which shape evolution of all sites for a given TF, and whose properties are determined in part by the physics of protein-DNA interactions.

  10. Biophysical fitness landscapes for transcription factor binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, Allan; Manhart, Michael; Morozov, Alexandre V

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic states and evolutionary trajectories available to cell populations are ultimately dictated by complex interactions among DNA, RNA, proteins, and other molecular species. Here we study how evolution of gene regulation in a single-cell eukaryote S. cerevisiae is affected by interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their cognate DNA sites. Our study is informed by a comprehensive collection of genomic binding sites and high-throughput in vitro measurements of TF-DNA binding interactions. Using an evolutionary model for monomorphic populations evolving on a fitness landscape, we infer fitness as a function of TF-DNA binding to show that the shape of the inferred fitness functions is in broad agreement with a simple functional form inspired by a thermodynamic model of two-state TF-DNA binding. However, the effective parameters of the model are not always consistent with physical values, indicating selection pressures beyond the biophysical constraints imposed by TF-DNA interactions. We find little statistical support for the fitness landscape in which each position in the binding site evolves independently, indicating that epistasis is common in the evolution of gene regulation. Finally, by correlating TF-DNA binding energies with biological properties of the sites or the genes they regulate, we are able to rule out several scenarios of site-specific selection, under which binding sites of the same TF would experience different selection pressures depending on their position in the genome. These findings support the existence of universal fitness landscapes which shape evolution of all sites for a given TF, and whose properties are determined in part by the physics of protein-DNA interactions.

  11. LASAGNA: a novel algorithm for transcription factor binding site alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2013-03-24

    Scientists routinely scan DNA sequences for transcription factor (TF) binding sites (TFBSs). Most of the available tools rely on position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) constructed from aligned binding sites. Because of the resolutions of assays used to obtain TFBSs, databases such as TRANSFAC, ORegAnno and PAZAR store unaligned variable-length DNA segments containing binding sites of a TF. These DNA segments need to be aligned to build a PSSM. While the TRANSFAC database provides scoring matrices for TFs, nearly 78% of the TFs in the public release do not have matrices available. As work on TFBS alignment algorithms has been limited, it is highly desirable to have an alignment algorithm tailored to TFBSs. We designed a novel algorithm named LASAGNA, which is aware of the lengths of input TFBSs and utilizes position dependence. Results on 189 TFs of 5 species in the TRANSFAC database showed that our method significantly outperformed ClustalW2 and MEME. We further compared a PSSM method dependent on LASAGNA to an alignment-free TFBS search method. Results on 89 TFs whose binding sites can be located in genomes showed that our method is significantly more precise at fixed recall rates. Finally, we described LASAGNA-ChIP, a more sophisticated version for ChIP (Chromatin immunoprecipitation) experiments. Under the one-per-sequence model, it showed comparable performance with MEME in discovering motifs in ChIP-seq peak sequences. We conclude that the LASAGNA algorithm is simple and effective in aligning variable-length binding sites. It has been integrated into a user-friendly webtool for TFBS search and visualization called LASAGNA-Search. The tool currently stores precomputed PSSM models for 189 TFs and 133 TFs built from TFBSs in the TRANSFAC Public database (release 7.0) and the ORegAnno database (08Nov10 dump), respectively. The webtool is available at http://biogrid.engr.uconn.edu/lasagna_search/.

  12. Characterization of the Far Transcription Factor Family in Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyu Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism of fatty acids is a critical requirement for the pathogenesis of oil seed pathogens including the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Previous studies have correlated decreased ability to grow on fatty acids with reduced virulence of this fungus on host seed. Two fatty acid metabolism regulatory transcription factors, FarA and FarB, have been described in other filamentous fungi. Unexpectedly, we find A. flavus possesses three Far homologs, FarA, FarB, and FarC, with FarA and FarC showing a greater protein similarity to each other than FarB. farA and farB are located in regions of colinearity in all Aspergillus spp. sequenced to date, whereas farC is limited to a subset of species where it is inserted in an otherwise colinear region in Aspergillus genomes. Deletion and overexpression (OE of farA and farB, but not farC, yielded mutants with aberrant growth patterns on specific fatty acids as well as altered expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Marked differences included significant growth defects of both ∆farA and ∆farB on medium-chain fatty acids and decreased growth of OE::farA on unsaturated fatty acids. Loss of farA diminished expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation genes whereas OE::farA inhibited expression of genes involved in unsaturated fatty acid catabolism. FarA also positively regulated the desaturase genes required to generate polyunsaturated fatty acids. Aflatoxin production on toxin-inducing media was significantly decreased in the ∆farB mutant and increased in the OE::farB mutant, with gene expression data supporting a role for FarB in tying β-oxidation processes with aflatoxin accumulation.

  13. Characterization of the Far Transcription Factor Family in Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xingyu; Affeldt, Katharyn J; Keller, Nancy P

    2016-10-13

    Metabolism of fatty acids is a critical requirement for the pathogenesis of oil seed pathogens including the fungus Aspergillus flavus Previous studies have correlated decreased ability to grow on fatty acids with reduced virulence of this fungus on host seed. Two fatty acid metabolism regulatory transcription factors, FarA and FarB, have been described in other filamentous fungi. Unexpectedly, we find A. flavus possesses three Far homologs, FarA, FarB, and FarC, with FarA and FarC showing a greater protein similarity to each other than FarB. farA and farB are located in regions of colinearity in all Aspergillus spp. sequenced to date, whereas farC is limited to a subset of species where it is inserted in an otherwise colinear region in Aspergillus genomes. Deletion and overexpression (OE) of farA and farB, but not farC, yielded mutants with aberrant growth patterns on specific fatty acids as well as altered expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Marked differences included significant growth defects of both ∆farA and ∆farB on medium-chain fatty acids and decreased growth of OE::farA on unsaturated fatty acids. Loss of farA diminished expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation genes whereas OE::farA inhibited expression of genes involved in unsaturated fatty acid catabolism. FarA also positively regulated the desaturase genes required to generate polyunsaturated fatty acids. Aflatoxin production on toxin-inducing media was significantly decreased in the ∆farB mutant and increased in the OE::farB mutant, with gene expression data supporting a role for FarB in tying β-oxidation processes with aflatoxin accumulation. Copyright © 2016 Luo et al.

  14. The WRKY transcription factor family and senescence in switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinerson, Charles I; Scully, Erin D; Palmer, Nathan A; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Rabara, Roel C; Tripathi, Prateek; Shen, Qingxi J; Sattler, Scott E; Rohila, Jai S; Sarath, Gautam; Rushton, Paul J

    2015-11-09

    Early aerial senescence in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can significantly limit biomass yields. WRKY transcription factors that can regulate senescence could be used to reprogram senescence and enhance biomass yields. All potential WRKY genes present in the version 1.0 of the switchgrass genome were identified and curated using manual and bioinformatic methods. Expression profiles of WRKY genes in switchgrass flag leaf RNA-Seq datasets were analyzed using clustering and network analyses tools to identify both WRKY and WRKY-associated gene co-expression networks during leaf development and senescence onset. We identified 240 switchgrass WRKY genes including members of the RW5 and RW6 families of resistance proteins. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis of the flag leaf transcriptomes across development readily separated clusters of co-expressed genes into thirteen modules. A visualization highlighted separation of modules associated with the early and senescence-onset phases of flag leaf growth. The senescence-associated module contained 3000 genes including 23 WRKYs. Putative promoter regions of senescence-associated WRKY genes contained several cis-element-like sequences suggestive of responsiveness to both senescence and stress signaling pathways. A phylogenetic comparison of senescence-associated WRKY genes from switchgrass flag leaf with senescence-associated WRKY genes from other plants revealed notable hotspots in Group I, IIb, and IIe of the phylogenetic tree. We have identified and named 240 WRKY genes in the switchgrass genome. Twenty three of these genes show elevated mRNA levels during the onset of flag leaf senescence. Eleven of the WRKY genes were found in hotspots of related senescence-associated genes from multiple species and thus represent promising targets for future switchgrass genetic improvement. Overall, individual WRKY gene expression profiles could be readily linked to developmental stages of flag leaves.

  15. Quantitative modeling of transcription factor binding specificities using DNA shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianyin; Shen, Ning; Yang, Lin; Abe, Namiko; Horton, John; Mann, Richard S; Bussemaker, Harmen J; Gordân, Raluca; Rohs, Remo

    2015-04-14

    DNA binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs) are a key component of gene regulatory processes. Underlying mechanisms that explain the highly specific binding of TFs to their genomic target sites are poorly understood. A better understanding of TF-DNA binding requires the ability to quantitatively model TF binding to accessible DNA as its basic step, before additional in vivo components can be considered. Traditionally, these models were built based on nucleotide sequence. Here, we integrated 3D DNA shape information derived with a high-throughput approach into the modeling of TF binding specificities. Using support vector regression, we trained quantitative models of TF binding specificity based on protein binding microarray (PBM) data for 68 mammalian TFs. The evaluation of our models included cross-validation on specific PBM array designs, testing across different PBM array designs, and using PBM-trained models to predict relative binding affinities derived from in vitro selection combined with deep sequencing (SELEX-seq). Our results showed that shape-augmented models compared favorably to sequence-based models. Although both k-mer and DNA shape features can encode interdependencies between nucleotide positions of the binding site, using DNA shape features reduced the dimensionality of the feature space. In addition, analyzing the feature weights of DNA shape-augmented models uncovered TF family-specific structural readout mechanisms that were not revealed by the DNA sequence. As such, this work combines knowledge from structural biology and genomics, and suggests a new path toward understanding TF binding and genome function.

  16. Transcription factor KLF7 regulates differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cell lineages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiazzo, Massimiliano, E-mail: caiazzo@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy); Istituto di diagnosi e cura ' Hermitage Capodimonte,' 80131 Naples (Italy); Colucci-D' Amato, Luca, E-mail: luca.colucci@unina2.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Esposito, Maria T., E-mail: maria_teresa.esposito@kcl.ac.uk [CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, 80145 Naples (Italy); Parisi, Silvia, E-mail: parisi@ceinge.unina.it [CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, 80145 Naples (Italy); Stifani, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.stifani@mcgill.ca [Centre for Neuronal Survival, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4 (Canada); Ramirez, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.ramirez@mssm.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Porzio, Umberto di, E-mail: diporzio@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ' A. Buzzati-Traverso,' CNR, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Previous gene targeting studies in mice have implicated the nuclear protein Krueppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) in nervous system development while cell culture assays have documented its involvement in cell cycle regulation. By employing short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene silencing, here we demonstrate that murine Klf7 gene expression is required for in vitro differentiation of neuroectodermal and mesodermal cells. Specifically, we show a correlation of Klf7 silencing with down-regulation of the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2) and the nerve growth factor (NGF) tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA) using the PC12 neuronal cell line. Similarly, KLF7 inactivation in Klf7-null mice decreases the expression of the neurogenic marker brain lipid-binding protein/fatty acid-binding protein 7 (BLBP/FABP7) in neural stem cells (NSCs). We also report that Klf7 silencing is detrimental to neuronal and cardiomyocytic differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in addition to altering the adipogenic and osteogenic potential of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Finally, our results suggest that genes that are key for self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs repress Klf7 expression in ESCs. Together with previous findings, these results provide evidence that KLF7 has a broad spectrum of regulatory functions, which reflect the discrete cellular and molecular contexts in which this transcription factor operates.

  17. The Transcriptional Cascade in the Heat Stress Response of Arabidopsis Is Strictly Regulated at the Level of Transcription Factor Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohama, Naohiko; Kusakabe, Kazuya; Mizoi, Junya; Zhao, Huimei; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Koizumi, Shinya; Takahashi, Fuminori; Ishida, Tetsuya; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    Group A1 heat shock transcription factors (HsfA1s) are the master regulators of the heat stress response (HSR) in plants. Upon heat shock, HsfA1s trigger a transcriptional cascade that is composed of many transcription factors. Despite the importance of HsfA1s and their downstream transcriptional cascade in the acquisition of thermotolerance in plants, the molecular basis of their activation remains poorly understood. Here, domain analysis of HsfA1d, one of several HsfA1s in Arabidopsis thaliana, demonstrated that the central region of HsfA1d is a key regulatory domain that represses HsfA1d transactivation activity through interaction with HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN70 (HSP70) and HSP90. We designated this region as the temperature-dependent repression (TDR) domain. We found that HSP70 dissociates from HsfA1d in response to heat shock and that the dissociation is likely regulated by an as yet unknown activation mechanism, such as HsfA1d phosphorylation. Overexpression of constitutively active HsfA1d that lacked the TDR domain induced expression of heat shock proteins in the absence of heat stress, thereby conferring potent thermotolerance on the overexpressors. However, transcriptome analysis of the overexpressors demonstrated that the constitutively active HsfA1d could not trigger the complete transcriptional cascade under normal conditions, thereby indicating that other factors are necessary to fully induce the HSR. These complex regulatory mechanisms related to the transcriptional cascade may enable plants to respond resiliently to various heat stress conditions. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. The splicing factor proline-glutamine rich (SFPQ/PSF is involved in influenza virus transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Landeras-Bueno

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The influenza A virus RNA polymerase is a heterotrimeric complex responsible for viral genome transcription and replication in the nucleus of infected cells. We recently carried out a proteomic analysis of purified polymerase expressed in human cells and identified a number of polymerase-associated cellular proteins. Here we characterise the role of one such host factors, SFPQ/PSF, during virus infection. Down-regulation of SFPQ/PSF by silencing with two independent siRNAs reduced the virus yield by 2-5 log in low-multiplicity infections, while the replication of unrelated viruses as VSV or Adenovirus was almost unaffected. As the SFPQ/PSF protein is frequently associated to NonO/p54, we tested the potential implication of the latter in influenza virus replication. However, down-regulation of NonO/p54 by silencing with two independent siRNAs did not affect virus yields. Down-regulation of SFPQ/PSF by siRNA silencing led to a reduction and delay of influenza virus gene expression. Immunofluorescence analyses showed a good correlation between SFPQ/PSF and NP levels in infected cells. Analysis of virus RNA accumulation in silenced cells showed that production of mRNA, cRNA and vRNA is reduced by more than 5-fold but splicing is not affected. Likewise, the accumulation of viral mRNA in cicloheximide-treated cells was reduced by 3-fold. In contrast, down-regulation of SFPQ/PSF in a recombinant virus replicon system indicated that, while the accumulation of viral mRNA is reduced by 5-fold, vRNA levels are slightly increased. In vitro transcription of recombinant RNPs generated in SFPQ/PSF-silenced cells indicated a 4-5-fold reduction in polyadenylation but no alteration in cap snatching. These results indicate that SFPQ/PSF is a host factor essential for influenza virus transcription that increases the efficiency of viral mRNA polyadenylation and open the possibility to develop new antivirals targeting the accumulation of primary transcripts, a very

  19. Extensive chromatin remodelling and establishment of transcription factor 'hotspots' during early adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Ronni; John, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Adipogenesis is tightly controlled by a complex network of transcription factors acting at different stages of differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family members are key regulators of this process. We have employed DNase I...... hypersensitive site analysis to investigate the genome-wide changes in chromatin structure that accompany the binding of adipogenic transcription factors. These analyses revealed a dramatic and dynamic modulation of the chromatin landscape during the first hours of adipocyte differentiation that coincides...... with cooperative binding of multiple early transcription factors (including glucocorticoid receptor, retinoid X receptor, Stat5a, C/EBPβ and -δ) to transcription factor 'hotspots'. Our results demonstrate that C/EBPβ marks a large number of these transcription factor 'hotspots' before induction of differentiation...

  20. Molecular mechanisms of Sox transcription factors during the development of liver, bile duct, and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chunyue

    2017-03-01

    The liver and pancreas are the prime digestive and metabolic organs in the body. After emerging from the neighboring domains of the foregut endoderm, they turn on distinct differentiation and morphogenesis programs that are regulated by hierarchies of transcription factors. Members of SOX family of transcription factors are expressed in the liver and pancreas throughout development and act upstream of other organ-specific transcription factors. They play key roles in maintaining stem cells and progenitors. They are also master regulators of cell fate determination and tissue morphogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of SOX transcription factors in mediating liver and pancreas development. We discuss their contribution to adult organ function, homeostasis and injury responses. We also speculate how the knowledge of SOX transcription factors can be applied to improve therapies for liver diseases and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcription factor binding site enrichment analysis predicts drivers of altered gene expression in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lake, A.D.; Chaput, A.L.; Novák, Petr; Cherrington, N.J.; Smith, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, December 15 (2016), s. 62-71 ISSN 0006-2952 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Transcription factor * Liver * Gene expression * Bioinformatics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.581, year: 2016

  2. Functional characterization of the copper transcription factor AfMac1 from Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Sung; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Yun, Cheol-Won

    2017-07-03

    Although copper functions as a cofactor in many physiological processes, copper overload leads to harmful effects in living cells. Thus, copper homeostasis is tightly regulated. However, detailed copper metabolic pathways have not yet been identified in filamentous fungi. In this report, we investigated the copper transcription factor AfMac1 ( Aspergillus fumigatusMac1 homolog) and identified its regulatory mechanism in A. fumigatus AfMac1 has domains homologous to the DNA-binding and copper-binding domains of Mac1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and AfMac1 efficiently complemented Mac1 in S. cerevisiae Expression of Afmac1 resulted in CTR1 up-regulation, and mutation of the DNA-binding domain of Afmac1 failed to activate CTR1 expression in S. cerevisiae The Afmac1 deletion strain of A. fumigatus failed to grow in copper-limited media, and its growth was restored by introducing ctrC We found that AfMac1 specifically bound to the promoter region of ctrC based on EMSA. The AfMac1-binding motif 5'-TGTGCTCA-3' was identified from the promoter region of ctrC, and the addition of mutant ctrC lacking the AfMac1-binding motif failed to up-regulate ctrC in A. fumigatus Furthermore, deletion of Afmac1 significantly reduced strain virulence and activated conidial killing activity by neutrophils and macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that AfMac1 is a copper transcription factor that regulates cellular copper homeostasis in A. fumigatus. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. Protein-protein interactions in the regulation of WRKY transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yingjun; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Jie; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2013-03-01

    It has been almost 20 years since the first report of a WRKY transcription factor, SPF1, from sweet potato. Great progress has been made since then in establishing the diverse biological roles of WRKY transcription factors in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Despite the functional diversity, almost all analyzed WRKY proteins recognize the TTGACC/T W-box sequences and, therefore, mechanisms other than mere recognition of the core W-box promoter elements are necessary to achieve the regulatory specificity of WRKY transcription factors. Research over the past several years has revealed that WRKY transcription factors physically interact with a wide range of proteins with roles in signaling, transcription, and chromatin remodeling. Studies of WRKY-interacting proteins have provided important insights into the regulation and mode of action of members of the important family of transcription factors. It has also emerged that the slightly varied WRKY domains and other protein motifs conserved within each of the seven WRKY subfamilies participate in protein-protein interactions and mediate complex functional interactions between WRKY proteins and between WRKY and other regulatory proteins in the modulation of important biological processes. In this review, we summarize studies of protein-protein interactions for WRKY transcription factors and discuss how the interacting partners contribute, at different levels, to the establishment of the complex regulatory and functional network of WRKY transcription factors.

  4. Lutein Activates the Transcription Factor Nrf2 in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frede, Katja; Ebert, Franziska; Kipp, Anna P; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Baldermann, Susanne

    2017-07-26

    The degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium caused by oxidative damage is a stage of development in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The carotenoid lutein is a major macular pigment that may reduce the incidence and progression of AMD, but the underlying mechanism is currently not fully understood. Carotenoids are known to be direct antioxidants. However, carotenoids can also activate cellular pathways resulting in indirect antioxidant effects. Here, we investigate the influence of lutein on the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) target genes in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells) using lutein-loaded Tween40 micelles. The micelles were identified as a suitable delivery system since they were nontoxic in APRE-19 cells up to 0.04% Tween40 and led to a cellular lutein accumulation of 62 μM ± 14 μM after 24 h. Lutein significantly enhanced Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus 1.5 ± 0.4-fold compared to that of unloaded micelles after 4 h. Furthermore, lutein treatment for 24 h significantly increased the transcripts of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by 1.7 ± 0.1-fold, glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit (GCLm) by 1.4 ± 0.1-fold, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by 1.8 ± 0.3-fold. Moreover, we observed a significant enhancement of NQO1 activity by 1.2 ± 0.1-fold. Collectively, this study indicates that lutein not only serves as a direct antioxidant but also activates Nrf2 in ARPE-19 cells.

  5. Role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducters and activators of transcription (STAT) cascade in advanced glycation end-product-induced cellular mitogenesis in NRK-49F cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J S; Guh, J Y; Hung, W C; Yang, M L; Lai, Y H; Chen, H C; Chuang, L Y

    1999-01-01

    Advanced glycation end product (AGE) is important in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, which is characterized by cellular hypertrophy/hyperplasia leading to renal fibrosis. However, the signal transduction pathways of AGE remain poorly understood. The Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway has been associated with cellular proliferation in some extra-renal cells. Because interstitial fibroblast proliferation might be important in renal fibrosis, we studied the role of the JAK/STAT pathway in NRK-49F (normal rat kidney fibroblast) cells cultured in AGE/BSA and non-glycated BSA. We showed that AGE dose-dependently (10-200 microgram/ml) increased cellular mitogenesis in NRK-49F cells at 5 and 7 days. However, cellular mitogenesis was unaffected by the simultaneous presence of BSA. Regarding the JAK/STAT pathway, AGE (100 microgram/ml) induced tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 (but not JAK1, JAK3 or TYK2) at 15-60 min; it also induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 at 1-2 h and 0.5-4 h respectively. Being a transcription factor, AGE also increased the DNA-binding activities of STAT1 and STAT3 AG-490 (a specific JAK2 inhibitor) (5 microM) inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 and the DNA-binding activities of STAT1 and STAT3. The same results were obtained by using specific 'decoy' oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) that prevented STAT1 and STAT3 from binding to DNA. Meanwhile, the STAT1 or STAT3 decoy ODN and AG-490 were effective in reversing AGE-induced cellular mitogenesis. We concluded that the JAK2-STAT1/STAT3 signal transduction pathway is necessary for AGE-induced cellular mitogenesis in NRK-49F cells. PMID:10432321

  6. The transcription factor DREAM represses A20 and mediates inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Soni, Dheeraj; Wang, Dong-mei; Xue, Jiaping; Singh, Vandana; Thippegowda, Prabhakar B.; Cheppudira, Bopaiah P.; Mishra, Rakesh K.; DebRoy, Auditi; Qian, Zhijian; Bachmaier, Kurt; Zhao, Youyang; Christman, John W.; Vogel, Stephen M.; Ma, Averil

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that the transcription-repressor DREAM binds to the A20 promoter to repress the expression of A20, the deubiquitinase suppressing inflammatory NF-κB signaling. DREAM-deficient (Dream−/− ) mice displayed persistent and unchecked A20 expression in response to endotoxin. DREAM functioned by transcriptionally repressing A20 through binding to downstream regulatory elements (DREs). In contrast, USF1 binding to the DRE-associated E-box domain activated A20 expression in response to inf...

  7. The forkhead transcription factor Foxl2 is sumoylated in both human and mouse: sumoylation affects its stability, localization, and activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Marongiu

    Full Text Available The FOXL2 forkhead transcription factor is expressed in ovarian granulosa cells, and mutated FOXL2 causes the blepharophimosis, ptosis and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES and predisposes to premature ovarian failure. Inactivation of Foxl2 in mice demonstrated its indispensability for female gonadal sex determination and ovary development and revealed its antagonism of Sox9, the effector of male testis development. To help to define the regulatory activities of FOXL2, we looked for interacting proteins. Based on yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that FOXL2 interacts with PIAS1 and UBC9, both parts of the sumoylation machinery. We showed that human FOXL2 is sumoylated in transfected cell lines, and that endogenous mouse Foxl2 is comparably sumoylated. This modification changes its cellular localization, stability and transcriptional activity. It is intriguing that similar sumoylation and regulatory consequences have also been reported for SOX9, the male counterpart of FOXL2 in somatic gonadal tissues.

  8. TheRIN-MCFusion of MADS-Box Transcription Factors Has Transcriptional Activity and Modulates Expression of Many Ripening Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Xu, Huijinlan; Ju, Zheng; Cao, Dongyan; Zhu, Hongliang; Fu, Daqi; Grierson, Donald; Qin, Guozheng; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2018-01-01

    Fruit development and ripening is regulated by genetic and environmental factors and is of critical importance for seed dispersal, reproduction, and fruit quality. Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) ripening inhibitor ( rin ) mutant fruit have a classic ripening-inhibited phenotype, which is attributed to a genomic DNA deletion resulting in the fusion of two truncated transcription factors, RIN and MC In wild-type fruit, RIN, a MADS-box transcription factor, is a key regulator of the ripening gene expression network, with hundreds of gene targets controlling changes in color, flavor, texture, and taste during tomato fruit ripening; MC , on the other hand, has low expression in fruit, and the potential functions of the RIN-MC fusion gene in ripening remain unclear. Here, overexpression of RIN-MC in transgenic wild-type cv Ailsa Craig tomato fruits impaired several ripening processes, and down-regulating RIN-MC expression in the rin mutant was found to stimulate the normal yellow mutant fruit to produce a weak red color, suggesting a distinct negative role for RIN-MC in tomato fruit ripening. By comparative transcriptome analysis of rin and rin 35S :: RIN-MC RNA interference fruits, a total of 1,168 and 1,234 genes were identified as potential targets of RIN-MC activation and inhibition. Furthermore, the RIN-MC fusion gene was shown to be translated into a chimeric transcription factor that was localized to the nucleus and was capable of protein interactions with other MADS-box factors. These results indicated that tomato RIN-MC fusion plays a negative role in ripening and encodes a chimeric transcription factor that modulates the expression of many ripening genes, thereby contributing to the rin mutant phenotype. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. The transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-6 controls the development of pancreatic ducts in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierreux, Christophe E; Poll, Aurélie V; Kemp, Caroline R; Clotman, Frédéric; Maestro, Miguel A; Cordi, Sabine; Ferrer, Jorge; Leyns, Luc; Rousseau, Guy G; Lemaigre, Frédéric P

    2006-02-01

    A number of hereditary polycystic diseases are associated with formation of cysts within the pancreatic ducts. The cysts result from abnormal tubulogenesis, but how normal pancreatic duct development is controlled remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the transcriptional mechanisms that control pancreatic duct development by addressing the role of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-6. Using immunostaining, we have determined the expression pattern of HNF-6 in pancreatic ducts during mouse development. Hnf6 null mice at various stages of development were studied by immunolocalization methods to assess the morphology, differentiation, and proliferation status of ductal cells. The expression of genes involved in hereditary polycystic diseases was determined by real-time, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We show that HNF-6 is expressed in the pancreatic duct epithelium throughout development and that, in the absence of HNF-6, duct morphogenesis is perturbed. Although development of the intercalated ducts is normal, cysts appear within the interlobular and intralobular ducts. This is associated with abnormal development of primary cilia at the apical pole of the duct cells and with reduced expression of a set of genes involved in polycystic diseases, namely those coding for HNF-1beta and for the cilium-associated proteins polyductin/fibrocystin and cystin. We identify HNF-6 as the first transcriptional regulator of pancreatic duct development and reveal the existence of different regulatory mechanisms in distinct duct compartments. HNF-6 controls a network of genes involved in cilium formation and in hereditary polycystic diseases. Finally, HNF-6 deficiency represents a genetically defined model of pancreatic cystic disease.

  10. High performance transcription factor-DNA docking with GPU computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiadong; Hong, Bo; Takeda, Takako; Guo, Jun-Tao

    2012-06-21

    Protein-DNA docking is a very challenging problem in structural bioinformatics and has important implications in a number of applications, such as structure-based prediction of transcription factor binding sites and rational drug design. Protein-DNA docking is very computational demanding due to the high cost of energy calculation and the statistical nature of conformational sampling algorithms. More importantly, experiments show that the docking quality depends on the coverage of the conformational sampling space. It is therefore desirable to accelerate the computation of the docking algorithm, not only to reduce computing time, but also to improve docking quality. In an attempt to accelerate the sampling process and to improve the docking performance, we developed a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based protein-DNA docking algorithm. The algorithm employs a potential-based energy function to describe the binding affinity of a protein-DNA pair, and integrates Monte-Carlo simulation and a simulated annealing method to search through the conformational space. Algorithmic techniques were developed to improve the computation efficiency and scalability on GPU-based high performance computing systems. The effectiveness of our approach is tested on a non-redundant set of 75 TF-DNA complexes and a newly developed TF-DNA docking benchmark. We demonstrated that the GPU-based docking algorithm can significantly accelerate the simulation process and thereby improving the chance of finding near-native TF-DNA complex structures. This study also suggests that further improvement in protein-DNA docking research would require efforts from two integral aspects: improvement in computation efficiency and energy function design. We present a high performance computing approach for improving the prediction accuracy of protein-DNA docking. The GPU-based docking algorithm accelerates the search of the conformational space and thus increases the chance of finding more near

  11. Hepatitis B virus X protein impedes the DNA repair via its association with transcription factor, TFIIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdeL-Hafiz Hany

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infections play an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. HBV X protein (HBx is a multifunctional protein that can modulate various cellular processes and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HCC. HBx is known to interact with DNA helicase components of TFIIH, a basal transcriptional factor and an integral component of DNA excision repair. Results In this study, the functional relevance of this association was further investigated in the context to DNA repair. By site-directed mutagenesis HBx's critical residues for interaction with TFIIH were identified. Similarly, TFIIH mutants lacking ATPase domain and the conserved carboxyl-terminal domain failed to interact with HBx. Yeast and mammalian cells expressing HBxwt conferred hypersensitivity to UV irradiation, which is interpreted as a basic deficiency in nucleotide excision repair. HBxmut120 (Glu to Val was defective in binding to TFIIH and failed to respond to UV. Conclusions We conclude that HBx may act as the promoting factor by inhibiting DNA repair causing DNA damage and accumulation of errors, thereby contributing to HCC development.

  12. A deeper look into transcription regulatory code by preferred pair distance templates for transcription factor binding sites

    KAUST Repository

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.

    2011-08-18

    Motivation: Modern experimental methods provide substantial information on protein-DNA recognition. Studying arrangements of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) of interacting transcription factors (TFs) advances understanding of the transcription regulatory code. Results: We constructed binding motifs for TFs forming a complex with HIF-1α at the erythropoietin 3\\'-enhancer. Corresponding TFBSs were predicted in the segments around transcription start sites (TSSs) of all human genes. Using the genome-wide set of regulatory regions, we observed several strongly preferred distances between hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) and binding sites of a particular cofactor protein. The set of preferred distances was called as a preferred pair distance template (PPDT). PPDT dramatically depended on the TF and orientation of its binding sites relative to HRE. PPDT evaluated from the genome-wide set of regulatory sequences was used to detect significant PPDT-consistent binding site pairs in regulatory regions of hypoxia-responsive genes. We believe PPDT can help to reveal the layout of eukaryotic regulatory segments. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  13. The WRKY Transcription Factor WRKY71/EXB1 Controls Shoot Branching by Transcriptionally Regulating RAX Genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dongshu; Zhang, Jinzhe; Wang, Xinlei; Han, Xiang; Wei, Baoye; Wang, Jianqiao; Li, Boxun; Yu, Hao; Huang, Qingpei; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia; Qin, Genji

    2015-11-01

    Plant shoot branching is pivotal for developmental plasticity and crop yield. The formation of branch meristems is regulated by several key transcription factors including REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEMS1 (RAX1), RAX2, and RAX3. However, the regulatory network of shoot branching is still largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of EXCESSIVE BRANCHES1 (EXB1), which affects axillary meristem (AM) initiation and bud activity. Overexpression of EXB1 in the gain-of-function mutant exb1-D leads to severe bushy and dwarf phenotypes, which result from excessive AM initiation and elevated bud activities. EXB1 encodes the WRKY transcription factor WRKY71, which has demonstrated transactivation activities. Disruption of WRKY71/EXB1 by chimeric repressor silencing technology leads to fewer branches, indicating that EXB1 plays important roles in the control of shoot branching. We demonstrate that EXB1 controls AM initiation by positively regulating the transcription of RAX1, RAX2, and RAX3. Disruption of the RAX genes partially rescues the branching phenotype caused by EXB1 overexpression. We further show that EXB1 also regulates auxin homeostasis in control of shoot branching. Our data demonstrate that EXB1 plays pivotal roles in shoot branching by regulating both transcription of RAX genes and auxin pathways. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional analysis of a WRKY transcription factor involved in transcriptional activation of the DBAT gene in Taxus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Zhang, P; Zhang, M; Fu, C; Yu, L

    2013-01-01

    Although the regulation of taxol biosynthesis at the transcriptional level remains unclear, 10-deacetylbaccatin III-10 β-O-acetyl transferase (DBAT) is a critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of taxol. The 1740 bp fragment 5'-flanking sequence of the dbat gene was cloned from Taxus chinensis cells. Important regulatory elements needed for activity of the dbat promoter were located by deletion analyses in T. chinensis cells. A novel WRKY transcription factor, TcWRKY1, was isolated with the yeast one-hybrid system from a T. chinensis cell cDNA library using the important regulatory elements as bait. The gene expression of TcWRKY1 in T. chinensis suspension cells was specifically induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Biochemical analysis indicated that TcWRKY1 protein specifically interacts with the two W-box (TGAC) cis-elements among the important regulatory elements. Overexpression of TcWRKY1 enhanced dbat expression in T. chinensis suspension cells, and RNA interference (RNAi) reduced the level of transcripts of dbat. These results suggest that TcWRKY1 participates in regulation of taxol biosynthesis in T. chinensis cells, and that dbat is a target gene of this transcription factor. This research also provides a potential candidate gene for engineering increased taxol accumulation in Taxus cell cultures. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. High-resolution genome-wide in vivo footprinting of diverse transcription factors in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Alan P; Song, Lingyun; Lee, Bum-Kyu; London, Darin; Keefe, Damian; Birney, Ewan; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Crawford, Gregory E; Furey, Terrence S

    2011-03-01

    Regulation of gene transcription in diverse cell types is determined largely by varied sets of cis-elements where transcription factors bind. Here we demonstrate that data from a single high-throughput DNase I hypersensitivity assay can delineate hundreds of thousands of base-pair resolution in vivo footprints in human cells that precisely mark individual transcription factor-DNA interactions. These annotations provide a unique resource for the investigation of cis-regulatory elements. We find that footprints for specific transcription factors correlate with ChIP-seq enrichment and can accurately identify functional versus nonfunctional transcription factor motifs. We also find that footprints reveal a unique evolutionary conservation pattern that differentiates functional footprinted bases from surrounding DNA. Finally, detailed analysis of CTCF footprints suggests multiple modes of binding and a novel DNA binding motif upstream of the primary binding site.

  16. The Fungal bZIP Transcription Factor AtfB Controls Virulence-Associated Processes in Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Wee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal basic leucine zipper (bZIP transcription factors mediate responses to oxidative stress. The ability to regulate stress response pathways in Aspergillus spp. was postulated to be an important virulence-associated cellular process, because it helps establish infection in humans, plants, and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the fungal transcription factor AtfB encodes a protein that is associated with resistance to oxidative stress in asexual conidiospores, and AtfB binds to the promoters of several stress response genes. Here, we conducted a gene silencing of AtfB in Aspergillus parasiticus, a well-characterized fungal pathogen of plants, animals, and humans that produces the secondary metabolite and carcinogen aflatoxin, in order to determine the mechanisms by which AtfB contributes to virulence. We show that AtfB silencing results in a decrease in aflatoxin enzyme levels, the down-regulation of aflatoxin accumulation, and impaired conidiospore development in AtfB-silenced strains. This observation is supported by a decrease of AtfB protein levels, and the down-regulation of many genes in the aflatoxin cluster, as well as genes involved in secondary metabolism and conidiospore development. Global expression analysis (RNA Seq demonstrated that AtfB functionally links oxidative stress response pathways to a broader and novel subset of target genes involved in cellular defense, as well as in actin and cytoskeleton arrangement/transport. Thus, AtfB regulates the genes involved in development, stress response, and secondary metabolism in A. parasiticus. We propose that the bZIP regulatory circuit controlled by AtfB provides a large number of excellent cellular targets to reduce fungal virulence. More importantly, understanding key players that are crucial to initiate the cellular response to oxidative stress will enable better control over its detrimental impacts on humans.

  17. Global transcriptional regulatory network for Escherichia coli robustly connects gene expression to transcription factor activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Xin; Sastry, Anand; Mih, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) have been studied intensely for >25 y. Yet, even for the Escherichia coli TRN-probably the best characterized TRN-several questions remain. Here, we address three questions: (i) How complete is our knowledge of the E. coli TRN; (ii) how well can we predict...... were collected from published, validated chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data and RegulonDB. For 21 different TF knockouts, up to 63% of the differentially expressed genes in the hiTRN were traced to the knocked-out TF through regulatory cascades. Second, we trained supervised machine learning...

  18. Transcription factor KLF6 upregulates expression of metalloprotease MMP14 and subsequent release of soluble endoglin during vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Vara, Eunate; Blanco, Francisco J; Roqué, Mercè; Friedman, Scott L; Suzuki, Toru; Botella, Luisa M; Bernabeu, Carmelo

    2016-04-01

    After endothelial injury, the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) translocates into the cell nucleus to regulate a variety of target genes involved in angiogenesis, vascular repair and remodeling, including components of the membrane transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor complex such as endoglin and activin receptor-like kinase 1. The membrane metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14 or MT1-MMP) targets endoglin to release soluble endoglin and is involved in vascular inflammation and endothelial tubulogenesis. However, little is known about the regulation of MMP14 expression during vascular wounding. In vitro denudation of monolayers of human endothelial cell monolayers leads to an increase in the KLF6 gene transcriptional rate, followed by an upregulation of MMP14 and release of soluble endoglin. Concomitant with this process, MMP14 co-localizes with endoglin in the sprouting endothelial cells surrounding the wound border. MMP14 expression at mRNA and protein levels is increased by ectopic KLF6 and downregulated by KLF6 suppression in cultured endothelial cells. Moreover, after wire-induced endothelial denudation, Klf6 (+/-) mice show lower levels of MMP14 in their vasculature compared with their wild-type siblings. Ectopic cellular expression of KLF6 results in an increased transcription rate of MMP14, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that KLF6 interacts with MMP14 promoter in ECs, this interaction being enhanced during wound healing. Furthermore, KLF6 markedly increases the transcriptional activity of different reporter constructs of MMP14 gene promoter. These results suggest that KLF6 regulates MMP14 transcription and is a critical player of the gene expression network triggered during endothelial repair.

  19. CTCF and Rad21 act as host cell restriction factors for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV lytic replication by modulating viral gene transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Jiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is a human herpesvirus that causes Kaposi's sarcoma and is associated with the development of lymphoproliferative diseases. KSHV reactivation from latency and virion production is dependent on efficient transcription of over eighty lytic cycle genes and viral DNA replication. CTCF and cohesin, cellular proteins that cooperatively regulate gene expression and mediate long-range DNA interactions, have been shown to bind at specific sites in herpesvirus genomes. CTCF and cohesin regulate KSHV gene expression during latency and may also control lytic reactivation, although their role in lytic gene expression remains incompletely characterized. Here, we analyze the dynamic changes in CTCF and cohesin binding that occur during the process of KSHV viral reactivation and virion production by high resolution chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq and show that both proteins dissociate from viral genomes in kinetically and spatially distinct patterns. By utilizing siRNAs to specifically deplete CTCF and Rad21, a cohesin component, we demonstrate that both proteins are potent restriction factors for KSHV replication, with cohesin knockdown leading to hundred-fold increases in viral yield. High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to characterize the transcriptional effects of CTCF and cohesin depletion, and demonstrated that both proteins have complex and global effects on KSHV lytic transcription. Specifically, both proteins act as positive factors for viral transcription initially but subsequently inhibit KSHV lytic transcription, such that their net effect is to limit KSHV RNA accumulation. Cohesin is a more potent inhibitor of KSHV transcription than CTCF but both proteins are also required for efficient transcription of a subset of KSHV genes. These data reveal novel effects of CTCF and cohesin on transcription from a relatively small genome that resemble their effects on the cellular

  20. Liver glucokinase gene expression is controlled by the onecut transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannoy, V J; Decaux, J F; Pierreux, C E; Lemaigre, F P; Rousseau, G G

    2002-08-01

    Glucokinase plays a key role in glucose homeostasis and the expression of its gene is differentially regulated in pancreatic beta cells and in the liver through distinct promoters. The factors that determine the tissue-specific expression of the glucokinase gene are not known. Putative binding sites for hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-6, the prototype of the ONECUT family of transcription factors, are present in the hepatic promoter of the glucokinase gene and hnf6 knockout mice are diabetic [corrected]. We hypothesized that HNF-6 controls the activity of the hepatic glucokinase promoter. We tested the binding of recombinant HNF-6 to DNA sequences from the mouse hepatic glucokinase promoter in vitro and the effect of HNF-6 on promoter activity in transfected cells. We investigated in vivo the role of HNF-6 in mice by examining the effect of inactivating the hnf6 gene on glucokinase gene-specific deoxyribonuclease I hypersensitive sites in liver chromatin and on liver glucokinase mRNA concentration. HNF-6 bound to the hepatic promoter of the glucokinase gene and stimulated its activity. Inactivation of the hnf6 gene did not modify the pattern of deoxyribonuclease I hypersensitive sites but was associated with a decrease of liver glucokinase mRNA to half the control value. Although HNF-6 is not required to open chromatin of the hepatic promoter of the glucokinase gene, it stimulates transcription of the glucokinase gene in the liver. This could partly explain the diabetes observed in hnf6 knockout mice.

  1. TcoF-DB v2: update of the database of human and mouse transcription co-factors and transcription factor interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian

    2016-10-17

    Transcription factors (TFs) play a pivotal role in transcriptional regulation, making them crucial for cell survival and important biological functions. For the regulation of transcription, interactions of different regulatory proteins known as transcription co-factors (TcoFs) and TFs are essential in forming necessary protein complexes. Although TcoFs themselves do not bind DNA directly, their influence on transcriptional regulation and initiation, although indirect, has been shown to be significant, with the functionality of TFs strongly influenced by the presence of TcoFs. In the TcoF-DB v2 database, we collect information on TcoFs. In this article, we describe updates and improvements implemented in TcoF-DB v2. TcoF-DB v2 provides several new features that enables exploration of the roles of TcoFs. The content of the database has significantly expanded, and is enriched with information from Gene Ontology, biological pathways, diseases and molecular signatures. TcoF-DB v2 now includes many more TFs; has substantially increased the number of human TcoFs to 958, and now includes information on mouse (418 new TcoFs). TcoF-DB v2 enables the exploration of information on TcoFs and allows investigations into their influence on transcriptional regulation in humans and mice. TcoF-DB v2 can be accessed at http://tcofdb.org/.

  2. Molecular Characterization of a Leaf Senescence-Related Transcription Factor BrWRKY75 of Chinese Flowering Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available WRKY is a plant-specific transcription factor (TF involved in the regulation of many biological processes; however, its role in leaf senescence of leafy vegetables remains unknown. In the present work, a WRKY TF, termed BrWRKY75 was isolated from Chinese flowering cabbage [Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis (L. Mokino var. utilis Tsen et Lee]. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence and the phylogenetic tree showed that BrWRKY75 has high homology with WRKY75 from Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, and belongs to the II c sub-group. Sub-cellular localization and transcriptional activity analysis revealed that BrWRKY75 is a nuclear protein with transcriptional repression activity, and was up-regulated during leaf senescence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that BrWRKY75 directly bound to the W-box (TTGAC cis-element. Collectively, these results provide a basis for further investigation of the transcriptional regulation of Chinese flowering cabbage leaf senescence.

  3. A critique on nuclear factor-kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3: The key transcription factors in periodontal pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Ambili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is initiated by microorganisms in dental plaque, and host immunoinflammatory response to the microbial challenge helps in disease progression. Conventional periodontal therapy was mainly targeted on the elimination of microbial component. However, a better understanding of molecular aspects in host response will enable the clinicians to formulate effective host modulation therapy (HMT for the periodontal management. Inflammatory mediators were the main targets for HMT in the past. Transcription factors can regulate the production of multiple mediators simultaneously, and inhibition of these factors will be more beneficial than blocking individual molecule. Two important transcription factors implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases are nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3. The role of these factors in periodontal disease is a less explored area. This comprehensive review is aimed at unveiling the critical role of NF-κB and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 in periodontal pathogenesis. An online search was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. All publications till 2016 related to NF-κB, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, and inflammation were included in writing this review. A total of 27,390 references were published based on the search terms used. Out of these, 507 were related to the periodontal research published in English till 2016. Relevant papers were chosen after carefully reading the abstract. This review has attempted to comprehend the existing knowledge regarding the role of transcription factors NF-κB and STAT3 in periodontal disease. Moreover, it also provides a connecting molecular link for the periodontal medicine concept.

  4. The precise regulation of different COR genes by individual CBF transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yihao; Huang, Jiaying; Sun, Tianshu; Wang, Xuefei; Zhu, Chenqi; Ai, Yuxi; Gu, Hongya

    2017-02-01

    The transcription factors CBF1/2/3 are reported to play a dominant role in the cold responsive network of Arabidopsis by directly regulating the expression levels of cold responsive (COR) genes. In this study, we obtained CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function mutants of cbf1∼3. Over 3,000 COR genes identified by RNA-seq analysis showed a slight but significant change in their expression levels in the mutants compared to the wild-type plants after being treated at 4 °C for 12 h. The C-repeat (CRT) motif (5'-CCGAC-3') was enriched in promoters of genes that were up-regulated by CBF2 and CBF3 but not in promoters of genes up-regulated by CBF1. These data suggest that CBF2 and CBF3 play a more important role in directing the cold response by regulating different sets of downstream COR genes. More than 2/3 of COR genes were co-regulated by two or three CBFs and were involved mainly in cellular signal transduction and metabolic processes; less than 1/3 of the genes were regulated by one CBF, and those genes up-regulated were enriched in cold-related abiotic stress responses. Our results indicate that CBFs play an important role in the trade-off between cold tolerance and plant growth through the precise regulation of COR genes in the complicated transcriptional network. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. E2F transcription factors and digestive system malignancies: how much do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthoulis, Athanasios; Tiniakos, Dina G

    2013-06-07

    E2F family of transcription factors regulates various cellular functions related to cell cycle and apoptosis. Its individual members have traditionally been classified into activators and repressors, based on in vitro studies. However their contribution in human cancer is more complicated and difficult to predict. We review current knowledge on the expression of E2Fs in digestive system malignancies and its clinical implications for patient prognosis and treatment. E2F1, the most extensively studied member and the only one with prognostic value, exhibits a tumor-suppressing activity in esophageal, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma, and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whereas in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma may function as a tumor-promoter. In the latter malignancies, E2F1 immunohistochemical expression has been correlated with higher tumor grade and worse patient survival, whereas in esophageal, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas is a marker of increased patient survival. E2F2 has only been studied in colorectal cancer, where its role is not considered significant. E2F4's role in colorectal, gastric and hepatic carcinogenesis is tumor-promoting. E2F8 is strongly upregulated in human HCC, thus possibly contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Adenoviral transfer of E2F as gene therapy to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells for chemotherapeutic agents has been used in experimental studies. Other therapeutic strategies are yet to be developed, but it appears that targeted approaches using E2F-agonists or antagonists should take into account the tissue-dependent function of each E2F member. Further understanding of E2Fs' contribution in cellular functions in vivo would help clarify their role in carcinogenesis.

  6. Cocaine induces cell death and activates the transcription nuclear factor kappa-B in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepsch, Lucilia B; Munhoz, Carolina D; Kawamoto, Elisa M; Yshii, Lidia M; Lima, Larissa S; Curi-Boaventura, Maria F; Salgado, Thais M L; Curi, Rui; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Scavone, Cristoforo

    2009-02-01

    Cocaine is a worldwide used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is very complex and involves several neurotransmitter systems. For example, cocaine increases extracellular levels of dopamine and free radicals, and modulates several transcription factors. NF-kappaB is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression involved in cellular death. Our aim was to investigate the toxicity and modulation of NF-kappaB activity by cocaine in PC 12 cells. Treatment with cocaine (1 mM) for 24 hours induced DNA fragmentation, cellular membrane rupture and reduction of mitochondrial activity. A decrease in Bcl-2 protein and mRNA levels, and an increase in caspase 3 activity and cleavage were also observed. In addition, cocaine (after 6 hours treatment) activated the p50/p65 subunit of NF-kappaB complex and the pretreatment of the cells with SCH 23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, attenuated the NF-kappaB activation. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by using PDTC and Sodium Salicilate increased cell death caused by cocaine. These results suggest that cocaine induces cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) and activates NF-kappaB in PC12 cells. This activation occurs, at least partially, due to activation of D1 receptors and seems to have an anti-apoptotic effect on these cells.

  7. The thumb subdomain of yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase is involved in processivity, transcript fidelity and mitochondrial transcription factor binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Gilberto; Sousa, Rui; Brieba, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    Single subunit RNA polymerases have evolved 2 mechanisms to synthesize long transcripts without falling off a DNA template: binding of nascent RNA and interactions with an RNA:DNA hybrid. Mitochondrial RNA polymerases share a common ancestor with T-odd bacteriophage single subunit RNA polymerases. Herein we characterized the role of the thumb subdomain of the yeast mtRNA polymerase gene (RPO41) in complex stability, processivity, and fidelity. We found that deletion and point mutants of the thumb subdomain of yeast mtRNA polymerase increase the synthesis of abortive transcripts and the probability that the polymerase will disengage from the template during the formation of the late initial transcription and elongation complexes. Mutations in the thumb subdomain increase the amount of slippage products from a homopolymeric template and, unexpectedly, thumb subdomain deletions decrease the binding affinity for mitochondrial transcription factor (Mtf1). The latter suggests that the thumb subdomain is part of an extended binding surface area involved in binding Mtf1. PMID:25654332

  8. Extensive chromatin remodelling and establishment of transcription factor ‘hotspots' during early adipogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Ronni; John, Sam; Sung, Myong-Hee; Baek, Songjoon; Loft, Anne; Hager, Gordon L; Mandrup, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Adipogenesis is a tightly controlled differentiation process regulated by a complex transcriptional network. Here, DNase I hypersensitive site analysis, DHSseq, reveals the genome-wide changes in chromatin structure that occur during adipogenesis and identifies sites that are bound by multiple transcription factors.

  9. Step out of the groove : Epigenetic gene control systems and engineered transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschure, Pernette J.; Visser, Astrid E.; Rots, Marianne G.; Hall, JC; Dunlap, JC; Friedmann, T; VanHeyningen,

    2006-01-01

    At the linear DNA level, gene activity is believed to be driven by binding of transcription factors, which subsequently recruit the RNA polymerase to the gene promoter region. However, it has become clear that transcriptional activation involves large complexes of many different proteins, which not

  10. Step out of the groove : epigenetic gene control systems and engineered transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschure, P.J.; Visser, A.E.; Rots, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    At the linear DNA level, gene activity is believed to be driven by binding of transcription factors, which subsequently recruit the RNA polymerase to the gene promoter region. However, it has become clear that transcriptional activation involves large complexes of many different proteins, which not

  11. Cisplatin- and UV-damaged DNA lure the basal transcription factor TFIID/TBP.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Vichi; F. Coin (Frédéric); J-P. Renaud (Jean-Paul); W. Vermeulen (Wim); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); D. Moras; J-M. Egly (Jean-Marc)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA connection between transcription and DNA repair was demonstrated previously through the characterization of TFIIH. Using filter binding as well as in vitro transcription challenge competition assays, we now show that the promoter recognition factor TATA box-binding protein (TBP)/TFIID

  12. Transcription factor co-repressors in cancer biology: roles and targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Sebastiano; Maguire, Orla; Campbell, Moray J

    2010-06-01

    Normal transcription displays a high degree of flexibility over the choice, timing and magnitude of mRNA expression levels that tend to oscillate and cycle. These processes allow for combinatorial actions, feedback control and fine-tuning. A central role has emerged for the transcriptional co-repressor proteins such as NCOR1, NCOR2/SMRT, CoREST and CTBPs, to control the actions of many transcriptional factors, in large part, by recruitment and activation of a range of chromatin remodeling enzymes. Thus, co-repressors and chromatin remodeling factors are recruited to transcription factors at specific promoter/enhancer regions and execute changes in the chromatin structure. The specificity of this recruitment is controlled in a spatial-temporal manner. By playing a central role in transcriptional control, as they move and target transcription factors, co-repressors act as a key driver in the epigenetic economy of the nucleus. Co-repressor functions are selectively distorted in malignancy, by both loss and gain of function and contribute to the generation of transcriptional rigidity. Features of transcriptional rigidity apparent in cancer cells include the distorted signaling of nuclear receptors and the WNTs/beta-catenin axis. Understanding and predicting the consequences of altered co-repressor expression patterns in cancer cells has diagnostic and prognostic significance, and also have the capacity to be targeted through selective epigenetic therapies.

  13. The mitochondrial transcription factor A functions in mitochondrial base excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canugovi, Chandrika; Maynard, Scott; Bayne, Anne-Cécile V

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is an essential component of mitochondrial nucleoids. TFAM plays an important role in mitochondrial transcription and replication. TFAM has been previously reported to inhibit nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vitro but NER has not yet been detected i...

  14. Identification of drought-induced transcription factors in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corley C Holbrook

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of genes involved in normal development as well as tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Specific transcription factors that are induced in peanut under drought conditions have not been identified.  The objectives of this study were to compare gene-expression patterns of various transcription factors of a drought tolerant versus a susceptible peanut genotype under drought conditions and to identify transcripts that were regulated in a drought dependent manner. Twelve putative transcription factors were identified and real-time PCR analysis was performed which resulted in the identification of three unique transcripts in which ahERF1 was highly induced in the recovery stage; ahERF7 and ahERF8 were also highly induced by drought and returned to nominal levels after recovery.  These sequences contain DNA binding domains that are present in the APETALA2/Ethelene Responsive Factors (AP2/ERF family of transcription factors which have been shown to be induced by stress.  Induction levels and patterns of gene-expression of ahERF1, ahERF7 and ahERF8 may be used to select plants that may have higher drought tolerance.

  15. Insight into transcription factor gene duplication from Caenorhabditis elegans Promoterome-driven expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Marc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The C. elegans Promoterome is a powerful resource for revealing the regulatory mechanisms by which transcription is controlled pan-genomically. Transcription factors will form the core of any systems biology model of genome control and therefore the promoter activity of Promoterome inserts for C. elegans transcription factor genes was examined, in vivo, with a reporter gene approach. Results Transgenic C. elegans strains were generated for 366 transcription factor promoter/gfp reporter gene fusions. GFP distributions were determined, and then summarized with reference to developmental stage and cell type. Reliability of these data was demonstrated by comparison to previously described gene product distributions. A detailed consideration of the results for one C. elegans transcription factor gene family, the Six family, comprising ceh-32, ceh-33, ceh-34 and unc-39 illustrates the value of these analyses. The high proportion of Promoterome reporter fusions that drove GFP expression, compared to previous studies, led to the hypothesis that transcription factor genes might be involved in local gene duplication events less frequently than other genes. Comparison of transcription factor genes of C. elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae was therefore carried out and revealed very few examples of functional gene duplication since the divergence of these species for most, but not all, transcription factor gene families. Conclusion Examining reporter expression patterns for hundreds of promoters informs, and thereby improves, interpretation of this data type. Genes encoding transcription factors involved in intrinsic developmental control processes appear acutely sensitive to changes in gene dosage through local gene duplication, on an evolutionary time scale.

  16. Expression analysis of transcription factors from the interaction between cacao and Moniliophthora perniciosa (Tricholomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M A; Hora, B T; Dias, C V; Santos, G C; Gramacho, K P; Cascardo, J C M; Gesteira, A S; Micheli, F

    2010-07-06

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is one of the most important tropical crops; however, production is threatened by numerous pathogens, including the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease. To understand the mechanisms that lead to the development of this disease in cacao, we focused our attention on cacao transcription factors (TFs), which act as master regulators of cellular processes and are important for the fine-tuning of plant defense responses. We developed a macroarray with 88 TF cDNA from previously obtained cacao-M. perniciosa interaction libraries. Seventy-two TFs were found differentially expressed between the susceptible (Catongo) and resistant (TSH1188) genotypes and/or during the disease time course--from 24 h to 30 days after infection. Most of the differentially expressed TFs belonged to the bZIP, MYB and WRKY families and presented opposite expression patterns in susceptible and resistant cacao-M. perniciosa interactions (i.e., up-regulated in Catongo and down-regulated in TSH1188). The results of the macroarray were confirmed for bZIP and WRKY TFs by real-time PCR. These differentially expressed TFs are good candidates for subsequent functional analysis as well as for plant engineering. Some of these TFs could also be localized on the cacao reference map related to witches' broom resistance, facilitating the breeding and selection of resistant cacao trees.

  17. Forkhead box O transcription factors in chondrocytes regulate endochondral bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelen, G; Verlinden, L; Maes, C; Beullens, I; Gysemans, C; Paik, J-H; DePinho, R A; Bouillon, R; Carmeliet, G; Verstuyf, A

    2016-11-01

    The differentiation of embryonic mesenchymal cells into chondrocytes and the subsequent formation of a cartilaginous scaffold that enables the formation of long bones are hallmarks of endochondral ossification. During this process, chondrocytes undergo a remarkable sequence of events involving proliferation, differentiation, hypertrophy and eventually apoptosis. Forkhead Box O (FoxO) transcription factors (TFs) are well-known regulators of such cellular processes. Although FoxO3a was previously shown to be regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in osteoblasts, a possible role for this family of TFs in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification remains largely unstudied. By crossing Collagen2-Cre mice with FoxO1(lox/lox);FoxO3a(lox/lox);FoxO4(lox/lox) mice, we generated mice in which the three main FoxO isoforms were deleted in growth plate chondrocytes (chondrocyte triple knock-out; CTKO). Intriguingly, CTKO neonates showed a distinct elongation of the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate. CTKO mice had increased overall body and tail length at eight weeks of age and suffered from severe skeletal deformities at older ages. CTKO chondrocytes displayed decreased expression of genes involved in redox homeostasis. These observations illustrate the importance of FoxO signaling in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Transcription Factor E4F1 Coordinates CHK1-Dependent Checkpoint and Mitochondrial Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Rodier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  19. The evolutionarily conserved transcription factor PRDM12 controls sensory neuron development and pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Vanja; Cole, Tiffany; Van Campenhout, Claude; Khoung, Thang M; Leung, Calvin; Vermeiren, Simon; Novatchkova, Maria; Wenzel, Daniel; Cikes, Domagoj; Polyansky, Anton A; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Meixner, Arabella; Bellefroid, Eric J; Neely, G Gregory; Penninger, Josef M

    2015-01-01

    PR homology domain-containing member 12 (PRDM12) belongs to a family of conserved transcription factors implicated in cell fate decisions. Here we show that PRDM12 is a key regulator of sensory neuronal specification in Xenopus. Modeling of human PRDM12 mutations that cause hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) revealed remarkable conservation of the mutated residues in evolution. Expression of wild-type human PRDM12 in Xenopus induced the expression of sensory neuronal markers, which was reduced using various human PRDM12 mutants. In Drosophila, we identified Hamlet as the functional PRDM12 homolog that controls nociceptive behavior in sensory neurons. Furthermore, expression analysis of human patient fibroblasts with PRDM12 mutations uncovered possible downstream target genes. Knockdown of several of these target genes including thyrotropin-releasing hormone degrading enzyme (TRHDE) in Drosophila sensory neurons resulted in altered cellular morphology and impaired nociception. These data show that PRDM12 and its functional fly homolog Hamlet are evolutionary conserved master regulators of sensory neuronal specification and play a critical role in pain perception. Our data also uncover novel pathways in multiple species that regulate evolutionary conserved nociception.

  20. A mammalian transcription factor-specific peptide repository for targeted proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simicevic, Jovan; Moniatte, Marc; Hamelin, Romain; Ahrné, Erik; Deplancke, Bart

    2015-02-01

    Site-specific transcription factors (TFs) play an essential role in mammalian development and function as they are vital for the majority of cellular processes. Despite their biological importance, TF proteomic data is scarce in the literature, likely due to difficulties in detecting peptides as the abundance of TFs in cells tends to be low. In recent years, significant improvements in MS-based technologies in terms of sensitivity and specificity have increased the interest in developing quantitative methodologies specifically targeting relatively lowly abundant proteins such as TFs in mammalian models. Such efforts would be greatly aided by the availability of TF peptide-specific information as such data would not only enable improvements in speed and accuracy of protein identifications, but also ameliorate cross-comparisons of quantitative proteomics data and allow for a more efficient development of targeted proteomics assays. However, to date, no comprehensive TF proteotypic peptide database has been developed. To address this evident lack of TF peptide data in public repositories, we are generating a comprehensive, experimentally derived TF proteotypic peptide spectral library dataset based on in vitro protein expression. Our library currently contains peptide information for 89 TFs and this number is set to increase in the near future. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001212 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001212). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Transcription factor families in Arabidopsis: major progress and outstanding issues for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Jia; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2006-10-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are a group of proteins that control cellular processes by regulating the expression of downstream target genes. Recent progress has been made in the cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis TFs on the genome scale, especially on the cloning of open reading frames (ORFs), sequence analysis and the expression profiling of different TF families. Huge difference in numbers of subfamily members were found for Arabidopsis MYB, C2H2 (Zn), C3H-type 1 (Zn), C3H-type 2 (Zn) TFs by independent research groups, mainly because of differences in bioinformatic search stringency. However, the Arabidopsis and rice genomes contain very different numbers of TFs in the WRKY, NAC, bZIP, MADS, ALFIN-like, GRAS and C2C2 (Zn)-dof families, indicating a possible divergence of biological functions from dicots to monocots. TFs have also been found to play key roles in the biosynthesis and signaling of plant hormones, in cell growth and differentiation, and in photomorphogenesis.

  2. The transcription factor ERG increases expression of neurotransmitter receptors on prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissick, Haydn T; On, Seung T; Dunn, Laura K; Sanda, Martin G; Asara, John M; Pellegrini, Kathryn L; Noel, Jonathan K; Arredouani, Mohamed S

    2015-08-27

    The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion occurs in about half of prostate cancer (PCa) cases and results in overexpression of the transcription factor ERG. Overexpression of ERG has many effects on cellular function. However, how these changes enhance cell growth and promote tumor development is unclear. To investigate the role of ERG, LNCaP and PC3 cells were transfected with ERG and gene expression and metabolic profile were analyzed. Our data show that expression of ERG induces overexpression of many nicotinicacetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In addition, metabolic profiling by LC-MS/MS revealed elevated production of several neurotransmitters in cells expressing ERG. Consistently, treatment of ERG-expressing cells with nicotine induced elevated calcium influx, GSK3β (Ser9) phosphorylation and cell proliferation. Finally, we show that PCa patientswho are smokers have larger tumors if their tumors are TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion positive. Collectively, our data suggest that ERG sensitizes prostate tumor cells to neurotransmitter receptor agonists like nicotine.

  3. The maternally expressed WRKY transcription factor TTG2 controls lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkes, Brian P; Spielman, Melissa; Weizbauer, Renate; Watson, Brian; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Scott, Rod J; Comai, Luca

    2008-12-09

    The molecular mechanisms underlying lethality of F1 hybrids between diverged parents are one target of speciation research. Crosses between diploid and tetraploid individuals of the same genotype can result in F1 lethality, and this dosage-sensitive incompatibility plays a role in polyploid speciation. We have identified variation in F1 lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis thaliana and determined the genetic architecture of the maternally expressed variation via QTL mapping. A single large-effect QTL, DR. STRANGELOVE 1 (DSL1), was identified as well as two QTL with epistatic relationships to DSL1. DSL1 affects the rate of postzygotic lethality via expression in the maternal sporophyte. Fine mapping placed DSL1 in an interval encoding the maternal effect transcription factor TTG2. Maternal parents carrying loss-of-function mutations in TTG2 suppressed the F1 lethality caused by paternal excess interploidy crosses. The frequency of cellularization in the endosperm was similarly affected by both natural variation and ttg2 loss-of-function mutants. The simple genetic basis of the natural variation and effects of single-gene mutations suggests that F1 lethality in polyploids could evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the role of the sporophytically active TTG2 gene in interploidy crosses indicates that the developmental programming of the mother regulates the viability of interploidy hybrid offspring.

  4. The maternally expressed WRKY transcription factor TTG2 controls lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Dilkes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying lethality of F1 hybrids between diverged parents are one target of speciation research. Crosses between diploid and tetraploid individuals of the same genotype can result in F1 lethality, and this dosage-sensitive incompatibility plays a role in polyploid speciation. We have identified variation in F1 lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis thaliana and determined the genetic architecture of the maternally expressed variation via QTL mapping. A single large-effect QTL, DR. STRANGELOVE 1 (DSL1, was identified as well as two QTL with epistatic relationships to DSL1. DSL1 affects the rate of postzygotic lethality via expression in the maternal sporophyte. Fine mapping placed DSL1 in an interval encoding the maternal effect transcription factor TTG2. Maternal parents carrying loss-of-function mutations in TTG2 suppressed the F1 lethality caused by paternal excess interploidy crosses. The frequency of cellularization in the endosperm was similarly affected by both natural variation and ttg2 loss-of-function mutants. The simple genetic basis of the natural variation and effects of single-gene mutations suggests that F1 lethality in polyploids could evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the role of the sporophytically active TTG2 gene in interploidy crosses indicates that the developmental programming of the mother regulates the viability of interploidy hybrid offspring.

  5. Napsin A and Thyroid Transcription Factor-1-Positive Cerebellar Tumor with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Kuwata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a very rare case of cerebellar metastasis of unknown origin, in which a primary lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by pathological examination of a cerebellar metastatic tumor, using immunohistochemical markers and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation of primary lung cancer. A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a hemorrhagic cerebellar tumor and multiple small brain tumors. She underwent cerebellar tumor resection. On pathological examination, the tumor was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma. However, the primary tumor site was unidentifiable even with several imaging inspections. On immunohistochemical analysis, the resected tumor was positive for napsin A and thyroid transcription factor-1. In addition, an EGFR mutation was detected in the tumor. Therefore, primary lung cancer was diagnosed and the patient was started on gefitinib (250 mg/day therapy.

  6. Cocaine and the AP-1 transcription factor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, B T

    1998-05-30

    Cocaine addition in humans develops gradually with repeated administrations and persists long after cocaine has cleared the body. The mechanisms underlying this persistent form of neuroplasticity are not understood and can involve both structural and biochemical mechanisms. The long time course for cocaine addiction in humans and for development of cocaine self-administration in animal models suggest the involvement of alterations in gene expression leading to altered signaling in the brain. In the striatum (Str) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats. Pretreatment with repeated cocaine administrations downregulates the induction of various immediate early genes (IEGs) by a subsequent acute challenge with cocaine. Some of these downregulated IEGs encode Fos-related components of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) complex, which is likely re regulate a number of genes important for neuronal function. Interestingly, repeated cocaine administration induces novel delta FosB-related proteins (called chronic Fos-related antigens (Fras)) in the NAc and Str that replace the downregulated isoforms of Fos. Unlike the acutely induced, short-lasting isoforms of Fos and FosB, the chronic Fras persist long after the last cocaine administration. The known form of delta FosB per se lacks the domain required to activate transcription. If the chronic Fras are similar in structure to delta FosB, then the induction of chronic Fras likely leads to a blockade of AP-1-dependent transcription resulting in altered gene expression. We presently purifying the chronic Fras to obtain amino acid sequence in order to directly examine our hypothesis about the effects of repeated cocaine administration on AP-1 dependent transcription and gene expression in the brain

  7. Heat and water stress induce unique transcriptional signatures of heat-shock proteins and transcription factors in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheta, Margarida; Becker, Jörg D; Coito, João L; Carvalho, Luísa; Amâncio, Sara

    2014-03-01

    Grapevine is an extremely important crop worldwide.In southern Europe, post-flowering phases of the growth cycle can occur under high temperatures, excessive light, and drought conditions at soil and/or atmospheric level. In this study, we subjected greenhouse grown grapevine, variety Aragonez, to two individual abiotic stresses, water deficit stress(WDS), and heat stress (HS). The adaptation of plants to stress is a complex response triggered by cascades of molecular net works involved in stress perception, signal transduction, and the expression of specific stress-related genes and metabolites. Approaches such as array-based transcript profiling allow assessing the expression of thousands of genes in control and stress tissues. Using microarrays, we analyzed the leaf transcriptomic profile of the grapevine plants. Photosynthesis measurements verified that the plants were significantly affected by the stresses applied. Leaf gene expression was obtained using a high-throughput transcriptomic grapevine array, the 23K custom-made Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip. We identified 1,594 genes as differentially expressed between control and treatments and grouped them into ten major functional categories using MapMan software. The transcriptome of Aragonez was more significantly affected by HS when compared with WDS. The number of genes coding for heat-shock proteins and transcription factors expressed solely in response to HS suggesting their expression as unique signatures of HS. However, across-talk between the response pathways to both stresses was observed at the level of AP2/ERF transcription factors.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of defence genes and involvement of the WRKY transcription factor in arbuscular mycorrhizal potato root colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallou, Adrien; Declerck, Stéphane; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie

    2012-03-01

    The establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal associations causes major changes in plant roots and affects significantly the host in term of plant nutrition and resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. As a consequence, major changes in root transcriptome, especially in plant genes related to biotic stresses, are expected. Potato microarray analysis, followed by real-time quantitative PCR, was performed to detect the wide transcriptome changes induced during the pre-, early and late stages of potato root colonization by Glomus sp. MUCL 41833. The microarray analysis revealed 526 up-regulated and 132 down-regulated genes during the pre-stage, 272 up-regulated and 109 down-regulated genes during the early stage and 734 up-regulated and 122 down-regulated genes during the late stage of root colonization. The most important class of regulated genes was associated to plant stress and in particular to the WRKY transcription factors genes during the pre-stage of root colonization. The expression profiling clearly demonstrated a wide transcriptional change during the pre-, early and late stages of root colonization. It further suggested that the WRKY transcription factor genes are involved in the mechanisms controlling the arbuscular mycorrhizal establishment by the regulation of plant defence genes.

  9. Hepatic deficiency of the pioneer transcription factor FoxA restricts hepatitis B virus biosynthesis by the developmental regulation of viral DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C McFadden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The FoxA family of pioneer transcription factors regulates hepatitis B virus (HBV transcription, and hence viral replication. Hepatocyte-specific FoxA-deficiency in the HBV transgenic mouse model of chronic infection prevents the transcription of the viral DNA genome as a result of the failure of the developmentally controlled conversion of 5-methylcytosine residues to cytosine during postnatal hepatic maturation. These observations suggest that pioneer transcription factors such as FoxA, which mark genes for expression at subsequent developmental steps in the cellular differentiation program, mediate their effects by reversing the DNA methylation status of their target genes to permit their ensuing expression when the appropriate tissue-specific transcription factor combinations arise during development. Furthermore, as the FoxA-deficient HBV transgenic mice are viable, the specific developmental timing, abundance and isoform type of pioneer factor expression must permit all essential liver gene expression to occur at a level sufficient to support adequate liver function. This implies that pioneer transcription factors can recognize and mark their target genes in distinct developmental manners dependent upon, at least in part, the concentration and affinity of FoxA for its binding sites within enhancer and promoter regulatory sequence elements. This selective marking of cellular genes for expression by the FoxA pioneer factor compared to HBV may offer the opportunity for the specific silencing of HBV gene expression and hence the resolution of chronic HBV infections which are responsible for approximately one million deaths worldwide annually due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Hepatic deficiency of the pioneer transcription factor FoxA restricts hepatitis B virus biosynthesis by the developmental regulation of viral DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Rasha E.; Iram, Saira; Oropeza, Claudia E.; Landolfi, Jennifer A.; Lyubimov, Alexander V.; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Kaestner, Klaus H.

    2017-01-01

    The FoxA family of pioneer transcription factors regulates hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription, and hence viral replication. Hepatocyte-specific FoxA-deficiency in the HBV transgenic mouse model of chronic infection prevents the transcription of the viral DNA genome as a result of the failure of the developmentally controlled conversion of 5-methylcytosine residues to cytosine during postnatal hepatic maturation. These observations suggest that pioneer transcription factors such as FoxA, which mark genes for expression at subsequent developmental steps in the cellular differentiation program, mediate their effects by reversing the DNA methylation status of their target genes to permit their ensuing expression when the appropriate tissue-specific transcription factor combinations arise during development. Furthermore, as the FoxA-deficient HBV transgenic mice are viable, the specific developmental timing, abundance and isoform type of pioneer factor expression must permit all essential liver gene expression to occur at a level sufficient to support adequate liver function. This implies that pioneer transcription factors can recognize and mark their target genes in distinct developmental manners dependent upon, at least in part, the concentration and affinity of FoxA for its binding sites within enhancer and promoter regulatory sequence elements. This selective marking of cellular genes for expression by the FoxA pioneer factor compared to HBV may offer the opportunity for the specific silencing of HBV gene expression and hence the resolution of chronic HBV infections which are responsible for approximately one million deaths worldwide annually due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:28235042

  11. Targeting Transcription Factor Binding to DNA by Competing with DNA Binders as an Approach for Controlling Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Lambert, Melanie; David-Cordonnier, Marie-Helene

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors are recognized as the master regulators of gene expression. Interestingly, about 10% of the transcription factors described in mammals are up to date directly implicated in a very large number of human diseases. With the exception of ligand-inducible nuclear receptors, transcription factors have longtime been considered as "undruggable" targets for therapeutics. However, the significant breakthroughs in their protein biochemistry and interactions with DNA at the structural level, together with increasing needs for new targeted-approaches particularly in cancers, has changed this postulate and opened the way for targeting transcription factors. Along with a better knowledge of their specific DNA binding sequences by genome wide and high throughput sequencing assay, these informations make possible the potent targeting of the transcription factors by three approaches dependently of their mechanism of action. In this review, we discuss the different physicochemical interactions between the transcription factors and the DNA helix, and the protein/protein interactions within a transcription factor complex and their impacts on the DNA structure. In order to impair transcription factor activities, small molecules compounds can either act by direct interaction on the transcription factor, or by blocking the protein/protein interactions in a transcription complex, or by competing with the transcription factor itself and specifically targeting its cognate binding sequence. For this latter mode of transcription targeting, we pay special attention to the DNA intercalating, alkylating or groove binders for transcription factor/DNA binding modulation.

  12. Direct transcriptional activation of BT genes by NLP transcription factors is a key component of the nitrate response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeo; Maekawa, Shugo; Konishi, Mineko; Yoshioka, Nozomi; Sasaki, Yuki; Maeda, Haruna; Ishida, Tetsuya; Kato, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Junji; Yanagisawa, Shuichi

    2017-01-29

    Nitrate modulates growth and development, functioning as a nutrient signal in plants. Although many changes in physiological processes in response to nitrate have been well characterized as nitrate responses, the molecular mechanisms underlying the nitrate response are not yet fully understood. Here, we show that NLP transcription factors, which are key regulators of the nitrate response, directly activate the nitrate-inducible expression of BT1 and BT2 encoding putative scaffold proteins with a plant-specific domain structure in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, the 35S promoter-driven expression of BT2 partially rescued growth inhibition caused by reductions in NLP activity in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, simultaneous disruption of BT1 and BT2 affected nitrate-dependent lateral root development. These results suggest that direct activation of BT1 and BT2 by NLP transcriptional activators is a key component of the molecular mechanism underlying the nitrate response in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Signaling Proteins and Transcription Factors in Normal and Malignant Early B Cell Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pérez-Vera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available B cell development starts in bone marrow with the commitment of hematopoietic progenitors to the B cell lineage. In murine models, the IL-7 and preBCR receptors, and the signaling pathways and transcription factors that they regulate, control commitment and maintenance along the B cell pathway. E2A, EBF1, PAX5, and Ikaros are among the most important transcription factors controlling early development and thereby conditioning mice homeostatic B cell lymphopoiesis. Importantly, their gain or loss of function often results in malignant development in humans, supporting conserved roles for these transcription factors. B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common cause of pediatric cancer, and it is characterized by unpaired early B cell development resulting from genetic lesions in these critical signaling pathways and transcription factors. Fine mapping of these genetic abnormalities is allowing more specific treatments, more accurately predicting risk profiles for this disease, and improving survival rates.

  14. Heat shock transcription factors regulate heat induced cell death in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-29

    Hsps) which is strictly regulated by different members of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs). We previously reported that a rat histiocytoma, BC-8 failed to synthesize Hsps when subjected to typical heat shock conditions (42°C, ...

  15. Structure, function and networks of transcription factors involved in abiotic stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; O'Shea, Charlotte; Jensen, Michael Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of abiotic stress responses in plants. This review focuses on TFs from seven major TF families, known to play functional roles in response to abiotic stresses, including drought, high salinity, high osmolarity, temperature extremes...

  16. The Arabidopsis transcription factor WRKY27 influences wilt disease symptom development caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Deslandes, Laurent; Auriac, Marie‐Christine; Marco, Yves; Somssich, Imre E

    2008-01-01

    .... Here we show that the Arabidopsis mutant wrky27‐1 , which lacks a functional WRKY27 transcription factor, showed delayed symptom development in response to the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum...

  17. The transcription factor BATF modulates cytokine-mediated responses in T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopel, Nina; Graser, Anna; Mousset, Stephanie; Finotto, Susetta

    2016-08-01

    The transcription factor BATF (basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like), belongs to the AP-1 family of transcription factors and has been shown to be predominantly expressed in cells of haematopoietic origin, especially in B and T cells. In studies using Batf-deficient mice, a profound defect in the differentiation of T helper cells type 17 (Th17) and follicular T helper cells (Tfh) was described, as well as an impairment of antibody production with switched isotypes. More recently BATF has been described to influence also Th2 and Th9 responses in models of murine experimental asthma. In CD8(+) T cells BATF has been found associated with anti-viral responses. This review summarizes the role of BATF in CD4(+) T cell subsets and in CD8(+) T cells, with particular focus on this transcription factor in the setting of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Signaling Proteins and Transcription Factors in Normal and Malignant Early B Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vera, Patricia; Reyes-León, Adriana; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2011-01-01

    B cell development starts in bone marrow with the commitment of hematopoietic progenitors to the B cell lineage. In murine models, the IL-7 and preBCR receptors, and the signaling pathways and transcription factors that they regulate, control commitment and maintenance along the B cell pathway. E2A, EBF1, PAX5, and Ikaros are among the most important transcription factors controlling early development and thereby conditioning mice homeostatic B cell lymphopoiesis. Importantly, their gain or loss of function often results in malignant development in humans, supporting conserved roles for these transcription factors. B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common cause of pediatric cancer, and it is characterized by unpaired early B cell development resulting from genetic lesions in these critical signaling pathways and transcription factors. Fine mapping of these genetic abnormalities is allowing more specific treatments, more accurately predicting risk profiles for this disease, and improving survival rates. PMID:22046564

  19. The Drosophila Sp8 transcription factor Buttonhead prevents premature differentiation of intermediate neural progenitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Yonggang; Li, Xiaosu; Zhang, Xian; Mei, Shaolin; Li, Hongyu; Urso, Andreacarola; Zhu, Sijun

    2014-01-01

    ..., but mechanisms preventing differentiation and cell cycle exit of INPs are not well understood. In this study, we report that the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Sp8 transcription factor Buttonhead (Btd...

  20. The XPB subunit of repair/transcription factor TFIIH directly interacts with SUG1, a subunit of the 26S proteasome and putative transcription factor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Weeda (Geert); M. Rossignol; R.A. Fraser; G.S. Winkler (Sebastiaan); W. Vermeulen (Wim); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); L. Ma (Libin); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); J-M. Egly (Jean-Marc)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractMutations in the basal transcription initiation/DNA repair factor TFIIH are responsible for three human disorders: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), cockayne syndrome (CS) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). The non-repair features of CS and TTD are thought to be due to a partial inactivation of

  1. In silico mining and PCR-based approaches to transcription factor discovery in non-model plants: gene discovery of the WRKY transcription factors in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Xiang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are key regulators of numerous biological processes in plant growth and development, as well as plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Research on biological functions of plant WRKY genes has focused in the past on model plant species or species with largely characterized transcriptomes. However, a variety of non-model plants, such as forest conifers, are essential as feed, biofuel, and wood or for sustainable ecosystems. Identification of WRKY genes in these non-model plants is equally important for understanding the evolutionary and function-adaptive processes of this transcription factor family. Because of limited genomic information, the rarity of regulatory gene mRNAs in transcriptomes, and the sequence divergence to model organism genes, identification of transcription factors in non-model plants using methods similar to those generally used for model plants is difficult. This chapter describes a gene family discovery strategy for identification of WRKY transcription factors in conifers by a combination of in silico-based prediction and PCR-based experimental approaches. Compared to traditional cDNA library screening or EST sequencing at transcriptome scales, this integrated gene discovery strategy provides fast, simple, reliable, and specific methods to unveil the WRKY gene family at both genome and transcriptome levels in non-model plants.

  2. Lipid Synthetic Transcription Factor SREBP-1a Activates p21WAF1/CIP1, a Universal Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Noriyuki; Shimano, Hitoshi; Nakakuki, Masanori; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Sato, Ryuichiro; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Sone, Hirohito; Yahagi, Naoya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Toyoshima, Hideo; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are membrane-bound transcription factors that regulate lipid synthetic genes. In contrast to SREBP-2, which regulates cellular cholesterol level in normal cells, SREBP-1a is highly expressed in actively growing cells and activates entire programs of genes involved in lipid synthesis such as cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Previously, the physiological relevance of this potent activity of SREBP-1a has been thought ...

  3. DMPD: The interferon signaling network and transcription factor C/EBP-beta. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18163952 The interferon signaling network and transcription factor C/EBP-beta. Li H... The interferon signaling network and transcription factor C/EBP-beta. PubmedID 18163952 Title The interfero...n signaling network and transcription factor C/EBP-beta. Authors Li H, Gade P, Xi

  4. PEA3/ETV4-related transcription factors coupled with active ERK signalling are associated with poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keld, R

    2011-06-28

    Background: Transcription factors often play important roles in tumourigenesis. Members of the PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors fulfil such a role and have been associated with tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Moreover, the activity of the PEA3 subfamily transcription factors is potentiated by Ras-ERK pathway signalling, which is itself often deregulated in tumour cells.\\r\

  5. Transcription factor retention on mitotic chromosomes: regulatory mechanisms and impact on cell fate decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccaud, Mahé; Suter, David M

    2017-09-01

    During mitosis, gene transcription stops, and the bulk of DNA-binding proteins are excluded from condensed chromosomes. While most gene-specific transcription factors are largely evicted from mitotic chromosomes, a subset remains bound to specific and non-specific DNA sites. Here, we review the current knowledge on the mechanisms leading to the retention of a subset of transcription factors on mitotic chromosomes and discuss the implications in gene expression regulation and their potential as an epigenetic mechanism controlling stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Inferring the role of transcription factors in regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Borgne Michel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression profiles obtained from multiple perturbation experiments are increasingly used to reconstruct transcriptional regulatory networks, from well studied, simple organisms up to higher eukaryotes. Admittedly, a key ingredient in developing a reconstruction method is its ability to integrate heterogeneous sources of information, as well as to comply with practical observability issues: measurements can be scarce or noisy. In this work, we show how to combine a network of genetic regulations with a set of expression profiles, in order to infer the functional effect of the regulations, as inducer or repressor. Our approach is based on a consistency rule between a network and the signs of variation given by expression arrays. Results We evaluate our approach in several settings of increasing complexity. First, we generate artificial expression data on a transcriptional network of E. coli extracted from the literature (1529 nodes and 3802 edges, and we estimate that 30% of the regulations can be annotated with about 30 profiles. We additionally prove that at most 40.8% of the network can be inferred using our approach. Second, we use this network in order to validate the predictions obtained with a compendium of real expression profiles. We describe a filtering algorithm that generates particularly reliable predictions. Finally, we apply our inference approach to S. cerevisiae transcriptional network (2419 nodes and 4344 interactions, by combining ChIP-chip data and 15 expression profiles. We are able to detect and isolate inconsistencies between the expression profiles and a significant portion of the model (15% of all the interactions. In addition, we report predictions for 14.5% of all interactions. Conclusion Our approach does not require accurate expression levels nor times series. Nevertheless, we show on both data, real and artificial, that a relatively small number of perturbation experiments are enough to determine

  7. Transcription-factor-mediated DNA looping probed by high-resolution, single-molecule imaging in live E. coli cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Hensel

    Full Text Available DNA looping mediated by transcription factors plays critical roles in prokaryotic gene regulation. The "genetic switch" of bacteriophage λ determines whether a prophage stays incorporated in the E. coli chromosome or enters the lytic cycle of phage propagation and cell lysis. Past studies have shown that long-range DNA interactions between the operator sequences O(R and O(L (separated by 2.3 kb, mediated by the λ repressor CI (accession number P03034, play key roles in regulating the λ switch. In vitro, it was demonstrated that DNA segments harboring the operator sequences formed loops in the presence of CI, but CI-mediated DNA looping has not been directly visualized in vivo, hindering a deep understanding of the corresponding dynamics in realistic cellular environments. We report a high-resolution, single-molecule imaging method to probe CI-mediated DNA looping in live E. coli cells. We labeled two DNA loci with differently colored fluorescent fusion proteins and tracked their separations in real time with ∼40 nm accuracy, enabling the first direct analysis of transcription-factor-mediated DNA looping in live cells. Combining looping measurements with measurements of CI expression levels in different operator mutants, we show quantitatively that DNA looping activates transcription and enhances repression. Further, we estimated the upper bound of the rate of conformational change from the unlooped to the looped state, and discuss how chromosome compaction may impact looping kinetics. Our results provide insights into transcription-factor-mediated DNA looping in a variety of operator and CI mutant backgrounds in vivo, and our methodology can be applied to a broad range of questions regarding chromosome conformations in prokaryotes and higher organisms.

  8. The Cotton Transcription Factor TCP14 Functions in Auxin-Mediated Epidermal Cell Differentiation and Elongation1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao-Ying; Zhao, Pi-Ming; Cheng, Huan-Qing; Han, Li-Bo; Wu, Xiao-Min; Gao, Peng; Wang, Hai-Yun; Yang, Chun-Lin; Zhong, Nai-Qin; Zuo, Jian-Ru; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Plant-specific TEOSINTE-BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors play crucial roles in development, but their functional mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the cellular functions of the class I TCP transcription factor GhTCP14 from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). GhTCP14 is expressed predominantly in fiber cells, especially at the initiation and elongation stages of development, and its expression increased in response to exogenous auxin. Induced heterologous overexpression of GhTCP14 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) enhanced initiation and elongation of trichomes and root hairs. In addition, root gravitropism was severely affected, similar to mutant of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) gene. Examination of auxin distribution in GhTCP14-expressing Arabidopsis by observation of auxin-responsive reporters revealed substantial alterations in auxin distribution in sepal trichomes and root cortical regions. Consistent with these changes, expression of the auxin uptake carrier AUXIN1 (AUX1) was up-regulated and PIN2 expression was down-regulated in the GhTCP14-expressing plants. The association of GhTCP14 with auxin responses was also evidenced by the enhanced expression of auxin response gene IAA3, a gene in the AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) family. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GhTCP14 bound the promoters of PIN2, IAA3, and AUX1, and transactivation assays indicated that GhTCP14 had transcription activation activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GhTCP14 is a dual-function transcription factor able to positively or negatively regulate expression of auxin response and transporter genes, thus potentially acting as a crucial regulator in auxin-mediated differentiation and elongation of cotton fiber cells. PMID:23715527

  9. Contributions of in vitro transcription to the understanding of human RNA polymerase III transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Durrieu-Gaillard, Stéphanie; El Ayoubi, Leyla; Parrot, Camila; Teichmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human RNA polymerase III transcribes small untranslated RNAs that contribute to the regulation of essential cellular processes, including transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of this transcription system by in vitro transcription techniques has largely contributed to the discovery of its transcription factors and to the understanding of the regulation of human RNA polymerase III transcription. Here we review some of the key steps that led to the identification of transcription factors and to the definition of minimal promoter sequences for human RNA polymerase III transcription.

  10. Extensive chromatin remodelling and establishment of transcription factor ‘hotspots' during early adipogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Ronni; John, Sam; Sung, Myong-Hee; Baek, Songjoon; Loft, Anne; Hager, Gordon L; Mandrup, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Adipogenesis is tightly controlled by a complex network of transcription factors acting at different stages of differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family members are key regulators of this process. We have employed DNase I hypersensitive site analysis to investigate the genome-wide changes in chromatin structure that accompany the binding of adipogenic transcription factors. These analyses revealed a dramatic and dynamic modulation of the chromatin landscape during the first hours of adipocyte differentiation that coincides with cooperative binding of multiple early transcription factors (including glucocorticoid receptor, retinoid X receptor, Stat5a, C/EBPβ and -δ) to transcription factor ‘hotspots'. Our results demonstrate that C/EBPβ marks a large number of these transcription factor ‘hotspots' before induction of differentiation and chromatin remodelling and is required for their establishment. Furthermore, a subset of early remodelled C/EBP-binding sites persists throughout differentiation and is later occupied by PPARγ, indicating that early C/EBP family members, in addition to their well-established role in activation of PPARγ transcription, may act as pioneering factors for PPARγ binding. PMID:21427703

  11. Identification of direct targets of plant transcription factors using the GR fusion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobutoshi; Winter, Cara M; Wellmer, Frank; Wagner, Doris

    2015-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor-dependent activation of plant transcription factors has proven to be a powerful tool for the identification of their direct target genes. In the absence of the synthetic steroid hormone dexamethasone (dex), transcription factors fused to the hormone-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor (TF-GR) are held in an inactive state, due to their cytoplasmic localization. This requires physical interaction with the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) complex. Hormone binding leads to disruption of the interaction between GR and HSP90 and allows TF-GR fusion proteins to enter the nucleus. Once inside the nucleus, they bind to specific DNA sequences and immediately activate or repress expression of their targets. This system is well suited for the identification of direct target genes of transcription factors in plants, as (A) there is little basal protein activity in the absence of dex, (B) steroid application leads to rapid transcription factor activation, (C) no side effects of dex treatment are observed on the physiology of the plant, and (D) secondary effects of transcription factor activity can be eliminated by simultaneous application of an inhibitor of protein biosynthesis, cycloheximide (cyc). In this chapter, we describe detailed protocols for the preparation of plant material, for dex and cyc treatment, for RNA extraction, and for the PCR-based or genome-wide identification of direct targets of transcription factors fused to GR.

  12. Convergence of protein kinase C and JAK-STAT signaling on transcription factor GATA-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Paradis, Pierre; Aries, Anne; Komati, Hiba; Lefebvre, Chantal; Wang, Hao; Nemer, Mona

    2005-11-01

    Angiotensin II (AII), a potent vasoactive hormone, acts on numerous organs via G-protein-coupled receptors and elicits cell-specific responses. At the level of the heart, AII stimulation alters gene transcription and leads to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Numerous intracellular signaling pathways are activated in this process; however, which of these directly link receptor activation to transcriptional regulation remains undefined. We used the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) gene (NPPA) as a marker to elucidate the signaling cascades involved in AII transcriptional responses. We show that ANF transcription is activated directly by the AII type 1 receptor and precedes the development of myocyte hypertrophy. This response maps to STAT and GATA binding sites, and the two elements transcriptionally cooperate to mediate signaling through the JAK-STAT and protein kinase C (PKC)-GATA-4 pathways. PKC phosphorylation enhances GATA-4 DNA binding activity, and STAT-1 functionally and physically interacts with GATA-4 to synergistically activate AII and other growth factor-inducible promoters. Moreover, GATA factors are able to recruit STAT proteins to target promoters via GATA binding sites, which are sufficient to support synergy. Thus, STAT proteins can act as growth factor-inducible coactivators of tissue-specific transcription factors. Interactions between STAT and GATA proteins may provide a general paradigm for understanding cell specificity of cytokine and growth factor signaling.

  13. Targeted inactivation of transcription factors by overexpression of their truncated forms in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Pil Joon; Hong, Shin-Young; Ryu, Jae Yong; Jeong, Eun-Young; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Baldwin, Ian T; Park, Chung-Mo

    2012-10-01

    Transcription factors are central constituents of gene regulatory networks that control diverse aspects of plant development and environmental adaptability. Therefore they have been explored for decades as primary targets for agricultural biotechnology. A gene of interest can readily be introduced into many crop plants, whereas targeted gene inactivation is practically difficult in many cases. Here, we developed an artificial small interfering peptide (a-siPEP) approach, which is based on overexpression of specific protein domains, and evaluated its application for the targeted inactivation of transcription factors in the dicot model, Arabidopsis, and monocot model, Brachypodium. We designed potential a-siPEPs of two representative MADS box transcription factors, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSOR OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) and AGAMOUS (AG), and a MYB transcription factor, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY). Transgenic plants overproducing the a-siPEPs displayed phenotypes comparable to those of gene-deficient mutants. The a-siPEPs attenuate nuclear import and DNA-binding of target transcription factors. Our data demonstrate that the a-siPEP tool is an efficient genetic means of inactivating specific transcription factors in plants. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. WRKY Transcription Factors Involved in Activation of SA Biosynthesis Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bol John F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased defense against a variety of pathogens in plants is achieved through activation of a mechanism known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR. The broad-spectrum resistance brought about by SAR is mediated through salicylic acid (SA. An important step in SA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis is the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate through the action of isochorismate synthase, encoded by the ICS1 gene. Also AVRPPHB SUSCEPTIBLE 3 (PBS3 plays an important role in SA metabolism, as pbs3 mutants accumulate drastically reduced levels of SA-glucoside, a putative storage form of SA. Bioinformatics analysis previously performed by us identified WRKY28 and WRKY46 as possible regulators of ICS1 and PBS3. Results Expression studies with ICS1 promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS genes in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts cotransfected with 35S::WRKY28 showed that over expression of WRKY28 resulted in a strong increase in GUS expression. Moreover, qRT-PCR analyses indicated that the endogenous ICS1 and PBS3 genes were highly expressed in protoplasts overexpressing WRKY28 or WRKY46, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indentified potential WRKY28 binding sites in the ICS1 promoter, positioned -445 and -460 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. Mutation of these sites in protoplast transactivation assays showed that these binding sites are functionally important for activation of the ICS1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with haemagglutinin-epitope-tagged WRKY28 showed that the region of the ICS1 promoter containing the binding sites at -445 and -460 was highly enriched in the immunoprecipitated DNA. Conclusions The results obtained here confirm results from our multiple microarray co-expression analyses indicating that WRKY28 and WRKY46 are transcriptional activators of ICS1 and PBS3, respectively, and support this in silico screening as a powerful tool for identifying new components of stress

  15. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Charlotte van der Does

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called 'effectors'. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol, effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the 'pathogenicity' chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol

  16. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H Charlotte; Fokkens, Like; Yang, Ally; Schmidt, Sarah M; Langereis, Léon; Lukasiewicz, Joanna M; Hughes, Timothy R; Rep, Martijn

    2016-11-01

    Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called 'effectors'. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the 'pathogenicity' chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol pathogenicity

  17. Interplay between viral Tat protein and c-Jun transcription factor in controlling LTR promoter activity in different human immunodeficiency virus type I subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Renée M; Derking, Ronald; Breidel, Seyguerney; Speijer, Dave; Berkhout, Ben; Jeeninga, Rienk E

    2014-04-01

    HIV-1 transcription depends on cellular transcription factors that bind to sequences in the long-terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. Each HIV-1 subtype has a specific LTR promoter configuration, and minor sequence changes in transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) or their arrangement can influence transcriptional activity, virus replication and latency properties. Previously, we investigated the proviral latency properties of different HIV-1 subtypes in the SupT1 T cell line. Here, subtype-specific latency and replication properties were studied in primary PHA-activated T lymphocytes. No major differences in latency and replication capacity were measured among the HIV-1 subtypes. Subtype B and AE LTRs were studied in more detail with regard to a putative AP-1 binding site using luciferase reporter constructs. c-Jun, a member of the AP-1 transcription factor family, can activate both subtype B and AE LTRs, but the latter showed a stronger response, reflecting a closer match with the consensus AP-1 binding site. c-Jun overexpression enhanced Tat-mediated transcription of the viral LTR, but in the absence of Tat inhibited basal promoter activity. Thus, c-Jun can exert a positive or negative effect via the AP-1 binding site in the HIV-1 LTR promoter, depending on the presence or absence of Tat.

  18. Correlation of cellular factors and differential scrapie prion permissiveness in ovine microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders by which the native cellular prion protein (PrP-C) is misfolded into an accumulating, disease-associated isoform (PrP-D). To improve the understanding of prion pathogenesis and develop effective treatments, it is essential to elucidate factors con...

  19. [Expression, subcellular localization and nuclear translocation of transcription factor up stream stimulatory factor-1 in odontoblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-An; Wen, Ling-Ying; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Fang, Jun

    2007-09-01

    To examine the expression and subcellular localization of transcription factor USF1 in odontoblasts and investigate whether nuclear translocation occurs under stimuli. Odontoblasts MDPC-23 were cultured on coverslips and divided into 2 groups. Group 1 received no stimuli, and group 2 was stimulated by nicotine with various concentrations respectively for 1h. Then the mountings of odontoblasts were prepared and immunocytochemical staining was performed with specific USF1 antibody via SABC method. Hela cells were used as positive control. The staining was positive in the cytoplasm of odontoblasts in group 1, but in the nuclei of Hela cells and in 100 mg/L nicotine-stimulated odontoblasts in group 2. There exists USF1 protein in odontoblasts, which locates in the cytoplasm and could translocate into nuclei under the stimulation of nicotine.

  20. Wide-scale analysis of human functional transcription factor binding reveals a strong bias towards the transcription start site.

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    Yuval Tabach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcription factors (TF regulate expression by binding to specific DNA sequences. A binding event is functional when it affects gene expression. Functionality of a binding site is reflected in conservation of the binding sequence during evolution and in over represented binding in gene groups with coherent biological functions. Functionality is governed by several parameters such as the TF-DNA binding strength, distance of the binding site from the transcription start site (TSS, DNA packing, and more. Understanding how these parameters control functionality of different TFs in different biological contexts is a must for identifying functional TF binding sites and for understanding regulation of transcription. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce a novel method to screen the promoters of a set of genes with shared biological function (obtained from the functional Gene Ontology (GO classification against a precompiled library of motifs, and find those motifs which are statistically over-represented in the gene set. More than 8,000 human (and 23,000 mouse genes, were assigned to one of 134 GO sets. Their promoters were searched (from 200 bp downstream to 1,000 bp upstream the TSS for 414 known DNA motifs. We optimized the sequence similarity score threshold, independently for every location window, taking into account nucleotide heterogeneity along the promoters of the target genes. The method, combined with binding sequence and location conservation between human and mouse, identifies with high probability functional binding sites for groups of functionally-related genes. We found many location-sensitive functional binding events and showed that they clustered close to the TSS. Our method and findings were tested experimentally. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified reliably functional TF binding sites. This is an essential step towards constructing regulatory networks. The promoter region proximal to the TSS is of central

  1. HIF-1 in cancer therapy: two decade long story of a transcription factor.

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    Soni, Sourabh; Padwad, Yogendra S

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen (O2) homeostasis is an indispensable requirement of eukaryotes. O2 concentration in cellular milieu is defined as normoxia (∼21% O2), physoxia (∼1-13% O2) or hypoxia (∼0.1-1% O2). Hypoxia, a striking micro-environmental feature in tumorigenesis, is countered by tumor cells via induction of O2 governed transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). Post discovery, HIF-1 has emerged as a promising anticancer therapeutic target during the last two decades. Recent reports have highlighted that enhanced levels of HIF-1 correlate with tumor metastasis leading to poor patient prognosis. A systematic search in PubMed and SciFinder for the literature on HIF-1 biology and therapeutic importance in cancer was carried out. This review highlights the initial description as well as the recent insights into HIF-1 biology and regulation. We have focused on emerging data regarding varied classes of HIF-1 target genes affecting various levels of crosstalk among tumorigenic pathways. We have emphasized on the fact that HIF-1 acts as a networking hub coordinating activities of multiple signaling molecules influencing tumorigenesis. Emerging evidences indicate role of many HIF-induced proteomic and genomic alterations in malignant progression by mediating a myriad of genes stimulating angiogenesis, anaerobic metabolism and survival of cancer cells in O2-deficient microenvironment. Better understanding of the crucial role of HIF-1 in carcinogenesis could offer promising new avenues to researchers and aid in elucidating various open issues regarding the use of HIF-1 as an anticancer therapeutic target. In spite of large efforts in this field, many questions still remain unanswered. Hence, future investigations are necessary to devise, assess and refine methods for translating previous research efforts into novel clinical practices in cancer treatment.

  2. Functional analysis of human mutations in homeodomain transcription factor PITX3

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    Sorokina Elena

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The homeodomain-containing transcription factor PITX3 was shown to be essential for normal eye development in vertebrates. Human patients with point mutations in PITX3 demonstrate congenital cataracts along with anterior segment defects in some cases when one allele is affected and microphthalmia with brain malformations when both copies are mutated. The functional consequences of these human mutations remain unknown. Results We studied the PITX3 mutant proteins S13N and G219fs to determine the type and severity of functional defects. Our results demonstrate alterations in DNA-binding profiles and/or transactivation activities and suggest a partial loss-of-function in both mutants with the G219fs form being more severely affected. No anomalies in cellular distribution and no dominant-negative effects were discovered for these mutants. Interestingly, the impairment of the G219fs activity varied between different ocular cell lines. Conclusion The G219fs mutation was found in multiple families affected with congenital cataracts along with anterior segment malformations in many members. Our data suggest that the presence/severity of anterior segment defects in families affected with G219fs may be determined by secondary factors that are expressed in the developing anterior segment structures and may modify the effect(s of this mutation. The S13N mutant showed only minor alteration of transactivation ability and DNA binding pattern and may represent a rare polymorphism in the PITX3 gene. A possible contribution of this mutation to human disease needs to be further investigated.

  3. Transcription factor GATA4 inhibits doxorubicin-induced autophagy and cardiomyocyte death.

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    Kobayashi, Satoru; Volden, Paul; Timm, Derek; Mao, Kai; Xu, Xianmin; Liang, Qiangrong

    2010-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anti-tumor drug known to cause heart failure. The transcription factor GATA4 antagonizes DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. However, the protective mechanism remains obscure. Autophagy is the primary cellular pathway for lysosomal degradation of long-lived proteins and organelles, and its activation could be either protective or detrimental depending on specific pathophysiological conditions. Here we investigated the ability of GATA4 to inhibit autophagy as a potential mechanism underlying its protection against DOX toxicity in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. DOX markedly increased autophagic flux in cardiomyocytes as indicated by the difference in protein levels of LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 form 2) or numbers of autophagic vacuoles in the absence and presence of the lysosomal inhibitor bafilomycin A1. DOX-induced cardiomyocyte death determined by multiple assays was aggravated by a drug or genetic approach that activates autophagy, but it was attenuated by manipulations that inhibit autophagy, suggesting that autophagy contributes to DOX cardiotoxicity. DOX treatment depleted GATA4 protein levels, which predisposed cardiomyocytes to DOX toxicity. Indeed, GATA4 gene silencing triggered autophagy that rendered DOX more toxic, whereas GATA4 overexpression inhibited DOX-induced autophagy, reducing cardiomyocyte death. Mechanistically, GATA4 up-regulated gene expression of the survival factor Bcl2 and suppressed DOX-induced activation of autophagy-related genes, which may likely be responsible for the anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic effects of GATA4. Together, these findings suggest that activation of autophagy mediates DOX cardiotoxicity, and preservation of GATA4 attenuates DOX cardiotoxicity by inhibiting autophagy through modulation of the expression of Bcl2 and autophagy-related genes.

  4. Extracellular Matrix-Regulated Gene Expression RequiresCooperation of SWI/SNF and Transcription Factors

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    Xu, Ren; Spencer, Virginia A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-05-25

    Extracellular cues play crucial roles in the transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific genes, but whether and how these signals lead to chromatin remodeling is not understood and subject to debate. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and mammary-specific genes as models, we show here that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and prolactin cooperate to induce histone acetylation and binding of transcription factors and the SWI/SNF complex to the {beta}- and ?-casein promoters. Introduction of a dominant negative Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF complex, significantly reduced both {beta}- and ?-casein expression, suggesting that SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodeling is required for transcription of mammary-specific genes. ChIP analyses demonstrated that the ATPase activity of SWI/SNF is necessary for recruitment of RNA transcriptional machinery, but not for binding of transcription factors or for histone acetylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses showed that the SWI/SNF complex is associated with STAT5, C/EBP{beta}, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Thus, ECM- and prolactin-regulated transcription of the mammary-specific casein genes requires the concerted action of chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors.

  5. Molecular phylogenetic and expression analysis of the complete WRKY transcription factor family in maize.

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    Wei, Kai-Fa; Chen, Juan; Chen, Yan-Feng; Wu, Ling-Juan; Xie, Dao-Xin

    2012-04-01

    The WRKY transcription factors function in plant growth and development, and response to the biotic and abiotic stresses. Although many studies have focused on the functional identification of the WRKY transcription factors, much less is known about molecular phylogenetic and global expression analysis of the complete WRKY family in maize. In this study, we identified 136 WRKY proteins coded by 119 genes in the B73 inbred line from the complete genome and named them in an orderly manner. Then, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of five species was performed to explore the origin and evolutionary patterns of these WRKY genes, and the result showed that gene duplication is the major driving force for the origin of new groups and subgroups and functional divergence during evolution. Chromosomal location analysis of maize WRKY genes indicated that 20 gene clusters are distributed unevenly in the genome. Microarray-based expression analysis has revealed that 131 WRKY transcripts encoded by 116 genes may participate in the regulation of maize growth and development. Among them, 102 transcripts are stably expressed with a coefficient of variation (CV) value of transcripts produced by 25 WRKY genes with the CV value of >15% are further analysed to discover new organ- or tissue-specific genes. In addition, microarray analyses of transcriptional responses to drought stress and fungal infection showed that maize WRKY proteins are involved in stress responses. All these results contribute to a deep probing into the roles of WRKY transcription factors in maize growth and development and stress tolerance.

  6. Identification of transcription-factor genes expressed in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte

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    Kang Il-Ho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In flowering plants, the female gametophyte is typically a seven-celled structure with four cell types: the egg cell, the central cell, the synergid cells, and the antipodal cells. These cells perform essential functions required for double fertilization and early seed development. Differentiation of these distinct cell types likely involves coordinated changes in gene expression regulated by transcription factors. Therefore, understanding female gametophyte cell differentiation and function will require dissection of the gene regulatory networks operating in each of the cell types. These efforts have been hampered because few transcription factor genes expressed in the female gametophyte have been identified. To identify such genes, we undertook a large-scale differential expression screen followed by promoter-fusion analysis to detect transcription-factor genes transcribed in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte. Results Using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, we analyzed 1,482 Arabidopsis transcription-factor genes and identified 26 genes exhibiting reduced mRNA levels in determinate infertile 1 mutant ovaries, which lack female gametophytes, relative to ovaries containing female gametophytes. Spatial patterns of gene transcription within the mature female gametophyte were identified for 17 transcription-factor genes using promoter-fusion analysis. Of these, ten genes were predominantly expressed in a single cell type of the female gametophyte including the egg cell, central cell and the antipodal cells whereas the remaining seven genes were expressed in two or more cell types. After fertilization, 12 genes were transcriptionally active in the developing embryo and/or endosperm. Conclusions We have shown that our quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR differential-expression screen is sufficiently sensitive to detect transcription-factor genes transcribed in the female gametophyte. Most of the genes identified in this

  7. Association of transcription factor gene LMX1B with autism.

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    Ismail Thanseem

    Full Text Available Multiple lines of evidence suggest a serotoninergic dysfunction in autism. The role of LMX1B in the development and maintenance of serotoninergic neurons is well known. In order to examine the role, if any, of LMX1B with autism pathophysiology, a trio-based SNP association study using 252 family samples from the AGRE was performed. Using pair-wise tagging method, 24 SNPs were selected from the HapMap data, based on their location and minor allele frequency. Two SNPs (rs10732392 and rs12336217 showed moderate association with autism with p values 0.018 and 0.022 respectively in transmission disequilibrium test. The haplotype AGCGTG also showed significant association (p = 0.008. Further, LMX1B mRNA expressions were studied in the postmortem brain tissues of autism subjects and healthy controls samples. LMX1B transcripts was found to be significantly lower in the anterior cingulate gyrus region of autism patients compared with controls (p = 0.049. Our study suggests a possible role of LMX1B in the pathophysiology of autism. Based on previous reports, it is likely to be mediated through a seretoninergic mechanism. This is the first report on the association of LMX1B with autism, though it should be viewed with some caution considering the modest associations we report.

  8. Association of transcription factor gene LMX1B with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanseem, Ismail; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Anitha, Ayyappan; Suda, Shiro; Yamada, Kazuo; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Iwata, Keiko; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mor